Science.gov

Sample records for private pay patients

  1. Private Schools and the Willingness to Pay for Public Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasington, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Households pay a premium to live in houses assigned to high quality public schools, and the housing market yields information about the demand for public school quality. The current study estimates a two-stage house price hedonic emphasizing the role that private schools play in the willingness to pay for public school quality. The elasticity of…

  2. Private Pay Progression. Research Brief. Edition 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Jake

    2015-01-01

    While the issue of access to the professions is relatively well understood, there is limited understanding of the impact of entrants' backgrounds on success once in graduate employment. The research looks at the way social background continues to influence graduate pay and career progression once in professional employment. Key findings include:…

  3. 32 CFR 728.14 - Pay patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pay patients. 728.14 Section 728.14 National... § 728.14 Pay patients. Care is provided on a reimbursable basis to: Coast Guard active duty officers..., patient administration personnel will initiate the collection action process in subpart J in each...

  4. 32 CFR 728.36 - Pay patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pay patients. 728.36 Section 728.36 National... Services § 728.36 Pay patients. Care is provided on a reimbursable basis to retired Coast Guard officers... such personnel. Accordingly, patient administration personnel will follow the provisions of subpart...

  5. One-stop shop. The houseworks experience: redefining innovations in private-pay home care.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Andrea

    2005-07-01

    For more than thirty years, forward-looking gerontologists and entrepreneurs have realized the potential market for private-pay home care services and have proposed creative approaches to meeting the projected demand. Innovative ventures ranging from "life care at home" to "virtual retirement communities" have been launched throughout the country in an attempt to meet a growing need while responding to an unprecedented business opportunity. While these ventures reflect intriguing ideas, the story of an unconventional private-pay home care company in Greater Boston suggests that innovation and creativity are most needed to transform the fundamentals of private-pay service delivery: responsiveness, reliability, customer service, and sales.

  6. Gender Differences in Pay among Recent Graduates: Private Sector Employees in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Helen; Smyth, Emer; O'Connell, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we seek to investigate the role of different factors in accounting for the differences in earnings among recent graduates working in the private sector in Ireland. Three years after graduation there is a pay gap of 8 per cent in hourly wages between male and female graduates in the private sector and a 4 per cent non-significant gap…

  7. Pay and Perks Creep Up for Private-College Presidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stripling, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Private-college presidents often draw scrutiny for their hefty compensation packages, but most of them have a ready comeback: I could make a lot more money in the corporate world. While this statement is surely sometimes true, it is also true that some of the nation's top-paid presidents continue to receive perks that their corporate counterparts…

  8. Paying pharmacists for patient care

    PubMed Central

    Houle, Sherilyn K. D.; Grindrod, Kelly A.; Chatterley, Trish; Tsuyuki, Ross T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Expansion of scope of practice and diminishing revenues from dispensing are requiring pharmacists to increasingly adopt clinical care services into their practices. Pharmacists must be able to receive payment in order for provision of clinical care to be sustainable. The objective of this study is to update a previous systematic review by identifying remunerated pharmacist clinical care programs worldwide and reporting on uptake and patient care outcomes observed as a result. Methods: Literature searches were performed in several databases, including MEDLINE, Embase and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, for papers referencing remuneration, pharmacy and cognitive services. Searches of the grey literature and Internet were also conducted. Papers and programs were identified up to December 2012 and were included if they were not reported in our previous review. One author performed data abstraction, which was independently reviewed by a second author. All results are presented descriptively. Results: Sixty new remunerated programs were identified across Canada, the United States, Europe, Australia and New Zealand, ranging in complexity from emergency contraception counseling to minor ailments schemes and comprehensive medication management. In North America, the average fee provided for a medication review is $68.86 (all figures are given in Canadian dollars), with $23.37 offered for a follow-up visit and $15.16 for prescription adaptations. Time-dependent fees were reimbursed at $93.60 per hour on average. Few programs evaluated uptake and outcomes of these services but, when available, indicated slow uptake but improved chronic disease markers and cost savings. Discussion: Remuneration for pharmacists’ clinical care services is highly variable, with few programs reporting program outcomes. Programs and pharmacists are encouraged to examine the time required to perform these activities and the outcomes achieved to ensure that fees are adequate to

  9. Willingness to pay for private and public road safety in stated preference studies: why the difference?

    PubMed

    Svensson, Mikael; Vredin Johansson, Maria

    2010-07-01

    Estimates of the willingness to pay (WTP) for a mortality risk reduction can be used to calculate the value of a statistical life, which is a major component in many economic evaluations of environmental and safety policies. Previous research on the WTP for risk reductions using stated preference methods have found that the mean WTP for public risk reductions is significantly smaller compared to the mean WTP for private risk reductions of equal magnitude. Hence, the use of a private or public scenario in stated preference studies of e.g. environmental or safety policies may strongly determine the outcome of the economic evaluation. In this paper we use a stated preference survey to show that WTP for a private risk reduction is three times higher compared to a public risk reduction and a significant part of the difference can be explained by respondents' attitudes towards privately and publicly provided goods in general.

  10. 32 CFR 728.113 - Categories of pay patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Categories of pay patients. 728.113 Section 728.113 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL MEDICAL AND... Pay Patients § 728.113 Categories of pay patients. The categories of patients for whom...

  11. Faculty and Administrator Perspectives of Merit Pay Compensation Systems in Private Higher Education: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Anne L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory sequential mixed methods study is to explore faculty and administrator perspectives of faculty merit pay compensation systems in private, higher education institutions. The study focuses on 10 small, private, four-year institutions which are religiously affiliated. All institutions are located in Nebraska, Iowa, and…

  12. Study of patients who chose private health care for treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, J; Wiles, R

    1992-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was carried out in 1991 in Wessex regional health authority of a sample of private patients having inpatient treatment in eight independent hospitals, and in pay beds in three National Health Service hospitals. A total of 649 patients replied (response rate 60.7%). Sixty respondents to the questionnaire were also interviewed. The aim of the study was to discover which groups of people chose private care rather than using the NHS, and why. In view of the current emphasis on consumerism in health care, the study also aimed to examine how patients exercised choice in a market situation and how well informed they were when they did so. The questionnaire asked about the role and influence of the general practitioner in patients' decisions to use private health care for treatment. The largest group of respondents were in the 36-50 years age group (34.2%). Of the respondents 59.9% were women, 54.1% were in social class 2 and 77.3% were married or cohabiting. The most common reason for using private health care for treatment was to avoid NHS waiting lists (61.5% of respondents) although they did not necessarily know how long that wait would have been. Patients sought their general practitioner's opinion about whether to use private health care in 187 cases (28.8%). The majority of the 649 patients (71.2%) had decided to use private health care before consulting the general practitioner. However, patients were influenced by their general practitioner's advice on the choice of consultant and choice of hospital.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1457153

  13. Willingness to pay for private primary care services in Hong Kong: are elderly ready to move from the public sector?

    PubMed

    Liu, Su; Yam, Carrie H K; Huang, Olivia H Y; Griffiths, Sian M

    2013-10-01

    How to provide better primary care and achieve the right level of public-private balance in doing so is at the centre of many healthcare reforms around the world. In a healthcare system like Hong Kong, where inpatient services are largely funded through general taxation and ambulatory services out of pocket, the family doctor model of primary care is underdeveloped. Since 2008, the Government has taken forward various initiatives to promote primary care and encourage more use of private services. However, little is known in Hong Kong or elsewhere about consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for private services when care is available in the public sector. This study assessed willingness of the Hong Kong elderly to pay for specific primary care and preventive services in the private sector, through a cross-sectional in-person questionnaire survey and focus group discussions among respondents. The survey revealed that the WTP for private services in general was low among the elderly; particularly, reported WTP for chronic conditions and preventive care both fell below the current market prices. Sub-group analysis showed higher WTP among healthier and more affluent elderly. Among other things, concerns over affordability and uncertainty (of price and quality) in the private sector were associated with this low level of WTP. These results suggest that most elderly, who are heavy users of public health services but with limited income, may not use more private services without seeing significant reduction in price. Financial incentives for consumers alone may not be enough to promote primary care or public-private partnership. Public education on the value of prevention and primary care, as well as supply-side interventions should both be considered. Hong Kong's policy-making process of the initiative studied here may also provide lessons for other countries with ongoing healthcare reforms.

  14. Are the affluent prepared to pay for the planet? Explaining willingness to pay for public and quasi-private environmental goods in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Liebe, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    A large number of ‘environmental justice’ studies show that wealthier people are less affected by environmental burdens and also consume more resources than poorer people. Given this double inequity, we ask, to what extent are affluent people prepared to pay to protect the environment? The analyses are couched within the compensation/affluence hypothesis, which states that wealthier persons are able to spend more for environmental protection than their poorer counterparts. Further, we take into account various competing economic, psychological and sociological determinants of individuals’ willingness to pay (WTP) for both public environmental goods (e.g., general environmental protection) and quasi-private environmental goods (e.g., CO2-neutral cars). Such a comprehensive approach contrasts with most other studies in this field that focus on a limited number of determinants and goods. Multivariate analyses are based on a general population survey in Switzerland (N = 3,369). Although income has a positive and significant effect on WTP supporting the compensation hypothesis, determinants such as generalized interpersonal trust that is assumed to be positively associated with civic engagement and environmental concern prove to be equally important. Moreover, we demonstrate for the first time that time preferences can considerably influence survey-based WTP for environmental goods; since investments in the environment typically pay off in the distant future, persons with a high subjective discount rate are less likely to commit. PMID:20835384

  15. Paying for Quality? Associations between Private School Income, Performance and Use of Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Peter; Davies, Neil M.

    2014-01-01

    Education policy in England has explicitly aimed to remodel state schools in the image of independent, private, schools. However, the body of research evidence on the operation of private schools is very small. Critics have frequently argued that, in contrast to state schools, private schools use resources efficiently because their autonomy gives…

  16. Dealing with self-pay patients--compassionately.

    PubMed

    Mountford, Gordon J; Smith, J Cathy; Todd, John T

    2005-12-01

    Efforts to collect money should start at the beginning--in preregistration and registration. Hospitals should be firm, but compassionate, about communicating payment responsibilities to self-pay patients. Involving all revenue cycle employees in improving the collection process will gain valuable input and ensure their buy-in.

  17. New Jersey Teacher Salaries Are Comparable to Professional Pay in Private Sector. Issue Brief No. 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Marcus A.

    2010-01-01

    It is often said that public school teachers are poorly paid. At an average salary of about $60,000 a year, public school teachers in New Jersey take home substantially less pay than do many other college educated professionals. Teachers tend to work fewer hours in a year than do other professionals. Does the widespread assertion that New Jersey's…

  18. Wildfire risk management on a landscape with public and private ownership: who pays for protection?

    PubMed

    Busby, Gwenlyn; Albers, Heidi J

    2010-02-01

    Wildfire, like many natural hazards, affects large landscapes with many landowners and the risk individual owners face depends on both individual and collective protective actions. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit game theoretic model to examine the strategic interaction between landowners' hazard mitigation decisions on a landscape with public and private ownership. We find that in areas where ownership is mixed, the private landowner performs too little fuel treatment as they "free ride"-capture benefits without incurring the costs-on public protection, while areas with public land only are under-protected. Our central result is that this pattern of fuel treatment comes at a cost to society because public resources focus in areas with mixed ownership, where local residents capture the benefits, and are not available for publicly managed land areas that create benefits for society at large. We also find that policies that encourage public expenditures in areas with mixed ownership, such as the Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003 and public liability for private values, subsidize the residents who choose to locate in the high-risk areas at the cost of lost natural resource benefits for others.

  19. Natural tooth preservation versus extraction and implant placement: patient preferences and analysis of the willingness to pay.

    PubMed

    Re, D; Ceci, C; Cerutti, F; Fabbro, M Del; Corbella, S; Taschieri, S

    2017-03-24

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the patients' willingness to pay (WTP) values and preference for the treatment of a tooth with very poor prognosis, among two options: root canal therapy and crown positioning or tooth extraction, implant insertion and crown positioning.Methods A total of 103 patients were recruited from a private dental clinic and interviewed. A questionnaire measured individuals' preferences among the two alternative treatments for a tooth with poor prognosis and the maximum amount of money they would be willing to pay for their choice with a starting bid of [euro]2,000 in [euro]100 increment/decrement. Demographic data, patient choice, median values and WTP association with socio-demographic factors (Student ttest and one-way ANOVA) and correlation between variables (Pearson chi-square test) were revealed.Results Seventy-six percent of patients expressed a preference for root canal therapy, while the remaining 24% chose the dental surgery. A fair agreement between previous experience and current therapeutic choice was found (P = 0.0001). The WTP median value was [euro]2,000 and 46% of participants would pay an additional sum of money for the therapy (median: [euro]300). The preferred treatment was influenced by previous experience, but no association was found between WTP values and socio-demographic factors.Conclusion Patients tend to prefer a conservative approach for the treatment of a tooth with poor prognosis and are willing to pay an additional fee to receive their treatment choice.

  20. High and varying prices for privately insured patients underscore hospital market power.

    PubMed

    White, Chapin; Bond, Amelia M; Reschovsky, James D

    2013-09-01

    Across 13 selected U.S. metropolitan areas, hospital prices for privately insured patients are much higher than Medicare payment rates and vary widely across and within markets, according to a study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) based on claims data for about 590,000 active and retired nonelderly autoworkers and their dependents. Across the 13 communities, aver­age hospital prices for privately insured patients are about one-and-a-half times Medicare rates for inpatient care and two times what Medicare pays for outpa­tient care. Within individual communities, prices vary widely, with the highest-priced hospital typically paid 60 percent more for inpatient services than the lowest-priced hospital. The price gap within markets is even greater for hospital outpatient care, with the highest-priced hospital typically paid nearly double the lowest-priced hospital. In contrast to the wide variation in hospital prices for pri­vately insured patients across and within markets, prices for primary care physi­cian services generally are close to Medicare rates and vary little within markets. Prices for specialist physician services, however, are higher relative to Medicare and vary more across and within markets. Of the 13 markets, five are in Michigan, which has an unusually concentrated private insurance market, with one insurer commanding a 70-percent market share. Despite the presence of a dominant insurer, almost all Michigan hospi­tals command prices that are higher than Medicare, and some hospitals com­mand prices that are twice what Medicare pays. In the eight markets outside of Michigan, private insurers generally pay even higher hospital prices, with even wider gaps between high- and low-priced hospitals. The variation in hospital and specialist physician prices within communities underscores that some hospitals and physicians have significant market power to command high prices, even in markets with a dominant insurer.

  1. San Francisco's 'pay or play' employer mandate expanded private coverage by local firms and a public care program.

    PubMed

    Colla, Carrie H; Dow, William H; Dube, Arindrajit

    2013-01-01

    In 2008 San Francisco implemented a pay-or-play employer mandate that required firms operating in the city to provide health insurance coverage for employees or contribute to the city's "public option" health access program, Healthy San Francisco. Using data from our Bay Area Employer Health Benefits Survey, we found that in the first two years after implementation, more employers offered insurance and provided employee health benefit coverage relative to employers outside San Francisco not subject to the mandate. Sixty-seven percent reported in 2009 that they had expanded benefits since 2007. Although 22 percent of firms responding to the survey reported contributing to Healthy San Francisco for some employees, we observed no crowd-out of private insurance. Premium changes between 2007 and 2009 were similar in San Francisco and surrounding areas, but more of the burden of premium contributions in San Francisco shifted from workers to employers. Overall, 64 percent of firms responding to the survey supported the employer mandate. San Francisco's experience indicates that such a mandate is feasible, increases access, and is acceptable to many employers, which bodes well for the national employer mandate that will take effect under the Affordable Care Act in 2014.

  2. Patient education through the Internet: academic and private practice sites.

    PubMed

    Rozental, Tamara D; Bozentka, David J; Beredjiklian, Pedro K

    2004-04-01

    Although Internet use among patients continues to increase, the quality of disseminated information in orthopaedic surgery often is substandard. We reviewed and compared the web sites of academic orthopaedic surgery departments and private practices and rated their informational content with respect to patient education. Only 11.5% of academic sites and 52% of private practice sites list information on common orthopaedic conditions. Of these, less than 1/3 have information on various topics, and few have links to other patient education sites. Private practice web sites make better use of the Internet to provide patients with practical information about their individual practices. Few sites post the date of last update and those that do often have not been updated for more than 6 months. Academic and private practices underutilize the Internet as an educational resource. Orthopaedic surgeons are missing an important opportunity to provide accurate and reliable information to their patients.

  3. Willingness to pay as patient preference to bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Khawali, Cristina; Ferraz, Marcos B.; Zanella, Maria T.; Ferreira, Sandra R. G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background  An obesity epidemic is spreading worldwide. In addition to comorbidities, social and emotional problems contribute to reduce the quality of life (QoL) of obese people. Considering the heterogeneity of outcomes from clinical and surgical approaches, it is recommended that severely obese patients participate in their treatment decisions. This study evaluated preferences of severely obese patients for obesity surgical treatment using the willingness to pay (WTP) and to assess the impact of the presence of some clinical disorders, socioeconomic conditions and QoL on their decisions. Methods  The selected patients were invited to answer the WTP questionnaire using two formats of contingent valuation questions: dichotomous choice (yes/no) and a bidding game. The answers were correlated with clinical features, QoL assessed by the SF‐36 and the Moorehead‐Ardelt Quality of Life Questionnaire II, Brazilian socioeconomic classification, and family and personal incomes. Results  The group of patients who accepted the first bid was older and had higher frequency of sleep apnoea when compared to those who rejected the offer. A significant correlation between the bidding game value and family income was found (r = 0.28; P < 0.02). In the logistic regression model, socioeconomic classification and sleep apnoea were shown to be independently associated with acceptance the bid. Conclusions  Sleep apnoea was the comorbidity that most influenced the acceptance in dichotomous choice for bariatric surgery, probably due to the deleterious effects on daily activities induced by sleep disturbances. Our findings also suggest that the frequency of surgical procedures is below the preference of the obese population in Brazil. PMID:22070389

  4. 32 CFR 728.113 - Categories of pay patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....113 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE FOR ELIGIBLE PERSONS AT NAVY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT FACILITIES Initiating Collection Action on...) Nationals and Their Dependents. (e) Secretarial designees not exempted from paying. (f) Others. (1)...

  5. 32 CFR 728.113 - Categories of pay patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....113 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE FOR ELIGIBLE PERSONS AT NAVY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT FACILITIES Initiating Collection Action on...) Nationals and Their Dependents. (e) Secretarial designees not exempted from paying. (f) Others. (1)...

  6. 32 CFR 728.113 - Categories of pay patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....113 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE FOR ELIGIBLE PERSONS AT NAVY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT FACILITIES Initiating Collection Action on...) Nationals and Their Dependents. (e) Secretarial designees not exempted from paying. (f) Others. (1)...

  7. 32 CFR 728.113 - Categories of pay patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....113 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE FOR ELIGIBLE PERSONS AT NAVY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT FACILITIES Initiating Collection Action on...) Nationals and Their Dependents. (e) Secretarial designees not exempted from paying. (f) Others. (1)...

  8. College CFO's Outpace Other Leaders in Pay Raises: Business Leaders Got 13.8% Median Increase at Private Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    June, Audrey Williams

    2007-01-01

    Chief financial officers at the nation's private colleges have bigger workloads than ever before, and in return, many are taking home much larger paychecks. A "Chronicle" survey of 103 private doctoral institutions shows that between 2003 and 2005, the median compensation package for the top financial position, which includes such titles as vice…

  9. On a policy of transferring public patients to private practice.

    PubMed

    González, Paula

    2005-05-01

    We consider an economy where public hospitals are capacity-constrained, and we analyse the willingness of health authorities to reach agreements with private hospitals to have some of their patients treated there. When physicians are dual suppliers, we show that a problem of cream-skimming arises and reduces the incentives of the health authority to undertake such a policy. We argue that the more dispersed are the severities of the patients, the greater the reduction in the incentives will be. We also show that, despite the patient selection problem, when the policy is implemented it is often the case that health authorities decide a more intensive transfer of patients to private practice.

  10. Dumping HIV-infected patients from private practice.

    PubMed Central

    Isaacman, S. H.

    1991-01-01

    Physicians in private practice believe they have the freedom to accept or exclude patients. While this may be true on an individual basis, discrimination towards a patient subpopulation violates professional principles and the law. Once the doctor-patient relationship is formed, physicians may not unilaterally and arbitrarily withdraw from the relationship based solely on the patient's human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serostatus. This article reviews civil and human rights laws along with professional position statements on excluding individuals from care because of their serostatus. PMID:1766019

  11. Service quality of private hospitals: The Iranian Patients' perspective

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Highly competitive market in the private hospital industry has caused increasing pressure on them to provide services with higher quality. The aim of this study was to determine the different dimensions of the service quality in the private hospitals of Iran and evaluating the service quality from the patients' perspective. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between October and November 2010 in Tehran, Iran. The study sample was composed of 983 patients randomly selected from 8 private general hospitals. The study questionnaire was the SERVQUAL questionnaire, consisting of 21 items in service quality dimensions. Results The result of factor analysis revealed 3 factors, explaining 69% of the total variance. The total mean score of patients' expectation and perception was 4.91(SD = 0.2) and 4.02(SD = 0.6), respectively. The highest expectation and perception related to the tangibles dimension and the lowest expectation and perception related to the empathy dimension. The differences between perception and expectation were significant (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference between the expectations scores based on gender, education level, and previous hospitalization in that same hospital. Also, there was a significant difference between the perception scores based on insurance coverage, average length of stay, and patients' health conditions on discharge. Conclusion The results showed that SERVQUAL is a valid, reliable, and flexible instrument to monitor and measure the quality of the services in private hospitals of Iran. Our findings clarified the importance of creating a strong relationship between patients and the hospital practitioners/personnel and the need for hospital staff to be responsive, credible, and empathetic when dealing with patients. PMID:22299830

  12. Motivational Factors of Pay-for-Performance Plans in Educational Institutions: A Study of Select Private, Faith-Based Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrobbel, Paul H.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States there is considerable focus on the need for continuous improvement in the quality of schools, including student achievement and teacher performance. Performance-based pay has been repeatedly suggested as a way to improve teaching in school systems. Therefore, a more thorough understanding of the differences in the perceptions…

  13. Targeting low literacy patients pays off for health system.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    Ochsner Health, with headquarters in New Orleans, targets patients with low health literacy, along with other readmission reduction programs. When patients are readmitted, the case managers administer the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) tool, developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) to identify patients who need extra help in understanding their discharge instructions. When case managers make post-discharge follow-up calls to at-risk patients, they ask a series of questions that determine if the patient can understand written instructions. - The staff uses pictographs and videos to educate patients identified as having low literacy and make sure the caregivers understand the discharge instructions.

  14. The willingness of patients to pay for intravenous patient-controlled analgesia in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyungsun; Lee, Duck-Hyoung; Lee, Jeongwoo; Han, Young Jin; Choe, Huhn

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) has been increasing because it has advantages such as improved pain relief, greater patient satisfaction, and fewer postoperative complications. However, current research has not considered the patients' thoughts about IV-PCA's cost-effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to investigate the willingness to pay (WTP) for IV-PCA and the relationship between patients' characteristics and WTP in Korea. Methods We enrolled 400 adult patients who were scheduled for elective surgery. The patient was requested to indicate a series of predefined amounts of money (Korean won; 30,000/50,000/100,000/150,000/200,000/300,000/500,000). We also recorded patient characteristics, such as age, sex, type of surgery, IV-PCA history, education level, the person responsible for medical expenses, type of insurance, net annual income, and residential area. Three days after surgery, we asked about the degree of satisfaction and the WTP for IV-PCA. Results For IV-PCA, the median WTP was 100,000 won (25-75%; 50,000-200,000 won: US$1 = W1078.04; July 19, 2011) before surgery. All patients' characteristics were not related to preoperative WTP for IV-PCA, whereas the increase in WTP after surgery showed a tendency correlated to higher IV-PCA satisfaction. Conclusions The median WTP was 100,000 won. The satisfaction of IV-PCA increased patients' WTP after surgery, but the WTP may be independent of patient characteristics in Korea. PMID:22778891

  15. Patients in a private hospital in India leave the emergency department against medical advice for financial reasons

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Some reports indicate financial concerns as a factor affecting ED patients leaving the acute care setting against medical advice (AMA). In India, no person is supposed to be denied urgent care because of inability to pay. Since a large proportion of the Indian health care system is financed by out-of-pocket expenses, we investigate the role of financial constraints for ED patients at a private hospital in India in leaving AMA. Methods A prospective ED-based cross-sectional survey of patients leaving AMA was conducted at a private hospital in India from 1 October 2010 to 31 December 2010. Descriptive statistics and the chi-square test were used to identify associations between financial factors and the decision to leave the hospital AMA. Results Overall, 55 (3.84%) ED patients left AMA, of which 46 (84%) reported leaving because of financial restrictions. Thirty-nine (71%) respondents indicated the medical bill would represent more that 25% of their annual income. Females (19/19) were more likely to leave AMA for financial reasons compared to males (27/36, p = 0.017). Among females who signed out AMA, the decision was never made by the female herself. Conclusion The number of people leaving the ED AMA in a private Indian hospital is relatively high, with most leaving for financial reasons. In most cases, women did not decide to leave the ED AMA for themselves, whereas males did. This survey suggests that steps are needed to ensure that the inability to pay does not prevent emergent care from being provided. PMID:24568343

  16. What do patients value? Willingness to pay for ultrasound in normal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Berwick, D M; Weinstein, M C

    1985-07-01

    Evaluations of diagnostic tests have focused primarily on their value in clinical decisions. Patients may attach value to 1) information that has little or no medical significance, and 2) information (medical or nonmedical) that has no bearing on decisions to be made by the doctor or the patient. Ultrasound in pregnancy, which provides a great deal of information to both doctor and patient, was chosen as the example with which to explore these hypotheses. Sixty-two women with current or recent normal pregnancies were given a structured interview to elicit their willingness to pay for ultrasound information. Among these women, 26% of the value attached to the test related to information having no decisional significance, and 37% of the value related to information of use to the patient, but not the doctor. Overall, 44% of the value of the test, from the patients' point of view, pertained to uses outside the realm of medical decisions. On the average, interviewees alleged that they would pay +706 for the information contained in an ultrasound test in an uncomplicated pregnancy. Decision analyses and cost-effectiveness analyses that take note only of the medical, decisional uses of test information may overlook a high proportion of the value patients attach to the information.

  17. Factors influencing patients' willingness to pay for new technologies in hip and knee implants.

    PubMed

    Schwarzkopf, Ran; Sagebin, Fabio M; Karia, Raj; Koenig, Karl M; Bosco, Joseph A; Slover, James D

    2013-03-01

    Rising implant prices and evolving technologies are important factors contributing to the increased cost of arthroplasty. Assessing how patients value arthroplasty, new technologies, and their perceived outcomes is critical in planning cost-effective care, as well as evaluating new-technologies. One hundred one patients undergoing arthroplasty took part in the survey. We captured demographics, spending practices, knowledge of implants, patient willingness to pay for implants, and preferences related to implant attributes. When patients were asked if they would be satisfied with "standard of care" prosthesis, 80% replied "no". When asked if they would pay for a higher than "standard of care" prosthesis, 86% replied "yes". The study demonstrated that patients, regardless of their socio-economic status, are not satisfied with standard of care implants when newer technologies are available, and they may be willing to share in the cost of their prosthesis. Patients also prefer the option to choose what they perceive to be a higher quality or innovative implant even if the "out of pocket" cost is higher.

  18. Permitting patients to pay for participation in clinical trials: the advent of the P4 trial.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo; Townend, David; Bos, Gerard; van Gelder, Michel

    2016-10-18

    In this article we explore the ethical issues raised by permitting patients to pay for participation (P4) in clinical trials, and discuss whether there are any categorical objections to this practice. We address key considerations concerning payment for participation in trials, including patient autonomy, risk/benefit and justice, taking account of two previous critiques of the ethics of P4. We conclude that such trials could be ethical under certain strict conditions, but only if other potential sources of funding have first been explored or are unavailable.

  19. Patient preferences and willingness to pay for different options of anticoagulant therapy.

    PubMed

    Moia, Marco; Mantovani, Lorenzo Giovanni; Carpenedo, Monica; Scalone, Luciana; Monzini, Mara Silvia; Cesana, Giancarlo; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2013-04-01

    New anticoagulant drugs alternative to vitamin K antagonists are currently under clinical evaluation. Patient's preferences should be considered in the development of new therapeutic strategies. Our study aim was to elicit patient preferences, and estimate their willingness to pay for the different treatment options. A Discrete Choice Experiment was administered to patients consecutively attending an anticoagulation clinic, either on stable oral anticoagulant therapy, or during their first visit at the time of starting therapy. Six treatment characteristics were analysed: route and number of medication administrations, frequency of monitoring, risk of some minor bleeding, the amount of attention required for drug/food interactions, requirement for dose adjustment, and out-of-pocket treatment cost. Relationships between patient's preferences and their characteristics were analysed. 255 patients participated (55 % men, with a mean age 64 years; 35.7 % on stable therapy). A statistically significant importance was attributed to all but two characteristics (the amount of attention required for interaction with other drugs/food and for dose adjustment.) Monthly patient willingness to pay was 79 for tablets versus injections; 41 for once-daily versus twice-daily tablets, 25 for drugs without risk of minor bleeding events and 20 for once-monthly versus twice-monthly monitoring. Patients on stable therapy considered more important the amount of attention required for drug/food interactions than did the starters. Younger or working patients considered the reduction of monitoring frequency more important than did the older or not working patients (retired, housewives). This study elicited preferences from patients on oral anticoagulant therapy with a simple and well established method, which allows to obtain information warranted for planning optimal healthcare.

  20. Using frames to influence consumer willingness to pay for the patient health record: a randomized experiment.

    PubMed

    Vishwanath, Arun

    2009-07-01

    The American College of Medical Informatics rated the lack of willingness to pay for the patient health record (PHR) as the biggest obstacles to its rapid diffusion. Extending research propositions from the decision sciences and political communication, this study tests the influence of different types of emphasis frames on increasing consumer willingness to pay for the PHR. Using a randomized experiment embedded within a probability survey, the effects of 3 different types of emphasis frames (individual-focused, collective-focused, and joint), along with a no-frames control, are tested on a sample of early and later technology adopters. The results indicate a significant relationship between the type of frame and the type of adopter. Early adopters were more susceptible to individual-focused frames that made causal attributions at the individual level, whereas later adopters were significantly influenced by collective-focused frames that made causal attributions at the societal level. Interestingly, the framing effect continued and significantly influenced both early and later adopters' willingness to pay for the PHR. The findings demonstrate the need to carefully communicate the value of a technology to adopters and suggest the possibility of using frames to spur the diffusion of PHRs.

  1. Patients' willingness to pay for electronic communication with their general practitioner.

    PubMed

    Bergmo, Trine Strand; Wangberg, Silje Camilla

    2007-06-01

    Despite the common use of electronic communication in other aspects of everyday life, its use between patients and health care providers has been slow to diffuse. Possible explanations are security issues and lack of payment mechanisms. This study investigated how patients value secure electronic access to their general practitioner (GP). One hundred and ninety-nine patients were asked an open-ended willingness-to-pay (WTP) question as part of a randomised controlled trial. We compared the WTP values between two groups of respondents; one group had had the opportunity to communicate electronically with their GP for a year and the other group had not. Fifty-two percent of the total sample was willing to pay for electronic GP contact. The group of patients with access revealed a significantly lower WTP than the group without such access. Possible explanations are that the system had fewer benefits than expected, a presence of hypothetical bias or simply a preference for face-to-face encounters.

  2. Private Prayer and Optimism in Middle-Aged and Older Patients Awaiting Cardiac Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ai, Amy L.; Peterson, Christopher; Bolling, Steven F.; Koenig, Harold

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the use of private prayer among middle-aged and older patients as a way of coping with cardiac surgery and prayer's relationship to optimism. Design and Methods: The measure of prayer included three aspects: (a) belief in the importance of private prayer, (b) faith in the efficacy of prayer on the basis of previous…

  3. Patients' appraisals of public and private healthcare: a qualitative study of physiotherapy and osteopathy.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Katherine J; Bishop, Felicity L; Yardley, Lucy; Lewith, George

    2013-10-01

    Patients have previously reported differences in their experiences of treatments received in the public and private sectors; it remains unclear whether such perceived differences are particular to or shared across different interventions. This study explored whether patients' appraisals of public and private treatments are similar when appraising a complementary therapy (osteopathy) compared to a mainstream therapy (physiotherapy). Thirty-five qualitative interviews were analysed thematically. Patients' appraisals varied by health-care sector and therapy type: physiotherapy was appraised more negatively in the National Health Service than the private sector but osteopathy was appraised similarly within both health-care sectors. Potential reasons for this are discussed.

