Science.gov

Sample records for private overlays secure

  1. 32 CFR 552.116 - Privately owned weapons-security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Privately owned weapons-security. 552.116..., Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.116 Privately owned weapons—security. Privately owned arms and ammunition will be secured in the manner required for military weapons and ammunition...

  2. 32 CFR 552.116 - Privately owned weapons-security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Privately owned weapons-security. 552.116 Section..., Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.116 Privately owned weapons—security. Privately owned arms and ammunition will be secured in the manner required for military weapons and ammunition...

  3. 32 CFR 552.116 - Privately owned weapons-security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Privately owned weapons-security. 552.116 Section..., Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.116 Privately owned weapons—security. Privately owned arms and ammunition will be secured in the manner required for military weapons and ammunition...

  4. 32 CFR 552.116 - Privately owned weapons-security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Privately owned weapons-security. 552.116..., Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.116 Privately owned weapons—security. Privately owned arms and ammunition will be secured in the manner required for military weapons and ammunition...

  5. 32 CFR 552.116 - Privately owned weapons-security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Privately owned weapons-security. 552.116 Section..., Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.116 Privately owned weapons—security. Privately owned arms and ammunition will be secured in the manner required for military weapons and ammunition...

  6. Scalable P2P Overlays of Very Small Constant Degree: An Emerging Security Threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelasity, Márk; Bilicki, Vilmos

    In recent years peer-to-peer (P2P) technology has been adopted by Internet-based malware as a fault tolerant and scalable communication medium for self-organization and survival. It has been shown that malicious P2P networks would be nearly impossible to uncover if they operated in a stealth mode, that is, using only a small constant number of fixed overlay connections per node for communication. While overlay networks of a small constant maximal degree are generally considered to be unscalable, we argue in this paper that it is possible to design them to be scalable, efficient and robust. This is an important finding from a security point of view: we show that stealth mode P2P malware that is very difficult to discover with state-of-the-art methods is a plausible threat. In this paper we discuss algorithms and theoretical results that support the scalability of stealth mode overlays, and we present realistic simulations using an event based implementation of a proof-of-concept system. Besides P2P botnets, our results are also applicable in scenarios where relying on a large number of overlay connections per node is not feasible because of cost or the limited number of communication channels available.

  7. Social Security privatization in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Kritzer, B E

    2000-01-01

    The new, partially privatized social security system adopted by Chile in 1981 has attracted attention in many parts of the world. Since then, a number of Latin American countries have implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either with a single- or multi-tier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of a privatized program with individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems have a privatized component and retain some form of public program. This article describes each of the new programs in Latin America, their background, and similarities and differences among them. Much more information is available for Chile than for the other countries (in part because Chile has the oldest system), enough to be able to evaluate what, in most cases, is the most accurate information. That is often not the case for the other countries, especially when dealing with subjects such as transition costs and net rates of return (rates of return minus administrative fees). No country has copied the Chilean system exactly. Bolivia, El Salvador, and Mexico have closed their public systems and set up mandatory individual accounts. Argentina has a mixed public/private system with three tiers. In Colombia and Peru, workers have a choice between the public and private programs. Uruguay created a two-tier mixed system. Costa Rica has a voluntary program for individual accounts as a supplement to the pay-as-you-go program and has just passed a law setting up mandatory accounts containing employer contributions for severance pay. All of the countries continue to face unresolved issues, including: High rates of noncompliance--the percentage of enrollees who do not actively and regularly contribute to their accounts--which could lead to low benefits and greater costs to the governments that offer a guaranteed minimum benefit; Proportionately lower benefits for

  8. How to Keep Your Health Information Private and Secure

    MedlinePlus

    ... communities, such as message boards. · Store in a personal health record (PHR) that is not offered through ... information. Here are some tips to ensure your personal health information is private and secure when accessing ...

  9. International developments in social security privatization: what risk to women?

    PubMed

    Schulz, J H; Rosenman, L; Rix, S E

    1999-03-01

    Throughout the world, older women are generally poorer than men. In an era when Social Security programs are increasingly under challenge by advocates of savings and pension schemes administered by the private sector, there is a need to assess the relative advantages of different public/private approaches for dealing with older women's financial needs. What would happen to women if more of the burden were shifted from the public sector to the private sector? This article presents an overview of women's vulnerability in old age and examines the role of public and private pensions in meeting their income needs. It then discusses approaches to Social Security privatization and the special issues for women raised by these issues. Finally, the issues and approaches discussed are illustrated by developments in the United States and Australia. PMID:14617894

  10. Securely Measuring the Overlap between Private Datasets with Cryptosets

    PubMed Central

    Swamidass, S. Joshua; Matlock, Matthew; Rozenblit, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Many scientific questions are best approached by sharing data—collected by different groups or across large collaborative networks—into a combined analysis. Unfortunately, some of the most interesting and powerful datasets—like health records, genetic data, and drug discovery data—cannot be freely shared because they contain sensitive information. In many situations, knowing if private datasets overlap determines if it is worthwhile to navigate the institutional, ethical, and legal barriers that govern access to sensitive, private data. We report the first method of publicly measuring the overlap between private datasets that is secure under a malicious model without relying on private protocols or message passing. This method uses a publicly shareable summary of a dataset’s contents, its cryptoset, to estimate its overlap with other datasets. Cryptosets approach “information-theoretic” security, the strongest type of security possible in cryptography, which is not even crackable with infinite computing power. We empirically and theoretically assess both the accuracy of these estimates and the security of the approach, demonstrating that cryptosets are informative, with a stable accuracy, and secure. PMID:25714898

  11. Securely measuring the overlap between private datasets with cryptosets.

    PubMed

    Swamidass, S Joshua; Matlock, Matthew; Rozenblit, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Many scientific questions are best approached by sharing data--collected by different groups or across large collaborative networks--into a combined analysis. Unfortunately, some of the most interesting and powerful datasets--like health records, genetic data, and drug discovery data--cannot be freely shared because they contain sensitive information. In many situations, knowing if private datasets overlap determines if it is worthwhile to navigate the institutional, ethical, and legal barriers that govern access to sensitive, private data. We report the first method of publicly measuring the overlap between private datasets that is secure under a malicious model without relying on private protocols or message passing. This method uses a publicly shareable summary of a dataset's contents, its cryptoset, to estimate its overlap with other datasets. Cryptosets approach "information-theoretic" security, the strongest type of security possible in cryptography, which is not even crackable with infinite computing power. We empirically and theoretically assess both the accuracy of these estimates and the security of the approach, demonstrating that cryptosets are informative, with a stable accuracy, and secure.

  12. Securely measuring the overlap between private datasets with cryptosets.

    PubMed

    Swamidass, S Joshua; Matlock, Matthew; Rozenblit, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Many scientific questions are best approached by sharing data--collected by different groups or across large collaborative networks--into a combined analysis. Unfortunately, some of the most interesting and powerful datasets--like health records, genetic data, and drug discovery data--cannot be freely shared because they contain sensitive information. In many situations, knowing if private datasets overlap determines if it is worthwhile to navigate the institutional, ethical, and legal barriers that govern access to sensitive, private data. We report the first method of publicly measuring the overlap between private datasets that is secure under a malicious model without relying on private protocols or message passing. This method uses a publicly shareable summary of a dataset's contents, its cryptoset, to estimate its overlap with other datasets. Cryptosets approach "information-theoretic" security, the strongest type of security possible in cryptography, which is not even crackable with infinite computing power. We empirically and theoretically assess both the accuracy of these estimates and the security of the approach, demonstrating that cryptosets are informative, with a stable accuracy, and secure. PMID:25714898

  13. Private Security Training. Phase 4: Firearms Training. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials for the firearms training phase of a private security training course of study. The seven units in the course cover the following topics: safety; revolver nomenclature and maintenance; inspecting revolvers and holsters; fundamentals of revolver shooting; legal issues and deadly force; range…

  14. 77 FR 76076 - Information Security Oversight Office; State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office; State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration, Information... committee meeting of the State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee. To discuss...

  15. New holographic overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopwood, Anthony I.

    1991-10-01

    This paper discusses a new type of holographic overlay, FLASHPRINT, which may be used in both security and packaging applications. Unlike the more common embossed holograms currently used, FLASHPRINT leads to reduced set-up costs and offers a simpler process. This reduces the long lead times characteristic of the existing technology and requires the customer to provide only two-dimensional artwork. The overlay material contains a covert 2-D image. The image may be switched on or off by simply tilting the overlay in a light source. The overlay is replayed in the 'on' position to reveal the encoded security message as a highly saturated gold colored image. This effect is operable for a wide range of lighting conditions and viewing geometries. In the 'off' position the overlay is substantially transparent. These features make the visual effect of the overlay attractive to incorporate into product design. They may be laminated over complex printed artwork such as labels and security passes without masking the printed message. When switched 'on' the image appears both sharp and more than seven times brighter than white paper. The image remains sharp and clear even in less favorable lighting conditions. Although the technique offers a low set-up cost for the customer, through its simplicity, it remains as technically demanding and difficult to counterfeit as any holographic process.

  16. Implementation of Strategies to Leverage Public and Private Resources for National Security Workforce Development

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    This report documents implementation strategies to leverage public and private resources for the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. There are numerous efforts across the United States to develop a properly skilled and trained national security workforce. Some of these efforts are the result of the leveraging of public and private dollars. As budget dollars decrease and the demand for a properly skilled and trained national security workforce increases, it will become even more important to leverage every education and training dollar. This report details some of the efforts that have been implemented to leverage public and private resources, as well as implementation strategies to further leverage public and private resources.

  17. Inter-BSs virtual private network for privacy and security enhanced 60 GHz radio-over-fiber system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chongfu; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Wei; Jin, Wei; Qiu, Kun; Li, Changchun; Jiang, Ning

    2013-06-01

    A novel inter-basestations (inter-BSs) based virtual private network (VPN) for the privacy and security enhanced 60 GHz radio-over-fiber (RoF) system using optical code-division multiplexing (OCDM) is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. By establishing inter-BSs VPN overlaying the network structure of a 60 GHz RoF system, the express and private paths for the communication of end-users under different BSs can be offered. In order to effectively establish the inter-BSs VPN, the OCDM encoding/decoding technology is employed in the RoF system. In each BS, a 58 GHz millimeter-wave (MMW) is used as the inter-BSs VPN channel, while a 60 GHz MMW is used as the common central station (CS)-BSs communication channel. The optical carriers used for the downlink, uplink and VPN link transmissions are all simultaneously generated in a lightwave-centralized CS, by utilizing four-wave mixing (FWM) effect in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). The obtained results properly verify the feasibility of our proposed configuration of the inter-BSs VPN in the 60 GHz RoF system.

  18. Authenticated, private, and secured smart cards (APS-SC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Mehmood, Amir

    2006-04-01

    From historical perspective, the recent advancements in better antenna designs, low power circuitry integrations and inexpensive fabrication materials have made possible a miniature counter-measure against Radar, a clutter behaving like a fake target return called Digital Reflection Frequency Modulation (DRFM). Such a military counter-measure have found its way in the commerce as a near field communication known as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), a passive or active item tag T attached to every readable-writable Smart Card (SC): Passports ID, medical patient ID, biometric ID, driver licenses, book ID, library ID, etc. These avalanche phenomena may be due to the 3 rd Gen phones seeking much more versatile & inexpensive interfaces, than the line-of-sight bar-code optical scan. Despite of the popularity of RFID, the lacking of Authenticity, Privacy and Security (APS) protection restricted somewhat the wide spread commercial, financial, medical, legal, and militarily applications. Conventional APS approach can obfuscate a private passkey K of SC with the tag number T or the reader number R, or both, i.e. only T*K or R*K or both will appear on them, where * denotes an invertible operation, e.g. EXOR, but not limited to it. Then, only the authentic owner, knowing all, can inverse the operation, e.g. EXOR*EXOR= I to find K. However, such an encryption could be easily compromised by a hacker seeking exhaustively by comparison based on those frequently used words. Nevertheless, knowing biological wetware lesson for power of pairs sensors and Radar hardware counter-measure history, we can counter the counter-measure DRFM, instead using one RFID tag per SD, we follow the Nature adopting two ears/tags, e.g. each one holding portions of the ID or simply two different ID's readable only by different modes of the interrogating reader, followed by brain central processor in terms of nonlinear invertible shufflers mixing two ID bits. We prefer to adopt such a hardware

  19. 26 CFR 1.141-4 - Private security or payment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... debt service on an issue is secured by both a pledge of the full faith and credit of a state or local... service on an issue. The private payment portion of the test takes into account the payment of the debt...) Underlying arrangement. The security for, and payment of debt service on, an issue is determined from...

  20. 26 CFR 1.141-4 - Private security or payment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... debt service on an issue is secured by both a pledge of the full faith and credit of a state or local... service on an issue. The private payment portion of the test takes into account the payment of the debt...) Underlying arrangement. The security for, and payment of debt service on, an issue is determined from...

  1. Identification of Strategies to Leverage Public and Private Resources for National Security Workforce Development

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    This report documents the identification of strategies to leverage public and private resources for the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP).There are numerous efforts across the United States to develop a properly skilled and trained national security workforce. Some of these efforts are the result of the leveraging of public and private dollars. As budget dollars decrease and the demand for a properly skilled and trained national security workforce increases, it will become even more important to leverage every education and training dollar. The leveraging of dollars serves many purposes. These include increasing the amount of training that can be delivered and therefore increasing the number of people reached, increasing the number and quality of public/private partnerships, and increasing the number of businesses that are involved in the training of their future workforce.

  2. "i3" Recipients Dash to Secure Private Match

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Winners of the Investing in Innovation (i3) competition scrambled to make a deadline to find private-sector matches for their multimillion-dollar federal awards, meeting the challenge through a mix of cash grants and donations of pricey equipment and services, and by rechanneling previous grants to new purposes. The 49 organizations selected to…

  3. Selection, training and retention of an armed private security department.

    PubMed

    Hollar, David B

    2009-01-01

    To arm or not to arm security officers? One hospital which has opted for arming its officers is Cook Children's Healthcare System, Fort Worth, TX, an integrated pediatric healthcare facility with over 4000 employees. Because of its location in a major metropolitan area and based on several factors including demographics, exterior risk assessments and crime statistics, the hospital's Administration and its Risk Manager supported the decision to operate as an armed security force, according to the author. In this article he shares its current program and presents some thoughts and ideas that may benefit others who are considering this important step. PMID:19711796

  4. Borrowing to Save: A Critique of Recent Proposals to Partially Privatize Social Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dattalo, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Concern over Social Security's forecasted long-run deficit is occurring at a time when the program has a short-term surplus. One proposed strategy to address this forecasted deficit is to allow the investment of a portion of payroll taxes into private savings accounts (PSAs). The author analyzes recent proposals for PSAs and concludes that PSAs…

  5. The Effectiveness of an Electronic Security Management System in a Privately Owned Apartment Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, David F.; Roush, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    Poisson and negative binomial regression methods are used to analyze the monthly time series data to determine the effects of introducing an integrated security management system including closed-circuit television (CCTV), door alarm monitoring, proximity card access, and emergency call boxes to a large privately-owned complex of apartment…

  6. 77 FR 43039 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Contractors Performing Private Security Functions Outside the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... functions. For example, a contractor delivering construction materials in an area of contingency operations... delivery. Although the supplier of the construction materials is not a private security contractor, the... construction materials to a base in Germany would not be governed, at this time, by the requirements...

  7. A tainted trade? Moral ambivalence and legitimation work in the private security industry.

    PubMed

    Thumala, Angélica; Goold, Benjamin; Loader, Ian

    2011-06-01

    The private security industry is often represented - and typically represents itself - as an expanding business, confident of its place in the world and sure of its ability to meet a rising demand for security. But closer inspection of the ways in which industry players talk about its past, present and future suggests that this self-promotion is accompanied by unease about the industry's condition and legitimacy. In this paper, we analyse the self-understandings of those who sell security - as revealed in interviews conducted with key industry players and in a range of trade materials - in order to highlight and dissect the constitutive elements of this ambivalence. This analysis begins by describing the reputational problems that are currently thought to beset the industry and the underlying fears about its status and worth that these difficulties disclose. We then examine how security players seek to legitimate the industry using various narratives of professionalization. Four such narratives are identified - regulation, education, association and borrowing - each of which seeks to justify private security and enhance the industry's social worth. What is striking about these legitimation claims is that they tend not to justify the selling of security in market terms. In conclusion we ask why this is the case and argue that market justifications are 'closed-off' by a moral ambivalence that attaches to an industry trading in products which cannot guarantee to deliver the condition that its consumers crave.

  8. Exploring the Public Health Impacts of Private Security Guards on People Who Use Drugs: a Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Markwick, Nicole; McNeil, Ryan; Small, Will; Kerr, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Private security guards occupy an increasingly prominent role in the policing of private and public spaces. There are growing concerns regarding security guards' potential to shape violence, discrimination, and adverse health outcomes among vulnerable populations, including people who use drugs (PWUD). This is relevant in Vancouver, Canada, where private security guards have increasingly been employed by private organizations to manage public and private spaces, including those within urban drug scenes. This qualitative study sought to understand interactions between PWUD and private security guards and explore their impacts on health care access, risks, and harms among PWUD. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 PWUD recruited from two ongoing prospective cohort studies. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a coding framework comprised of a priori and emergent categories. Study data indicate that participants experience pervasive, discriminatory profiling and surveillance by security guards, which exacerbates existing social marginalization and structural vulnerability, particularly among PWUD of Aboriginal ancestry. Participants reported that security guards restrict PWUD's access to public and private spaces, including pharmacies and hospitals. PWUD also reported that their interactions with security guards often involved interpersonal violence and aggression, experiences that served to increase their vulnerability to subsequent risks and harms. Our findings highlight that private security forces contribute significantly to the everyday violence experienced by PWUD within drug scenes and elsewhere and do so in a manner very similar to that of traditional police forces. These findings point to the urgent need for greater oversight and training of private security guards in order to protect the health and safety of PWUD. PMID:26453195

  9. Exploring the Public Health Impacts of Private Security Guards on People Who Use Drugs: a Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Markwick, Nicole; McNeil, Ryan; Small, Will; Kerr, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Private security guards occupy an increasingly prominent role in the policing of private and public spaces. There are growing concerns regarding security guards' potential to shape violence, discrimination, and adverse health outcomes among vulnerable populations, including people who use drugs (PWUD). This is relevant in Vancouver, Canada, where private security guards have increasingly been employed by private organizations to manage public and private spaces, including those within urban drug scenes. This qualitative study sought to understand interactions between PWUD and private security guards and explore their impacts on health care access, risks, and harms among PWUD. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 PWUD recruited from two ongoing prospective cohort studies. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a coding framework comprised of a priori and emergent categories. Study data indicate that participants experience pervasive, discriminatory profiling and surveillance by security guards, which exacerbates existing social marginalization and structural vulnerability, particularly among PWUD of Aboriginal ancestry. Participants reported that security guards restrict PWUD's access to public and private spaces, including pharmacies and hospitals. PWUD also reported that their interactions with security guards often involved interpersonal violence and aggression, experiences that served to increase their vulnerability to subsequent risks and harms. Our findings highlight that private security forces contribute significantly to the everyday violence experienced by PWUD within drug scenes and elsewhere and do so in a manner very similar to that of traditional police forces. These findings point to the urgent need for greater oversight and training of private security guards in order to protect the health and safety of PWUD.

  10. Overlay accuracy fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Daniel; Levinski, Vladimir; Sapiens, Noam; Cohen, Guy; Amit, Eran; Klein, Dana; Vakshtein, Irina

    2012-03-01

    Currently, the performance of overlay metrology is evaluated mainly based on random error contributions such as precision and TIS variability. With the expected shrinkage of the overlay metrology budget to < 0.5nm, it becomes crucial to include also systematic error contributions which affect the accuracy of the metrology. Here we discuss fundamental aspects of overlay accuracy and a methodology to improve accuracy significantly. We identify overlay mark imperfections and their interaction with the metrology technology, as the main source of overlay inaccuracy. The most important type of mark imperfection is mark asymmetry. Overlay mark asymmetry leads to a geometrical ambiguity in the definition of overlay, which can be ~1nm or less. It is shown theoretically and in simulations that the metrology may enhance the effect of overlay mark asymmetry significantly and lead to metrology inaccuracy ~10nm, much larger than the geometrical ambiguity. The analysis is carried out for two different overlay metrology technologies: Imaging overlay and DBO (1st order diffraction based overlay). It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of DBO to overlay mark asymmetry is larger than the sensitivity of imaging overlay. Finally, we show that a recently developed measurement quality metric serves as a valuable tool for improving overlay metrology accuracy. Simulation results demonstrate that the accuracy of imaging overlay can be improved significantly by recipe setup optimized using the quality metric. We conclude that imaging overlay metrology, complemented by appropriate use of measurement quality metric, results in optimal overlay accuracy.

  11. Borrowing to save: a critique of recent proposals to partially privatize Social Security.

    PubMed

    Dattalo, Patrick

    2007-07-01

    Concern over Social Security's forecasted long-run deficit is occurring at a time when the program has a short-term surplus. One proposed strategy to address this forecasted deficit is to allow the investment of a portion of payroll taxes into private savings accounts (PSAs). The author analyzes recent proposals for PSAs and concludes that PSAs are more likely to be a problem than a solution. Paradoxically, PSAs require the government to borrow to encourage current workers to save. The author recommends resources to help social workers remain informed about proposed program reforms and prepared to advocate for the concept of social insurance. PMID:17850031

  12. SOEMPI: A Secure Open Enterprise Master Patient Index Software Toolkit for Private Record Linkage

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Csaba; Durham, Elizabeth; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Xue, Yuan; Malin, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate bias in multi-institutional research studies, healthcare organizations need to integrate patient records. However, this process must be accomplished without disclosing the identities of the corresponding patients. Various private record linkage (PRL) techniques have been proposed, but there is a lack of translation into practice because no software suite supports the entire PRL lifecycle. This paper addresses this issue with the introduction of the Secure Open Enterprise Master Patient Index (SOEMPI). We show how SOEMPI covers the PRL lifecycle, illustrate the implementation of several PRL protocols, and provide a runtime analysis for the integration of two datasets consisting of 10,000 records. While the PRL process is slower than a non-secure setting, our analysis shows the majority of processes in a PRL protocol require several seconds or less and that SOEMPI completes the process in approximately two minutes, which is a practical amount of time for integration. PMID:25954421

  13. Making Wireless Networks Secure for NASA Mission Critical Applications Using Virtual Private Network (VPN) Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, Kelvin F.; Best, Susan; Schneider, Larry

    2004-01-01

    With so many security issues involved with wireless networks, the technology has not been fully utilized in the area of mission critical applications. These applications would include the areas of telemetry, commanding, voice and video. Wireless networking would allow payload operators the mobility to take computers outside of the control room to their off ices and anywhere else in the facility that the wireless network was extended. But the risk is too great of having someone sit just inside of your wireless network coverage and intercept enough of your network traffic to steal proprietary data from a payload experiment or worse yet hack back into your system and do even greater harm by issuing harmful commands. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is improving but has a ways to go before it can be trusted to protect mission critical data. Today s hackers are becoming more aggressive and innovative, and in order to take advantage of the benefits that wireless networking offer, appropriate security measures need to be in place that will thwart hackers. The Virtual Private Network (VPN) offers a solution to the security problems that have kept wireless networks from being used for mission critical applications. VPN provides a level of encryption that will ensure that data is protected while it is being transmitted over a wireless local area network (LAN). The VPN allows a user to authenticate to the site that the user needs to access. Once this authentication has taken place the network traffic between that site and the user is encapsulated in VPN packets with the Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES). 3DES is an encryption standard that uses a single secret key to encrypt and decrypt data. The length of the encryption key is 168 bits as opposed to its predecessor DES that has a 56-bit encryption key. Even though 3DES is the common encryption standard for today, the Advance Encryption Standard (AES), which provides even better encryption at a lower cycle cost is growing

  14. Making Wireless Networks Secure for NASA Mission Critical Applications using Virtual Private Network (VPN) Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, Kelvin F.; Best, Susan; Schneider, Larry

    2004-01-01

    With so many security issues involved with wireless networks, the technology has not been fully utilized in the area of mission critical applications. These applications would include the areas of telemetry, commanding, voice and video. Wireless networking would allow payload operators the mobility to take computers outside of the control room to their offices and anywhere else in the facility that the wireless network was extended. But the risk is too great of having someone sit just inside of your wireless network coverage and intercept enough of your network traffic to steal proprietary data from a payload experiment or worse yet hack back into your system and do even greater harm by issuing harmful commands. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is improving but has a ways to go before it can be trusted to protect mission critical data. Today s hackers are becoming more aggressive and innovative, and in order to take advantage of the benefits that wireless networking offer, appropriate security measures need to be in place that will thwart hackers. The Virtual Private Network (VPN) offers a solution to the security problems that have kept wireless networks from being used for mission critical applications. VPN provides a level of encryption that will ensure that data is protected while it is being transmitted over a wireless local area network (IAN). The VPN allows a user to authenticate to the site that the user needs to access. Once this authentication has taken place the network traffic between that site and the user is encapsulated in VPN packets with the Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES). 3DES is an encryption standard that uses a single secret key to encrypt and decrypt data. The length of the encryption key is 168 bits as opposed to its predecessor DES that has a 56-bit encryption key. Even though 3DES is the common encryption standard for today, the Advance Encryption Standard (AES), which provides even better encryption at a lower cycle cost is growing

  15. Campus Public Safety and Security, with Guidance as Well for High Schools and Private Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wensyel, James W.

    Intended for school administrators from the middle school to the university level, the development and maintenance of an effective campus security program are discussed. The leadership role of the school's administrator is stressed and the use of security and safety teams, traffic studies and other measures, to identify security risks and evaluate…

  16. The business of medicine: how to overcome financial obstacles and secure financing for your private practice and ancillary services business.

    PubMed

    Nayor, David

    2012-01-01

    Doctors across the country who operate private medical practices are facing increasing financial obstacles, namely shrinking income as a result of rising costs and lower reimbursements. In addition, as hospitals have become overburdened many physicians have opened up private surgical centers; magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography and positron emission tomography scanning facilities; pathology labs; colonoscopy/endoscopy suites; lithotripsy centers; and other medical businesses typically performed within the hospital. Moreover, many doctors seek loans to purchase existing practices or for their capital contribution in medical partnerships. The past decade has thus seen a significant increase in the number of doctors taking out small business loans. Indeed, banks view the healthcare industry as a large growth market. This article includes practical information, advice, and resources to help doctors to secure bank financing for their practices, ancillary services business, real estate, and equipment on the best possible market terms.

  17. Multi-level overlay techniques for improving DPL overlay control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Charlie; Pai, Y. C.; Yu, Dennis; Pang, Peter; Yu, Chun Chi; Wu, Robert (Hsing-Chien); Huang, Eros (Chien Jen); Chen, Marson (Chiun-Chieh); Tien, David; Choi, Dongsub

    2012-03-01

    Overlay continues to be one of the key challenges for lithography in semiconductor manufacturing, especially in light of the accelerated pace of device node shrinks. This reality will be especially evident at 20nm node where DPL and multi-layer overlay will require 4nm or less in overlay control across many critical layers in order to meet device yield entitlements. The motivation for this paper is based on improving DPL overlay control in face of the high complexity involved with multi-layer overlay requirements. For example, the DPL-2nd-litho layer will need to achieve tight registration with the DPL-1st-litho layer, and at the same time, it will need to achieve tight overlay to the reference-litho layer, which in some cases can also be a DPL layer. Of course, multi-level overlay measurements are not new, but the combination of increased complexity of multi-DPL layers and extremely challenging overlay specifications for 20nm node together will necessitate a better understanding of multi-level overlay control, specifically in terms of root cause analysis of multi-layer related overlay errors and appropriate techniques for improvement In this paper, we start with the identification of specific overlay errors caused by multi-layer DPL processing on full film stack product wafers. After validation of these findings with inter-lot and intra-lot controlled experiments, we investigate different advanced control techniques to determine how to optimize overlay control and minimize both intra-lot and inter-lot sources of error. A new approach to overlay data analysis will also be introduced that combines empirical data with target image quality data to more accurately determine and better explain the root cause error mechanism as well as provide effective strategies for improved overlay control.

  18. Functional Overlay: An Illegitimate Diagnosis?

    PubMed Central

    Bromberg, Walter

    1979-01-01

    Functional overlay is not a recognized psychiatric diagnosis. Evaluating functional overlay and differentiating between this concept and organic conditions is important in medicolegal areas in which financial values are placed on pain and disability. Functional overlay is not malingering: the former is based on preconscious or unconscious mechanisms, the latter is consciously induced. In considering psychologic reactions to pain and disability, a gradient of simulation, malingering, symptom exaggeration, overvaluation, functional overlay and hysteria is useful. The dynamics of overlay are a combination of anxiety from body-image distortion and depression from decreased efficiency of the body, as well as the resulting psychosocial disruption in a patient's life. PMID:516698

  19. Mask registration and wafer overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chulseung; Bang, Changjin; Kim, Myoungsoo; Kang, Hyosang; Lee, Dohwa; Jeong, Woonjae; Lim, Ok-Sung; Yoon, Seunghoon; Jung, Jaekang; Laske, Frank; Parisoli, Lidia; Roeth, Klaus-Dieter; Robinson, John C.; Jug, Sven; Izikson, Pavel; Dinu, Berta; Widmann, Amir; Choi, DongSub

    2010-03-01

    Overlay continues to be one of the key challenges for lithography in advanced semiconductor manufacturing. It becomes even more challenging due to the continued shrinking of the device node. Some low k1 techniques, such as Double Exposure and Double Patterning also add additional loss of the overlay margin due to the fact that the single layer pattern is created based on more than 1 exposure. Therefore, the overlay between 2 exposures requires very tight overlay specification. Mask registration is one of the major contributors to wafer overlay, especially field related overlay. We investigated mask registration and wafer overlay by co-analyzing the mask data and the wafer overlay data. To achieve the accurate cohesive results, we introduced the combined metrology mark which can be used for both mask registration measurement as well as for wafer overlay measurement. Coincidence of both metrology marks make it possible to subtract mask signature from wafer overlay without compromising the accuracy due to the physical distance between measurement marks, if we use 2 different marks for both metrologies. Therefore, it is possible to extract pure scanner related signatures, and to analyze the scanner related signatures in details to in order to enable root cause analysis and ultimately drive higher wafer yield. We determined the exact mask registration error in order to decompose wafer overlay into mask, scanner, process and metrology. We also studied the impact of pellicle mounting by comparison of mask registration measurement pre-pellicle mounting and post-pellicle mounting in this investigation.

  20. Accuracy in optical overlay metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringoltz, Barak; Marciano, Tal; Yaziv, Tal; DeLeeuw, Yaron; Klein, Dana; Feler, Yoel; Adam, Ido; Gurevich, Evgeni; Sella, Noga; Lindenfeld, Ze'ev; Leviant, Tom; Saltoun, Lilach; Ashwal, Eltsafon; Alumot, Dror; Lamhot, Yuval; Gao, Xindong; Manka, James; Chen, Bryan; Wagner, Mark

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we discuss the mechanism by which process variations determine the overlay accuracy of optical metrology. We start by focusing on scatterometry, and showing that the underlying physics of this mechanism involves interference effects between cavity modes that travel between the upper and lower gratings in the scatterometry target. A direct result is the behavior of accuracy as a function of wavelength, and the existence of relatively well defined spectral regimes in which the overlay accuracy and process robustness degrades (`resonant regimes'). These resonances are separated by wavelength regions in which the overlay accuracy is better and independent of wavelength (we term these `flat regions'). The combination of flat and resonant regions forms a spectral signature which is unique to each overlay alignment and carries certain universal features with respect to different types of process variations. We term this signature the `landscape', and discuss its universality. Next, we show how to characterize overlay performance with a finite set of metrics that are available on the fly, and that are derived from the angular behavior of the signal and the way it flags resonances. These metrics are used to guarantee the selection of accurate recipes and targets for the metrology tool, and for process control with the overlay tool. We end with comments on the similarity of imaging overlay to scatterometry overlay, and on the way that pupil overlay scatterometry and field overlay scatterometry differ from an accuracy perspective.

  1. Network security vulnerabilities and personal privacy issues in Healthcare Information Systems: a case study in a private hospital in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Namoğlu, Nihan; Ulgen, Yekta

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare industry has become widely dependent on information technology and internet as it moves from paper to electronic records. Healthcare Information System has to provide a high quality service to patients and a productive knowledge share between healthcare staff by means of patient data. With the internet being commonly used across hospitals, healthcare industry got its own share from cyber threats like other industries in the world. The challenge is allowing knowledge transfer to hospital staff while still ensuring compliance with security mandates. Working in collaboration with a private hospital in Turkey; this study aims to reveal the essential elements of a 21st century business continuity plan for hospitals while presenting the security vulnerabilities in the current hospital information systems and personal privacy auditing standards proposed by regulations and laws. We will survey the accreditation criteria in Turkey and counterparts in US and EU. We will also interview with medical staff in the hospital to understand the needs for personal privacy and the technical staff to perceive the technical requirements in terms of network security configuration and deployment. As hospitals are adopting electronic transactions, it should be considered a must to protect these electronic health records in terms of personal privacy aspects. PMID:23823398

  2. Network security vulnerabilities and personal privacy issues in Healthcare Information Systems: a case study in a private hospital in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Namoğlu, Nihan; Ulgen, Yekta

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare industry has become widely dependent on information technology and internet as it moves from paper to electronic records. Healthcare Information System has to provide a high quality service to patients and a productive knowledge share between healthcare staff by means of patient data. With the internet being commonly used across hospitals, healthcare industry got its own share from cyber threats like other industries in the world. The challenge is allowing knowledge transfer to hospital staff while still ensuring compliance with security mandates. Working in collaboration with a private hospital in Turkey; this study aims to reveal the essential elements of a 21st century business continuity plan for hospitals while presenting the security vulnerabilities in the current hospital information systems and personal privacy auditing standards proposed by regulations and laws. We will survey the accreditation criteria in Turkey and counterparts in US and EU. We will also interview with medical staff in the hospital to understand the needs for personal privacy and the technical staff to perceive the technical requirements in terms of network security configuration and deployment. As hospitals are adopting electronic transactions, it should be considered a must to protect these electronic health records in terms of personal privacy aspects.

  3. 48 CFR 252.225-7039 - Contractors performing private security functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., including revocation of any physical and/or logistical access (as defined by Homeland Security Presidential... devices, electromuscular TASER guns, blunt-trauma devices like rubber balls and sponge grenades, and a...; and (iii) Revocation of any physical and/or logistical access granted to such personnel; (2)...

  4. 48 CFR 252.225-7039 - Contractors performing private security functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., including revocation of any physical and/or logistical access (as defined by Homeland Security Presidential... devices, electromuscular TASER guns, blunt-trauma devices like rubber balls and sponge grenades, and a...; and (iii) Revocation of any physical and/or logistical access granted to such personnel; (2)...

  5. Critical issues in overlay metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Neal T.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, following an overview of overlay metrology, the difficult relationship of overlay with device performance and yield is discussed and supported with several examples. This is followed by a discussion of the impending collision of metrology equipment performance and "real" process tolerances for sub 0.18 um technologies. This convergence of tolerance and performance is demonstrated to lead to the current emergence of real-time overlay modeling in a feed-forward/feedback process environment and the associated metrology/sampling implications. This modeling takes advantage of the wealth of understanding concerning the systematic behavior of overlay registration errors. Finally, the impact of new process technologies (RET, OAI, CPSM, CMP, & etc.) on the measurement target is discussed and shown to de-stabilize overlay performance on standard overlay measurement target designs.

  6. Equations for nonbonded concrete overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Y. T.

    1985-09-01

    The nature of the design equations for the nonbonded concrete overlays currently used by the US Army Corps of Engineers was examined and the original source of the equation was also examined. Using simple mechanics, new overlay equations were developed which are suitable for different thicknesses and elastic properties in the overlay and base concrete slabs. The difference in the computed overlay thickness between the new and existing equations is not large when the overlay thickness is equal to or greater than the base slab. The difference can become excessive when the overlay thickness is much less than that of the base slab. The new equations were compared with the finite element computer program for concrete overlays with various combinations of slab thickness, elastic property, and subgrade modulus. The comparisons were very favorable, indicating that the overlay equations developed in this report are analytically correct. It was difficult to judge whether the new equations are superior to the existing equation. This conclusion was expected because for all the seven test sections analyzed, the overlay thicknesses were either equal to or greater than those of the base slabs.

  7. Enabling private and public sector organizations as agents of homeland security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassco, David H. J.; Glassco, Jordan C.

    2006-05-01

    Homeland security and defense applications seek to reduce the risk of undesirable eventualities across physical space in real-time. With that functional requirement in mind, our work focused on the development of IP based agent telecommunication solutions for heterogeneous sensor / robotic intelligent "Things" that could be deployed across the internet. This paper explains how multi-organization information and device sharing alliances may be formed to enable organizations to act as agents of homeland security (in addition to other uses). Topics include: (i) using location-aware, agent based, real-time information sharing systems to integrate business systems, mobile devices, sensor and actuator based devices and embedded devices used in physical infrastructure assets, equipment and other man-made "Things"; (ii) organization-centric real-time information sharing spaces using on-demand XML schema formatted networks; (iii) object-oriented XML serialization as a methodology for heterogeneous device glue code; (iv) how complex requirements for inter / intra organization information and device ownership and sharing, security and access control, mobility and remote communication service, tailored solution life cycle management, service QoS, service and geographic scalability and the projection of remote physical presence (through sensing and robotics) and remote informational presence (knowledge of what is going elsewhere) can be more easily supported through feature inheritance with a rapid agent system development methodology; (v) how remote object identification and tracking can be supported across large areas; (vi) how agent synergy may be leveraged with analytics to complement heterogeneous device networks.

  8. Secure Quantum Private Comparison Protocol Based on the Entanglement Swapping Between Three-Particle W-Class State and Bell State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Jia, Lu; Zhou, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Ting-Ting

    2016-03-01

    We propose a new quantum private comparison protocol with the help of a semi-honest third party (TP), enabling two participants to compare the equality of their private inputs without exposing any information about their respective private inputs. Different from previous protocols, our protocol utilizes the properties of entanglement swapping between three-particle W-Class state and Bell state. The presented protocol can ensure correctness, fairness and security. Meanwhile, all the quantum particles undergo a one-way transmission, and all the participants including TP are just required having the ability to perform Bell-state measurement and exclusive-or operation which make our protocol more feasible and efficient. At last, the security of this protocol with respect to various kinds of attacks is analyzed in detail.

  9. Anonymity and Censorship Resistance in Unstructured Overlay Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backes, Michael; Hamerlik, Marek; Linari, Alessandro; Maffei, Matteo; Tryfonopoulos, Christos; Weikum, Gerhard

    This paper presents Clouds, a peer-to-peer protocol that guarantees both anonymity and censorship resistance in semantic overlay networks. The design of such a protocol needs to meet a number of challenging goals: enabling the exchange of encrypted messages without assuming previously shared secrets, avoiding centralised infrastructures, like trusted servers or gateways, and guaranteeing efficiency without establishing direct connections between peers. Anonymity is achieved by cloaking the identity of protocol participants behind groups of semantically close peers. Censorship resistance is guaranteed by a cryptographic protocol securing the anonymous communication between the querying peer and the resource provider. Although we instantiate our technique on semantic overlay networks to exploit their retrieval capabilities, our framework is general and can be applied to any unstructured overlay network. Experimental results demonstrate the security properties of Clouds under different attacks and show the message overhead and retrieval effectiveness of the protocol.

  10. Intra-lot wafer by wafer overlay control using integrated and standalone metrology combined sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Young Sin; Nam, Young Sun; Lee, Dong Han; Lee, Jae Il; Kang, Young Seog; Jang, Se Yeon; Kong, Jeong Heung

    2016-03-01

    As overlay margin is getting tighter, traditional overlay correction method is not enough to secure more overlay margin without extended correction potential on lithography tool. Timely, the lithography tool has a capability of wafer to wafer correction. From these well-timed industry's preparations, the uncorrected overlay error from current sampling in a lot could be corrected for yield enhancement. In this paper, overlay budget break was performed prior to experiments with the purpose of estimating amount of overlay improvement. And wafer to wafer correction was simulated to the specified layer of a 2x node DRAM device. As a result, not only maximum 94.4% of residual variation improvement is estimated, but also recognized that more samplings to cover all wafer's behavior is inevitable. Integrated metrology with optimized sampling scheme was also introduced as a supportive method for more samplings.

  11. Secure and Robust Overlay Content Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hun Jeong

    2010-01-01

    With the success of applications spurring the tremendous increase in the volume of data transfer, efficient and reliable content distribution has become a key issue. Peer-to-peer (P2P) technology has gained popularity as a promising approach to large-scale content distribution due to its benefits including self-organizing, load-balancing, and…

  12. Implementing a Trust Overlay Framework for Digital Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Paul; McGibney, Jimmy; Botvich, Dmitri; McLaughlin, Mark

    Digital Ecosystems, being decentralised in nature, are inherently untrustworthy environments. This is due to the fact that these environments lack a centralised gatekeeper and identity provider. In order for businesses to operate in these environments there is a need for security measures to support accountability and traceability. This paper describes a trust overlay network developed in the OPAALS project to allow entities participating in digital ecosystems to share experience through the exchange of trust values and to leverage on this network to determine reputation based trustworthiness of unknown and initially untrusted entities. An overlay network is described together with sample algorithms and a discussion on implementation.

  13. New analytical algorithm for overlay accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Boo-Hyun; Yun, Sangho; Kwak, Min-Cheol; Ha, Soon Mok; Kim, Cheol-Hong; Nam, Suk-Woo

    2012-03-01

    The extension of optical lithography to 2Xnm and beyond is often challenged by overlay control. With reduced overlay measurement error budget in the sub-nm range, conventional Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) data is no longer sufficient. Also there is no sufficient criterion in overlay accuracy. In recent years, numerous authors have reported new method of the accuracy of the overlay metrology: Through focus and through color. Still quantifying uncertainty in overlay measurement is most difficult work in overlay metrology. According to the ITRS roadmap, total overlay budget is getting tighter than former device node as a design rule shrink on each device node. Conventionally, the total overlay budget is defined as the square root of square sum of the following contributions: the scanner overlay performance, wafer process, metrology and mask registration. All components have been supplying sufficiently performance tool to each device nodes, delivering new scanner, new metrology tools, and new mask e-beam writers. Especially the scanner overlay performance was drastically decreased from 9nm in 8x node to 2.5nm in 3x node. The scanner overlay seems to reach the limitation the overlay performance after 3x nod. The importance of the wafer process overlay as a contribution of total wafer overlay became more important. In fact, the wafer process overlay was decreased by 3nm between DRAM 8x node and DRAM 3x node. We develop an analytical algorithm for overlay accuracy. And a concept of nondestructive method is proposed in this paper. For on product layer we discovered the layer has overlay inaccuracy. Also we use find out source of the overlay error though the new technique. In this paper, authors suggest an analytical algorithm for overlay accuracy. And a concept of non-destructive method is proposed in this paper. For on product layers, we discovered it has overlay inaccuracy. Also we use find out source of the overlay error though the new technique. Furthermore

  14. 32nm overlay improvement capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, Brad; Huang, Kevin; O'Brien, Kelly; Tien, David; Tsai, Frank; Minvielle, Anna; Singh, Lovejeet; Schefske, Jeffrey

    2008-03-01

    The industry is facing a major challenge looking forward on the technology roadmap with respect to overlay control. Immersion lithography has established itself as the POR for 45nm and for the next few nodes. As the gap closes between scanner capability and device requirements new methodologies need to be taken into consideration. Double patterning lithography is an approach that's being considered for 32 and below, but it creates very strict demands for overlay performance. The fact that a single layer device will need to be patterned using two sequential single processes creates a strong coupling between the 1st and 2nd exposure. The coupling effect during the double patterning process results in extremely tight tolerances for overlay error and scanner capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to explore a new modeling method to improve lithography performance for the 32nm node. Not necessarily unique for double patterning, but as a general approach to improve overlay performance regardless of which patterning process is implemented. We will achieve this by performing an in depth source of variance analysis of current scanner performance and project the anticipated improvements from our new modeling approach. Since the new modeling approach will involve 2nd and 3rd order corrections we will also provide and analysis that outlines current metrology capabilities and sampling optimizations to further expand the opportunities of an efficient implementation of such approach.