  4. Understanding the incomprehensible: private theories of first-episode psychotic patients and their therapists.

    PubMed

    Werbart, Andrzej; Levander, Sonja

    2005-01-01

    Private theories about psychosis, its background, and cure were studied using narratives of first-time psychotic patients and their therapists. Both patients and their therapists were interviewed on three occasions over a period of 1 1/2 years. Three cases were chosen as dyads in point in order to highlight different relations between the patient's and the therapist's private theories, different patterns of recovery from psychosis, and different outcomes. The cases are contrasted by paired comparisons. The study indicates that an awareness and joint discussion of incompatibilities between the two participants' private theories might be a substantial contribution to the process of recovery from psychosis.

  5. Patients' with type 2 diabetes willingness to pay for insulin therapy and clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Feher, Michael D; Brazier, John; Schaper, Nicolaas; Vega-Hernandez, Gabriela; Bøgelund, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed patient preferences, using willingness to pay as a method to measure different treatment characteristics or attributes associated with injectable insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods Adults with type 2 diabetes in 12 countries, diagnosed >6 months prior and receiving insulin for >3 months, were recruited through a representative online panel. Data were collected via online questionnaire and analyzed using a standard choice model for discrete choice experiment. Results A total of 3758 patients from North America (n=646), South America (n=1537), and Europe (n=1575) completed the study. Mean glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in North America, South America, and Europe were 63 mmol/mol (7.9%), 75 mmol/mol (9.0%), and 64 mmol/mol (8.0%), respectively. In the three regions, monthly willingness to pay was US$116, US$74, and US$92, respectively, for a 1%-point decrease in HbA1c; US$99, US$80, and US$104 for one less major hypoglycemic event per year; and US$64, US$37 and US$60 for a 3 kg weight decrease. To avoid preinjection preparation of insulin, the respective values were US$47, US$18, and US$37, and US$25, US$25, and US$24 for one less injection per day. Among respondents on basal-only insulin who had previously tried a more intensive regimen, reasons for switching back included difficulty in handling multiple injections and risk of hypoglycemic events. Conclusions Reducing HbA1c, frequency of major hypoglycemic events and weight decrease were the highest valued outcomes in each region. The administrative burden of injections was also considered important. PMID:27158518

  6. Willingness to pay and quality of life in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Beikert, F C; Langenbruch, A K; Radtke, M A; Kornek, T; Purwins, S; Augustin, M

    2014-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a frequent and burdensome disease. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the willingness to pay (WTP) and quality of life (Qol) in AD patients and (2) to compare the results with data on other chronic skin diseases. To collect data, a non-interventional, cross-sectional nationwide postal survey on adult patients with clinically diagnosed AD was performed; socio-demographic data, clinical features/symptoms, WTP and QoL were recorded. WTP was assessed in three different approaches, including relative and absolute figures. Data from n = 384 AD patients (mean age 42.0, range 18-92, 69.8 % female) were analyzed. WTP for complete healing was on median 1,000 (average 11,884) and exceeded WTP in rosacea (median 500) but not in vitiligo (median 3,000). Mean Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) was 8.5 (vitiligo 7.0; psoriasis 6.7; rosacea 4.3) and correlated with pruritus, xerosis and disturbed sleep. WTP and DLQI correlated only marginally (r s = 0.134, p = 0.01). In conclusion, AD patients show high WTP and markedly reduced QoL compared to other chronic skin diseases.

  7. The role of disease management in pay-for-performance programs for improving the care of chronically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Beich, Jeff; Scanlon, Dennis P; Ulbrecht, Jan; Ford, Eric W; Ibrahim, Ibrahim A

    2006-02-01

    To date, pay-for-performance programs targeting the care of persons with chronic conditions have primarily been directed at physicians and provide an alternative to health plan-sponsored chronic disease management (DM) programs. Both approaches require similar infrastructure, and each has its own advantages and disadvantages for program implementation. Pay-for-performance programs use incentives based on patient outcomes; however, an alternative system might incorporate measures of structure and process. Using a conceptual framework, the authors explore the variation in 50 diabetes DM programs using data from the 2002 National Business Coalition on Health's eValue8 Request for Information (RFI). The authors raise issues relevant to the assignment of accountability for patient outcomes to either health plans or physicians. They analyze the association between RFI scores measuring structures and processes, and HEDIS diabetes intermediate outcome measures. Finally, the strengths and weaknesses of using the RFI scores as an alternative metric for pay-for-performance programs are discussed.

  8. Impact of pay-for-performance on mortality in diabetes patients in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Ching; Lee, Charles Tzu-Chi; Lin, Boniface J.; Chang, Yong-Yuan; Shi, Hon-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The impact of pay-for-performance (P4P) programs on long-term mortality for chronic illnesses, especially diabetes mellitus, has been rarely reported. Several studies described the favorable impact of P4P for diabetes mellitus on medical utilizations or intermediate outcomes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the impact of a P4P program on mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The P4P group in this population-based cohort study was 2090 individuals with a primary diagnosis of type 2 diabetes who had been newly enrolled in the P4P program of Taiwan between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004. Matched by 1:1 ratio, patients in the non-P4P group were selected by propensity score matching (PSM) for sex, age, the first year of diagnosis as diabetes, and 32 other potential confounding factors. Mean (SD) age was 60.91 (12.04) years when diabetes was first diagnosed and mean (SD) duration of diabetes was 4.3 (1.9) years at baseline. The time-dependent Cox regression model was used to explore the impact of P4P on all-cause mortality. Results: During a mean of 5.13 years (SD = 1.07 years) of follow-up, 206 and 263 subjects died in the P4P group and the non-P4P group, respectively. After adjusting for the potential confounding factors at baseline, survival was significantly longer in the P4P group than in the non-P4P group (hazard ratio, 0.76 [95% confidence interval, 0.64–0.92], P = 0.004, by log-rank test). This decrease in mortality is equivalent to one less death for every 37 patients who were treated in the P4P program for 5.13 years. In this study, the P4P program significantly increased the medical utilization of physician visits and diabetes-related examinations, improved the adherence of oral hypoglycemic drugs during the first 3 years and that of insulin during the second 3 years, and was negatively associated with risk of cancer and chronic kidney disease. In annual health expense, there was no significant difference

  9. Tuberculosis treatment outcomes among retreatment patients registered by private practitioners in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Win, A N; Edginton, M E; Hinderaker, S G; Minn, N N; Linn, A K

    2012-09-21

    The objectives of this retrospective cohort study were to report treatment outcomes and identify factors associated with treatment failure among all retreatment tuberculosis (TB) patients registered in the public-private mix DOTS programme of Populations Services International-Myanmar over 6 years. Among 3643 retreatment patients, 2657 (73%) were successfully treated and 309 (8.5%) failed. This study shows that retreatment patients who have failed treatment for their first TB episode are almost twice as likely to fail a second time (13.5%). We have identified some key programmatic challenges associated with retreatment TB in the private sector, and steps are being taken to address this issue.

  10. Should we pay the patient? Review of financial incentives to enhance patient compliance.

    PubMed Central

    Giuffrida, A.; Torgerson, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether financial incentives increase patients' compliance with healthcare treatments. DATA SOURCES: Systematic literature review of computer databases--Medline, Embase, PsychLit, EconLit, and the Cochrane Database of Clinical Trials. In addition, the reference list of each retrieved article was reviewed and relevant citations retrieved. STUDY SELECTION: Only randomised trials with quantitative data concerning the effect, of financial incentives (cash, vouchers, lottery tickets, or gifts) on compliance with medication, medical advice, or medical appointments were included in the review. Eleven papers were identified as meeting the selection criteria. DATA EXTRACTION: Data on study populations, interventions, and outcomes were extracted and analysed using odds ratios and the number of patients needed to be treated to improve compliance by one patient. RESULTS: 10 of the 11 studies showed improvements in patient compliance with the use of financial incentives. CONCLUSIONS: Financial incentives can improve patient compliance. PMID:9314754

  11. 42 CFR 22.1 - Duty at a station of the Service devoted to the care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay. 22.1 Section 22.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... Hansen's Disease Duty by Personnel Other Than Commissioned Officers § 22.1 Duty at a station of the Service devoted to the care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay. (a) Non-commissioned...

  12. 42 CFR 22.1 - Duty at a station of the Service devoted to the care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay. 22.1 Section 22.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... Hansen's Disease Duty by Personnel Other Than Commissioned Officers § 22.1 Duty at a station of the Service devoted to the care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay. (a) Non-commissioned...

  13. 42 CFR 22.1 - Duty at a station of the Service devoted to the care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay. 22.1 Section 22.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... Hansen's Disease Duty by Personnel Other Than Commissioned Officers § 22.1 Duty at a station of the Service devoted to the care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay. (a) Non-commissioned...

  14. 42 CFR 22.1 - Duty at a station of the Service devoted to the care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay. 22.1 Section 22.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... Hansen's Disease Duty by Personnel Other Than Commissioned Officers § 22.1 Duty at a station of the Service devoted to the care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay. (a) Non-commissioned...

  15. 42 CFR 22.1 - Duty at a station of the Service devoted to the care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay. 22.1 Section 22.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... Hansen's Disease Duty by Personnel Other Than Commissioned Officers § 22.1 Duty at a station of the Service devoted to the care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay. (a) Non-commissioned...

  16. Descriptive analysis of mycological examination of patients with onychomycosis treated in private practice*

    PubMed Central

    Veasey, John Verrinder; Nappi, Flávio; Zaitz, Clarisse; Muramatu, Laura Hitomi

    2017-01-01

    This is a retrospective study of 160 patients treated in private practice in São Paulo from March 2003 to March 2015. We analyzed 171 results of direct mycological examinations and fungal cultures from nail scrapings. The agreement between direct mycological examination results and fungal culture was satisfactory, consistent with the literature (kappa 0.603). The main agent identified was Trichophyton rubrum (51%). We observed an isolation rate of non-dermatophyte filamentous fungi superior to the literature (34%). Determining the agent is key to defining the appropriate onychomycosis treatment, and knowing the epidemiology of patients treated in private practice helps the dermatologist who works in this context. PMID:28225975

  17. The patient's private and canons of science: Freud's case studies.

    PubMed

    Werbart, Andrzej

    2005-10-01

    Starting from Freud's classical case studies, the author highlights the tension between the psychoanalytical starting point in the subject's own meaning construction and the claims of the professional expert to objectivity, privileged knowledge and interpretative precedence. Psychoanalytic investigation of subjective phenomena came into existence parallel with Freud's magnificent project to furnish 'a psychology that shall be a natural science'. The privileged knowledge of the specialist was substituted by the explicit intention to listen to the individual's own stories and private explanatory constructions. In order to investigate the territory of the unconscious, Freud had to develop various strategies for uncovering and correcting errors, and for testing clinically anchored hypotheses. However, Freud regularly failed to follow his own intentions. The thesis the author presents here is that departures from the explicit ambition to follow the subject's own meaning construction, and departures from the scientific attitude, easy to trace in Freud's case studies, accompany each other. These departures have had far-reaching consequences for the present status of the psychoanalytic knowledge.

  18. Patients of internists in hospital outpatient departments and in private practice.

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, P.; Carrier, A. C.

    1978-01-01

    To test the contention that patients in outpatient departments and private practices differ, variables were assessed that might affect both the process and the outcome of medical care. Two groups of 60 patients consulting nine Montreal internists who worked in both private practice and in an outpatient department of a university teaching hospital were surveyed. The internists served as their own controls. The two groups of patients were compared for 57 demographic, socioeconomic, access, utilization, attitudinal and current medical status variables. Financial factors were minimized by the existence of universal health insurance. The outpatient group was found to be older, less fluent in English, less likely to be employed, less educated, less wealthy, more dependent on public transportation, more disabled, more likely to use ambulatory services, more anxious about health, and more sceptical about physicians, yet more dependent on them than the private practice group. The outpatient group tended to have more active, significant medical conditions and to receive more prescriptions for medication than the private practice group, in contrast to the national patterns in the practice of internal medicine in the United States. Medical educators, researchers, administrators and providers of health care who have assumed that these two groups of patients are comparable must re-evaluate their practices. PMID:737639

  19. Prevalence of systemic diseases among patients requesting dental consultation in the public and private systems

    PubMed Central

    Garea-Gorís, Rafael; Fernández-Varela, Marta; Tomás-Carmona, Inmaculada; Diniz-Freitas, Marcio; Limeres-Posse, Jacobo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and aetiology of systemic disease among patients requesting dental treatment in public and private practice. Study Design: A retrospective analysis was performed of the medical histories of 2000 patients requesting dental treatment during the year 2009. One thousand patients came from the Fontiñas Primary Care Oral and Dental Health Unit of the Galician Health Service (SERGAS), Spain, and the other thousand from a private clinic; both clinics were situated in Santiago de Compostela, La Coruña, Spain. The data collected were the following: demographic data (age and sex), presence or absence of systemic diseases and the nosologic categories, and drug history (type and number of drugs). Results: The prevalence of systemic disease was significantly higher among patients seen in the public system (35.2% in the public system versus 28.1% in the private system; p= 0.003). The differences between the two systems were more marked when considering patients aged under 65 years, particularly with respect to rheumatic and endocrine-metabolic (diabetes) disorders. The prevalence of patients receiving polypharmacy (>4 drugs/day) was significantly higher among patients seen in the public system (5.7% in the public system versus 2.7% in the private system; p= 0.009). Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of medical disorders and of patients receiving polypharmacy among individuals requesting dental care, particularly in the public health system. Dentists must have adequate training in medical disease and must be fully integrated into primary care health teams in order to prevent or adequately resolve complications. Key words: Dentistry, medical history, systemic disease, polypharmacy. PMID:22157672

  20. Private physicians or walk-in clinics: do the patients differ?

    PubMed

    Dant, R P; Lumpkin, J R; Bush, R P

    1990-06-01

    The authors use a consumer-oriented framework to compare patients of private physicians with those of walk-in clinics in terms of factors that influence selection of health care providers. Data suggest few differences in the way the two types of providers are perceived by their patients. Instead, a fairly strong income effect suggests that segmentation strategies for health care delivery systems should be reevaluated. The results provide insights for applying strategic marketing concepts within health care delivery systems.

  1. When should managed care firms terminate private benefits for chronically mentally ill patients?

    PubMed

    Gerson, S N

    1994-01-01

    Corporate America's healthcare cost crisis and the country's budget deficit are forcing limits on the resources used to finance healthcare, including mental healthcare. At the same time, the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act bars discrimination against patients with chronic illnesses, including chronic mental illness. Therefore, corporate benefits managers need guidance on how to ethically and rationally allocate scarce clinical resources to those high-morbidity insureds who utilize disproportionate amounts of these resources. In particular, how should we define the public/private interface: When do patients who repeatedly fail to respond to treatment fall out of the private sector's responsibility? The author, medical director for a leading behavioral healthcare utilization management company, offers the following guidelines recommending reasonable and practical limitations on trials of treatment for seven common categories of difficult psychiatric patients.

  2. Public versus Private Drug Insurance and Outcomes of Patients Requiring Biologic Therapies for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rumman, Amir; Candia, Roberto; Sam, Justina J.; Croitoru, Kenneth; Silverberg, Mark S.; Steinhart, A. Hillary

    2017-01-01

    Background. Antitumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy is a highly effective but costly treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of IBD patients who were prescribed anti-TNF therapy (2007–2014) in Ontario. We assessed if the insurance type was a predictor of timely access to anti-TNF therapy and nonroutine health utilization (emergency department visits and hospitalizations). Results. There were 268 patients with IBD who were prescribed anti-TNF therapy. Public drug coverage was associated with longer median wait times to first dose than private one (56 versus 35 days, P = 0.002). After adjusting for confounders, publicly insured patients were less likely to receive timely access to anti-TNF therapy compared with those privately insured (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45–0.95). After adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics, publicly funded subjects were more than 2-fold more likely to require hospitalization (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 2.30; 95% CI: 1.19–4.43) and ED visits (IRR 2.42; 95% CI: 1.44–4.08) related to IBD. Conclusions. IBD patients in Ontario with public drug coverage experienced greater delays in access to anti-TNF therapy than privately insured patients and have a higher rate of hospitalizations and ED visits related to IBD. PMID:28239601

  3. Changing characteristics of psychiatric patients: private and public care in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Greenley, J R; Kepecs, J G; Henry, W E

    1982-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the social and cultural characteristics of psychiatric patients have been changing over time. It is important from a professional and public policy point of view to understand better the nature of these changes, and to what they are related. This paper presents data showing that: 1) psychiatric care is increasingly reaching patients of lower socio-economic status, and 2) changes in patient characteristics are related to the growth in the proportion of psychiatric care given in organisationally based non-private practice settings.

  4. An Empirical Study of the Impact of Service Quality on Patient Satisfaction in Private Hospitals, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Ehsan; Daneshkohan, Abbas; Pouragha, Behrouz; Marzban, Sima; Arab, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Perceived service quality is the most important predictor of patient satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the service quality on the overall satisfaction of patients in private hospitals of Tehran, Iran. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the year 2010. The study’s sample consisted of 969 patients who were recruited from eight private general hospitals in Tehran, Iran using consecutive sampling. A questionnaire was used for data collection; contacting 21 items (17 items about service quality and 4 items about overall satisfaction) and its validity and reliability were confirmed. Data analysis was performed using t-test, ANOVA and multivariate regression. Result: this study found a strong relationship between service quality and patient satisfaction. About 45% of the variance in overall satisfaction was explained by four dimensions of perceived service quality. The cost of services, the quality of the process and the quality of interaction had the greatest effects on the overall satisfaction of patients, but not found a significant effect on the quality of the physical environment on patient satisfaction. Conclusions: Constructs related to costs, delivery of service and interpersonal aspect of care had the most positive impact on overall satisfaction of patients. Managers and owners of private hospitals should set reasonable prices compared to the quality of service. In terms of process quality, waiting time for visits, admissions, and surgeries must be declined and services provided at the fastest possible time. It should be emphasized to strengthen of interpersonal aspects of care and communication skills of care providers. PMID:25560338

  5. Insurance coverage and socioeconomic differences in patient choice between private and public health care providers in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Zhang, Donglan; Hou, Zhiyuan

    2016-12-01

    The private health care sector has become an increasingly important complement to China's health care system. During the health care reform in 2009, China's central government established multiple initiatives to relax constraints on the growth of the private health care sector. However, private health services have not been growing as rapidly as private health care facilities. Using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study collected between 2011 and 2013, this study investigated patient choice between private and public providers for outpatient care and estimated its relationship with health insurance and socioeconomic status (SES). The Heckman sample selection model was applied to address the problem of selection bias caused by a lack of awareness of provider ownership. We found that 82.1% of the outpatient care users were aware of their provider's ownership, and 23.8% chose private health care providers. Although patients with health insurance and higher SES were more likely to be aware of their provider's ownership, they preferred public providers over private providers. For example, having Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance was associated with a 16.5% lower probability of choosing private providers than no health insurance. Respondents with the highest level of household expenditure had a 7.5% lower probability of choosing private providers than those with the lowest level of expenditure. The probability of choosing private providers were significantly lower by 4.0% among respondents with an education level of junior high school and above than those with no formal education. For private providers to play an effective role in the health care system, policies that have constrained the growth of the private sector should be changed, and more effort should be directed toward equalizing health insurance coverage for both types of providers.

  6. Pay-for-performance: toxic to quality? Insights from behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Himmelstein, David U; Ariely, Dan; Woolhandler, Steffie

    2014-01-01

    Pay-for-performance programs aim to upgrade health care quality by tailoring financial incentives for desirable behaviors. While Medicare and many private insurers are charging ahead with pay-for-performance, researchers have been unable to show that it benefits patients. Findings from the new field of behavioral economics challenge the traditional economic view that monetary reward either is the only motivator or is simply additive to intrinsic motivators such as purpose or altruism. Studies have shown that monetary rewards can undermine motivation and worsen performance on cognitively complex and intrinsically rewarding work, suggesting that pay-for-performance may backfire.

  7. Doctor-Patient Relationship Between Individuals With Fibromyalgia and Rheumatologists in Public and Private Health Care in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Colmenares-Roa, Tirsa; Huerta-Sil, Gabriela; Infante-Castañeda, Claudia; Lino-Pérez, Leticia; Alvarez-Hernández, Everardo; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this article was to describe and analyze the doctor-patient relationship between fibromyalgia patients and rheumatologists in public and private health care contexts within the Mexican health care system. This medical anthropological study drew on hospital ethnography and patients' illness narratives, as well as the experiences of rheumatologists from both types of health care services. The findings show how each type of medical care subsystem shape different relationships between patients and doctors. Patient stigmatization, overt rejection, and denial of the disease's existence were identified. In this doctor-patient-with-fibromyalgia relationship, there are difficult encounters, rather than difficult patients. These encounters are more fluid in private consultations compared with public hospitals. The doctor-centered health care model is prevalent in public institutions. In the private sector, we find the characteristics of the patient-centered model coexisting with the traditional physician-centered approach.

  8. Private ownership of primary care providers associated with patient perceived quality of care

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaolin; Yin, Jia; Wong, Samuel Y.S.; Griffiths, Sian M.; Zou, Guanyang; Shi, Leiyu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Ownership of primary care providers varies in different cities in China. Shanghai represented the full public ownership model of primary providers; Shenzhen had public-owned but private-operated providers; and Hong Kong represented the full private ownership. The study aims to assess the association of primary care ownership and patient perceived quality of care in 3 Chinese megacities. We conducted multistage stratified random surveys in 2013 in the 3 cities. Quality scores of primary care were measured using the validated primary care assessment tools. Multivariate linear regression models were used to compare quality scores after controlling potential confounders of patient demographic, socioeconomic, and healthcare utilization factors. Overall, 797 primary care users in Shanghai, 802 in Shenzhen, and 1325 in Hong Kong participated in the study. The mean total quality scores were reported the highest in Shanghai (28.39), followed by Shenzhen (25.82) and then Hong Kong (25.21) (P < 0.001). Shanghai participants reported the highest scores for 1st contact accessibility, coordination of information, comprehensiveness of service availability, and culture competence, while Hong Kong participants reported the lowest for these domains (P < 0.001). Hong Kong participants from rich households reported higher total scores than those from poor households (P < 0.05); however, this was not found in Shanghai and Shenzhen. The study suggests that private primary care ownership may be associated with lower quality and less equitable care distribution. In China, it suggests that it may be beneficial to promote public-owned and nonprofit providers. Promoting privatization in primary care may be at the cost of quality and equity of primary care. PMID:28072718

  9. Characteristics and Pay of Federal Civilian Employees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Law Enforcement Officers (August 2005), Comparing the Pay of Federal and Nonprofit Executives: An Update (July 2003), Measuring Differences Between...Federal and Private Pay (November 2002), and Changes in Federal Civilian Employment: An Update (May 2001).In this paper, three general areas are...implement the basic civil service principle of equal pay for substantially equal work by assigning federal jobs to specific grades and steps on the

  10. SOEMPI: A Secure Open Enterprise Master Patient Index Software Toolkit for Private Record Linkage

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Csaba; Durham, Elizabeth; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Xue, Yuan; Malin, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate bias in multi-institutional research studies, healthcare organizations need to integrate patient records. However, this process must be accomplished without disclosing the identities of the corresponding patients. Various private record linkage (PRL) techniques have been proposed, but there is a lack of translation into practice because no software suite supports the entire PRL lifecycle. This paper addresses this issue with the introduction of the Secure Open Enterprise Master Patient Index (SOEMPI). We show how SOEMPI covers the PRL lifecycle, illustrate the implementation of several PRL protocols, and provide a runtime analysis for the integration of two datasets consisting of 10,000 records. While the PRL process is slower than a non-secure setting, our analysis shows the majority of processes in a PRL protocol require several seconds or less and that SOEMPI completes the process in approximately two minutes, which is a practical amount of time for integration. PMID:25954421

  11. Differences between patients' expectations and satisfaction with nursing care in a private hospital in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abdel Maqsood, Amal Samir; Oweis, Arwa I; Hasna, Fadia Shawqi

    2012-04-01

    A descriptive correlation study was conducted to describe the differences between patient expectations and satisfaction with nursing care, and to determine the relationships among patient's satisfaction with nursing care and selected sociodemographic variables. A convenience sample of 250 patients with different medical, surgical and gynaecologic diagnoses was recruited to participate in the study, which was carried out at a private hospital in Amman. Two research instruments and a sociodemographic data form were used for data collection: The Patient Expectations Questionnaire and Patient Satisfaction with Nursing Care Quality Questionnaire. The results indicated that patients were more satisfied with technical and ethical aspects of nursing care whereas they were less satisfied with nursing care during the night shift as well as with professional information provided by the nurses. The difference between patients' expectations and satisfaction was statistically significant. Patients' opinions regarding their expectations and their satisfaction with nursing care can be considered as an important opportunity for nurses to plan and implement appropriate strategies that improve the quality of nursing care.

  12. The Effect of Service Quality on Patient loyalty: a Study of Private Hospitals in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Arab, M; Tabatabaei, SM Ghazi; Rashidian, A; Forushani, A Rahimi; Zarei, E

    2012-01-01

    Background: Service quality is perceived as an important factor for developing patient’s loyalty. The aim of this study was to determine the hospital service quality from the patients’ viewpoints and the relative importance of quality dimensions in predicting the patient’s loyalty. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010. The study sample was composed of 943 patients selected from eight private general hospitals in Tehran. The survey instrument was a questionnaire included 24 items about the service quality and 3 items about the patient’s loyalty. Exploratory factor analysis was employed to extracting the dimensions of service quality. Also, regression analysis was performed to determining the relative importance of the service quality dimensions in predicting the patient’s loyalty. Result: The mean score of service quality and patient’s loyalty was 3.99 and 4.16 out of 5, respectively. About 29% of the loyalty variance was explained by the service quality dimensions. Four quality dimensions (Costing, Process Quality, Interaction Quality and Environment Quality) were found to be key determinants of the patient’s loyalty in the private hospitals of Tehran. Conclusion: The patients’ experience in relation to the private hospitals’ services has strong impact on the outcome variables like willingness to return to the same hospital and reuse its services or recommend them to others. The relationship between the service quality and patient’s loyalty proves the strategic importance of improving the service quality for dragging and retaining patients and expanding the market share. PMID:23193509

  13. Treatment of breast cancer patients from a public healthcare system in a private center: costs of care for a pilot public-private partnership in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Kaliks, Rafael Aliosha; Pontes, Lucíola de Barros; Bognar, Cinthia Leite Frizzera Borges; Santos, Kelly Cristine Carvalho; Bromberg, Sílvio Eduardo; do Amaral, Paulo Gustavo Tenório; Karnakis, Theodora; Chen, Michael; de Andrade, Cláudia Toledo; Dantas, Joacira; Escobosa, Daísa de Mesquita; Giglio, Auro Del

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the flow and costs associated with the diagnosis and treatment of patients with breast cancer who come from the public healthcare system and were treated at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein. Methods: Between August 2009, and December 2011, 51 patients referred by the Unified Public Healthcare System (SUS) had access to Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein for diagnostic radiology, medical oncology, radiotherapy, and oncologic/ breast reconstruction surgery. The data were collected retrospectively from the hospital records, patient charts, pharmacy records, and from the hospital billing system. Results: The total sum spent for diagnosis and treatment of these 51 patients was US$ 1,457,500.00. This value encompassed expenses with a total of 85 hospitalizations, 2,875 outpatient visits, 16 emergency room visits, and all expenses associated with these stays at the hospital. The expenditure for treatment of each patient submitted to biopsy, breast conserving surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy without trastuzumab (a regime with taxane followed by anthracycline), radiotherapy, and 5 years of tamoxifen was approximately US$ 25,500.00. Conclusion: Strategies for cost-reduction of treatment in the private setting are necessary to enable future large-scale public-private partnerships in oncology. PMID:23843064

  14. IDENTIFYING ELEVEN FACTORS OF SERVICE MARKETING MIX (4PS) EFFECTIVE ON TENDENCY OF PATIENTS TOWARD PRIVATE HOSPITAL

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba; Etesaminia, Samira; Jafari, Mehrnoosh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: One of the important factors of correct management is to identify the reasons for patient tendency toward private hospitals. This study measures these factors based on service marketing mixes. Patients and methods: This study used a cross sectional descriptive methodology. The study was conducted during 6 months in 2015. The studied population included patients of private hospitals in Tehran. Random sampling was used (n = 200). Data was collected by an author-made questionnaire for service marketing factors. Reliability and validity of the questionnaire were confirmed. Data analysis was done using factor analysis test in SPSS 20. Results: The results showed that constant attendance of physicians and nurses has the highest effect (0.707%) on patient tendency toward private hospitals. PMID:27999486

  15. Using qualitative methods to understand the determinants of patients' willingness to pay for cataract surgery: a study in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Geneau, Robert; Massae, Patrick; Courtright, Paul; Lewallen, Susan

    2008-02-01

    Cataract is the leading cause of avoidable blindness in Africa. There are various documented barriers to the uptake of cataract surgery, cost being one of them. There is, however, little evidence regarding patients' willingness to pay (WTP) for cataract surgery in Africa and the best way to measure it. We conducted a grounded theory study in order to understand better cataract patients' WTP for surgery in Tanzania. A total of 47 cataract patients from three regions of Tanzania were interviewed. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The coding process involved identifying emerging themes and categories and their interconnection. Our study reveals that the main factors behind patients' WTP for cataract surgery are (1) the level of perceived need for sight and cataract surgery; (2) the decision-making processes at the family level and (3) the characteristics of local eye care programs. Our study shows that WTP concerns not only the patients but also their relatives. For most patients and families, the amount of $20-$30 is deemed reasonable for a sight-restoring procedure. It does not appear realistic for eye care program managers to charge the real cost of cataract surgery at present (about US $70-in Kilimanjaro). However, eye care programs can influence WTP for cataract surgery by providing quality services and by offering adequate counseling about the procedure. The qualitative findings enriched the interpretation of a previously reported quantitative survey and yield implications for both researchers and decision-makers using or relying on WTP methodologies in developing countries.

  16. Education does pay off: pneumococcal vaccine screening and administration in hospitalized adult patients with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Kruspe, Rachel; Lillis, Rebecca; Daberkow, Dayton W; Blais, Christopher M; Wilbright, Wayne; Gupta, Shaminder; Gould, Cynthia A; Sun, Tony; Martinez, Jorge A; deBoisblanc, Ben; Ladabaum, Uri; Sanders, Charles V; Lopez, Fred A

    2003-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated infections are an important cause of hospitalization and mortality in high-risk and elderly patients. Even in the setting of appropriate therapy, the case fatality rate of invasive pneumococcal disease in the elderly may approach 40%. Since approximately 40,000 people die annually from pneumococcal-associated disease, it represents a substantial target for vaccine-preventable, bacterial fatalities. The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine has proven consistently effective in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease. Despite its endorsement by numerous specialty societies, the pneumococcal vaccine is underutilized in the inpatient setting. In a recent report of quality indicators for Medicare beneficiaries, the percentage of Medicare beneficiaries in Louisiana admitted with pneumonia who were screened or received the pneumococcal vaccination prior to discharge was only 4%, the lowest percentage in the United States. The Louisiana State University-New Orleans Internal Medicine Department and its house staff embarked upon a retrospective study to determine its baseline pneumococcal vaccination or screening rates for all patients with pneumonia on its inpatient services at the The Medical Center of Louisiana in New Orleans from July 2000 through June 2001. From July 2001 through June 2002 an intensive educational intervention concentrating on the indications and benefits of pneumococcal vaccination was directed toward the Louisiana State University Internal Medicine house staff assigned to the inpatient service. Retrospective analysis for pneumococcal vaccine screening and administration of charts of all patients with pneumonia on the LSU Medicine service from July 2001 through June 2002 was performed in order to determine the effects of the intervention. Data from the pre-educational intervention period revealed a baseline pneumococcal vaccine screening or administration rate of 11% for all patients with pneumonia on the

  17. Measuring melasma patients' quality of life using willingness to pay and time trade-off methods in thai population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Melasma is a common hyperpigmentation disorder that has a significant effect on an individual's quality of life. However, there is no preference-based measurement that reflects quality of life in patients with melasma. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of melasma on quality of life by using a health status measurement - the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) - and a preference-based measurement - Willingness to Pay (WTP) and Time Trade-Off (TTO). Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. Seventy-eight patients with melasma who attended the melasma clinic at Siriraj Hospital from February to March 2009 were recruited in this study. The Thai version of the DLQI, questionnaires about WTP, standard TTO, and daily TTO were used to assess patients' quality of life. Results Seventy-seven (98.7%) patients were female with a mean age of 47.8 ± 7.9 years. The mean health utility based on standard TTO was 0.96. The utility obtained by the daily TTO method was 0.92 and was significantly correlated with an economically inactive occupation (p < 0.05). The mean monthly WTP for the most effective treatment was 1,157 baht (7.2% of monthly income), ranging from 100 to 5,000 baht (1 USD ~ 35.1 baht). The WTP was significantly correlated with monthly personal income and the total DLQI score. Conclusion The WTP method could be a useful tool with which to measure the quality of life of patients with melasma. PMID:22182399

  18. Effects of Physician-Targeted Pay-for-Performance on Use of Spontaneous Breathing Trials in Mechanically Ventilated Patients.

    PubMed

    Barbash, Ian J; Pike, Francis; Gunn, Scott R; Seymour, Christopher W; Kahn, Jeremy M

    2016-12-12

    Rationale Pay-for-performance is an increasingly common quality improvement strategy despite the absence of robust supporting evidence. Objectives To determine the impact of a financial incentive program rewarding physicians for the completion of daily spontaneous breathing trials (SBTs) in three academic hospitals. Methods We compared data from mechanically ventilated patients from six months before to two years after introduction of a financial incentive program that provided annual payments to critical care physicians contingent on unit-level SBT completion rates. We used Poisson regression to compare the frequency of days on which SBTs were completed among eligible patients and days on which patients were excluded from SBT eligibility among all mechanically ventilated patients. We used multivariate regression to compare risk-adjusted duration of mechanical ventilation and in-hospital mortality. Measurements and Main Results The cohort included 7,291 mechanically ventilated patients with 75,621 ventilator days. Baseline daily SBT rates were 96.8% (Hospital A), 16.4% (Hospital B), and 74.7% (Hospital C). In hospital A, with the best baseline performance, there was no change in SBT rates, exclusion rates, or duration of mechanical ventilation across time periods. In hospitals B and C, with lower SBT completion rates at baseline, there was an increase in daily SBT completion rates and a concomitant increase in exclusions from eligibility. Duration of mechanical ventilation decreased in hospital C but not hospital B. Mortality was unchanged for all hospitals. Conclusions In hospitals with low baseline SBT completion, physician-targeted financial incentives were associated with increased SBT rates driven in part by increased exclusion rates, without consistent improvements in outcome.

  19. Association between the Value-Based Purchasing pay for performance program and patient mortality in US hospitals: observational study

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Jose F; Tsugawa, Yusuke; Zheng, Jie; Orav, E John

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (HVBP) program—the US pay for performance program introduced by Medicare to incentivize higher quality care—on 30 day mortality for three incentivized conditions: acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia. Design Observational study. Setting 4267 acute care hospitals in the United States: 2919 participated in the HVBP program and 1348 were ineligible and used as controls (44 in general hospitals in Maryland and 1304 critical access hospitals across the United States). Participants 2 430 618 patients admitted to US hospitals from 2008 through 2013. Main outcome measures 30 day risk adjusted mortality for acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia using a patient level linear spline analysis to examine the association between the introduction of the HVBP program and 30 day mortality. Non-incentivized, medical conditions were the comparators. A secondary outcome measure was to determine whether the introduction of the HVBP program was particularly beneficial for a subgroup of hospital—poor performers at baseline—that may benefit the most. Results Mortality rates of incentivized conditions in hospitals participating in the HVBP program declined at −0.13% for each quarter during the preintervention period and −0.03% point difference for each quarter during the post-intervention period. For non-HVBP hospitals, mortality rates declined at −0.14% point difference for each quarter during the preintervention period and −0.01% point difference for each quarter during the post-intervention period. The difference in the mortality trends between the two groups was small and non-significant (difference in difference in trends −0.03% point difference for each quarter, 95% confidence interval −0.08% to 0.13% point difference, P=0.35). In no subgroups of hospitals was HVBP associated with better outcomes, including poor performers at baseline

  20. Examining adherence among challenging patients in public and private HIV care in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Deborah; Cook, Ryan; Cecchini, Diego; Sued, Omar; Bofill, Lina; Weiss, Stephen; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Lopez, Maria R; Spence, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Treatment engagement, retention and adherence to care are required for optimal HIV outcomes. Yet, patients may fall below the treatment recommendations for achieving undetectable viral load or not be retained in care. This study examined the most challenging patients in Buenos Aires, Argentina, those non-adherent to HIV care. Men (n = 61) and women (n = 59) prescribed antiretrovirals (ARVs) and non-adherent to treatment in the prior 3 to 6 months were enrolled and assessed regarding adherence, knowledge, motivation and attitudes regarding treatment. Private clinic patients had lower viral load and higher self-reported adherence than public clinic patients. Motivations to be adherent and positive beliefs regarding ARVs were associated with increased adherence in public clinic participants. Increased self-efficacy was associated with increased adherence among participants from both clinics. Results support patient and provider interventions that strengthen the characteristics supporting adherence, engagement and retention in public and private clinic settings. Resumen El compromiso, la retención en el cuidado y adherencia al tratamiento son esenciales para el manejo óptimo del paciente con VIH. Sin embargo, muchos pacientes con VIH no siguen las el tratamiento para lograr tener una carga viral indetectable, o no permanecen bajo cuidado médico. Este estudio examina los pacientes más difíciles de retener en el cuidado médico en Buenos Aires, Argentina. Hombres (n = 61) y mujeres (n = 59) a los que se les habían recetado antiretrovirales pero seguían el tratamiento en los últimos 3 - 6 meses participaron en el estudio. Adherencia, conocimiento, motivación y actitudes frente al tratamiento fueron evaluados. Los pacientes en la clínica privada tenían menor carga viral y mejor adherencia que los de la clínica pública. Motivación y pensamientos positivos con respecto a antiretrovirales estaban asociados con mejor adherencia en los pacientes de la clínica p

  1. Civil commitment for substance use disorder patients under the Florida Marchman Act: demographics and outcomes in the private clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Timothy J; Strolla, Michael P; Myers, David P

    2013-01-01

    The Florida Marchman Act, a statutory process for civil commitment of persons with substance use disorders. The paper describes the various methods by which the Act may be employed, and examines the demographics and outcomes of 100 patients admitted to a private treatment setting pursuant to Marchman Act authority.

  2. Paying for healthy rivers.

    PubMed

    Pigram, J J J

    2002-01-01

    Concerted efforts are being made at state and federal levels to restore Australia's rivers and waterways to a healthy condition. Yet, there is little consensus on what constitutes a "healthy river" and even less on how to achieve this, or how far to go towards restoration. Some advocate removal of storages and weirs along rivers to revert to some natural state. Others, particularly water users, question the trade-offs involved in leaving more water in the rivers and how the costs of restoration are to be met. At present it seems that the major share of the costs is borne by irrigators, with the wider community essentially enjoying a "free-ride". This situation is justified on the basis of the impactor pays principle whereby water diversions, primarily for irrigation, are held to have contributed most to degradation of the river systems. The altemative-beneficiary pays principle--is of more relevance where demands are made on resource users to mitigate environmental impacts or bring about environmental improvements, eg. healthy rivers, where the beneficiaries are the wider public and the general community. Many resource users are voluntarily undertaking action on private land to conserve biodiversity and achieve sustainability. In these circumstances, the cost-sharing principle should apply, with governments, interest groups and the community contributing to the investment required to attain the desired resource condition objectives.

  3. Innovative strategies for self-pay segmentation.

    PubMed

    Boehler, Adam; Hansel, John

    2006-01-01

    Risk segmentation of self-pay accounts can help healthcare financial managers determine where to use collection resources. Assessment of self-pay patients should consider each patient's estimated financial condition and potential eligibility for charity care of public assistance patients. Segmenting patients on the basis of demographic variances and potential fraud can help hospitals increase self-pay collections and reduce A/R days.

  4. Mortality, Length of Stay, and Inpatient Charges for Heart Failure Patients at Public versus Private Hospitals in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Jung; Park, Eun-Cheol; Kim, Tae Hyun; Yoo, Ji Won

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study compared in-hospital mortality within 30 days of admission, lengths of stay, and inpatient charges among patients with heart failure admitted to public and private hospitals in South Korea. Materials and Methods We obtained health insurance claims data for all heart failure inpatients nationwide between November 1, 2011 and May 31, 2012. These data were then matched with hospital-level data, and multi-level regression models were examined. A total of 8406 patients from 253 hospitals, including 31 public hospitals, were analyzed. Results The in-hospital mortality rate within 30 days of admission was 0.92% greater and the mean length of stay was 1.94 days longer at public hospitals than at private hospitals (mortality: 5.18% and 4.26%, respectively; LOS: 12.08 and 10.14 days, respectively). The inpatient charges were 11.4% lower per case and 24.5% lower per day at public hospitals than at private hospitals. After adjusting for patient- and hospital-level confounders, public hospitals had a 1.62-fold higher in-hospital mortality rate, a 16.5% longer length of stay, and an 11.7% higher inpatient charge per case than private hospitals, although the charges of private hospitals were greater in univariate analysis. Conclusion We recommend that government agencies and policy makers continue to monitor quality of care, lengths of stay in the hospital, and expenditures according to type of hospital ownership to improve healthcare outcomes and reduce spending. PMID:25837196

  5. Religiosity/spirituality of German doctors in private practice and likelihood of addressing R/S issues with patients.

    PubMed

    Voltmer, Edgar; Bussing, Arndt; Koenig, Harold G; Al Zaben, Faten

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the self-assessed religiosity and spirituality (R/S) of a representative sample of German physicians in private practice (n = 414) and how this related to their addressing R/S issues with patients. The majority of physicians (49.3 %)reported a Protestant denomination, with the remainder indicating mainly either Catholic(12.5 %) or none (31.9 %). A significant proportion perceived themselves as either religious(42.8 %) or spiritual (29.0 %). Women were more likely to rate themselves R/S than did men. Women (compared to men) were also somewhat more likely to attend religious services (7.4 vs. 2.1 % at least once a week) and participate in private religious activities(14.9 vs. 13.7 % at least daily), although these differences were not statistically significant.The majority of physicians (67.2 %) never/seldom addressed R/S issues with a typical patient. Physicians with higher self-perceived R/S and more frequent public and private religious activity were much more likely to address R/S issues with patients. Implications for patient care and future research are discussed.

  6. The association of willingness-to-pay and patient attributes: a cost-volume-profit analysis of cardiac catheter unit services in Ramallah Hospital, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Jabr, Samer F K; Younis, Mustafa Mike Z; Forgione, Dana A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association of willingness-to-pay and patient attributes in relation to the multi-service cost-volume-profit structure of a cardiac catheter unit in Ramallah Hospital. This article contributes to the literature by providing primary evidence on patient willingness-to-pay, by identifying the specific break-even parameters of three hospital cardiac catheter unit service types (diagnosis, balloon, and pacemaker), and by demonstrating the cross-subsidization of patient income groups that is inherent in the existing hospital rate structure. Our results provide information useful for (1) evidence-based policy making with respect to hospital rate setting and cross-subsidies of patient income groups; (2) the advancement of hospital management, by demonstrating the estimated variable and fixed cost parameters and the impact of patient revenue mix on the profitability of cardiac catheter unit services; and (3) the advancement of theory, by documenting the relationship of patient demand and the cost of supply in a multi-patient-group, multi-service hospital setting.

  7. 33 CFR 52.71 - Authority to pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FOR CORRECTION OF MILITARY RECORDS OF THE COAST GUARD Payment of Claims and Implementation of Orders... authorized to pay any claim heretofore compensated by Congress through enactment of private law, or to...

  8. Behind the Pay Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dey, Judy Goldberg; Hill, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Women have made remarkable gains in education during the past three decades, yet these achievements have resulted in only modest improvements in pay equity. The gender pay gap has become a fixture of the U.S. workplace and is so ubiquitous that many simply view it as normal. "Behind the Pay Gap" examines the gender pay gap for college graduates.…

  9. Military Pay Comparability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    for promotions and for pay based on ability. Also included in this idea is one of equal pay for basically equal work. Thus, the sub-principle of...Report established for the first time the idea that pay within the services for basically equal jobs should be the same and that the pay should be...foundation for legislation creating the first idea of 4 P "regular military compensation" (basic pay , subsistence allowance and quarters allowance) as a

  10. Comparison of anal cancer outcomes in public and private hospital patients treated at a single radiation oncology center

    PubMed Central

    Bitterman, Danielle S.; Grew, David; Gu, Ping; Cohen, Richard F.; Sanfilippo, Nicholas J.; Leichman, Cynthia G.; Leichman, Lawrence P.; Moore, Harvey G.; Gold, Heather T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare clinical and treatment characteristics and outcomes in locally advanced anal cancer, a potentially curable disease, in patients referred from a public or private hospital. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 112 anal cancer patients from a public and a private hospital who received definitive chemoradiotherapy at the same cancer center between 2004 and 2013. Tumor stage, radiotherapy delay, radiotherapy duration, and unplanned treatment breaks ≥10 days were compared using t-test and χ2 test. Overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS), and colostomy free survival (CFS) were examined using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. Cox proportional hazard models for OS and DFS were developed. Results The follow-up was 14.9 months (range, 0.7-94.8 months). Public hospital patients presented with significantly higher clinical T stage (P<0.05) and clinical stage group (P<0.05), had significantly longer radiotherapy delays (P<0.05) and radiotherapy duration (P<0.05), and had more frequent radiation therapy (RT) breaks ≥10 days (P<0.05). Three-year OS showed a marked trend in favor of private hospital patients for 3-year OS (72.8% vs. 48.9%; P=0.171), 3-year DFS (66.3% vs. 42.7%, P=0.352), and 3-year CFS (86.4% vs. 68.9%, P=0.299). Referral hospital was not predictive of OS or DFS on multivariate analysis. Conclusions Public hospital patients presented at later stage and experienced more delays in initiating and completing radiotherapy, which may contribute to the trend in poorer DFS and OS. These findings emphasize the need for identifying clinical and treatment factors that contribute to decreased survival in low socioeconomic status (SES) populations. PMID:26487947

  11. Orthodontic treatment need among young Saudis attending public versus private dental practices in Riyadh

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jobair, Asma M; Baidas, Laila F; Al-Hamid, Anfal A; Al-Qahtani, Sara G; Al-Najjar, Amani T; Al-Kawari, Huda M

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess and compare the severity of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need among young Saudis receiving free treatment at public dental practices versus those paying for treatment at private practices. Materials and methods This retrospective study evaluated the records of 300 patients (179 females, 121 males; age 13–21 years) treated at orthodontic clinics from 2013 through 2015. The public sample was selected from orthodontic clinics at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University (KSU); the private sample was selected from five private orthodontic clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The records were examined for the severity of malocclusion and for orthodontic treatment need using the Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. The prevalence of each occlusal discrepancy and the Dental Health Component grade were recorded. The severity of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need were compared between practice types, age groups, and sexes with the chi-square test. Results Displacement, increased overjet, and Class II and III malocclusion were the most common orthodontic problems in this study. Patients attending public clinics at KSU generally had more severe malocclusion than the patients attending private clinics. Seventy-seven percent of orthodontically treated patients at KSU clinics were in great need of treatment, compared with 58.5% of patients treated at private clinics (P=0.003). Among the patients with great treatment need, approximately 62% of male patients and 70% of patients ≤16 years of age were treated at KSU clinics, compared with 38% and 48%, respectively, treated at private clinics (P<0.0001). Conclusion Young Saudis receiving free orthodontic treatment at public clinics at KSU had more severe malocclusion with greater need of orthodontic treatment than the patients paying for treatment at private clinics. PMID:27843351

  12. [A double-blind nomifensine-nortriptyline trial in ambulatory patients conducted by psychiatrists in private practice: results and comments].

    PubMed

    Coudray, J P; Dufour, H; Garello, J L; Mollo, Y; Pascal, F; Poisson, D; Scotto, J C; Simart, G; Sormani, J; Tourame, G

    1978-06-28

    Nomifensine and nortriptyline were compared in a collaborative trial by psychiatrists in private practice. The trial impiled:--selection of ambulatory depressed patients--randomization in parallel groups (respectively 31 and 34 subjects)--administration in double-blind condition of 4 capsuels daily of either compound during 4 weeks--quotation of depressvie syndrom with Hamilton depression scale before treatment after 2 and 4 weeks. The analysis of results shows clear improvment of depression scores, equivalent in both groups (non significant difference and posterior rejection of an alternative hypothesis). Practical problems encountered in controlled trials in psychiatrist's outpatients are discussed.

  13. Managing uncertainty around HIV/AIDS in an urban setting: private medical providers and their patients in Pune, India.

    PubMed

    Kielmann, Karina; Deshmukh, Deepali; Deshpande, Sucheta; Datye, Vinita; Porter, John; Rangan, Sheela

    2005-10-01

    Changing epidemiological patterns and the advent of new rapid diagnostic technologies and therapies have created considerable uncertainty for providers working in HIV. In India, the demand for HIV care is increasingly being met by private practitioners (PPs), yet little is known about how they deal with the challenges of managing HIV patients. To explore HIV management practices in the private medical sector, a survey was conducted with 215PPs in Pune, India, followed by in-depth interviews focusing on the social context of practice among a sub-set of 27PPs. Drawing primarily on interview data, this paper illustrates a number of uncertainties that underlie the reported actions of providers in a competitive medical market. PPs perceive HIV as a 'new' and challenging disease for which they lack adequate knowledge and skills. Combined with the perceived high cost and complexity of antiretroviral treatment, preconceptions about HIV patients' social, financial and mental capacity lead to highly individualistic management practices. While these fall short of clinical 'best practice' guidelines, they reflect adaptive responses to the wider uncertainties surrounding HIV care in urban India. By highlighting contextual issues in PPs' management of HIV patients, the paper suggests the need to explicitly acknowledge the social, moral and economic bases of uncertainty beyond the clinical setting.

  14. Privatizing Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrard, Jane; Bolt, Nancy; Strege, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This timely special report from ALA Editions provides a succinct but comprehensive overview of the "privatization" of public libraries. It provides a history of the trend of local and state governments privatizing public services and assets, and then examines the history of public library privatization right up to the California…

  15. Private Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Brian T., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the expanding role of the rehabilitation counselor into private sector rehabilitation in the seven articles of this special issue. Topics cover private rehabilitation in an insurance context including forensics issues, computer applications, recent trends, services in a multiprogram private clinic, and rehabilitation counselor training.…

  16. Closing the Pay Gap

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    the pay gap has been narrowed, hut only to just under 10 percent. And current military compensation legislation does not close the gap until 2026. There...will continue to be a pay gap until 2026 unless the next administration and the next Congress provide more for pay above the 1999 legislated ramp- up...of .5 percent (one half of one percent) per year to attain pay equality . That means that soldiers, sailors, airmen, marines and Coast Guardsmen

  17. Comparative Investigation of Health Literacy Level of Cardiovascular Patients Hospitalized in Private and Educational Hospitals of Kerman City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Malekzadeh, Sajedeh; Azami, Mohammad; Mirzaei, Moghadameh; Motamedi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: literacy involves a complex set of abilities to understand and use symbolic systems of a culture for personal development and social development in a diverse set of skills required as an adult to exercise behavior are considered in society Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate Comparative investigation of health literacy level of cardiovascular patients hospitalized in private and public educational hospitals of Kerman city Methods: This study used survey methods, analytical and cross-sectional manner. Data was collected through questionnaires distributed among 200 patients of cardiovascular-hospitalization took place in the city of Kerman. To analyze the data in the description of the mean, standard deviation and frequency distribution tables and the level of analysis to determine the relationship between gender and marital status of health literacy test or nonparametric test Mann-Whitney T-Test and, for the relationship between group employment and residence, a one-way analysis of variance or Kruskal-Wallis test, to evaluate the relationship between age and income, Pearson and Spearman correlation to investigate the relationship between level of education and health literacy of SPPS software version 21 was used. Results: The results showed that 10% of patients at educational hospitals in Kerman adequate health literacy, and 48% of patients in private hospitals had adequate health literacy. As a result, there is a significant difference of health literacy between the two types of hospital (p-value <0/0001). Conclusions: The results showed that most patients had inadequate and border health literacy have been. Health plans, preparation of simple educational system and understanding, spending more time and have a discussion with the lower speed In connection with the patient’s doctor and medical staff, Including ways to help patients with low health literacy and improve their health literacy is. PMID:27041812

  18. What Predicts Patients’ Willingness to Undergo Online Treatment and Pay for Online Treatment? Results from a Web-Based Survey to Investigate the Changing Patient-Physician Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Bidmon, Sonja; Terlutter, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Background Substantial research has focused on patients’ health information–seeking behavior on the Internet, but little is known about the variables that may predict patients’ willingness to undergo online treatment and willingness to pay additionally for online treatment. Objective This study analyzed sociodemographic variables, psychosocial variables, and variables of Internet usage to predict willingness to undergo online treatment and willingness to pay additionally for online treatment offered by the general practitioner (GP). Methods An online survey of 1006 randomly selected German patients was conducted. The sample was drawn from an e-panel maintained by GfK HealthCare. Missing values were imputed; 958 usable questionnaires were analyzed. Variables with multi-item measurement were factor analyzed. Willingness to undergo online treatment and willingness to pay additionally for online treatment offered by the GP were predicted using 2 multiple regression models. Results Exploratory factor analyses revealed that the disposition of patients’ personality to engage in information-searching behavior on the Internet was unidimensional. Exploratory factor analysis with the variables measuring the motives for Internet usage led to 2 separate factors: perceived usefulness (PU) of the Internet for health-related information searching and social motives for information searching on the Internet. Sociodemographic variables did not serve as significant predictors for willingness to undergo online treatment offered by the GP, whereas PU (B=.092, P=.08), willingness to communicate with the GP more often in the future (B=.495, P<.001), health-related information–seeking personality (B=.369, P<.001), actual use of online communication with the GP (B=.198, P<.001), and social motive (B=.178, P=.002) were significant predictors. Age, gender, satisfaction with the GP, social motive, and trust in the GP had no significant impact on the willingness to pay additionally

  19. [Treatment of depressive patients in private practice--empirical results, health political and social conditions and recommendations].

    PubMed

    Goesmann, Cornelia; Bühren, Astrid; Neuy-Bartmann, Astrid

    2007-09-01

    Although depression and symptoms of depression belong to the most common disorders in private practice, affected patients are not always diagnosed as early as possible in Germany and often not sufficiently treated. In order to improve the care for persons with depression it is necessary that family doctors are prepared to guide these patients with empathy, treat them adequately pharmacologically both in respect to the depression and to all other somatic aspects and to refer them in time to specialists for psychiatry, psychosomatic medicine or psychotherapy. Political and social conditions that have pathogenic effects should be changed and the shortage of psychotherapy needs to be overcome. In future, the integrated care in ambulant and clinical settings will probably be successful, first trials and test setups have shown good results.

  20. The Impact of Expressions of Treatment Efficacy and Out-of-pocket Expenses on Patient and Physician Interest in Osteoporosis Treatment: Implications for Pay-for-performance Programs

    PubMed Central

    Foreman-Hoffman, Valerie; Cram, Peter

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are increasingly used as the basis for pay-for-performance (P4P) programs. It is unclear how support for guidelines varies when treatment efficacy is expressed in varying mathematically equivalent ways. OBJECTIVES To assess: (1) how patient and provider compliance with osteoporosis CPGs varies when pharmacotherapy efficacy is presented as relative risk reduction (RRR) versus absolute risk reduction (ARR) and (2) the impact of increasing out-of-pocket drug expenditures on acceptance of guideline concordant therapy. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey of patients and physicians. SUBJECTS AND SETTING Female patients age >50 years and providers drawn from academic and community outpatient clinics. MEASUREMENTS Patient and provider acceptance of pharmacotherapy when treatment efficacy (reduction in hip fractures) was expressed alternatively in relative terms (35% RRR) versus absolute terms (1% ARR); acceptance of pharmacotherapy as patient drug copayment increased from 0% to 100% of the total drug costs. RESULTS Compliance with CPGs fell significantly when the expression of treatment benefit was switched from RRR to ARR for both patients (86% vs 57% compliance; P < .001) and physicians (97% vs 56% compliance; P < .001). Increasing drug copayment from 0% to 10% of total drug cost decreased patient compliance with CPGs from 80% to 57% (P < .001) but did not impact physician compliance. With increasing levels of copay, both patient and provider interest in treatment decreased. LIMITATIONS Respondents may not have fully understood the risks and benefits associated with osteoporosis and its treatment. CONCLUSION Patient and provider interest in CPG-recommended treatment for osteoporosis is reduced when treatment benefit is expressed as ARR rather than RRR. In addition, minimal increases in drug copayment significantly decreased patient, but not provider, interest in osteoporosis treatment. Designers of P4P programs should

  1. When Negotiation Fails: Private Education as a Disciplinary Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Regt, Ali; Weenink, Don

    2005-01-01

    This articles deals with the question why Dutch upper-middle-class parents resort to fee-paying private education, a tiny, recently developed sector of the Dutch educational system. The research is based on interviews with 37 parents and 20 students attending private schools, and on a survey among 376 parents involved in private schooling. From…

  2. Not-for-profit hospital CEO performance and pay: some evidence from Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Jeffrey; Santerre, Rexford E

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses observations from a panel data set of 35 chief executive officers (CEOs) from 29 not-for-profit hospitals in Connecticut over the period 1998 to 2006 to investigate the relationship between CEO performance and pay. Both economic and charity performance measures are specified in the empirical model. The multiple regression results reveal that not-for-profit hospital CEOs, at least in Connecticut, are driven at the margin to increase the occupancy rate of privately insured patients at the expense of uncompensated care and public-pay patients. This type of behavior on the part of not-for-profit hospital CEOs calls into question the desirability of allowing these hospitals a tax exemption on earned income, property, and purchases.

  3. Factors Associated with Treatment Delay among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Public and Private Health Facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Adenager, Getinet Shewaseged; Alemseged, Fessahaye; Asefa, Henok

    2017-01-01

    Background. Early detection and diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and the timely commencement of antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment are the parts of efficient tuberculosis prevention and control program. Delay in the commencement of anti-TB treatment worsens the prognosis and increases the risk of death and the chance of transmission in the community and among health care workers. Objective. To assess tuberculosis treatment delay and associated factors among pulmonary TB patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 public and 10 private health facilities that provide TB treatment. The data were collected from 425 newly registered pulmonary TB patients using pretested structured questionnaire from April to June 2012. Data were entered in EPI info version 3.5.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Findings. The median durations of a patient, health care system, and total treatment delays were 17, 9, and 35 days, respectively. Overall 179 (42.1%), 233 (54.8%), and 262 (61.6%) of patients experienced patient delay, health care system delay, and total treatment delay, respectively. Distance more than 2.5 km from TB treatment health facility [AOR = 1.6, 95% CI (1.1–2.5)] and the presence of TB-associated stigma [AOR = 2.1, 95% CI (1.3, 3.4)] indicate higher odds of patient delay, whereas, being unemployed, patients with the hemoptysis symptom complain indicated lower odds of health care system delay [AOR = 0.41, 95% CI (0.24, 0.70)] and [AOR = 0.61 (0.39, 0.94)], respectively. Conclusions. A significant proportion of clients experienced patient and health care system delay. Thus, there is a need for designing and implementing appropriate strategies to decrease the delays. Efforts to reduce delays should give focus on integrating prevention programs such as active case detection and expanding access to TB care. PMID:28348887

  4. EQUAL PAY FACTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    EQUAL PAY MEANS PAYMENT OF "RATE OF THE JOB" WITHOUT REGARD TO SEX. EQUAL PAY LAWS WERE ENACTED IN 29 STATES FROM 1919 TO 1965. FOUR ADDITIONAL STATES HAVE FAIR EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES LAWS. SUPPORT FOR SUCH LEGISLATION HAS COME FROM WOMEN'S AND CIVIC ORGANIZATIONS, AFL-CIO, AND THE PRESIDENT'S AND STATE COMMISSIONS ON THE STATUS OF WOMEN. THE…

  5. High Pay Makes Headlines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The skyrocketing pay and benefits of corporate executives have kept reporters and, sometimes, prosecutors busy in recent years. The resulting public outrage over these tales of excess has contributed to a backlash. Now the news media, in searching for excessive pay in places where there seems to be no cap on costs, have increasingly focused their…

  6. Financial Advice: Who Pays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finke, Michael S.; Huston, Sandra J.; Winchester, Danielle D.

    2011-01-01

    Using a cost-benefit framework for financial planning services and proprietary data collected in the summer of 2008, the client characteristics that are associated with the likelihood of paying for professional financial advice, as well as the type of financial services purchased, are identified. Results indicate that respondents who pay for…

  7. Treatment outcomes of HIV-positive patients on first-line antiretroviral therapy in private versus public HIV clinics in Johannesburg, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Moyo, Faith; Chasela, Charles; Brennan, Alana T; Ebrahim, Osman; Sanne, Ian M; Long, Lawrence; Evans, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the widely documented success of antiretroviral therapy (ART), stakeholders continue to face the challenges of poor HIV treatment outcomes. While many studies have investigated patient-level causes of poor treatment outcomes, data on the effect of health systems on ART outcomes are scarce. Objective We compare treatment outcomes among patients receiving HIV care and treatment at a public and private HIV clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. Patients and methods This was a retrospective cohort analysis of ART naïve adults (≥18.0 years), initiating ART at a public or private clinic in Johannesburg between July 01, 2007 and December 31, 2012. Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to identify baseline predictors of mortality and loss to follow-up (>3 months late for the last scheduled visit). Generalized estimating equations were used to determine predictors of failure to suppress viral load (≥400 copies/mL) while the Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare the median absolute change in CD4 count from baseline to 12 months post-ART initiation. Results 12,865 patients initiated ART at the public clinic compared to 610 at the private clinic. The patients were similar in terms of sex and age at initiation. Compared to public clinic patients, private clinic patients initiated ART at higher median CD4 counts (159 vs 113 cells/mm3) and World Health Organization stage I/II (76.1% vs 58.5%). Adjusted hazard models showed that compared to public clinic patients, private clinic patients were less likely to die (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35–0.70) but were at increased risk of loss to follow-up (aHR 1.80; 95% CI 1.59–2.03). By 12 months post-ART initiation, private clinic patients were less likely to have a detectable viral load (adjusted relative risk 0.65; 95% CI 0.49–0.88) and recorded higher median CD4 change from baseline (184 cells/mm3 interquartile range 101–300 vs 158 cells/mm3 interquartile

  8. The impact of total quality service (TQS) on healthcare and patient satisfaction: an empirical study of Turkish private and public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Bakan, Ismail; Buyukbese, Tuba; Ersahan, Burcu

    2014-01-01

    This paper attempts to measure patients' perceptions of the quality of services in public and private healthcare centers in Turkey. The main aim was to examine the impact of the dimensions of patient-perceived total quality service (TQS) on patients' satisfaction. The research framework and hypotheses are derived from a literature review of service quality and quality in the healthcare industry. The research data were collected through questionnaires and then statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlation and linear regression. The results suggest that service quality perceptions positively influence patient satisfaction with overall hospital care (SOHC). The most important factors identified in the regression model regarding patient SOHC are the quality of the hospital's social responsibility, administrative processes and overall experience of medical care received. These factors explain 74% of the variance in SOHC. The findings of the study can be used to improve TQS in both private and public hospitals.

  9. Balancing the interests of patient data protection and medication safety monitoring in a public-private partnership.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Nancy A; Blackburn, Stella; Hliva, Valerie; Mt-Isa, Shahrul; Richardson, Jonathan; Jamry-Dziurla, Anna; Bourke, Alison; Johnson, Rebecca

    2015-04-15

    Obtaining data without the intervention of a health care provider represents an opportunity to expand understanding of the safety of medications used in difficult-to-study situations, like the first trimester of pregnancy when women may not present for medical care. While it is widely agreed that personal data, and in particular medical data, needs to be protected from unauthorized use, data protection requirements for population-based studies vary substantially by country. For public-private partnerships, the complexities are enhanced. The objective of this viewpoint paper is to illustrate the challenges related to data protection based on our experiences when performing relatively straightforward direct-to-patient noninterventional research via the Internet or telephone in four European countries. Pregnant women were invited to participate via the Internet or using an automated telephone response system in Denmark, the Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom. Information was sought on medications, other factors that may cause birth defects, and pregnancy outcome. Issues relating to legal controllership of data were most problematic; assuring compliance with data protection requirements took about two years. There were also inconsistencies in the willingness to accept nonwritten informed consent. Nonetheless, enrollment and data collection have been completed, and analysis is in progress. Using direct reporting from consumers to study the safety of medicinal products allows researchers to address a myriad of research questions relating to everyday clinical practice, including treatment heterogeneity in population subgroups not traditionally included in clinical trials, like pregnant women, children, and the elderly. Nonetheless, there are a variety of administrative barriers relating to data protection and informed consent, particularly within the structure of a public-private partnership.