  15. On-demand Overlay Networks for Large Scientific Data Transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakrishnan, Lavanya; Guok, Chin; Jackson, Keith; Kissel, Ezra; Swany, D. Martin; Agarwal, Deborah

    2009-10-12

    Large scale scientific data transfers are central to scientific processes. Data from large experimental facilities have to be moved to local institutions for analysis or often data needs to be moved between local clusters and large supercomputing centers. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a network overlay architecture to enable highthroughput, on-demand, coordinated data transfers over wide-area networks. Our work leverages Phoebus and On-demand Secure Circuits and AdvanceReservation System (OSCARS) to provide high performance wide-area network connections. OSCARS enables dynamic provisioning of network paths with guaranteed bandwidth and Phoebus enables the coordination and effective utilization of the OSCARS network paths. Our evaluation shows that this approach leads to improved end-to-end data transfer throughput with minimal overheads. The achievedthroughput using our overlay was limited only by the ability of the end hosts to sink the data.

  16. Flutter Analysis of the Shuttle Tile Overlay Repair Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bey, Kim S.; Scott, Robert C.; Bartels, Robert E.; Waters, William A.; Chen, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The Space Shuttle tile overlay repair concept, developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center, is designed for on-orbit installation over an area of damaged tile to permit safe re-entry. The thin flexible plate is placed over the damaged area and secured to tile at discreet points around its perimeter. A series of flutter analyses were performed to determine if the onset of flutter met the required safety margins. Normal vibration modes of the panel, obtained from a simplified structural analysis of the installed concept, were combined with a series of aerodynamic analyses of increasing levels of fidelity in terms of modeling the flow physics to determine the onset of flutter. Results from these analyses indicate that it is unlikely that the overlay installed at body point 1800 will flutter during re-entry.

  17. Coloured Overlays and Their Benefit for Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Arnold J.; Lewis, Elizabeth; Smith, Fiona; Rowland, Elizabeth; Tweedie, Wendy

    2001-01-01

    Presents three studies where children in mainstream schools compared text on white paper with identical text covered in turn by each of 10 differently-colored plastic overlays. Shows consistency with regard to the proportion of children in mainstream education who report beneficial perceptual effects with colored overlays and who demonstrate…

  18. Overlay dentures. Philosophy and practice. II.

    PubMed

    Taylor, R L; Duckmanton, N A; Boyks, G

    1976-12-01

    The practical stages in the construction of mandibular overlay dentures, with and without precision attachment anchors, are described and illustrated in detail. The importance of post-insertion maintenance, continuing effective oral hygiene and patient care, as a prerequisite for a successful overlay denture experience, is emphasized.

  19. CFDP for Interplanetary Overlay Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol for Interplanetary Overlay Network (CFDP-ION) is an implementation of CFDP that uses IO' s DTN (delay tolerant networking) implementation as its UT (unit-data transfer) layer. Because the DTN protocols effect automatic, reliable transmission via multiple relays, CFDP-ION need only satisfy the requirements for Class 1 ("unacknowledged") CFDP. This keeps the implementation small, but without loss of capability. This innovation minimizes processing resources by using zero-copy objects for file data transmission. It runs without modification in VxWorks, Linux, Solaris, and OS/X. As such, this innovation can be used without modification in both flight and ground systems. Integration with DTN enables the CFDP implementation itself to be very simple; therefore, very small. Use of ION infrastructure minimizes consumption of storage and processing resources while maximizing safety.

  20. Autologous adventitial overlay method reinforces anastomoses in aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Minato, Naoki; Okada, Takayuki; Sumida, Tomohiko; Watanabe, Kenichi; Maruyama, Takahiro; Kusunose, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we present an inexpensive and effective method for providing a secure and hemostatic anastomosis using autologous adventitia obtained from a dissected or aneurysmal wall. The resected aortic wall is separated between the adventitia and media, and a soft, 2 × 10-cm adventitial strip is overlaid to cover the anastomotic margin. A graft is sutured to the aortic stump. This autologous adventitial overlay method can inexpensively and strongly reinforce the anastomosis during aortic surgery for dissection or aneurysm and will contribute to anastomotic hemostasis and long-term stability.

  1. Device overlay method for high volume manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Honggoo; Han, Sangjun; Kim, Youngsik; Kim, Myoungsoo; Heo, Hoyoung; Jeon, Sanghuck; Choi, DongSub; Nabeth, Jeremy; Brinster, Irina; Pierson, Bill; Robinson, John C.

    2016-03-01

    Advancing technology nodes with smaller process margins require improved photolithography overlay control. Overlay control at develop inspection (DI) based on optical metrology targets is well established in semiconductor manufacturing. Advances in target design and metrology technology have enabled significant improvements in overlay precision and accuracy. One approach to represent in-die on-device as-etched overlay is to measure at final inspection (FI) with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Disadvantages to this approach include inability to rework, limited layer coverage due to lack of transparency, and higher cost of ownership (CoO). A hybrid approach is investigated in this report whereby infrequent DI/FI bias is characterized and the results are used to compensate the frequent DI overlay results. The bias characterization is done on an infrequent basis, either based on time or triggered from change points. On a per-device and per-layer basis, the optical target overlay at DI is compared with SEM on-device overlay at FI. The bias characterization results are validated and tracked for use in compensating the DI APC controller. Results of the DI/FI bias characterization and sources of variation are presented, as well as the impact on the DI correctables feeding the APC system. Implementation details in a high volume manufacturing (HVM) wafer fab will be reviewed. Finally future directions of the investigation will be discussed.

  2. Overlay improvement roadmap: strategies for scanner control and product disposition for 5-nm overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix, Nelson M.; Gabor, Allen H.; Menon, Vinayan C.; Longo, Peter P.; Halle, Scott D.; Koay, Chiew-seng; Colburn, Matthew E.

    2011-03-01

    To keep pace with the overall dimensional shrink in the industry, overlay capability must also shrink proportionally. Unsurprisingly, overlay capability < 10 nm is already required for currently nodes in development, and the need for multi-patterned levels has accelerated the overlay roadmap requirements to the order of 5 nm. To achieve this, many improvements need to be implemented in all aspects of overlay measurement, control, and disposition. Given this difficult task, even improvements involving fractions of a nanometer need to be considered. These contributors can be divided into 5 categories: scanner, process, reticle, metrology, and APC. In terms of overlay metrology, the purpose is two-fold: To measure what the actual overlay error is on wafer, and to provide appropriate APC feedback to reduce overlay error for future incoming hardware. We show that with optimized field selection plan, as well as appropriate within-field sampling, both objectives can be met. For metrology field selection, an optimization algorithm has been employed to proportionately sample fields of different scan direction, as well as proportional spatial placement. In addition, intrafield sampling has been chosen to accurately represent overlay inside each field, rather than just at field corners. Regardless, the industry-wide use of multi-exposure patterning schemes has pushed scanner overlay capabilities to their limits. However, it is now clear that scanner contributions may no longer be the majority component in total overlay performance. The ability to control correctable overlay components is paramount to achieving desired performance. In addition, process (non-scanner) contributions to on-product overlay error need to be aggressively tackled, though we show that there also opportunities available in active scanner alignment schemes, where appropriate scanner alignment metrology and correction can reduce residuals on product. In tandem, all these elements need to be in place to

  3. Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  4. Root cause analysis of overlay metrology excursions with scatterometry overlay technology (SCOL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutjahr, Karsten; Park, Dongsuk; Zhou, Yue; Cho, Winston; Ahn, Ki Cheol; Snow, Patrick; McGowan, Richard; Marciano, Tal; Ramanathan, Vidya; Herrera, Pedro; Itzkovich, Tal; Camp, Janay; Adel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a novel method to establish a root cause for an overlay excursion using optical Scatterometry metrology. Scatterometry overlay metrology consists of four cells (two per directions) of grating on grating structures that are illuminated with a laser and diffracted orders measured in the pupil plane within a certain range of aperture. State of art algorithms permit, with symmetric considerations over the targets, to extract the overlay between the two gratings. We exploit the optical properties of the target to extract further information from the measured pupil images, particularly information that maybe related to any change in the process that may lead to an overlay excursion. Root Cause Analysis or RCA is being developed to identify different kinds of process variations (either within the wafer, or between different wafers) that may indicate overlay excursions. In this manuscript, we demonstrate a collaboration between Globalfoundries and KLA-Tencor to identify a symmetric process variation using scatterometry overlay metrology and RCA technique.

  5. A moving overlay shrinks the attentional blink.

    PubMed

    Chua, Fook K

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a study examining the effects of overlaying a veil of spots on the letters in a central rapid serial visual presentation stream. Observers identified two target letters (T1 and T2, respectively) embedded in a stream of distractor letters printed in a different color. In Experiment 1, the attentional blink (AB) diminished when a different overlay veiled each letter, such that the spots appeared to move as the letters changed. Experiment 2 concerned whether the performance enhancement occurred because the overlay hampered processing of the lag 1 distractor, thus weakening the distractor's interference with T1. Experiment 3 focused on how changing the overlay at or around T1 affected the AB. The attention disengagement hypothesis was proposed to explain the common theme in the results-that performance was only enhanced when different overlays were applied to the T1 and lag 1 frames. The claim is that the AB reflects a failure of prompt attentional disengagement from T1, which, in turn, delays reengagement when T2 appears shortly thereafter. When T1's disappearance is accompanied by an overlay change, the perceptual system gets an additional cue signaling that the visual scene has changed, thereby inducing attentional disengagement. Apart from facilitating prompt reengagement at the next target, earlier disengagement also improves target recovery by excluding features of the trailing item, likely to be a distractor, from working memory.

  6. Mobile Virtual Private Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

    Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

  7. Relativistic quantum private database queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Si-Jia; Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhang, Ming-Ou

    2015-04-01

    Recently, Jakobi et al. (Phys Rev A 83, 022301, 2011) suggested the first practical private database query protocol (J-protocol) based on the Scarani et al. (Phys Rev Lett 92, 057901, 2004) quantum key distribution protocol. Unfortunately, the J-protocol is just a cheat-sensitive private database query protocol. In this paper, we present an idealized relativistic quantum private database query protocol based on Minkowski causality and the properties of quantum information. Also, we prove that the protocol is secure in terms of the user security and the database security.

  8. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterfalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in CFB's.

  9. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterfalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in CFB`s.

  10. Weld overlay coatings for erosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1993-03-03

    A literature review was made. In spite of similarities between abrasive wear and solid particle erosion, weld overlay hardfacing alloys that exhibit high abrasion resistance may not necessarily have good erosion resistance. The performance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys in erosive environments has not been studied in detail. It is believed that primary-solidified hard phases such as carbides and intermetallic compounds have a strong influence on erosion resistance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys. However, relationships between size, shape, and volume fraction of hard phases in a hardfacing alloys and erosion resistance were not established. Almost all hardfacing alloys can be separated into two major groups based upon chemical compositions of the primary solidified hard phases: (a) carbide hardening alloys (Co-base/carbide, WC-Co and some Fe base superalloys); and (b) intermetallic hardening alloys (Ni-base alloys, austenitic steels, iron-aluminides).

  11. Overlay Technique for Transcatheter Left Atrial Appendage Closure.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang; Zhu, Mengyun; Lu, Yunlan; Tang, Kai; Zhao, Dongdong; Chen, Wei; Xu, Yawei

    2015-08-01

    The Overlay technique is popular in peripheral artery interventions, but not in coronary or cardiac structural procedures. We present an initial experience using three-episode overlays during a transcatheter left atrial appendage closure. The first overlay was applied to facilitate advancement of the delivery sheath into left atrium. The second overlay was used to navigate the advancement of prepped delivery system containing the compressed occluder into its optimal position in the left atrium. The third overlay facilitated the real-time deployment of the closure device. This case report demonstrates the effectiveness of the overlay technique in facilitating each step of the transcatheter left atrial appendage closure.

  12. Privatizing Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrard, Jane; Bolt, Nancy; Strege, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This timely special report from ALA Editions provides a succinct but comprehensive overview of the "privatization" of public libraries. It provides a history of the trend of local and state governments privatizing public services and assets, and then examines the history of public library privatization right up to the California legislation…

  13. KML Super Overlay to WMS Translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2007-01-01

    This translator is a server-based application that automatically generates KML super overlay configuration files required by Google Earth for map data access via the Open Geospatial Consortium WMS (Web Map Service) standard. The translator uses a set of URL parameters that mirror the WMS parameters as much as possible, and it also can generate a super overlay subdivision of any given area that is only loaded when needed, enabling very large areas of coverage at very high resolutions. It can make almost any dataset available as a WMS service visible and usable in any KML application, without the need to reformat the data.

  14. Hybrid overlay metrology for high order correction by using CDSEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leray, Philippe; Halder, Sandip; Lorusso, Gian; Baudemprez, Bart; Inoue, Osamu; Okagawa, Yutaka

    2016-03-01

    Overlay control has become one of the most critical issues for semiconductor manufacturing. Advanced lithographic scanners use high-order corrections or correction per exposure to reduce the residual overlay. It is not enough in traditional feedback of overlay measurement by using ADI wafer because overlay error depends on other process (etching process and film stress, etc.). It needs high accuracy overlay measurement by using AEI wafer. WIS (Wafer Induced Shift) is the main issue for optical overlay, IBO (Image Based Overlay) and DBO (Diffraction Based Overlay). We design dedicated SEM overlay targets for dual damascene process of N10 by i-ArF multi-patterning. The pattern is same as device-pattern locally. Optical overlay tools select segmented pattern to reduce the WIS. However segmentation has limit, especially the via-pattern, for keeping the sensitivity and accuracy. We evaluate difference between the viapattern and relaxed pitch gratings which are similar to optical overlay target at AEI. CDSEM can estimate asymmetry property of target from image of pattern edge. CDSEM can estimate asymmetry property of target from image of pattern edge. We will compare full map of SEM overlay to full map of optical overlay for high order correction ( correctables and residual fingerprints).

  15. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, B. F.; Dupont, J. N.; Marder, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Research is being conducted to develop criteria for selecting weld overlay coatings for erosion mitigation in circulated fluidized beds. Twelve weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using plasma arc welding. Ten samples from each coating were prepared for erosion testing. All selected coatings were erosion tested at 400C and their erosion resistance and microstructure evaluated. Steady state erosion rates were similar for several weld overlay coatings (Ultimet, Inconel-625, Iron-Aluminide, 316L SS, and High Chromium Cast Iron) and were considerably lower than the remaining coating evaluated. These coatings had different base (Co, Fe, Ni-base). No correlations were found between room temperature microhardness of the weld overlay coatings and their erosion resistance at elevated temperature, although this criteria is often thought to be an indicator of erosion resistance. It was suggested that the coatings that showed similar erosion rates may have similar mechanical properties such as fracture strength, toughness and work hardening rates at this temperature. During the past quarter, Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were selected for more detailed investigations based upon the preliminary erosion test results. Microhardness tests were performed on eroded samples to determine the size of the work hardened zone and change in coatings hardness due to erosion. The work hardened zone was correlated with erosion resistance of the coatings. Additional Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were deposited on 1018 steel substrates.

  16. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    PubMed Central

    Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12–14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature. PMID:25120525

  17. Coloured Overlays, Visual Discomfort, Visual Search and Classroom Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrrell, Ruth; And Others

    1995-01-01

    States that 46 children aged 12-16 were shown a page of meaningless text covered with plastic overlays, including 7 that were various colors and 1 that was clear. Explains that each child selected the overlay that made reading easiest. Notes that children who read with a colored overlay complained of visual discomfort when they read without the…

  18. Secure key storage and distribution

    DOEpatents

    Agrawal, Punit

    2015-06-02

    This disclosure describes a distributed, fault-tolerant security system that enables the secure storage and distribution of private keys. In one implementation, the security system includes a plurality of computing resources that independently store private keys provided by publishers and encrypted using a single security system public key. To protect against malicious activity, the security system private key necessary to decrypt the publication private keys is not stored at any of the computing resources. Rather portions, or shares of the security system private key are stored at each of the computing resources within the security system and multiple security systems must communicate and share partial decryptions in order to decrypt the stored private key.

  19. Impact of reticle writing errors on the on-product overlay performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Haren, Richard; Cekli, Hakki Ergun; Liu, Xing Lan; Beltman, Jan; Pastol, Anne; Massin, Jean; Dupre La Tour, Emilie; Gatefait, Maxime; Sundermann, Frank

    2014-10-01

    The on-product overlay specification and Advanced Process Control (APC) are getting extremely challenging particularly after the introduction of multi-patterning applications like Litho-Etch-Litho-Etch (LELE). While the Reticle Writing Error (RWE) contribution could be marginalized for quite some time in the layer-to-layer overlay budget, it will become one of the dominating overlay contributors when the intra-layer overlay budget is considered. While most of the overlay contributors like wafer processing, scanner status, reticle transmission, dose, illumination conditions drop out of the intra-layer overlay budget, this is certainly not the case for reticle to reticle writing differences. In this work, we have studied the impact of the RWE on the on-product overlay performance. We show that the RWE can be characterized by an off-line mask registration tool and the modelled results can be sent as feed-forward corrections to the ASML TWINSCANTM. By doing so, the overlay control complexity (e.g. send-ahead wafers, APC settling time) can be reduced significantly. Off-line characterization enables that all reticles virtually become equal after correction (at least to the level of correction capability of the scanner). This means that all higher order RWE contributions (currently up to a third order polynomial) can be removed from the fingerprint. We show that out of 50 production reticles (FEOL, 28-nm technology), 30% can be improved on residual level when non-linear feed-forward corrections are considered as well. The additional benefit of feeding forward linear corrections to the scanner is even higher: it is anticipated that a large portion of the APC variation might find its origin in the RWE contribution. In order to send feed-forward corrections to the scanner, we obviously rely on the quality of the off-line RWE measurements. These measurements are usually provided by a registration tool at the mask shop. To secure the quality, an independent experimental

  20. Privatizing Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.T.

    1995-07-01

    The sun is setting on Australia`s long tradition of state involvement in business. As part of efforts begun in the late-1980`s to stem the tide of debt rising within Australian federal and state treasuries, government-owned entities are being corporatized and privatized, and private companies are sponsoring a large share of the country`s new infrastructure projects.

  1. Establishing a stable centric position using overlays.

    PubMed

    Marchini, Leonardo; dos Santos, Mateus Bertolini Fernandes; dos Santos, Jarbas Francisco Fernandes; da Cunha, Vicente de Paula Prisco

    2010-01-01

    The masticatory system's ability to function depends on the distribution of occlusal contacts to promote mandibular stabilization. The patient in this case report was experiencing temporomandibular dysfunction, which was treated by creating an adequate bite plane using indirect composite resin restorations (overlays) made from a wax-up. This therapy made it possible to improve esthetics as well as centric and excursive mandibular occlusion without the need for drilling.

  2. Overlay Tolerances For VLSI Using Wafer Steppers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, Harry J.; Rice, Rory

    1988-01-01

    In order for VLSI circuits to function properly, the masking layers used in the fabrication of those devices must overlay each other to within the manufacturing tolerance incorporated in the circuit design. The capabilities of the alignment tools used in the masking process determine the overlay tolerances to which circuits can be designed. It is therefore of considerable importance that these capabilities be well characterized. Underestimation of the overlay accuracy results in unnecessarily large devices, resulting in poor utilization of wafer area and possible degradation of device performance. Overestimation will result in significant yield loss because of the failure to conform to the tolerances of the design rules. The proper methodology for determining the overlay capabilities of wafer steppers, the most commonly used alignment tool for the production of VLSI circuits, is the subject of this paper. Because cost-effective manufacturing process technology has been the driving force of VLSI, the impact on productivity is a primary consideration in all discussions. Manufacturers of alignment tools advertise the capabilities of their equipment. It is notable that no manufacturer currently characterizes his aligners in a manner consistent with the requirements of producing very large integrated circuits, as will be discussed. This has resulted in the situation in which the evaluation and comparison of the capabilities of alignment tools require the attention of a lithography specialist. Unfortunately, lithographic capabilities must be known by many other people, particularly the circuit designers and the managers responsible for the financial consequences of the high prices of modern alignment tools. All too frequently, the designer or manager is confronted with contradictory data, one set coming from his lithography specialist, and the other coming from a sales representative of an equipment manufacturer. Since the latter generally attempts to make his

  3. Accommodation, pattern glare, and coloured overlays.

    PubMed

    Allen, Peter M; Dedi, Sonia; Kumar, Dimple; Patel, Tanuj; Aloo, Mohammed; Wilkins, Arnold J

    2012-01-01

    We manipulated the accommodative response using positive and negative lenses to study any association between symptoms of pattern glare and accommodation. Two groups of eighteen young adults were selected from seventy-eight on the basis (i) that their rate of reading increased by 5% or more with an overlay compared to their rate without it, and (ii) that they reported more than 2 symptoms of pattern glare (group 1) or had no such increment in reading speed and reported fewer than 3 symptoms (group 2). Under double-masked conditions participants observed at 0.4 m a pattern of stripes while measurements of accommodation were made using an open field autorefractor with and without positive and negative trial lenses (0.75 D), and with and without a coloured overlay. Pattern glare was also assessed with and without the trial lenses. Without lenses, the mean accommodative response in group 1 was 1.55 D, a lag of 0.95 D +/- 0.24 D relative to the demand. The lag decreased by 0.43 D (p < 0.0001) when the chosen overlay was used, an effect that was not shown in group 2 even when lag increased with negative trial lenses (p = 0.13). In both groups, pattern glare scores were reduced by the trial lenses, but were unaffected by the sign of the lenses. This suggests that symptoms of pattern glare are not strongly associated with accommodative response. PMID:23586285

  4. Overlay leaves litho: impact of non-litho processes on overlay and compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhm, Matthias; Schulz, Bernd; Cotte, Eric; Seltmann, Rolf; Hertzsch, Tino

    2014-10-01

    According to the ITRS roadmap [1], the overlay requirement for the 28nm node is 8nm. If we compare this number with the performance given by tool vendors for their most advanced immersion systems (which is < 3nm), there seems to remain a large margin. Does that mean that today's leading edge Fab has an easy life? Unfortunately not, as other contributors affecting overlay are emerging. Mask contributions and so-called non-linear wafer distortions are known effects that can impact overlay quite significantly. Furthermore, it is often forgotten that downstream (post-litho) processes can impact the overlay as well. Thus, it can be required to compensate for the effects of subsequent processes already at the lithography operation. Within our paper, we will briefly touch on the wafer distortion topic and discuss the limitations of lithography compensation techniques such as higher order corrections versus solving the root cause of the distortions. The primary focus will be on the impact of the etch processes on the pattern placement error. We will show how individual layers can get affected differently by showing typical wafer signatures. However, in contrast to the above-mentioned wafer distortion topic, lithographic compensation techniques can be highly effective to reduce the placement error significantly towards acceptable levels (see Figure 1). Finally we will discuss the overall overlay budget for a 28nm contact to gate case by taking the impact of the individual process contributors into account.

  5. Pragmatic privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, S.

    1995-10-01

    Chile was probably the first country in the world to privatize under a decentralized and competitive framework a former state-owned power sector. Power sector privatization was conducted with pragmatism, particularly in terms of the speed with which the changes occurred. In fact, the earliest privatization did not occur until 1980 and the process was not completed until early 1990. The privatized Chilean electric industry has performed fairly well in terms of the investments carried out not only in the power sector, but also in other economic activities and in foreign countries. The diversification of ownership and the competitive framework have been an incentive to reach efficiency and a guaranty for the stability of the rules of the game in the long run.

  6. Improvement of EUV mix-match overlay for production implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sarohan; Lee, ByoungHoon; Lee, Byong-Seog; Lee, Inwhan; Lim, Chang-Moon

    2016-03-01

    The improvement of overlay control in extreme ultra-violet (EUV) lithography is one of critical issues for successful mass production by using it. Especially it is important to improve the mix and match overlay or matched machine overlay (MMO) between EUV and ArF immersion tool, because EUV process will be applied to specific layers that have more competitive cost edge against ArF immersion multiple patterning with the early mass productivity of EUVL. Therefore it is necessary to consider the EUV overlay target with comparing the overlay specification of double patterning technology (DPT) and spacer patterning technology (SPT). This paper will discuss about required overlay controllability and current performance of EUV, and challenges for future improvement.

  7. Assessment of a Cambridge Structural Database-driven overlay program.

    PubMed

    Giangreco, Ilenia; Olsson, Tjelvar S G; Cole, Jason C; Packer, Martin J

    2014-11-24

    We recently published an improved methodology for overlaying multiple flexible ligands and an extensive data set for validating pharmacophore programs. Here, we combine these two developments and present evidence of the effectiveness of the new overlay methodology at predicting correct superimpositions for systems with varying levels of complexity. The overlay program was able to generate correct predictions for 95%, 73%, and 39% of systems classified as easy, moderate, and hard, respectively.

  8. Highly corrosion resistant weld overlay for oil patch applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hibner, E.L.; Maligas, M.N.; Vicic, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    Petroleum equipment companies currently sell 4130 and 4140 steel pipe with alloy 625 (UNS N06625) weld overlay for Oil Patch applications. Alloy 686 (UNS N06686), because of it`s superior corrosion resistance, is currently being evaluated as a replacement material for alloy 625. Mechanical properties and Slow Strain Rate test results for the alloy 686 weld overlay are discussed relative to the alloy 625 weld overlay.

  9. Molecular Dynamics study of Pb overlayer on Cu(100)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karimi, M.; Tibbits, P.; Ila, D.; Dalins, I.; Vidali, G.

    1991-01-01

    Isothermal-isobaric Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation of a submonolayer Pb film in c(2x2) ordered structure adsorbed on a Cu(100) substrate showed retention of order to high T. The Embedded Atom Method (EAM) calculated the energy of atoms of overlayer and substrate. The time-averaged squared modulus of the two dimensional structure factor for the Pb overlayer measured the order of the overlayer. The results are for increasing T only, and require verification by simulated cooling.

  10. 6 CFR 11.7 - Private collection agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Private collection agencies. 11.7 Section 11.7 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLAIMS § 11.7 Private collection agencies. DHS will transfer delinquent DHS debts to the Treasury Department's Financial Management...

  11. 6 CFR 11.7 - Private collection agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Private collection agencies. 11.7 Section 11.7 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLAIMS § 11.7 Private collection agencies. DHS will transfer delinquent DHS debts to the Treasury Department's Financial Management...

  12. 6 CFR 11.7 - Private collection agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Private collection agencies. 11.7 Section 11.7 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLAIMS § 11.7 Private collection agencies. DHS will transfer delinquent DHS debts to the Treasury Department's Financial Management...

  13. Investigation of Iron Aluminide Weld Overlays

    SciTech Connect

    Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.B.; Levin, B.F.; Marder, A.R.

    1999-08-02

    Conventional fossil fired boilers have been retrofitted with low NO(sub)x burners in order for the power plants to comply with new clean air regulations. Due to the operating characteristics of these burners, boiler tube sulfidation corrosion typically has been enhanced resulting in premature tube failure. To protect the existing panels from accelerated attack, weld overlay coatings are typically being applied. By depositing an alloy that offers better corrosion resistance than the underlying tube material, the wastage rates can be reduced. While Ni-based and stainless steel compositions are presently providing protection, they are expensive and susceptible to failure via corrosion-fatigue due to microsegregation upon solidification. Another material system presently under consideration for use as a coating in the oxidation/sulfidation environments is iron-aluminum. These alloys are relatively inexpensive, exhibit little microsegregation, and show excellent corrosion resistance. However, their use is limited due to weldability issues and their lack of corrosion characterization in simulated low NO(sub)x gas compositions. Therefore a program was initiated in 1996 to evaluate the use of iron-aluminum weld overlay coatings for erosion/corrosion protection of boiler tubes in fossil fired boilers with low NO(sub)x burners. Investigated properties included weldability, corrosion behavior, erosion resistance, and erosion-corrosion performance.

  14. Real cell overlay measurement through design based metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Gyun; Kim, Jungchan; Park, Chanha; Lee, Taehyeong; Ji, Sunkeun; Jo, Gyoyeon; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Maruyama, Kotaro; Park, Byungjun

    2014-04-01

    Until recent device nodes, lithography has been struggling to improve its resolution limit. Even though next generation lithography technology is now facing various difficulties, several innovative resolution enhancement technologies, based on 193nm wavelength, were introduced and implemented to keep the trend of device scaling. Scanner makers keep developing state-of-the-art exposure system which guarantees higher productivity and meets a more aggressive overlay specification. "The scaling reduction of the overlay error has been a simple matter of the capability of exposure tools. However, it is clear that the scanner contributions may no longer be the majority component in total overlay performance. The ability to control correctable overlay components is paramount to achieve the desired performance.(2)" In a manufacturing fab, the overlay error, determined by a conventional overlay measurement: by using an overlay mark based on IBO and DBO, often does not represent the physical placement error in the cell area of a memory device. The mismatch may arise from the size or pitch difference between the overlay mark and the cell pattern. Pattern distortion, caused by etching or CMP, also can be a source of the mismatch. Therefore, the requirement of a direct overlay measurement in the cell pattern gradually increases in the manufacturing field, and also in the development level. In order to overcome the mismatch between conventional overlay measurement and the real placement error of layer to layer in the cell area of a memory device, we suggest an alternative overlay measurement method utilizing by design, based metrology tool. A basic concept of this method is shown in figure1. A CD-SEM measurement of the overlay error between layer 1 and 2 could be the ideal method but it takes too long time to extract a lot of data from wafer level. An E-beam based DBM tool provides high speed to cover the whole wafer with high repeatability. It is enabled by using the design as a

  15. 77 FR 41204 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... the committee meeting of the State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee. To discuss the matters relating to the Classified National Security Information Program for State, Local... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office State, Local, Tribal, and Private...

  16. A map overlay error model based on boundary geometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaeuman, D.; Symanzik, J.; Schmidt, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    An error model for quantifying the magnitudes and variability of errors generated in the areas of polygons during spatial overlay of vector geographic information system layers is presented. Numerical simulation of polygon boundary displacements was used to propagate coordinate errors to spatial overlays. The model departs from most previous error models in that it incorporates spatial dependence of coordinate errors at the scale of the boundary segment. It can be readily adapted to match the scale of error-boundary interactions responsible for error generation on a given overlay. The area of error generated by overlay depends on the sinuosity of polygon boundaries, as well as the magnitude of the coordinate errors on the input layers. Asymmetry in boundary shape has relatively little effect on error generation. Overlay errors are affected by real differences in boundary positions on the input layers, as well as errors in the boundary positions. Real differences between input layers tend to compensate for much of the error generated by coordinate errors. Thus, the area of change measured on an overlay layer produced by the XOR overlay operation will be more accurate if the area of real change depicted on the overlay is large. The model presented here considers these interactions, making it especially useful for estimating errors studies of landscape change over time. ?? 2005 The Ohio State University.

  17. Improving text recognition by distinguishing scene and overlay text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quehl, Bernhard; Yang, Haojin; Sack, Harald

    2015-02-01

    Video texts are closely related to the content of a video. They provide a valuable source for indexing and interpretation of video data. Text detection and recognition task in images or videos typically distinguished between overlay and scene text. Overlay text is artificially superimposed on the image at the time of editing and scene text is text captured by the recording system. Typically, OCR systems are specialized on one kind of text type. However, in video images both types of text can be found. In this paper, we propose a method to automatically distinguish between overlay and scene text to dynamically control and optimize post processing steps following text detection. Based on a feature combination a Support Vector Machine (SVM) is trained to classify scene and overlay text. We show how this distinction in overlay and scene text improves the word recognition rate. Accuracy of the proposed methods has been evaluated by using publicly available test data sets.

  18. Governance and Risk Management of Network and Information Security: The Role of Public Private Partnerships in Managing the Existing and Emerging Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navare, Jyoti; Gemikonakli, Orhan

    Globalisation and new technology has opened the gates to more security risks. As the strategic importance of communication networks and information increased, threats to the security and safety of communication infrastructures, as well as information stored in and/or transmitted increased significantly. The development of the self replicating programmes has become a nightmare for Internet users. Leading companies, strategic organisations were not immune to attacks; they were also "hacked" and overtaken by intruders. Incidents of recent years have also shown that national/regional crisis may also trigger cyber attacks at large scale. Experts forecast that cyber wars are likely to take the stage as tension mounts between developed societies. New risks such as cyber-attacks, network terrorism and disintegration of traditional infrastructures has somewhat blurred the boundaries of operation and control. This paper seeks to consider the risk management and governance and looking more specifically at implications for emerging economies.

  19. Weld overlay cladding with iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, G.M.

    1995-08-01

    The hot and cold cracking tendencies of some early iron aluminide alloy compositions have limited their use in applications where good weldability is required. Using hot crack testing techniques invented at ORNL, and experimental determinations of preheat and postweld heat treatment needed to avoid cold cracking, we have developed iron aluminide filler metal compositions which can be successfully used to weld overlay clad various substrate materials, including 9Cr-1Mo steel, 2-1/4Cr-1Mo steel, and 300-series austenitic stainless steels. Dilution must be carefully controlled to avoid crack-sensitive deposit compositions. The technique used to produce the current filler metal compositions is aspiration-casting, i.e. drawing the liquid from the melt into glass rods. Future development efforts will involve fabrication of composite wires of similar compositions to permit mechanized gas tungsten arc (GTA) and/or gas metal arc (GMA) welding.

  20. Bundle Security Protocol for ION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  1. Weld overlay cladding with iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, G.M.

    1996-11-01

    The hot and cold cracking tendencies of some early iron aluminide alloy compositions limited their use to applications where good weldability was not required. Considerable progress has been made toward improving this situation. Using hot crack testing techniques developed at ORNL and a systematic study of alloy compositional effects, we have established a range of compositions within which hot cracking resistance is very good, essentially equivalent to stainless steel. Cold cracking, however, remains an issue, and extensive efforts are continuing to optimize composition and welding parameters, especially preheat and postweld heat treatment, to minimize its occurrence. In terms of filler metal and process development, we have progressed from sheared strip through aspiration cast rod and shielded metal arc electrodes to the point where we can now produce composite wire with a steel sheath and aluminum core in coil form, which permits the use of both the gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc processes. This is a significant advancement in that the gas metal arc process lends itself well to automated welding, and is the process of choice for commercial weld overlay applications. Using the newly developed filler metals, we have prepared clad specimens for testing in a variety of environments both in-house and outside ORNL, including laboratory and commercial organizations. As a means of assessing the field performance of this new type of material, we have modified several non-pressure boundary boiler components, including fuel nozzles and port shrouds, by introducing areas of weld overlay in strategic locations, and have placed these components in service in operating boilers for a side-by-side comparison with conventional corrosion-resistant materials.

  2. Private Schools Put Spotlight on Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    Administrators and students at private schools tend to see their schools as safer than public schools. Spurred in part by the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, many private schools have joined the national push to revamp campus safety plans. Kenneth S. Trump, the president of the Cleveland-based National School Safety and Security Services,…

  3. Envelopment technique and topographic overlays in bite mark analysis

    PubMed Central

    Djeapragassam, Parimala; Daniel, Mariappan Jonathan; Srinivasan, Subramanian Vasudevan; Ramadoss, Koliyan; Jimsha, Vannathan Kumaran

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The aims and objectives of our study were to compare four sequential overlays generated using the envelopment technique and to evaluate inter- and intraoperator reliability of the overlays obtained by the envelopment technique. Materials and Methods: Dental stone models were prepared from impressions made from healthy individuals; photographs were taken and computer-assisted overlays were generated. The models were then enveloped in a different-color dental stone. After this, four sequential cuts were made at a thickness of 1mm each. Each sectional cut was photographed and overlays were generated. Thus, 125 overlays were generated and compared. Results: The scoring was done based on matching accuracy and the data were analyzed. The Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to compare four sequential overlays and Spearman's rank correlation tests were used to evaluate the inter- and intraoperator reliability of the overlays obtained by the envelopment technique. Conclusion: Through our study, we conclude that the third and fourth cuts were the best among the four cuts and inter- and intraoperator reliability were found to be statistically significant at 5% level that is 95% confidence interval (P < 0.05). PMID:26816458

  4. Asphaltic concrete overlays of rigid and flexible pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinchen, R. W.; Temple, W. H.

    1980-10-01

    The development of a mechanistic approach to overlay thickness selection is described. The procedure utilizes a deflection analysis to determine pavement rehabilitation needs. Design guides for selecting the overlay thickness are presented. Tolerable deflection-traffic load relationships and the deflection attenuation properties of asphaltic concrete were developed, representing the subgrade support conditions and properties of materials used in Louisiana. All deflection measurements on asphaltic concrete were corrected for the effect of temperature. Deflection measurements taken before and after overlay were also adjusted to minimize the effects of seasonal subgrade moisture variation.

  5. Peru privatizes

    SciTech Connect

    Suttil, K.R.

    1993-02-01

    Peru has been undergoing a revolution since the election of Alberto Fujimori as president in 1990. A revolution that is reversing many of the policies of the past 25 years and one which aims to bring Peru back into the mainstream of the world economy. All the enterprises nationalized in the heady days of the early 1970s are set up for privatization. The most important are the three mining companies: Hierro-Peru, Centromin, and Mineroo-Peru. It will not be easy to attract foreign investment after such a long period of political and economic instability but the rewards are there for the intrepid.

  6. The Interplanetary Overlay Networking Protocol Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Jackson; Torgerson, Jordan L.; Clare, Loren P.

    2008-01-01

    A document describes the Interplanetary Overlay Networking Protocol Accelerator (IONAC) an electronic apparatus, now under development, for relaying data at high rates in spacecraft and interplanetary radio-communication systems utilizing a delay-tolerant networking protocol. The protocol includes provisions for transmission and reception of data in bundles (essentially, messages), transfer of custody of a bundle to a recipient relay station at each step of a relay, and return receipts. Because of limitations on energy resources available for such relays, data rates attainable in a conventional software implementation of the protocol are lower than those needed, at any given reasonable energy-consumption rate. Therefore, a main goal in developing the IONAC is to reduce the energy consumption by an order of magnitude and the data-throughput capability by two orders of magnitude. The IONAC prototype is a field-programmable gate array that serves as a reconfigurable hybrid (hardware/ firmware) system for implementation of the protocol. The prototype can decode 108,000 bundles per second and encode 100,000 bundles per second. It includes a bundle-cache static randomaccess memory that enables maintenance of a throughput of 2.7Gb/s, and an Ethernet convergence layer that supports a duplex throughput of 1Gb/s.

  7. Weld overlay cladding with iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, G.M.

    1997-12-01

    The author has established a range of compositions for these alloys within which hot cracking resistance is very good, and within which cold cracking can be avoided in many instances by careful control of welding conditions, particularly preheat and postweld heat treatment. For example, crack-free butt welds have been produced for the first time in 12-mm thick wrought Fe{sub 3}Al plate. Cold cracking, however, still remains an issue in many cases. The author has developed a commercial source for composite weld filler metals spanning a wide range of achievable aluminum levels, and are pursuing the application of these filler metals in a variety of industrial environments. Welding techniques have been developed for both the gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc processes, and preliminary work has been done to utilize the wire arc process for coating of boiler tubes. Clad specimens have been prepared for environmental testing in-house, and a number of components have been modified and placed in service in operating kraft recovery boilers. In collaboration with a commercial producer of spiral weld overlay tubing, the author is attempting to utilize the new filler metals for this novel application.

  8. Augmenting reality in Direct View Optical (DVO) overlay applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Tim; Edwards, Tim

    2014-06-01

    The integration of overlay displays into rifle scopes can transform precision Direct View Optical (DVO) sights into intelligent interactive fire-control systems. Overlay displays can provide ballistic solutions within the sight for dramatically improved targeting, can fuse sensor video to extend targeting into nighttime or dirty battlefield conditions, and can overlay complex situational awareness information over the real-world scene. High brightness overlay solutions for dismounted soldier applications have previously been hindered by excessive power consumption, weight and bulk making them unsuitable for man-portable, battery powered applications. This paper describes the advancements and capabilities of a high brightness, ultra-low power text and graphics overlay display module developed specifically for integration into DVO weapon sight applications. Central to the overlay display module was the development of a new general purpose low power graphics controller and dual-path display driver electronics. The graphics controller interface is a simple 2-wire RS-232 serial interface compatible with existing weapon systems such as the IBEAM ballistic computer and the RULR and STORM laser rangefinders (LRF). The module features include multiple graphics layers, user configurable fonts and icons, and parameterized vector rendering, making it suitable for general purpose DVO overlay applications. The module is configured for graphics-only operation for daytime use and overlays graphics with video for nighttime applications. The miniature footprint and ultra-low power consumption of the module enables a new generation of intelligent DVO systems and has been implemented for resolutions from VGA to SXGA, in monochrome and color, and in graphics applications with and without sensor video.

  9. Overlay improvements using a real time machine learning algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt-Weaver, Emil; Kubis, Michael; Henke, Wolfgang; Slotboom, Daan; Hoogenboom, Tom; Mulkens, Jan; Coogans, Martyn; ten Berge, Peter; Verkleij, Dick; van de Mast, Frank

    2014-04-01

    While semiconductor manufacturing is moving towards the 14nm node using immersion lithography, the overlay requirements are tightened to below 5nm. Next to improvements in the immersion scanner platform, enhancements in the overlay optimization and process control are needed to enable these low overlay numbers. Whereas conventional overlay control methods address wafer and lot variation autonomously with wafer pre exposure alignment metrology and post exposure overlay metrology, we see a need to reduce these variations by correlating more of the TWINSCAN system's sensor data directly to the post exposure YieldStar metrology in time. In this paper we will present the results of a study on applying a real time control algorithm based on machine learning technology. Machine learning methods use context and TWINSCAN system sensor data paired with post exposure YieldStar metrology to recognize generic behavior and train the control system to anticipate on this generic behavior. Specific for this study, the data concerns immersion scanner context, sensor data and on-wafer measured overlay data. By making the link between the scanner data and the wafer data we are able to establish a real time relationship. The result is an inline controller that accounts for small changes in scanner hardware performance in time while picking up subtle lot to lot and wafer to wafer deviations introduced by wafer processing.