  10. Are prescribing doctors sensitive to the price that their patients have to pay in the Spanish National Health System?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study aims to design an empirical test on the sensitivity of the prescribing doctors to the price afforded for the patient, and to apply it to the population data of primary care dispensations for cardiovascular disease and mental illness in the Spanish National Health System (NHS). Implications for drug policies are discussed. Methods We used population data of 17 therapeutic groups of cardiovascular and mental illness drugs aggregated by health areas to obtain 1424 observations ((8 cardiovascular groups * 70 areas) + (9 psychotropics groups * 96 areas)). All drugs are free for pensioners. For non-pensioner patients 10 of the 17 therapeutic groups have a reduced copayment (RC) status of only 10% of the price with a ceiling of €2.64 per pack, while the remaining 7 groups have a full copayment (FC) rate of 40%. Differences in the average price among dispensations for pensioners and non-pensioners were modelled with multilevel regression models to test the following hypothesis: 1) in FC drugs there is a significant positive difference between the average prices of drugs prescribed to pensioners and non-pensioners; 2) in RC drugs there is no significant price differential between pensioner and non-pensioner patients; 3) the price differential of FC drugs prescribed to pensioners and non-pensioners is greater the higher the price of the drugs. Results The average monthly price of dispensations to pensioners and non-pensioners does not differ for RC drugs, but for FC drugs pensioners get more expensive dispensations than non-pensioners (estimated difference of €9.74 by DDD and month). There is a positive and significant effect of the drug price on the differential price between pensioners and non-pensioners. For FC drugs, each additional euro of the drug price increases the differential by nearly half a euro (0.492). We did not find any significant differences in the intensity of the price effect among FC therapeutic groups. Conclusions Doctors

  11. Comparing demographics, clinical presentation, treatments and outcome between systemic lupus erythematosus patients treated in a public and private health system in Santa Fe, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Schmid, María Marcela; Roverano, Susana Graciela; Paira, Sergio Oscar

    2014-01-01

    The study includes 159 SLE patients seen between 1987 and 2011, of whom 116 were treated in the public health system and 43 in private practice. In the comparison between both groups, it was shown that patients in the public health system were younger at first consultation and at the onset of SLE, and that the mean duration of their disease prior to nephropathy was statistically significantly shorter. They also presented with more SLE activity (measured by Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Activity Index) such as fever, lower levels of C4, and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Although cyclophosphamide was administered more frequently to patients in the public health system group, there were no statistically significant differences in renal histological findings. A second renal biopsy was performed on 20 patients due to the presence of persistent proteinuria, peripheral edema, urinary casts, or because of previous defective renal specimens. The overall 10-year survival of the patients in the public health system was 78% compared to a survival rate of 91% for the patients in private practices. When survival was evaluated at 15 years, however, no differences were found (log rank test: 0.65). Patients from both public and private groups attended medical specialist practices and received early diagnoses and close follow-ups.

  12. Long-Term and Interactive Effects of Pay-For-Performance Interventions among Diabetic Nephropathy Patients at the Early Chronic Kidney Disease Stage

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Pei-Ju; Lin, Tzu-Yu; Wang, Tzu-Ching; Ting, Ming-Kuo; Wu, I-Wen; Huang, Hsin-Tsung; Wang, Fu-Chung; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Hsu, Kuang-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health problem worldwide because of the aging population and lifestyle changes. One of the important etiologies of CKD is diabetes mellitus (DM). The long-term effects of pay-for-performance (P4P) on disease progression have not been thoroughly examined. This study is a retrospective population-based patient cohort design to examine the continuous effects of diabetes and CKD P4P interventions. This study used the health insurance claims database to conduct a longitudinal analysis. A total of 32,084 early CKD patients with diabetes were extracted from the outpatient claims database from January 2011 to December 2012, and the follow-up period was extended to August 2014. A 4-group matching design, including both diabetes and early CKD P4P interventions, with only diabetes P4P intervention, with only early CKD P4P intervention, and without any P4P interventions, was performed according to their descending intensity. The primary outcome of this study was all-cause mortality and the causes of death. The statistical methods included a Chi-squared test, ANOVA, and multi-variable Cox regression models. A dose–response relationship between the intervention groups and all-cause mortality was observed as follows: comparing to both diabetes and early CKD P4P interventions (reference), hazard ratio (HR) was 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00–1.50) for patients with only a diabetes P4P intervention; HR was 2.00 (95% CI, 1.66–2.42) for patients with only an early CKD P4P intervention; and HR was 2.42 (95% CI, 2.02–2.91) for patients without any P4P interventions. The leading cause of death of the total diabetic nephropathy patient cohort was infectious diseases (34.32%) followed by cardiovascular diseases (17.12%), acute renal failure (1.50%), and malignant neoplasm of liver (1.40%). Because the earlier interventions have lasting long-term effects on the patient's prognosis regardless of disease course, an integrated

  13. The impact of erlotinib use in non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated in a private reference general hospital and in a private cancer clinic from 2005 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Bognar, Cinthia Leite Frizzera Borges; Simon, Sergio Daniel; Gansl, Rene Claudio; Abramoff, Roberto; Aisen, Marcelo; Lopes, Gilberto de Lima; Smaletz, Oren; Peres, Stela Verzinhasse; Tabacof, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To report the demographic data and clinical outcomes of non-small-cell lung cancer patients exposed to erlotinib in any line of treatment. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of nonsmall-cell lung cancer patients from a reference general hospital and a private oncology clinic, who received erlotinib from 2005 to 2011. Statistical analysis was performed and we evaluated demographic data and response to treatment, by correlating the results of this first cohort published in Brazil with results of current literature. Results: A total of 44 patients were included; 65.9% were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma, and 63.6% had metastatic disease. The mean age was 63.3 years. The median follow-up was 47.9 months. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutation screening was performed in 22.7% of patients (n=10), with mutation present in 30% of patients. The median overall survival was 46.3 months, and there was a higher probability of survival at 60 months for females compared to males (29.4% versus 15.8%; p=0.042). The other variables did not present significant statistical difference. Conclusion: We collected the largest cohort of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer who have used erlotinib in Brazil to date, and demonstrated that outcomes of patients treated at our clinic during the study period were consistent with the results of current literature in similar patients. PMID:26154542

  14. 5 CFR 410.402 - Paying premium pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Paying premium pay. 410.402 Section 410... for Training Expenses § 410.402 Paying premium pay. (a) Prohibitions. Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, an agency may not use its funds, appropriated or otherwise available, to...

  15. Initial care and outcome of glioblastoma multiforme patients in 2 diverse health care scenarios in Brazil: does public versus private health care matter?

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, Luiz Victor Maia; Pontes, Lucíola de Barros; Callegaro-Filho, Donato; Koch, Ludmila de Oliveira; Weltman, Eduardo; Victor, Elivane da Silva; Santos, Adrialdo José; Borges, Lia Raquel Rodrigues; Segreto, Roberto Araújo; Malheiros, Suzana Maria Fleury

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological and survival features of patients with glioblastoma multiforme treated in 2 health care scenarios—public and private—in Brazil. Methods We retrospectively analyzed clinical, treatment, and outcome characteristics of glioblastoma multiforme patients from 2003 to 2011 at 2 institutions. Results The median age of the 171 patients (117 public and 54 private) was 59.3 years (range, 18–84). The median survival for patients treated in private institutions was 17.4 months (95% confidence interval, 11.1–23.7) compared with 7.1 months (95% confidence interval, 3.8–10.4) for patients treated in public institutions (P < .001). The time from the first symptom to surgery was longer in the public setting (median of 64 days for the public hospital and 31 days for the private institution; P = .003). The patients at the private hospital received radiotherapy concurrent with chemotherapy in 59.3% of cases; at the public hospital, only 21.4% (P < .001). Despite these differences, the institution of treatment was not found to be an independent predictor of outcome (hazard ratio, 1.675; 95% confidence interval, 0.951–2.949; P = .074). The Karnofsky performance status and any additional treatment after surgery were predictors of survival. A hazard ratio of 0.010 (95% confidence interval, 0.003–0.033; P < .001) was observed for gross total tumor resection followed by radiotherapy concurrent with chemotherapy. Conclusions Despite obvious disparities between the hospitals, the medical assistance scenario was not an independent predictor of survival. However, survival was directly influenced by additional treatment after surgery. Therefore, increasing access to resources in developing countries like Brazil is critical. PMID:24463356

  16. [Interviews with physicians in private practice as a starting point for quality improvement in hospitals].

    PubMed

    Spiessl, H; Semsch, I; Cording, C; Klein, H E

    2001-07-01

    Subjective criteria gain importance in care research and quality management. Therefore, psychiatrists in private practice and general practitioners working in the catchment area of a psychiatric hospital were surveyed by questionnaire evaluating expectations and satisfaction concerning their collaboration with the hospital. Psychiatrists and general practitioners rated legible interim discharge letters, good in-patient treatment, adequate diagnostics, and direct referral to the hospital as most important. Psychiatrists express dissatisfaction regarding prescription of expensive drugs, lack of involvement in planning new psychiatric institutions, delivery of discharge summaries, referring back the patient after in-patient care, and delay of hospital admission. As conclusion, quality management should pay more attention to ambulatory care physicians' points of view to reduce problems of interaction between clinicians and their colleagues in private practice and to improve the treatment continuity of psychiatric patients.

  17. Medicaid Nursing Home Pay for Performance: Where Do We Stand?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arling, Greg; Job, Carol; Cooke, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Nursing home pay-for-performance (P4P) programs are intended to maximize the value obtained from public and private expenditures by measuring and rewarding better nursing home performance. We surveyed the 6 states with operational P4P systems in 2007. We describe key features of six Medicaid nursing home P4P systems and make…

  18. Motivating the Private vs. Public Sector Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khojasteh, Mak

    1993-01-01

    A questionnaire on intrinsic/extrinsic rewards received 362 responses from 380 managers. Pay and security were greater motivators for private than for public sector managers. Recognition had higher motivating potential in the public sector. Both groups were motivated by achievement and advancement. (SK)

  19. Are Selective Private and Public Colleges Affordable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karikari, John A.; Dezhbakhsh, Hashem

    2013-01-01

    We examine college affordability under the existing pricing and financial aid system that awards both non need-based and need-based aid. Using data of freshmen attending a large number of selective private and public colleges in the USA, we find that the prices students actually pay for college have increased over time. Need-based grant aid has…

  20. Private and Nonpublic Schools: Elementary Enrollments, 2003-04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobek, Joanne R., Comp.

    2004-01-01

    This listing contains 2003-04 elementary enrollments for private and nonpublic schools that reported to the Division of Data Services. Listed are the school name, location address and affiliation of each reporting school having elementary enrollments. These enrollments reflect private-pay students only. An asterisk (*) preceding the school name…

  1. Private and Nonpublic Schools: Secondary Enrollments, 2003-04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobek, Joanne R., Comp.

    2004-01-01

    This listing contains 2003-04 secondary enrollments for private and nonpublic schools that reported to the Division of Data Services. Listed are the school name, location address and affiliation of each reporting school having secondary enrollments. These enrollments reflect private-pay students only. An asterisk (*) preceding the school name…

  2. Medicare Pays for Chronic Care Management.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2015-09-01

    As of January, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services began paying for chronic care management of patients with two or more conditions under its Chronic Care Management program. The payment applies to patients in traditional fee-for-service and noncapitated Medicare Advantage plan arrangements. Texas Medical Association leaders caution the program has some hefty requirements.

  3. Reputation Effects in Public and Private Interactions.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Iwasa, Yoh; Nowak, Martin A

    2015-11-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in a model of indirect reciprocity where people interact in public and private situations. Public interactions have a high chance to be observed by others and always affect reputation. Private interactions have a lower chance to be observed and only occasionally affect reputation. We explore all second order social norms and study conditions for evolutionary stability of action rules. We observe the competition between "honest" and "hypocritical" strategies. The former cooperate both in public and in private. The later cooperate in public, where many others are watching, but try to get away with defection in private situations. The hypocritical idea is that in private situations it does not pay-off to cooperate, because there is a good chance that nobody will notice it. We find simple and intuitive conditions for the evolution of honest strategies.

  4. Reputation Effects in Public and Private Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Iwasa, Yoh; Nowak, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in a model of indirect reciprocity where people interact in public and private situations. Public interactions have a high chance to be observed by others and always affect reputation. Private interactions have a lower chance to be observed and only occasionally affect reputation. We explore all second order social norms and study conditions for evolutionary stability of action rules. We observe the competition between “honest” and “hypocritical” strategies. The former cooperate both in public and in private. The later cooperate in public, where many others are watching, but try to get away with defection in private situations. The hypocritical idea is that in private situations it does not pay-off to cooperate, because there is a good chance that nobody will notice it. We find simple and intuitive conditions for the evolution of honest strategies. PMID:26606239

  5. Nuclear privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffs, E.

    1995-11-01

    The United Kingdom government announced in May 1995 plans to privatize the country`s two nuclear generating companies, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear. Under the plan, the two companies will become operating divisions of a unified holding company, to be called British Electric, with headquarters in Scotland. Britain`s nuclear plants were left out of the initial privatization in 1989 because the government believed the financial community would be unwilling to accept the open-ended liability of decommissioning the original nine stations based on the Magnox gas-cooled reactor. Six years later, the government has found a way around this by retaining these power stations in state ownership, leaving the new nuclear company with the eight Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) stations and the recently completed Sizewell B PWR stations. The operating Magnox stations are to be transferred to BNFL, which operates two Magnox stations of their own at Calder Hall and Chapelcross.

  6. Federal Personnel: Federal/Private Sector Pay Comparisons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    Federal Employees Covered by Social Security, December 1984. ^This finding is based on a comparison of employer cost associated with the various...and gender. Specifically, ’For a further discussion, see Robert Willis, "Wage Determinante : A Survey and ReinterpreteÜori of Human Capital Earnings

  7. Consultancy pay for nurses.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    Nurses working for NHS Direct could be paid at medical consultant level based on equal pay for equal work initiatives, according to Rob Crouch, Deputy Director and Research Fellow (A&E), Centre for the Advancement of Clinical Practice, University of Surrey.

  8. The Equal Pay Boondoggle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Richard A.

    1975-01-01

    Problems of extending the Equal Pay Act to university faculty are examined in light of the complicated market forces and merit systems affecting faculty appointments and salaries. Solutions to the problem are suggested including guidelines for the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor to use in identifying sex discrimination. (JT)

  9. The Poor Pay More.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folse, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a sociology experiential learning assignment where students learned why people living in poverty can sometimes pay more for products than people with better incomes. Focuses specifically on the rent to own concept. States students achieved the goal of learning how life constraints of poverty can hinder the poor from overcoming their…

  10. Is Teacher Pay "Adequate?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgursky, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In school finance lawsuits plaintiffs often claim that pay levels are not sufficient to recruit teachers who can deliver constitutionally-mandated levels of educational services. In this paper I consider several ways in which one might bring economic theory and data to bear on that question. I conclude that at present, and at least for the near…

  11. Performance Pay for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protheroe, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    During the past few years, interest in shifting at least a portion of what teachers are paid away from a reliance on a traditional salary schedule to one that incorporates a pay for performance component has reached a new high. Proponents of the approach view it as a way to improve teacher quality by both motivating teachers and--through higher…

  12. History of Combat Pay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Adjudicating the dispute, Assistant Secretary of Defense Marx Leva posited that “compensation received by the soldiers, sailors, and airmen who go...agreed, and submitted legislation in December of 1950 for the authorization of Combat Pay. In their opinions, Marshall and Leva outlined the framework

  13. Assessment of Economic Impact Among In-Patients with Non-Communicable Diseases in a Private Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shilpa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are currently responsible for tremendous economic impact on households. Aim This study was done to estimate the direct, indirect and total costs incurred by households of in-patients with non-communicable diseases admitted in a Private tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods It was a cross-sectional study conducted in a private tertiary care hospital of Mangalore city in June 2012 by interviewing 30 patients and their attenders using a validated interview schedule. Results Direct cost constituted 58.6% of the total expenses during the course of stay in the hospital. Mean direct cost was more among patients with cancers (p=0.049). Indirect cost was associated with educational status (p=0.04), occupational status (p<0.001) and socio economic status (ses) (p<0.001) of patients. Total cost was more among patients from upper middle ses households (p=0.012). Direct and indirect cost constituted 5-10% each and total cost > 20% of the annual income of majority of households. Medical insurance scheme was not availed by 26 (86.7%) patients due to ignorance. Conclusion Economic burden imposed by a single admission among inpatients with NCDs was tremendous on their households. Hence, information on various medical insurance schemes needs to be popularized among people to improve its utilization. Health care providers need to introduce more financial schemes to minimize health care costs among poor households. PMID:27504316

  14. Ambulatory care for HIV-infected patients: differences in outcomes between hospital-based units and private practices: analysis of the RESINA cohort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the treatment of HIV infection is influenced by factors such as potency of applied drugs, adherence of the patient, and resistance-associated mutations. Up to now, there is insufficient data on the impact of the therapeutic setting. Methods Since 2001, the prospective multicenter RESINA study has examined the epidemiology of transmitted HIV drug resistance in Nordrhein-Westfalen, the largest federal state of Germany by population. Characteristics of patients treated in hospital-based outpatient units were compared to those of patients treated in medical practices. Longitudinal data of all participants are being followed in a cohort study. Results Overall, 1,591 patients were enrolled between 2001 and 2009 with follow-up until the end of 2010. Of these, 1,099 cases were treated in hospital-based units and 492 in private practices. Significant differences were found with respect to baseline characteristics. A higher rate of patients with advanced disease and non-European nationality were cared for in hospital units. Patients in medical practices were predominantly Caucasian men who have sex with men (MSM) harboring HIV-1 subtype B, with lower CDC stage and higher CD4 cell count. Median viral load was 68,828 c/mL in hospital-based units and 100,000 c/mL in private practices (P = 0.041). Only median age and rate of transmitted drug resistance were not significantly different. After 48 weeks, 81.9% of patients in hospital units and 85.9% in private practices had a viral load below the limit of detection (P = 0.12). A similar result was seen after 96 weeks (P = 0.54). Although the baseline CD4 cell count was different (189.5/μL in hospital units and 246.5/μL in private practices, P <0.001), a consistent and almost identical increase was determined in both groups. Conclusions The RESINA study covers a large HIV-infected patient cohort cared for in specialized facilities in Germany

  15. Private ownership of primary care providers associated with patient perceived quality of care: A comparative cross-sectional survey in three big Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaolin; Yin, Jia; Wong, Samuel Y S; Griffiths, Sian M; Zou, Guanyang; Shi, Leiyu

    2017-01-01

    Ownership of primary care providers varies in different cities in China. Shanghai represented the full public ownership model of primary providers; Shenzhen had public-owned but private-operated providers; and Hong Kong represented the full private ownership. The study aims to assess the association of primary care ownership and patient perceived quality of care in 3 Chinese megacities.We conducted multistage stratified random surveys in 2013 in the 3 cities. Quality scores of primary care were measured using the validated primary care assessment tools. Multivariate linear regression models were used to compare quality scores after controlling potential confounders of patient demographic, socioeconomic, and healthcare utilization factors.Overall, 797 primary care users in Shanghai, 802 in Shenzhen, and 1325 in Hong Kong participated in the study. The mean total quality scores were reported the highest in Shanghai (28.39), followed by Shenzhen (25.82) and then Hong Kong (25.21) (P < 0.001). Shanghai participants reported the highest scores for 1st contact accessibility, coordination of information, comprehensiveness of service availability, and culture competence, while Hong Kong participants reported the lowest for these domains (P < 0.001). Hong Kong participants from rich households reported higher total scores than those from poor households (P < 0.05); however, this was not found in Shanghai and Shenzhen.The study suggests that private primary care ownership may be associated with lower quality and less equitable care distribution. In China, it suggests that it may be beneficial to promote public-owned and nonprofit providers. Promoting privatization in primary care may be at the cost of quality and equity of primary care.

  16. Demographic and anthropometrical analysis and genotype distribution of chronic hepatitis C patients treated in public and private reference centers in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Focaccia, R; Baraldo, D C M; Ferraz, M L G; Martinelli, A L C; Carrilho, F J; Gonçales, F L; Pedroso, M L A; Coelho, H S M; Lacerda, M A; Brandão, C E; Mattos, A A; Lira, L G C; Zamin, I; Pinheiro, J O P; Tovo, C V; Both, C T; Soares, J A S; Dittrich, S

    2004-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious public health problem, since 80% to 85% of HCV carriers develop a persistent infection that can progress into liver cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. Considering that the response of hepatitis C patients to combination therapy with interferon and ribavirin depends on HCV characteristics as well as on host features, we made a retrospective analysis of demographic and anthropometrical data and HCV genotype distribution of chronic hepatitis C patients treated in public and private reference centers in Brazil. The medical records of 4,996 patients were reviewed, 81% from public and 19% from private institutions. Patients' median age was 46 years, and there was a higher prevalence of male (62%) and white patients (80%). The analysis of HCV-infecting strains showed a predominance of genotype 1 (64%) over genotypes 2 and 3. The patients' mean weight was 70.6 kg, and 65% of the patients weighed less than 77 kg. Overweight and obesity were observed in 37.8% and 13.6% of the patients, respectively. Since a body weight of 75 kg or less has been considered an independent factor that significantly increases the odds of achieving a sustained virological response, the Brazilian population seems to have a more favorable body weight profile to achieve a sustained response than the American and European populations. The finding that 65% of chronic hepatitis C patients have a body weight of 77 kg or less may have a positive pharmacoeconomic impact on the treatment of genotype 1 HCV patients with weight-based doses of peginterferon.

  17. Peru privatizes

    SciTech Connect

    Suttil, K.R.

    1993-02-01

    Peru has been undergoing a revolution since the election of Alberto Fujimori as president in 1990. A revolution that is reversing many of the policies of the past 25 years and one which aims to bring Peru back into the mainstream of the world economy. All the enterprises nationalized in the heady days of the early 1970s are set up for privatization. The most important are the three mining companies: Hierro-Peru, Centromin, and Mineroo-Peru. It will not be easy to attract foreign investment after such a long period of political and economic instability but the rewards are there for the intrepid.

  18. Military Pay Gaps and Caps.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    RATIOS AND ENLISTED RECRUIT QUALITY AND RETENTION 27 C. MILITARY-CrVIL SERVICE PAY ADJUSTMENT LINKAGE: LEGISLATIVE BACKGROUND, 1967-1993 30...DECI), which we constructed previously and have updated to include fiscal 1992. We compare pay gaps based on the ECI versus the DECI and present DECI...do. There is no claim that the levels of military and civilian pay are equal at base point. If pay levels are equal at the base point, the divergence

  19. Differentially private distributed logistic regression using private and public data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Privacy protecting is an important issue in medical informatics and differential privacy is a state-of-the-art framework for data privacy research. Differential privacy offers provable privacy against attackers who have auxiliary information, and can be applied to data mining models (for example, logistic regression). However, differentially private methods sometimes introduce too much noise and make outputs less useful. Given available public data in medical research (e.g. from patients who sign open-consent agreements), we can design algorithms that use both public and private data sets to decrease the amount of noise that is introduced. Methodology In this paper, we modify the update step in Newton-Raphson method to propose a differentially private distributed logistic regression model based on both public and private data. Experiments and results We try our algorithm on three different data sets, and show its advantage over: (1) a logistic regression model based solely on public data, and (2) a differentially private distributed logistic regression model based on private data under various scenarios. Conclusion Logistic regression models built with our new algorithm based on both private and public datasets demonstrate better utility than models that trained on private or public datasets alone without sacrificing the rigorous privacy guarantee. PMID:25079786

  20. Evaluation in usual practice of the bevacizumab-FOLFIRI combination for the first-line treatment of patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer treated in 2006: focus on resected patients and oncogeriatrics: AVASTIN OUEST cohort of the Observatory of Cancer of the Brittany and Pays de la Loire Areas (Observatoire dédié au Cancer Bretagne / Pays de la Loire).

    PubMed

    Metges, J P; Lebot, M A; Faroux, R; Riaud, F; Gamelin, E; Capitain, O; Guérin Meyer, V; Leynia, P; Douillard, J Y; Senellart, H; Rochard, S; Louvigné, C; Campion, L; Dupuis, O; Grollier, C; Achour, N A; Person, B; Raoul, J L; Boucher, E; Bertrand, C; Ramée, J F; Guivarch, L; Etienne, P L; Roussel, S; Desclos, H; Julien, M N; Labarre, M I; Klein, V; Bessard, R; Stampfli, C; Royet, F; Faycal, J; Gouva, S; Le Bihan, G; Couturier, M; Gourlaouen, A; Bertholom, C; Porneuf, M; Jobard, E; Peguet, E; Grasset, D; Bouret, J F; Bicheler, V; Ulvoas, A; Miglianico, L; Chouzenoux, C; Deguiral, P; Derenne, L; Martin, D; Langlet, P Michel; Bodin, C; Rossi, V; Barré, S; Cojocarasu, O; Naveau Ploux, C; Vidal, A M; Cumin, I; Egreteau, J; Brouard, A; Matysiak Budnik, T; Thomaré, P; Le Bris Michel, A S; Piriou, G; Largeau, R; Elhannani, C; Crespeau, E; Suberville, F; Bourgeois, H; Riche, C; Lagadec, D Déniel; Marhuenda, F; Grudé, F

    En 2006, bevacizumab-FOLFIRI représente la thérapie ciblée administrable dès la première ligne chez les patients porteurs d’un cancer colorectal métastatique non opérable. Une série homogène de 111 patients colligés en région Bretagne et Pays de la Loire ayant reçu du bevacizumab- FOLFIRI en première ligne en 2006 révèle les résultats suivants: 51 réponses, 29 stabilités, 21 progressions et 10 toxicités avant évaluation. La médiane de survie globale (OS) est de 25,1 mois et la médiane de survie sans progression (PFS) de 10,2 mois. Dans le cas d’une chirurgie secondaire, l’OS médian triple de 18,8 mois chez les patients non réséqués versus 59,2 mois ceux réséqués. En comparant les sujets âgés de plus et de moins de 70 ans, aucune différence n’a été mise en évidence en termes de bénéfice ou de risque. Bevacizumab-FOLFIRI pourrait être administré en pratique courante chez les personnes âgées sous couvert d’une évaluation gériatrique et d’une approche multidisciplinaire.

  1. Equal Pay: The Emerging Terrain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Kent M.

    1985-01-01

    Colleges and universities can employ several statutory defenses to alleged pay disparities and demonstrate that there are legitimate reasons for pay differentials. Several preventive strategies in response to the emerging legal terrain of equal pay litigation are suggested. (Author/MLW)

  2. Value-Added Merit Pay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twomey, Daniel F.

    The purpose of merit pay is to reward employees for their accomplishments and motivate them to continue improving. Critics of merit pay say the increased extrinsic motivation that it prompts is more than offset by the decrease in intrinsic motivation. Supporters of performance-based pay claim several benefits of the practice. This study addressed…

  3. Military Pay Gaps and Caps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    annual military pay legislation suspended 37 USC 1009; this provision called for equal percentage increases in all three cash components of RMC, with the...SERVICE PAY ADJUSTMENT LINKAGE: LEGISLATIVE BACKGROUND, 1967-1993 .................... 30 Bibliography...personnel. We do so via the Defense Employment Cost Index (DECI), which we constructed previously and have updated to include fiscal 1992. We compare pay

  4. Self-efficacy, self-care behaviors and glycemic control among type-2 diabetes patients attending two private clinics in Yangon, Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Wynn Nyunt, Sandhi; Howteerakul, Nopporn; Suwannapong, Nawarat; Rajatanun, Thitipat

    2010-07-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence of glycemic control and its associated factors among type-2 diabetes patients attending two private clinics in Yangon, Myanmar. Two hundred sixty-six diabetes patients attending two private diabetes clinics in Yangon during February and March, 2009 were included in the study. The participants completed a structured questionnaire. HbA(1c) was used as the index for glycemic control. The prevalence of successful glycemic control (HbA(1c) < or =7%) was 27.1%. The median HbA(1c) value was 7.8%. About 62.0% of patients had high self-efficacy levels, and 30.8% had good self-care behavior. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed four variables associated with glycemic control: age > or =60 years (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.17-5.21), taking one oral hypoglycemic agent (OHA) (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.26-5.19), being overweight (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.02-3.95) and having a high self-efficacy level (OR 5.29, 95% CI 2.20-12.75). Interventions to increase diabetic patient self-efficacy levels and self-care behavior, especially related to diet and exercise, are needed to reduce poor glycemic control.

  5. Section 1: Looking Broadly at the Politics of Privatization: The Politics of Privatization in American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, William L.

    2007-01-01

    The long-sustained effort of conservatives and their think tanks and media outlets to win support for school choice, market forces, and privatization schemes in education is paying off. But it is encountering steady resistance from the public education establishment and its supporting teachers' unions. Actions, reactions, strategies, and the…

  6. When punishment pays.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Explaining cooperation in groups remains a key problem because reciprocity breaks down between more than two. Punishing individuals who contribute little provides a potential answer but changes the dilemma to why pay the costs of punishing which, like cooperation itself, provides a public good. Nevertheless, people are observed to punish others in behavioural economic games, posing a problem for existing theory which highlights the difficulty in explaining the spread and persistence of punishment. Here, I consider the apparent mismatch between theory and evidence and show by means of instructive analysis and simulation how much of the experimental evidence for punishment comes from scenarios in which punishers may expect to obtain a net benefit from punishing free-riders. In repeated games within groups, punishment works by imposing costs on defectors so that it pays them to switch to cooperating. Both punishers and non-punishers then benefit from the resulting increase in cooperation, hence investing in punishment can constitute a social dilemma. However, I show the conditions in which the benefits of increased cooperation are so great that they more than offset the costs of punishing, thereby removing the temptation to free-ride on others' investments and making punishment explicable in terms of direct self-interest. Crucially, this is because of the leveraging effect imposed in typical studies whereby people can pay a small cost to inflict a heavy loss on a punished individual. In contrast to previous models suggesting punishment is disadvantaged when rare, I show it can invade until it comes into a producer-scrounger equilibrium with non-punishers. I conclude that adding punishment to an iterated public goods game can solve the problem of achieving cooperation by removing the social dilemma.

  7. When Punishment Pays

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Explaining cooperation in groups remains a key problem because reciprocity breaks down between more than two. Punishing individuals who contribute little provides a potential answer but changes the dilemma to why pay the costs of punishing which, like cooperation itself, provides a public good. Nevertheless, people are observed to punish others in behavioural economic games, posing a problem for existing theory which highlights the difficulty in explaining the spread and persistence of punishment. Here, I consider the apparent mismatch between theory and evidence and show by means of instructive analysis and simulation how much of the experimental evidence for punishment comes from scenarios in which punishers may expect to obtain a net benefit from punishing free-riders. In repeated games within groups, punishment works by imposing costs on defectors so that it pays them to switch to cooperating. Both punishers and non-punishers then benefit from the resulting increase in cooperation, hence investing in punishment can constitute a social dilemma. However, I show the conditions in which the benefits of increased cooperation are so great that they more than offset the costs of punishing, thereby removing the temptation to free-ride on others' investments and making punishment explicable in terms of direct self-interest. Crucially, this is because of the leveraging effect imposed in typical studies whereby people can pay a small cost to inflict a heavy loss on a punished individual. In contrast to previous models suggesting punishment is disadvantaged when rare, I show it can invade until it comes into a producer-scrounger equilibrium with non-punishers. I conclude that adding punishment to an iterated public goods game can solve the problem of achieving cooperation by removing the social dilemma. PMID:23483907

  8. Factors Related to Non-Referral of Patients with Presumptive Pulmonary TB to Designated Microscopy Centers (DMCs) by Registered Private Practitioners in Urban Areas of Punjab, India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shruti; Whig, Jagdeep; Satija, Mahesh; Chaudhary, Anurag

    2015-01-01

    Background Early diagnosis and proper treatment under RNTCP guidelines, forms the mainstay of management of a TB patient. A large proportion of patients with presumptive tuberculosis (TB) visit a Private Practitioner (PP) in the first place. Studies have shown that PPs rely more on X-rays and other diagnostic tools rather than referring the patient to the nearest Designated Microscopy Centre (DMC) for sputum microscopy. Aim The present study was planned to look in to factors responsible for non-referral of patients with presumptive pulmonary TB to the DMCs for diagnosis by PPs. Materials and Methods Present study was a case-control study conducted over a period of one year among registered PPs in urban areas of Punjab. The study was carried out in five major cities which have approximately half of the urban population of Punjab. Forty three Private Practitioners per city for referral group and 43 matched PPs for non-referral group were selected. Results Knowledge regarding RNTCP was low in both the referral (38.1%) as well as non-referral (25.6%) group of PPs. Allopathic doctors had significantly higher knowledge regarding TB as compared to ayurvedic and homeopathy doctors, and Registered Medical Practitioners (RMP). Both the knowledge of PPs regarding nearest DMC as well as perception about accessibility of the nearest DMC for the patients were found to be significantly higher in the referral group. Only 15.3% of practitioners in the non-referral group said that they had been contacted by RNTCP staff. Conclusion The main factors responsible for non-referral of pulmonary TB suspects to DMCs for diagnosis in the present study included low knowledge regarding RNTCP, lack of awareness regarding place and accessibility of nearest DMC, and inadequate sensitization of PPs by the RNTCP staff. PMID:26674553

  9. Paying for disease management.

    PubMed

    Levy, Phillip; Nocerini, Robert; Grazier, Kyle

    2007-08-01

    Disease Management (DM) first appeared in the United States in the early 1990s. Since then its incorporation into health plans has increased dramatically, yet proof of its effectiveness in terms of quality improvement and cost reduction remains to be seen. The following review provides an exploratory analysis of the basic principles of DM, its evolution and differences from traditional managed care, the ways in which programs are currently being used in the private and public sectors, and the challenges to determining a payment structure for incorporating DM into the current health insurance system.

  10. Pay as you throw

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlen, Lisa; Lagerkvist, Anders

    2010-01-15

    Householders' response to weight-based billing for the collection of household waste was investigated with the aim of providing decision support for waste management policies. Three questions were addressed: How much and what kind of information on weight-based billing is discernible in generic Swedish waste collection statistics? Why do local authorities implement weight-based billing, and how do they perceive the results? and, Which strengths and weaknesses of weight-based billing have been observed on the local level? The study showed that municipalities with pay-by-weight schemes collected 20% less household waste per capita than other municipalities. Surprisingly, no part of this difference could be explained by higher recycling rates. Nevertheless, the majority of waste management professionals were convinced that recycling had increased as a result of the billing system. A number of contradicting strengths and weaknesses of weight-based billing were revealed.

  11. 41 CFR 302-9.11 - For what POV emergency or temporary storage expenses will my agency pay?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or temporary storage expenses will my agency pay? 302-9.11 Section 302-9.11 Public Contracts and... PROPERTY 9-ALLOWANCES FOR TRANSPORTATION AND EMERGENCY OR TEMPORARY STORAGE OF A PRIVATELY OWNED VEHICLE General Rules § 302-9.11 For what POV emergency or temporary storage expenses will my agency pay?...

  12. 41 CFR 302-9.11 - For what POV emergency or temporary storage expenses will my agency pay?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or temporary storage expenses will my agency pay? 302-9.11 Section 302-9.11 Public Contracts and... PROPERTY 9-ALLOWANCES FOR TRANSPORTATION AND EMERGENCY OR TEMPORARY STORAGE OF A PRIVATELY OWNED VEHICLE General Rules § 302-9.11 For what POV emergency or temporary storage expenses will my agency pay?...

  13. The poor pay more: health-related inequality in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pannarunothai, S; Mills, A

    1997-06-01

    This paper examines the equality of utilization for equal need and equity of out-of-pocket expenditure for health services in a large urban area in Thailand. Data from a household health interview survey were used to explore patterns of perceived morbidity, utilization of various treatment sources, and out-of-pocket payment. Financial access to health care, as reflected in medical benefit/ insurance cover, appeared to influence reported illness and hospitalization rates. Gross lack of access to health care amongst lower socio-economic groups was not the main problem in this densely populated urban area because people could choose and use alternative health services according to their ability and willingness to pay. The corollary, however, was an inequitable pattern of out-of-pocket health expenditure by income quintile and per capita. The underprivileged were more likely to pay out of their own pocket for their health problems, and to pay out of proportion to their household income when compared with more privileged groups. Furthermore, the underprivileged were least likely to be covered by government health benefit schemes, in contrast in particular to civil servants, who paid less out of pocket and did not contribute to their medical benefit fund. The private health sector (private clinics and private hospitals) was the major provider of health care to urban dwellers for both outpatient and inpatient services. Policy options for the short and long term to improve the equity of payment systems for health care are discussed.

  14. Financing Higher Education Worldwide: Who Pays? Who Should Pay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, D. Bruce; Marcucci, Pamela N.

    2010-01-01

    No issue in higher education is as salient, or as controversial, as finance. As demand for higher education around the world grows, so do the costs associated with it, especially as governments shoulder less of the burden. Tuition fees rise and student loan debt grows. Who pays for these surging costs? Who "should" pay? D. Bruce Johnstone and…

  15. The development of outpatient prospective payment systems and the use of ambulatory patient groups by private insurers.

    PubMed

    Miller, H

    1993-04-01

    Private insurers will likely move to APGs rapidly because of the key advantages that APGs provide. Not only is it necessary to have an outpatient classification system to make utilization review, quality assurance, and customer reporting more meaningful, outpatient prospective payment provides a foundation for the controls on outpatient payments that insurers have been seeking. Because of outpatient volume increases and constraints on inpatient payments that have led hospitals to increase outpatient charges more rapidly, most insurers believe that outpatient payment levels are currently beyond their control. Introduction of an outpatient prospective payment system will shift control over outpatient payment increases from providers to insurers, as has been the case for many insurers who have adopted DRG payment for inpatient services. Once APGs are in place, annual increases in payment amounts will be determined through insurer-provider negotiation or through contractual approaches that limit payment increases to changes in a price index.

  16. Equity and the Sun Quality Health Private Provider Social Franchise: comparative analysis of patient survey data and a nationally representative TB prevalence survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Since 2004, the Sun Quality Health (SQH) franchise network has provided TB care in Myanmar through a network of established private medical clinics. This study compares the wealth distribution of the TB patients to non-TB patients to determine if TB is most common among the poor, and compares the wealth of all TB patients to SQH TB patients to assess whether the franchise achieves its goal of serving the poor. Methods The study uses data from two sources: 1) Myanmar’s first nationally representative TB prevalence study conducted in 2009, and 2) client exit interviews from TB patients from SQH clinics. In total, 1,114 TB-positive individuals were included in the study, including 739 from the national sample and 375 from the SQH sample. Results TB patients at SQH clinics were poorer than TB-positive individuals in the overall population, though not at a statistically significant level (p > 0.05). After stratification we found that in urban areas, TB patients at SQH clinics were more likely to be in the poorest quartile compared to general TB positive population (16.8% vs. 8.6%, respectively; p < 0.05). In rural areas, there was no statistically significant difference between the wealth distribution of SQH clinic patients and general TB positive individuals (p > 0.05). Conclusion Franchised clinics in Myanmar are reaching poor populations of TB patients in urban areas; more efforts are needed in order to reach the most vulnerable in rural areas. PMID:23305063

  17. Equal Pay for Comparable Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Frank, Jane

    1980-01-01

    Argues that sex discrimination has depressed salaries for jobs filled primarily by women. Shows that under the Equal Pay Act and Title VII, workers in traditionally female occupations can establish equal pay claims. Suggests approaches for developing legal and enforcement standards to deal with discriminatory compensation in traditionally female…

  18. Teacher Pay and Teacher Aptitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Can changes in teacher pay encourage more able individuals to enter the teaching profession? So far, studies of the impact of pay on the aptitude distribution of teachers have provided mixed evidence on the extent to which altering teacher salaries represents a feasible solution to the teacher quality problem. One possible reason is that these…

  19. The Merits of Merit Pay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David K.; Murnane, Richard J.

    A study of six selected school districts that had been using merit pay plans successfully for at least 6 years provided insight into administrative strategies associated with merit pay program success. The researchers visited the districts, interviewed teachers and administrators, and studied local documents. Each district used a unique…

  20. Privatization and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Neena

    2009-01-01

    This paper highlights emerging trends, programmes and policies in privatization of education in Western countries. These trends are educational vouchers, choice of private schools, private school liberalization, private contracting of specific services, tuition tax credits and deductions for parents ,subsidies and assistance grants to private…

  1. Using School Scholarships to Estimate the Effect of Private Education on the Academic Achievement of Low Income Students in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anand, Priyanka; Mizala, Alejandra; Repetto, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of private education on the academic achievement of low-income students in Chile. To deal with selection bias, we use propensity score matching to compare the test scores of reduced-fee paying, low-income students in private voucher schools to those of similar students in public schools and free private voucher…

  2. Results from a patient-based health education intervention in reducing antibiotic use for acute upper respiratory tract infections in the private sector primary care setting in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lee, Magdalene Hui Min; Pan, Darius Shaw Teng; Huang, Joyce Huixin; Chen, Mark I-Cheng; Chong, Joash Wen Chen; Goh, Ee Hui; Jiang, Lili; Leo, Yee Sin; Lee, Tau Hong; Wong, Chia Siong; Loh, Victor Weng Keong; Lim, Fong Seng; Poh, Adrian Zhongxian; Tham, Tat Yean; Wong, Wei Mon; Yu, Yue

    2017-02-13

    We investigated the efficacy of patient-targeted education in reducing antibiotic prescriptions for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) amongst adults in the private primary care setting in Singapore. Our randomized controlled trial enrolled patients aged 21 years and above presenting at GP (general practitioner) clinics with URTI symptoms for 7 days or less. Intervention arm patients were verbally educated via pamphlets about the aetiology of URTIs, role of antibiotics in treating URTIs, and consequences of inappropriate antibiotic use. Control arm patients were educated on influenza vaccinations. Both arms were compared on proportions prescribed antibiotics and patients' post-consultation views. 914 patients consulting 35 doctors from 24 clinics completed the study (457 in each arm). Demographics in both arms were similar. 19.1% were prescribed an antibiotic, but this varied from 0% to 70% for individual GPs. The intervention did not significantly reduce antibiotic prescriptions (odds ratio [OR] 1.20, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.83-1.73) except in patients of Indian ethnicity (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.09-0.93). Positive associations between the intervention and the view that antibiotics were not needed most of the time for URTIs (p=0.047) and on being worried about the side effects of antibiotics (p=0.018) were restricted to the Indian subgroup. GPs in limited liability partnerships or clinic chains prescribed less (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.14 - 0.92), while certain inappropriate patient responses were associated with receipt of antibiotics. Follow-up studies to investigate differences in responses to educational programs between ethnicities, and to explore GP-targeted interventions, are recommended.

  3. Monkeys reject unequal pay.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Sarah F; De Waal, Frans B M

    2003-09-18

    During the evolution of cooperation it may have become critical for individuals to compare their own efforts and pay-offs with those of others. Negative reactions may occur when expectations are violated. One theory proposes that aversion to inequity can explain human cooperation within the bounds of the rational choice model, and may in fact be more inclusive than previous explanations. Although there exists substantial cultural variation in its particulars, this 'sense of fairness' is probably a human universal that has been shown to prevail in a wide variety of circumstances. However, we are not the only cooperative animals, hence inequity aversion may not be uniquely human. Many highly cooperative nonhuman species seem guided by a set of expectations about the outcome of cooperation and the division of resources. Here we demonstrate that a nonhuman primate, the brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella), responds negatively to unequal reward distribution in exchanges with a human experimenter. Monkeys refused to participate if they witnessed a conspecific obtain a more attractive reward for equal effort, an effect amplified if the partner received such a reward without any effort at all. These reactions support an early evolutionary origin of inequity aversion.

  4. A prescription for turning self-pay accounts into revenue.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The antidote for a healthy bottom line is a streamlined payment recovery process from self-pay patients. Due to the current high unemployment rate and a resulting spike in self-pay patients, CFOs must be proactive and identify self-pay debt recovery solutions to stay in the black. It is vital to design an effective and efficient process that works for the specific needs of the hospital or practice. Utilizing metrics, reconditioning patients to pay at point-of-service, training associates to appropriately request payment, and understanding the limitations of the business office are key elements to financial health. Identifying an accounts receivable management partner could significantly reduce headaches and strain on staff and time.

  5. Setting Up Private Practice in Psychiatry*

    PubMed Central

    De Sousa, Alan; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Setting up a private practice in Mumbai is an onerous task. The present paper looks at the difficulties face by young psychiatrists when starting a private practice in psychiatry. It suggests certain guidelines to be followed to ensure the development of a successful practice. It also suggests methods to gain popularity among patients and society along with the ethics to be followed, knowledge base to be garnered, and the role of using multiple therapies and versatility in private practice. PMID:25838718

  6. Finance schemes for funding private orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Perks, S

    1997-02-01

    Over the last ten years there has been a steady increase in the volume of private dental treatment and numerous finance schemes have been developed to help both patients and dentists. Private orthodontic treatment is increasing and the purpose of this article is to summarise the main features of the schemes currently available to fund private orthodontic treatment and to provide a source of reference.

  7. 28 CFR 345.56 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.56 Vacation pay. Inmate workers are granted FPI vacation pay by the SOI when their continued good work performance justifies such pay, based on... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vacation pay. 345.56 Section...

  8. 5 CFR 534.502 - Pay range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pay range. 534.502 Section 534.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.502 Pay range. A pay rate fixed under...

  9. 5 CFR 534.502 - Pay range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay range. 534.502 Section 534.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.502 Pay range. A pay rate fixed under...

  10. 5 CFR 534.502 - Pay range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pay range. 534.502 Section 534.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.502 Pay range. A pay rate fixed under...

  11. 5 CFR 534.502 - Pay range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pay range. 534.502 Section 534.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.502 Pay range. A pay rate fixed under...

  12. 5 CFR 534.502 - Pay range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pay range. 534.502 Section 534.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.502 Pay range. A pay rate fixed under...

  13. Competition in the Pay Cable Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albarran, Alan B.

    This paper analyzes the state of competition in the pay cable industry. The analysis conceptualizes competition in pay cable and discusses the current structure of the pay cable industry and the competition for subscribers and programming. The competition for audiences that pay cable faces from both pay-per-view services and the video cassette…

  14. P2Y12 receptor inhibition and effect of morphine in patients undergoing primary PCI for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The PRIVATE-ATLANTIC study.

    PubMed

    Silvain, Johanne; Storey, Robert F; Cayla, Guillaume; Esteve, Jean-Baptiste; Dillinger, Jean-Guillaume; Rousseau, Hélène; Tsatsaris, Anne; Baradat, Caroline; Salhi, Néjoua; Hamm, Christian W; Lapostolle, Frédéric; Lassen, Jens Flensted; Collet, Jean-Philippe; Ten Berg, Jurriën M; Van't Hof, Arnoud W; Montalescot, Gilles

    2016-08-01

    PRIVATE-ATLANTIC (P2Y12 Receptor Inhibition with VASP Testing using Elisa kit during the ATLANTIC study) is a pre-specified substudy of the randomised, double-blind ATLANTIC trial in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, designed to help interpret the main trial results. The primary objective of ATLANTIC was to assess coronary reperfusion prior to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with pre- vs in-hospital ticagrelor 180 mg loading dose (LD). PRIVATE-ATLANTIC assessed platelet inhibition in 37 patients by measurement of vasodilator-associated stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) platelet reactivity index (PRI) and VerifyNow platelet reactivity units (PRU) before angiogram (T1), immediately after PCI (T2), 1 (T3), and 6 (T4) hours (h) after PCI, and before next study drug administration (T5). The median time difference between the two ticagrelor LD was 41 minutes. Platelet reactivity was unaffected at T1 when measured by VASP-PRI (89.8 vs 93.9 % for pre- and in-hospital ticagrelor, respectively; p = 0.18) or PRU (239 vs 241; p = 0.82). Numerical differences were apparent at T2 and maximal at T3. Morphine administration significantly delayed onset of platelet inhibition at T3 (VASP-PRI 78.2 vs 23.4 % without morphine; p = 0.0116) and T4 (33.1 vs 11.0 %; p = 0.0057). In conclusion, platelet inhibition in ATLANTIC was unaffected by pre-hospital ticagrelor administration at the time of initial angiogram due to the short transfer delay. The maximum difference in platelet inhibition was detected 1 h after PCI (T3). Morphine administration was associated with delayed onset of action of ticagrelor and appeared more important than timing of ticagrelor administration.

  15. Paying for treatments? Influences on negotiating clinical need and decision-making for dental implant treatment

    PubMed Central

    Exley, Catherine E; Rousseau, Nikki S; Steele, Jimmy; Finch, Tracy; Field, James; Donaldson, Cam; Thomason, J Mark; May, Carl R; Ellis, Janice S

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to examine how clinicians and patients negotiate clinical need and treatment decisions within a context of finite resources. Dental implant treatment is an effective treatment for missing teeth, but is only available via the NHS in some specific clinical circumstances. The majority of people who receive this treatment therefore pay privately, often at substantial cost to themselves. People are used to paying towards dental treatment costs. However, dental implant treatment is much more expensive than existing treatments – such as removable dentures. We know very little about how dentists make decisions about whether to offer such treatments, or what patients consider when deciding whether or not to pay for them. Methods/Design Mixed methods will be employed to provide insight and understanding into how clinical need is determined, and what influences people's decision making processes when deciding whether or not to pursue a dental implant treatment. Phase 1 will use a structured scoping questionnaire with all the General dental practitioners (GDPs) in three Primary Care Trust areas (n = 300) to provide base-line data about existing practice in relation to dental implant treatment, and to provide data to develop a systematic sampling procedure for Phase 2. Phases 2 (GDPs) and 3 (patients) use qualitative focused one to one interviews with a sample of these practitioners (up to 30) and their patients (up to 60) to examine their views and experiences of decision making in relation to dental implant treatment. Purposive sampling for phases 2 and 3 will be carried out to ensure participants represent a range of socio-economic circumstances, and choices made. Discussion Most dental implant treatment is conducted in primary care. Very little information was available prior to this study about the quantity and type of treatment carried out privately. It became apparent during phase 2 that ISOD treatment was an unusual treatment in

  16. Pay for performance: will dentistry follow?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background "Pay for performance" is an incentive system that has been gaining acceptance in medicine and is currently being considered for implementation in dentistry. However, it remains unclear whether pay for performance can effect significant and lasting changes in provider behavior and quality of care. Provider acceptance will likely increase if pay for performance programs reward true quality. Therefore, we adopted a quality-oriented approach in reviewing those factors which could influence whether it will be embraced by the dental profession. Discussion The factors contributing to the adoption of value-based purchasing were categorized according to the Donabedian quality of care framework. We identified the dental insurance market, the dental profession position, the organization of dental practice, and the dental patient involvement as structural factors influencing the way dental care is practiced and paid for. After considering variations in dental care and the early stage of development for evidence-based dentistry, the scarcity of outcome indicators, lack of clinical markers, inconsistent use of diagnostic codes and scarcity of electronic dental records, we concluded that, for pay for performance programs to be successfully implemented in dentistry, the dental profession and health services researchers should: 1) expand the knowledge base; 2) increase considerably evidence-based clinical guidelines; and 3) create evidence-based performance measures tied to existing clinical practice guidelines. Summary In this paper, we explored factors that would influence the adoption of value-based purchasing programs in dentistry. Although none of these factors were essential deterrents for the implementation of pay for performance programs in medicine, the aggregate seems to indicate that significant changes are needed before this type of program could be considered a realistic option in dentistry. PMID:20423526

  17. Healthy Aging: Paying for Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Paying for health care More information on paying for health care Better ... Coping without insurance More information on paying for health care Explore other publications and websites Age Page: Choosing ...

  18. How much is a child worth? Providers' and patients' views and responses concerning ethical and policy challenges in paying for ART.

    PubMed

    Klitzman, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Infertility treatments remain expensive and in many countries are covered by little, if any, insurance, raising critical questions concerning how patients and providers view and make decisions regarding these challenges. In-depth semi-structured interviews of approximately 1 hour were conducted with 37 IVF providers and 10 patients (17 physicians, 10 other providers and 10 patients), and were systematically analyzed. These data suggest current insurance policies and legislation pose critical ethical and logistical challenges for both patients and providers. These individuals face multiple uncertainties about costs and insurance, related to unclear causes of fertility, treatment length, costs and outcomes, and odds that insurers will cover expenses. Insurers frequently decline to agree to reimbursement beforehand, and decide only afterwards, case-by-case, generating stress. Patients and providers thus may not be able to predict how best to allocate limited resources. Providers may advocate for patients, but are usually unsuccessful. Patients may adopt several strategies: e.g., moving/seeking treatment elsewhere, switching or feeling "stuck" in jobs because of insurance, seeking "free" medications, going into debt, or using funds intended for other purposes. Patients do not perceive and respond to resource limitations as fixed phenomena-i.e., patients do not see treatment simply as "affordable" or not. Rather, patients face quandaries of how much to keep spending-how much a child is worth-and are forced to make complex risk/benefit calculations. Couples can disagree, straining relationships. In sum, these data, the first to explore how providers and patients struggle, view, and make decisions regarding limited insurance and resources for infertility, raise several critical ethical and policy issues. These data suggest that individuals have difficulty translating profoundly life-altering, deeply personal quests for meaning and fulfillment into purely economic terms

  19. Hospital staffing and local pay: an investigation into the impact of local variations in the competitiveness of nurses' pay on the staffing of hospitals in France.

    PubMed

    Combes, Jean-Baptiste; Delattre, Eric; Elliott, Bob; Skåtun, Diane

    2015-09-01

    Spatial wage theory suggests that employers in different regions may offer different pay rates to reflect local amenities and cost of living. Higher wages may be required to compensate for a less pleasant environment or a higher cost of living. If wages in a competing sector within an area are less flexible and therefore less competitive this may lead to an inability to employ staff. This paper considers the market for nursing staff in France where there is general regulation of wages and public hospitals compete for staff with the private hospital and non-hospital sectors. We consider two types of nursing staff, registered and assistant nurses and first establish the degree of spatial variation in the competitiveness of pay of nurses in public hospitals. We then consider whether these spatial variations are associated with variation in the employment of nursing staff. We find that despite regulation of pay in the public and private sector, there are substantial local variations in the competitiveness of nurses' pay. We find evidence that the spatial variations in the competitiveness of pay are associated with relative numbers of assistant nurses but not registered nurses. While we find the influence of the competitiveness of pay is small, it suggests that nonpay conditions may be an important factor in adjusting the labour market as might be expected in such a regulated market.

  20. Quantum data locking for high-rate private communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupo, Cosmo; Lloyd, Seth

    2015-03-01

    We show that, if the accessible information is used as a security quantifier, quantum channels with a certain symmetry can convey private messages at a tremendously high rate, as high as less than one bit below the rate of non-private classical communication. This result is obtained by exploiting the quantum data locking effect. The price to pay to achieve such a high private communication rate is that accessible information security is in general not composable. However, composable security holds against an eavesdropper who is forced to measure her share of the quantum system within a finite time after she gets it.

  1. Getting Real Performance Out of Pay-for-Performance

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Sean; Pauly, Mark V; Wu, Anita Ya Jung; Murray, James F; Teutsch, Steven M; Berger, Marc L

    2008-01-01

    Context Most private and public health insurers are implementing pay-for-performance (P4P) programs in an effort to improve the quality of medical care. This article offers a paradigm for evaluating how P4P programs should be structured and how effective they are likely to be. Methods This article assesses the current comprehensiveness of evidence-based medicine by estimating the percentage of outpatient medical spending for eighteen medical processes recommended by the Institute of Medicine. Findings Three conditions must be in place for outcomes-based P4P programs to improve the quality of care: (1) health insurers must not fully understand what medical processes improve health (i.e., the health production function); (2) providers must know more about the health production function than insurers do; and (3) health insurers must be able to measure a patient's risk-adjusted health. Only two of these conditions currently exist. Payers appear to have incomplete knowledge of the health production function, and providers appear to know more about the health production function than payers do, but accurate methods of adjusting the risk of a patient's health status are still being developed. Conclusions This article concludes that in three general situations, P4P will have a different impact on quality and costs and so should be structured differently. When information about patients’ health and the health production function is incomplete, as is currently the case, P4P payments should be kept small, should be based on outcomes rather than processes, and should target physicians’ practices and health systems. As information improves, P4P incentive payments could be increased, and P4P may become more powerful. Ironically, once information becomes complete, P4P can be replaced entirely by “optimal fee-for-service.” PMID:18798885

  2. School Privatization's First Big Test: EAI in Baltimore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lois C.; Leak, Lawrence E.

    1996-01-01

    An independent study of Baltimore City's Tesseract schools analyzes why the privately managed program failed. Results showed no gains on Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills scores. Baltimore was paying about 11% more per student than in comparison schools. EAI has succeeded in establishing the supremacy of Wednesday afternoons for staff development…

  3. Wage Differentials Between Federal Government and Private Sector Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sharon Patricia

    This study examined the earnings and wage rate differentials between Federal government and private sector workers in 1960 and 1970 to consider the comparability of these workers and the application of the Comparability Doctrine in Federal pay policy during that period. Two types of earnings and wage rate equations were estimated by ordinary least…

  4. Public-Private Partnership in Higher Education: Central Queensland University Meets Campus Management Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Massive growth in the numbers of fee-paying international students and an increasing private sector role are two of the most salient features of Australian higher education in the past quarter century. Both these trends were evident in a little known partnership, involving a public regional university and a private entrepreneur, which had its…

  5. Private Loan Counseling for Undergraduate Students: The Role of College Financial Aid Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    The cost of attending college has surpassed federal financial aid limits and fewer parents are paying the balance. As private lenders have been targeting undergraduate students to obtain private (alternative) loans to fill the financial gap, many students do not have parents or other adults to help them navigate one of the largest financial…

  6. Automating The Work at The Skin and Allergy Private Clinic : A Case Study on Using an Imaging Database to Manage Patients Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alghalayini, Mohammad Abdulrahman

    Today, many institutions and organizations are facing serious problem due to the tremendously increasing size of documents, and this problem is further triggering the storage and retrieval problems due to the continuously growing space and efficiency requirements. This problem is becoming more complex with time and the increase in the size and number of documents in an organization; therefore, there is a world wide growing demand to address this problem. This demand and challenge can be met by converting the tremendous amount of paper documents to images using a process to enable specialized document imaging people to select the most suitable image type and scanning resolution to use when there is a need for storing documents images. This documents management process, if applied, attempts to solve the problem of the image storage type and size to some extent. In this paper, we present a case study resembling an applied process to manage the registration of new patients in a private clinic and to optimize following up the registered patients after having their information records stored in an imaging database system; therefore, through this automation approach, we optimize the work process and maximize the efficiency of the Skin and Allergy Clinic tasks.

  7. Privatization in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfuss, John

    1995-01-01

    Privatization calls for substantially trimming the scope and breadth of government services, replacing them with private or other nongovernmental operators. The attraction of privatization is reduced costs and increased management flexibility. To date, the arrangement has received substantial support from students and parents in situations that…

  8. Public and private sector interactions: an economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Maynard, A

    1986-01-01

    The debate about the public-private mix for health care has been dominated by rhetoric and the failure to evaluate the characteristics of the outcomes of public and private health care systems and to relate these to policy targets. After a brief analysis of the competing, liberal (conservative) and collectivist (socialist), objectives, the nature of the private health care sector in Britain is described and it is shown that growth has faltered due to cost containment problems. This outcome is the product of characteristics of the private health care system, paralleled precisely in the NHS: asymmetry information, monopoly power, moral hazard and third party pays. The final section discusses briefly some remedies for the inefficient and inequitable outcomes which are seen in all health care markets and it is argued that competition within public and private health care systems may enable each system type to achieve its own particular objectives more efficiently.

  9. 28 CFR 345.55 - Longevity pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an inmate earns longevity pay raises after 18 months spent in FPI work...

  10. 28 CFR 345.55 - Longevity pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an inmate earns longevity pay raises after 18 months spent in FPI work...

  11. 28 CFR 345.55 - Longevity pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an inmate earns longevity pay raises after 18 months spent in FPI work...

  12. 28 CFR 345.55 - Longevity pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an inmate earns longevity pay raises after 18 months spent in FPI work...

  13. 28 CFR 345.55 - Longevity pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an inmate earns longevity pay raises after 18 months spent in FPI work...

  14. 28 CFR 345.60 - Training pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training pay. 345.60 Section 345.60... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.60 Training pay. Inmates directed by the SOI to take a particular type of training in connection with a FPI job are to receive FPI pay if...

  15. 29 CFR 778.219 - Pay for foregoing holidays and vacations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... he is owed an additional $25 as overtime premium (additional half-time) for the 10 hours in excess of... sum as vacation pay. This is a matter of private contract between the parties who may agree that... additional $25 as overtime premium (additional half-time) for the 10 hours in excess of 40. His regular...

  16. Willingness to pay for obesity pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Scott; Lloyd, Andrew; Birt, Julie; Curtis, Bradley; Ali, Shehzad; Godbey, Kecia; Sierra-Johnson, Justo; Halford, Jason C G

    2012-10-01

    Several treatments for obesity have received regulatory approval, but health insurers and other payers typically refuse to support access to them. Thus, patients are left to bear significant out-of-pocket costs for obesity pharmacotherapy. This study aimed to assess preferences and willingness to pay (WTP) for obesity medications among people seeking weight loss in the United States and United Kingdom. An online survey was developed based on literature review, clinician interviews, and profiles of available therapies. Participants indicated their preference for hypothetical treatments which varied by seven attributes: percentage of weight loss, long-term health risk reduction, time to noticeable weight loss, delivery mode, side effects, lifestyle modification, and cost; 502 obese participants completed the survey (mean BMI 37.12 kg/m(2) (±4.63); 73.5% female; 47.7 (±12.9) years of age). The participants deemed weight loss of >21 kg (United Kingdom) and >28 kg (United State) as "acceptable". All treatment attributes were important (P < 0.001) except "time to noticeable weight loss." The survey found that percentage weight loss was the most important factor for patients and a reduction in long-term health risk was relatively less important. Patients were willing to pay £6.51/$10.49 per month per percentage point of weight loss that a pharmacotherapy could provide. Participants also highly valued therapies that did not require substantial lifestyle modifications and were willing to pay £17.78/$30.77 more per month for a one-pill-per-day treatment vs. a weekly injectable. Participants placed a high value on weight loss and avoiding changes to their lifestyle, and less value on reducing long-term risks to health.

  17. Les manifestations cutanées chez les patients hémodialysés chroniques dans un pays en voie de développement

    PubMed Central

    Coulibaly, Gérard; Korsaga-Somé, Nina; Fomena, Dorisse Fernade Yongué; Nagalo, Yacouba; Karambiri, Adama Roger; Bassolet, Alban; Kafando, Hyacinthe; Traoré, Adama; Lengani, Adama

    2016-01-01

    Le but de cette étude était deconnaître les affections cutanées les plus fréquentes chez les patients hémodialysés chroniques du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouédraogo (CHU-YO) de Ouagadougou. L’étude, de type transversal descriptif, menée du 15 Septembre au 31 Décembre 2014, s'estdéroulée au CHU-YO. Elle concernait les patients qui avaient au moins trois mois d'ancienneté en hémodialyse chronique. La fréquence des séances d'hémodialyse était d'une tous les cinq jours. Le seuil de signification des tests statistiques était défini pour une probabilité p ≤ 0,05. Quatre-vingt-quinze patients (61,1% d'hommes et 38,9% de femmes), de moyenne d’âge 42,1 ans participaient à l’étude. La durée moyenne en hémodialyse était de 31,9 mois. Le taux de réalisation des analyses biologiques variait de 7,4 à 85,3%. Quatre-vingt patients (85,3%) avaient au moins une manifestation cutanée. La xérose cutanée (67,4%), le prurit (45,3%), et l'hyperpigmentation (23,2%) étaient les plus fréquentes des manifestations cutanées pouvant être spécifiques de l'hémodialyse. L'hypomélanose en gouttes (11,6%), le prurigo (11,6%) et la folliculite (8,4%) étaient les principales manifestations cutanées non spécifiques. L'atteinte cutanée était fréquente mais ne semblait pas liée à l'ancienneté en hémodialyse. Les mauvaises conditions d'hémodialyse et l'environnement sec et chaud à Ouagadougou, ont pu favoriser ces atteintes, en particulier la xérose et le prurit. Une meilleure subvention des soins de santé contribuerait à réduire la prévalence des maladies cutanées et à améliorer la qualité de vie de nos patients hémodialysés chroniques. PMID:27642449

  18. Pay modernisation and healthcare governance.

    PubMed

    Benton, David C

    Policies interact and have direct and indirect consequences resulting in both short-term and longer-term effects on the working lives of professionals, the care they offer and the education needed by future generations of staff. This article explores how pay modernisation could result in benefits and risks for corporate, clinical and staff governance. It is argued that if pay modernisation as a major enabler of service redesign is to succeed then far greater understanding of how various policies interact and their potential consequences is required.