  10. Residual stresses in weld overlay tubes: A finite element study

    SciTech Connect

    Taljat, B.; Zacharia, T.; Wang, X.L.; Keiser, J.R.; Feng, Z.; Jirinec, M.J.

    1997-01-03

    Residual stresses and strains in a tube with circumferential weld overlay were analyzed by the finite element (FE) method. The objective of this work was to develop and verify a FE model, to determine the magnitude and distribution of residual stresses in the weld overlay tube, and to evaluate the significance of two contributing factors to residual stress: (1) difference in material properties between tube and weld material, and (2) thermal gradients in the weld. An axisymmetric FE model was developed to simulate the circumferential two-layer welding process of alloy 625 overlay on SA210 tube. The first layer was modeled as a gas metal arc welding process with filler metal, whereas the autogenous gas tungsten arc welding process was modeled for the second layer. Neutron diffraction technique was used to experimentally determine residual elastic strains in the weld overlay tube. Comparison with the FE results shows overall good agreement. Both the experimental and FE results show high compressive stresses at the inside tube surface and high tensile stresses in the weld overlay. This suggests that weld overlay may be used to relieve tensile or produce compressive stresses at the inside tube surface, which is significant for applications where crack initiation is found at the root pass of the joining weld.

  11. Interplanetary Overlay Network Bundle Protocol Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) system's BP package, an implementation of the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol (BP) and supporting services, has been specifically designed to be suitable for use on deep-space robotic vehicles. Although the ION BP implementation is unique in its use of zero-copy objects for high performance, and in its use of resource-sensitive rate control, it is fully interoperable with other implementations of the BP specification (Internet RFC 5050). The ION BP implementation is built using the same software infrastructure that underlies the implementation of the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) built into the flight software of Deep Impact. It is designed to minimize resource consumption, while maximizing operational robustness. For example, no dynamic allocation of system memory is required. Like all the other ION packages, ION's BP implementation is designed to port readily between Linux and Solaris (for easy development and for ground system operations) and VxWorks (for flight systems operations). The exact same source code is exercised in both environments. Initially included in the ION BP implementations are the following: libraries of functions used in constructing bundle forwarders and convergence-layer (CL) input and output adapters; a simple prototype bundle forwarder and associated CL adapters designed to run over an IPbased local area network; administrative tools for managing a simple DTN infrastructure built from these components; a background daemon process that silently destroys bundles whose time-to-live intervals have expired; a library of functions exposed to applications, enabling them to issue and receive data encapsulated in DTN bundles; and some simple applications that can be used for system checkout and benchmarking.

  12. Intra-field overlay correction for illumination based distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike, Michael; Brunner, Timothy; Morgenfeld, Bradley; Jing, Nan; Wiltshire, Timothy

    2015-03-01

    The use of extreme freeform illumination conditions and multi patterning processes used to generate sub 40nm images can result in significant intra-field overlay errors. When levels with differing illumination conditions are aligned to each other, these intra-field distortions can result in overlay errors which are uncorrectable using normal linear feedback corrections. We use a double exposure method, previously described by Minghetti [1] et al. to isolate and measure intra-field overlay distortions caused by tool lens signatures and different illumination conditions. A full field test reticle is used to create a dual level expose pattern. The same pattern is exposed twice, but with two different illumination conditions. The first exposure is done with a standard reference illumination. The second exposure is the target illumination condition. The test reticle has overlay target pairs that are measurable when the 2nd exposure is offset in the Y direction by the designed amount. This allows for a high density, 13x13, intra-field overlay measurement to be collected and modeled to determine 2nd and 3rd order intra-field terms. Since the resulting illumination and scanner lens specific intra field corrections are independent of field size, the sub-recipes can be applied to any product exposure independent of field size, which use the same illumination conditions as the test exposures. When the method is applied to all exposure levels in a product build cycle, the overlay errors contributed by the reference illumination condition cancel out. The remaining errors are due exclusively to the impact of the illumination condition on that scanner lens. Actual results correlated well with the model with more than 80% of the predicted overlay improvement being achieved.

  13. Geometric accuracy of three-dimensional molecular overlays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Higgs, Richard E; Vieth, Michal

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the dependence of molecular alignment accuracy on a variety of factors including the choice of molecular template, alignment method, conformational flexibility, and type of protein target. We used eight test systems for which X-ray data on 145 ligand-protein complexes were available. The use of X-ray structures allowed an unambiguous assignment of bioactive overlays for each compound set. The alignment accuracy depended on multiple factors and ranged from 6% for flexible overlays to 73% for X-ray rigid overlays, when the conformation of the template ligand came from X-ray structures. The dependence of the overlay accuracy on the choice of templates and molecules to be aligned was found to be the most significant factor in six and seven of the eight ligand-protein complex data sets, respectively. While finding little preference for the overlay method, we observed that the introduction of molecule flexibility resulted in a decrease of overlay accuracy in 50% of the cases. We derived rules to maximize the accuracy of alignment, leading to a more than 2-fold improvement in accuracy (from 19% to 48%). The rules also allowed the identification of compounds with a low (<5%) chance to be correctly aligned. Last, the accuracy of the alignment derived without any utilization of X-ray conformers varied from <1% for the human immunodeficiency virus data set to 53% for the trypsin data set. We found that the accuracy was directly proportional to the product of the overlay accuracy from the templates in their bioactive conformations and the chance of obtaining the correct bioactive conformation of the templates. This study generates a much needed benchmark for the expectations of molecular alignment accuracy and shows appropriate usages and best practices to maximize hypothesis generation success.

  14. Privatization and Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Myron

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the ramifications of privatization (the withdrawal of government as the creator and provider of services) for public education. Includes discussion of vouchers and of privatization of instructional services through the contracting of instructional services from private organizations. (MD)

  15. Investigation on reticle heating effect induced overlay error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Mijung; Kim, Geunhak; Kim, SeoMin; Lee, Byounghoon; Kim, Seokkyun; Lim, Chang-moon; Kim, Myoungsoo; Park, Sungki

    2014-04-01

    As design rule of semiconductor decreases continuously, overlay error control gets more and more important and challenging. It is also true that On Product Overlay (OPO) of leading edge memory device shows unprecedented level of accuracy, owing to the development of precision optics, mechanic stage and alignment system with active compensation method. However, the heating of reticle and lens acts as a dominant detriment against further improvement of overlay. Reticle heating is more critical than lens heating in current advanced scanners because lens heating can be mostly compensated by feed-forward control algorithm. In recent years, the tools and technical ideas for reticle heating control are proposed and thought to reduce the reticle heating effect. Nevertheless, it is not still simple to predict the accurate heating amount and overlay. And it is required to investigate the parameters affecting reticle heating quantitatively. In this paper, the reticle pattern density and exposure dose are considered as the main contributors, and the effects are investigated through experiments. Mask set of various transmittance are prepared by changing pattern density. After exposure with various doses, overlay are measured and analyzed by comparing with reference marks exposed in heating free condition. As a result, it is discovered that even in the case of low dose and high transmittance, reticle heating is hardly avoidable. It is also shown that there is a simple relationship among reticle heating, transmittance and exposure dose. Based on this relationship, the reticle heating is thought to be predicted if the transmittance and dose are fixed.

  16. Overlay metrology solutions in a triple patterning scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leray, Philippe; Mao, Ming; Baudemprez, Bart; Amir, Nuriel

    2015-03-01

    Overlay metrology tool suppliers are offering today several options to their customers: Different hardware (Image Based Overlay or Diffraction Based Overlay), different target designs (with or without segmentation) or different target sizes (from 5 um to 30 um). All these variations are proposed to resolve issues like robustness of the target towards process variations, be more representative of the design or increase the density of measurements. In the frame of the development of a triple patterning BEOL scheme of 10 nm node layer, we compare IBO targets (standard AIM, AIMid and multilayer AIMid). The metrology tools used for the study are KLA-Tencor's nextgeneration Archer 500 system (scatterometry- and imaging-based measurement technologies on the same tool). The overlay response and fingerprint of these targets will be compared using a very dense sampling (up to 51 pts per field). The benefit of indie measurements compared to the traditional scribes is discussed. The contribution of process effects to overlay values are compared to the contribution of the performance of the target. Different targets are combined in one measurement set to benefit from their different strengths (performance vs size). The results are summarized and possible strategies for a triple patterning schemes are proposed.

  17. Instructional geographic information science Map overlay and spatial abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricot, Thomas Alexander, II

    The fundamental goal of this study is to determine if the complex spatial concept of map overlay can be effectively learned by young adolescents through the utilization of an instructional technique based within the foundations of Instructional Geographic Information Science (InGIScience). Percent correct and reaction times were the measures used to analyze the ability of young adolescents to learn the intersect, erase, and union functions of map overlay. The ability to solve for missing inputs, output, or function was also analyzed. Young adolescents of the test group scored higher percent correct and recorded faster reaction times than those of the control group or adults of the expert group by the end of the experiment. The intersect function of map overlay was more difficult in terms of percent correct and reaction time than the erase or union functions. Solving for the first or second input consistently resulted in lower percent correct and higher reaction times throughout the experiment. No overall performance differences were shown to exist between males and females. Results of a subjective "real-world" test also indicated learning by young adolescents. This study has shown that the practice of repetitive instruction and testing has proven effective for enhancing spatial abilities with regard to the map overlay concept. This study found that with practice, young adolescents can learn the map overlay concept and perform at levels equal to or greater than adults. This study has helped to answer the question of whether this development of spatial abilities is possible.

  18. High-order distortion control using a computational prediction method for device overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Young-Seog; Affentauschegg, Cedric; Mulkens, Jan; Kim, Jang-Sun; Shin, Ju-Hee; Kim, Young-Ha; Nam, Young-Sun; Choi, Young-Sin; Ha, Hunhwan; Lee, Dong-Han; Lee, Jae-il; Rizvi, Umar; Geh, Bernd; van der Heijden, Rob; Baselmans, Jan; Kwon, Oh-Sung

    2016-04-01

    As a result of the continuously shrinking features of the integrated circuit, the overlay budget requirements have become very demanding. Historically, overlay has been performed using metrology targets for process control, and most overlay enhancements were achieved by hardware improvements. However, this is no longer sufficient, and we need to consider additional solutions for overlay improvements in process variation using computational methods. In this paper, we present the limitations of third-order intrafield distortion corrections based on standard overlay metrology and propose an improved method which includes a prediction of the device overlay and corrects the lens aberration fingerprint based on this prediction. For a DRAM use case, we present a computational approach that calculates the overlay of the device pattern using lens aberrations as an additional input, next to the target-based overlay measurement result. Supporting experimental data are presented that demonstrate a significant reduction of the intrafield overlay fingerprint.

  19. Cooperative Resource Pricing in Service Overlay Networks for Mobile Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Tadashi; Okaie, Yutaka

    The success of peer-to-peer overlay networks depends on cooperation among participating peers. In this paper, we investigate the degree of cooperation among individual peers required to induce globally favorable properties in an overlay network. Specifically, we consider a resource pricing problem in a market-oriented overlay network where participating peers sell own resources (e.g., CPU cycles) to earn energy which represents some money or rewards in the network. In the resource pricing model presented in this paper, each peer sets the price for own resource based on the degree of cooperation; non-cooperative peers attempt to maximize their own energy gains, while cooperative peers maximize the sum of own and neighbors' energy gains. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate that the network topology is an important factor influencing the minimum degree of cooperation required to increase the network-wide global energy gain.

  20. Tensile Bond Strength of Latex-Modified Bonded Concrete Overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Cameron; Ramseyer, Chris

    2010-10-01

    The tensile bond strength of bonded concrete overlays was tested using the in-situ pull-off method described in ASTM C 1583 with the goal of determining whether adding latex to the mix design increases bond strength. One slab of ductile concrete (f'c > 12,000 psi) was cast with one half tined, i.e. roughened, and one half steel-troweled, i.e. smooth. The slab surface was sectioned off and overlay mixtures containing different latex contents cast in each section. Partial cores were drilled perpendicular to the surface through the overlay into the substrate. A tensile loading device applied a direct tensile load to each specimen and the load was increased until failure occurred. The tensile bond strength was then calculated for comparison between the specimens.

  1. 33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection of private aids to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-50 Protection of private aids to navigation. Private aids to navigation lawfully maintained...

  2. 33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protection of private aids to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-50 Protection of private aids to navigation. Private aids to navigation lawfully maintained...

  3. 33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of private aids to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-50 Protection of private aids to navigation. Private aids to navigation lawfully maintained...

  4. 33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protection of private aids to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-50 Protection of private aids to navigation. Private aids to navigation lawfully maintained...

  5. 33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection of private aids to... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-50 Protection of private aids to navigation. Private aids to navigation lawfully maintained...

  6. Advances in process overlay: alignment solutions for future technology nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megens, Henry; van Haren, Richard; Musa, Sami; Doytcheva, Maya; Lalbahadoersing, Sanjay; van Kemenade, Marc; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Hinnen, Paul; van Bilsen, Frank

    2007-03-01

    Semiconductor industry has an increasing demand for improvement of the total lithographic overlay performance. To improve the level of on-product overlay control the number of alignment measurements increases. Since more mask levels will be integrated, more alignment marks need to be printed when using direct-alignment (also called layer-to-layer alignment). Accordingly, the alignment mark size needs to become smaller, to fit all marks into the scribelane. For an in-direct alignment scheme, e.g. a scheme that aligns to another layer than the layer to which overlay is being measured, the number of needed alignment marks can be reduced. Simultaneously there is a requirement to reduce the size of alignment mark sub-segmentations without compromising the alignment and overlay performance. Smaller features within alignment marks can prevent processing issues like erosion, dishing and contamination. However, when the sub-segmentation size within an alignment mark becomes comparable to the critical dimension, and thus smaller than the alignment-illuminating wavelength, polarization effects might start to occur. Polarization effects are a challenge for optical alignment systems to maintain mark detectability. Nevertheless, this paper shows how to actually utilize those effects in order to obtain enhanced alignment and overlay performance to support future technology nodes. Finally, another challenge to be met for new semiconductor product technologies is the ability to align through semi-opaque materials, like for instance new hard-mask materials. Enhancement of alignment signal strength can be reached by adapting to new alignment marks that generate a higher alignment signal. This paper provides a description of an integral alignment solution that meets with these emerging customer application requirements. Complying with these requirements will significantly enhance the flexibility in production strategies while maintaining or improving the alignment and overlay

  7. High-frequency nonreciprocal reflection from magnetic films with overlayers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ying; Nie, Yan; Camley, R. E.

    2013-11-14

    We perform a theoretical study of the nonreciprocal reflection of high-frequency microwave radiation from ferromagnetic films with thin overlayers. Reflection from metallic ferromagnetic films is always near unity and shows no nonreciprocity. In contrast, reflection from a structure which has a dielectric overlayer on top of a film composed of insulated ferromagnetic nanoparticles or nanostructures can show significant nonreciprocity in the 75–80 GHz frequency range, a very high value. This can be important for devices such as isolators or circulators.

  8. Quasicrystal surfaces: structure and growth of atomic overlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, H. R.; Shimoda, M.; Tsai, A. P.

    2007-05-01

    We review recent developments in surface studies of single-grain quasicrystals under ultra high-vacuum conditions, focusing on two different topics: surface structure and growth of atomic overlayers on surfaces. Quasicrystalline phases are currently used for investigation of the first topic are icosahedral (i) Al-Pd-Mn, i-Al-Cu-Fe, i-Al-Cu-Ru, i-Ag-In-Yb and decagonal (d) Al-Ni-Co, and d-Al-Cu-Co. We report the progress made with all of these phases. The second topic covers the study of single-element overlayer growth by vapor deposition.

  9. An international geostationary overlay for GPS and GLONASS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinal, G. V.; Singh, J. P.

    The concept of employing nonautonomous satellite repeaters on geostationary hosts for civil radionavigation, especially for integrity broadcast and for coverage augmentation, is reviewed. It is suggested that a worldwide geostationary overlay can be more economical than launching additional autonomous navigation satellites. Also presented are recently developed technical considerations for the geostationary overlay concept, including design parameters for the navigation package, signal and data format considerations for augmentation and integrity, and ground network concepts for generating and timing the uplink signal. Early results of a test program being conducted with transmission of GPS-like signals via an existing L-band mobile communications satellite are reported.

  10. [The national union for private hospital oncology].

    PubMed

    Parmentier, Gérard

    2013-06-01

    In the French health system, social security is the same for both public and private hospitals regardless of their status. In terms of number of patients screened, diagnosed, or treated, independant medicine is the most important sector in the French oncology. The multitude of organizations representing private hospitals or independant oncologists, physicians, radiologists or pathologists have a common organization, the National Union for Private Hospital Oncology (UNHPC). It bases its action on two founding postulates to ensure the quality of the oncology practice : the medical and managerial cultures are complementary and should be articulated ; the quality of organizations is as important as professional competence.

  11. Quantum Private Comparison Protocol with Linear Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qing-bin; Yang, Guo-wu; She, Kun; Li, Xiaoyu

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose an innovative quantum private comparison(QPC) protocol based on partial Bell-state measurement from the view of linear optics, which enabling two parties to compare the equality of their private information with the help of a semi-honest third party. Partial Bell-state measurement has been realized by using only linear optical elements in experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution(MDI-QKD) schemes, which makes us believe that our protocol can be realized in the near future. The security analysis shows that the participants will not leak their private information.

  12. Privatization and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Neena

    2009-01-01

    This paper highlights emerging trends, programmes and policies in privatization of education in Western countries. These trends are educational vouchers, choice of private schools, private school liberalization, private contracting of specific services, tuition tax credits and deductions for parents ,subsidies and assistance grants to private…

  13. 17 CFR 229.1014 - (Item 1014) Fairness of the going-private transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... going-private transaction. 229.1014 Section 229.1014 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... (Regulation M-A) § 229.1014 (Item 1014) Fairness of the going-private transaction. (a) Fairness. State whether... transaction is fair or unfair to unaffiliated security holders. If any director dissented to or abstained...

  14. Recovery of Sublethally Injured Bacteria Using Selective Agar Overlays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKillip, John L.

    2001-01-01

    This experiment subjects bacteria in a food sample and an environmental sample to conditions of sublethal stress in order to assess the effectiveness of the agar overlay method to recover sublethally injured cells compared to direct plating onto the appropriate selective medium. (SAH)

  15. Crosslayer Survivability in Overlay-IP-WDM Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacharintanakul, Peera

    2010-01-01

    As the Internet moves towards a three-layer architecture consisting of overlay networks on top of the IP network layer on top of WDM-based physical networks, incorporating the interaction between and among network layers is crucial for efficient and effective implementation of survivability. This dissertation has four major foci as follows:…

  16. Incidental Learning of Geospatial Concepts across Grade Levels: Map Overlay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battersby, Sarah E.; Golledge, Reginald G.; Marsh, Meredith J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors evaluate map overlay, a concept central to geospatial thinking, to determine how it is naively and technically understood, as well as to identify when it is leaner innately. The evaluation is supported by results from studies at three grade levels to show the progression of incidentally learned geospatial knowledge as…

  17. Promoting Learning of Instructional Design via Overlay Design Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carle, Andrew Jacob

    2012-01-01

    I begin by introducing Virtual Design Apprenticeship (VDA), a learning model--built on a solid foundation of education principles and theories--that promotes learning of design skills via overlay design tools. In VDA, when an individual needs to learn a new design skill or paradigm she is provided accessible, concrete examples that have been…

  18. 12. DETAIL INDICATING TRANSITION FROM ORIGINAL SURFACE TO GUNITE OVERLAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL INDICATING TRANSITION FROM ORIGINAL SURFACE TO GUNITE OVERLAY ON UPSTREAM EMBANKMENT OF DAM (FROM REPAIRS COMPLETED IN 1977) - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ

  19. A comparative reliability analysis of computer-generated bitemark overlays.

    PubMed

    McNamee, Anne H; Sweet, David; Pretty, Iain

    2005-03-01

    This study compared the reliability of two methods used to produce computer-generated bitemark overlays with Adobe Photoshop (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, CA). Scanned images of twelve dental casts were sent to 30 examiners with different experience levels. Examiners were instructed to produce an overlay for each cast image based on the instructions provided for the two techniques. Measurements of the area and the x-y coordinate position of the biting edges of the anterior teeth were obtained using Scion Image software program (Scion Corporation, Frederick, MD) for each overlay. The inter- and intra-reliability assessment of the measurements was performed using an analysis of variance and calculation of reliability coefficients. The assessment of the area measurements showed significant variances seen in the examiner variable for both techniques resulting in low reliability coefficients. Conversely, the results for the positional measurements showed no significant differences in the variances between examiners with exceptionally high reliability coefficients. It was concluded that both techniques were reliable methods to produce bitemark overlays in assessing tooth position. PMID:15818864

  20. Investigations of Magnetic Overlayers at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G; Yu, S; Butterfield, M T

    2009-06-26

    Magnetic overlayers of Fe and Co have been investigated with X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism in X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XMCD-ABS) and Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES), including Spin-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy (SRPES), at Beamline 4 at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Particular emphasis was placed upon the interrogation of the 2p levels of the Fe.

  1. Investigations of magnetic overlayers at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J.G.; Yu, S.-W.; Butterfield, M.T.; Komesu, Takashi; Waddill, G.D.

    2010-08-27

    Magnetic overlayers of Fe and Co have been investigated with x-ray magnetic circular dichroism in x-ray absorption spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy, including spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, at Beamline 4 at the Advanced Photon Source. Particular emphasis was placed upon the interrogation of the 2p levels of the Fe.

  2. Computer-based production of bite mark comparison overlays.

    PubMed

    Sweet, D; Parhar, M; Wood, R E

    1998-09-01

    Bite mark comparison protocols include measurement and analysis of the pattern, size, and shape of teeth against similar characteristics observed in an injury on skin or a mark on an object. The physical comparison of tooth position often depends upon transparent acetate overlays to detect similarities or differences between the teeth and the bite mark. Several methods are used to produce life-sized comparison overlays. The perimeter of the biting edges of the anterior teeth are usually recorded to produce facsimile images called hollow volume overlays. Some investigators hand-trace these outlines from dental study casts, or from bite exemplars produced in wax, styrofoam, or similar materials. Some use hand-traced outlines from xerographic images produced with office photocopiers that are calibrated to produce life-sized final images. Others use radiographic images and toneline photography of wax exemplars filled with radio-opaque materials, such as metal filings or barium sulfate. Dependence upon subjective input by the odontologist to trace these images manually is considered problematic. This is because the errors incorporated at any production stage are increased in the final product. The authors have developed a method to generate accurate hollow volume overlays using computer-based techniques. A PowerPC Macintosh computer, flatbed scanner, and Adobe Photoshop (a popular graphical interface application) are used to acquire, select, arrange and export detailed data from class and individual characteristics of a suspect's teeth to acetate film loaded in a high-resolution laser printer. This paper describes this technique to enable the odontologist to produce high-quality, accurate comparison overlays without subjective input. PMID:9729824

  3. Computer-based production of bite mark comparison overlays.

    PubMed

    Sweet, D; Parhar, M; Wood, R E

    1998-09-01

    Bite mark comparison protocols include measurement and analysis of the pattern, size, and shape of teeth against similar characteristics observed in an injury on skin or a mark on an object. The physical comparison of tooth position often depends upon transparent acetate overlays to detect similarities or differences between the teeth and the bite mark. Several methods are used to produce life-sized comparison overlays. The perimeter of the biting edges of the anterior teeth are usually recorded to produce facsimile images called hollow volume overlays. Some investigators hand-trace these outlines from dental study casts, or from bite exemplars produced in wax, styrofoam, or similar materials. Some use hand-traced outlines from xerographic images produced with office photocopiers that are calibrated to produce life-sized final images. Others use radiographic images and toneline photography of wax exemplars filled with radio-opaque materials, such as metal filings or barium sulfate. Dependence upon subjective input by the odontologist to trace these images manually is considered problematic. This is because the errors incorporated at any production stage are increased in the final product. The authors have developed a method to generate accurate hollow volume overlays using computer-based techniques. A PowerPC Macintosh computer, flatbed scanner, and Adobe Photoshop (a popular graphical interface application) are used to acquire, select, arrange and export detailed data from class and individual characteristics of a suspect's teeth to acetate film loaded in a high-resolution laser printer. This paper describes this technique to enable the odontologist to produce high-quality, accurate comparison overlays without subjective input.

  4. Detecting referral and selection bias by the anonymous linkage of practice, hospital and clinic data using Secure and Private Record Linkage (SAPREL): case study from the evaluation of the Improved Access to Psychological Therapy (IAPT) service

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The evaluation of demonstration sites set up to provide improved access to psychological therapies (IAPT) comprised the study of all people identified as having common mental health problems (CMHP), those referred to the IAPT service, and a sample of attenders studied in-depth. Information technology makes it feasible to link practice, hospital and IAPT clinic data to evaluate the representativeness of these samples. However, researchers do not have permission to browse and link these data without the patients' consent. Objective To demonstrate the use of a mixed deterministic-probabilistic method of secure and private record linkage (SAPREL) - to describe selection bias in subjects chosen for in-depth evaluation. Method We extracted, pseudonymised and used fuzzy logic to link multiple health records without the researcher knowing the patient's identity. The method can be characterised as a three party protocol mainly using deterministic algorithms with dynamic linking strategies; though incorporating some elements of probabilistic linkage. Within the data providers' safe haven we extracted: Demographic data, hospital utilisation and IAPT clinic data; converted post code to index of multiple deprivation (IMD); and identified people with CMHP. We contrasted the age, gender, ethnicity and IMD for the in-depth evaluation sample with people referred to IAPT, use hospital services, and the population as a whole. Results The in IAPT-in-depth group had a mean age of 43.1 years; CI: 41.0 - 45.2 (n = 166); the IAPT-referred 40.2 years; CI: 39.4 - 40.9 (n = 1118); and those with CMHP 43.6 years SEM 0.15. (n = 12210). Whilst around 67% of those with a CMHP were women, compared to 70% of those referred to IAPT, and 75% of those subject to in-depth evaluation (Chi square p < 0.001). The mean IMD score for the in-depth evaluation group was 36.6; CI: 34.2 - 38.9; (n = 166); of those referred to IAPT 38.7; CI: 37.9 - 39.6; (n = 1117); and of people with CMHP 37.6; CI 37

  5. Securing collaborative environments

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Deborah; Jackson, Keith; Thompson, Mary

    2002-05-16

    The diverse set of organizations and software components involved in a typical collaboratory make providing a seamless security solution difficult. In addition, the users need support for a broad range of frequency and locations for access to the collaboratory. A collaboratory security solution needs to be robust enough to ensure that valid participants are not denied access because of its failure. There are many tools that can be applied to the task of securing collaborative environments and these include public key infrastructure, secure sockets layer, Kerberos, virtual and real private networks, grid security infrastructure, and username/password. A combination of these mechanisms can provide effective secure collaboration capabilities. In this paper, we discuss the requirements of typical collaboratories and some proposals for applying various security mechanisms to collaborative environments.

  6. Case study of virtual private network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Harold; Chung, Ping-Tsai

    2001-07-01

    In this study, business benefits for this Virtual Private Network (VPN) and protocols, techniques, equipments used in this VPN are reported. In addition, our design experience for fault tolerance, security and network management and administration on this VPN are showed. Finally, the issues for future planning of this VPN is addressed.

  7. 76 FR 6702 - Private Transfer Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... fees for comment on ] August 16, 2010 (75 FR 49932) and requested public comments during a 60-day... AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1228 RIN 2590-AA41 Private Transfer Fees AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency... transfer fee covenants and in certain related securities. Such covenants are adverse to the liquidity...

  8. The Private Language Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Gordon

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the private language argument (PLA)--the argument against the possibility of a private language. Raises questions about the PLA, suggesting there are a number of problems that PLA interpretation generates and fails to resolve. (Author/JL)

  9. A comparative study of overlay generation methods in bite mark analysis

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Mihir; Daniel, Mariappan Jonathan; Srinivasan, Subramanian Vasudevan

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the best method of overlay generation out of the three methods, i.e., manual, photocopying, and computer assisted method. Materials and Methods: Impressions of maxillary and mandibular arches of 25 individuals participating in the study were made and dental study models were prepared. Overlay production was done by manual, photocopying, and computer assisted methods. Finally, the overlays obtained by each method were compared. Results: Kruskal Wallis ANOVA H test was used for the comparison of manual, photocopying, and computer assisted overlay generation methods. H value being highest in case of computer assisted overlays, thus, making it the best method of overlay generation out of the three methods. Conclusion: We conclude that the method of computer assisted overlay generation is the best among the three methods used in our study. PMID:23960410

  10. Private randomness expansion with untrusted devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian

    2011-03-01

    Randomness is an important resource for many applications, from gambling to secure communication. However, guaranteeing that the output from a candidate random source could not have been predicted by an outside party is a challenging task, and many supposedly random sources used today provide no such guarantee. Quantum solutions to this problem exist, for example a device which internally sends a photon through a beamsplitter and observes on which side it emerges, but, presently, such solutions require the user to trust the internal workings of the device. Here, we seek to go beyond this limitation by asking whether randomness can be generated using untrusted devices—even ones created by an adversarial agent—while providing a guarantee that no outside party (including the agent) can predict it. Since this is easily seen to be impossible unless the user has an initially private random string, the task we investigate here is private randomness expansion. We introduce a protocol for private randomness expansion with untrusted devices which is designed to take as input an initially private random string and produce as output a longer private random string. We point out that private randomness expansion protocols are generally vulnerable to attacks that can render the initial string partially insecure, even though that string is used only inside a secure laboratory; our protocol is designed to remove this previously unconsidered vulnerability by privacy amplification. We also discuss extensions of our protocol designed to generate an arbitrarily long random string from a finite initially private random string. The security of these protocols against the most general attacks is left as an open question.

  11. A Primer on Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menell, Seth J.; Phelps, Richard P.

    This paper provides a detailed examination of "contracting," a type of privatization, and is intended to clarify the issues surrounding decisions to privatize public services. Privatization introduces competition among market participants as a means of generating revenue, spurring development of an industry, and/or improving the quality of…

  12. Modeling the dynamical interaction between epidemics on overlay networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marceau, Vincent; Noël, Pierre-André; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Allard, Antoine; Dubé, Louis J.

    2011-08-01

    Epidemics seldom occur as isolated phenomena. Typically, two or more viral agents spread within the same host population and may interact dynamically with each other. We present a general model where two viral agents interact via an immunity mechanism as they propagate simultaneously on two networks connecting the same set of nodes. By exploiting a correspondence between the propagation dynamics and a dynamical process performing progressive network generation, we develop an analytical approach that accurately captures the dynamical interaction between epidemics on overlay networks. The formalism allows for overlay networks with arbitrary joint degree distribution and overlap. To illustrate the versatility of our approach, we consider a hypothetical delayed intervention scenario in which an immunizing agent is disseminated in a host population to hinder the propagation of an undesirable agent (e.g., the spread of preventive information in the context of an emerging infectious disease).

  13. Modeling of Co overlayers on Pd (111) from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uba, S.; Uba, L.; Antonov, V. N.

    2007-04-01

    The electronic, magnetic and magneto-optical properties of Co overlayers on Pd (1 1 1) substrate have been investigated by ab initio band structure calculations within the spin-polarized relativistic linear muffin-thin orbitals (LMTO) method and supercell approach. The role of the Co-Pd interface structure, the number of the Co atomic layers ( n Co ), as well as the spin-orbit interaction and induced Pd spin polarization, in formation of magneto-optical response of the structures for [ n CoCo/Pd (1 1 1)] system is shown. The sign reversal of the polar Kerr rotation obtained theoretically with decreasing thickness of Co overlayers agrees well with experiment. We will demonstrate the effectiveness of the extended numeric modeling of magneto-optical properties from first principles.

  14. Polymer waveguide overlays for side-polished fiber devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, S G; Sokoloff, J P; McGinnis, B P; Sasabe, H

    1998-01-20

    Several polymers often used as hosts in guest-host organic thin-film systems were investigated for their suitability as overlays for side-polished fiber (SPF) devices. Good optical quality, ~10-mum-thick films were fabricated by spin coating and applied to SPF's by use of a decal deposition technique to produce passive devices such as channel-dropping (CD) filters, bandpass filters, and polarizers with good throughput and high contrast ratios. The main CD features can be quantitatively explained by a weak coupled-mode model. SPF structures with doped overlays were also examined. These measurements provided a means of determining several SPF device parameters and also allowed estimates of the nonlinearities required to make all-optical and electro-optic devices. PMID:18268606

  15. Ion beam mixing of titanium overlayers with hydroxyapaptite substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, T.E.; Nastasi, M.; Alford, T.L.; Suchicital, C.; Russell, S.; Luptak, K.; Pizziconi, V.; Mayer, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The mixing of titanium overlayers with hydroxyapatite (HA) substrates via ion irradiation has been demonstrated. Analysis via secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) indicates an interfacial broadening of titanium and calcium of the implanted sample compared to that of the unimplanted sample. Attendant to the observed ion beam mixing of titanium into the HA, the oxygen signal of the titanium overlayer increases as a result of ion irradiation. It is supposed that this change is evident of diffusion through the metal layer and possibly from titania formation at the free surface and perovskite formation at the film/substrate interface. This possibility is consistent with thermodynamic predictions. Additionally, the force required to separate the film from the substrate increased as a result of ion irradiation, validating the continued study of ion beam processing of Ti/HA systems towards the improvement of long term fixation of implant devices.

  16. Plaque assay of bluegill virus using a methylcellulose overlay.

    PubMed

    Robin, J; Larivière-Durand, C; Berthiaume, L

    1982-12-01

    The EFDL strain of Bluegill virus (BGV) has been titrated in BF-2 cells by the plaque method using 1% methylcellulose overlay. Visible plaques, formed 7 days postinfection, ranged in diameter from 0.5 to 1 mm. Dose-response experiments indicated that a single particle initiated the formation of a plaque. The titration of BGV by this new plaque method provided an accurate technique for the determination of virus concentration.

  17. Prepenetrant Etchant For Incology(R) 903 Weld Overlays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Tousa, Joseph E.; Thomas, Clark S.; Foster, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Etching solution developed for use prior to type-IVc penetrant inspection of Incology(R) 903 weld overlays. Formulated as follows: 80 g ferric chloride hexahydrate, 300 mL reagent-grade hydrochloric acid, 25 mL food- or reagent-grade phosphoric acid, and 100 mL ethylene glycol. Gives more reasonable range of etching time and reduces probability of overetching and resulting damage. Stored indefinitely.

  18. 78 FR 75376 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTP-PAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... discuss matters relating to the Classified National Security Information Program for State, Local, Tribal... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector.... appendix 2), the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) announces a meeting of the...

  19. Ground truth data generation for skull-face overlay.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, O; Cavalli, F; Campomanes-Álvarez, B R; Campomanes-Álvarez, C; Valsecchi, A; Huete, M I

    2015-05-01

    Objective and unbiased validation studies over a significant number of cases are required to get a more solid picture on craniofacial superimposition reliability. It will not be possible to compare the performance of existing and upcoming methods for craniofacial superimposition without a common forensic database available for the research community. Skull-face overlay is a key task within craniofacial superimposition that has a direct influence on the subsequent task devoted to evaluate the skull-face relationships. In this work, we present the procedure to create for the first time such a dataset. We have also created a database with 19 skull-face overlay cases for which we are trying to overcome legal issues that allow us to make it public. The quantitative analysis made in the segmentation and registration stages, together with the visual assessment of the 19 face-to-face overlays, allows us to conclude that the results can be considered as a gold standard. With such a ground truth dataset, a new horizon is opened for the development of new automatic methods whose performance could be now objectively measured and compared against previous and future proposals. Additionally, other uses are expected to be explored to better understand the visual evaluation process of craniofacial relationships in craniofacial identification. It could be very useful also as a starting point for further studies on the prediction of the resulting facial morphology after corrective or reconstructive interventionism in maxillofacial surgery.

  20. Ground truth data generation for skull-face overlay.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, O; Cavalli, F; Campomanes-Álvarez, B R; Campomanes-Álvarez, C; Valsecchi, A; Huete, M I

    2015-05-01

    Objective and unbiased validation studies over a significant number of cases are required to get a more solid picture on craniofacial superimposition reliability. It will not be possible to compare the performance of existing and upcoming methods for craniofacial superimposition without a common forensic database available for the research community. Skull-face overlay is a key task within craniofacial superimposition that has a direct influence on the subsequent task devoted to evaluate the skull-face relationships. In this work, we present the procedure to create for the first time such a dataset. We have also created a database with 19 skull-face overlay cases for which we are trying to overcome legal issues that allow us to make it public. The quantitative analysis made in the segmentation and registration stages, together with the visual assessment of the 19 face-to-face overlays, allows us to conclude that the results can be considered as a gold standard. With such a ground truth dataset, a new horizon is opened for the development of new automatic methods whose performance could be now objectively measured and compared against previous and future proposals. Additionally, other uses are expected to be explored to better understand the visual evaluation process of craniofacial relationships in craniofacial identification. It could be very useful also as a starting point for further studies on the prediction of the resulting facial morphology after corrective or reconstructive interventionism in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:25267257

  1. Diffusion Barriers to Increase the Oxidative Life of Overlay Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, James A.; Lei, Jih-Fen

    1999-01-01

    Currently, most blades and vanes in the hottest section of aero gas turbine engines require some type of coating for oxidation protection. Newly developed single crystal superalloys have the mechanical potential to operate at increasingly higher component temperatures. However, at these elevated temperatures, coating/substrate interdiffusion can shorten the protective life of the coating. Diffusion barriers between overlay coatings and substrates are being examined to extend the protective life of the coating. A previously- developed finite-difference diffusion model has been modified to predict the oxidative life enhancement due to use of a diffusion barrier. The original diffusion model, designated COSIM, simulates Al diffusion in the coating to the growing oxide scale as well as Al diffusion into the substrate. The COSIM model incorporates an oxide growth and spalling model to provide the rate of Al consumption during cyclic oxidation. Coating failure is predicted when the Al concentration at the coating surface drops to a defined critical level. The modified COSIM model predicts the oxidative life of an overlay coating when a diffusion barrier is present eliminating diffusion of Al from the coating into the substrate. Both the original and the modified diffusion models have been used to predict the effectiveness of a diffusion barrier in extending the protective life of a NiCrAl overlay coating undergoing cyclic oxidation at 1100 C.

  2. Survival Rate of Resin and Ceramic Inlays, Onlays, and Overlays: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, S; Rebello de Sampaio, F B W; Braga, M M; Sesma, N; Özcan, M

    2016-08-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the survival rate of ceramic and resin inlays, onlays, and overlays and to identify the complication types associated with the main clinical outcomes. Two reviewers searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles published between 1983 through April 2015, conforming to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines for systematic reviews. Clinical studies meeting the following criteria were included: 1) studies related to resin and ceramic inlays, onlays, and overlays; 2) prospective, retrospective, or randomized controlled trials conducted in humans; 3) studies with a dropout rate of less than 30%; and 4) studies with a follow-up longer than 5 y. Of 1,389 articles, 14 met the inclusion criteria. The meta-regression indicated that the type of ceramic material (feldspathic porcelain vs. glass-ceramic), study design (retrospective vs. prospective), follow-up time (5 vs. 10 y), and study setting (university vs. private clinic) did not affect the survival rate. Estimated survival rates for glass-ceramics and feldspathic porcelain were between 92% and 95% at 5 y (n = 5,811 restorations) and were 91% at 10 y (n = 2,154 restorations). Failures were related to fractures/chipping (4%), followed by endodontic complications (3%), secondary caries (1%), debonding (1%), and severe marginal staining (0%). Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.19 (0.04 to 0.96) and 0.54 (0.17 to 1.69) for pulp vitality and type of tooth involved (premolars vs. molars), respectively. Ceramic inlays, onlays, and overlays showed high survival rates at 5 y and 10 y, and fractures were the most frequent cause of failure.

  3. Survival Rate of Resin and Ceramic Inlays, Onlays, and Overlays: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, S; Rebello de Sampaio, F B W; Braga, M M; Sesma, N; Özcan, M

    2016-08-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the survival rate of ceramic and resin inlays, onlays, and overlays and to identify the complication types associated with the main clinical outcomes. Two reviewers searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles published between 1983 through April 2015, conforming to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines for systematic reviews. Clinical studies meeting the following criteria were included: 1) studies related to resin and ceramic inlays, onlays, and overlays; 2) prospective, retrospective, or randomized controlled trials conducted in humans; 3) studies with a dropout rate of less than 30%; and 4) studies with a follow-up longer than 5 y. Of 1,389 articles, 14 met the inclusion criteria. The meta-regression indicated that the type of ceramic material (feldspathic porcelain vs. glass-ceramic), study design (retrospective vs. prospective), follow-up time (5 vs. 10 y), and study setting (university vs. private clinic) did not affect the survival rate. Estimated survival rates for glass-ceramics and feldspathic porcelain were between 92% and 95% at 5 y (n = 5,811 restorations) and were 91% at 10 y (n = 2,154 restorations). Failures were related to fractures/chipping (4%), followed by endodontic complications (3%), secondary caries (1%), debonding (1%), and severe marginal staining (0%). Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.19 (0.04 to 0.96) and 0.54 (0.17 to 1.69) for pulp vitality and type of tooth involved (premolars vs. molars), respectively. Ceramic inlays, onlays, and overlays showed high survival rates at 5 y and 10 y, and fractures were the most frequent cause of failure. PMID:27287305

  4. 75 FR 65985 - Safety Zone: Epic Roasthouse Private Party Firework Display, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: Epic Roasthouse Private Party Firework... Roasthouse Private Party. This safety zone is established to ensure the safety of participants and spectators... in effect during the event. Basis and Purpose The Epic Roasthouse Private Party is scheduled to...

  5. 76 FR 35006 - Recovery Policy RP9523.4, Demolition of Private Structures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Recovery Policy RP9523.4, Demolition of Private Structures..., Demolition of Private Structures. DATES: Comments must be received by July 15, 2011. ADDRESSES: Comments must... private structures under the provisions of the Public Assistance Program. FEMA proposes to include...

  6. 33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-35 Private aids to navigation other than State owned. (a) No person, public body or other instrumentality...

  7. 33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-35 Private aids to navigation other than State owned. (a) No person, public body or other instrumentality...

  8. 33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-35 Private aids to navigation other than State owned. (a) No person, public body or other instrumentality...

  9. 33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-35 Private aids to navigation other than State owned. (a) No person, public body or other instrumentality...

  10. 33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-35 Private aids to navigation other than State owned. (a) No person, public body or other instrumentality...

  11. Effect of Perovskite Overlayers on TiO2 Electrodes in Perovskite-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kang-Pil; Kim, Jeong-Hwa; Hwang, Dae-Kue

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we have studied the effect of the thickness of a CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite overlayer on mesoporous TiO2 electrodes in perovskite solar cells. The overlayers were prepared by spin coating PbI2 films on the electrodes, which were subsequently exposed to a CH3NH3I/2-propanol solution. We controlled the thickness of the perovskite overlayer by changing the PbI2 solution concentration. The thicknesses of the overlayers spin-coated from 0.5, 0.75, 0.9, and 1 M PbI2 solutions were approximately 179, 262, 316, and 341 nm, respectively. Perovskite solar cells with an approximately 316-nm-thick overlayer showed the highest efficiency of 9.11%. We conclude that optimization of the perovskite overlayer thickness in the solar cell structure is necessary to improve the cell efficiency. PMID:27483921

  12. 78 FR 45059 - Safety Zone; Sherman Private Party Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Winnetka, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sherman Private Party Fireworks, Lake.... 165.T09-0615 Safety Zone; Sherman Private Party Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Winnetka, IL. (a)...

  13. 76 FR 80971 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... committee meeting of the State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee. To discuss the matters relating to the Classified National Security Information Program for State, Local, Tribal, and... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office State, Local, Tribal, and Private...

  14. Combined overlay, focus and CD metrology for leading edge lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Martin; Cramer, Hugo; Tel, Wim; Kubis, Michael; Megens, Henry

    2011-04-01

    As leading edge lithography moves to 22-nm design rules, low k1 technologies like double patterning are the new resolution enablers, and system control and setup are the new drivers to meet remarkably tight process requirements. The way of thinking and executing setup and control of lithography scanners is changing in four ways. First, unusually tight process tolerances call for very dense sampling [1], which in effect means measurements at high throughput combined with high order modeling and corrections to compensate for wafer spatial fingerprint. Second, complex interactions between scanner and process no longer allow separation of error sources through traditional metrology approaches, which are based on using one set of metrology tools and methods for setup and another for scanner performance control. Moreover, setup and control of overlay is done independently from CD uniformity, which in effect leads to independent and conflicting adjustments for the scanner. Third, traditional CD setup and control is based on the focus and dose calculated from their CD response and not from measurement of their effect on pattern profile, which allows a clean and orthogonal de-convolution of focus and dose variations across the wafer. Fourth, scanner setup and control has to take into consideration the final goal of lithography, which is the accurate printing of a complex pattern describing a real device layout. To this end we introduce a new setup and control metrology step: measuring-to-match scanner 1D and 2D proximity. In this paper we will describe the strategy for setup and control of overlay, focus, CD and proximity based on the YieldStarTM metrology tool and present the resulting performance. YieldStar-200 is a new, high throughput metrology tool based on a high numerical aperture scatterometer concept. The tool can be used stand-alone as well as integrated in a processing track. It is suitable for determining process offsets in X,Y and Z directions through Overlay

  15. Quantum private comparison with a malicious third party

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Yu, Jianping; Wang, Ping; Xu, Lingling; Wu, Chunhui

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we will show that quantum private comparison protocol is secure when a malicious third party is presented. The security of the protocol is considered in a cheat-sensitive model, in which the TP is kept honest by the possibility of being caught cheating. Besides, we enhance the privacy of the quantum private comparison protocol, where the participants' inputs and the comparison result can be preserved. Furthermore, in contrast to pervious protocols requiring a large amount of quantum resources, such as entanglement and quantum memory, our protocol is based on BB84 protocol, which is more feasible for practical applications. Finally, we analyze the security of the presented protocol.

  16. Ductile film delamination from compliant substrates using hard overlayers

    PubMed Central

    Cordill, M.J.; Marx, V.M.; Kirchlechner, C.

    2014-01-01

    Flexible electronic devices call for copper and gold metal films to adhere well to polymer substrates. Measuring the interfacial adhesion of these material systems is often challenging, requiring the formulation of different techniques and models. Presented here is a strategy to induce well defined areas of delamination to measure the adhesion of copper films on polyimide substrates. The technique utilizes a stressed overlayer and tensile straining to cause buckle formation. The described method allows one to examine the effects of thin adhesion layers used to improve the adhesion of flexible systems. PMID:25641995

  17. Infrared differential interference contrast microscopy for 3D interconnect overlay metrology.

    PubMed

    Ku, Yi-sha; Shyu, Deh-Ming; Lin, Yeou-Sung; Cho, Chia-Hung

    2013-08-12

    One of the main challenges for 3D interconnect metrology of bonded wafers is measuring through opaque silicon wafers using conventional optical microscopy. We demonstrate here the use infrared microscopy, enhanced by implementing the differential interference contrast (DIC) technique, to measure the wafer bonding overlay. A pair of two dimensional symmetric overlay marks were processed at both the front and back sides of thinned wafers to evaluate the bonding overlay. A self-developed analysis algorithm and theoretical fitting model was used to map the overlay error between the bonded wafers and the interconnect structures. The measurement accuracy was found to be better than 1.0 micron.

  18. A Unified Approach to Information Security Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, M. Peter

    2006-01-01

    The increased number of government-mandated and private contractual information security requirements in recent years has caused higher education security professionals to view information security as another aspect of regulatory or contractual compliance. The existence of fines, penalties, or loss (including bad publicity) has also increased the…

  19. 31 CFR 306.90 - Nontransferable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nontransferable securities. 306.90 Section 306.90 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL.... SECURITIES Assignments in Behalf of Private or Public Organizations § 306.90 Nontransferable securities....

  20. 31 CFR 306.90 - Nontransferable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nontransferable securities. 306.90 Section 306.90 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL.... SECURITIES Assignments in Behalf of Private or Public Organizations § 306.90 Nontransferable securities....

  1. 31 CFR 306.90 - Nontransferable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nontransferable securities. 306.90 Section 306.90 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL.... SECURITIES Assignments in Behalf of Private or Public Organizations § 306.90 Nontransferable securities....

  2. 31 CFR 306.90 - Nontransferable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nontransferable securities. 306.90 Section 306.90 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL.... SECURITIES Assignments in Behalf of Private or Public Organizations § 306.90 Nontransferable securities....

  3. The Limits of Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Paul

    Transferring public services and public assets to private ownership is not an entirely new idea. Governments at all levels in the United States have for years contracted out many services. However, under the recently coined label "privatization," such policies now come recommended as a more comprehensive approach to the problems of modern…

  4. Laboring through Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushweller, Kevin

    1994-01-01

    Hiring private contractors to manage school support services, such as food, maintenance, and busing, is a growing trend. Companies such as Marriott Corp., ServiceMaster, ARA Services, and Laidlaw Transit report that school business is steadily increasing. Unions staunchly oppose privatization. This article balances advantages and disadvantages,…

  5. Public Values, Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devins, Neal E.

    Controversy surrounding private education involves questions of compulsory education's role in inculcating values, how much alike public and private schools should be, and the duty of educational institutions to conform to constitutional norms. This book examines government regulation and resistance, legislative and judicial approaches, and issues…

  6. Procrustes and Private Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Beverley

    1983-01-01

    R. J. Royce (Journal of Philosophy of Education; v16 p105-13) argues that private school education may be better or worse than state schooling and, because of this inequality, it must be abolished. Royce's arguments are analyzed to determine if abolishing private schooling would create a fairer society. (SR)

  7. Information: Public or Private?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jean

    1984-01-01

    Examines policies concerning government-generated information and trend toward privatization of information, i.e., contracting out of government information functions to private sector. The impact these policies may have on public's access to government documents and reports and implications for information professionals are analyzed. A 42-item…

  8. Private Speech in Ballet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Dale

    2006-01-01

    Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…

  9. Lightweight storage and overlay networks for fault tolerance.

    SciTech Connect

    Oldfield, Ron A.

    2010-01-01

    The next generation of capability-class, massively parallel processing (MPP) systems is expected to have hundreds of thousands to millions of processors, In such environments, it is critical to have fault-tolerance mechanisms, including checkpoint/restart, that scale with the size of applications and the percentage of the system on which the applications execute. For application-driven, periodic checkpoint operations, the state-of-the-art does not provide a scalable solution. For example, on today's massive-scale systems that execute applications which consume most of the memory of the employed compute nodes, checkpoint operations generate I/O that consumes nearly 80% of the total I/O usage. Motivated by this observation, this project aims to improve I/O performance for application-directed checkpoints through the use of lightweight storage architectures and overlay networks. Lightweight storage provide direct access to underlying storage devices. Overlay networks provide caching and processing capabilities in the compute-node fabric. The combination has potential to signifcantly reduce I/O overhead for large-scale applications. This report describes our combined efforts to model and understand overheads for application-directed checkpoints, as well as implementation and performance analysis of a checkpoint service that uses available compute nodes as a network cache for checkpoint operations.

  10. Quantum Mechanically Defined Critical Thickness in Metallic Overlayer Heteroepitaxy^1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Niu, Qian; Shih, Chih-Kang

    1997-03-01

    In a recent study of Ag film growth on GaAs(110), one startling observation was the existence of a critical thickness: an atomically flat overlayer can be formed only if the total Ag coverage exceeds a minimum value of about 7 ML.^2 Here we provide an explanation of the phenomena by invoking the quantum nature of the conduction electrons within an ultrathin metallic overlayer. We show that the discrete levels of the quantum well play a very important role in defining the overall energetics of the system. The critical thickness is found to be the minimal thickness of the film at which the conduction electrons can be truly confined without much charge spilling into the semiconductor. A quantitative comparison with the experiment is made using a thermodynamic analysis based on a simple model. ^1 Supported by DOE, NSF, and the R.A. Welch Foundation. ^2 A. R. Smith, K.-J. Chao, Q. Niu, and C. K. Shih, Science 273, 226 (1996).

  11. Dialogue on private events

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, David C.; Eshleman, John; Brandon, Paul; Layng, T. V. Joe; McDonough, Christopher; Michael, Jack; Schoneberger, Ted; Stemmer, Nathan; Weitzman, Ray; Normand, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    In the fall of 2003, the authors corresponded on the topic of private events on the listserv of the Verbal Behavior Special Interest Group. Extracts from that correspondence raised questions about the role of response amplitude in determining units of analysis, whether private events can be investigated directly, and whether covert behavior differs from other behavior except in amplitude. Most participants took a cautious stance, noting not only conceptual pitfalls and empirical difficulties in the study of private events, but doubting the value of interpretive exercises about them. Others argued that despite such obstacles, in domains where experimental analyses cannot be done, interpretation of private events in the light of laboratory principles is the best that science can offer. One participant suggested that the notion that private events can be behavioral in nature be abandoned entirely; as an alternative, the phenomena should be reinterpreted only as physiological events. PMID:22477293

  12. Alternative security

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, B.H. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview.

  13. Viral concentration determination through plaque assays: using traditional and novel overlay systems.

    PubMed

    Baer, Alan; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2014-01-01

    Plaque assays remain one of the most accurate methods for the direct quantification of infectious virons and antiviral substances through the counting of discrete plaques (infectious units and cellular dead zones) in cell culture. Here we demonstrate how to perform a basic plaque assay, and how differing overlays and techniques can affect plaque formation and production. Typically solid or semisolid overlay substrates, such as agarose or carboxymethyl cellulose, have been used to restrict viral spread, preventing indiscriminate infection through the liquid growth medium. Immobilized overlays restrict cellular infection to the immediately surrounding monolayer, allowing the formation of discrete countable foci and subsequent plaque formation. To overcome the difficulties inherent in using traditional overlays, a novel liquid overlay utilizing microcrystalline cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose sodium has been increasingly used as a replacement in the standard plaque assay. Liquid overlay plaque assays can be readily performed in either standard 6 or 12 well plate formats as per traditional techniques and require no special equipment. Due to its liquid state and subsequent ease of application and removal, microculture plate formats may alternatively be utilized as a rapid, accurate and high throughput alternative to larger scale viral titrations. Use of a non heated viscous liquid polymer offers the opportunity to streamline work, conserves reagents, incubator space, and increases operational safety when used in traditional or high containment labs as no reagent heating or glassware are required. Liquid overlays may also prove more sensitive than traditional overlays for certain heat labile viruses. PMID:25407402

  14. A solid agar overlay method for recovery of heat-injured Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhinong; Gurtler, Joshua B; Kornacki, Jeffrey L

    2006-02-01

    A solid agar overlay method was developed for recovery of heat-injured Listeria monocytogenes. Presolidified nonselective tryptic soy agar with 0.6% yeast extract (TSAYE, 2% agar) was overlaid on top of solidified modified Oxford agar (MOX). Heat injury of L. monocytogenes was conducted at 58 degrees C for 6 min in a jacketed flask filled with tryptic soy broth. Both noninjured and heat-treated L. monocytogenes cells were plated onto TSAYE, MOX, and TSAYE-MOX plates. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in recovery were found among the three media for noninjured bacterial cells. Recovery of heat-injured L. monocytogenes cells on TSAYE-MOX overlay plates was equivalent to that on the nonselective TSAYE medium, whereas recovery on the selective MOX medium was significantly lower (P < 0.05) compared with both TSAYE and the overlay plates. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) among the overlay plates prepared 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16, and 24 h prior to plating heat-injured bacterial cells. The TSAYE-MOX overlay also allowed differentiation of L. monocytogenes from a mixture of four other types of foodborne pathogens. This solid agar overlay method for recovery of heat-injured L. monocytogenes cells is less time-consuming and less complicated than the conventional overlay-underlay technique and the double overlay modification of the thin agar layer method and may allow for greater laboratory plating efficiencies.

  15. Questioning the Benefits That Coloured Overlays Can Have for Reading in Students with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Lisa M.; Tsogka, Natassa; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    Visual stress (the experience of visual distortions and discomfort during prolonged reading) is frequently identified and alleviated with coloured overlays or lenses. Previous studies have associated visual stress with dyslexia and as a consequence, coloured overlays are widely distributed to children and adults with reading difficulty. However,…

  16. Live 3D image overlay for arterial duct closure with Amplatzer Duct Occluder II additional size.

    PubMed

    Goreczny, Sebstian; Morgan, Gareth J; Dryzek, Pawel

    2016-03-01

    Despite several reports describing echocardiography for the guidance of ductal closure, two-dimensional angiography remains the mainstay imaging tool; three-dimensional rotational angiography has the potential to overcome some of the drawbacks of standard angiography, and reconstructed image overlay provides reliable guidance for device placement. We describe arterial duct closure solely from venous approach guided by live three-dimensional image overlay.

  17. Viral concentration determination through plaque assays: using traditional and novel overlay systems.

    PubMed

    Baer, Alan; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2014-11-04

    Plaque assays remain one of the most accurate methods for the direct quantification of infectious virons and antiviral substances through the counting of discrete plaques (infectious units and cellular dead zones) in cell culture. Here we demonstrate how to perform a basic plaque assay, and how differing overlays and techniques can affect plaque formation and production. Typically solid or semisolid overlay substrates, such as agarose or carboxymethyl cellulose, have been used to restrict viral spread, preventing indiscriminate infection through the liquid growth medium. Immobilized overlays restrict cellular infection to the immediately surrounding monolayer, allowing the formation of discrete countable foci and subsequent plaque formation. To overcome the difficulties inherent in using traditional overlays, a novel liquid overlay utilizing microcrystalline cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose sodium has been increasingly used as a replacement in the standard plaque assay. Liquid overlay plaque assays can be readily performed in either standard 6 or 12 well plate formats as per traditional techniques and require no special equipment. Due to its liquid state and subsequent ease of application and removal, microculture plate formats may alternatively be utilized as a rapid, accurate and high throughput alternative to larger scale viral titrations. Use of a non heated viscous liquid polymer offers the opportunity to streamline work, conserves reagents, incubator space, and increases operational safety when used in traditional or high containment labs as no reagent heating or glassware are required. Liquid overlays may also prove more sensitive than traditional overlays for certain heat labile viruses.

  18. A cortical locus for anisotropic overlay suppression of stimuli presented at fixation.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bruce C; Richard, Bruno; Andres, Kristin; Johnson, Aaron P; Thompson, Benjamin; Essock, Edward A

    2015-01-01

    Human contrast sensitivity for narrowband Gabor targets is suppressed when superimposed on narrowband masks of the same spatial frequency and orientation (referred to as overlay suppression), with suppression being broadly tuned to orientation and spatial frequency. Numerous behavioral and neurophysiological experiments have suggested that overlay suppression originates from the initial lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) inputs to V1, which is consistent with the broad tuning typically reported for overlay suppression. However, recent reports have shown narrowly tuned anisotropic overlay suppression when narrowband targets are masked by broadband noise. Consequently, researchers have argued for an additional form of overlay suppression that involves cortical contrast gain control processes. The current study sought to further explore this notion behaviorally using narrowband and broadband masks, along with a computational neural simulation of the hypothesized underlying gain control processes in cortex. Additionally, we employed transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in order to test whether cortical processes are involved in driving narrowly tuned anisotropic suppression. The behavioral results yielded anisotropic overlay suppression for both broadband and narrowband masks and could be replicated with our computational neural simulation of anisotropic gain control. Further, the anisotropic form of overlay suppression could be directly modulated by tDCS, which would not be expected if the suppression was primarily subcortical in origin. Altogether, the results of the current study provide further evidence in support of an additional overlay suppression process that originates in cortex and show that this form of suppression is also observable with narrowband masks.

  19. Fundamentals of overlay measurement and inspection using scanning electron-microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, T.; Okagawa, Y.; Inoue, O.; Arai, K.; Yamaguchi, S.

    2013-04-01

    Scanning electron-microscope (SEM) has been successfully applied to CD measurement as promising tools for qualifying and controlling quality of semiconductor devices in in-line manufacturing process since 1985. Furthermore SEM is proposed to be applied to in-die overlay monitor in the local area which is too small to be measured by optical overlay measurement tools any more, when the overlay control limit is going to be stringent and have un-ignorable dependence on device pattern layout, in-die location, and singular locations in wafer edge, etc. In this paper, we proposed new overlay measurement and inspection system to make an effective use of in-line SEM image, in consideration of trade-off between measurement uncertainty and measurement pattern density in each SEM conditions. In parallel, we make it clear that the best hybrid overlay metrology is in considering each tool's technology portfolio.

  20. Assessments of image-based and scatterometry-based overlay targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koay, Chiew-seng; Felix, Nelson; Hamieh, Bassem; Halle, Scott; Zheng, Chumeng; Sieg, Stuart

    2016-03-01

    Having a well designed overlay metrology target is one of the ways to improve on-product overlay performance. The traditional screening method in which multiple targets types are added to successive reticle tape outs and then evaluated by trial-and-error may not suffice for the 7nm node and beyond. For instance, although segmentation of image-based overlay target has been reported by many as a means for improving overlay measurement, we find that segmentation does not guarantee improvement. In fact it can be undesirable. Fundamental understandings of metrology and wafer process are required to properly design the targets and carefully optimize them for a given process stack involving multilevel measurement. This paper investigates the Blossom, AIM, and scatterometry targets at the FEOL, MOL, and BEOL patterning levels in 7nm node to gain knowledge needed in order to comprehensively map out the overlay target solutions for future nodes.

  1. Private Housing or Alternative Financing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Nick

    1999-01-01

    Explores the history of privatizing university housing and some current financing options, including use of developer and private foundations. Examples of successful alternative financing methods are highlighted. (GR)

  2. Overlay removable denture for treatment of worn teeth.

    PubMed

    Beyth, Nurit; Tamari, Israel; Buller Sharon, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Rehabilitation of partially edentulous patients with excessively worn dentitions can be challenging. Factors including medical history as well as the cost of the treatment and patient wishes for simpler approaches must be considered. This manuscript describes the use of an overlay partial denture to treat patients with excessive wear of the maxillary teeth. We describe a technique to restore severely worn teeth using heat-cured acrylic as part of a partial or full denture. Minimal preparations of the teeth are required, and the restoration provides protection from further wear, and stabilizes the occlusion. This solution was functionally and esthetically suitable to the patients. The technique can be used in medically complex patients where extractions are contraindicated, such as post radiation therapy or bisphosphonate treatment.

  3. ECHO: a community video streaming system with interactive visual overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Gene; Tan, Wai-tian; Shen, Bo; Ortega, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    We describe a networked video application where personalized avatars, controlled by a group of "hecklers", are overlaid on top of a real-time encoded video stream of an Internet game for multicast consumption. Rather than passively observing the streamed content individually, the interactivity of the controllable avatars, along with heckling voice exchange, engenders a sense of community during group viewing. We first describe how the system splits video into independent regions with and without avatars for processing in order to minimize complexity. Observing that the region with avatars is more delay-sensitive due to their interactivity, we then show that the regions can be logically packetized into separable sub-streams, and be transported and buffered with different delay requirements, so that the interactivity of the avatars can be maximized. The utility of our system extends beyond Internet game watching to general community streaming of live or pre-encoded video with visual overlays.

  4. Thick sodium overlayers on GaAs(110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemann, Martina; Scheffler, Matthias

    1994-02-01

    We report density-functional theory calculations of the electronic structure, total energy, and forces for the Na adsorption on GaAs(110) using the local-density approximation of the exchange-correlation functional and ab initio pseudopotentials. Results are presented for coverages ranging from one adatom per substrate surface cell up to the thick overlayer limit. The atomic and electronic structure of the substrate is locally changed by the sodium adsorption on GaAs(110), depending on the coverage. In particular, we analyze the wave-function character of the states at the Fermi level, how it changes with sodium coverage, and we identify the formation of metal induced gap states (MIGS) at the interface. These MIGS are found to have mostly Ga dangling-bond character for all coverages. The calculated values of the p-type Schottky barrier and of the variation of photothreshold as a function of coverage are in good agreement with experimental data.

  5. Overlay improvement by exposure map based mask registration optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Irene; Guo, Eric; Chen, Ming; Lu, Max; Li, Gordon; Li, Rivan; Tian, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Along with the increased miniaturization of semiconductor electronic devices, the design rules of advanced semiconductor devices shrink dramatically. [1] One of the main challenges of lithography step is the layer-to-layer overlay control. Furthermore, DPT (Double Patterning Technology) has been adapted for the advanced technology node like 28nm and 14nm, corresponding overlay budget becomes even tighter. [2][3] After the in-die mask registration (pattern placement) measurement is introduced, with the model analysis of a KLA SOV (sources of variation) tool, it's observed that registration difference between masks is a significant error source of wafer layer-to-layer overlay at 28nm process. [4][5] Mask registration optimization would highly improve wafer overlay performance accordingly. It was reported that a laser based registration control (RegC) process could be applied after the pattern generation or after pellicle mounting and allowed fine tuning of the mask registration. [6] In this paper we propose a novel method of mask registration correction, which can be applied before mask writing based on mask exposure map, considering the factors of mask chip layout, writing sequence, and pattern density distribution. Our experiment data show if pattern density on the mask keeps at a low level, in-die mask registration residue error in 3sigma could be always under 5nm whatever blank type and related writer POSCOR (position correction) file was applied; it proves random error induced by material or equipment would occupy relatively fixed error budget as an error source of mask registration. On the real production, comparing the mask registration difference through critical production layers, it could be revealed that registration residue error of line space layers with higher pattern density is always much larger than the one of contact hole layers with lower pattern density. Additionally, the mask registration difference between layers with similar pattern density

  6. Complete Imageless solution for overlay front-end manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herisson, David; LeCacheux, Virginie; Touchet, Mathieu; Vachellerie, Vincent; Lecarpentier, Laurent; Felten, Franck; Polli, Marco

    2005-09-01

    Imageless option of KLA-Tencor RDM system (Recipe Data Management) is a new method of recipe creation, using only the mask design to define alignment target and measurement parameters. This technique is potentially the easiest tool to improve recipe management of a large amount of products in logic fab. Overlay recipes are created without wafer, by using a synthetic image (copy of gds mask file) for alignment pattern and target design like shape (frame in frame) and size for the measurement. A complete gauge study on critical CMOS 90nm Gate level has been conducted to evaluate reliability and robustness of the imageless recipe. We show that Imageless limits drastically the number of templates used for recipe creation, and improves or maintains measurement capability compare to manual recipe creation (operator dependant). Imageless appears to be a suitable solution for high volume manufacturing, as shown by the results obtained on production lots.

  7. Privatization in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Cartselos, T.

    1994-02-01

    Three factors have slowed the pace of power sector privatization, particularly in Europe: Capital shortages, political interests, scarce human capital resources. Balancing these factors are powerful drivers for privatization. These include the financial distress many European governments are facing, which limit their ability to continue subsidies and protection of unproductive state enterprises. Increasingly sophisticated customers are also demanding better products and services at lower prices. Privatization progress in Europe will probably move slowly and unevenly. Power generation will likely be the first beneficiary of any reform because it is not a natural monopoly. Transmission and distribution will remain regulated, despite discussion within the European Union regarding open or third-party access. What is likely to speed up the pace of privatization in some countries is a power crisis along the lines of what occurred in the Philippines. Greece, Italy and Portugal and perhaps the most likely prospects for such a scenario.

  8. Computer vision and soft computing for automatic skull-face overlay in craniofacial superimposition.

    PubMed

    Campomanes-Álvarez, B Rosario; Ibáñez, O; Navarro, F; Alemán, I; Botella, M; Damas, S; Cordón, O

    2014-12-01

    Craniofacial superimposition can provide evidence to support that some human skeletal remains belong or not to a missing person. It involves the process of overlaying a skull with a number of ante mortem images of an individual and the analysis of their morphological correspondence. Within the craniofacial superimposition process, the skull-face overlay stage just focuses on achieving the best possible overlay of the skull and a single ante mortem image of the suspect. Although craniofacial superimposition has been in use for over a century, skull-face overlay is still applied by means of a trial-and-error approach without an automatic method. Practitioners finish the process once they consider that a good enough overlay has been attained. Hence, skull-face overlay is a very challenging, subjective, error prone, and time consuming part of the whole process. Though the numerical assessment of the method quality has not been achieved yet, computer vision and soft computing arise as powerful tools to automate it, dramatically reducing the time taken by the expert and obtaining an unbiased overlay result. In this manuscript, we justify and analyze the use of these techniques to properly model the skull-face overlay problem. We also present the automatic technical procedure we have developed using these computational methods and show the four overlays obtained in two craniofacial superimposition cases. This automatic procedure can be thus considered as a tool to aid forensic anthropologists to develop the skull-face overlay, automating and avoiding subjectivity of the most tedious task within craniofacial superimposition.

  9. 24 CFR 884.115 - Security and utility deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security and utility deposits. 884... Security and utility deposits. (a) An Owner may require Families to pay a security deposit in an amount... security and utility deposits, if required, from their own resources and/or other private or public sources....

  10. Latin American privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.; Hennagir, T.; Hernandez, L.A. Jr. )

    1994-01-01

    Fundamental change is reshaping the Latin America power sector as governments explore new and improved privatization schemes. Latin American power markets are second in size only to those found in Asia. As the region grows and capacity needs increase, governments are turning to private power as a way to meet new demands for electric energy. Following the privatization model initiated by Chile, an increasing number of Latin American countries are following suit with an array of private power schemes for their state-owned utilities. The move means great opportunities for developers willing to enter this growing market. The recently established Scudder Latin American Trust for Independent Power is a prime example of new equity players becoming involved in this region. In Chile, the privatization process started more than 12 years ago. Currently, the power sector has been fully restructured to concentrate price and quality regulation on transmission and distribution, leaving generation and sales to a marketplace largely in the hands of the private sector. Furthermore, the Chilean government controls only about 15 percent of the installed generation in the country, so there is free-flow in this segment of the industry or a free market modality.

  11. Lemnos Interoperable Security Program

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, John; Halbgewachs, Ron; Chavez, Adrian; Smith, Rhett; Teumim, David

    2012-01-31

    The manner in which the control systems are being designed and operated in the energy sector is undergoing some of the most significant changes in history due to the evolution of technology and the increasing number of interconnections to other system. With these changes however come two significant challenges that the energy sector must face; 1) Cyber security is more important than ever before, and 2) Cyber security is more complicated than ever before. A key requirement in helping utilities and vendors alike in meeting these challenges is interoperability. While interoperability has been present in much of the discussions relating to technology utilized within the energy sector and especially the Smart Grid, it has been absent in the context of cyber security. The Lemnos project addresses these challenges by focusing on the interoperability of devices utilized within utility control systems which support critical cyber security functions. In theory, interoperability is possible with many of the cyber security solutions available to utilities today. The reality is that the effort required to achieve cyber security interoperability is often a barrier for utilities. For example, consider IPSec, a widely-used Internet Protocol to define Virtual Private Networks, or tunnels , to communicate securely through untrusted public and private networks. The IPSec protocol suite has a significant number of configuration options and encryption parameters to choose from, which must be agreed upon and adopted by both parties establishing the tunnel. The exercise in getting software or devices from different vendors to interoperate is labor intensive and requires a significant amount of security expertise by the end user. Scale this effort to a significant number of devices operating over a large geographical area and the challenge becomes so overwhelming that it often leads utilities to pursue solutions from a single vendor. These single vendor solutions may inadvertently lock

  12. Reduction of wafer-edge overlay errors using advanced correction models, optimized for minimal metrology requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Suk; Won, Hwa-Yeon; Jeong, Jong-Mun; Böcker, Paul; Vergaij-Huizer, Lydia; Kupers, Michiel; Jovanović, Milenko; Sochal, Inez; Ryan, Kevin; Sun, Kyu-Tae; Lim, Young-Wan; Byun, Jin-Moo; Kim, Gwang-Gon; Suh, Jung-Joon

    2016-03-01

    In order to optimize yield in DRAM semiconductor manufacturing for 2x nodes and beyond, the (processing induced) overlay fingerprint towards the edge of the wafer needs to be reduced. Traditionally, this is achieved by acquiring denser overlay metrology at the edge of the wafer, to feed field-by-field corrections. Although field-by-field corrections can be effective in reducing localized overlay errors, the requirement for dense metrology to determine the corrections can become a limiting factor due to a significant increase of metrology time and cost. In this study, a more cost-effective solution has been found in extending the regular correction model with an edge-specific component. This new overlay correction model can be driven by an optimized, sparser sampling especially at the wafer edge area, and also allows for a reduction of noise propagation. Lithography correction potential has been maximized, with significantly less metrology needs. Evaluations have been performed, demonstrating the benefit of edge models in terms of on-product overlay performance, as well as cell based overlay performance based on metrology-to-cell matching improvements. Performance can be increased compared to POR modeling and sampling, which can contribute to (overlay based) yield improvement. Based on advanced modeling including edge components, metrology requirements have been optimized, enabling integrated metrology which drives down overall metrology fab footprint and lithography cycle time.

  13. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  14. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  15. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  16. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  17. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  18. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  19. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  20. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  1. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  2. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  3. 21 CFR 1311.30 - Requirements for storing and using a private key for digitally signing orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements for storing and using a private key for digitally signing orders. 1311.30 Section 1311.30 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION... private key. (b) The certificate holder must provide FIPS-approved secure storage for the private key,...

  4. Prosthodontic management of worn dentition in pediatric patient with complete overlay dentures: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prince; Rastogi, Jyoti; Jain, Chandni; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2012-11-01

    Overlay complete dentures are simple, reversible and economical treatment modality for patients with congenital or acquired disorders that severely affect the tooth development. It satisfies both the esthetic and functional demands where the extraction of teeth is not generally indicated. In pediatric patients, the overlay dentures establish a relatively stable occlusion that improves patient's tolerance to the future treatment procedures for worn dentition. This clinical report highlights the imperative need of appropriate treatment strategy and application of maxillary and mandibular overlay dentures in a pediatric patient who suffered from congenitally mutilated and worn dentition.

  5. The performances of different overlay mark types at 65nm node on 300-mm wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, H. T.; Lin, Ling-Chieh; Huang, I. H.; Lin, Benjamin S.; Huang, Chin-Chou K.; Huang, Chien-Jen

    2005-05-01

    The integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing factories have measured overlay with conventional "box-in-box" (BiB) or "frame-in-frame" (FiF) structures for many years. Since UMC played as a roll of world class IC foundry service provider, tighter and tighter alignment accuracy specs need to be achieved from generation to generation to meet any kind of customers' requirement, especially according to International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) 2003 METROLOGY section1. The process noises resulting from dishing, overlay mark damaging by chemical mechanism polishing (CMP), and the variation of film thickness during deposition are factors which can be very problematic in mark alignment. For example, the conventional "box-in-box" overlay marks could be damaged easily by CMP, because the less local pattern density and wide feature width of the box induce either dishing or asymmetric damages for the measurement targets, which will make the overlay measurement varied and difficult. After Advanced Imaging Metrology (AIM) overlay targets was introduced by KLA-Tencor, studies in the past shown AIM was more robust in overlay metrology than conventional FiF or BiB targets. In this study, the applications of AIM overlay marks under different process conditions will be discussed and compared with the conventional overlay targets. To evaluate the overlay mark performance against process variation on 65nm technology node in 300-mm wafer, three critical layers were chosen in this study. These three layers were Poly, Contact, and Cu-Metal. The overlay targets used for performance comparison were BiB and Non-Segmented AIM (NS AIM) marks. We compared the overlay mark performance on two main areas. The first one was total measurement uncertainty (TMU)3 related items that include Tool Induced Shift (TIS) variability, precision, and matching. The other area is the target robustness against process variations. Based on the present study AIM mark demonstrated an equal or better

  6. Security sonar for water intakes

    SciTech Connect

    Rothenbuhler, D.E.

    1987-07-01

    The security of the water approaches to nuclear facilities has been largely neglected because of the lack of solutions to the intrusion problem. This paper reviews underwater scanning sonar in general, highlights a number of problems encountered in a threat detection system using sonar and suggests some procedures that can help make such a system workable. Information is drawn from recent experience with several security projects in the governmental and private sectors, one of which was a nuclear facility.

  7. Salazar on private power

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.

    1995-02-01

    The Philipines power market, considered one of the more mature markets in Asia, continues to expand with economic growth. Independent power producers will find opportunities in the next few years as new additions are required. Currently, the government is encouraging private investment and is awaiting feedback from financiers as it considers eliminating its government guarantee. In a recent interview, the Honorable Mariano S. Salazar, secretary of energy, with the Philippines` Department of Energy, discussed the regulatory structure, encouragement of private power and his country`s capital needs.

  8. Design of a synthetic vision overlay for UAV autoland monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadema, Jochum; Theunissen, Eric

    2008-04-01

    For Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), autonomous forms of autoland are being pursued that do not depend on special, deployability restraining, ground-based equipment for the generation of the reference path to the runway. Typically, these forms of autoland use runway location data from an onboard database to generate the reference path to the desired location. Synthetic Vision (SV) technology provides the opportunity to use conformally integrated guidance reference data to 'anchor' the goals of such an autoland system into the imagery of the nose-mounted camera. A potential use of this is to support the operator in determining whether the vehicle is flying towards the right location in the real world, e.g., the desired touchdown position on the runway. Standard conformally integrated symbology, representing e.g., the future pathway and runway boundaries, supports conformance monitoring and detection of latent positioning errors. Additional integration of landing performance criteria into the symbology supports assessment of the severity of these errors, further aiding the operator in the decision whether the automated landing should be allowed to continue or not. This paper presents the design and implementation of an SV overlay for UAV autoland procedures that is intended for conformance and integrity monitoring during final approach. It provides preview of mode changes and decision points and it supports the operator in assessing the integrity of the used guidance solution.

  9. 850nm VCSEL with a liquid crystal overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Veena M.; Panajotov, Krassimir; Petrov, Mikov; Thienpont, Hugo; Xie, Yi; Beeckman, Jeroen; Neyts, Kristiaan

    2012-06-01

    We developed an in- house technology to overlay liquid crystal (LC) on top of a 850nm Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) creating a so-called LC-VCSEL. Prior to this, the effect of the cell thickness on the planar alignment of the E7 LC is investigated. It is observed that the LC orientation is planar, uniformly aligned over the whole cell with an average pre-tilt of 22.50 in a thin a cell of 13μm thickness; such alignment uniformity is not observed in a thick cell of 125μm. Nevertheless, several domains of good uniformity are still present. Further, the polarization resolved LI characteristics of LC-VCSEL are investigated with and without the insertion of LC in a cell glued directly onto VCSEL package. Before filling in the LC, the VCSEL emits linearly polarized light and this linear polarization is lost after LC filling. The output intensity as a function of polarizer angle shows partial planar alignment of the E7 LC, which is very important for the further advancement of the LC-VCSEL integrated system.

  10. Augmented Endoscopic Images Overlaying Shape Changes in Bone Cutting Procedures

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In microendoscopic discectomy for spinal disorders, bone cutting procedures are performed in tight spaces while observing a small portion of the target structures. Although optical tracking systems are able to measure the tip of the surgical tool during surgery, the poor shape information available during surgery makes accurate cutting difficult, even if preoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance images are used for reference. Shape estimation and visualization of the target structures are essential for accurate cutting. However, time-varying shape changes during cutting procedures are still challenging issues for intraoperative navigation. This paper introduces a concept of endoscopic image augmentation that overlays shape changes to support bone cutting procedures. This framework handles the history of the location of the measured drill tip as a volume label and visualizes the remains to be cut overlaid on the endoscopic image in real time. A cutting experiment was performed with volunteers, and the feasibility of this concept was examined using a clinical navigation system. The efficacy of the cutting aid was evaluated with respect to the shape similarity, total moved distance of a cutting tool, and required cutting time. The results of the experiments showed that cutting performance was significantly improved by the proposed framework. PMID:27584732

  11. Augmented Endoscopic Images Overlaying Shape Changes in Bone Cutting Procedures.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Megumi; Endo, Shota; Nakao, Shinichi; Yoshida, Munehito; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    In microendoscopic discectomy for spinal disorders, bone cutting procedures are performed in tight spaces while observing a small portion of the target structures. Although optical tracking systems are able to measure the tip of the surgical tool during surgery, the poor shape information available during surgery makes accurate cutting difficult, even if preoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance images are used for reference. Shape estimation and visualization of the target structures are essential for accurate cutting. However, time-varying shape changes during cutting procedures are still challenging issues for intraoperative navigation. This paper introduces a concept of endoscopic image augmentation that overlays shape changes to support bone cutting procedures. This framework handles the history of the location of the measured drill tip as a volume label and visualizes the remains to be cut overlaid on the endoscopic image in real time. A cutting experiment was performed with volunteers, and the feasibility of this concept was examined using a clinical navigation system. The efficacy of the cutting aid was evaluated with respect to the shape similarity, total moved distance of a cutting tool, and required cutting time. The results of the experiments showed that cutting performance was significantly improved by the proposed framework. PMID:27584732

  12. Ultrasonic Evaluation of Two Dissimilar Metal Weld Overlay Specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-06-30

    Two dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe-to-nozzle specimens were implanted with thermal fatigue cracks in the 13% to 90% through-wall depth range. The specimens were ultrasonically evaluated with phased-array probes having center frequencies of 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 megahertz (MHz). An Alloy 82/182 weld overlay (WOL) was applied and the specimens were ultrasonically re-evaluated for flaw detection and characterization. The Post-WOL flaw depths were approximately 10% to 56% through-wall. This study has shown the effectiveness of ultrasonic examinations of Alloy 82/182 overlaid DMW specimens. Phased-array probes with center frequency in the 0.8- to 1.0-MHz range provide a strong coherent signal but the greater ultrasonic wavelength and larger beam spot size prevent the reliable detection of small flaws. These small flaws had nominal through-wall depths of less than 15% and length in the 50-60 mm (2-2.4 in.) range. Flaws in the 19% and greater through-wall depth range were readily detected with all four probes. At the higher frequencies, the reflected signals are less coherent but still provide adequate signal for flaw detection and characterization. A single inspection at 2.0 MHz could provide adequate detection and sizing information but a supplemental inspection at 1.0 or 1.5 MHz is recommended.

  13. Security Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Examines how to evaluate school security, begin making schools safe, secure schools without turning them into fortresses, and secure schools easily and affordably; the evolution of security systems into information technology systems; using schools' high-speed network lines; how one specific security system was developed; pros and cons of the…

  14. Collection Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Richard W.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a systematic approach to the problem of security of library collections and facilities from theft and vandalism. Highlights include responses to losses, defining security needs, typical weaknesses of facilities, policies and procedures that weaken a library's security, conducting a security audit, cost of security, cost-effectiveness, and…

  15. The Effect of Colored Overlays on Reading Fluency in Individuals with Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Denton, Tiffany Freeze; Meindl, James N

    2016-09-01

    Colored overlays, one type of tinted filter, are plastic reading sheets tinted with color and placed over text to eliminate or alleviate a wide range of reading difficulties such as low reading rate, accuracy, and comprehension. The effects of colored overlays on reading problems associated with dyslexia were investigated in this study via a multielement design. Reading fluency was assessed when participants read with and without colored overlays. Undifferentiated responding, or decreased accuracy, resulted across three participants, suggesting that colored overlays were ineffective and potentially detrimental to participants' reading abilities. As a result, empirically validated reading techniques were implemented across individuals. These findings are discussed and recommendations are made in regards to the use of research-based reading interventions.

  16. The Effect of Colored Overlays on Reading Fluency in Individuals with Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Denton, Tiffany Freeze; Meindl, James N

    2016-09-01

    Colored overlays, one type of tinted filter, are plastic reading sheets tinted with color and placed over text to eliminate or alleviate a wide range of reading difficulties such as low reading rate, accuracy, and comprehension. The effects of colored overlays on reading problems associated with dyslexia were investigated in this study via a multielement design. Reading fluency was assessed when participants read with and without colored overlays. Undifferentiated responding, or decreased accuracy, resulted across three participants, suggesting that colored overlays were ineffective and potentially detrimental to participants' reading abilities. As a result, empirically validated reading techniques were implemented across individuals. These findings are discussed and recommendations are made in regards to the use of research-based reading interventions. PMID:27622123

  17. An optimal algorithm based on extended kalman filter and the data fusion for infrared touch overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, AiGuo; Cheng, ShuYi; Pan, Qiang Biao; Sun, Dong Yu

    2016-01-01

    Current infrared touch overlay has problems on the touch point recognition which bring some burrs on the touch trajectory. This paper uses the target tracking algorithm to improve the recognition and smoothness of infrared touch overlay. In order to deal with the nonlinear state estimate problem for touch point tracking, we use the extended Kalman filter in the target tracking algorithm. And we also use the data fusion algorithm to match the estimate value with the original target trajectory. The experimental results of the infrared touch overlay demonstrate that the proposed target tracking approach can improve the touch point recognition of the infrared touch overlay and achieve much smoother tracking trajectory than the existing tracking approach.

  18. Computerized polar plots by a cathode ray tube/grid overlay method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, J. M.; Shoup, E. L.

    1970-01-01

    Overlay is aligned with four calibration dots so it is not affected by CRT drift or changes in vertical or horizontal gain when producing Nyquist /frequency-response phase/amplitude/ plots. Method produces over 50 plots per hour.