  19. Paying for health.

    PubMed Central

    Black, D

    1991-01-01

    Health care systems, irrespective of how they are financed, present the paradox that to some observers they appear as a major component of social benefits, while to other observers they seem both excessively costly and limited in their effectiveness. These differing perceptions may be explained in part by the diversity of the determinants of health and disease, only some of which are amenable to those preventive or therapeutic measures encompassed in a health care system--the majority of determinants being genetic, societal, or else uninfluenced by those interventions at present available within a health service. The share of national resources which should be devoted to health care, and the method of raising resources, are primarily matters for political decision; but a national system has advantages both of economy and of comprehensiveness. But when it comes to allocation of resources within the established health budget, the knowledge and skills of health professionals are essential to informed decision-making. The possibilities depend critically on the 'state of the art' at a given time, as is illustrated by the radical changes over time in what could be done for patients with renal failure; and health professionals are likely to be most aware of current options, and of how to choose between them. More speculatively, they are also less likely to confuse the attitudes appropriate to providing a service with those required to run a business. PMID:1941951

  20. Patient Outcomes and Evidence-Based Medicine in a Preferred Provider Organization Setting: A Six-Year Evaluation of a Physician Pay-for-Performance Program

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Amanda S; Zhao, Yingxu; Kang, Ning; Ryskina, Kira L; Legorreta, Antonio P; Taira, Deborah A; Chung, Richard S

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine whether health plan members who saw physicians participating in a quality-based incentive program in a preferred provider organization (PPO) setting received recommended care over time compared with patients who saw physicians who did not participate in the incentive program, as per 11 evidence-based quality indicators. Data Sources/Study Setting Administrative claims data for PPO members of a large nonprofit health plan in Hawaii collected over a 6-year period after the program was first implemented. Study Design An observational study allowing for multiple member records within and across years. Levels of recommended care received by members who visited physicians who did or did not participate in a quality incentive program were compared, after controlling for other member characteristics and the member's total number of annual office visits. Data Collection Data for all PPO enrollees eligible for at least one of the 11 quality indicators in at least 1 year were collected. Principal Findings We found a consistent, positive association between having seen only program-participating providers and receiving recommended care for all 6 years with odds ratios ranging from 1.06 to 1.27 (95 percent confidence interval: 1.03–1.08, 1.09–1.40). Conclusions Physician reimbursement models built upon evidence-based quality of care metrics may positively affect whether or not a patient receives high quality, recommended care. PMID:17995557

  1. History of Pay Equity Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbezat, Debra A.

    2002-01-01

    Traces the evolution of salary-equity studies over time, and how the findings have changed with regard to pay differences by gender and race/ethnicity. Reviews the literature on salary equity for both faculty and nonfaculty academic employees. (EV)

  2. The Problem with Performance Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Donald B.

    2009-01-01

    Although today's performance pay plans take many forms, the most commonly proposed version--in which teachers are rewarded on the basis of their students' standardized test scores--flows from flawed logic and several troublesome assumptions: that teachers lack motivation and supposedly need financial awards to give students what they need; that…

  3. Performance Pay Path to Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Donald B.

    2011-01-01

    The primary goal of performance pay for the past decade has been higher test scores, and the most prominent strategy has been to increase teacher performance through financial incentives. If teachers are rewarded for success, according to this logic, they will try harder. If they try harder, more children will achieve higher test scores. The…

  4. Pay for Performance: Whose Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Education reform proposals are not in short supply. Recent issues of the "Kappa Delta Pi Record" examined two of these: Common Core State Standards (Winter 2011) and Charter Schools (Spring 2011). Teacher pay for performance is another policy gaining traction in state legislatures and at the federal level. The Race to the Top (RTTT)…

  5. The spectrum of HIV infection in patients seen at a private hospital in Mexico City: 115 patients seen from 1984 to 1990.

    PubMed

    del Río-Chiriboga, C; Tellez-Gómez, I; Orzechowski-Rallo, A; Alanis-Ortega, A

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology and clinical presentation of HIV infection among upper middle class patients in Mexico City. A retrospective review of outpatient and hospital records of all HIV-infected patients was accomplished by one of the authors between 1984 and 1990. A total of 115 patients were seen during the study period, 109 men and 6 women. One hundred and seven patients acquired HIV infection through sexual contact, six patients had HIV infection associated with blood transfusion and two were homosexual men who also had a history of intravenous drug use. The mean age of the patients was 36.2 years (range 13 - 65 years). CDC classification at presentation was predominantly stage IV (65%) with the most common AIDS associated diseases at presentation being wasting syndrome in 30 (42.2%), P. carinii pneumonia in 22 (30.9%), cytomegalovirus infection in 11 (15.5%), Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea in 7 (9.8%), and Kaposi's sarcoma in 6 (8.4%). CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell counts at the time of HIV diagnosis were available in 87 patients (median = 150 cells/microliters; mean = 224 cells/microliters, SD +/- 219). Zidovudine was used in 37 patients after 1988 when it first became available in Mexico, in six patients the drug had to be discontinued because of serious hematologic toxicity. The average follow-up on zidovudine was 8.5 months. Similar age, gender, age distribution, risk categories and CDC classification at presentation was seen compared to other series reported from Mexico. However, the spectrum of opportunistic infections found were similar to that seen in the United States.

  6. 5 CFR 550.1409 - Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1409 Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps. Accrued compensatory time off under this subpart is...

  7. 5 CFR 550.1409 - Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1409 Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps. Accrued compensatory time off under this subpart is...

  8. 5 CFR 550.1409 - Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1409 Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps. Accrued compensatory time off under this subpart is...

  9. 5 CFR 550.1409 - Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1409 Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps. Accrued compensatory time off under this subpart is...

  10. 5 CFR 550.1409 - Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1409 Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps. Accrued compensatory time off under this subpart is...

  11. Pay Equity Act (No. 34 of 1987), 29 June 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of Ontario, Canada's 1987 Pay Equity Act. The Act seeks to redress systemic gender discrimination in compensation for work performed by employees in "female job classes" and applies to all private sector employers in Ontario with 10 or more employees, all public sector employers, and the employees of applicable employers. The Act continues to apply even if an employer subsequently reduces the number of employees below 10. The Act calls for identification of systemic gender discrimination in compensation through comparisons between female job classes and male job classes in terms of compensation and value of work performed, which is a composite of skill, effort, and responsibility normally required. Pay equity is deemed achieved when the job rate for the female job class is at least equal to the rate for a male job class in the same establishment. If there is no male job class to use for comparison, pay equity is achieved when the female job rate is at least equal to the job rate of a male job class in the same establishment that, at the time of comparison, had a higher job rate while performing work of lower value than the female job class. Differences in compensation between a female and a male job class are allowed if they result from a formal seniority system that does not discriminate on basis of gender, a temporary training or development assignment equally available to males and females, a specified merit compensation plan, actions taken as the result of a gender-neutral reevaluation process, or a skills shortage leading to a temporary inflation in compensation. Pay equity will not be achieved by reducing any employee's compensation. The Act establishes a Pay Equity Commission to oversee implementation.

  12. [The national union for private hospital oncology].

    PubMed

    Parmentier, Gérard

    2013-06-01

    In the French health system, social security is the same for both public and private hospitals regardless of their status. In terms of number of patients screened, diagnosed, or treated, independant medicine is the most important sector in the French oncology. The multitude of organizations representing private hospitals or independant oncologists, physicians, radiologists or pathologists have a common organization, the National Union for Private Hospital Oncology (UNHPC). It bases its action on two founding postulates to ensure the quality of the oncology practice : the medical and managerial cultures are complementary and should be articulated ; the quality of organizations is as important as professional competence.

  13. Private expenditure and the role of private health insurance in Greece: status quo and future trends.

    PubMed

    Siskou, Olga; Kaitelidou, Daphne; Economou, Charalampos; Kostagiolas, Peter; Liaropoulos, Lycourgos

    2009-10-01

    The health care system in Greece is financed in almost equal proportions by public and private sources. Private expenditure, consists mostly of out-of-pocket and under-the-table payments. Such payments strongly suggest dissatisfaction with the public system, due to under financing during the last 25 years. This gap has been filled rapidly by the private sector. From this point of view, one might suggest that the flourishing development of private provision may lead in turn to a corresponding growth in private health insurance (PHI). This paper aims to examine the role of PHI in Greece, to identify the factors influencing its development, and to make some suggestions about future policies and trends. In the decade of 1985-1995 PHI show increasing activity, reflecting the intention of some citizens to seek health insurance solutions in the form of supplementary cover in order to ensure faster access, better quality of services, and increased consumer choice. The benefits include programs covering hospital expenses, cash benefits, outpatient care expenses, disability income insurance, as well as limited managed care programs. However, despite recent interest, PHI coverage remains low in Greece compared to other EU countries. Economic, social and cultural factors such as low average household income, high unemployment, obligatory and full coverage by social insurance, lead to reluctance to pay for second-tier insurance. Instead, there is a preference to pay a doctor or hospital directly even in the form of under-the-table payments (which are remarkably high in Greece), when the need arises. There are also factors endogenous to the PHI industry, related to market policies, low organisational capacity, cream skimming, and the absence of insurance products meeting consumer requirements, which explain the relatively low state of development of PHI in Greece.

  14. The Limits of Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Paul

    Transferring public services and public assets to private ownership is not an entirely new idea. Governments at all levels in the United States have for years contracted out many services. However, under the recently coined label "privatization," such policies now come recommended as a more comprehensive approach to the problems of…

  15. Women and Private Pensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Helene A.

    This speech focuses on women and private pension plans, such as private pension coverage and smaller benefit amounts. Pension issues affecting women as employees include participation in plans, vesting, break-in service, benefit accruals, integration with Social Security, sex-based actuarial tables, portability, inflation, and individual…

  16. Private Speech in Ballet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Dale

    2006-01-01

    Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…

  17. Laboring through Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushweller, Kevin

    1994-01-01

    Hiring private contractors to manage school support services, such as food, maintenance, and busing, is a growing trend. Companies such as Marriott Corp., ServiceMaster, ARA Services, and Laidlaw Transit report that school business is steadily increasing. Unions staunchly oppose privatization. This article balances advantages and disadvantages,…

  18. Public Values, Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devins, Neal E.

    Controversy surrounding private education involves questions of compulsory education's role in inculcating values, how much alike public and private schools should be, and the duty of educational institutions to conform to constitutional norms. This book examines government regulation and resistance, legislative and judicial approaches, and issues…

  19. Merit Pay: Challenge of the Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Jerome

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the issue of merit pay, its becoming a political issue for national politicians, and reactions of teacher union leaders. Examples illustrating individual merit pay systems in five school districts are presented. (MBR)

  20. 78 FR 37246 - January 2013 Pay Schedules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    .../policy-data-oversight/pay-leave/salaries-wages/2013/locality-pay-area-definitions/ . The 2013 locality... Vice President's salary ($230,700 in 2013, the same level as in 2010). Executive Order 13641 provides......

  1. Dialogue on private events

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, David C.; Eshleman, John; Brandon, Paul; Layng, T. V. Joe; McDonough, Christopher; Michael, Jack; Schoneberger, Ted; Stemmer, Nathan; Weitzman, Ray; Normand, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    In the fall of 2003, the authors corresponded on the topic of private events on the listserv of the Verbal Behavior Special Interest Group. Extracts from that correspondence raised questions about the role of response amplitude in determining units of analysis, whether private events can be investigated directly, and whether covert behavior differs from other behavior except in amplitude. Most participants took a cautious stance, noting not only conceptual pitfalls and empirical difficulties in the study of private events, but doubting the value of interpretive exercises about them. Others argued that despite such obstacles, in domains where experimental analyses cannot be done, interpretation of private events in the light of laboratory principles is the best that science can offer. One participant suggested that the notion that private events can be behavioral in nature be abandoned entirely; as an alternative, the phenomena should be reinterpreted only as physiological events. PMID:22477293

  2. Public private partnership in vascular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Cynthia de Almeida; Martins, Alexandre de Arruda; Teivelis, Marcelo Passos; Kuzniec, Sérgio; Wolosker, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe and analyze the results of a public-private partnership between the Ministry of Health and a private hospital in a project of assistance and scientific research in the field of endovascular surgery. Methods: The flows, costs and clinical outcomes of patients treated in a the public-private partnership between April 2012 and July 2013 were analyzed. All patients underwent surgery and stayed at least one day at the intensive care unit of the private hospital. They also participated in a research protocol to compare two intravenous contrast media used in endovascular surgery (iodinated contrast and carbon dioxide). Results A total of 62 endovascular procedures were performed in 57 patients from the public healthcare system. Hospital and endovascular supplies expenses were significantly higher as compared to the amount paid by the Unified Health System (SUS - Sistema Único de Saúde) in two out of three disease groups studied. Among outpatients, the average interval between appointment and surgery was 15 days and, in hospitalized patients 7 days. All procedures were successful with no conversion to open surgery. The new contrast medium studied - carbon dioxide – was effective and cheaper. Conclusion The waiting time for patients between indication and accomplishment of surgery was significantly reduced. Public-private partnerships can speed up care of patients from public health services, and generate and improve scientific knowledge. PMID:25295457

  3. 28 CFR 345.51 - Inmate pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.51 Inmate pay. (a) Grade levels. Inmate... (highest). (b) Eligibility. (1) An inmate shall accrue vacation time, longevity service credit, and shall... specified in § 345.52. Eligibility for other pay and benefits are described separately in this subpart....

  4. 20 CFR 218.27 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacation pay. 218.27 Section 218.27 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT ANNUITY BEGINNING AND... Beginning Date § 218.27 Vacation pay. (a) From railroad employer. Vacation pay may be credited to...

  5. Equal Pay for Work of Comparable Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutari, Ellen; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Discusses occupational segregation and other barriers to equal job opportunities for women and examines two approaches toward correcting pay inequities: equal pay for equal work and equal pay for work of comparable value. Legal cases, job evaluation studies, and other steps toward comparable worth are described. A 64-item reference list is…

  6. 4 CFR 5.1 - Pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fixed by the Comptroller General consistent with the principles that— (1) There be equal pay for work of substantially equal value. (2) Pay distinctions be maintained in keeping with work and performance distinctions... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay. 5.1 Section 5.1 Accounts GOVERNMENT...

  7. 5 CFR 534.503 - Pay setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay setting. 534.503 Section 534.503... Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.503 Pay setting. (a) Each agency with positions subject to this subpart shall establish written procedures for setting the pay of incumbents...

  8. 28 CFR 345.58 - Holiday pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Holiday pay. 345.58 Section 345.58 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.58 Holiday pay. An inmate worker in FPI...

  9. 28 CFR 345.56 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vacation pay. 345.56 Section 345.56 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.56 Vacation pay. Inmate workers are...

  10. 28 CFR 345.58 - Holiday pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Holiday pay. 345.58 Section 345.58 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.58 Holiday pay. An inmate worker in FPI...

  11. 28 CFR 345.57 - Administrative pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Administrative pay. 345.57 Section 345.57 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.57 Administrative pay. An inmate excused...

  12. 28 CFR 345.56 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vacation pay. 345.56 Section 345.56 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.56 Vacation pay. Inmate workers are...

  13. 28 CFR 345.57 - Administrative pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Administrative pay. 345.57 Section 345.57 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.57 Administrative pay. An inmate excused...

  14. 28 CFR 345.51 - Inmate pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inmate pay. 345.51 Section 345.51 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.51 Inmate pay. (a) Grade levels....

  15. 28 CFR 345.56 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vacation pay. 345.56 Section 345.56 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.56 Vacation pay. Inmate workers are...

  16. 28 CFR 345.57 - Administrative pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Administrative pay. 345.57 Section 345.57 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.57 Administrative pay. An inmate excused...

  17. 28 CFR 345.60 - Training pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Training pay. 345.60 Section 345.60 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.60 Training pay. Inmates directed by the...

  18. 28 CFR 345.57 - Administrative pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative pay. 345.57 Section 345.57 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.57 Administrative pay. An inmate excused...

  19. 28 CFR 345.57 - Administrative pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Administrative pay. 345.57 Section 345.57 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.57 Administrative pay. An inmate excused...

  20. 28 CFR 345.51 - Inmate pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inmate pay. 345.51 Section 345.51 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.51 Inmate pay. (a) Grade levels....

  1. 28 CFR 345.58 - Holiday pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Holiday pay. 345.58 Section 345.58 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.58 Holiday pay. An inmate worker in FPI...

  2. 28 CFR 345.51 - Inmate pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inmate pay. 345.51 Section 345.51 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.51 Inmate pay. (a) Grade levels....

  3. 28 CFR 345.56 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vacation pay. 345.56 Section 345.56 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.56 Vacation pay. Inmate workers are...

  4. 28 CFR 345.60 - Training pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Training pay. 345.60 Section 345.60 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.60 Training pay. Inmates directed by the...

  5. 28 CFR 345.58 - Holiday pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Holiday pay. 345.58 Section 345.58 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.58 Holiday pay. An inmate worker in FPI...

  6. 28 CFR 345.60 - Training pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Training pay. 345.60 Section 345.60 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.60 Training pay. Inmates directed by the...

  7. 28 CFR 345.60 - Training pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Training pay. 345.60 Section 345.60 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.60 Training pay. Inmates directed by the...

  8. 28 CFR 345.58 - Holiday pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holiday pay. 345.58 Section 345.58 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.58 Holiday pay. An inmate worker in FPI...

  9. 28 CFR 345.51 - Inmate pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inmate pay. 345.51 Section 345.51 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.51 Inmate pay. (a) Grade levels....

  10. 5 CFR 534.503 - Pay setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pay setting. 534.503 Section 534.503... Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.503 Pay setting. (a) Each agency with positions subject to this subpart shall establish written procedures for setting the pay of incumbents...

  11. 5 CFR 534.503 - Pay setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pay setting. 534.503 Section 534.503... Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.503 Pay setting. (a) Each agency with positions subject to this subpart shall establish written procedures for setting the pay of incumbents...

  12. 5 CFR 534.503 - Pay setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pay setting. 534.503 Section 534.503... Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.503 Pay setting. (a) Each agency with positions subject to this subpart shall establish written procedures for setting the pay of incumbents...

  13. 5 CFR 534.503 - Pay setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pay setting. 534.503 Section 534.503... Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.503 Pay setting. (a) Each agency with positions subject to this subpart shall establish written procedures for setting the pay of incumbents...

  14. Why doesn't performance pay work?

    PubMed

    Griffin, R P

    1992-01-01

    The NHS is about to embark on the widescale introduction of performance-related pay. A number of recent studies have seriously questioned the efficacy of merit pay. Utilizing the expectancy theory of motivation, explains why performance pay is unlike to motivate NHS staff.

  15. 28 CFR 345.52 - Premium pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... traits supportive of morale and good institutional adjustment. It is not a form of bonus or incentive pay... for failure to demonstrate the premium pay selection traits or for failure to abide by the inmate...) Inmates absent from work for more than 30 consecutive calendar days may be removed from premium pay...

  16. 28 CFR 345.52 - Premium pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... traits supportive of morale and good institutional adjustment. It is not a form of bonus or incentive pay... for failure to demonstrate the premium pay selection traits or for failure to abide by the inmate...) Inmates absent from work for more than 30 consecutive calendar days may be removed from premium pay...

  17. 28 CFR 345.52 - Premium pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... traits supportive of morale and good institutional adjustment. It is not a form of bonus or incentive pay... for failure to demonstrate the premium pay selection traits or for failure to abide by the inmate...) Inmates absent from work for more than 30 consecutive calendar days may be removed from premium pay...

  18. 28 CFR 345.52 - Premium pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... traits supportive of morale and good institutional adjustment. It is not a form of bonus or incentive pay... for failure to demonstrate the premium pay selection traits or for failure to abide by the inmate...) Inmates absent from work for more than 30 consecutive calendar days may be removed from premium pay...

  19. 28 CFR 345.52 - Premium pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... traits supportive of morale and good institutional adjustment. It is not a form of bonus or incentive pay... for failure to demonstrate the premium pay selection traits or for failure to abide by the inmate...) Inmates absent from work for more than 30 consecutive calendar days may be removed from premium pay...

  20. Social Comparison of Pay and Inequity Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Ben

    Inequity theory differs from social exchange theory in its analysis of a worker's reaction to pay by asserting that effects on work performance caused by high or low pay are due to social comparison of fairness rather than principles of direct exchange, such as reciprocity and power. The present experiment held piece-rate pay constant at two…

  1. Donating the Voucher: An Alternative Tax Treatment of Private School Enrollment. Research Briefs in Economic Policy, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samwick, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, parents send about 10 percent of elementary and secondary school-age children to private schools, which through their accreditation meet the requirement that students receive an adequate education. By paying out of pocket for their children's private education, these families relieve a financial burden on local, state, and…

  2. Medicare Pays for End-of-Life Consults.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2016-06-01

    As of January, Medicare pays physicians for advance care planning as a separate service, a long-sought victory that promotes educating patients and physicians on the issue. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services created two new payment codes that cover it as a separate service in physician practices and facilities, including hospitals.

  3. Self-pay markets in health care: consumer Nirvana or caveat emptor?

    PubMed

    Tu, Ha T; May, Jessica H

    2007-01-01

    As consumers face more incentives to make cost-conscious medical care decisions, some policymakers cite self-pay markets as models for consumer shopping. An analysis of the LASIK market revealed limited shopping overall, despite the fact that patients pay the full cost. For other self-pay procedures, consumers shop even less, for reasons ranging from urgency, to costs of obtaining price quotes, to quality concerns that prompt many consumers to rely on word-of-mouth recommendations. Given that consumer shopping is not prevalent in most self-pay markets, we expect the extent of shopping to be even more limited for many services covered by insurance.

  4. Estimating rural households' willingness to pay for health insurance.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Ali; Willis, Ken; Taghvaei, Ali Akbar; Rafeian, Mojtaba

    2004-10-01

    In many developing countries limited health budgets are a serious problem. Innovative ways to raise funds for the provision of health services, for example, through health care insurance, have a high priority. Health care insurance for rural households shields such patients from unexpected high costs of care. However, there are questions about whether, and how much, rural households are willing to pay to purchase such insurance, as well as the factors determining willingness to pay. In recent years the Iranian government has tried to improve health and medical services to rural areas through a health insurance program. This study was conducted to estimate rural households' demand and willingness to pay for health insurance. A contingent valuation method (CVM) was applied using an iterative bidding game technique. Data has been collected from a sample of 2,139 households across the country.

  5. Paying your marketers--properly.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Elizabeth Zink

    2003-09-01

    Home health agencies have more freedom to market their services since the implementation of the prospective payment system. In order to do that, a number of agencies have turned to marketing professionals for help. A common method of compensating marketers in the business world, however, is through payment for referrals--something expressly forbidden by federal statute. Home health agencies need to know what they can and can't do to pay marketers and must train their marketers on the federal anti-kickback regulations to assure their compliance.

  6. Paying for Forest Ecosystem Services: Voluntary Versus Mandatory Payments.

    PubMed

    Roesch-McNally, Gabrielle E; Rabotyagov, Sergey S

    2016-03-01

    The emergence of new markets for forest ecosystem services can be a compelling opportunity for market diversification for private forest landowners, while increasing the provision of public goods from private lands. However, there is limited information available on the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for specific forest ecosystem services, particularly across different ecosystem market mechanisms. We utilize survey data from Oregon and Washington households to compare marginal WTP for forest ecosystem services and the total WTP for cost-effective bundles of forest ecosystem services obtained from a typical Pacific Northwest forest across two value elicitation formats representing two different ecosystem market mechanisms: an incentive-compatible choice experiment involving mandatory tax payments and a hypothetical private provision scenario modeled as eliciting contributions to the preferred forest management alternative via a provision point mechanism with a refund. A representative household's total WTP for the average forest management program was estimated at $217.59 per household/year under a mandatory tax mechanism and $160.44 per household/per year under a voluntary, crowdfunding-style, contribution mechanism; however, these estimates are not statistically different. Marginal WTP estimates were assessed for particular forest ecosystem service attributes including water quality, carbon storage, mature forest habitat, and public recreational access. This study finds that survey respondents place significant economic value on forest ecosystem services in both elicitation formats and that the distributions of the marginal WTP are not statistically significantly different.

  7. Paying for Forest Ecosystem Services: Voluntary Versus Mandatory Payments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roesch-McNally, Gabrielle E.; Rabotyagov, Sergey S.

    2016-03-01

    The emergence of new markets for forest ecosystem services can be a compelling opportunity for market diversification for private forest landowners, while increasing the provision of public goods from private lands. However, there is limited information available on the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for specific forest ecosystem services, particularly across different ecosystem market mechanisms. We utilize survey data from Oregon and Washington households to compare marginal WTP for forest ecosystem services and the total WTP for cost-effective bundles of forest ecosystem services obtained from a typical Pacific Northwest forest across two value elicitation formats representing two different ecosystem market mechanisms: an incentive-compatible choice experiment involving mandatory tax payments and a hypothetical private provision scenario modeled as eliciting contributions to the preferred forest management alternative via a provision point mechanism with a refund. A representative household's total WTP for the average forest management program was estimated at 217.59 per household/year under a mandatory tax mechanism and 160.44 per household/per year under a voluntary, crowdfunding-style, contribution mechanism; however, these estimates are not statistically different. Marginal WTP estimates were assessed for particular forest ecosystem service attributes including water quality, carbon storage, mature forest habitat, and public recreational access. This study finds that survey respondents place significant economic value on forest ecosystem services in both elicitation formats and that the distributions of the marginal WTP are not statistically significantly different.

  8. Consumer cost sharing in private health insurance: on the threshold of change.

    PubMed

    Goff, Veronica

    2004-05-14

    Employers are asking employees to pay more for health care through higher premium contributions, share of contribution, and out-of-pocket maximums, along with variations in deductibles, co-pays, and coinsurance based on choice of providers, networks, drugs, and other services. This issue brief examines consumer cost-sharing trends in private insurance, discusses the outlook for cost sharing in employment-based benefits, and considers public policies to support health care markets for consumers.

  9. Latin American privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.; Hennagir, T.; Hernandez, L.A. Jr. )

    1994-01-01

    Fundamental change is reshaping the Latin America power sector as governments explore new and improved privatization schemes. Latin American power markets are second in size only to those found in Asia. As the region grows and capacity needs increase, governments are turning to private power as a way to meet new demands for electric energy. Following the privatization model initiated by Chile, an increasing number of Latin American countries are following suit with an array of private power schemes for their state-owned utilities. The move means great opportunities for developers willing to enter this growing market. The recently established Scudder Latin American Trust for Independent Power is a prime example of new equity players becoming involved in this region. In Chile, the privatization process started more than 12 years ago. Currently, the power sector has been fully restructured to concentrate price and quality regulation on transmission and distribution, leaving generation and sales to a marketplace largely in the hands of the private sector. Furthermore, the Chilean government controls only about 15 percent of the installed generation in the country, so there is free-flow in this segment of the industry or a free market modality.

  10. Low resistivity, low contrast pays

    SciTech Connect

    Sneider, R.M.; Kulha, J.T. |

    1996-08-01

    Major hydrocarbon accumulations have been produced over the past 40 years in low resistivity, low contrast (LRLC) sands in the Gulf of Mexico Basin (GOM). LRLC reservoirs were commonly considered wet, tight, misidentified as a shale or overlooked, but are being re-evaluated now in other world basins, including Latin America. Seismic response, drill cuttings, cores, log response, petrophysical models, and production testing provide an integrated LRLC evaluation. Causes of LRLC pay in the GOM include: laminated clean sands with shales; silts or shaly sands; clay-coated sands; glauconitic sands; sands with interstitial dispersed clay; sands with disseminated pyrite or other conductive minerals; clay-lined burrows; clay clasts; altered volcanic/feldspathic framework grains; and very fine-grained sand with very saline water. LRLC depositional systems include: deepwater fans, with levee-channel complexes; delta front and toe deposits; shingle turbidites; and alluvial and deltaic channel fills. Geological and petrophysical models developed in the GOM for evaluation of LRLC pay are applicable in Latin America. An Archie clean sand or Waxman-Smits shaly sand model are commonly used to evaluate LRLC anomalies. Often, shaly sand models are not necessarily suited for LRLC evaluation. The Archie lithology exponent (m) and saturation exponent (n) for many LRLC reservoirs range from 1.4 to 1.85, and 1.2 to 1.8, respectively. In thinly laminated LRLC reservoirs, net sand distribution is identified with high resolution logging tools, rock examination and interval testing.

  11. 38 CFR 1.514a - Disclosure to private psychologists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... stipulation that it is released with consent of or on behalf of the patient and must be treated as... patient from a private psychologist, such information in the medical record as may be pertinent may...

  12. 38 CFR 1.514a - Disclosure to private psychologists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... stipulation that it is released with consent of or on behalf of the patient and must be treated as... patient from a private psychologist, such information in the medical record as may be pertinent may...

  13. 38 CFR 1.514a - Disclosure to private psychologists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... stipulation that it is released with consent of or on behalf of the patient and must be treated as... patient from a private psychologist, such information in the medical record as may be pertinent may...

  14. 38 CFR 1.514a - Disclosure to private psychologists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... stipulation that it is released with consent of or on behalf of the patient and must be treated as... patient from a private psychologist, such information in the medical record as may be pertinent may...

  15. 5 CFR 9901.354 - Setting pay upon promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Setting pay upon promotion. 9901.354... SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9901.354 Setting pay upon... rules governing pay setting for an employee who returns to an NSPS position after being...

  16. 5 CFR 9701.354 - Setting pay upon demotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Setting pay upon demotion. 9701.354... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.354 Setting pay upon demotion. DHS will issue implementing directives regarding how to set an employee's pay when he...

  17. 5 CFR 9701.354 - Setting pay upon demotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Setting pay upon demotion. 9701.354... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.354 Setting pay upon demotion. DHS will issue implementing directives regarding how to set an employee's pay when he...

  18. A simpler way to pay.

    PubMed

    Zehnder, E

    2001-04-01

    There have been many changes in professional services since Egon Zehnder founded his executive search firm nearly four decades ago--not the least of which has been a shift in the way professionals pay themselves. When he started, compensation everywhere was strongly tied to seniority. Today, partners at most professional services firms are paid according to the size of their client billings and their ability to bring in new clients. But Egon Zehnder International, which now has 57 offices worldwide, has stuck with the old-fashioned way to pay. In addition to giving partners base salaries and equal shares in a percentage of the profit, the firm apportions another fraction of the profit based only on length of tenure as partner. Yet the firm attracts outstanding consultants, and its turnover rate is low. The reasons, the author says, are simple: the firm's approach to compensation forces it to hire team players--consultants who get more pleasure from the group's success than from their own advancement. And the seniority-based system requires the firm to find people who want to stay for the long haul. Call the system a relic, says Zehnder, but don't call it nonsense. It works. In this article, the author describes the extremely intensive interview process used to hire the right kind of people. By the time the interviews are over, he says, potential hires know that people in the firm's Boston office think and act the same way as people in its Brazil offices--and that they themselves must think and act that way if they are to succeed at the firm.

  19. A comparison between willingness to pay and willingness to give up time.

    PubMed

    van Helvoort-Postulart, Debby; Dirksen, Carmen D; Kessels, Alfons G H; van Engelshoven, Jos M A; Myriam Hunink, M G

    2009-02-01

    We compared the willingness-to-pay and willingness to give up time methods to assess preferences for digital subtraction angiography (DSA), computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Respondents were hypertensive patients suspected of having renal artery stenosis. Data were gathered using telephone interviews. Both the willingness-to-pay and willingness to give up time methods revealed that patients preferred CTA to MRA in order to avoid DSA. The agreement between willingness-to-pay and willingness to give up time responses was high (kappa 0.65-0.85). The willingness-to-pay method yielded relatively more protest answers (12%) as compared to willingness to give up time (2%). So, our results provided evidence for the comparability of willingness to pay and willingness to give up time. The high percentage of protest answers on the willingness-to-pay questions raises questions with respect to the application of the willingness-to-pay method in a broad decision-making context. On the other hand, the strength of willingness-to-pay is that the method directly arrives at a monetary measure well founded in economic theory, whereas the willingness to give up time method requires conversion to monetary units.