  19. Slouching toward Privatization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickeson, Robert C.; Figuli, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a significant shift in the financial model of American higher education, laying groundwork for a transformation that could reshape people's understanding of the academy. The shift--toward increasing degrees of privatization--is unmistakable and has affected every American college and university to varying extents.…

  20. The Private Sector Beckons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Krista

    1998-01-01

    Whether from frustration, ambition, or financial necessity, administrators are inclined to say "yes" when private companies come calling. Sometimes superintendents initiate contacts themselves and begin new careers as well-credentialed salespeople or behind-the-scenes think tanks. At the Edison Project, former superintendents work in curriculum…

  1. Privatization and Educational Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Myron

    This book describes how and why educational choice movements will affect public education. It uses a public-choice approach to argue that both the supporters and opponents of private and school choice have failed to address several critical issues. Following an introductory chapter, chapter 2 is devoted to the rationale for contracting out…

  2. Public Roles, Private Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2008-01-01

    The role of a presidential spouse is very complex. Indeed, expectations vary among college governing boards and campus constituencies of what a presidential spouse's responsibilities should be. In this article, the author discusses the role of presidential spouses and how they balance their public roles with their private life.

  3. Security and Privacy at a Public University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bomzer, Herbert W.

    The data center and the user offices at a public university have a responsibility to maintain security and to protect the privacy of the individuals whose data they process. This persists even though much personal data are accessible in libraries. How to identify "private" data, what security precautions to take to protect these data from being…

  4. Application of overlay modeling and control with Zernike polynomials in an HVM environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, JaeWuk; Kim, MinGyu; Lee, JuHan; Nabeth, Jeremy; Jeon, Sanghuck; Heo, Hoyoung; Robinson, John C.; Pierson, Bill

    2016-03-01

    Shrinking technology nodes and smaller process margins require improved photolithography overlay control. Generally, overlay measurement results are modeled with Cartesian polynomial functions for both intra-field and inter-field models and the model coefficients are sent to an advanced process control (APC) system operating in an XY Cartesian basis. Dampened overlay corrections, typically via exponentially or linearly weighted moving average in time, are then retrieved from the APC system to apply on the scanner in XY Cartesian form for subsequent lot exposure. The goal of the above method is to process lots with corrections that target the least possible overlay misregistration in steady state as well as in change point situations. In this study, we model overlay errors on product using Zernike polynomials with same fitting capability as the process of reference (POR) to represent the wafer-level terms, and use the standard Cartesian polynomials to represent the field-level terms. APC calculations for wafer-level correction are performed in Zernike basis while field-level calculations use standard XY Cartesian basis. Finally, weighted wafer-level correction terms are converted to XY Cartesian space in order to be applied on the scanner, along with field-level corrections, for future wafer exposures. Since Zernike polynomials have the property of being orthogonal in the unit disk we are able to reduce the amount of collinearity between terms and improve overlay stability. Our real time Zernike modeling and feedback evaluation was performed on a 20-lot dataset in a high volume manufacturing (HVM) environment. The measured on-product results were compared to POR and showed a 7% reduction in overlay variation including a 22% terms variation. This led to an on-product raw overlay Mean + 3Sigma X&Y improvement of 5% and resulted in 0.1% yield improvement.

  5. VMCast: A VM-Assisted Stability Enhancing Solution for Tree-Based Overlay Multicast.

    PubMed

    Gu, Weidong; Zhang, Xinchang; Gong, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Tree-based overlay multicast is an effective group communication method for media streaming applications. However, a group member's departure causes all of its descendants to be disconnected from the multicast tree for some time, which results in poor performance. The above problem is difficult to be addressed because overlay multicast tree is intrinsically instable. In this paper, we proposed a novel stability enhancing solution, VMCast, for tree-based overlay multicast. This solution uses two types of on-demand cloud virtual machines (VMs), i.e., multicast VMs (MVMs) and compensation VMs (CVMs). MVMs are used to disseminate the multicast data, whereas CVMs are used to offer streaming compensation. The used VMs in the same cloud datacenter constitute a VM cluster. Each VM cluster is responsible for a service domain (VMSD), and each group member belongs to a specific VMSD. The data source delivers the multicast data to MVMs through a reliable path, and MVMs further disseminate the data to group members along domain overlay multicast trees. The above approach structurally improves the stability of the overlay multicast tree. We further utilized CVM-based streaming compensation to enhance the stability of the data distribution in the VMSDs. VMCast can be used as an extension to existing tree-based overlay multicast solutions, to provide better services for media streaming applications. We applied VMCast to two application instances (i.e., HMTP and HCcast). The results show that it can obviously enhance the stability of the data distribution.

  6. Assessment and prediction of drying shrinkage cracking in bonded mortar overlays

    SciTech Connect

    Beushausen, Hans Chilwesa, Masuzyo

    2013-11-15

    Restrained drying shrinkage cracking was investigated on composite beams consisting of substrate concrete and bonded mortar overlays, and compared to the performance of the same mortars when subjected to the ring test. Stress development and cracking in the composite specimens were analytically modeled and predicted based on the measurement of relevant time-dependent material properties such as drying shrinkage, elastic modulus, tensile relaxation and tensile strength. Overlay cracking in the composite beams could be very well predicted with the analytical model. The ring test provided a useful qualitative comparison of the cracking performance of the mortars. The duration of curing was found to only have a minor influence on crack development. This was ascribed to the fact that prolonged curing has a beneficial effect on tensile strength at the onset of stress development, but is in the same time not beneficial to the values of tensile relaxation and elastic modulus. -- Highlights: •Parameter study on material characteristics influencing overlay cracking. •Analytical model gives good quantitative indication of overlay cracking. •Ring test presents good qualitative indication of overlay cracking. •Curing duration has little effect on overlay cracking.

  7. VMCast: A VM-Assisted Stability Enhancing Solution for Tree-Based Overlay Multicast

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Weidong; Zhang, Xinchang; Gong, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Tree-based overlay multicast is an effective group communication method for media streaming applications. However, a group member’s departure causes all of its descendants to be disconnected from the multicast tree for some time, which results in poor performance. The above problem is difficult to be addressed because overlay multicast tree is intrinsically instable. In this paper, we proposed a novel stability enhancing solution, VMCast, for tree-based overlay multicast. This solution uses two types of on-demand cloud virtual machines (VMs), i.e., multicast VMs (MVMs) and compensation VMs (CVMs). MVMs are used to disseminate the multicast data, whereas CVMs are used to offer streaming compensation. The used VMs in the same cloud datacenter constitute a VM cluster. Each VM cluster is responsible for a service domain (VMSD), and each group member belongs to a specific VMSD. The data source delivers the multicast data to MVMs through a reliable path, and MVMs further disseminate the data to group members along domain overlay multicast trees. The above approach structurally improves the stability of the overlay multicast tree. We further utilized CVM-based streaming compensation to enhance the stability of the data distribution in the VMSDs. VMCast can be used as an extension to existing tree-based overlay multicast solutions, to provide better services for media streaming applications. We applied VMCast to two application instances (i.e., HMTP and HCcast). The results show that it can obviously enhance the stability of the data distribution. PMID:26562152

  8. VMCast: A VM-Assisted Stability Enhancing Solution for Tree-Based Overlay Multicast.

    PubMed

    Gu, Weidong; Zhang, Xinchang; Gong, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Tree-based overlay multicast is an effective group communication method for media streaming applications. However, a group member's departure causes all of its descendants to be disconnected from the multicast tree for some time, which results in poor performance. The above problem is difficult to be addressed because overlay multicast tree is intrinsically instable. In this paper, we proposed a novel stability enhancing solution, VMCast, for tree-based overlay multicast. This solution uses two types of on-demand cloud virtual machines (VMs), i.e., multicast VMs (MVMs) and compensation VMs (CVMs). MVMs are used to disseminate the multicast data, whereas CVMs are used to offer streaming compensation. The used VMs in the same cloud datacenter constitute a VM cluster. Each VM cluster is responsible for a service domain (VMSD), and each group member belongs to a specific VMSD. The data source delivers the multicast data to MVMs through a reliable path, and MVMs further disseminate the data to group members along domain overlay multicast trees. The above approach structurally improves the stability of the overlay multicast tree. We further utilized CVM-based streaming compensation to enhance the stability of the data distribution in the VMSDs. VMCast can be used as an extension to existing tree-based overlay multicast solutions, to provide better services for media streaming applications. We applied VMCast to two application instances (i.e., HMTP and HCcast). The results show that it can obviously enhance the stability of the data distribution. PMID:26562152

  9. 75 FR 80082 - State, Local, Tribal, And Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, National Archives... Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC). The SLTPS-PAC will advise the President,...

  10. 76 FR 41826 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration....

  11. Student Experiential Opportunities in National Security Careers

    SciTech Connect

    2007-12-31

    This report documents student experiential opportunities in national security careers as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of how experiential opportunities assist students in the selection of a career and a list of opportunities in the private sector and government. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. Workforce development activities will facilitate the hiring of students to work with professionals in both the private and public sectors, as well as assist in preparing a workforce for careers in national security. The goal of workforce development under the NSPP grant is to assess workforce needs in national security and implement strategies to develop the appropriate workforce.

  12. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

  13. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

  14. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

  15. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

  16. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

  17. Improving overlay control through proper use of multilevel query APC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, Timothy H.; Carlson, Alan; Crow, David A.

    2003-06-01

    Many state-of-the-art fabs are operating with increasingly diversified product mixes. For example, at Cypress Semiconductor, it is not unusual to be concurrently running multiple technologies and many devices within each technology. This diverse product mix significantly increases the difficulty of manually controlling overlay process corrections. As a result, automated run-to-run feedforward-feedback control has become a necessary and vital component of manufacturing. However, traditional run-to-run controllers rely on highly correlated historical events to forecast process corrections. For example, the historical process events typically are constrained to match the current event for exposure tool, device, process level and reticle ID. This narrowly defined process stream can result in insufficient data when applied to lowvolume or new-release devices. The run-to-run controller implemented at Cypress utilizes a multi-level query (Level-N) correlation algorithm, where each subsequent level widens the search criteria for available historical data. The paper discusses how best to widen the search criteria and how to determine and apply a known bias to account for tool-to-tool and device-to-device differences. Specific applications include offloading lots from one tool to another when the first tool is down for preventive maintenance, utilizing related devices to determine a default feedback vector for new-release devices, and applying bias values to account for known reticle-to-reticle differences. In this study, we will show how historical data can be leveraged from related devices or tools to overcome the limitations of narrow process streams. In particular, this paper discusses how effectively handling narrow process streams allows Cypress to offload lots from a baseline tool to an alternate tool.

  18. Building multiservice Internet protocol virtual private networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, William

    1999-11-01

    Multiservice Internet Protocol-based Virtual Private Networks (MIP- VPNs) with Quality of Service (QoS) are becoming a reality due to the availability of new standards from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). This paper describes how components including security models, IP tunneling protocols, and service differentiation schemes fit together in order to construct such a VPN. First, the concept and rationale of VPN is presented, followed by a discussion of its supporting components. A comparison is made among the various VPN technologies.

  19. 75 FR 44728 - Safety Zone; Elizabeth River Private Fireworks, Elizabeth River, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Elizabeth River Private Fireworks... Point Reach, Norfolk, Virginia in support of the Elizabeth River Private Fireworks event. This action...

  20. 75 FR 22545 - Safety Zone; Private Fireworks, Wilson Creek, Gloucester, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (2 U.S.C. 1531-1538) requires Federal agencies to assess the effects of their... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Private Fireworks, Wilson Creek, Gloucester... establishing a safety zone on Wilson Creek in the vicinity of Gloucester, VA in support of a private...

  1. 76 FR 46626 - Safety Zone; Discovery World Private Wedding Firework Displays, Milwaukee, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Discovery World Private Wedding Firework... contrary to the public interest. Background and Purpose The Discovery World Private Wedding fireworks are a... will encompass all waters of Milwaukee Harbor in the vicinity of the Discovery World pier in...

  2. 31 CFR 306.86 - Change of name and succession of private organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Assignments in Behalf of Private or Public Organizations § 306.86 Change... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Change of name and succession of private organizations. 306.86 Section 306.86 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money...

  3. 31 CFR 306.86 - Change of name and succession of private organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Assignments in Behalf of Private or Public Organizations § 306.86 Change... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Change of name and succession of private organizations. 306.86 Section 306.86 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money...

  4. 31 CFR 306.85 - Private corporations and unincorporated associations (including nominees).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... unincorporated associations (including nominees). 306.85 Section 306.85 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Organizations § 306.85 Private corporations and unincorporated associations (including nominees). Securities registered in the name of, or assigned to, an unincorporated association, or a private corporation in its...

  5. 31 CFR 1023.620 - Due diligence programs for private banking accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Due diligence programs for private banking accounts. 1023.620 Section 1023.620 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... Dealers in Securities § 1023.620 Due diligence programs for private banking accounts. (a) Refer to §...

  6. 31 CFR 1023.620 - Due diligence programs for private banking accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Due diligence programs for private banking accounts. 1023.620 Section 1023.620 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... Dealers in Securities § 1023.620 Due diligence programs for private banking accounts. (a) Refer to §...

  7. 31 CFR 1023.620 - Due diligence programs for private banking accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Due diligence programs for private banking accounts. 1023.620 Section 1023.620 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... Dealers in Securities § 1023.620 Due diligence programs for private banking accounts. (a) Refer to §...

  8. 31 CFR 1023.620 - Due diligence programs for private banking accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Due diligence programs for private banking accounts. 1023.620 Section 1023.620 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... Dealers in Securities § 1023.620 Due diligence programs for private banking accounts. (a) Refer to §...

  9. Minimization of total overlay errors on product wafers using an advanced optimization scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, Harry J.; Preil, Moshe E.; Lord, Patrick J.

    1997-07-01

    The matching of wafer steppers is accomplished typically by patterning two successive layers, using different steppers of interest for each layer, and measuring the overlay at many points in the exposure field. Matching is considered to be optimized when some metric, such the sum-of-squares of overlay errors, is minimized over all measured points within the field. This is to be contrasted to the situation which arises during the in-line measurement of overlay errors in production, where a far more limited sampling of points is involved. There are several consequences to limited sampling. Adjustable intrafield overlay components, such as magnification, may appear to vary up to several parts-per- million as a consequence of varying chip size. These variations are substantially larger than the normal variations of these components for fixed field sizes, and so have significant consequences for the application of statistical methodologies to the control of overlay components. The width of the distribution of overlay errors across the field may typically increase between 10 to 20 nm (3(sigma) ), with even larger increases in mean shifts, all varying with field size. Reticles may also introduce similar variations, both random and systematic. Reticle beam-writer errors lead to systematic intrafield errors, particularly asymmetric field magnification and field skew. Steppers may compensate for these systematic reticle errors, and step- and-scan systems are more effective at this compensation than step-and-repeat machines. For steppers which have process dependent alignment, this compensation must be determined on products, which leads back to the problems associated with limited sampling. Correction for the overlay errors induced by limited sampling may be accomplished by look-up tables incorporated into the overlay analysis software. For each pair of steppers and each sampling plan, corrections can be applied at each measurement point in order to bring the full field and

  10. Private Colleges: Strategies for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joyce; Finch, Harold L.

    1975-01-01

    By responding to the specialized needs of their clientele, private institutions have provided a personalized, value-oriented education to a degree not possible in the public sector. Notwithstanding the accomplishments of private institutions, demographic studies of postsecondary education indicate declines in private enrollments, a trend that is…

  11. Stimuli, Reinforcers, and Private Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Radical behaviorism considers private events to be a part of ongoing observable behavior and to share the properties of public events. Although private events cannot be measured directly, their roles in overt action can be inferred from mathematical models that relate private responses to external stimuli and reinforcers according to the same…

  12. The Privatization of Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    This study, The Privatization of Special Education, addresses a shift in the provision of special education and related services to students with disabilities in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Students with disabilities are being publicly placed in private day and residential schools at public expense. In Virginia, 125 private schools are licensed…

  13. 76 FR 26334 - Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... focus on an examination of corporate security policies and procedures and will involve extensive... committee reports, a global threat overview, and other matters relating to private sector security policies... Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice Closed Meeting The Department of State announces a...

  14. 24 CFR 882.414 - Security and utility deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security and utility deposits. 882... Moderate Rehabilitation-Basic Policies § 882.414 Security and utility deposits. (a) If at the time of the... security deposits and utility deposits from its resources and/or other public or private sources. (b) If...

  15. 33 CFR 104.305 - Vessel Security Assessment (VSA) requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Existing personnel training requirement practices of the vessel; (7) Existing security and safety equipment... evacuation of the vessel; (9) Existing agreements with private security companies providing waterside or... conducting the VSA, the Company Security Officer (CSO) must analyze the vessel background information and...

  16. Using the overlay assay to qualitatively measure bacterial production of and sensitivity to pneumococcal bacteriocins.

    PubMed

    Maricic, Natalie; Dawid, Suzanne

    2014-09-30

    Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the highly diverse polymicrobial community of the nasopharynx where it must compete with resident organisms. We have shown that bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins) dictate the outcome of these competitive interactions. All fully-sequenced pneumococcal strains harbor a bacteriocin-like peptide (blp) locus. The blp locus encodes for a range of diverse bacteriocins and all of the highly conserved components needed for their regulation, processing, and secretion. The diversity of the bacteriocins found in the bacteriocin immunity region (BIR) of the locus is a major contributor of pneumococcal competition. Along with the bacteriocins, immunity genes are found in the BIR and are needed to protect the producer cell from the effects of its own bacteriocin. The overlay assay is a quick method for examining a large number of strains for competitive interactions mediated by bacteriocins. The overlay assay also allows for the characterization of bacteriocin-specific immunity, and detection of secreted quorum sensing peptides. The assay is performed by pre-inoculating an agar plate with a strain to be tested for bacteriocin production followed by application of a soft agar overlay containing a strain to be tested for bacteriocin sensitivity. A zone of clearance surrounding the stab indicates that the overlay strain is sensitive to the bacteriocins produced by the pre-inoculated strain. If no zone of clearance is observed, either the overlay strain is immune to the bacteriocins being produced or the pre-inoculated strain does not produce bacteriocins. To determine if the blp locus is functional in a given strain, the overlay assay can be adapted to evaluate for peptide pheromone secretion by the pre-inoculated strain. In this case, a series of four lacZ-reporter strains with different pheromone specificity are used in the overlay.

  17. Evaluation of Tizian overlays by means of a swept source optical coherence tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcauteanu, Corina; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Stoica, Eniko Tunde; Topala, Florin; Duma, Virgil Florin; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2016-03-01

    The teeth affected by pathologic attrition can be restored by a minimally invasive approach, using Tizian overlays. In this study we prove the advantages of a fast swept source (SS) OCT system in the evaluation of Tizian overlays placed in an environment characterized by high occlusal forces. 12 maxillary first premolars were extracted and prepared for overlays. The Tizian overlays were subjected to 3000 alternating cycles of thermo-cycling (from -10°C to +50°C) and to mechanical occlusal overloads (at 800 N). A fast SS OCT system was used to evaluate the Tizian overlays before and after the mechanical and thermal straining. The SS (Axsun Technologies, Billerica, MA) has a central wavelength of 1060 nm, sweeping range of 106 nm (quoted at 10 dB) and a 100 kHz line rate. The depth resolution of the system, measured experimentally in air was 10 μm. The imaging system used for this study offers high spatial resolutions in both directions, transversal and longitudinal of around 10 μm, a high sensitivity, and it is also able to acquire entire tridimensional (3D)/volume reconstructions as fast as 2.5 s. Once the full dataset was acquired, rendered high resolutions en-face projections could be produced. Using them, the overlay (i.e., cement) abutment tooth interfaces were remarked both on B-scans/two-dimensional (2D) sections and in the 3D reconstructions. Using the system several open interfaces were possible to detect. The fast SS OCT system thus proves useful in the evaluation of zirconia reinforced composite overlays, placed in an environment characterized by high occlusal forces.

  18. A system to optimize mix-and-match overlay in lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakamoto, Shinji; Ishii, Yuuki; Yasukawa, Koji; Maejima, Shinroku; Kato, Atsuhiko; Robinson, John C.; Choi, Dong-Sub

    2008-03-01

    Critical processing factors in the lithography process include overlaying the pattern properly to previous layers and properly exposing the pattern to achieve the desired line width. Proper overlay can only be attained in the lithography process while the desired line width accuracy is achieved by both lithography and etch processes. Since CD is substantially influenced by etch processing, therefore, it is possible to say that overlay is one of the most important processing elements in the lithography process. To achieve the desired overlay accuracy, it is desirable to expose critical layers with the same exposure tool that exposed the previous or target layer. This need to dedicate a particular exposure tool, however, complicates the lot dispatching schedule and, even worse, decreases exposure tool utilization. In order to allow any exposure tool available to print the arriving lot, M&M (Mix and Match) overlay control becomes necessary. By reducing overlay errors in M&M control, lot dispatching scheduling will become more flexible and exposure tool utilization will improve. Since each exposure tool has a unique registration signature, high order errors appear when overlaying multiple layers exposed with different tools. Even with the same exposure tool, if a different illumination is used, a similar error will be seen. A correction scheme to make the signature differences has to be implemented, however manually characterizing each tool's signature per illumination condition is extremely tedious, and is subject human errors. The challenge is to design a system to perform the corrections automatically. In the previous paper(1), we have outlined concepts of the system scheme. The system has subsequently been developed and tested using exposure tools. In this paper test results are shown using automated distortion correction. By analyzing the results, suggestions for further improvements and further developments are shown.

  19. Asphalt overlay design methods for rigid pavements considering rutting, reflection cracking, and fatigue cracking. Research report September 1996--August 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y.H.; Liu, C.; Dossey, T.; McCullough, B.F.

    1998-10-01

    An asphalt concrete pavement (ACP) overlay over a rigid pavement represents a viable rehabilitation strategy. It can provide good serviceability at an initial construction cost that is substantially less than that of a rigid overlay rehabilitation. In addition, ACP overlays require less construction time, which can reduce user costs during construction. However, it may not be the most economical solution for long-term rehabilitation. Because of their relatively short service life, ACP overlays may require maintenance sooner than rigid overlays. And one of the more critical distresses that effectively determine the life span of the structure is reflection cracking. This report investigates alternative strategies that seek to prevent reflection cracking on ACP overlays.

  20. Computer Security and the Data Encryption Standard. Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Security and the Data Encryption Standard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branstad, Dennis K., Ed.

    The 15 papers and summaries of presentations in this collection provide technical information and guidance offered by representatives from federal agencies and private industry. Topics discussed include physical security, risk assessment, software security, computer network security, and applications and implementation of the Data Encryption…

  1. Colonization of overlaying water by bacteria from dry river sediments.

    PubMed

    Fazi, Stefano; Amalfitano, Stefano; Piccini, Claudia; Zoppini, Annamaria; Puddu, Alberto; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2008-10-01

    We studied the diversity, community composition and activity of the primary microbial colonizers of the water above freshly re-wetted sediments from a temporary river. Dried sediments, collected from Mulargia River (Sardinia, Italy), were covered with sterile freshwater in triplicate microcosms, and changes of the planktonic microbial assemblage were monitored over a 48 h period. During the first 9 h bacterial abundance was low (1.5 x 10(4) cells ml(-1)); it increased to 3.4 x 10(6) cells ml(-1) after 28 h and did not change thereafter. Approximately 20% of bacteria exhibited DNA de novo synthesis already after 9 h of incubation. Changes of the ratios of (3)H-leucine to (3)H-thymidine incorporation rates indicated a shift of growth patterns during the experiment. Extracellular enzyme activity showed a maximum at 48 h with aminopeptidase activity (430.8 +/- 22.6 nmol MCA l(-1) h(-1)) significantly higher than alkaline phosphatase (98.6 +/- 4.3 nmol MUF l(-1) h(-1)). The primary microbial colonizers of the overlaying water - as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis - were related to at least six different phylogenetic lineages of Bacilli and to Alphaproteobacteria (Brevundimonas spp. and Caulobacter spp.). Large bacterial cells affiliated to one clade of Bacillus sp. were rare in the dried sediments, but constituted the majority of the planktonic microbial assemblage and of cells with detectable DNA-synthesis until 28 h after re-wetting. Their community contribution decreased in parallel with a rise of flagellated and ciliated protists. Estimates based on cell production rates suggested that the rapidly enriched Bacillus sp. suffered disproportionally high loss rates from selective predation, thus favouring the establishment of a more heterogenic assemblage of microbes (consisting of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Cytophaga-Flavobacteria). Our results suggest that the primary microbial colonizers of the water above dried sediments are passively released

  2. Design and development of a mobile image overlay system for needle interventions.

    PubMed

    Anand, M; King, F; Ungi, T; Lasso, A; Rudan, J; Jayender, J; Fritz, J; Carrino, J A; Jolesz, F A; Fichtinger, G

    2014-01-01

    Previously, a static and adjustable image overlay systems were proposed for aiding needle interventions. The system was either fixed to a scanner or mounted over a large articulated counterbalanced arm. Certain drawbacks associated with these systems limited the clinical translation. In order to minimize these limitations, we present the mobile image overlay system with the objective of reduced system weight, smaller dimension, and increased tracking accuracy. The design study includes optimal workspace definition, selection of display device, mirror, and laser source. The laser plane alignment, phantom design, image overlay plane calibration, and system accuracy validation methods are discussed. The virtual image is generated by a tablet device and projected into the patient by using a beamsplitter mirror. The viewbox weight (1.0 kg) was reduced by 8.2 times and image overlay plane tracking precision (0.21 mm, STD = 0.05) was improved by 5 times compared to previous system. The automatic self-calibration of the image overlay plane was achieved in two simple steps and can be done away from patient table. The fiducial registration error of the physical phantom to scanned image volume registration was 1.35 mm (STD = 0.11). The reduced system weight and increased accuracy of optical tracking should enable the system to be hand held by the physician and explore the image volume over the patient for needle interventions.

  3. Implementation and benefits of advanced process control for lithography CD and overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavyalova, Lena; Fu, Chong-Cheng; Seligman, Gary S.; Tapp, Perry A.; Pol, Victor

    2003-05-01

    Due to the rapidly reduced imaging process windows and increasingly stingent device overlay requirements, sub-130 nm lithography processes are more severely impacted than ever by systamic fault. Limits on critical dimensions (CD) and overlay capability further challenge the operational effectiveness of a mix-and-match environment using multiple lithography tools, as such mode additionally consumes the available error budgets. Therefore, a focus on advanced process control (APC) methodologies is key to gaining control in the lithographic modules for critical device levels, which in turn translates to accelerated yield learning, achieving time-to-market lead, and ultimately a higher return on investment. This paper describes the implementation and unique challenges of a closed-loop CD and overlay control solution in high voume manufacturing of leading edge devices. A particular emphasis has been placed on developing a flexible APC application capable of managing a wide range of control aspects such as process and tool drifts, single and multiple lot excursions, referential overlay control, 'special lot' handling, advanced model hierarchy, and automatic model seeding. Specific integration cases, including the multiple-reticle complementary phase shift lithography process, are discussed. A continuous improvement in the overlay and CD Cpk performance as well as the rework rate has been observed through the implementation of this system, and the results are studied.

  4. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1994--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1994-04-21

    The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterwalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in circulated fluidized beds.

  5. In die mask overlay control for 14nm double-patterning lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, William; Cheng, James; Tseng, Alex C. P.; Wu, J. K.; Chang, Chin Kuei; Cheng, Jeffrey; Lee, Adder; Huang, Chain Ting; Peng, N. T.; Hsu, Simon C. C.; Yu, Chun Chi; Lu, Colbert; Yu, Julia; Craig, Peter; Pollock, Chuck; Ham, Young; McMurran, Jeff

    2015-10-01

    According to the ITRS roadmap, semiconductor industry drives the 193nm lithography to its limits, using techniques like Double Pattern Technology (DPT), Source Mask Optimization (SMO) and Inverse Lithography Technology (ILT). In terms of considering the photomask metrology, full in-die measurement capability is required for registration and overlay control with challenging specifications for repeatability and accuracy. Double patterning using 193nm immersion lithography has been adapted as the solution to enable 14nm technology nodes. The overlay control is one of the key figures for the successful realization of this technology. In addition to the various error contributions from the wafer scanner, the reticles play an important role in terms of considering lithographic process contributed errors. Accurate pattern placement of the features on reticles with a registration error below 4nm is mandatory to keep overall photomask contributions to overlay of sub 20nm logic within the allowed error budget. In this paper, we show in-die registration errors using 14nm DPT product masks, by measuring in-die overlay patterns comparing with regular registration patterns. The mask measurements are used to obtain an accurate model to predict mask contribution on wafer overlay of double patterning technology.

  6. Security Equipment and Systems Certification Program (SESCP)

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, B.J.; Papier, I.I.

    1996-06-20

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., (UL) have jointly established the Security Equipment and Systems Certification Program (SESCP). The goal of this program is to enhance industrial and national security by providing a nationally recognized method for making informed selection and use decisions when buying security equipment and systems. The SESCP will provide a coordinated structure for private and governmental security standardization review. Members will participate in meetings to identify security problems, develop ad-hoc subcommittees (as needed) to address these identified problems, and to maintain a communications network that encourages a meaningful exchange of ideas. This program will enhance national security by providing improved security equipment and security systems based on consistent, reliable standards and certification programs.

  7. Public and private

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privett, Grant

    2012-02-01

    The article about millimetre-wave imaging by Roger Appleby and Colin Cameron (January pp35-39) refers to a novel millimetre-wave camera that was developed "in 1997 [by] Alan Lettington, Rupert Anderton and Neil Salmon from QinetiQ's security division".

  8. 78 FR 41959 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC); Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector... 20408. Purpose: To discuss the matters relating to the Classified National Security Information Program... Information Security Oversight Office (ISOO) no later than Friday, July 19, 2013. ISOO will provide...

  9. Secure multiparty computation of a comparison problem.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Li, Shundong; Liu, Jian; Chen, Xiubo; Xu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Private comparison is fundamental to secure multiparty computation. In this study, we propose novel protocols to privately determine [Formula: see text], or [Formula: see text] in one execution. First, a 0-1-vector encoding method is introduced to encode a number into a vector, and the Goldwasser-Micali encryption scheme is used to compare integers privately. Then, we propose a protocol by using a geometric method to compare rational numbers privately, and the protocol is information-theoretical secure. Using the simulation paradigm, we prove the privacy-preserving property of our protocols in the semi-honest model. The complexity analysis shows that our protocols are more efficient than previous solutions. PMID:27652062

  10. Private sector involvement in civil space remote sensing. Volume 1: Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A survey of private sector developers, users, and interpreters of Earth resources data was conducted in an effort to encourage private investment and participation in remote sensing systems. Results indicate positive interest in participation beyond the current hardware contracting level, however, there is a substantial gap between current market levels and system costs. Issues identified include the selection process for an operating entity, the public/private interface, data collection and access policies, price and profit regulation in a subsidized system, international participation, and the responsibility for research and development. It was agreed that the cost, complexity, and security implications of integrated systems need not be an absolute bar to their private operation.

  11. Maxillary overlay removable partial dentures for the restoration of worn teeth.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Júlio; Nicolau, Pedro; Daher, Tony

    2011-04-01

    Prolonged tooth maintenance by a more aged population considerably increases the probability of dentists having to treat patients with high levels of tooth wear. Pathological tooth wear, caused primarily by parafunction, seems to be a growing problem that affects a large number of adult patients. The clinical report presents a case of a partially edentulous patient with an elevated degree of wear in the upper jaw caused by attrition and erosion, rehabilitated with a maxillary overlay removable partial denture (ORPD) consisting of a chrome-cobalt (Cr-Co) framework with anterior acrylic resin veneers, posterior cast overlays, and acrylic resin denture bases. Removable partial prosthesis is a treatment alternative when teeth are found to be severely worn or when the patient needs a simple and economical option. Because economics is a conditional factor of the treatment, the clinician should present different treatment alternatives to the patient, in which the overlay prosthesis can be considered.

  12. A study of swing-curve physics in diffraction-based overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve; den Boef, Arie; Storms, Greet; van Heijst, Joost; Noot, Marc; An, Kevin; Park, Noh-Kyoung; Jeon, Se-Ra; Oh, Nang-Lyeom; McNamara, Elliott; van de Mast, Frank; Oh, SeungHwa; Lee, Seung Yoon; Hwang, Chan; Lee, Kuntack

    2016-03-01

    With the increase of process complexity in advanced nodes, the requirements of process robustness in overlay metrology continues to tighten. Especially with the introduction of newer materials in the film-stack along with typical stack variations (thickness, optical properties, profile asymmetry etc.), the signal formation physics in diffraction-based overlay (DBO) becomes an important aspect to apply in overlay metrology target and recipe selection. In order to address the signal formation physics, an effort is made towards studying the swing-curve phenomena through wavelength and polarizations on production stacks using simulations as well as experimental technique using DBO. The results provide a wealth of information on target and recipe selection for robustness. Details from simulation and measurements will be reported in this technical publication.

  13. Residual stress determination in an overlay dissimilar welded pipe by neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Wan Chuck; Em, Vyacheslav; Hubbard, Camden R; Lee, Ho-Jin; Park, Kwang Soo

    2011-01-01

    Residual stresses were determined through the thickness of a dissimilar weld overlay pipe using neutron diffraction. The specimen has a complex joining structure consisting of a ferritic steel (SA508), austenitic steel (F316L), Ni-based consumable (Alloy 182), and overlay of Ni-base superalloy (Alloy 52M). It simulates pressurized nozzle components, which have been a critical issue under the severe crack condition of nuclear power reactors. Two neutron diffractometers with different spatial resolutions have been utilized on the identical specimen for comparison. The macroscopic 'stress-free' lattice spacing (d{sub o}) was also obtained from both using a 2-mm width comb-like coupon. The results show significant changes in residual stresses from tension (300-400 MPa) to compression (-600 MPa) through the thickness of the dissimilar weld overlay pipe specimen.

  14. Characterizing the Global Impact of P2P Overlays on the AS-Level Underlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasti, Amir Hassan; Rejaie, Reza; Willinger, Walter

    This paper examines the problem of characterizing and assessing the global impact of the load imposed by a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) overlay on the AS-level underlay. In particular, we capture Gnutella snapshots for four consecutive years, obtain the corresponding AS-level topology snapshots of the Internet and infer the AS-paths associated with each overlay connection. Assuming a simple model of overlay traffic, we analyze the observed load imposed by these Gnutella snapshots on the AS-level underlay using metrics that characterize the load seen on individual AS-paths and by the transit ASes, illustrate the churn among the top transit ASes during this 4-year period, and describe the propagation of traffic within the AS-level hierarchy.

  15. Weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Task A: Literature review, progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1993-03-03

    A literature review was made. In spite of similarities between abrasive wear and solid particle erosion, weld overlay hardfacing alloys that exhibit high abrasion resistance may not necessarily have good erosion resistance. The performance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys in erosive environments has not been studied in detail. It is believed that primary-solidified hard phases such as carbides and intermetallic compounds have a strong influence on erosion resistance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys. However, relationships between size, shape, and volume fraction of hard phases in a hardfacing alloys and erosion resistance were not established. Almost all hardfacing alloys can be separated into two major groups based upon chemical compositions of the primary solidified hard phases: (a) carbide hardening alloys (Co-base/carbide, WC-Co and some Fe base superalloys); and (b) intermetallic hardening alloys (Ni-base alloys, austenitic steels, iron-aluminides).

  16. Maxillary overlay removable partial dentures for the restoration of worn teeth.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Júlio; Nicolau, Pedro; Daher, Tony

    2011-04-01

    Prolonged tooth maintenance by a more aged population considerably increases the probability of dentists having to treat patients with high levels of tooth wear. Pathological tooth wear, caused primarily by parafunction, seems to be a growing problem that affects a large number of adult patients. The clinical report presents a case of a partially edentulous patient with an elevated degree of wear in the upper jaw caused by attrition and erosion, rehabilitated with a maxillary overlay removable partial denture (ORPD) consisting of a chrome-cobalt (Cr-Co) framework with anterior acrylic resin veneers, posterior cast overlays, and acrylic resin denture bases. Removable partial prosthesis is a treatment alternative when teeth are found to be severely worn or when the patient needs a simple and economical option. Because economics is a conditional factor of the treatment, the clinician should present different treatment alternatives to the patient, in which the overlay prosthesis can be considered. PMID:21560739

  17. Practical private database queries based on a quantum-key-distribution protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Jakobi, Markus; Simon, Christoph; Gisin, Nicolas; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Branciard, Cyril; Walenta, Nino; Zbinden, Hugo

    2011-02-15

    Private queries allow a user, Alice, to learn an element of a database held by a provider, Bob, without revealing which element she is interested in, while limiting her information about the other elements. We propose to implement private queries based on a quantum-key-distribution protocol, with changes only in the classical postprocessing of the key. This approach makes our scheme both easy to implement and loss tolerant. While unconditionally secure private queries are known to be impossible, we argue that an interesting degree of security can be achieved by relying on fundamental physical principles instead of unverifiable security assumptions in order to protect both the user and the database. We think that the scope exists for such practical private queries to become another remarkable application of quantum information in the footsteps of quantum key distribution.

  18. 78 FR 77484 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Documents Required Aboard Private Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Documents Required Aboard Private Aircraft AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13; 44 U.S.C. 3507). DATES: Written comments...

  19. Full chip two-layer CD and overlay process window analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rachit; Shang, Shumay; Sturtevant, John

    2015-03-01

    In-line CD and overlay metrology specifications are typically established by starting with design rules and making certain assumptions about error distributions which might be encountered in manufacturing. Lot disposition criteria in photo metrology (rework or pass to etch) are set assuming worst case assumptions for CD and overlay respectively. For example poly to active overlay specs start with poly endcap design rules and make assumptions about active and poly lot average and across lot CDs, and incorporate general knowledge about poly line end rounding to ensure that leakage current is maintained within specification. There is an opportunity to go beyond generalized guard band design rules to full-chip, design-specific, model-based exploration of worst case layout locations. Such an approach can leverage not only the above mentioned coupling of CD and overlay errors, but can interrogate all layout configurations for both layers to help determine lot-specific, design-specific CD and overlay dispositioning criteria for the fab. Such an approach can elucidate whether for a specific design layout there exist asymmetries in the response to misalignment which might be exploited in manufacturing. This paper will investigate an example of two-layer model-based analysis of CD and overlay errors. It is shown, somewhat non-intuitively, that there can be small preferred misalignment asymmetries which should be respected to protect yield. We will show this relationship for via-metal overlap. We additionally present a new method of displaying edge placement process window variability, akin to traditional CD process window analysis.

  20. Wastewater privatization: A beneficial alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeman, R.F.; Drewry, W.A.

    1999-07-01

    Municipalities with wastewater operations face increasing requirements to maximize efficiency, implement capital improvements, and ensure environmental compliance. Privatization is a relatively unused alternative offering benefits in the areas of cost-effective operations, flexible financing, technology access, and compliance assurance. Recent executive direction and tax code changes have opened new doors for mutually beneficial public-private partnerships. Wastewater privatization has historically consisted of short-term contract agreements for treatment operations, but looming infrastructure recapitalization and development requirements have catalyzed an exploration of non-traditional alternatives that include private sector financing, development, and operation of entire wastewater systems, The purpose of this paper is to show why privatization must be considered, evaluate the different levels available, and generate an analytical aid for communities taking their first look at privatization opportunities.

  1. A safety evaluation for overlay disbonding of high-temperature and pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Horita, Ryuichi; Nakajima; Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kazunori; Murakami, Shunzo; Fujii, Tadaomi

    1995-11-01

    Hydrogen induced disbonding test (autoclave test) of stainless weld-overlaid 2-1/4Cr-1Mo and 2-1/4Cr-1Mo-1/4V steel, and the calculations of residual hydrogen contents at the fusion boundary in the specimens and actual vessels, were performed. The effects of microstructure of weld overlay near the fusion boundary and postweld heat treatment on disbonding resistance were clarified, and critical hydrogen content values in weld overlay to prevent disbonding were obtained. A simple evaluation method for disbonding in actual vessels using Tempering Parameter was established.

  2. Studying protein-protein interactions via blot overlay/far western blot.

    PubMed

    Hall, Randy A

    2015-01-01

    Blot overlay is a useful method for studying protein-protein interactions. This technique involves fractionating proteins on SDS-PAGE, blotting to nitrocellulose or PVDF membrane, and then incubating with a probe of interest. The probe is typically a protein that is radiolabeled, biotinylated, or simply visualized with a specific antibody. When the probe is visualized via antibody detection, this technique is often referred to as "Far Western blot." Many different kinds of protein-protein interactions can be studied via blot overlay, and the method is applicable to screens for unknown protein-protein interactions as well as to the detailed characterization of known interactions.

  3. Detection of overlay error in double patterning gratings using phase-structured illumination.

    PubMed

    Peterhänsel, Sandy; Gödecke, Maria Laura; Paz, Valeriano Ferreras; Frenner, Karsten; Osten, Wolfgang

    2015-09-21

    With the help of simulations we study the benefits of using coherent, phase-structured illumination to detect the overlay error in resist gratings fabricated by double patterning. Evaluating the intensity and phase distribution along the focused spot of a high numerical aperture microscope, the capability of detecting magnitude and direction of overlay errors in the range of a few nanometers is investigated for a wide range of gratings. Furthermore, two measurement approaches are presented and tested for their reliability in the presence of white Gaussian noise.

  4. A Spatial Overlay Ranking Method for a Geospatial Search of Text Objects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanfear, Kenneth J.

    2006-01-01

    Earth-science researchers need the capability to find relevant information by location and topic. Conventional geographic techniques that simply check whether polygons intersect can efficiently achieve a high recall on location, but can not achieve precision for ranking results in likely order of importance to the reader. A spatial overlay ranking based upon how well an object's footprint matches the search area provides a more effective way to spatially search a collection of reports, and avoids many of the problems associated with an 'in/out' (True/False) boolean search. Moreover, spatial overlay ranking appears to work well even when spatial extent is defined only by a simple bounding box.

  5. Calculation of the spin-wave spectra in planar magnonic crystals with metallic overlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovskyy, M. L.; Klos, J. W.; Mamica, S.; Krawczyk, M.

    2012-04-01

    Planar one-dimensional magnonic crystals of nanoscale lattice constant having different types of overlayers, dielectric and metallic, are studied. The dynamics of magnetization is described by the Landau-Lifshitz equation, which is solved using the plane-wave method. The calculations are performed with the nonuniform dynamic dipolar field. At the same time, the finite thickness of the studied structures is taken into account. New possibilities for shaping dispersion relations of spin waves and magnonic bandgaps in planar magnonic crystals by adding metallic/dielectric overlayers on the top of it are found.

  6. Scalable Tool Infrastructure for the Cray XT Using Tree-Based Overlay Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, Philip C; Vetter, Jeffrey S

    2009-01-01

    Performance, debugging, and administration tools are critical for the effective use of parallel computing platforms, but traditional tools have failed to overcome several problems that limit their scalability, such as communication between a large number of tool processes and the management and processing of the volume of data generated on a large number of compute nodes. A tree-based overlay network has proven effective for overcoming these challenges. In this paper, we present our experiences in bringing our MRNet tree-based overlay network infrastructure to the Cray XT platform, including a description of proof-of-concept tools that use MRNet on the Cray XT.

  7. Investigation on synchronization of the offset printing process for fine patterning and precision overlay

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Dongwoo; Lee, Eonseok; Kim, Hyunchang; Choi, Young-Man; Lee, Seunghyun; Kim, Inyoung; Yoon, Dukkyun; Jo, Jeongdai; Kim, Bongmin; Lee, Taik-Min

    2014-06-21

    Offset printing processes are promising candidates for producing printed electronics due to their capacity for fine patterning and suitability for mass production. To print high-resolution patterns with good overlay using offset printing, the velocities of two contact surfaces, which ink is transferred between, should be synchronized perfectly. However, an exact velocity of the contact surfaces is unknown due to several imperfections, including tolerances, blanket swelling, and velocity ripple, which prevents the system from being operated in the synchronized condition. In this paper, a novel method of measurement based on the sticking model of friction force was proposed to determine the best synchronized condition, i.e., the condition in which the rate of synchronization error is minimized. It was verified by experiment that the friction force can accurately represent the rate of synchronization error. Based on the measurement results of the synchronization error, the allowable margin of synchronization error when printing high-resolution patterns was investigated experimentally using reverse offset printing. There is a region where the patterning performance is unchanged even though the synchronization error is varied, and this may be viewed as indirect evidence that printability performance is secured when there is no slip at the contact interface. To understand what happens at the contact surfaces during ink transfer, the deformation model of the blanket's surface was developed. The model estimates how much deformation on the blanket's surface can be borne by the synchronization error when there is no slip at the contact interface. In addition, the model shows that the synchronization error results in scale variation in the machine direction (MD), which means that the printing registration in the MD can be adjusted actively by controlling the synchronization if there is a sufficient margin of synchronization error to guarantee printability. The effect of

  8. Security Locks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    According to a 2008 "Year in Review" report by Educational Security Incidents, an online repository that collects data on higher education security issues, the total number of security incidents reported at universities and colleges worldwide rose to 173 in 2008, a 24.5 percent increase over 2007. The number of institutions affected--perhaps the…

  9. 49 CFR 1580.101 - Rail security coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... private cars, including business/office cars and circus trains, on or connected to the general railroad...) Serves as the primary contact for intelligence information and security-related activities...

  10. Private Stimuli, Covert Responses, and Private Events: Conceptual Remarks

    PubMed Central

    Tourinho, Emmanuel Zagury

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the concepts of private stimuli, covert responses, and private events, emphasizing three aspects: the conditions under which private stimuli may acquire discriminative functions to verbal responses, the conditions of unobservability of covert responses, and the complexity of events or phenomena described as private. I argue that the role of private stimuli in the control of self-descriptive verbal responses is dependent on a relation (correlation or equivalence relation) with public stimuli, and that responses vary along a continuum of observability. These remarks on private stimuli and covert responses are introductory to an examination of the varying complexity of phenomena described as private. I argue that private events is a verbal response emitted under the control of phenomena of different degrees of complexity, and I interpret these phenomena, based on the principle of selection by consequences. I introduce the notion of inclusiveness to suggest that some phenomena related to privacy are less or more complex as they include relations of a phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and cultural origin. PMID:22478451

  11. Differentially private distributed logistic regression using private and public data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Privacy protecting is an important issue in medical informatics and differential privacy is a state-of-the-art framework for data privacy research. Differential privacy offers provable privacy against attackers who have auxiliary information, and can be applied to data mining models (for example, logistic regression). However, differentially private methods sometimes introduce too much noise and make outputs less useful. Given available public data in medical research (e.g. from patients who sign open-consent agreements), we can design algorithms that use both public and private data sets to decrease the amount of noise that is introduced. Methodology In this paper, we modify the update step in Newton-Raphson method to propose a differentially private distributed logistic regression model based on both public and private data. Experiments and results We try our algorithm on three different data sets, and show its advantage over: (1) a logistic regression model based solely on public data, and (2) a differentially private distributed logistic regression model based on private data under various scenarios. Conclusion Logistic regression models built with our new algorithm based on both private and public datasets demonstrate better utility than models that trained on private or public datasets alone without sacrificing the rigorous privacy guarantee. PMID:25079786

  12. Information Security Awareness On-Line Materials Design with Knowledge Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ruey-Shiang; Keh, Huan-Chao; Huang, Nan-Ching; Huang, Tien-Chuan

    2011-01-01

    Information Security Awareness, though known as a primary and important issue in the domain of Information Security, CSI computer crime and security survey showed poor security awareness training in public and private sectors. In many studies, the authors have found that the usage of knowledge maps helps the process of learning and conception…

  13. Security in Full-Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    When fully developed for NASA, Vanguard Enforcer(TM) software-which emulates the activities of highly technical security system programmers, auditors, and administrators-was among the first intrusion detection programs to restrict human errors from affecting security, and to ensure the integrity of a computer's operating systems, as well as the protection of mission critical resources. Vanguard Enforcer was delivered in 1991 to Johnson Space Center and has been protecting systems and critical data there ever since. In August of 1999, NASA granted Vanguard exclusive rights to commercialize the Enforcer system for the private sector. In return, Vanguard continues to supply NASA with ongoing research, development, and support of Enforcer. The Vanguard Enforcer 4.2 is one of several surveillance technologies that make up the Vanguard Security Solutions line of products. Using a mainframe environment, Enforcer 4.2 achieves previously unattainable levels of automated security management.

  14. C-arm Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Needle Path Overlay for Fluoroscopic-Guided Placement of Translumbar Central Venous Catheters

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, Alda; Mohamed, Ashraf; Pfister, Marcus; Rohm, Esther; Wallace, Michael J.

    2009-07-15

    C-arm cone beam computed tomography is an advanced 3D imaging technology that is currently available on state-of-the-art flat-panel-based angiography systems. The overlay of cross-sectional imaging information can now be integrated with real-time fluoroscopy. This overlay technology was used to guide the placement of three percutaneous translumbar inferior vena cava catheters.

  15. Private Loans: Facts and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for College Access & Success, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Private loans are one of the riskiest ways to finance a college education. Like credit cards, they typically have variable interest rates. Both variable and fixed rates are higher for those who can least afford them--as high as 13% in June 2014. Private loans are not eligible for the important deferment, income-based repayment, or loan forgiveness…

  16. Michigan School Privatization Survey 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohman, James M.; Freeland, William L. E.

    2008-01-01

    Privatization of school support services is a time-tested means for lowering educational costs. The three major services that school districts in Michigan contract out for are food, custodial and transportation. The Mackinac Center for Public Policy's survey of privatization is the longest running and most comprehensive source of school support…

  17. Research Opportunities in Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Donald A.

    Private education as an area of study offers many opportunities to educational researchers. Four types of research that would include private education are discussed and examples of research possibilities under each type are offered. The first type involves fundamental educational processes. Suggested are studies of the effects of various levels…

  18. Private Schools in American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehrt, Roy C.

    The vital, sometimes controversial contribution of private schools to American education is documented by data gathered from 1976 to 1979. Although the totals reported are estimates because many values had to be statistically imputed, many patterns emerge. The proportion of private schools to all schools has varied only slightly since 1932.…

  19. Signed Soliloquy: Visible Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Kathrin; Brugger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Talking to oneself can be silent (inner speech) or vocalized for others to hear (private speech, or soliloquy). We investigated these two types of self-communication in 28 deaf signers and 28 hearing adults. With a questionnaire specifically developed for this study, we established the visible analog of vocalized private speech in deaf signers.…

  20. Michigan School Privatization Survey 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohman, James M.; Anderson, Dustin D.

    2010-01-01

    Privatization of support services has been a method that Michigan school districts have used for several years to lower costs. More than ever before, Michigan school districts are privatizing the three main support services they offer--food, custodial and transportation. The annual survey finds that 48.8 percent of Michigan school districts are…

  1. Private Faith and Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trigg, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Must faith be privatized? Taken at face value, this could seem a curious question, since no one is in a position to "sell off" any religion to private interests, in the way that, for example, British Rail was dismembered. Yet the question is an important one in a contemporary society, characterized as it is by a significant divergence of views…

  2. The Law and Private Police.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, James S.; Wildhorn, Sorrel

    This report is one of a series of five describing a 16-month study of the nature and extent of the private police industry in the United States, its problems, its present regulation, and how the law impinges on it. A general discussion of the sources of legal limitations upon private police activities and personnel and sources of legal powers is…

  3. Impact of the back side flatness of a mask on the panel overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemmochi, Daisuke; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Iwanaga, Yoshinori; Hirano, Termusa; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Recently, the annual increase in the definition of high-function panels for mobile devices such as smartphones or tablets has led to TFT-LCD and TFT-OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) circuits becoming increasingly miniaturized and densified. TFT circuits are comprised of a superposition of layers such as gates, acts and contact holes, with a certain amount of allowance between each layer. However, that allowance has now disappeared due to the high density of the circuit. Therefore, a high-precision mask overlay is essential in order to realize circuits with even higher density. In the mask manufacturing process, the mask is placed on a writer tool, during which the back side surface of the mask makes contact with the stage. This contact alters the front side flatness of the mask. Moreover, once the circuit pattern has been drawn on the mask, it is removed from the writer tool, thus altering the front side flatness and coordinates of the mask. In this paper, we evaluated the overlay of a panel that underwent exposure using a number of masks with different back side flatness. As a result, we confirmed that deviations in the back side flatness of each mask manifest themselves in the panel overlay. Therefore, we need to improve the flatness of the back side of masks hereafter in order to further enhance the panel overlay.

  4. Fluorogenic membrane overlays to enumerate total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish and seawater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three assays were developed to enumerate total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish and other foods and in seawater and other environmental samples. Assays involve membrane overlays of overnight colonies on non-selective agar plates to detect ß-glucuronidase and lysyl am...

  5. A new approach to plane-sweep overlay: topological structuring and line-segment classification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Roessel, Jan W.

    1991-01-01

    An integrated approach to spatial overlay was developed with the objective of creating a single function that can perform most of the tasks now assigned to discrete functions in current systems. Two important components of this system are a unique method for topological structuring, and a method for attribute propagation and line-segment classification. -Author

  6. Semantic Overlays in Educational Content Networks--The hylOs Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Michael; Hildebrand, Arne; Lange, Dagmar; Schmidt, Thomas C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to introduce an educational content management system, Hypermedia Learning Objects System (hylOs), which is fully compliant to the IEEE LOM eLearning object metadata standard. Enabled through an advanced authoring toolset, hylOs allows the definition of instructional overlays of a given eLearning object mesh.…

  7. Posterior open occlusion management by registration of overlay removable partial denture: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Nosouhian, Saeid; Davoudi, Amin; Derhami, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This clinical report describes prosthetic rehabilitation of posterior open bite relationship in a patient with several missing teeth and skeletal Class III malocclusion. Primary diagnostic esthetic evaluations were performed by mounting casts in centric relation and estimating lost vertical dimension of occlusion. Exclusive treatments were designated by applying overlay removable partial denture with external attachment systems for higher retentions.

  8. The Effect of Coloured Overlays on Reading Ability in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Amanda K.; Wilkins, Arnold J.; Heaton, Pam

    2006-01-01

    Abnormalities of colour perception in children with autistic spectrum disorders have been widely reported anecdotally. However, there is little empirical data linking difficulties in colour perception with academic achievement. The Wilkins Rate of Reading Test was administered with and without "Intuitive Coloured Overlays" to 19 children with…

  9. Colored Overlays Enhance Visual Perceptual Performance in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, A. K.; Wilkins, A. J.; Heaton, P.

    2008-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), together with controls matched for age and ability participated in three experiments that assessed the therapeutic benefit of colored overlays. The findings from the first experiment showed that a significantly greater proportion of children with ASD, than controls, increased reading speed when using…

  10. Maxillary and mandibular overlay removable partial dentures for the restoration of worn teeth.

    PubMed

    Ganddini, Mario R; Al-Mardini, Majd; Graser, Gerald N; Almog, Dov

    2004-03-01

    This clinical report describes the fabrication of maxillary and mandibular cast overlay removable partial dentures for the restoration of severely worn teeth with accompanying loss of vertical dimension of occlusion. The frameworks supported porcelain veneers for esthetics and metal occlusal surfaces for strength and durability.

  11. Sub-nanometer in-die overlay metrology: measurement and simulation at the edge of finiteness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilde, Henk-Jan H.; Jak, Martin; den Boef, Arie; van Schijndel, Mark; Bozkurt, Murat; Fuchs, Andreas; van der Schaar, Maurits; Meyer, Steffen; Morgan, Stephen; Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve; Huang, Guo-Tsai; Ke, Chih-Ming; Chen, Kai-Hsiung

    2013-04-01

    The target size reduction for overlay metrology is driven by the optimization of the device area. Furthermore, for the future semiconductor nodes accurate metrology on the order of 0.2 nm is necessary locally in the device area, requiring small in-die targets that fit within the product structures on the wafer. In this, the diffraction-based overlay metrology using optical scatterometry is challenged to extreme limits. The small grating cannot be considered as an infinitely repeating line-space structure with a sharply peaked spectrum, however a continuous spectrum is observed. Also, metrology proximity effects due to the environment near the metrology target need to be taken into account. On the one hand, this sets strict design and assembly rules of the metrology sensor. On the other hand, the optical ray-based analysis is extended to wave-based analysis to capture the full extent of the overlay application and sensor. In this publication, the challenges of sub-nanometer in-die overlay metrology are addressed, including measurements and simulations.

  12. Performance study of new segmented overlay marks for advanced wafer processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adel, Mike; Allgair, John A.; Benoit, David C.; Ghinovker, Mark; Kassel, Elyakim; Nelson, C.; Robinson, John C.; Seligman, Gary S.

    2003-05-01

    We explore the implementation of improved overlay mark designs increasing mark fidelity and device correlation for advanced wafer processing. The effect of design rule segmentation on overlay mark performance is studied. Short loop wafers with 193 nm lithography for front-end (poly to STI active) as well as back-end (via to metal) were processed and evaluated. A comparison of 6 different box-in-box (BiB) overlay marks, including non-segmented, multi bar, and design-rule segmented were compared to several types of AIM (Advanced Imaging Metrology) grating targets which were non-segmented and design rule segmented in various ways. The key outcomes of the performance study include the following: the total measurement uncertainty (TMU) was estimated by the RMS of the precision, TIS 3-sigma and overlay mark fidelity (OMF). The TMU calculated in this way show a 40% reduction for the grating marks compared to BiB. The major contributors to this performance improvement were OMF and precision, which were both improved by nearly a factor of 2 on the front-end layer. TIS-3-sigma was observed to improve when design rule segmentation was implemented, while OMF was marginally degraded. Similar results were found for the back end wafers. Several different pitches and segmentation schemes were reviewed and this has allowed the development of a methodology for target design optimization. Resulting improvements in modeled residuals were also achieved.

  13. Passivation of hematite nanorod photoanodes with a phosphorus overlayer for enhanced photoelectrochemical water oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Dehua; Li, Wei; Wang, Xiaoguang; Liu, Lifeng

    2016-09-01

    Hematite (i.e., α-Fe2O3) nanorod photoanodes passivated with a phosphorus overlayer have been fabricated by decomposing sodium hypophosphite (NaH2PO2) at a low temperature over the hematite nanorod surface. Extensive scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffractometry and UV–vis spectroscopy characterizations confirm that conformal deposition of an amorphous phosphorus overlayer does not change the crystal structure, morphology, and optical absorption properties of hematite photoanodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that phosphorus in the deposited overlayer exists in an oxidized state. Comprehensive steady-state polarization, transient photocurrent response, and impedance spectroscopy measurements as well as Mott–Schottky analysis manifest that the phosphorus overlayer is able to effectively passivate surface states and suppress electron–hole recombination, substantially enhancing the photocurrent for water oxidation. Combining the phosphorization treatment with two-step thermal activation, a photocurrent density of 1.1 mA cm‑2 is achieved at 1.23 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode under illumination of 100 mW cm‑2, ca 55 times higher than that of the non-activated pristine hematite photoanode measured under the same conditions. The simple and fast phosphorization strategy we present here can be readily applied to passivate surfaces of other semiconductor photoelectrodes to improve their photoelectrochemical performance.

  14. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Quarterly progress report, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1994-01-20

    Research is being conducted to develop criteria for selecting weld overlay coatings for erosion mitigation in Circulated Fluidized Beds. Twelve weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using plasma arc welding. Ten samples from each coating were prepared for erosion testing. All selected coatings were erosion tested at 400C and their erosion resistance and microstructure evaluated. Steady state erosion rates were similar for several weld overlay coatings (Ultimet, Inconel-625, Iron-Aluminide, 316L SS, and High Chromium Cast Iron) and were considerably lower than the remaining coating evaluated. These coatings had different base (Co, Fe, Ni-base). No correlations were found between room temperature microhardness of the weld overlay coatings and their erosion resistance at elevated temperature, although this criteria is often thought to be an indicator of erosion resistance. It was suggested that the coatings that showed similar erosion rates may have similar mechanical properties such as fracture strength, toughness and work hardening rates at this temperature. During the past quarter, Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were selected for more detailed investigations based upon the preliminary erosion test results. Microhardness tests were performed on eroded samples to determine the size of the work hardened zone and change in coatings hardness due to erosion. The work hardened zone was to correlated with erosion resistance of the coatings. Additional Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were deposited on 1018 steel substrates.

  15. Passivation of hematite nanorod photoanodes with a phosphorus overlayer for enhanced photoelectrochemical water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Dehua; Li, Wei; Wang, Xiaoguang; Liu, Lifeng

    2016-09-16

    Hematite (i.e., α-Fe2O3) nanorod photoanodes passivated with a phosphorus overlayer have been fabricated by decomposing sodium hypophosphite (NaH2PO2) at a low temperature over the hematite nanorod surface. Extensive scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffractometry and UV-vis spectroscopy characterizations confirm that conformal deposition of an amorphous phosphorus overlayer does not change the crystal structure, morphology, and optical absorption properties of hematite photoanodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that phosphorus in the deposited overlayer exists in an oxidized state. Comprehensive steady-state polarization, transient photocurrent response, and impedance spectroscopy measurements as well as Mott-Schottky analysis manifest that the phosphorus overlayer is able to effectively passivate surface states and suppress electron-hole recombination, substantially enhancing the photocurrent for water oxidation. Combining the phosphorization treatment with two-step thermal activation, a photocurrent density of 1.1 mA cm(-2) is achieved at 1.23 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode under illumination of 100 mW cm(-2), ca 55 times higher than that of the non-activated pristine hematite photoanode measured under the same conditions. The simple and fast phosphorization strategy we present here can be readily applied to passivate surfaces of other semiconductor photoelectrodes to improve their photoelectrochemical performance.

  16. Assessing the Crossdisciplinarity of Technology-Enhanced Learning with Science Overlay Maps and Diversity Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the assessment of the crossdisciplinarity of technology-enhanced learning (TEL). Based on a general discussion of the concept interdisciplinarity and a summary of the discussion in the field, two empirical methods from scientometrics are introduced and applied. Science overlay maps and the Rao-Stirling diversity index are…

  17. Overlay Repeatability in Mix-and-Match Exposure Using the SR Stepper: SS-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibayama, Akinori; Fukuda, Makoto; Suzuki, Masanori; Tsuyuzaki, Haruo; Matsuda, Tadahito; Ishihara, Sunao

    1994-12-01

    Proximity X-ray lithography using synchrotron orbital radiation (SR) is potentially able to replicate patterns with a width of less than 0.2 µ m. We developed a die-by-die alignment basis SR stepper, which is equipped with air-lubricated lead screws for the XY stage and an optical heterodyne alignment system. An overlay repeatability of 23 nm (3σ) is obtained with only X and Y alignment when evaluated by the double exposure method. In practice, the mix-and-match scheme between the SR and optical exposures is important for reducing the cost of lithography. In the mix-and-match exposure between the SR and optical steppers, an overlay repeatability of 45 nm (3σ) is achieved with the X, Y, and θ alignment mode of the SR stepper. Analysis of the error factors in this overlay exposure experiment showed that the optically printed patterns have chip shape distortions causing overlay error of about 35 nm (3σ).

  18. Passivation of hematite nanorod photoanodes with a phosphorus overlayer for enhanced photoelectrochemical water oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Dehua; Li, Wei; Wang, Xiaoguang; Liu, Lifeng

    2016-09-01

    Hematite (i.e., α-Fe2O3) nanorod photoanodes passivated with a phosphorus overlayer have been fabricated by decomposing sodium hypophosphite (NaH2PO2) at a low temperature over the hematite nanorod surface. Extensive scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffractometry and UV-vis spectroscopy characterizations confirm that conformal deposition of an amorphous phosphorus overlayer does not change the crystal structure, morphology, and optical absorption properties of hematite photoanodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that phosphorus in the deposited overlayer exists in an oxidized state. Comprehensive steady-state polarization, transient photocurrent response, and impedance spectroscopy measurements as well as Mott-Schottky analysis manifest that the phosphorus overlayer is able to effectively passivate surface states and suppress electron-hole recombination, substantially enhancing the photocurrent for water oxidation. Combining the phosphorization treatment with two-step thermal activation, a photocurrent density of 1.1 mA cm-2 is achieved at 1.23 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode under illumination of 100 mW cm-2, ca 55 times higher than that of the non-activated pristine hematite photoanode measured under the same conditions. The simple and fast phosphorization strategy we present here can be readily applied to passivate surfaces of other semiconductor photoelectrodes to improve their photoelectrochemical performance.

  19. Arbitration Intervention Worker (AIW) Services: Case Management Overlay in a Juvenile Diversion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poythress, Norman G.; Dembo, Richard; DuDell, Gary; Wareham, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    In this issue we describe a clinical trials study of the impact of adding specific case manager overlay services to "treatment as usual" services for youths in a Juvenile Arbitration Program. In this first article we describe the experimental intervention, the Arbitration Intervention Worker (AIW) service, which was provided to a randomly selected…

  20. Posterior open occlusion management by registration of overlay removable partial denture: A clinical report

    PubMed Central

    Nosouhian, Saeid; Davoudi, Amin; Derhami, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This clinical report describes prosthetic rehabilitation of posterior open bite relationship in a patient with several missing teeth and skeletal Class III malocclusion. Primary diagnostic esthetic evaluations were performed by mounting casts in centric relation and estimating lost vertical dimension of occlusion. Exclusive treatments were designated by applying overlay removable partial denture with external attachment systems for higher retentions. PMID:26929544

  1. A quantitative comet assay: imaging and analysis of virus plaques formed with a liquid overlay.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Yin, John

    2007-01-01

    Although the plaque assay defines a "gold-standard" for measuring virus infectivity, its reliance on plaque counting limits its sensitivity. When the assay is performed with a liquid overlay, instead of agar overlay, spontaneous flows can promote a uni-directional spread of infection, creating elongated regions of cytopathology that resemble comets. As a model system comet and plaque cultures of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) on baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells were compared. Host-cell monolayers were infected with VSV particles, incubated 15 h in the presence of liquid or agar overlays and stained. VSV formed significantly larger comets than plaques, consistent with a mechanism of flow-enhanced spread. When antiviral drug (5-fluorouracil) was incorporated into the liquid overlay, comet sizes were reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Images of infected monolayers, acquired using a simple digital scanner, enabled a quantification of the inhibitory effect of the drug on infectivity. The resulting measure of drug susceptibility was found to be 18-fold more sensitive than the IC(50) measure attained by the traditional plaque-reduction assay. This quantitative comet assay has the potential to similarly enhance the sensitivity of infection measures for other plaque-forming viruses. PMID:17092573

  2. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Final technical progress report, July 1992--July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1995-10-15

    The erosion behavior of weld overlay coatings has been studied. Eleven weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using the plasma arc welding process and erosion tested at 400{degrees}C at 90{degrees} and 30{degrees} particle impact angles. The microstructure of each coating was characterized before erosion testing. A relative ranking of the coatings erosion resistance was developed by determining the steady state erosion rates. Ultimet, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings showed the best erosion resistance at both impact angles. It was found that weld overlays that exhibit good abrasion resistance did not show good erosion resistance. Erosion tests were also performed for selected wrought materials with chemical composition similar to weld overlays. Eroded surfaces of the wrought and weld alloys were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Microhardness tests were performed on the eroded samples below the erosion surface to determine size of the plastically deformed region. It was found that one group of coatings experienced significant plastic deformation as a result of erosion while the other did not. It was also established that, in the steady state erosion regime, the size of the plastically deformed region is constant.

  3. High order overlay modeling and APC simulation with Zernike-Legendre polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, JawWuk; Kim, MinGyu; Lee, JuHan; Sherwin, Stuart; Hoo, George; Choi, DongSub; Lee, Dohwa; Jeon, Sanghuck; Lee, Kangsan; Tien, David; Pierson, Bill; Robinson, John C.; Levy, Ady; Smith, Mark D.

    2015-03-01

    Feedback control of overlay errors to the scanner is a well-established technique in semiconductor manufacturing [1]. Typically, overlay errors are measured, and then modeled by least-squares fitting to an overlay model. Overlay models are typically Cartesian polynomial functions of position within the wafer (Xw, Yw), and of position within the field (Xf, Yf). The coefficients from the data fit can then be fed back to the scanner to reduce overlay errors in future wafer exposures, usually via a historically weighted moving average. In this study, rather than using the standard Cartesian formulation, we examine overlay models using Zernike polynomials to represent the wafer-level terms, and Legendre polynomials to represent the field-level terms. Zernike and Legendre polynomials can be selected to have the same fitting capability as standard polynomials (e.g., second order in X and Y, or third order in X and Y). However, Zernike polynomials have the additional property of being orthogonal over the unit disk, which makes them appropriate for the wafer-level model, and Legendre polynomials are orthogonal over the unit square, which makes them appropriate for the field-level model. We show several benefits of Zernike/Legendre-based models in this investigation in an Advanced Process Control (APC) simulation using highly-sampled fab data. First, the orthogonality property leads to less interaction between the terms, which makes the lot-to-lot variation in the fitted coefficients smaller than when standard polynomials are used. Second, the fitting process itself is less coupled - fitting to a lower-order model, and then fitting the residuals to a higher order model gives very similar results as fitting all of the terms at once. This property makes fitting techniques such as dual pass or cascading [2] unnecessary, and greatly simplifies the options available for the model recipe. The Zernike/Legendre basis gives overlay performance (mean plus 3 sigma of the residuals

  4. Privatization and management development in the healthcare sector of Georgia.

    PubMed

    West, Daniel J; Costello, Michael; Ramirez, Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare reforms in Georgia parallel some of the major changes made by other Central and Eastern European countries. This is especially true of efforts to privatize the health sector and secure capital investments from Western Europe. Privatization of Georgian healthcare requires an understanding of the Soviet-era healthcare system and ideological orientation. Many of the issues and problems of privatization in Georgia require new knowledge to enhance equity outcomes, improve financial performance, increase access to care and encourage healthcare competition. Training existing and future healthcare leaders in modern management theory and practice is paramount. A university based health-management education partnership model was developed and implemented between several universities in the United States and Europe, along with two Georgian universities, to address workforce demands, changing market conditions, management knowledge and leadership competencies. Health-management education concentrations were developed and implemented along with several short courses to meet market demand for trained leaders and managers.

  5. Noisy processing and distillation of private quantum States.

    PubMed

    Renes, Joseph M; Smith, Graeme

    2007-01-12

    We provide a simple security proof for prepare and measure quantum key distribution protocols employing noisy processing and one-way postprocessing of the key. This is achieved by showing that the security of such a protocol is equivalent to that of an associated key distribution protocol in which, instead of the usual maximally entangled states, a more general private state is distilled. In addition to a more general target state, the usual entanglement distillation tools are employed (in particular, Calderbank-Shor-Steane-like codes), with the crucial difference that noisy processing allows some phase errors to be left uncorrected without compromising the privacy of the key.

  6. Implementing a secure client/server application

    SciTech Connect

    Kissinger, B.A.

    1994-08-01

    There is an increasing rise in attacks and security breaches on computer systems. Particularly vulnerable are systems that exchange user names and passwords directly across a network without encryption. These kinds of systems include many commercial-off-the-shelf client/server applications. A secure technique for authenticating computer users and transmitting passwords through the use of a trusted {open_quotes}broker{close_quotes} and public/private keys is described in this paper.

  7. 45 CFR 30.14 - Contracting with private collection contractors and with entities that locate and recover...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... collection action, and refer debts to Justice for litigation; (2) The private collection contractor is not... Treasury for debt collection under 31 U.S.C. 3711(g) and 31 CFR 285.12(e). (c) Debts arising under the Social Security Act (which can be collected by private collection contractors only by Treasury after...

  8. 45 CFR 30.14 - Contracting with private collection contractors and with entities that locate and recover...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... collection action, and refer debts to Justice for litigation; (2) The private collection contractor is not... Treasury for debt collection under 31 U.S.C. 3711(g) and 31 CFR 285.12(e). (c) Debts arising under the Social Security Act (which can be collected by private collection contractors only by Treasury after...

  9. 33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12 Section 66.01-12 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids...

  10. 33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12 Section 66.01-12 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids...

  11. 33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12 Section 66.01-12 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids...

  12. 33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12 Section 66.01-12 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids...

  13. 33 CFR 66.01-12 - May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I continue to use the private aid to navigation I am currently using? 66.01-12 Section 66.01-12 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids...

  14. Private Information and Insurance Rejections

    PubMed Central

    Hendren, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    Across a wide set of non-group insurance markets, applicants are rejected based on observable, often high-risk, characteristics. This paper argues that private information, held by the potential applicant pool, explains rejections. I formulate this argument by developing and testing a model in which agents may have private information about their risk. I first derive a new no-trade result that theoretically explains how private information could cause rejections. I then develop a new empirical methodology to test whether this no-trade condition can explain rejections. The methodology uses subjective probability elicitations as noisy measures of agents beliefs. I apply this approach to three non-group markets: long-term care, disability, and life insurance. Consistent with the predictions of the theory, in all three settings I find significant amounts of private information held by those who would be rejected; I find generally more private information for those who would be rejected relative to those who can purchase insurance; and I show it is enough private information to explain a complete absence of trade for those who would be rejected. The results suggest private information prevents the existence of large segments of these three major insurance markets. PMID:24187381

  15. Private Information and Insurance Rejections.

    PubMed

    Hendren, Nathaniel

    2013-09-01

    Across a wide set of non-group insurance markets, applicants are rejected based on observable, often high-risk, characteristics. This paper argues that private information, held by the potential applicant pool, explains rejections. I formulate this argument by developing and testing a model in which agents may have private information about their risk. I first derive a new no-trade result that theoretically explains how private information could cause rejections. I then develop a new empirical methodology to test whether this no-trade condition can explain rejections. The methodology uses subjective probability elicitations as noisy measures of agents beliefs. I apply this approach to three non-group markets: long-term care, disability, and life insurance. Consistent with the predictions of the theory, in all three settings I find significant amounts of private information held by those who would be rejected; I find generally more private information for those who would be rejected relative to those who can purchase insurance; and I show it is enough private information to explain a complete absence of trade for those who would be rejected. The results suggest private information prevents the existence of large segments of these three major insurance markets.

  16. 75 FR 49932 - Private Transfer Fee Covenants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... AGENCY Private Transfer Fee Covenants AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Guidance, ``Guidance on Private Transfer Fee Covenants,'' to the Federal National Mortgage Association... mortgages on properties encumbered by private transfer fee covenants. Such covenants appear adverse...

  17. Private pensions. A less taxing alternative.

    PubMed

    Schalkle, B L; Dyrhaug, K J

    1992-07-01

    The results of the Joneses' coordinated retirement income and estate planning strategies are as follows: 1. The Joneses maximized their estate assets by converting an inefficient estate asset (the qualified retirement plan) into an efficient estate asset (the income-tax-free death benefit) without jeopardizing their current or future standard of living or the value passed on to their heirs. This allows them to satisfy their conflicting objectives. 2. They added flexibility to their future family gifting plans by providing themselves a secure income for the rest of their lives. 3. They fulfilled their desire to protect their family against government confiscation of retirement plan assets in the event they both die before using all their qualified retirement assets. This private pension plan strategy is obviously not available to everyone, nor is it appropriate for everyone. This solution worked well for this client, but everyone's situation is unique. Before creating such a plan, it is important to review all the factors in an individual's financial picture, including financial and retirement objectives and investment risk tolerance. Although this is an innovative idea that may solve a pension dilemma, it should not be used in place of qualified retirement plans but, rather, used in conjunction with such a plan. The private pension plan does not work with all insurance products or all insurance companies. Choosing the right company and product for each client requires care and expertise.

  18. Private pensions. A less taxing alternative.

    PubMed

    Schalkle, B L; Dyrhaug, K J

    1992-07-01

    The results of the Joneses' coordinated retirement income and estate planning strategies are as follows: 1. The Joneses maximized their estate assets by converting an inefficient estate asset (the qualified retirement plan) into an efficient estate asset (the income-tax-free death benefit) without jeopardizing their current or future standard of living or the value passed on to their heirs. This allows them to satisfy their conflicting objectives. 2. They added flexibility to their future family gifting plans by providing themselves a secure income for the rest of their lives. 3. They fulfilled their desire to protect their family against government confiscation of retirement plan assets in the event they both die before using all their qualified retirement assets. This private pension plan strategy is obviously not available to everyone, nor is it appropriate for everyone. This solution worked well for this client, but everyone's situation is unique. Before creating such a plan, it is important to review all the factors in an individual's financial picture, including financial and retirement objectives and investment risk tolerance. Although this is an innovative idea that may solve a pension dilemma, it should not be used in place of qualified retirement plans but, rather, used in conjunction with such a plan. The private pension plan does not work with all insurance products or all insurance companies. Choosing the right company and product for each client requires care and expertise. PMID:1406518

  19. Operating private hospitals in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Barcie, Joseph S

    2015-01-01

    Mexico is one of the richest countries in Latin America and over the last several decades there have been many changes in the healthcare delivery systems, from universal healthcare coverage for all Mexicans to the fast paced expansion of private healthcare. Like many countries, Mexico has both private and public health systems and hospital administrators are facing challenges on multiple fronts in addition to facing exciting new opportunities. In this article you will get a bird's eye view of this ever changing panorama. How the new growing middle class consumerism has impacted physicians, health insurance and private healthcare industry. PMID:26521381

  20. IMPERMEABLE THIN AL2O3 OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott X. Mao

    2003-12-16

    To improve the hot corrosion resistance of YSZ thermal barrier coatings, a 25 {micro}m and a 2 {micro}m thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay were deposited by HVOF thermal spray and by sol-gel coating method, respectively, onto to the surface of YSZ coating. Indenter test was employed to investigate the spalling of YSZ with and without Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay after hot corrosion. The results showed that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay acted as a barrier against the infiltration of the molten salt into the YSZ coating during exposure, thus significantly reduced the amount of M-phase of ZrO{sub 2} in YSZ coating. However, a thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay was harmful for TBC by increasing compressive stress which causes crack and spalling of YSZ coating. As a result, a dense and thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay is critical for simultaneously preventing YSZ from hot corrosion and spalling. In the next reporting period, we will measure or calculate the residue stress within Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay and YSZ coating to study the mechanism of effect of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay on spalling of YSZ coating.

  1. IMPERMEABLE THIN Al2O3 OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott X. Mao

    2002-11-30

    In order to improve the hot corrosion resistance of conventional YSZ TBC system, the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay coating has been successfully produced on the surface of YSZ by the Sol-gel route. The YSZ substrates were coated with boehmite sol by dip coating process, dried to form a gel film and calcined at 1200 C to form {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay. The microstructures of TBC and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that micro-pores ranged from 3 {micro}m to 20 {micro}m and micro-cracks could be clearly seen on the surface of APS YSZ coating. The thickness of alumina overlay increased with increasing the number of dip coating circles. The small microcracks (0.5-1.0 {micro}m width) on the YSZ surface could be filled and blocked by calcined alumina particles, whereas large pores remained empty and the alumina overlay was un-continuous after one time dip coating circle. Alumina overlay thicker than 5 m m obtained by five times dip coating circles largely cracked after calcinations. As a result, multiple dip coatings up to three times were ideal for getting high quality, crack- free and continuous overlay. The optimal thickness of alumina overlay was in the range of 2.5-3.5 {micro}m. In the next reporting period, we will study the hot corrosion behaviors of YSZ TBC with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay coating produced by sol gel route by exposure the samples to molten salts mixtures (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 5%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) at 950 C.

  2. Is there a human right to private health care?

    PubMed

    Gross, Aeyal

    2013-01-01

    In recent years we have noticed an increase in the turn to rights analysis in litigation relating to access to health care. Examining litigation, we can notice a contradiction between on the one hand the ability of the right to health to reinforce privatization and commodification of health care, by rearticulating claims to private health care in terms of human rights, and on the other hand, its ability to reinforce and reinstate public values, especially that of equality, against the background of privatization and commodification. While many hope that rights discourse will do the latter, and secure that access to health care should occur on the basis of need as opposed to ability to pay, it has actually been used to attempt to advance arguments that will allow access to private or semiprivate health insurance in ways that may exacerbate inequality. These types of arguments won ground in the Canadian Supreme Court, but were rejected by the Israeli Supreme Court. In order to avoid this co-optation of right to health, a notion of rights that incorporates the principles of substantive equality is required. Otherwise, one of the unintended consequences of inserting rights analysis into public health care may be that it will reinforce rather than challenge privatization in a way that may increase inequalities.

  3. Social Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This group of articles discusses a variety of studies related to social security and retirement benefits. These studies are related to both developing and developed nations and are also concerned with studying work conditions and government role in administering a democratic social security system. (SSH)

  4. Physical Security

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-01

    The future of physical security at government facilities and national laboratories is rapidly progressing beyond the cliché of gates, guns and guards, and is quickly being replaced by radars, sensors and cameras. Learn more about INL's security research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  5. Holistic overlay control for multi-patterning process layers at the 10nm and 7nm nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstappen, Leon; Mos, Evert; Wardenier, Peter; Megens, Henry; Schmitt-Weaver, Emil; Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve; Adam, Omer; Grzela, Grzegorz; van Heijst, Joost; Willems, Lotte; Wildenberg, Jochem; Ignatova, Velislava; Chen, Albert; Elich, Frank; Rajasekharan, Bijoy; Vergaij-Huizer, Lydia; Lewis, Brian; Kea, Marc; Mulkens, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Multi-patterning lithography at the 10-nm and 7-nm nodes is driving the allowed overlay error down to extreme low values. Advanced high order overlay correction schemes are needed to control the process variability. Additionally the increase of the number of split layers results in an exponential increase of metrology complexity of the total overlay and alignment tree. At the same time, the process stack includes more hard-mask steps and becomes more and more complex, with as consequence that the setup and verification of the overlay metrology recipe becomes more critical. All of the above require a holistic approach that addresses total overlay optimization from process design to process setup and control in volume manufacturing. In this paper we will present the holistic overlay control flow designed for 10-nm and 7-nm nodes and illustrate the achievable ultimate overlay performance for a logic and DRAM use case. As figure 1 illustrates we will explain the details of the steps in the holistic flow. Overlay accuracy is the driver for target design and metrology tool optimization like wavelength and polarization. We will show that it is essential to include processing effects like etching and CMP which can result in a physical asymmetry of the bottom grating of diffraction based overlay targets. We will introduce a new method to create a reference overlay map, based on metrology data using multiple wavelengths and polarization settings. A similar approach is developed for the wafer alignment step. The overlay fingerprint correction using linear or high order correction per exposure (CPE) has a large amount of parameters. It is critical to balance the metrology noise with the ultimate correction model and the related metrology sampling scheme. Similar approach is needed for the wafer align step. Both for overlay control as well as alignment we have developed methods which include efficient use of metrology time, available for an in the litho-cluster integrated

  6. A novel approach for latent print identification using accurate overlays to prioritize reference prints.

    PubMed

    Gantz, Daniel T; Gantz, Donald T; Walch, Mark A; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2014-12-01

    A novel approach to automated fingerprint matching and scoring that produces accurate locally and nonlinearly adjusted overlays of a latent print onto each reference print in a corpus is described. The technology, which addresses challenges inherent to latent prints, provides the latent print examiner with a prioritized ranking of candidate reference prints based on the overlays of the latent onto each candidate print. In addition to supporting current latent print comparison practices, this approach can make it possible to return a greater number of AFIS candidate prints because the ranked overlays provide a substantial starting point for latent-to-reference print comparison. To provide the image information required to create an accurate overlay of a latent print onto a reference print, "Ridge-Specific Markers" (RSMs), which correspond to short continuous segments of a ridge or furrow, are introduced. RSMs are reliably associated with any specific local section of a ridge or a furrow using the geometric information available from the image. Latent prints are commonly fragmentary, with reduced clarity and limited minutiae (i.e., ridge endings and bifurcations). Even in the absence of traditional minutiae, latent prints contain very important information in their ridges that permit automated matching using RSMs. No print orientation or information beyond the RSMs is required to generate the overlays. This automated process is applied to the 88 good quality latent prints in the NIST Special Database (SD) 27. Nonlinear overlays of each latent were produced onto all of the 88 reference prints in the NIST SD27. With fully automated processing, the true mate reference prints were ranked in the first candidate position for 80.7% of the latents tested, and 89.8% of the true mate reference prints ranked in the top ten positions. After manual post-processing of those latents for which the true mate reference print was not ranked first, these frequencies increased to 90

  7. Bolivian petroleum privatization taking shape

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-07

    Bolivia is boldly embracing a free market philosophy that extends to liberalization of the country`s petroleum sector. Although petroleum industry privatization is being considered by several South American countries, only Argentina has so far completely opened its oil sector and fully privatized its state oil company. The Bolivian government`s own version of privatization, capitalization, is a groundbreaking attempt to attract massive investment from the private sector without leaving the government open to accusations of stripping the country`s assets for short term electoral gain. The paper discusses the government`s strategy to sell the state owned company either as a single unit or to split it into upstream and downstream units. Questions still to be resolved, international interest in the move, bolivian potential, and the gas supply infrastructure are also discussed.

  8. State Regulation of Private Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lines, Patricia M.

    1982-01-01

    Examines state laws and the actions of various courts on home instruction and unauthorized educational programs. Suggests reforming the regulation of private education through legislative action that requires periodic testing as an alternative to compulsory school attendance. (Author/MLF)

  9. What Future for Private Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cath Sch J, 1970

    1970-01-01

    After examining a small private school (Norwood Academy, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia) a group of leading educators give their answers to questions about its future and the future of such schools in general. (Editor)

  10. Private Trade and Technical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    Among the advantages of private trade and technical schools is their market orientation, a sensitivity to employers' current needs. Teachers recruited from industry, accelerated pace, flexible scheduling, and emphasis on job placement are other benefits found in proprietary schools. (SK)

  11. The Graduate MIS Security Course: Objectives and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Bradley K.; Guynes, Carl S.; Nyaboga, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Given the magnitude of real and potential losses, both private and public employers increasingly expect graduates of management information systems (MIS) programs to understand information security concepts. The infrastructure requirements for the course includes setting up a secure laboratory environment to accommodate the development of viruses…

  12. Harden Security of High-Risk and Critical Supply Chains

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Glen

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the security risk in the container supply chain. It provides an overview of the technical and policy initiatives that are being implemented by international organizations, governments, and the private sector to enhance security in the container supply chain.