  20. Medicare Advantage Plans Pay Hospitals Less Than Traditional Medicare Pays.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laurence C; Bundorf, M Kate; Devlin, Aileen M; Kessler, Daniel P

    2016-08-01

    There is ongoing debate about how prices paid to providers by Medicare Advantage plans compare to prices paid by fee-for-service Medicare. We used data from Medicare and the Health Care Cost Institute to identify the prices paid for hospital services by fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare, Medicare Advantage plans, and commercial insurers in 2009 and 2012. We calculated the average price per admission, and its trend over time, in each of the three types of insurance for fixed baskets of hospital admissions across metropolitan areas. After accounting for differences in hospital networks, geographic areas, and case-mix between Medicare Advantage and FFS Medicare, we found that Medicare Advantage plans paid 5.6 percent less for hospital services than FFS Medicare did. Without taking into account the narrower networks of Medicare Advantage, the program paid 8.0 percent less than FFS Medicare. We also found that the rates paid by commercial plans were much higher than those of either Medicare Advantage or FFS Medicare, and growing. At least some of this difference comes from the much higher prices that commercial plans pay for profitable service lines.

  1. Explaining the Gender Wage Gap: Pay Expectations for Self, Others, and Perceptions of "Fair Pay."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Philip D.; Jackson, Linda A.

    This study was conducted to investigate the pay expectations of graduating seniors, and specifically, the relationship between gender and pay expectations for one's self and others. The main purpose of the study was to determine if women and men differed in their initial pay expectations. Surveys were received from 447 college seniors, including…

  2. Privatization and Educational Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Myron

    This book describes how and why educational choice movements will affect public education. It uses a public-choice approach to argue that both the supporters and opponents of private and school choice have failed to address several critical issues. Following an introductory chapter, chapter 2 is devoted to the rationale for contracting out…

  3. Merit Pay and the Music Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elpus, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Current proponents of education reform are at present seeking to fundamentally change the system of teacher compensation by eliminating the traditional single salary schedule and instituting a merit pay system that directly links teacher pay to student achievement. To date, the scholarly literature in music education has been silent on the subject…

  4. 20 CFR 404.1044 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacation pay. 404.1044 Section 404.1044 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1044 Vacation pay. We...

  5. 20 CFR 211.4 - Vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacation pay. 211.4 Section 211.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.4 Vacation pay. Payments made to an employee with respect to vacation or holidays shall...

  6. Paying for College. Minnesota 2014-105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Office of Higher Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Many people wonder where to start when it comes to paying for college. This guide is intended to help answer questions about paying for college. Applying for financial aid is not difficult, but it is important to plan ahead and understand all of the options. This guide provides information about: (1) grants; (2) loans; (3) scholarships; (4)…

  7. Performance Pay for Teachers: Determinants and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive R.; Heywood, John S.

    2008-01-01

    Theory and evidence on performance-related pay for teaching remain inconclusive. Teachers will respond to rewards, but an appropriate reward structure may not be devised because education is a collaborative endeavor. Here we test three hypotheses: performance-related pay among teachers is more likely to be observed when there are evident…

  8. Sex, Money and the Equal Pay Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Edwin B.

    1973-01-01

    Institutions who justify a wage differential between male and female custodians on the basis that women typically do the lighter work, and men the heavier, can find themselves in trouble. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 requires that men and women get the same pay for equal work -- and all custodial work is substantially equal to the Labor Department.…

  9. 28 CFR 551.108 - Performance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance pay. 551.108 Section 551.108 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Pretrial Inmates § 551.108 Performance pay. The Warden may approve a pretrial inmate for performance...

  10. Improving Teaching through Pay for Contribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassel, Emily Ayscue; Hassel, Bryan C.

    2007-01-01

    For decades, experts have been thinking and writing about the need to revamp teacher pay. In recent years, the pace of reports, op-eds, expert recommendations, and task force proposals calling for change has accelerated. Yet despite the proliferating chatter, the bulk of teacher pay remains fundamentally unchanged. Each passing year of continued…

  11. Pay Equity and the Administrative Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risher, Howard W.; Toller, John M.

    1989-01-01

    In a study conducted for the University of Connecticut, an analysis of the CUPA Administrative Compensation Survey database for 23 public universities was used to study pay equity issues. Job evaluation and internal equity, market analysis, individual salary adjustments, and planning a pay equity study are discussed. (MLW)

  12. Intergenerational Effects of Paying for College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    A study of families' means of paying for college using data from the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study strongly indicates that part of the process of deciding how students should pay for college is the parents' college financing experience. These effects appear in patterns in parent contribution, amount of financial aid received, and use of…

  13. Teacher Performance Pay: A Review. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2006

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive report from the National Center on Performance Incentives reviews the history of teacher pay policy in the United States and earlier cycles of interest in merit or performance-based pay, the various critiques of its use in K-12 education, and empirical research studies that are useful in considering its likely impact. The report…

  14. Paying for College: A Guide for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krefetz, Gerald

    This guide to paying for college is written for families that expect to pay most, if not all, of the costs of college out of savings, investments, gifts, inheritances, borrowed funds, or a combination. It outlines usual approaches but also indicates some unorthodox methods. Chapters cover the following topics: (1) planning for college expenses;…

  15. Public Perceptions of the Pay Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Catherine; Silva, Elena

    2005-01-01

    Women have made gains toward closing the gender pay gap during the past two decades. Much of the progress occurred during the 1980s, with smaller gains in the 1990s (Institute for Women's Policy Research 2004). Women's achievements in higher education are partly responsible for narrowing the pay gap in the 1980s and 1990s. As more women earned…

  16. 5 CFR 359.705 - Pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay. 359.705 Section 359.705 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REMOVAL FROM THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE; GUARANTEED PLACEMENT IN OTHER PERSONNEL SYSTEMS Guaranteed Placement § 359.705 Pay....

  17. 5 CFR 359.705 - Pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pay. 359.705 Section 359.705 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REMOVAL FROM THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE; GUARANTEED PLACEMENT IN OTHER PERSONNEL SYSTEMS Guaranteed Placement § 359.705 Pay....

  18. Private finance initiative. Well-laid plans.

    PubMed

    Player, S; Godden, S; Pollock, A

    1999-11-04

    Private finance schemes in primary care will not be subject to the controls required in hospital programmes. Insurance companies are interested in partnerships with primary care in order to influence NHS spending as services are increasingly contracted out. This state of affairs could lead to the introduction of US-style managed care with a loss of equity for patients.

  19. Willingness to pay as a measure of health benefits.

    PubMed

    Bala, M V; Mauskopf, J A; Wood, L L

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the use of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) for evaluating new healthcare interventions, present the theoretical basis for the use of willingness to pay as a method for valuing benefits in a CBA and describe how to obtain willingness-to-pay (WTP) measures of health benefits and how to use these values in a CBA. We review selected economic studies on consumer demand and consumer surplus and studies presenting WTP estimates for healthcare interventions. The theoretical foundations of willingness to pay as a measure of commodity value are rooted in consumer demand theory. The area under the fixed income consumer demand curve represents the consumer's maximum willingness to pay for the commodity. We identify 3 types of potential benefits from a new healthcare intervention, namely patient benefits, option value and altruistic value, and suggest WTP questions for valuing different combinations of these benefits. We demonstrate how responses to these questions can be adjusted for income effects and incorporated into economic evaluations. We suggest that the lack of popularity of CBAs in the health area is related to the perceived difficulty in valuing health benefits as well as concern over how CBA incorporates the distribution of income. We show that health benefits can be valued using simple survey techniques and that these values can be adjusted to any desired income distribution.

  20. Pay Dispersion and Performance in Teams

    PubMed Central

    Bucciol, Alessandro; Foss, Nicolai J.; Piovesan, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Extant research offers conflicting predictions about the effect of pay dispersion on team performance. We collected a unique dataset from the Italian soccer league to study the effect of intra-firm pay dispersion on team performance, under different definitions of what constitutes a “team”. This peculiarity of our dataset can explain the conflicting evidence. Indeed, we also find positive, null, and negative effects of pay dispersion on team performance, using the same data but different definitions of team. Our results show that when the team is considered to consist of only the members who directly contribute to the outcome, high pay dispersion has a detrimental impact on team performance. Enlarging the definition of the team causes this effect to disappear or even change direction. Finally, we find that the detrimental effect of pay dispersion is due to worse individual performance, rather than a reduction of team cooperation. PMID:25397615

  1. Implementing pay-for-performance in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Profit, Jochen; Zupancic, John A F; Gould, Jeffrey B; Petersen, Laura A

    2007-05-01

    Pay-for-performance initiatives in medicine are proliferating rapidly. Neonatal intensive care is a likely target for these efforts because of the high cost, available databases, and relative strength of evidence for at least some measures of quality. Pay-for-performance may improve patient care but requires valid measurements of quality to ensure that financial incentives truly support superior performance. Given the existing uncertainty with respect to both the effectiveness of pay-for-performance and the state of quality measurement science, experimentation with pay-for-performance initiatives should proceed with caution and in controlled settings. In this article, we describe approaches to measuring quality and implementing pay-for-performance in the NICU setting.

  2. Private Stimuli, Covert Responses, and Private Events: Conceptual Remarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tourinho, E. Z.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the concepts of "private stimuli," "covert responses," and "private events," emphasizing three aspects: the conditions under which private stimuli may acquire discriminative functions to verbal responses, the conditions of unobservability of covert responses, and the complexity of events or phenomena described as…

  3. Evaluating the fair market value of pay for performance.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jen; Higgins, Alexandra

    2014-04-01

    When assessing a pay-for-performance arrangement, the following factors should be considered: Existence and/or size of minimum savings threshold before savings are allocated. Savings allocation percentage available to physicians. Benchmarks used to measure quality against past performance and/or medical evidence. Ways in which quality outcomes are measured and paid for. Per member per month payments for patient management. Physician investment (participation fee, time, or capital). Existence of downside risk to physicians. Employed compensation structure (if applicable).

  4. A Model of Cultural Leadership. The Achievements of Privately Funded Vouchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerson, Adam

    1999-01-01

    Describes the privately-funded voucher movement implemented by J. Patrick Rooney, James R. Leininger, Michael S. Joyce, John T. Walton, and Theodore J. Forstmann. An important feature of most of the programs is that parents have to pay partial tuition. Vouchers resources are focused on poor children in inner cities. (MMU)

  5. Hegel, Women, and Hegelian Women on Matters of Public and Private.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Dorothy G.

    1999-01-01

    This article looks at three women who were among Hegel's first followers in America, paying particular attention to their views on matters related to women and the public/private distinction: Susan E. Blow (1843-1916), Anna C. Brackett (1836-1911), and Marietta Kies (1853-1899). By appropriating a number of his ideas in order to make Hegelianism…

  6. Using School Scholarships to Estimate the Effect of Private Education on the Academic Achievement of Low-Income Students in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anand, Priyanka; Mizala, Alejandra; Repetto, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of private education on the academic achievement of low-income students in Chile. To deal with selection bias, we use propensity score matching to compare the test scores of reduced-fee paying, low-income students in fee-charging private voucher schools to those of similar students in public schools and free private…

  7. 5 CFR 550.185 - Payment of availability pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 550.185 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.185 Payment of availability pay. (a... earnings limitation on premium pay for law enforcement officers in 5 U.S.C. 5547(c). (b) Except as...

  8. 5 CFR 550.185 - Payment of availability pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 550.185 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.185 Payment of availability pay. (a... earnings limitation on premium pay for law enforcement officers in 5 U.S.C. 5547(c). (b) Except as...

  9. 5 CFR 550.185 - Payment of availability pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 550.185 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.185 Payment of availability pay. (a... earnings limitation on premium pay for law enforcement officers in 5 U.S.C. 5547(c). (b) Except as...

  10. 5 CFR 550.185 - Payment of availability pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 550.185 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.185 Payment of availability pay. (a... earnings limitation on premium pay for law enforcement officers in 5 U.S.C. 5547(c). (b) Except as...

  11. 5 CFR 550.185 - Payment of availability pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 550.185 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.185 Payment of availability pay. (a... earnings limitation on premium pay for law enforcement officers in 5 U.S.C. 5547(c). (b) Except as...

  12. 5 CFR 9901.352 - Setting an employee's starting pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Setting an employee's starting pay. 9901... NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9901.352 Setting an employee's starting pay. (a) Subject to the requirements of this section, the Secretary may...

  13. 5 CFR 550.1305 - Treatment as basic pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment as basic pay. 550.1305 Section 550.1305 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Firefighter Pay § 550.1305 Treatment as basic pay. (a) The sum of pay for...

  14. Film Images of Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines public debate over private education in the context of the Hollywood dramatic feature film. Analyses four recent films that all portray private schools negatively. Film representation of public schools is more optimistic. Asserts that the films ignore or misrepresent three strengths of private education: effective leadership, small school…

  15. Stimuli, Reinforcers, and Private Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Radical behaviorism considers private events to be a part of ongoing observable behavior and to share the properties of public events. Although private events cannot be measured directly, their roles in overt action can be inferred from mathematical models that relate private responses to external stimuli and reinforcers according to the same…

  16. Obamacare: what the Affordable Care Act means for patients and physicians.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mark A; Lord, Richard

    2014-10-22

    The Affordable Care Act's core achievement is to make all Americans insurable, by requiring insurers to accept all applicants at rates based on population averages regardless of health status. The act also increases coverage by allowing states to expand Medicaid (the social healthcare program for families and people with low income and resources) to cover everyone near the poverty line, and by subsidizing private insurance for people who are not poor but who do not have workplace coverage. The act allows most people to keep the same kind of insurance that they currently have, and it does not change how private insurance pays physicians and hospitals. Although the act falls short of achieving truly universal coverage, nine million uninsured people have received coverage so far. Market reforms have not hurt the insurance industry's profitability, prices for individual insurance have been lower than expected, and government costs so far have been less than initially projected. The act expands several ongoing pilot programs in Medicare that reform how doctors and hospitals are paid, but it does not directly change how private insurers pay healthcare providers. Nevertheless, it has set into motion market dynamics that are affecting medical practice, such as limiting insurance networks to fewer providers and requiring patients to pay for more treatment costs out of pocket. In response, many hospitals and physicians are forming closer and larger affiliations. Further time and study are needed to learn whether these evolutionary changes will achieve their goals without harming the doctor-patient relationship.

  17. How a new 'public plan' could affect hospitals' finances and private insurance premiums.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Allen; DaVanzo, Joan E; El-Gamil, Audrey M; Berger, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Two key health reform bills in the House of Representatives and Senate include the option of a "public plan" as an additional source of health coverage. At least initially, the plan would primarily be structured to cover many of the uninsured and those who now have individual coverage. Because it is possible, and perhaps even likely, that this new public payer would pay less than private payers for the same services, such a plan could negatively affect hospital margins. Hospitals may attempt to recoup losses by shifting costs to private payers. We outline the financial pressures that hospitals and private payers could experience under various assumptions. High uninsured enrollment in a public plan would bolster hospital margins; however, this effect is reversed if the privately insured enter a public plan in large proportions, potentially stressing the hospital industry and increasing private insurance premiums.

  18. Private and public cross-subsidization: financing Beijing's health-insurance reform.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming; Xin, Ying; Wang, Huihui; Yu, Wei

    2005-04-01

    In 1998, the Chinese government proposed a universal health-insurance program for urban employees. However, this reform has been advancing slowly, primarily due to an unpractical financing policy. We surveyed over 2000 families and evaluated the financial impacts of Beijing's reform on public and private enterprises. We found that most state-owned enterprises provided effective health insurance, whereas most private firms did not; overall, 33% of employees had little or no coverage. On average, employees of private firms were healthier and earned more compared to public firms. Because the premium was proportional to income, private firms would pay more for insurance than the predicted health-care expense of their employees. International firms subsidize the most, contributing more than 60% of their insurance premiums to the employees of the public sector. Such an aggressive cross-subsidization policy is difficult to be accepted by private firms.

  19. How to Pay for Health Care.

    PubMed

    Porter, Michael E; Kaplan, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    The United States stands at a crossroads in how to pay for health care. Fee for service, the dominant payment model in the U.S. and many other countries, is now widely recognized as perhaps the single biggest obstacle to improving health care delivery. A battle is currently raging, outside of the public eye, between the advocates of two radically different payment approaches: capitation and bundled payments. The stakes are high, and the outcome will define the shape of the health care system for many years to come, for better or for worse. In this article, the authors argue that although capitation may deliver modest savings in the short run, it brings significant risks and will fail to fundamentally change the trajectory of a broken system. The bundled payment model, in contrast, triggers competition between providers to create value where it matters--at the individual patient level--and puts health care on the right path. The authors provide robust proof-of-concept examples of bundled payment initiatives in the U.S. and abroad, address the challenges of transitioning to bundled payments, and respond to critics' concerns about obstacles to implementation.

  20. Service use, charge, and access to mental healthcare in a private Kenyan inpatient setting: the effects of insurance.

    PubMed

    de Menil, Victoria Pattison; Knapp, Martin; McDaid, David; Njenga, Frank Gitau

    2014-01-01

    The gap in Kenya between need and treatment for mental disorders is wide, and private providers are increasingly offering services, funded in part by private health insurance (PHI). Chiromo, a 30-bed psychiatric hospital in Nairobi, forms part of one of the largest private psychiatric providers in East Africa. The study evaluated the effects of insurance on service use and charge, questioning implications on access to care. Data derive from invoices for 455 sequential patients, including 12-month follow-up. Multi-linear and binary logistic regressions explored the effect of PHI on readmission, cumulative length of stay, and treatment charge. Patients were 66.4% male with a mean age of 36.8 years. Half were employed in the formal sector. 70% were admitted involuntarily. Diagnoses were: substance use disorder 31.6%; serious mental disorder 49.5%; common mental disorder 7%; comorbid 7%; other 4.9%. In addition to daily psychiatric consultations, two-thirds received individual counselling or group therapy; half received lab tests or scans; and 16.2% received ECT. Most took a psychiatric medicine. Half of those on antipsychotics were given only brands. Insurance paid in full for 28.8% of patients. Mean length of stay was 11.8 days and, in 12 months, 16.7 days (median 10.6). 22.2% were readmitted within 12 months. Patients with PHI stayed 36% longer than those paying out-of-pocket and had 2.5 times higher odds of readmission. Mean annual charge per patient was Int$ 4,262 (median Int$ 2,821). Insurers were charged 71% more than those paying out-of-pocket--driven by higher fees and longer stays. Chiromo delivers acute psychiatric care each year to approximately 450 people, to quality and human rights standards higher than its public counterpart, but at considerably higher cost. With more efficient delivery and wider insurance coverage, Chiromo might expand from its occupancy of 56.6% to reach a larger population in need.

  1. Service Use, Charge, and Access to Mental Healthcare in a Private Kenyan Inpatient Setting: The Effects of Insurance

    PubMed Central

    de Menil, Victoria Pattison; Knapp, Martin; McDaid, David; Njenga, Frank Gitau

    2014-01-01

    The gap in Kenya between need and treatment for mental disorders is wide, and private providers are increasingly offering services, funded in part by private health insurance (PHI). Chiromo, a 30-bed psychiatric hospital in Nairobi, forms part of one of the largest private psychiatric providers in East Africa. The study evaluated the effects of insurance on service use and charge, questioning implications on access to care. Data derive from invoices for 455 sequential patients, including 12-month follow-up. Multi-linear and binary logistic regressions explored the effect of PHI on readmission, cumulative length of stay, and treatment charge. Patients were 66.4% male with a mean age of 36.8 years. Half were employed in the formal sector. 70% were admitted involuntarily. Diagnoses were: substance use disorder 31.6%; serious mental disorder 49.5%; common mental disorder 7%; comorbid 7%; other 4.9%. In addition to daily psychiatric consultations, two-thirds received individual counselling or group therapy; half received lab tests or scans; and 16.2% received ECT. Most took a psychiatric medicine. Half of those on antipsychotics were given only brands. Insurance paid in full for 28.8% of patients. Mean length of stay was 11.8 days and, in 12 months, 16.7 days (median 10.6). 22.2% were readmitted within 12 months. Patients with PHI stayed 36% longer than those paying out-of-pocket and had 2.5 times higher odds of readmission. Mean annual charge per patient was Int$ 4,262 (median Int$ 2,821). Insurers were charged 71% more than those paying out-of-pocket - driven by higher fees and longer stays. Chiromo delivers acute psychiatric care each year to approximately 450 people, to quality and human rights standards higher than its public counterpart, but at considerably higher cost. With more efficient delivery and wider insurance coverage, Chiromo might expand from its occupancy of 56.6% to reach a larger population in need. PMID:24651115

  2. 5 CFR 9701.345 - Developmental pay adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 9701.345 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay §...

  3. 5 CFR 9701.345 - Developmental pay adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 9701.345 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay §...

  4. Demand for private health insurance in Chinese urban areas.

    PubMed

    Ying, Xiao-Hua; Hu, Teh-Wei; Ren, Jane; Chen, Wen; Xu, Ke; Huang, Jin-Hui

    2007-10-01

    Between 1993 and 2003, the proportion of urban residents without health insurance rose from 27 to 50%. The probability of outpatient visits in the previous 2 weeks dropped from 19.9 to 11.8% in urban areas between 1993 and 2003, and from 16.0 to 13.9% in rural areas. To improve risk-pooling and risk-sharing, private health insurance should play an important role in China's health insurance system. This paper estimates the demand for private health insurance in urban areas using contingent valuation methods. Individuals were asked about their willingness-to-pay (WTP) for major catastrophic disease insurance (MCDI), inpatient expenses insurance (IEI), and outpatient expenses insurance (OEI). The study was based on a household survey conducted in four small cities in China in 2004 and included 2671 respondents. More people would like to buy IEI and MCDI (48.5 and 43.0%, respectively) than OEI (24.5%). In addition, individuals would pay a higher premium for MCDI and IEI than for OEI. The price elasticities of demand for MCDI, IEI, and OEI were -0.27, -0.34, and -0.42, respectively. The determinants of enrollment in the three private health insurance programs were similar with employment status, age, education, and income.

  5. The effect of nursing professional pay structures and pay levels on hospitals' heart attack outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mark P

    2006-01-01

    The effect of nursing professionals (i.e., nurse aid/orderly, licensed practical nurse, registered nurse) pay structures and pay levels on hospitals risk-adjusted heart attack outcomes was determined. Operationalizing hospitals' heart attack outcomes as their thirty-day risk-adjusted mortality rates, a positive curvilinear relation is hypothesized between pay dispersion and hospitals' heart attack outcomes, whereas a direct relation is hypothesized between pay level and hospitals' heart attack outcomes. Pay level is also hypothesized as a moderator of the relation between pay dispersion and hospitals' heart attack outcomes. Using a sample of 138 California hospitals, support is not found for either the curvilinear relation between hospitals' nursing professionals pay dispersion and hospitals' heart attack outcomes, or the direct relation between nursing professionals' pay level and hospitals' heart attack outcomes. Support is found for the moderation hypothesis in which nursing professionals' pay level moderates the relation between hospitals' nursing professionals pay dispersion and hospitals' heart attack outcomes. Implications for practice are discussed in light of the study's results.

  6. The EEOC's New Equal Pay Act Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlaw, Paul S.; Kohl, John P.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes the new guidelines for enforcement of the Equal Pay Act and their implications for personnel management. Argues that there are key problem areas in the new regulations arising from considerable ambiguity and uncertainty about their interpretation. (SK)

  7. Farmers' willingness to pay for groundwater protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenberg, Erik; Zimmerman, Rae

    1999-03-01

    The effectiveness of current groundwater protection policies depends largely on farmers' voluntary compliance with leaching reduction measures, an important component of which is their willingness to adopt costlier production practices in order to prevent leaching of chemicals. Data from an original survey of 1611 corn and soybean growers in the mid-Atlantic region were used to estimate farmers' willingness to pay to prevent leaching of pesticides into groundwater. The results indicate that farmers are willing to pay more for leaching prevention than nonfarm groundwater consumers, both absolutely and relative to total income. The primary motivation appears to be concern for overall environmental quality rather than protection of drinking water or the health and safety of themselves and their families. Hobby farmers are willing to pay more than farmers with commercial activity. Certified pesticide applicators are willing to pay less than farmers without certification.

  8. Canadian Universities: Who Benefits and Who Pays?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Ronald; Sentance, Jim

    1982-01-01

    Redistributive effects of Canadian higher education are examined from an economic viewpoint. Children of high income families tend to reap the most financial rewards, but low income families often pay a disproportionately large share of educational expenses. (Author/MSE)

  9. Congressional Report Waffles on Merit Pay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Board Journal, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A skeptical review of recent congressional task force recommendations for public school teachers, which include only a limited endorsement of merit pay and strong encouragement for sabbatical leave for teachers to study and travel abroad. (JBM)

  10. Economic Evaluation of PCSK9 Inhibitors in Reducing Cardiovascular Risk from Health System and Private Payer Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Page, Timothy F.; Veledar, Emir; Nasir, Khurram

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of Proprotein covertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors has been heralded as a major advancement in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by nearly 50%. However, concerns have been raised on the added value to the health care system in terms of their costs and benefits. We assess the cost-effectiveness of PCSK9 inhibitors based on a decision-analytic model with existing clinical evidence. The model compares a lipid-lowering therapy based on statin plus PCSK9 inhibitor treatment with statin treatment only (standard therapy). From health system perspective, incremental cost per quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained are presented. From a private payer perspective, return-on-investment and net present values over patient lifespan are presented. At the current annual cost of $14,000 to $15,000, PCSK9 inhibitors are not cost-effective at an incremental cost of about $350,000 per QALY. Moreover, for every dollar invested in PCSK9 inhibitors, the private payer loses $1.98. Our study suggests that the annual treatment price should be set at $4,250 at a societal willingness-to-pay of $100,000 per QALY. However, we estimate the breakeven price for private payer is only $600 per annual treatment. At current prices, our study suggests that PCSK9 inhibitors do not add value to the U.S. health system and their provision is not profitable for private payers. To be the breakthrough drug in the fight against cardiovascular disease, the current price of PCSK9 inhibitors must be reduced by more than 70%. PMID:28081164

  11. Policy Analysis of Military Optometry Special Pay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-25

    four policy proposals to rectify an outdated recruitment and retention law/policy for Army optometrists . This paper illustrates variables of Army...variable Retention Special Pay to enhance the recruitment and retention of Army optometrists . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Optometry, Special Pay, Recruitment...Statement of Ethical Conduct in Research The author is an Army optometrist . The confidentiality of individual members of the study population was protected

  12. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus control in hospitals: the French experience. Association des Pays de la Loire pour l'Eviction des Infections Nosocomiales.

    PubMed

    Richet, H; Wiesel, M; Le Gallou, F; André-Richet, B; Espaze, E

    1996-08-01

    The first cases of isolation of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to methicillin in France were published in 1962. However, until recently, very few epidemiological studies or attempts to control the epidemic have been done in France. In this article, we present the results of a prospective study performed during a 3-month period in 27 hospitals of the Région des Pays de la Loire. Among the 94,605 hospitalized patients included in the study, 0.45% (427) developed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, the incidence rate ranging from 0% to 1.2%. Thirty-four percent of MRSA-infected patients were 80 years old or older, 30% had been transferred from another service and 19% from another hospital, 56% were hospitalized at least once during the previous year, MRSA had been isolated at least once previously in 18% of MRSA-infected patients, 19% died, 16% were transferred to another service and 11% to another hospital, and only 32% were discharged to their homes. A poor compliance to contact isolation precautions was observed in all hospitals: 46% of MRSA-infected patients were hospitalized in a private room; gloves, masks, and gowns were worn for the care of 63.4%, 14%, and 42.5% of MRSA-infected patients, respectively; and handwashing was feasible in the rooms of 52% of the patients.

  13. Paying for long-term care.

    PubMed Central

    Estes, C L; Bodenheimer, T

    1994-01-01

    Everyone agrees that insurance for long-term care is inadequate in the United States. Disagreement exists, however, on whether such insurance should be provided through the private or public sector. Private insurance generally uses the experience-rating principle that persons with higher risk of illness are charged higher premiums. For private insurance for long-term care, this principle creates a dilemma. Most policies will be purchased by the elderly; yet, because the elderly have a high risk of needing long-term care, only about 20% of them can afford the cost of premiums. A public-private partnership by which the government partially subsidizes private long-term-care insurance is unlikely to resolve this dilemma. Only a social insurance program for long-term care can provide universal, affordable, and equitable coverage. PMID:8128712

  14. Mobile Virtual Private Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

    Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

  15. Robust Quantum Private Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tian-Yin; Wang, Shu-Yu; Ma, Jian-Feng

    2016-07-01

    We propose a new quantum private query protocol with the technique of decoherence-free states, which is a theoretical study of how decoherence-free states can be used for the protection of quantum information in such a protocol. This protocol can solve the noise problem that will make the user obtain a wrong answer and hence give rise to a bad influence on the reputation of the database provider. Furthermore, this protocol is also flexible, loss-resistant and easily generalized to a large database similar to the previous works.

  16. Options for Conducting a Pay Equity Study of Federal Pay and Classification Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    III APPE11,DIX III LEGAL BACKGROUND I. Relevant Legislation and Executive Orders A. Equal Pay Act of 1963 :1" B. Civil Rights Act of 1964 C. Civil...consultants with expertise in economics, job evaluation, and other disci- plines. (See app. I.) Through the Equal Pay Act of 1963 and the Civil Rights Act...the term "comparable worth" related to existing law? The Equal Pay Act of 1963 made it generally unlawful for employers to pay higher wages to

  17. The significance of cone beam computed tomography for the visualization of anatomical variations and lesions in the maxillary sinus for patients hoping to have dental implant-supported maxillary restorations in a private dental office in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the significance of cone bean computed tomography (CBCT) for patients hoping to undergo implant-supported restorations of the maxilla. Therefore, two studies were planned. One was to compare the prevalence of anatomic variations and lesions in the maxillary sinus on CBCT of patients hoping to undergo implant-supported restorations of the maxilla with that in patients with other chief complaints in a private dental office in Japan. The other study was to elucidate the limitations of panoramic radiographs in the detection of anatomic variations and lesions in the maxillary sinus. Study design Sixty-one pairs of panoramic radiographs and CBCT were retrospectively analyzed in two groups of patients, those who hoped to undergo implant-supported restorations in the maxilla (Implant group) and those who did not (Non-implant group). The presence of anatomic variations and lesions in the maxillary sinus were analyzed. Results The detection rate of mucosal thickening was significantly higher in the Implant group than in the Non-implant group. The detection rates for the features analyzed were significantly lower on panoramic radiographs. In particular, the detection rates of internal and anterior locations of some features were noticeably lower on panoramic radiographs. A significant relationship was found between the change in the detection rate on panoramic radiographs and the widths of mucosal thickening or the lengths of the major axis of SOLs in the maxillary sinus. If the width of mucosal thickening or the length of the major axis of SOLs was <3 mm or <4 mm, respectively, the detection rate on panoramic radiographs was significantly decreased. Conclusion CBCT is important for patients hoping to undergo implant-supported restorations of the maxilla because of the mucosal thickening in the maxillary sinus in such patients and their lower detection rates on panoramic radiographs. PMID:24884983

  18. Wastewater privatization: A beneficial alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeman, R.F.; Drewry, W.A.

    1999-07-01

    Municipalities with wastewater operations face increasing requirements to maximize efficiency, implement capital improvements, and ensure environmental compliance. Privatization is a relatively unused alternative offering benefits in the areas of cost-effective operations, flexible financing, technology access, and compliance assurance. Recent executive direction and tax code changes have opened new doors for mutually beneficial public-private partnerships. Wastewater privatization has historically consisted of short-term contract agreements for treatment operations, but looming infrastructure recapitalization and development requirements have catalyzed an exploration of non-traditional alternatives that include private sector financing, development, and operation of entire wastewater systems, The purpose of this paper is to show why privatization must be considered, evaluate the different levels available, and generate an analytical aid for communities taking their first look at privatization opportunities.

  19. Pay Equity Act, 17 May 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the 1988 Pay Equity Act of Prince Edward Island, Canada. (Nova Scotia enacted similar legislation in 1988.) This act defines "female-dominated class" or "male-dominated class" as a class with 60% or more female or male incumbents, respectively. The objective of this act is to achieve pay equity among public sector employers and employees by identifying systemic gender discrimination through a comparison of the relative wages and value of the work performed by female- and male-dominated classes. The value of work is to be determined by considering the skill, effort, and responsibility required by the work as well as the conditions under which it is performed. A difference in wages between a female- and male-dominated class performing work of equal or comparable value can be justified by a formal performance appraisal system or formal seniority system that does not discriminate on the basis of gender or by a skills shortage which requires a temporary inflation in wages to attract workers for a certain position. No wages shall be reduced to implement pay equity. Implementation of pay equity will include the work of bargaining agents to achieve agreement on salient points. Pay equity may be implemented in four stages over a period of 24 months.

  20. 5 CFR 534.505 - Pay related matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay related matters. 534.505 Section 534.505 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.505 Pay related matters....