  13. 49 CFR 37.165 - Lift and securement use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and private entities. (b) All common wheelchairs and their users shall be transported in the entity's vehicles or other conveyances. The entity is not required to permit wheelchairs to ride in places other... complying with part 38 of this title, the entity shall use the securement system to secure wheelchairs...

  14. 24 CFR 886.315 - Security and utility deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security and utility deposits. 886... utility deposits. (a) Amount of deposits. If at the time of the initial execution of the Lease the Owner... security deposits and utility deposits from its resources and/or other public or private sources. (b)...

  15. 24 CFR 886.116 - Security and utility deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security and utility deposits. 886... utility deposits. (a) An Owner may require Families to pay a security deposit in an amount up to, but not... utility deposits, if required, from their own resources and/or other private or public sources....

  16. Secure Objectives for School Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton-Noblitt, April

    2012-01-01

    In a study conducted among more than 980 American four-year and two-year colleges and universities, including institutions such as the University of Michigan, MIT, UCLA and Columbia, security staff and other administrators identified the five leading goals for their security systems: (1) Preventing unauthorized people from entering their…

  17. Combined conjunctival autograft and overlay amniotic membrane transplantation; a novel surgical treatment for pterygium.

    PubMed

    Ghanavati, Siamak Zarei; Shousha, Mohamed Abou; Betancurt, Carolina; Perez, Victor L

    2014-01-01

    The authors report the long-term results of combined conjunctival autograft and overlay amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) for treatment of pterygium as a new surgical technique. Nineteen patients including 12 male and 7 female subjects with pterygium (primary, 14 cases; recurrent, 5 cases) underwent combined conjunctival autograft and overlay AMT and were followed from 10 to 26 months. Mean age was 44.21±12.49 (range, 29.0-73.0) years. In one patient with grade T3 primary pterygium, the lesion recurred (5.2%, recurrence rate). No intra-and postoperative complication developed. This procedure seems a safe and effective surgical technique for pterygium treatment. Protection of the ocular surface during the early postoperative period reduces the friction-induced inflammation and might be helpful to prevent the recurrence.

  18. Cast titanium overlay denture for a geriatric patient with a reduced vertical dimension.

    PubMed

    Guttal, Satyabodh; Patil, Narendra P

    2005-12-01

    An older patient reporting to the dental surgery for his/her dental treatment is becoming a common occurrence. Improved oral hygiene has meant that teeth are retained for a longer time, along with the potential problems of attrition, decreased vertical dimension, temporomandibular joint discomfort/strain, and poor aesthetics. The case in question is that of a 65-year-old male patient who had severe attrition in the lower arch, temporomandibular joint pain and reduced vertical dimension. The maxillary arch had previously been restored with a fixed partial prosthesis. For restoration of the lower teeth, a removable cast titanium overlay denture was fabricated incorporating an increased vertical dimension. Porcelain facings were placed to restore the aesthetics of the anterior teeth. The titanium was cast in a semi-automatic electric arc, pressure type casting machine. A titanium overlay denture with porcelain facing on the anterior teeth may provide a means of restoring a patient's concerns regarding aesthetics and function.

  19. Automatic Generation of Overlays and Offset Values Based on Visiting Vehicle Telemetry and RWS Visuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunne, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The development of computer software as a tool to generate visual displays has led to an overall expansion of automated computer generated images in the aerospace industry. These visual overlays are generated by combining raw data with pre-existing data on the object or objects being analyzed on the screen. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) uses this computer software to generate on-screen overlays when a Visiting Vehicle (VV) is berthing with the International Space Station (ISS). In order for Mission Control Center personnel to be a contributing factor in the VV berthing process, computer software similar to that on the ISS must be readily available on the ground to be used for analysis. In addition, this software must perform engineering calculations and save data for further analysis.

  20. The Effects of a Dynamic Spectrum Access Overlay in LTE-Advanced Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Juan D. Deaton; Ryan E. Irwin; Luiz A. DaSilva

    2011-05-01

    As early as 2014, mobile network operators’ spectral capacity will be overwhelmed by the demand brought on by new devices and applications. To augment capacity and meet this demand, operators may choose to deploy a Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) overlay. The signaling and functionality required by such an overlay have not yet been fully considered in the architecture of the planned Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE+) networks. This paper presents a Spectrum Accountability framework to be integrated into LTE+ architectures, defining specific element functionality, protocol interfaces, and signaling flow diagrams required to enforce the rights and responsibilities of primary and secondary users. We also quantify, through integer programs, the benefits of using DSA channels to augment capacity under a scenario in which LTE+ network can opportunistically use TV and GSM spectrum. The framework proposed here may serve as a guide in the development of future LTE+ network standards that account for DSA.

  1. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. [Quarterly report, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1993-10-20

    In the previous period of work, twelve overlay hardfacing alloys were selected for erosion testing based upon a literature review. All twelve coatings were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using the plasma arc welding process. Ten samples from each coating were prepared for erosion testing. The coating deposition and sample preparation procedures were described in the previous quarterly report. During the past quarter, all the coatings were erosion tested at 400 C. The erosion resistance of each coating was evaluated by determining the steady state erosion rate. In addition, the microstructure of each coating was characterized before and after the erosion tests. This progress report describes the erosion test results and coating microstructures. Also, a preliminary analysis on the relationships, between weld overlay coating hardness, microstructure, and erosion resistance will be discussed.

  2. Overlay metrology for dark hard mask process: simulation and experiment study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jangho; Chalykh, Roman; Kang, Hyunjae; Kim, SeongSue; Lee, SukJoo; Cho, Han-Ku

    2007-03-01

    Simulation and experimental study results are reported to solve align/overlay problem in dark hard mask process in lithography. For simulation part, an in-house simulator, which is based on rigorous coupled wave analysis and Fourier optics method of high NA imaging, is used. According to the simulation and experiment study, image quality of alignment and overlay marks can be optimized by choosing hard mask and sub-film thickness carefully for a given process condition. In addition, it is important to keep the specification of film thickness uniformity within a certain limit. Simulation results are confirmed by experiment using the state of art memory process in Samsung semiconductor R&D facility.

  3. Secure PVM

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, T.H.; Venugopal, N.

    1996-09-01

    This research investigates techniques for providing privacy, authentication, and data integrity to PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine). PVM is extended to provide secure message passing with no changes to the user`s PVM application, or, optionally, security can be provided on a message-by message basis. Diffe-Hellman is used for key distribution of a single session key for n-party communication. Keyed MD5 is used for message authentication, and the user may select from various secret-key encryption algorithms for message privacy. The modifications to PVM are described, and the performance of secure PVM is evaluated.

  4. Effect of oil overlay on inhibition potential of roscovitine in sheep cumulus-oocyte complexes.

    PubMed

    Crocomo, L F; Marques Filho, W C; Ulian, C M V; Branchini, N S; Silva, D T; Ackermann, C L; Landim-Alvarenga, F C; Bicudo, S D

    2015-06-01

    Inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases, as roscovitine, have been used to prevent the spontaneous resumption of meiosis in vitro and to improve the oocyte developmental competence. In this study, the interference of oil overlay on the reversible arrest capacity of roscovitine in sheep oocytes as well as its effects on cumulus expansion was evaluated. For this, cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured for 20 h in TCM 199 with 10% foetal bovine serum (Control) containing 75 μm roscovitine (Rosco). Subsequently, they were in vitro matured (IVM) for further 18 h in inhibitor-free medium with LH and FSH. The culture was performed in Petri dishes under mineral oil (+) or in 96 well plates without oil overlay (-) at 38.5°C and 5% CO2 . At 20 and 38 h, the cumulus expansion and nuclear maturation were evaluated under stereomicroscope and by Hoechst 33342 staining, respectively. No group presented cumulus expansion at 20 h. After additional culture with gonadotrophins, a significant rate of COCs from both Control groups (+/-) exhibited total expansion while in both Rosco groups (+/-) the partial expansion prevailed. Among the oocytes treated with roscovitine, 65.2% were kept at GV in the absence of oil overlay while 40.6% of them reached MII under oil cover (p < 0.05). This meiotic arrest was reversible, and proper meiosis progression also occurred in the Control groups (+/-). So, the culture system without oil overlay improved the meiotic inhibition promoted by roscovitine without affecting the cumulus expansion rate or the subsequent meiosis progression.

  5. Monoplane 3D Overlay Roadmap versus Conventional Biplane 2D Roadmap Technique for Neurointervenional Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Dong-Kyu; Stidd, David A.; Schafer, Sebastian; Chen, Michael; Moftakhar, Roham

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated whether a 3D overlay roadmap using monoplane fluoroscopy offers advantages over a conventional 2D roadmap using biplane fluoroscopy during endovascular aneurysm treatment. Materials and Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted for 131 consecutive cerebral aneurysm embolizations by three neurointerventionalists at a single institution. Allowing for a transition period, the periods from January 2012 to August 2012 (Time Period 1) and February 2013 to July 2013 (Time Period 2) were analyzed for radiation exposure, contrast administration, fluoroscopy time, procedure time, angiographic results, and perioperative complications. Two neurointerventionalists (Group 1) used a conventional 2D roadmap for both Time Periods, and one neurointerventionalist (Group 2) transitioned from a 2D roadmap during Time Period 1 to a 3D overlay roadmap during Time Period 2. Results During Time Period 2, Group 2 demonstrated reduced fluoroscopy time (p<0.001), procedure time (P=0.023), total radiation dose (p=0.001), and fluoroscopy dose (P=0.017) relative to Group 1. During Time Period 2, there was no difference of immediate angiographic results and procedure complications between the two groups. Through the transition from Time Period 1 to Time Period 2, Group 2 demonstrated decreased fluoroscopy time (p< 0.001), procedure time (p=0.022), and procedure complication rate (p=0.041) in Time Period 2 relative to Time Period 1. Conclusion The monoplane 3D overlay roadmap technique reduced fluoroscopy dose and fluoroscopy time during neurointervention of cerebral aneurysms with similar angiographic occlusions and complications rate relative to biplane 2D roadmap, which implies possible compensation of limitations of monoplane fluoroscopy by 3D overlay technique. PMID:27621947

  6. The Corrosion and Corrosion Fatigue Behavior of Nickel Based Alloy Weld Overlay and Coextruded Claddings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockdale, Andrew

    The use of low NOx boilers in coal fired power plants has resulted in sulfidizing corrosive conditions within the boilers and a reduction in the service lifetime of the waterwall tubes. As a solution to this problem, Ni-based weld overlays are used to provide the necessary corrosion resistance however; they are susceptible to corrosion fatigue. There are several metallurgical factors which give rise to corrosion fatigue that are associated with the localized melting and solidification of the weld overlay process. Coextruded coatings offer the potential for improved corrosion fatigue resistance since coextrusion is a solid state coating process. The corrosion and corrosion fatigue behavior of alloy 622 weld overlays and coextruded claddings was investigated using a Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulator retrofitted with a retort. The experiments were conducted at a constant temperature of 600°C using a simulated combustion gas of N2-10%CO-5%CO2-0.12%H 2S. An alternating stress profile was used with a minimum tensile stress of 0 MPa and a maximum tensile stress of 300 MPa (ten minute fatigue cycles). The results have demonstrated that the Gleeble can be used to successfully simulate the known corrosion fatigue cracking mechanism of Ni-based weld overlays in service. Multilayer corrosion scales developed on each of the claddings that consisted of inner and outer corrosion layers. The scales formed by the outward diffusion of cations and the inward diffusion of sulfur and oxygen anions. The corrosion fatigue behavior was influenced by the surface finish and the crack interactions. The initiation of a large number of corrosion fatigue cracks was not necessarily detrimental to the corrosion fatigue resistance. Finally, the as-received coextruded cladding exhibited the best corrosion fatigue resistance.

  7. Monoplane 3D Overlay Roadmap versus Conventional Biplane 2D Roadmap Technique for Neurointervenional Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Dong-Kyu; Stidd, David A.; Schafer, Sebastian; Chen, Michael; Moftakhar, Roham

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated whether a 3D overlay roadmap using monoplane fluoroscopy offers advantages over a conventional 2D roadmap using biplane fluoroscopy during endovascular aneurysm treatment. Materials and Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted for 131 consecutive cerebral aneurysm embolizations by three neurointerventionalists at a single institution. Allowing for a transition period, the periods from January 2012 to August 2012 (Time Period 1) and February 2013 to July 2013 (Time Period 2) were analyzed for radiation exposure, contrast administration, fluoroscopy time, procedure time, angiographic results, and perioperative complications. Two neurointerventionalists (Group 1) used a conventional 2D roadmap for both Time Periods, and one neurointerventionalist (Group 2) transitioned from a 2D roadmap during Time Period 1 to a 3D overlay roadmap during Time Period 2. Results During Time Period 2, Group 2 demonstrated reduced fluoroscopy time (p<0.001), procedure time (P=0.023), total radiation dose (p=0.001), and fluoroscopy dose (P=0.017) relative to Group 1. During Time Period 2, there was no difference of immediate angiographic results and procedure complications between the two groups. Through the transition from Time Period 1 to Time Period 2, Group 2 demonstrated decreased fluoroscopy time (p< 0.001), procedure time (p=0.022), and procedure complication rate (p=0.041) in Time Period 2 relative to Time Period 1. Conclusion The monoplane 3D overlay roadmap technique reduced fluoroscopy dose and fluoroscopy time during neurointervention of cerebral aneurysms with similar angiographic occlusions and complications rate relative to biplane 2D roadmap, which implies possible compensation of limitations of monoplane fluoroscopy by 3D overlay technique.

  8. Microeconomics-based resource allocation in overlay networks by using non-strategic behavior modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Analoui, Morteza; Rezvani, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Behavior modeling has recently been investigated for designing self-organizing mechanisms in the context of communication networks in order to exploit the natural selfishness of the users with the goal of maximizing the overall utility. In strategic behavior modeling, the users of the network are assumed to be game players who seek to maximize their utility with taking into account the decisions that the other players might make. The essential difference between the aforementioned researches and this work is that it incorporates the non-strategic decisions in order to design the mechanism for the overlay network. In this solution concept, the decisions that a peer might make does not affect the actions of the other peers at all. The theory of consumer-firm developed in microeconomics is a model of the non-strategic behavior that we have adopted in our research. Based on it, we have presented distributed algorithms for peers' "joining" and "leaving" operations. We have modeled the overlay network as a competitive economy in which the content provided by an origin server can be viewed as commodity and the origin server and the peers who multicast the content to their downside are considered as the firms. On the other hand, due to the dual role of the peers in the overlay network, they can be considered as the consumers as well. On joining to the overlay economy, each peer is provided with an income and tries to get hold of the service regardless to the behavior of the other peers. We have designed the scalable algorithms in such a way that the existence of equilibrium price (known as Walrasian equilibrium price) is guaranteed.

  9. Nasal bone grafts from the removed hump used as overlay grafts to camouflage concave lateral crura.

    PubMed

    Kubilay, Utku; Erdogdu, Suleyman; Sezen, Ozan Seymen

    2014-01-01

    Alar cartilage consists of a medial crus, middle crus and lateral crus. The lateral crus is an important aesthetic and functional structure of the nose. A 32-year-old male patient with concave lateral crura was operated by the authors. An open rhinoplasty with a dorsal approach to the septum is preferred. The nasal bones harvested from the hump, which is an autogenous graft trimmed and sutured on both concave lateral crura as an overlay camouflage grafts. Satisfactory result was achieved.

  10. RESTORING A DAMAGED 16-YEAR -OLD INSULATING POLYMER CONCRETE DIKE OVERLAY: REPAIR MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGIES.

    SciTech Connect

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this program was to design and formulate organic polymer-based material systems suitable for repairing and restoring the overlay panels of insulating lightweight polymer concrete (ILPC) from the concrete floor and slope wall of a dike at KeySpan liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, NY, just over sixteen years ago. It also included undertaking a small-scale field demonstration to ensure that the commercial repairing technologies were applicable to the designed and formulated materials.

  11. Ellipsometric study of ambient-produced overlayer growth rate on YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sieg, Robert M.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Warner, Joseph D.

    1993-01-01

    An ellipsometric study of ambient-reaction-produced BaCO3 overlayer growth on laser-ablated YBCO is presented as a function of time. The effects of the anisotropy of YBCO on the ellipsometric data inversion process are discussed, and it is concluded that with certain restrictions on the data acquisition method, the anisotropic substrate can be adequately modeled by its isotropic pseudodielectric function for the purpose of overlayer thickness estimation. It is found that after an initial period of rapid growth attributed to the chemical reaction of the exposed surface bonds, the BaCO3 overlayer growth is linear at 1-2 A per day. This slow growth rate is attributed to the complexity of the BaCO3-forming reaction, together with the need for ambient reactants to diffuse through the overlayer.

  12. Enhancement of electron–phonon coupling in Cs-overlayered intercalated bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleeman, J.; Sugawara, K.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.

    2016-05-01

    We have performed high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) on cesium (Cs) intercalated bilayer graphene with a Cs overlayer (Cs-C8CsC8). Low-energy electron diffraction shows a (2  ×  2) pattern consistent with intercalation of a Cs layer similar to bulk C8Cs, in addition to the signature of a nearly commensurate superstructure created by the Cs overlayer. ARPES results reveal folding of the π bands due to the periodic (2  ×  2) potential of the intercalated Cs atoms, together with a free-electron-like state at the Γ point. Significant mass renormalization is observed in the band dispersion near the Fermi level, indicative of strong electron–phonon coupling. Based on analysis of the self-energy, we find anisotropic electron–phonon coupling with an estimated strength of λ =0.38   ±  0.02 in the K-Γ direction, and λ =0.60+/- 0.02 in the K-M direction. This coupling is much larger than that of other doped graphenes, and comparable to superconducting bulk GICs. We attribute this large electron–phonon coupling constant to the presence of the Cs overlayer, which highly dopes {π\\ast} bands, and creates a structure similar to stage-I graphite intercalation compounds.

  13. Enhancement of electron-phonon coupling in Cs-overlayered intercalated bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleeman, J.; Sugawara, K.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.

    2016-05-01

    We have performed high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) on cesium (Cs) intercalated bilayer graphene with a Cs overlayer (Cs-C8CsC8). Low-energy electron diffraction shows a (2  ×  2) pattern consistent with intercalation of a Cs layer similar to bulk C8Cs, in addition to the signature of a nearly commensurate superstructure created by the Cs overlayer. ARPES results reveal folding of the π bands due to the periodic (2  ×  2) potential of the intercalated Cs atoms, together with a free-electron-like state at the Γ point. Significant mass renormalization is observed in the band dispersion near the Fermi level, indicative of strong electron-phonon coupling. Based on analysis of the self-energy, we find anisotropic electron-phonon coupling with an estimated strength of λ =0.38   ±  0.02 in the K-Γ direction, and λ =0.60+/- 0.02 in the K-M direction. This coupling is much larger than that of other doped graphenes, and comparable to superconducting bulk GICs. We attribute this large electron-phonon coupling constant to the presence of the Cs overlayer, which highly dopes {π\\ast} bands, and creates a structure similar to stage-I graphite intercalation compounds.

  14. Image overlay solution based on threshold detection for a compact near infrared fluorescence goggle system

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shengkui; Mondal, Suman B.; Zhu, Nan; Liang, RongGuang; Achilefu, Samuel; Gruev, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging has shown great potential for various clinical procedures, including intraoperative image guidance. However, existing NIR fluorescence imaging systems either have a large footprint or are handheld, which limits their usage in intraoperative applications. We present a compact NIR fluorescence imaging system (NFIS) with an image overlay solution based on threshold detection, which can be easily integrated with a goggle display system for intraoperative guidance. The proposed NFIS achieves compactness, light weight, hands-free operation, high-precision superimposition, and a real-time frame rate. In addition, the miniature and ultra-lightweight light-emitting diode tracking pod is easy to incorporate with NIR fluorescence imaging. Based on experimental evaluation, the proposed NFIS solution has a lower detection limit of 25 nM of indocyanine green at 27 fps and realizes a highly precise image overlay of NIR and visible images of mice in vivo. The overlay error is limited within a 2-mm scale at a 65-cm working distance, which is highly reliable for clinical study and surgical use. PMID:25607724

  15. Image overlay solution based on threshold detection for a compact near infrared fluorescence goggle system.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shengkui; Mondal, Suman B; Zhu, Nan; Liang, RongGuang; Achilefu, Samuel; Gruev, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging has shown great potential for various clinical procedures, including intraoperative image guidance. However, existing NIR fluorescence imaging systems either have a large footprint or are handheld, which limits their usage in intraoperative applications. We present a compact NIR fluorescence imaging system (NFIS) with an image overlay solution based on threshold detection, which can be easily integrated with a goggle display system for intraoperative guidance. The proposed NFIS achieves compactness, light weight, hands-free operation, high-precision superimposition, and a real-time frame rate. In addition, the miniature and ultra-lightweight light-emitting diode tracking pod is easy to incorporate with NIR fluorescence imaging. Based on experimental evaluation, the proposed NFIS solution has a lower detection limit of 25 nM of indocyanine green at 27 fps and realizes a highly precise image overlay of NIR and visible images of mice in vivo. The overlay error is limited within a 2-mm scale at a 65-cm working distance, which is highly reliable for clinical study and surgical use.

  16. Organic overlayer model of a dental composite analyzed by laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry and photoemission.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Manshui; Wu, Chunping; Edirisinghe, Praneeth D; Drummond, James L; Hanley, Luke

    2006-04-01

    Some dental composites consist of a polymerizable resin matrix bound to glass filler particles by silane coupling agents. The resin in these composites includes bisphenol A diglycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) as well as other organic components. Silane coupling agents such as 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MPS) have been used to improve the mechanical properties of the dental composites by forming a covalent bond between the glass filler particles and the resin. These resin-glass composites undergo material property changes during exposure to the oral environment, but degradation studies of the commercial composites are severely limited by their chemical complexity. A simplified model of the dental composite has been developed, which captures the essential chemical characteristics of the filler particle-silane-resin interface. This model system consists of the resin matrix compound Bis-GMA covalently bound via a methacryloyl overlayer to amorphous silicon oxide (SiO2) surface via a siloxane bond. Scanning electron microscopy shows the porous characteristic and elemental composition of the SiO2 film, which approximately mimics that of the glass filler particles used in dental composites. LDPI MS and XPS verify the chemistry and morphology of the Bis-GMA-methacryloyl overlayer. Preliminary results demonstrate that LDPI MS will be able to follow the chemical processes resulting from aging Bis-GMA-methacryloyl overlayers aged in water, artificial saliva, or other aging solutions.

  17. Structural evolution of the Pb/Si(111) interface with metal overlayer thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souto-Casares, Jaime; Chan, Tzu-Liang; Chelikowsky, James R.; Ho, Kai-Ming; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Zhang, S. B.

    2015-09-01

    We employ a real-space pseudopotential method to compute the structural energies of a prototypical metal-semiconductor interface. Specifically, we examine a Pb(111) film overlaid on a Si(111) substrate as a function of the metal thickness. For each layer of Pb, we fully relax the atomic coordinates and determine the lowest-energy structure. Owing to the lattice mismatch between the Pb and Si crystal structures, we consider a large supercell containing up to 1505 atoms for the largest system. Systems of this size remain challenging for most current computational approaches and require algorithms specifically designed for highly parallel computational platforms. We examine the structural properties of the interface with respect to the thickness of the metal overlayer, e.g., the corrugation of the profile of the Pb overlayer. The combined influence of the Si substrate and quantum confinement results in a rich profile for a transition between a thin overlayer (less than a few monolayers), where the corrugation is strong, and the bulk region (more than a half-dozen layers), where the overlaid Pb film is atomically flat. This work proves the feasibility of handling systems with such a level of complexity.

  18. Solar-reflective coating as a cooling overlay for asphalt pavement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, He; Xu, Geng; Feng, Decheng; Zhong, Jing; Xie, Ning

    2011-11-01

    Rutting is one of the most serious problems on asphalt pavements. Decrease the surface temperature of the asphalt pavement is an effective method to solve the rutting problem on asphalt pavements. In this study, nano sized particles filled polymer composite was developed as an overlay to reflect the solar energy and decrease the surface temperature of asphalt pavements. The overlay was composed of acrylic or epoxy resin filled with nano TiO2 or nano TiNO2. The solar reflection of the nano particle filled polymers was tested and the results showed that solar reflection effectiveness of the epoxy/TiO2 composite reached the highest value. The results of outdoor temperature test indicate that the solar-reflective overlay could decrease the surface temperature of asphalt pavements about 10 °C when the pavement temperature is about 60 °C. Pavement skid resistance was also tested, which expressed by micro/macrotexture depth and the results of which showed that both matrix was qualified after coated with aggregates on the surface.

  19. Solar-reflective coating as a cooling overlay for asphalt pavement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, He; Xu, Geng; Feng, Decheng; Zhong, Jing; Xie, Ning

    2012-04-01

    Rutting is one of the most serious problems on asphalt pavements. Decrease the surface temperature of the asphalt pavement is an effective method to solve the rutting problem on asphalt pavements. In this study, nano sized particles filled polymer composite was developed as an overlay to reflect the solar energy and decrease the surface temperature of asphalt pavements. The overlay was composed of acrylic or epoxy resin filled with nano TiO2 or nano TiNO2. The solar reflection of the nano particle filled polymers was tested and the results showed that solar reflection effectiveness of the epoxy/TiO2 composite reached the highest value. The results of outdoor temperature test indicate that the solar-reflective overlay could decrease the surface temperature of asphalt pavements about 10 °C when the pavement temperature is about 60 °C. Pavement skid resistance was also tested, which expressed by micro/macrotexture depth and the results of which showed that both matrix was qualified after coated with aggregates on the surface.

  20. Image overlay solution based on threshold detection for a compact near infrared fluorescence goggle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shengkui; Mondal, Suman B.; Zhu, Nan; Liang, RongGuang; Achilefu, Samuel; Gruev, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging has shown great potential for various clinical procedures, including intraoperative image guidance. However, existing NIR fluorescence imaging systems either have a large footprint or are handheld, which limits their usage in intraoperative applications. We present a compact NIR fluorescence imaging system (NFIS) with an image overlay solution based on threshold detection, which can be easily integrated with a goggle display system for intraoperative guidance. The proposed NFIS achieves compactness, light weight, hands-free operation, high-precision superimposition, and a real-time frame rate. In addition, the miniature and ultra-lightweight light-emitting diode tracking pod is easy to incorporate with NIR fluorescence imaging. Based on experimental evaluation, the proposed NFIS solution has a lower detection limit of 25 nM of indocyanine green at 27 fps and realizes a highly precise image overlay of NIR and visible images of mice in vivo. The overlay error is limited within a 2-mm scale at a 65-cm working distance, which is highly reliable for clinical study and surgical use.

  1. Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings for boiler tube protection in coal-fired low NOx boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1997-12-01

    Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings are currently being considered for enhanced sulfidation resistance in coal-fired low NO{sub x} boilers. The use of these materials is currently limited due to hydrogen cracking susceptibility, which generally increases with an increase in aluminum concentration of the deposit. The overall objective of this program is to attain an optimum aluminum content with good weldability and improved sulfidation resistance with respect to conventional materials presently in use. Research has been initiated using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) in order to achieve this end. Under different sets of GTAW parameters (wire feed speed, current), both single and multiple pass overlays were produced. Characterization of all weldments was conducted using light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. Resultant deposits exhibited a wide range of aluminum contents (5--43 wt%). It was found that the GTAW overlays with aluminum contents above {approximately}10 wt% resulted in cracked coatings. Preliminary corrosion experiments of 5 to 10 wt% Al cast alloys in relatively simple H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S gas mixtures exhibited corrosion rates lower than 304 stainless steel.

  2. Factors controlling the CO intercalation of h-BN overlayers on Ru(0001).

    PubMed

    Dong, Aiyi; Fu, Qiang; Wu, Hao; Wei, Mingming; Bao, Xinhe

    2016-09-21

    The space between a two-dimensional (2D) material overlayer and a metal surface can be regarded as a nanoreactor, in which molecule adsorption and surface reaction may occur. In this work, we present CO intercalation under a hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) overlayer on Ru(0001) at room temperature, observed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Critical factors influencing the interfacial process have been investigated, including CO partial pressure, h-BN coverage, and oxygen pre-adsorption on the Ru surface. It has been identified that CO adsorption on the bare Ru surface region plays an important role in CO intercalation. Comparative studies of CO intercalation at h-BN/Ru(0001) and graphene/Ru(0001) interfaces indicate that CO starts to intercalate h-BN overlayers more easily than graphene. Temperature-programmed CO desorption experiments from h-BN/CO/Ru(0001) and graphene/CO/Ru(0001) surfaces reveal a similar confinement effect of the 2D cover on CO adsorption, which results in a more abrupt and quick CO desorption in comparison with the CO/Ru(0001) surface. PMID:27530273

  3. 17 CFR 240.12h-6 - Certification by a foreign private issuer regarding the termination of registration of a class of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... certifying to the Commission on Form 15F (17 CFR 249.324) that: (1) The foreign private issuer has had... rata to all existing security holders of the class of the issuer's securities to which the rights... place of business. (3) You must count securities as owned by United States holders when publicly...

  4. Intra-field on-product overlay improvement by application of RegC and TWINSCAN corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharoni, Ofir; Dmitriev, Vladimir; Graitzer, Erez; Perets, Yuval; Gorhad, Kujan; van Haren, Richard; Cekli, Hakki E.; Mulkens, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The on product overlay specification and Advanced Process Control (APC) is getting extremely challenging particularly after the introduction of multi-patterning applications like Spacer Assisted Double Patterning (SADP) and multipatterning techniques like N-repetitive Litho-Etch steps (LEN, N >= 2). When the latter is considered, most of the intrafield overlay contributors drop out of the overlay budget. This is a direct consequence of the fact that the scanner settings (like dose, illumination settings, etc.) as well as the subsequent processing steps can be made very similar for two consecutive Litho-Etch layers. The major overlay contributor that may require additional attention is the Image Placement Error (IPE). When the inter-layer overlay is considered, controlling the intra-field overlay contribution gets more complicated. In addition to the IPE contribution, the TWINSCANTM lens fingerprint in combination with the exposure settings is going to play a role as well. Generally speaking, two subsequent functional layers have different exposure settings. This results in a (non-reticle) additional overlay contribution. In this paper, we have studied the wafer overlay correction capability by RegC® in addition to the TWINSCANTM intrafield corrections to improve the on product overlay performance. RegC® is a reticle intra-volume laser writing technique that causes a predictable deformation element (RegC® deformation element) inside the quartz (Qz) material of a reticle. This technique enables to post-process an existing reticle to correct for instance for IPE. Alternatively, a pre-determined intra-field fingerprint can be added to the reticle such that it results in a straight field after exposure. This second application might be very powerful to correct for instance for (cold) lens fingerprints that cannot be corrected by the scanner itself. Another possible application is the intra-field processing fingerprint. One should realize that a RegC® treatment of a

  5. An Analysis of Private School Closings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Lakshmi; Sjoquist, David L.; Walker, Mary Beth

    2009-01-01

    We add to the small literature on private school supply by exploring exits of K-12 private schools. We find that the closure of private schools is not an infrequent event and use national survey data from the National Center for Education Statistics to study closures of private schools. We assume that the probability of an exit is a function of…

  6. The "Decline" of Private Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    No topic in private higher education study has attracted as great attention globally as has growth. This is appropriate as private growth has soared to nearly a third of the world's total higher education enrolment. But while private growth continues to be the dominant trend, important declines in private shares have emerged. These must be…

  7. How To Pick a Perfect Private School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Harlow G.

    This book offers consumer information for parents who are considering enrolling their child in a private school. Beginning with a descriptive overview of private schools, the guide discusses advantages of private schools, how to finance a private school education, and how to determine a child's educational needs. The book offers criteria for…

  8. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging overlay to assist with percutaneous transhepatic access at the time of cardiac catheterization.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Wendy; Christensen, Jason; Zampi, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    Multimodality image overlay is increasingly used for complex interventional procedures in the cardiac catheterization lab. We report a case in which three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) overlay onto live fluoroscopic imaging was utilized to safely obtain transhepatic access in a 12-year-old patient with prune belly syndrome, complex and distorted abdominal anatomy, and a vascular mass within the liver.

  9. Two-layer critical dimensions and overlay process window characterization and improvement in full-chip computational lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturtevant, John L.; Liubich, Vlad; Gupta, Rachit

    2016-04-01

    Edge placement error (EPE) was a term initially introduced to describe the difference between predicted pattern contour edge and the design target for a single design layer. Strictly speaking, this quantity is not directly measurable in the fab. What is of vital importance is the relative edge placement errors between different design layers, and in the era of multipatterning, the different constituent mask sublayers for a single design layer. The critical dimensions (CD) and overlay between two layers can be measured in the fab, and there has always been a strong emphasis on control of overlay between design layers. The progress in this realm has been remarkable, accelerated in part at least by the proliferation of multipatterning, which reduces the available overlay budget by introducing a coupling of overlay and CD errors for the target layer. Computational lithography makes possible the full-chip assessment of two-layer edge to edge distances and two-layer contact overlap area. We will investigate examples of via-metal model-based analysis of CD and overlay errors. We will investigate both single patterning and double patterning. For single patterning, we show the advantage of contour-to-contour simulation over contour to target simulation, and how the addition of aberrations in the optical models can provide a more realistic CD-overlay process window (PW) for edge placement errors. For double patterning, the interaction of 4-layer CD and overlay errors is very complex, but we illustrate that not only can full-chip verification identify potential two-layer hotspots, the optical proximity correction engine can act to mitigate such hotspots and enlarge the joint CD-overlay PW.

  10. IMPERMEABLE THIN Al2O3 OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott X. Mao

    2003-03-10

    In order to improve the hot corrosion resistance of conventional YSZ TBC system, a thin and dense {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay has been deposited on the YSZ surface by the composite-sol-gel route (CSG). The YSZ substrates were dipped with boehmite sol containing calcined {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles, dried to form a gel film and calcined at 1200 C to form {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay. Hot corrosion tests were carried out on the TBCs with and without Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating in molten salt mixtures (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 5% V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) at 950 C for 10 hours. The results showed that besides a thin and dense alumina overlay with the thickness of about 100-500 nm formed on the YSZ surface, the microcracks and porous near the surface in YSZ was also occupied by alumina because of penetration of the low viscosity precursor. As a result, the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay remarkably refrained the infiltration of the molten salt into the YSZ coating. The amount of M-phase in the TBC coating with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay was substantially reduced comparing to that without alumina overlay. In the next reporting period, we will prepare the alumina overlay by CSG route with different thickness and study the hot corrosion mechanism of YSZ TBC with thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay coating produced by CSG.

  11. Secure portal.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Cynthia Lee

    2007-09-01

    There is a need in security systems to rapidly and accurately grant access of authorized personnel to a secure facility while denying access to unauthorized personnel. In many cases this role is filled by security personnel, which can be very costly. Systems that can perform this role autonomously without sacrificing accuracy or speed of throughput are very appealing. To address the issue of autonomous facility access through the use of technology, the idea of a ''secure portal'' is introduced. A secure portal is a defined zone where state-of-the-art technology can be implemented to grant secure area access or to allow special privileges for an individual. Biometric technologies are of interest because they are generally more difficult to defeat than technologies such as badge swipe and keypad entry. The biometric technologies selected for this concept were facial and gait recognition. They were chosen since they require less user cooperation than other biometrics such as fingerprint, iris, and hand geometry and because they have the most potential for flexibility in deployment. The secure portal concept could be implemented within the boundaries of an entry area to a facility. As a person is approaching a badge and/or PIN portal, face and gait information can be gathered and processed. The biometric information could be fused for verification against the information that is gathered from the badge. This paper discusses a facial recognition technology that was developed for the purposes of providing high verification probabilities with low false alarm rates, which would be required of an autonomous entry control system. In particular, a 3-D facial recognition approach using Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis is described. Gait recognition technology, based on Hidden Markov Models has been explored, but those results are not included in this paper. Fusion approaches for combining the results of the biometrics would be the next step in realizing the secure portal

  12. Carbon-Coated Porous Aluminum Oxides Used as Spacer Overlayers to Reduce Secondary Electron Emission for Field Emission Display Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Tung-Yuan; Pan, Fu-Ming; Chen, Cheng-Li; Chen, Te-Ming; Chen, Tsung-Han; Kuo, Chih-Che; Lin, Ting-Li

    2013-07-01

    Porous surface structures can mitigate the charging effect of vacuum spacers of field-emission flat panel display due to the abundance of secondary electrons (SEs) emitted from the spacers during field emission display (FED) operation. In this study, we fabricated porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) overlayers on glass substrates to examine the effect of carbon deposition on the reduction of SE emissions. This paper reports that uniform AAO overlayers can be simultaneously prepared on both sides of a glass plate 2 ×10 cm2 in size. The SE emission of the AAO overlayer was examined by using an Auger electron microscope. When a small amount of carbon is evaporation-deposited on the as-prepared AAO overlayer, the SE emission efficiency is significantly decreased and the reduction in the SE emission is ascribed to the low SE yield of the carbon deposit and the suppression of SE escape from the narrowed pore channels. However, a heavy deposition of carbon results in a smaller surface roughness of the AAO overlayer, thereby increasing SE emission. The carbon-coated AAO overlayer demonstrates favorable electrical and mechanical properties, making it suitable for use in FED vacuum spacers.

  13. Pattern recognition and data mining techniques to identify factors in wafer processing and control determining overlay error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Auguste; Ypma, Alexander; Gatefait, Maxime; Deckers, David; Koopman, Arne; van Haren, Richard; Beltman, Jan

    2015-03-01

    On-product overlay can be improved through the use of context data from the fab and the scanner. Continuous improvements in lithography and processing performance over the past years have resulted in consequent overlay performance improvement for critical layers. Identification of the remaining factors causing systematic disturbances and inefficiencies will further reduce overlay. By building a context database, mappings between context, fingerprints and alignment & overlay metrology can be learned through techniques from pattern recognition and data mining. We relate structure (`patterns') in the metrology data to relevant contextual factors. Once understood, these factors could be moved to the known effects (e.g. the presence of systematic fingerprints from reticle writing error or lens and reticle heating). Hence, we build up a knowledge base of known effects based on data. Outcomes from such an integral (`holistic') approach to lithography data analysis may be exploited in a model-based predictive overlay controller that combines feedback and feedforward control [1]. Hence, the available measurements from scanner, fab and metrology equipment are combined to reveal opportunities for further overlay improvement which would otherwise go unnoticed.

  14. Secure Multiparty Quantum Computation for Summation and Multiplication.

    PubMed

    Shi, Run-hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Cui, Jie; Zhang, Shun

    2016-01-01

    As a fundamental primitive, Secure Multiparty Summation and Multiplication can be used to build complex secure protocols for other multiparty computations, specially, numerical computations. However, there is still lack of systematical and efficient quantum methods to compute Secure Multiparty Summation and Multiplication. In this paper, we present a novel and efficient quantum approach to securely compute the summation and multiplication of multiparty private inputs, respectively. Compared to classical solutions, our proposed approach can ensure the unconditional security and the perfect privacy protection based on the physical principle of quantum mechanics. PMID:26792197

  15. Secure Multiparty Quantum Computation for Summation and Multiplication

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Run-hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Cui, Jie; Zhang, Shun

    2016-01-01

    As a fundamental primitive, Secure Multiparty Summation and Multiplication can be used to build complex secure protocols for other multiparty computations, specially, numerical computations. However, there is still lack of systematical and efficient quantum methods to compute Secure Multiparty Summation and Multiplication. In this paper, we present a novel and efficient quantum approach to securely compute the summation and multiplication of multiparty private inputs, respectively. Compared to classical solutions, our proposed approach can ensure the unconditional security and the perfect privacy protection based on the physical principle of quantum mechanics. PMID:26792197

  16. Secure Multiparty Quantum Computation for Summation and Multiplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Run-Hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Cui, Jie; Zhang, Shun

    2016-01-01

    As a fundamental primitive, Secure Multiparty Summation and Multiplication can be used to build complex secure protocols for other multiparty computations, specially, numerical computations. However, there is still lack of systematical and efficient quantum methods to compute Secure Multiparty Summation and Multiplication. In this paper, we present a novel and efficient quantum approach to securely compute the summation and multiplication of multiparty private inputs, respectively. Compared to classical solutions, our proposed approach can ensure the unconditional security and the perfect privacy protection based on the physical principle of quantum mechanics.

  17. Advanced overlay: sampling and modeling for optimized run-to-run control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramany, Lokesh; Chung, WoongJae; Samudrala, Pavan; Gao, Haiyong; Aung, Nyan; Gomez, Juan Manuel; Gutjahr, Karsten; Park, DongSuk; Snow, Patrick; Garcia-Medina, Miguel; Yap, Lipkong; Demirer, Onur Nihat; Pierson, Bill; Robinson, John C.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years overlay (OVL) control schemes have become more complicated in order to meet the ever shrinking margins of advanced technology nodes. As a result, this brings up new challenges to be addressed for effective run-to- run OVL control. This work addresses two of these challenges by new advanced analysis techniques: (1) sampling optimization for run-to-run control and (2) bias-variance tradeoff in modeling. The first challenge in a high order OVL control strategy is to optimize the number of measurements and the locations on the wafer, so that the "sample plan" of measurements provides high quality information about the OVL signature on the wafer with acceptable metrology throughput. We solve this tradeoff between accuracy and throughput by using a smart sampling scheme which utilizes various design-based and data-based metrics to increase model accuracy and reduce model uncertainty while avoiding wafer to wafer and within wafer measurement noise caused by metrology, scanner or process. This sort of sampling scheme, combined with an advanced field by field extrapolated modeling algorithm helps to maximize model stability and minimize on product overlay (OPO). Second, the use of higher order overlay models means more degrees of freedom, which enables increased capability to correct for complicated overlay signatures, but also increases sensitivity to process or metrology induced noise. This is also known as the bias-variance trade-off. A high order model that minimizes the bias between the modeled and raw overlay signature on a single wafer will also have a higher variation from wafer to wafer or lot to lot, that is unless an advanced modeling approach is used. In this paper, we characterize the bias-variance trade off to find the optimal scheme. The sampling and modeling solutions proposed in this study are validated by advanced process control (APC) simulations to estimate run-to-run performance, lot-to-lot and wafer-to- wafer model term monitoring to

  18. TWRS privatization process technical baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Orme, R.M.

    1996-09-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning a two-phased program for the remediation of Hanford tank waste. Phase 1 is a pilot program to demonstrate the procurement of treatment services. The volume of waste treated during the Phase 1 is a small percentage of the tank waste. During Phase 2, DOE intends to procure treatment services for the balance of the waste. The TWRS Privatization Process Technical Baseline (PPTB) provides a summary level flowsheet/mass balance of tank waste treatment operations which is consistent with the tank inventory information, waste feed staging studies, and privatization guidelines currently available. The PPTB will be revised periodically as privatized processing concepts are crystallized.

  19. 75 FR 28673 - Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... corporate security policies and procedures and will involve extensive discussion of trade secrets and... overview, and other matters relating to private sector security policies and protective programs and the... Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting The Department of State announces a...

  20. 77 FR 27110 - Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... focus on an examination of corporate security policies and procedures and will involve extensive... committee reports, a global threat overview, and other matters relating to private sector security policies... Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting The Department of State announces a...

  1. 75 FR 6250 - Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... corporate security policies and procedures and will involve extensive discussion of trade secrets and... overview, and other matters relating to private sector security policies and protective programs and the... Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting The Department of State announces a...

  2. 75 FR 35444 - Safety and Security Equipment and Services Trade Mission To Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... systems, and intelligence equipment. The Brazilian government will also invest heavily in high-tech... provide access to key government officials and potential business partners for U.S. security firms... (e.g., public security authorities and officials) and private business (e.g., local security...

  3. IMPERMEABLE THIN Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott X. Mao

    2004-06-30

    In order to further improve the hot corrosion resistance of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay of 58 {micro}m thick was deposited on the surface of YSZ by electron-beam physical vapor deposition. Hot corrosion tests were performed on the YSZ coatings with {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay and {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay in molten salt mixture (Na2SO4 + 5wt%V2O5) at 950 C. The {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay was obtained by the post-annealing of g-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay at 1200 C for 1h. The results showed that compared with the hot corrosion resistance of YSZ coating with 25 {micro}m thick {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay, either thickening {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay or employing {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay could impair the hot corrosion resistance of YSZ coating, because the tensile stresses developed in the alumina overlay in both cases due to the mismatch in thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) between alumina and zirconia resulted in cracking of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay. The formation of cracks increased contact area between molten salt and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay, and also the penetration rate of molten salt into Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay and YSZ coating, leading a faster and greater degradation of YSZ coating upon exposure. In the next reporting period, we will study the effect of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay thickness on hot corrosion and spalling of YSZ coatings.

  4. Privatization and emergency medical services.

    PubMed

    Reissman, S G

    1997-01-01

    Osborne and Gaebler's Reinventing Government has sparked discussion amongst elected officials, civil servants, the media, and the general public regarding advantages of privatizing government services. Its support stems from an effort to provide services to municipalities while reducing taxpayer expenditure. Many echo the sentiment of former New York Governor Mario Cuomo, who said, "It is not government's obligation to provide services, but to see that they're provided." Even in the area of public safety, privatization has found a "market." In many localities, privatizing Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is a popular and successful method for providing ambulance services. Privately owned ambulance services staff and respond to medical emergencies in a given community as part of the 9-1-1 emergency response system. Regulations for acceptable response times, equipment, and other essential components of EMS systems are specified by contract. This allows the municipality oversight of the service provided, but it does not provide the service directly. As will be discussed, this "contracting-out" model has many benefits. Privatizing EMS services is a decision based not only on cost-savings, but on accountability. A thorough evaluation must be utilized in the selection process. Issues of efficiency, effectiveness, quality, customer service, responsiveness, and equity must be considered by the government, in addition to cost of service. The uncertain future of health care in the United States has led those in EMS to look beyond the field's internal market to explore additional opportunities for expanding and redefining its roles beyond emergency care. It is important, however, to consider how emergency medical care, the original role of EMS, can be best delivered. Responding to emergencies is not just one of the functions involved in this field, it is the principal function from which public perception of EMS is formed, and from which support for entering other markets can

  5. Security in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jesse

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of school library security, software security, and computer security systems. Describes specific products for each type of security system. A sidebar lists names and addresses of security manufacturers and distributors. (AEF)

  6. Small private key MQPKS on an embedded microprocessor.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hwajeong; Kim, Jihyun; Choi, Jongseok; Park, Taehwan; Liu, Zhe; Kim, Howon

    2014-03-19

    Multivariate quadratic (MQ) cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to MQ cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011), a small public key MQ scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor was reported at CHES2012. However, the implementation of a small private key MQ scheme was not reported. For efficient implementation, random number generators can contribute to reduce the key size, but the cost of using a random number generator is much more complex than computing MQ on modern microprocessors. Therefore, no feasible results have been reported on embedded microprocessors. In this paper, we propose a feasible implementation on embedded microprocessors for a small private key MQ scheme using a pseudo-random number generator and hash function based on a block-cipher exploiting a hardware Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) accelerator. To speed up the performance, we apply various implementation methods, including parallel computation, on-the-fly computation, optimized logarithm representation, vinegar monomials and assembly programming. The proposed method reduces the private key size by about 99.9% and boosts signature generation and verification by 5.78% and 12.19% than previous results in CHES2012.

  7. Small Private Key PKS on an Embedded Microprocessor

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hwajeong; Kim, Jihyun; Choi, Jongseok; Park, Taehwan; Liu, Zhe; Kim, Howon

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate quadratic ( ) cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011), a small public key scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor was reported at CHES2012. However, the implementation of a small private key scheme was not reported. For efficient implementation, random number generators can contribute to reduce the key size, but the cost of using a random number generator is much more complex than computing on modern microprocessors. Therefore, no feasible results have been reported on embedded microprocessors. In this paper, we propose a feasible implementation on embedded microprocessors for a small private key scheme using a pseudo-random number generator and hash function based on a block-cipher exploiting a hardware Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) accelerator. To speed up the performance, we apply various implementation methods, including parallel computation, on-the-fly computation, optimized logarithm representation, vinegar monomials and assembly programming. The proposed method reduces the private key size by about 99.9% and boosts signature generation and verification by 5.78% and 12.19% than previous results in CHES2012. PMID:24651722

  8. There's "private" and then there's "private": ERISA, its impact, and options for reform.

    PubMed

    Borzi, Phyllis C

    2008-01-01

    The Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), a federal law regulating private employer-sponsored employee benefit plans, was primarily designed for pension plans, but has had a profound impact on state health care reform efforts. ERISA's broad preemption language has been judicially interpreted to preclude states from most forms of regulation of employer health plans, including benefit design (except through regulation of insurance products) and incorporating employer expenditure requirements in state health reform financing. But since 1974, Congress has never seriously returned to reexamine several fundamental questions: Should employers be required to offer or contribute to employee health coverage? Should ERISA preempt state efforts to take such actions? Or should ERISA incorporate more comprehensive regulation of health plans in these areas? Although the politics of ERISA preemption have thus far blocked federal reform, while allowing state reform activity to be simultaneously curtailed, new health reform efforts may force Congress to address these questions.

  9. LBNL SecureMessaging

    2003-03-17

    The LBNLSecureMessaging application enables collaboration among colocated or geograhically dispersed users by supporting secure synchronous and asynchronous communication. This application is the graphical user interface client that is meant to be used in conjunction with servers (LBNL's PCCEServer and a customized IRC server) to allow group and one-to-one conversations via text-based instant messaging. Conversations may be private (by invitation only) or public (open to any member of a collaboratory group_ and they may be permanentmore » and on-going or temporary and ad hoc. Users may leave notes for other people who are online or offline. By providing presence and awareness information, collaborators can easily locate each other and rendezvous. Written in Java/Swing, this application is cross-platform. To gain access to functionality, users have to be registered with an authorization server (PCCEServer) that maintains an access control list. Thus a collaboration group is comprised of a set of PCCE-registered users. Registered users can log in via either X.509 certificate or a username and password combination. PKI and SSL are used to authenticate servers and clients and to encrypt messages sent over the network. The LBNLSecureMessaging application offers instant messaging capabilities in a secure environment that provides data integrity, privacyk authorization, and authentication.« less

  10. Data security.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    A government-commissioned review of data security across health and care has led to the proposal of new standards for security and options for a consent/opt-out model. Standards include that all staff complete appropriate annual data security training and pass a mandatory test provided through the revised Information Governance Toolkit, that personal confidential data is only accessible to staff who need it for their current role, and that access is removed as soon as it is no longer required. The consent/opt-out model is outlined under 8 statements, and includes certain circumstances where it will not apply, for example, where there is an overriding public interest, or mandatory legal requirement.

  11. Data security.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    A government-commissioned review of data security across health and care has led to the proposal of new standards for security and options for a consent/opt-out model. Standards include that all staff complete appropriate annual data security training and pass a mandatory test provided through the revised Information Governance Toolkit, that personal confidential data is only accessible to staff who need it for their current role, and that access is removed as soon as it is no longer required. The consent/opt-out model is outlined under 8 statements, and includes certain circumstances where it will not apply, for example, where there is an overriding public interest, or mandatory legal requirement. PMID:27581899

  12. 17 CFR 275.203(b)(3)-2 - Methods for counting clients in certain private funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods for counting clients in certain private funds. 275.203(b)(3)-2 Section 275.203(b)(3)-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.203(b)(3)-2 Methods for counting...

  13. Private equity investments beyond Earth orbits: Can space exploration be the new frontier for private investments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathurin, Jeph; Peter, Nicolas

    2006-07-01

    The year 2004 can be considered an important milestone for space activities. First, on January 14, 2004 President Bush announced a new vision for human and robotic space exploration named "A Renewed Spirit of Discovery". This new space exploration policy called for "a sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system and beyond" and seeks also to "promote international and commercial participation in space exploration to further US scientific, security, and economic interests". Secondly, the satellite industry has experienced a trend of private investment fund acquisitions. Five of six major fixed and mobile satellite service providers in the world have been partly or entirely sold to conventional financial investors. These transactions have taken place despite the background noise of overcapacity, stagnant growth and declining operating margins satellite services sector. Over the last 18 months, we have seen a total of approximately US $12B dollars in private equity transactions in the satellite sector. Finally, the Ansari X prize has been won opening the possibility of the personal spaceflight revolution. This paper seeks to provide some insights into the nature, timing and a rationale for these investments in the space sector. Then, an attempt is made to analyze the potential that space exploration might present for traditional financial investors.

  14. Financing of Private Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A survey of financial institutions was undertaken by the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation to evaluate the demand and availability of private credit for enterprises that provide outdoor recreation. The survey provided basic information for (1) evaluating legislative proposals for loan guarantee programs, (2) nationwide planning, and (3) assessing the…

  15. Privatization and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    After two centuries of public higher education in the United States, the covenant between public colleges and universities and the public that created and funded them is under strain. In a time of scarce resources and changing policy in many corners of the country and around the globe, privatization has emerged as a possible replacement for the…

  16. Michigan School Privatization Survey 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daniel J.; LaFaive, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    From April 25 through June 30, 2007, the Mackinac Center for Public Policy conducted its fifth survey of the privatization of bus, food and janitorial services among Michigan's 552 conventional public school districts. All Michigan school districts responded. In 2007, the Mackinac Center also conducted a nationwide survey of state education…

  17. Public Schools: Make Them Private.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Milton

    1997-01-01

    A voucher system enabling parents to choose freely the schools their children attend is the most feasible way to improve education. Vouchers will encourage privatization. That will unleash the drive, imagination, and energy of competitive free enterprise to revolutionize the education process. Government schools will be forced to improve to retain…

  18. Financing a Private School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    A recent National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS) survey of more than 1,200 individuals who filed financial aid forms underscores the central role financial aid plays in their ability to pursue a private education for their children. This article highlights the survey findings, demonstrating why school leaders need to thoroughly analyze…

  19. View from a Private School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Tom

    1993-01-01

    Counters Jonathan Kozol's concerns about educational vouchers, insisting that $2,500 could buy a quality private school education in Montgomery, Alabama. Critiques other voucher articles in the November 1992 "Educational Leadership" issue by challenging Alex Molnar's common school system concept and Arnold Fege's substitution of societal consensus…

  20. Private Tutoring and Social Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2011-01-01

    Mastering the public school curriculum is so important to a child's occupational future that in many regions of the world "shadow" education outside of the public system has now become the norm. In one way, this is excellent news because private investment in human capital is a strong contributor to economic and social development. However,…

  1. Public vs. Private (and beyond)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliniak, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Different types of schools make for different experiences. Pros and cons abound, whether one teaches at a public, private, magnet, or charter school. Although it's certainly true that some individual schools may offer better environments for music education than others, no type of school is categorically the "best." Still, it can be instructive to…

  2. The Privatization of Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    For-profit education is not a new focus for public schools in the United States. It has been around for several decades, has stimulated considerable controversy, and has been heralded by some as a panacea for improving learning for the nation's public school students. For-profit schools are run by private, for-profit companies or organizations…

  3. Differentially Private Frequent Subgraph Mining

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shengzhi; Xiong, Li; Cheng, Xiang; Xiao, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Mining frequent subgraphs from a collection of input graphs is an important topic in data mining research. However, if the input graphs contain sensitive information, releasing frequent subgraphs may pose considerable threats to individual's privacy. In this paper, we study the problem of frequent subgraph mining (FGM) under the rigorous differential privacy model. We introduce a novel differentially private FGM algorithm, which is referred to as DFG. In this algorithm, we first privately identify frequent subgraphs from input graphs, and then compute the noisy support of each identified frequent subgraph. In particular, to privately identify frequent subgraphs, we present a frequent subgraph identification approach which can improve the utility of frequent subgraph identifications through candidates pruning. Moreover, to compute the noisy support of each identified frequent subgraph, we devise a lattice-based noisy support derivation approach, where a series of methods has been proposed to improve the accuracy of the noisy supports. Through formal privacy analysis, we prove that our DFG algorithm satisfies ε-differential privacy. Extensive experimental results on real datasets show that the DFG algorithm can privately find frequent subgraphs with high data utility.

  4. Differentially Private Frequent Subgraph Mining

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shengzhi; Xiong, Li; Cheng, Xiang; Xiao, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Mining frequent subgraphs from a collection of input graphs is an important topic in data mining research. However, if the input graphs contain sensitive information, releasing frequent subgraphs may pose considerable threats to individual's privacy. In this paper, we study the problem of frequent subgraph mining (FGM) under the rigorous differential privacy model. We introduce a novel differentially private FGM algorithm, which is referred to as DFG. In this algorithm, we first privately identify frequent subgraphs from input graphs, and then compute the noisy support of each identified frequent subgraph. In particular, to privately identify frequent subgraphs, we present a frequent subgraph identification approach which can improve the utility of frequent subgraph identifications through candidates pruning. Moreover, to compute the noisy support of each identified frequent subgraph, we devise a lattice-based noisy support derivation approach, where a series of methods has been proposed to improve the accuracy of the noisy supports. Through formal privacy analysis, we prove that our DFG algorithm satisfies ε-differential privacy. Extensive experimental results on real datasets show that the DFG algorithm can privately find frequent subgraphs with high data utility. PMID:27616876

  5. The impact of privatization on access in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Benson, J S

    2001-06-01

    In the late 1980s, many developing countries were forced to adopt structural adjustment policies as a condition for securing loans from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. One of the World Bank's recommended policies was to change the mix of private and public health facilities. This study, based on fieldwork done in Tanzania in 1993, examines the impact of this policy on health-care accessibility in two northern Tanzanian districts, one rural and one urban. Accessibility was measured in terms of equality and equity of coverage. The placement of the very few government clinics opened during the years 1985-1993 did much more to improve coverage than the haphazard location of many new private clinics. Equity was not improved as very few clinics were placed in demographically needy areas.

  6. Snore related signals processing in a private cloud computing system.

    PubMed

    Qian, Kun; Guo, Jian; Xu, Huijie; Zhu, Zhaomeng; Zhang, Gongxuan

    2014-09-01

    Snore related signals (SRS) have been demonstrated to carry important information about the obstruction site and degree in the upper airway of Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) patients in recent years. To make this acoustic signal analysis method more accurate and robust, big SRS data processing is inevitable. As an emerging concept and technology, cloud computing has motivated numerous researchers and engineers to exploit applications both in academic and industry field, which could have an ability to implement a huge blue print in biomedical engineering. Considering the security and transferring requirement of biomedical data, we designed a system based on private cloud computing to process SRS. Then we set the comparable experiments of processing a 5-hour audio recording of an OSAHS patient by a personal computer, a server and a private cloud computing system to demonstrate the efficiency of the infrastructure we proposed. PMID:25205499

  7. Snore related signals processing in a private cloud computing system.

    PubMed

    Qian, Kun; Guo, Jian; Xu, Huijie; Zhu, Zhaomeng; Zhang, Gongxuan

    2014-09-01

    Snore related signals (SRS) have been demonstrated to carry important information about the obstruction site and degree in the upper airway of Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) patients in recent years. To make this acoustic signal analysis method more accurate and robust, big SRS data processing is inevitable. As an emerging concept and technology, cloud computing has motivated numerous researchers and engineers to exploit applications both in academic and industry field, which could have an ability to implement a huge blue print in biomedical engineering. Considering the security and transferring requirement of biomedical data, we designed a system based on private cloud computing to process SRS. Then we set the comparable experiments of processing a 5-hour audio recording of an OSAHS patient by a personal computer, a server and a private cloud computing system to demonstrate the efficiency of the infrastructure we proposed.

  8. Quantum Private Comparison Protocol Based on Cluster States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Long, Dongyang

    2013-01-01

    We present a quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol, enabling two players to compare the equality of their information without revealing any information about their respective private inputs, in which the four-particle cluster states as the information carriers are used. The presented protocol can ensure correctness, privacy, and fairness with the assistance of a semi-trusted third party (TP). Meanwhile, the participants including the TP are just required having the ability to perform single-particle measurements, which make the presented protocol more feasible in technique. Furthermore, the photon transmission is a one-way distribution; the Trojan horse attacks can be automatically avoided. The security of this protocol is also analyzed.

  9. Universalism without the targeting: privatizing the old-age welfare state.

    PubMed

    Herd, Pamela

    2005-06-01

    Decades of conservative attempts to scale back Social Security and Medicare, by limiting the program's universality through means testing and drastic benefit cuts, have failed. Thus, after numerous unsuccessful attempts at dismantling the U.S.'s universal old-age welfare state, or even meaningfully restraining its growth, conservative critics have developed a new approach. They are wrapping promarket "privatization" policy proposals in the popular universal framework of Social Security and Medicare. What is fundamentally different about privatization is that it embraces (or at least acquiesces to) key aspects of universalism, including broad-based eligibility and benefits that "maintain accustomed standards of living," which leave universal programs with rock-hard public support. Proponents argue privatization will "save" these programs. What distinguishes this approach from past retrenchment efforts is that promarket privatization policies, while supporting key universal tenets, will retrench Social Security's and Medicare's redistributive facets. Instead of limiting the most popular features of universalism, privatization proposals limit the redistributive elements of our large social insurance programs.

  10. Improving mask registration and wafer overlay control using an ultrashort pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avizemer, Dan; Dmitriev, Vladimir; Hibbs, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Requirements for control of mask registration errors and wafer overlay errors become more demanding as the integrated circuit (IC) feature size specifications become tighter and tighter. Registration control, also known as RegC, is a well-known laser-based process in the IC industry that has proven to be robust, repeatable, and efficient in adjusting mask registration and wafer overlay. Using an ultrashort pulsed laser, microscopic deformation elements, strain centers, which are also known as pixels, are generated deep inside the fused silica mask substrate causing strain. The induced strain moves the mask pattern in predicted calculated directions to reduce the measured image placement error (IPE). RegC corrections can be applied in two different ways: as a periphery-mask correction, which places the strain centers in the mask frame area outside the exposure field, or as a full-mask correction, that places the strain centers across the entire mask, including the exposure field. Relative pattern displacements up to 1 nm can be achieved between sites located at a distance of 1 mm, reducing the magnitude of the residual IPE by an average of 20% (10% to 25% range) for a periphery correction or 40% (20% to 50% range) for a full-mask correction. The input data for the RegC process are typically taken from mask registration information, which is measured by registration metrology tools or measured from wafer overlay (the latter is not within the scope of this paper). This paper reviews the RegC process flow for improving mask registration in mask shops.

  11. Adaptive on-line estimation and control of overlay tool bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Victor M.; Finn, Karen; Edgar, Thomas F.

    2003-06-01

    Modern lithographic manufacturing processes rely on various types of exposure tools, used in a mix-and-match fashion. The motivation to use older tools alongside state-of-the-art tools is lower cost and one of the tradeoffs is a degradation in overlay performance. While average prices of semiconductor products continue to fall, the cost of manufacturing equipment rises with every product generation. Lithography processing, including the cost of ownership for tools, accounts for roughly 30% of the wafer processing costs, thus the importance of mix-and-match strategies. Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) run-by-run controllers are widely used in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. This type of controller has been implemented successfully in volume manufacturing, improving Cpk values dramatically in processes like photolithography and chemical mechanical planarization. This simple, but powerful control scheme is well suited for adding corrections to compensate for Overlay Tool Bias (OTB). We have developed an adaptive estimation technique to compensate for overlay variability due to differences in the processing tools. The OTB can be dynamically calculated for each tool, based on the most recent measurements available, and used to correct the control variables. One approach to tracking the effect of different tools is adaptive modeling and control. The basic premise of an adaptive system is to change or adapt the controller as the operating conditions of the system change. Using closed-loop data, the adaptive control algorithm estimates the controller parameters using a recursive estimation technique. Once an updated model of the system is available, modelbased control becomes feasible. In the simplest scenario, the control law can be reformulated to include the current state of the tool (or its estimate) to compensate dynamically for OTB. We have performed simulation studies to predict the impact of deploying this strategy in production. The results

  12. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1993--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1993-07-20

    Twelve weld overlay hardfacing alloys have been selected for preliminary erosion testing based upon a literature review. Four of the selected coatings were deposited on a 1018 steel substrate using plasma arc welding process. During the past quarter, the remaining eight coatings were deposited in the same manner. Ten samples from each coatings were prepared for erosion testing. Microstructural characterization of each coating is in progress. This progress report describes coating deposition and sample preparation procedures. Relation between coatings hardness and formation of cracks in coatings is discussed.

  13. A theoretical study of symmetry-breaking organic overlayers on single- and bi-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Cifuentes, Josue; Einstein, T. L.

    2013-03-01

    An ``overlayer'' of molecules that breaks the AB symmetry of graphene can produce (modify) a band gap in single- (bi-) layer graphene.[2] Since the triangular shaped trimesic acid (TMA) molecule forms two familiar symmetry breaking configurations, we are motivated to model TMA physisorption on graphene surfaces in conjunction with experiments by Groce et al. at UMD. Using VASP, with ab initio van der Waals density functionals (vdW-DF), we simulate adsorption of TMA onto a graphene surface in several symmetry-breaking arrangements in order to predict/understand the effect of TMA adsorption on experimental observables. Supported by NSF-MRSEC Grant DMR 05-20471.

  14. The neoliberal political economy and erosion of retirement security.

    PubMed

    Polivka, Larry; Luo, Baozhen

    2015-04-01

    The origins and trajectory of the crisis in the United States retirement security system have slowly become part of the discussion about the social, political, and economic impacts of population aging. Private sources of retirement security have weakened significantly since 1980 as employers have converted defined benefits precisions to defined contribution plans. The Center for Retirement Research (CRR) now estimates that over half of boomer generation retirees will not receive 70-80% of their wages while working. This erosion of the private retirement security system will likely increase reliance on the public system, mainly Social Security and Medicare. These programs, however, have increasingly become the targets of critics who claim that they are not financially sustainable in their current form and must be significantly modified. This article will focus on an analysis of these trends in the erosion of the United States retirement security system and their connection to changes in the United States political economy as neoliberal, promarket ideology, and policies (low taxes, reduced spending, and deregulation) have become dominant in the private and public sectors. The neoliberal priority on reducing labor costs and achieving maximum shareholder value has created an environment inimical to maintain the traditional system of pension and health care benefits in both the private and public sectors. This article explores the implications of these neoliberal trends in the United States economy for the future of retirement security.

  15. Private genome analysis through homomorphic encryption

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The rapid development of genome sequencing technology allows researchers to access large genome datasets. However, outsourcing the data processing o the cloud poses high risks for personal privacy. The aim of this paper is to give a practical solution for this problem using homomorphic encryption. In our approach, all the computations can be performed in an untrusted cloud without requiring the decryption key or any interaction with the data owner, which preserves the privacy of genome data. Methods We present evaluation algorithms for secure computation of the minor allele frequencies and χ2 statistic in a genome-wide association studies setting. We also describe how to privately compute the Hamming distance and approximate Edit distance between encrypted DNA sequences. Finally, we compare performance details of using two practical homomorphic encryption schemes - the BGV scheme by Gentry, Halevi and Smart and the YASHE scheme by Bos, Lauter, Loftus and Naehrig. Results The approach with the YASHE scheme analyzes data from 400 people within about 2 seconds and picks a variant associated with disease from 311 spots. For another task, using the BGV scheme, it took about 65 seconds to securely compute the approximate Edit distance for DNA sequences of size 5K and figure out the differences between them. Conclusions The performance numbers for BGV are better than YASHE when homomorphically evaluating deep circuits (like the Hamming distance algorithm or approximate Edit distance algorithm). On the other hand, it is more efficient to use the YASHE scheme for a low-degree computation, such as minor allele frequencies or χ2 test statistic in a case-control study. PMID:26733152

  16. 17 CFR 240.12h-6 - Certification by a foreign private issuer regarding the termination of registration of a class of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certification by a foreign private issuer regarding the termination of registration of a class of securities under section 12(g) or the duty to file reports under section 13(a) or section 15(d). 240.12h-6 Section 240.12h-6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...

  17. Assessment of Potential Location of High Arsenic Contamination Using Fuzzy Overlay and Spatial Anisotropy Approach in Iron Mine Surrounding Area

    PubMed Central

    Wirojanagud, Wanpen; Srisatit, Thares

    2014-01-01

    Fuzzy overlay approach on three raster maps including land slope, soil type, and distance to stream can be used to identify the most potential locations of high arsenic contamination in soils. Verification of high arsenic contamination was made by collection samples and analysis of arsenic content and interpolation surface by spatial anisotropic method. A total of 51 soil samples were collected at the potential contaminated location clarified by fuzzy overlay approach. At each location, soil samples were taken at the depth of 0.00-1.00 m from the surface ground level. Interpolation surface of the analysed arsenic content using spatial anisotropic would verify the potential arsenic contamination location obtained from fuzzy overlay outputs. Both outputs of the spatial surface anisotropic and the fuzzy overlay mapping were significantly spatially conformed. Three contaminated areas with arsenic concentrations of 7.19 ± 2.86, 6.60 ± 3.04, and 4.90 ± 2.67 mg/kg exceeded the arsenic content of 3.9 mg/kg, the maximum concentration level (MCL) for agricultural soils as designated by Office of National Environment Board of Thailand. It is concluded that fuzzy overlay mapping could be employed for identification of potential contamination area with the verification by surface anisotropic approach including intensive sampling and analysis of the substances of interest. PMID:25110751

  18. Assessment of potential location of high arsenic contamination using fuzzy overlay and spatial anisotropy approach in iron mine surrounding area.

    PubMed

    Weerasiri, Thanes; Wirojanagud, Wanpen; Srisatit, Thares

    2014-01-01

    Fuzzy overlay approach on three raster maps including land slope, soil type, and distance to stream can be used to identify the most potential locations of high arsenic contamination in soils. Verification of high arsenic contamination was made by collection samples and analysis of arsenic content and interpolation surface by spatial anisotropic method. A total of 51 soil samples were collected at the potential contaminated location clarified by fuzzy overlay approach. At each location, soil samples were taken at the depth of 0.00-1.00 m from the surface ground level. Interpolation surface of the analysed arsenic content using spatial anisotropic would verify the potential arsenic contamination location obtained from fuzzy overlay outputs. Both outputs of the spatial surface anisotropic and the fuzzy overlay mapping were significantly spatially conformed. Three contaminated areas with arsenic concentrations of 7.19 ± 2.86, 6.60 ± 3.04, and 4.90 ± 2.67 mg/kg exceeded the arsenic content of 3.9 mg/kg, the maximum concentration level (MCL) for agricultural soils as designated by Office of National Environment Board of Thailand. It is concluded that fuzzy overlay mapping could be employed for identification of potential contamination area with the verification by surface anisotropic approach including intensive sampling and analysis of the substances of interest.

  19. A nanometric Rh overlayer on a metal foil surface as a highly efficient three-way catalyst.

    PubMed

    Misumi, Satoshi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Hinokuma, Satoshi; Sato, Tetsuya; Machida, Masato

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed arc-plasma (AP) deposition of an Rh overlayer on an Fe-Cr-Al stainless steel foil produced a composite material that exhibited high activity for automotive three-way catalysis (TWC). The AP pulses deposited metallic Rh nanoparticles 1-3 nm in size, whose density on the surface increased with the number of pulses. This led to coalescence and grain growth on the foil surface and the eventual formation of a uniform two-dimensional Rh overlayer. Full coverage of the 51 μm-thick flat foil by a 3.2 nm-thick Rh overlayer was achieved after 1,000 pulses. A simulated TWC reaction using a miniature honeycomb fabricated using flat and corrugated foils with the Rh overlayers exhibited successful light-off at a practical gaseous hourly space velocity of 1.2 × 10(5) h(-1). The turnover frequency for the NO-CO reaction over the metallic honeycomb catalyst was ca. 80-fold greater than that achieved with a reference Rh/ZrO2-coated cordierite honeycomb prepared using a conventional wet impregnation and slurry coating procedure. Despite the nonporosity and low surface area of the foil-supported Rh overlayer compared with conventional powder catalysts (Rh/ZrO2), it is a promising alternative design for more efficient automotive catalysts that use less Rh loading. PMID:27388976

  20. IMPERMEABLE THIN Al2O3 OVERLAY FOR TBC PROTECTION FROM SULFATE AND VANADATE ATTACK IN GAS TURBINES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott X. Mao

    2003-06-10

    In order to improve the hot corrosion resistance of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay has been deposited on the surface of YSZ by electron-beam physical vapor deposition. Currently, hot corrosion tests were performed on the YSZ coatings with and without Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay in molten salt mixture (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 0 {approx} 15wt%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) at 950 C in order to investigate the effect of amount of vanadate on the hot corrosion behaviors. The results showed that the presence of in V{sub 2}O{sub 5} the molten salt exacerbates the degradation of both the monolithic YSZ coating and the composite YSZ/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. The formation of low-melting Na{sub 2}O-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} liquid phase is responsible for degradation of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay acts as a barrier against the infiltration of the molten salt into the YSZ coating during exposure to the molten salt mixture with <5wt% vanadate. In the next reporting period, we will use XPS and SIMS to study the interactions between alumina overlay and molten salt containing vanadate.

  1. A nanometric Rh overlayer on a metal foil surface as a highly efficient three-way catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Misumi, Satoshi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Hinokuma, Satoshi; Sato, Tetsuya; Machida, Masato

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed arc-plasma (AP) deposition of an Rh overlayer on an Fe–Cr–Al stainless steel foil produced a composite material that exhibited high activity for automotive three-way catalysis (TWC). The AP pulses deposited metallic Rh nanoparticles 1–3 nm in size, whose density on the surface increased with the number of pulses. This led to coalescence and grain growth on the foil surface and the eventual formation of a uniform two-dimensional Rh overlayer. Full coverage of the 51 μm-thick flat foil by a 3.2 nm-thick Rh overlayer was achieved after 1,000 pulses. A simulated TWC reaction using a miniature honeycomb fabricated using flat and corrugated foils with the Rh overlayers exhibited successful light-off at a practical gaseous hourly space velocity of 1.2 × 105 h−1. The turnover frequency for the NO–CO reaction over the metallic honeycomb catalyst was ca. 80-fold greater than that achieved with a reference Rh/ZrO2-coated cordierite honeycomb prepared using a conventional wet impregnation and slurry coating procedure. Despite the nonporosity and low surface area of the foil-supported Rh overlayer compared with conventional powder catalysts (Rh/ZrO2), it is a promising alternative design for more efficient automotive catalysts that use less Rh loading. PMID:27388976

  2. Impermeable thin AI2O3 overlay for TBC protection from sulfate and vanadate attack in gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Scott X. Mao

    2005-01-31

    25 {micro}m and a 2 {micro}m thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay were deposited by HVOF thermal spray and by sol-gel coating method, respectively, onto to the surface of YSZ coating. Indenter test was employed to investigate the spalling of YSZ with and without Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay after hot corrosion. The results showed that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay acted as a barrier against the infiltration of the molten salt into the YSZ coating during exposure, thus significantly reduced the amount of M-phase of ZrO{sub 2} in YSZ coating. Thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay will increase compressive stress and failure in TBC. During next reporting time, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay will be deposited on the YSZ surface by the composite-sol-gel route (CSG). Hot corrosion tests will be carried out on the TBC.

  3. A nanometric Rh overlayer on a metal foil surface as a highly efficient three-way catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misumi, Satoshi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Hinokuma, Satoshi; Sato, Tetsuya; Machida, Masato

    2016-07-01

    Pulsed arc-plasma (AP) deposition of an Rh overlayer on an Fe–Cr–Al stainless steel foil produced a composite material that exhibited high activity for automotive three-way catalysis (TWC). The AP pulses deposited metallic Rh nanoparticles 1–3 nm in size, whose density on the surface increased with the number of pulses. This led to coalescence and grain growth on the foil surface and the eventual formation of a uniform two-dimensional Rh overlayer. Full coverage of the 51 μm-thick flat foil by a 3.2 nm-thick Rh overlayer was achieved after 1,000 pulses. A simulated TWC reaction using a miniature honeycomb fabricated using flat and corrugated foils with the Rh overlayers exhibited successful light-off at a practical gaseous hourly space velocity of 1.2 × 105 h‑1. The turnover frequency for the NO–CO reaction over the metallic honeycomb catalyst was ca. 80-fold greater than that achieved with a reference Rh/ZrO2-coated cordierite honeycomb prepared using a conventional wet impregnation and slurry coating procedure. Despite the nonporosity and low surface area of the foil-supported Rh overlayer compared with conventional powder catalysts (Rh/ZrO2), it is a promising alternative design for more efficient automotive catalysts that use less Rh loading.

  4. Reducing overlay sampling for APC-based correction per exposure by replacing measured data with computational prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyes, Ben F.; Mokaberi, Babak; Oh, Jong Hun; Kim, Hyun Sik; Sung, Jun Ha; Kea, Marc

    2016-03-01

    One of the keys to successful mass production of sub-20nm nodes in the semiconductor industry is the development of an overlay correction strategy that can meet specifications, reduce the number of layers that require dedicated chuck overlay, and minimize measurement time. Three important aspects of this strategy are: correction per exposure (CPE), integrated metrology (IM), and the prioritization of automated correction over manual subrecipes. The first and third aspects are accomplished through an APC system that uses measurements from production lots to generate CPE corrections that are dynamically applied to future lots. The drawback of this method is that production overlay sampling must be extremely high in order to provide the system with enough data to generate CPE. That drawback makes IM particularly difficult because of the throughput impact that can be created on expensive bottleneck photolithography process tools. The goal is to realize the cycle time and feedback benefits of IM coupled with the enhanced overlay correction capability of automated CPE without impacting process tool throughput. This paper will discuss the development of a system that sends measured data with reduced sampling via an optimized layout to the exposure tool's computational modelling platform to predict and create "upsampled" overlay data in a customizable output layout that is compatible with the fab user CPE APC system. The result is dynamic CPE without the burden of extensive measurement time, which leads to increased utilization of IM.

  5. 78 FR 44536 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Licensing of Private Remote-Sensing Space Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... of Private Remote-Sensing Space Systems AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... of remote-sensing space systems. The information in applications and subsequent reports is needed to ensure compliance with the Land Remote- Sensing Policy Act of 1992 and with the national security...

  6. 44 CFR 5.84 - Production of documents in private litigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Production of documents in private litigation. 5.84 Section 5.84 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION Subpoenas or Other Legal Demands for Testimony or...

  7. 44 CFR 5.84 - Production of documents in private litigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Production of documents in private litigation. 5.84 Section 5.84 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION Subpoenas or Other Legal Demands for Testimony or...

  8. 44 CFR 5.84 - Production of documents in private litigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Production of documents in private litigation. 5.84 Section 5.84 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION Subpoenas...

  9. 44 CFR 5.84 - Production of documents in private litigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Production of documents in private litigation. 5.84 Section 5.84 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION Subpoenas...

  10. Second Line of Defense Virtual Private Network Guidance for Deployed and New CAS Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Surya V.; Thronas, Aaron I.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of remote access via virtual private network (VPN) for the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Central Alarm System (CAS) sites, the requirements for maintaining secure channels while using VPN and implementation requirements for current and future sites.

  11. 28 CFR 50.16 - Representation of Federal employees by private counsel at Federal expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... retained under this section. Where national security interests may be involved, the Department of Justice... private counsel at Federal expense. 50.16 Section 50.16 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... provided, the following procedures shall apply: (1) While the Department of Justice will generally defer...

  12. 44 CFR 5.87 - Testimony of FEMA employees in private litigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Testimony of FEMA employees in private litigation. 5.87 Section 5.87 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION...

  13. Private Education in Chile under the Military Regime (1973-1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magendzo, Abraham; And Others

    This paper analyzes the development of private education in Chile since the military coup of 1973, in the context of the military regime's neoconservative political and ideological aims. Despite these professed aims, copious evidence is presented to suggest that the need of an authoritarian state to maintain "national security" by suppressing all…

  14. 77 FR 15566 - Private Transfer Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... any private transfer fee covenants. (75 FR 49932). As described in the proposed guidance, private... (76 FR 6702) inviting comments on a proposal that incorporated a number of changes to the substance...

  15. NASA and Public-Private Partnerships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews ways to build public-private partnerships with NASA, and the many efforts that Ames Research Center is engaged in in building partnerships with private businesses, not profit organizations and universities.

  16. Education and the Private Finance Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Clive

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the development of Private Finance Initiative schemes in the United Kingdom, and reflects on how profitable opportunities for private financiers and construction companies were created at the expense of the public sector. (Contains 72 notes.)

  17. Private School Universe Survey: 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broughman, Stephen P.; Colaciello, Lenore A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents universe data on private schools, teachers, and students by school size, school level, religious orientation, geographic region, community type, and program emphasis. Data are from the National Center for Education Statistics Private School Survey. (Author/SLD)

  18. 75 FR 39090 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... procedures to be used in applications for exemption under the Airport Privatization Pilot Program (62 FR... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Gwinnett County Airport Briscoe Field (LZU), Lawrenceville, Georgia. SUMMARY: The Federal...

  19. 75 FR 68018 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... procedures to be used in applications for exemption under Airport Privatization Pilot Program (62 FR 48693... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Airglades Airport (2IS), Clewiston, Florida. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)...

  20. Privatization and the Globalization of Energy Markets

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    Discusses recent efforts at privatization in petroleum, electricity, and coal, as well as the impetus that privatization has provided in fostering the evolution of the multinational and multidimensional energy company.

  1. Participation of the Private Sector in the Provision of Early Childhood Care, Development, and Education: Issues, Challenges, and Way Forward in Nigeria's Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthew, Ige Akindele

    2015-01-01

    While all children have a right to quality care and education in their early years, how to secure that right, especially in resource-limited contexts, is the subject of much debate. For some nations, private schools can seem like a good option, requiring few federal resources. However, the privatization of early education presents significant…

  2. Water security - Nation state and international security implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tindall, James A.; Andrew A. Campbell,

    2009-01-01

    A terrorist attack such as poisoning and sabotage of the national water supply and water-quality infrastructure of the continental United States or any country, could disrupt the delivery of vital human services, threaten both public health and the environment, potentially cause mass casualties and pose grave public concern for homeland security. Most significantly, an attack on water resources would weaken social cohesion and trust in government. A threat to continuity of services is a potential threat to continuity of government since both are necessary for continuity of operations. Water infrastructure is difficult to protect, as it extends over vast areas across the U.S. and for which ownership is overwhelmingly nonfederal (approximately 85 percent). Since the 9111 attacks, federal dam operators and water and wastewater utilities have established counter measures. Similar measures have been taken in countries around the world. These include enhanced physical security, improved coordination between corporate ownership, Department of Homeland Security, and local law enforcement, and research into risk assessment and vulnerability analysis to ensure greater system safety. A key issue is the proportionate additional resources directed at public and private sector specific priorities. Agencies that have the scientific and technological ability to leverage resources, exploit integrated science approaches, focus on interdisciplinary practices, utilize informatics expertise and employ a wide use of evolving technologies should play a key role in water security and related issues.

  3. Mental Health Services at Selected Private Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoof, Thomas J.; Sherwin, Tierney E.; Baggish, Rosemary C.; Tacy, Peter B.; Meehan, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    Private schools educate a significant percentage of US children and adolescents. Private schools, particularly where students reside during the academic year, assume responsibility for the health and well-being of their students. Children and adolescents experience mental health problems at a predictable rate, and private schools need a mechanism…

  4. 22 CFR 216.4 - Private applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Private applicants. 216.4 Section 216.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.4 Private applicants. Programs, projects or activities for which financing from A.I.D. is sought by private applicants, such as PVOs...

  5. The Privatization of Education in Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naradowski, Mariono; Andrada, Myrian

    2001-01-01

    Describes historical and current trends in Argentina's private and public primary- and secondary-school enrollment levels and policy reasons behind changes, including deregulation of private schools. Evaluates research analyzing impact of increased private-school enrollment; argues middle- and high-income students are opting out of public schools…

  6. Mathematic Achievement of Canadian Private School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadigan, Francoise Jane; Wei, Yichun; Clifton, Rodney A.

    2013-01-01

    Very little Canadian research has examined the academic achievement of private school students. Data from The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 were used to examine the achievement of private school students. The study found that private school students outperformed their public school peers. In addition, the…

  7. 45 CFR 84.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Private education. 84.39 Section 84.39 Public... Secondary Education § 84.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  8. 45 CFR 605.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Private education. 605.39 Section 605.39 Public..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped...

  9. 7 CFR 15b.28 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  10. 7 CFR 15b.28 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  11. 38 CFR 18.439 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Private education. 18.439... Adult Education § 18.439 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the...

  12. 7 CFR 15b.28 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  13. 45 CFR 605.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Private education. 605.39 Section 605.39 Public..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped...

  14. 7 CFR 15b.28 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  15. 38 CFR 18.439 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Private education. 18.439... Adult Education § 18.439 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the...

  16. 38 CFR 18.439 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Private education. 18.439... Adult Education § 18.439 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the...

  17. 38 CFR 18.439 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private education. 18.439... Adult Education § 18.439 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the...

  18. 45 CFR 84.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Private education. 84.39 Section 84.39 Public... Secondary Education § 84.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...

  19. 45 CFR 605.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Private education. 605.39 Section 605.39 Public..., Elementary, and Secondary Education § 605.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped...

  20. 45 CFR 84.39 - Private education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Private education. 84.39 Section 84.39 Public... Secondary Education § 84.39 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or secondary education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person if the person can,...