  1. 5 CFR 534.505 - Pay related matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pay related matters. 534.505 Section 534.505 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.505 Pay related matters....

  2. 5 CFR 534.505 - Pay related matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pay related matters. 534.505 Section 534.505 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.505 Pay related matters....

  3. 5 CFR 534.505 - Pay related matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pay related matters. 534.505 Section 534.505 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.505 Pay related matters....

  4. 5 CFR 534.505 - Pay related matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pay related matters. 534.505 Section 534.505 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.505 Pay related matters....

  5. 5 CFR 9701.342 - Performance pay increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... percentage of an employee's rate of basic pay (exclusive of locality or special rate supplements under... the employee's rate of basic pay to exceed the maximum rate of the employee's band rate range, DHS will pay the performance payout as an adjustment in the employee's annual rate of basic pay. Any...

  6. 5 CFR 9701.345 - Developmental pay adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Developmental pay adjustments. 9701.345 Section 9701.345 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay §...

  7. 5 CFR 9701.351 - Setting an employee's starting pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Setting an employee's starting pay. 9701.351 Section 9701.351 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.351...

  8. 5 CFR 9701.353 - Setting pay upon promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Setting pay upon promotion. 9701.353 Section 9701.353 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.353 Setting...

  9. 5 CFR 9701.354 - Setting pay upon demotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Setting pay upon demotion. 9701.354 Section 9701.354 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.354 Setting...

  10. 5 CFR 9701.346 - Pay progression for new supervisors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pay progression for new supervisors. 9701.346 Section 9701.346 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay § 9701.346...

  11. 5 CFR 9701.342 - Performance pay increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Performance pay increases. 9701.342 Section 9701.342 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay §...

  12. 78 FR 80451 - Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... Pay Systems. The rates of basic pay or salaries of the statutory pay systems (as defined in 5 U.S.C... hereto and made a part hereof. Sec. 3. Certain Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Salaries. The rates of basic pay or salaries for the following offices and positions are set forth on the...

  13. 5 CFR 531.214 - Setting pay upon promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Setting pay upon promotion. 531.214... UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Determining Rate of Basic Pay Setting Pay When Appointment Or Position Changes § 531.214 Setting pay upon promotion. (a) General. An agency must set an employee's payable...

  14. 5 CFR 9701.353 - Setting pay upon promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Setting pay upon promotion. 9701.353 Section 9701.353 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.353 Setting...

  15. 5 CFR 531.214 - Setting pay upon promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Setting pay upon promotion. 531.214... UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Determining Rate of Basic Pay Setting Pay When Appointment Or Position Changes § 531.214 Setting pay upon promotion. (a) General. An agency must set an employee's payable...

  16. 5 CFR 9701.351 - Setting an employee's starting pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Setting an employee's starting pay. 9701.351 Section 9701.351 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.351...

  17. 5 CFR 531.214 - Setting pay upon promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Setting pay upon promotion. 531.214... UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Determining Rate of Basic Pay Setting Pay When Appointment Or Position Changes § 531.214 Setting pay upon promotion. (a) General. An agency must set an employee's payable...

  18. 5 CFR 531.215 - Setting pay upon demotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Setting pay upon demotion. 531.215... UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Determining Rate of Basic Pay Setting Pay When Appointment Or Position Changes § 531.215 Setting pay upon demotion. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in this section,...

  19. 5 CFR 531.215 - Setting pay upon demotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Setting pay upon demotion. 531.215... UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Determining Rate of Basic Pay Setting Pay When Appointment Or Position Changes § 531.215 Setting pay upon demotion. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in this section,...

  20. 5 CFR 531.215 - Setting pay upon demotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Setting pay upon demotion. 531.215... UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Determining Rate of Basic Pay Setting Pay When Appointment Or Position Changes § 531.215 Setting pay upon demotion. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in this section,...

  1. 5 CFR 9701.351 - Setting an employee's starting pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting an employee's starting pay. 9701.351 Section 9701.351 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.351...

  2. 5 CFR 9701.353 - Setting pay upon promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting pay upon promotion. 9701.353 Section 9701.353 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.353 Setting...

  3. 5 CFR 9701.346 - Pay progression for new supervisors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay progression for new supervisors. 9701.346 Section 9701.346 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay § 9701.346...

  4. 5 CFR 9701.342 - Performance pay increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance pay increases. 9701.342 Section 9701.342 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay §...

  5. 5 CFR 9701.345 - Developmental pay adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Developmental pay adjustments. 9701.345 Section 9701.345 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay §...

  6. 5 CFR 9701.354 - Setting pay upon demotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting pay upon demotion. 9701.354 Section 9701.354 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.354 Setting...

  7. 5 CFR 9701.346 - Pay progression for new supervisors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pay progression for new supervisors. 9701.346 Section 9701.346 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay § 9701.346...

  8. 5 CFR 9701.345 - Developmental pay adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Developmental pay adjustments. 9701.345 Section 9701.345 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay §...

  9. Paying Teachers to Perform: The Impact of Bonus Pay in Pernambuco, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraz, Claudio; Bruns, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of a group (school-based) teacher bonus program introduced in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco in 2008. Research questions are: i) Does setting school level targets and awarding bonus pay produce improvements in student learning? ii) Does setting school level targets and awarding bonus pay stimulate visible…

  10. When Changing from Merit Pay to Variable/Bonus Pay: What Do Employees Want?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jeremy B.; Donohue, Joan M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines potential responses to a change in an employee reward system from permanent merit pay increases to one-time bonus payments. Removing long term risks associated with escalating pay is an increasingly common compensation strategy. Often overlooked, however, are employee perceptions of reward fairness under such conditions of…

  11. Self-Solicited Feedback: Effects of Hourly Pay and Individual Monetary Incentive Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slowiak, Julie M.; Dickinson, Alyce M.; Huitema, Bradley E.

    2011-01-01

    The frequency of feedback solicitation under hourly pay and individual monetary incentive pay conditions was examined. A between-subjects design was used with 30 college students in the two groups. Participants attended three experimental sessions and entered the cash value of simulated bank checks presented on a computer screen. Performance was…

  12. Private Stimuli, Covert Responses, and Private Events: Conceptual Remarks

    PubMed Central

    Tourinho, Emmanuel Zagury

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the concepts of private stimuli, covert responses, and private events, emphasizing three aspects: the conditions under which private stimuli may acquire discriminative functions to verbal responses, the conditions of unobservability of covert responses, and the complexity of events or phenomena described as private. I argue that the role of private stimuli in the control of self-descriptive verbal responses is dependent on a relation (correlation or equivalence relation) with public stimuli, and that responses vary along a continuum of observability. These remarks on private stimuli and covert responses are introductory to an examination of the varying complexity of phenomena described as private. I argue that private events is a verbal response emitted under the control of phenomena of different degrees of complexity, and I interpret these phenomena, based on the principle of selection by consequences. I introduce the notion of inclusiveness to suggest that some phenomena related to privacy are less or more complex as they include relations of a phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and cultural origin. PMID:22478451

  13. Control of tuberculosis in an urban setting in Nepal: public-private partnership.

    PubMed Central

    Newell, James N.; Pande, Shanta B.; Baral, Sushil C.; Bam, Dirgh S.; Malla, Pushpa

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To implement and evaluate a public-private partnership to deliver the internationally recommended strategy DOTS for the control of tuberculosis (TB) in Lalitpur municipality, Nepal, where it is estimated that 50% of patients with TB are managed in the private sector. METHODS: A local working group developed a public-private partnership for control of TB, which included diagnosis by private practitioners, direct observation of treatment and tracing of patients who missed appointments by nongovernmental organizations, and provision of training and drugs by the Nepal National TB Programme (NTP). The public-private partnership was evaluated through baseline and follow-up surveys of private practitioners, private pharmacies, and private laboratories, together with records kept by the Nepal NTP. FINDINGS: In the first 36 months, 1328 patients with TB were registered in the public-private partnership. Treatment success rates were >90%, and <1% of patients defaulted. Case notification of sputum-positive patients in the study area increased from 54 per 100 000 to 102 per 100 000. The numbers of patients with TB started on treatment by private practitioners decreased by more than two-thirds, the number of private pharmacies that stocked anti-TB drugs by one-third, the number of pharmacies selling anti-TB drugs by almost two-thirds, and sales of anti-TB drugs in pharmacies by almost two-thirds. Private practitioners were happy to refer patients to the public-private partnership. Not all private practitioners had to be involved: many patients bypassed private practitioners and went directly to free DOTS centres. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of the strengths of private practitioners, nongovernmental organizations, and the public sector in a public-private partnership can be used to provide a service that is liked by patients and gives high rates of treatment success and increased rates of patient notification. Similar public-private partnerships are likely to be

  14. TWRS privatization bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. The documents referenced herein have been identified as representative of those potentially helpful to Offerors. This list of documents does not represent the full extent of available and potentially helpful information, nor should it be taken as a representation of documents determined to be of greater importance than other documents not referenced herein. There are numerous documents available to the public that are NOT cited in this bibliography; the Offeror is encouraged to perform searches for alternate sources of information.

  15. TWRS privatization bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. The organization of this bibliography is by subject area. Some of the documents overlap subject areas, and may be presented in more than one. Additionally, assignment of a document to one subject area does not necessarily preclude that document from containing information relevant to other subject areas not identified. The subject areas include, in order of presentation:. Waste Characterization; Pre-treatment; High-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Melter Test Program; Performance Assessment; and General Safety.

  16. [Private practice nursing, reacting in emergency situations. Private practice nursing, reacting in emergency situations].

    PubMed

    Royère, Cécile; Allonneau, Alexandre; Genotelle, Nicolas; Lefort, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    Private practice professionals providing care in patients' homes are often isolated. The care is controlled by a multidisciplinary care network. In the event of a life-threatening emergency, the Aide Médicale Urgente control centre activates if necessary the rapid intervention of emergency services. An accurate assessment, the anticipation of an emergency transfer to hospital and knowledge of the regulatory framework ensure the patient is handled efficiently and respectfully.

  17. Validity of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination to Discriminate between Incipient Dementia and Depression in Elderly Patients of a Private Clinic in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Pérez, Eder; Custodio, Nilton; Lira, David; Montesinos, Rosa; Bendezu, Liliana

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Dementia and depression are different clinical conditions, but share common features, and can be indistinguishable in the initial disease stages. We aimed to establish whether the Peruvian version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-Peru) can distinguish between the cognitive profile in patients with incipient dementia and that in patients with depression. Methods This was a cross-sectional study to assess the performance on the ACE-Peru of 193 elderly subjects (102 with dementia, 21 with depression, and 70 healthy controls). Depending on the diagnosis, there were two groups of cognitive impairment (CI) – the primary neurodegenerative (PN-CI) subtype and the secondary to depression (SD-CI) subtype – as well as a non-CI group. The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver-operating characteristic curve was determined to compare the diagnostic performance, using the diagnosis of CI as the gold standard. Results In our sample of elderly subjects aged 59-82 years with at least 7 years of education, the ACE-Peru showed a significantly better performance than the MMSE (AUC = 0.997 vs. AUC = 0.887; p < 0.05) for the discrimination between PN-CI and SD-CI. Conclusions The ACE-Peru is able to distinguish between the cognitive profile in patients with incipient dementia and that in patients with depression. PMID:24174928

  18. 5 CFR 930.205 - Administrative law judge pay system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... judge position to one of the three levels of basic pay, AL-3, AL-2 or AL-1 of the administrative law judge pay system established under 5 U.S.C. 5372 in accordance with this section. Pay level AL-3 has six rates of basic pay, A, B, C, D, E, and F. (1) The rate of basic pay for AL-3, rate A, may not be...

  19. Michigan School Privatization Survey 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohman, James M.; Anderson, Dustin D.

    2010-01-01

    Privatization of support services has been a method that Michigan school districts have used for several years to lower costs. More than ever before, Michigan school districts are privatizing the three main support services they offer--food, custodial and transportation. The annual survey finds that 48.8 percent of Michigan school districts are…

  20. Public/Private Partnership Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC.

    This document presents the Public/Private Partnership Programs, a school-community project developed in 1981 by the District of Columbia public schools and the private sector community to provide career-focused high school programs. The project was designed to motivate and support young people to stay in school, graduate from high school, and…

  1. Private Faith and Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trigg, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Must faith be privatized? Taken at face value, this could seem a curious question, since no one is in a position to "sell off" any religion to private interests, in the way that, for example, British Rail was dismembered. Yet the question is an important one in a contemporary society, characterized as it is by a significant divergence of views…

  2. The Future of Private Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Norward J.

    While the elite private colleges may survive the enrollment declines of the 1980's and 1990's, the less elite, so-called invisible private colleges may have more difficulty. Finance, enrollment, and competition are the three major elements seen to threaten these institutions' futures. They face an uncertain financial future since historically they…

  3. The Law and Private Police.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, James S.; Wildhorn, Sorrel

    This report is one of a series of five describing a 16-month study of the nature and extent of the private police industry in the United States, its problems, its present regulation, and how the law impinges on it. A general discussion of the sources of legal limitations upon private police activities and personnel and sources of legal powers is…

  4. Signed Soliloquy: Visible Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Kathrin; Brugger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Talking to oneself can be silent (inner speech) or vocalized for others to hear (private speech, or soliloquy). We investigated these two types of self-communication in 28 deaf signers and 28 hearing adults. With a questionnaire specifically developed for this study, we established the visible analog of vocalized private speech in deaf signers.…

  5. Private Loans: Facts and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for College Access & Success, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Private loans are one of the riskiest ways to finance a college education. Like credit cards, they typically have variable interest rates. Both variable and fixed rates are higher for those who can least afford them--as high as 13% in June 2014. Private loans are not eligible for the important deferment, income-based repayment, or loan forgiveness…

  6. Payments For Opioids Shifted Substantially To Public And Private Insurers While Consumer Spending Declined, 1999–2012

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chao; Florence, Curtis S.; Dowell, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Deaths from opioid pain reliever overdose in the United States quadrupled between 1999 and 2013, concurrent with an increase in the use of the drugs. We used data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to examine trends in opioid pain reliever expenditures, financing by various payers, and use from 1999 to 2012. We found major shifts in expenditures by payer type for these drugs, with private and public insurers paying a much larger share than patients in recent years. Consumer out-of-pocket spending on opioids per 100 morphine milligram equivalents (a standard reference measure of strength for various opioids) declined from $4.40 to $0.90 between 2001 and 2012. Since the implementation of Medicare Part D in 2006, Medicare has been the largest payer for opioid pain relievers, covering about 20–30 percent of the cost. Medicare spends considerably more on these drugs for enrollees younger than age sixty-five than it does for any other age group or than Medicaid or private insurance does for any age group. Further research is needed to evaluate whether payer strategies to address the overuse of opioids could reduce avoidable opioid-related mortality. PMID:27140988

  7. Public versus private: does it matter for water conservation? Insights from California.

    PubMed

    Kallis, Giorgos; Ray, Isha; Fulton, Julian; McMahon, James E

    2010-01-01

    This article asks three connected questions: First, does the public view private and public utilities differently, and if so, does this affect attitudes to conservation? Second, do public and private utilities differ in their approaches to conservation? Finally, do differences in the approaches of the utilities, if any, relate to differences in public attitudes? We survey public attitudes in California toward (hypothetical but plausible) voluntary and mandated water conservation, as well as to price increases, during a recent period of shortage. We do this by interviewing households in three pairs of adjacent public and private utilities. We also survey managers of public and private urban water utilities to see if they differ in their approaches to conservation and to their customers. On the user side we do not find pronounced differences, though a minority of customers in all private companies would be more willing to conserve or pay higher prices under a public operator. No respondent in public utility said the reverse. Negative attitudes toward private operators were most pronounced in the pair marked by a controversial recent privatization and a price hike. Nonetheless, we find that California's history of recurrent droughts and the visible role of the state in water supply and drought management undermine the distinction between public and private. Private utilities themselves work to underplay the distinction by stressing the collective ownership of the water source and the collective value of conservation. Overall, California's public utilities appear more proactive and target-oriented in asking their customers to conserve than their private counterparts and the state continues to be important in legitimating and guiding conservation behavior, whether the utility is in public hands or private.

  8. Public Versus Private: Does It Matter for Water Conservation? Insights from California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallis, Giorgos; Ray, Isha; Fulton, Julian; McMahon, James E.

    2010-01-01

    This article asks three connected questions: First, does the public view private and public utilities differently, and if so, does this affect attitudes to conservation? Second, do public and private utilities differ in their approaches to conservation? Finally, do differences in the approaches of the utilities, if any, relate to differences in public attitudes? We survey public attitudes in California toward (hypothetical but plausible) voluntary and mandated water conservation, as well as to price increases, during a recent period of shortage. We do this by interviewing households in three pairs of adjacent public and private utilities. We also survey managers of public and private urban water utilities to see if they differ in their approaches to conservation and to their customers. On the user side we do not find pronounced differences, though a minority of customers in all private companies would be more willing to conserve or pay higher prices under a public operator. No respondent in public utility said the reverse. Negative attitudes toward private operators were most pronounced in the pair marked by a controversial recent privatization and a price hike. Nonetheless, we find that California’s history of recurrent droughts and the visible role of the state in water supply and drought management undermine the distinction between public and private. Private utilities themselves work to underplay the distinction by stressing the collective ownership of the water source and the collective value of conservation. Overall, California’s public utilities appear more proactive and target-oriented in asking their customers to conserve than their private counterparts and the state continues to be important in legitimating and guiding conservation behavior, whether the utility is in public hands or private.

  9. Who is willing to pay for long-term care insurance in Catalonia?

    PubMed

    Costa-Font, Joan; Rovira-Forns, Joan

    2008-04-01

    Both public and private insurance for long-term care (LTC) in European countries employed is underdeveloped. However, limited evidence is gathered on the behavioural demand responses to the introduction of insurance schemes expanding insurance coverage. This paper aims at empirically examining the determinants of the ex ante demand for LTC coverage drawing upon an insurance-based WTP referendum approach format. Data is collected from a representative population sample of Catalonia (Spain), before a countrywide funding system was developed. Our findings suggest that (based on our questionnaire format) only one-fifth of the population is willing to pay for LTC coverage though it is a highly elastic product. Ex ante demand for LTC coverage is driven by individual's perceptions of old age disability risk (private information asymmetry) and housing tenure (giving rise to self-insurance), the latter reduces the probability of insurance coverage demand.

  10. Paying Medicare Advantage plans by competitive bidding: how much competition is there?

    PubMed

    Biles, Brian; Pozen, Jonah; Guterman, Stuart

    2009-08-01

    Private health plans that enroll Medicare beneficiaries--known as Medicare Advantage (MA) plans--are being paid $11 billion more in 2009 than it would cost to cover these beneficiaries in regular fee-for-service Medicare. To generate Medicare savings for offsetting the costs of health reform, the Obama Administration has proposed eliminating these extra payments to private insurers and instituting a competitive bidding system that pays MA plans based on the bids they submit. This study examines the concentration of enrollment among MA plans and the degree to which firms offering MA plans actually face competition. The results show that in the large majority of U.S. counties, MA plan enrollment is highly concentrated in a small number of firms. Given the relative lack of competition in many markets as well as the potential impact on traditional Medicare, the authors call for careful consideration of a new system for setting MA plan payments.

  11. Laser-assisted new attachment procedure in private practice.

    PubMed

    Harris, David M; Gregg, Robert H; McCarthy, Delwin K; Colby, Leigh E; Tilt, Lloyd V

    2004-01-01

    Three private dental practices conducted a retrospective analysis of patients receiving the laser-assisted new attachment procedure (LANAP). Retrospective results were compared to clinical trial data from the University of Texas Health Sciences Center in San Antonio (UTHSCSA) to determine if outcomes from a controlled clinical trial can be duplicated in private practice. Results also are compared with published results of other surgical and nonsurgical therapies for inflammatory periodontal disease.

  12. Biomarker qualification via public-private partnerships.

    PubMed

    Eck, S L; Paul, S M

    2010-01-01

    Biomarkers linked to patient outcomes (safety and efficacy) have an increasingly important role in drug development. Consequently, validation and qualification of such biomarkers are essential, often requiring large data sets from well-controlled randomized clinical trials. In the December 2009 issue of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, investigators utilizing data from four pharmaceutical companies and working under the auspices of the Biomarkers Consortium described the utility of adiponectin as an early predictor of glycemic control in diabetic patients taking peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists. This work illustrates the advantages of large public-private partnerships for biomarker qualification.

  13. "No One Really Knows What It Is That I Need": Learning a New Job at a Small Private College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joann S.

    2015-01-01

    Colleges and universities are sites of learning, not only for tuition-paying students, but also for those employed by the institution. This qualitative study explored the workplace learning experiences of non-faculty staff at a small, faith-based private college in the upper Midwest who had recently changed jobs within the institution. Learning to…

  14. State Support for Private Schooling in India: What Do the Evaluations of the British Assisted Places Schemes Suggest?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walford, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Section 12 of the Indian Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 (the RTE Act) states that 25% of the entry-level places in all private schools should be free and reserved for students from economically and socially disadvantaged families. The Indian State governments will pay schools a per-child fee based on costs in the…

  15. 20 CFR 641.640 - How do the private sector training activities authorized under section 502(e) differ from other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... required to have a community service project component. However, 502(e) participants must also be co... private sector. (c) The Department is authorized to pay all of the costs of section 502(e) activities (i.e... authorized under section 502(e) differ from other SCSEP activities? 641.640 Section 641.640...

  16. Annual Merit Pay: One Department's Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Peter, H.; And Others

    Efforts since 1974 to create an acceptable merit pay system at Bowling Green State University's Department of Educational Foundations and Inquiry (EDFI) are described. Construction of the activity-point merit approach that has been used since 1980 began in 1979. Each of the 24 faculty in the EDFI department listed activities or products that they…

  17. 28 CFR 0.145 - Overtime pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Respect to Personnel and Certain Administrative Matters § 0.145 Overtime pay. The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Director of the Bureau of Prisons, the Commissioner of Federal Prison... Administration, the Director of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, the Director of...

  18. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pay retention. 9701.356 Section 9701.356 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  19. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pay retention. 9701.356 Section 9701.356 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF... requirements of this section, DHS will, after coordination with OPM, issue implementing directives...

  20. 77 FR 11599 - January 2012 Pay Schedules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... higher aggregate limitation on pay--up to the Vice President's salary ($230,700 in 2012, the same level....asp .) The memorandum transmitted Executive Order 13594 and provided the 2012 salary tables, locality... information. The ``2012 Salary Tables'' posted on OPM's Web site at www.opm.gov/oca/12tables/index.asp are...

  1. Pay Equity--A Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Working Women, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet addresses pay equity, that is, the goal of a fair wage-setting process that eliminates sex and race discrimination. It begins by setting forth the problem through statistics on men's and women's median annual earnings, the occupational categories represented by women workers, and median annual earnings by occupation. A glossary is…

  2. Let's Talk about Paying the President's Spouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oden, Teresa Johnston

    2005-01-01

    Ask a group of presidents' spouses what's on their minds, and they're likely to say "compensation for the partner." As more spouses of academic presidents come to expect compensation or recognition for the various duties they assume in advancing their mate's presidencies, the issue of pay for partners and the waters beneath it remain murky. Paying…

  3. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay retention. 9701.356 Section 9701.356 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  4. Subscription Television (STV--Pay TV)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    Subscription television (STV), established by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1968, involves transmitting television programs over the air to viewers who pay for the service. The development, trial operation, and test results of subscription television are described in this report, along with four Commission reports, and FCC…

  5. Pay Cable: A Viable Advertising Medium?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krugman, Dean M.; Barban, Arnold M.

    Cable television, which cannot only clarify local signals to weak signal areas but can also bring in distant signals to areas which have been receiving few signals, has the capacity to present special television programs to customers for extra fees. The number of pay cable subscribers is growing and industry projections are that it will reach 20…

  6. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pay retention. 9701.356 Section 9701.356 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  7. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pay retention. 9701.356 Section 9701.356 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  8. 5 CFR 9901.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... retention. (b) Pay retention will be based on the employee's rate of base salary in effect immediately... under NSPS for the area, location, occupational group, or other class of positions involved; (ii) The remoteness of the area or location involved; (iii) The undesirability of the working conditions or the...

  9. 76 FR 45710 - Pay in Nonforeign Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... the need for special rates, special rate supplements to be computed using an alternate method in nonforeign areas, locality rates to be considered basic pay for the purpose of computing nonforeign area... Rate and Locality Rate Regulations Normally, OPM computes a special rate supplement by adding a...

  10. 78 FR 60559 - Pay Ratio Disclosure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Vol. 78 Tuesday, No. 190 October 1, 2013 Part IV Securities and Exchange Commission 17 CFR Parts 229 and 249 Pay Ratio Disclosure; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 190 / Tuesday, October 1, 2013 / Proposed...

  11. Why it pays to 'grill' your supplier.

    PubMed

    Fudge, Joe

    2010-03-01

    When it comes to ensuring that your cold storage operation and maintenance meets MHRA requirements, it pays to ensure that your service supplier knows what it is doing. So says Joe Fudge, instrumentation service manager for ABB's instrumentation business in the U.K., who outlines some of the key factors to consider when selecting a supplier of cold chain mapping services.

  12. COMPARISON OF THAI GOVERNMENT MANUFACTURED TENOFOVIR (TENOFOVIR GPO300) WITH PRIVATELY MANUFACTURED TENOFOVIR (VIREAD) USED ALONG WITH LAMIVUDINE AND EFAVIRENZ TO TREAT THAI HIV PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Manosuthi, Weerawat; Thongyen, Supeda; Nilkamhang, Samruay; Manosuthi, Sukanya; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek

    2015-01-01

    The Thai Government Pharmaceutical Organization (GPO) has produced a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Tenofovir GPO300). No clinical trial to date has compared plasma tenofovir concentrations, renal function, and treatment responses in HIV-infected patients who received Teno- fovir GPO300 versus Viread (original tenofovir) as part of an antiretroviral regimen. We studied 129 antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naive HIV-1 infected patients who received an antiretroviral regimen of lamivudine, efavirenz and Tenofovir GPO300 (n = 65) or Viread (n = 64). We examined plasma tenofovir concentrations (12 hours after dosing), serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Modification in Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study formula, fractional excretion of phosphate (FEphos), CD4 and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels at 12 weeks, and CD4 and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels at 24 weeks after initiating the drugs. At baseline, the mean ± SD subject body weight was 54 ± 10 kilograms and the mean ± SD subject age was 37 ± 8 years. At baseline, the median (IQR) CD4 count was 44 (18-120) cells/ mm3 and the median (IQR) HIV-1 RNA level was 5.8 log copies/ml. At baseline, the mean ± SD eGFR was 134.8 ± 43.6 ml/min/1.73 m2. The baseline values for the two groups were not significantly different from each other (p > 0.05). At 12 weeks, the mean ± SD plasma tenofovir concentration was 106.9 ± 41.5 ng/ml among the patients who received Tenofovir GPO300 and 100.7 ± 49.4 ng/ml among those who received Viread (p = 0.437). At week 12, there were no differences between those who rceived Tenofovir GPO300 and Vilead in mean serum creatinine (0.78 vs 0.81 mg/dl, p = 0.283), mean eGFR (117.9 vs 109.1 ml/min/1.73 m2, p = 0.089), decline in eGFR from baseline (-21.8 vs -20.6 ml/min/1.73 m2, p = 0.860) or mean FEphos (11.4 vs 11.2, p = 0.923). The median CD4 cell counts and number of patients with undetectable plasma HIV-1 RNA at week 24 were

  13. Connected health: a review of technologies and strategies to improve patient care with telemedicine and telehealth.

    PubMed

    Kvedar, Joseph; Coye, Molly Joel; Everett, Wendy

    2014-02-01

    With the advent of national health reform, millions more Americans are gaining access to a health care system that is struggling to provide high-quality care at reduced costs. The increasing adoption of electronic technologies is widely recognized as a key strategy for making health care more cost-effective. This article examines the concept of connected health as an overarching structure for telemedicine and telehealth, and it provides examples of its value to professionals as well as patients. Policy makers, academe, patient advocacy groups, and private-sector organizations need to create partnerships to rapidly test, evaluate, deploy, and pay for new care models that use telemedicine.

  14. 75 FR 49932 - Private Transfer Fee Covenants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... AGENCY Private Transfer Fee Covenants AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Guidance, ``Guidance on Private Transfer Fee Covenants,'' to the Federal National Mortgage Association... mortgages on properties encumbered by private transfer fee covenants. Such covenants appear adverse...

  15. Implementation of pay for performance in primary care: a qualitative study 8 years after introduction

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Helen; Matharu, Tatum; Mohammed, Mohammed A; Lester, David; Foskett-Tharby, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Background Pay for performance is now a widely adopted quality improvement initiative in health care. One of the largest schemes in primary care internationally is the English Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF). Aim To obtain a longer term perspective on the implementation of the QOF. Design and setting Qualitative study with 47 health professionals in 23 practices across England. Method Semi-structured interviews. Results Pay for performance is accepted as a routine part of primary care in England, with previous more individualistic and less structured ways of working seen as poor practice. The size of the QOF and the evidence-based nature of the indicators are regarded as key to its success. However, pay for performance may have had a negative impact on some aspects of medical professionalism, such as clinical autonomy, and led a significant minority of GPs to prioritise their own pay rather than patients’ best interests. A small minority of GPs tried to increase their clinical autonomy with further unintended consequences. Conclusion Pay for performance indicators are now welcomed by primary healthcare teams and GPs across generations. Almost all interviewees wanted to see a greater emphasis on involving front line practice teams in developing indicators. However, almost all GPs and practice managers described a sense of decreased clinical autonomy and loss of professionalism. Calibrating the appropriate level of clinical autonomy is critical if pay for performance schemes are to have maximal impact on patient care. PMID:23735412

  16. Private Information and Insurance Rejections

    PubMed Central

    Hendren, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    Across a wide set of non-group insurance markets, applicants are rejected based on observable, often high-risk, characteristics. This paper argues that private information, held by the potential applicant pool, explains rejections. I formulate this argument by developing and testing a model in which agents may have private information about their risk. I first derive a new no-trade result that theoretically explains how private information could cause rejections. I then develop a new empirical methodology to test whether this no-trade condition can explain rejections. The methodology uses subjective probability elicitations as noisy measures of agents beliefs. I apply this approach to three non-group markets: long-term care, disability, and life insurance. Consistent with the predictions of the theory, in all three settings I find significant amounts of private information held by those who would be rejected; I find generally more private information for those who would be rejected relative to those who can purchase insurance; and I show it is enough private information to explain a complete absence of trade for those who would be rejected. The results suggest private information prevents the existence of large segments of these three major insurance markets. PMID:24187381

  17. Relativistic quantum private database queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Si-Jia; Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhang, Ming-Ou

    2015-04-01

    Recently, Jakobi et al. (Phys Rev A 83, 022301, 2011) suggested the first practical private database query protocol (J-protocol) based on the Scarani et al. (Phys Rev Lett 92, 057901, 2004) quantum key distribution protocol. Unfortunately, the J-protocol is just a cheat-sensitive private database query protocol. In this paper, we present an idealized relativistic quantum private database query protocol based on Minkowski causality and the properties of quantum information. Also, we prove that the protocol is secure in terms of the user security and the database security.

  18. Stimuli, Reinforcers, and Private Events

    PubMed Central

    Nevin, John A

    2008-01-01

    Radical behaviorism considers private events to be a part of ongoing observable behavior and to share the properties of public events. Although private events cannot be measured directly, their roles in overt action can be inferred from mathematical models that relate private responses to external stimuli and reinforcers according to the same quantitative relations that characterize public operant behavior. This approach is illustrated by a model of attending to stimuli and to anticipated reinforcers in delayed matching to sample, in which the probabilities of attending are related to reinforcer rates by an expression derived from research on behavioral momentum. PMID:22478505

  19. Shared HLA Class I and II Alleles and Clonally Restricted Public and Private Brain-Infiltrating αβ T Cells in a Cohort of Rasmussen Encephalitis Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dandekar, Sugandha; Wijesuriya, Hemani; Geiger, Tim; Hamm, David; Mathern, Gary W.; Owens, Geoffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a rare pediatric neuroinflammatory disease characterized by intractable seizures and unilateral brain atrophy. T cell infiltrates in affected brain tissue and the presence of circulating autoantibodies in some RE patients have indicated that RE may be an autoimmune disease. The strongest genetic links to autoimmunity reside in the MHC locus, therefore, we determined the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II alleles carried by a cohort of 24 RE surgery cases by targeted in-depth genomic sequencing. Compared with a reference population the allelic frequency of three alleles, DQA1*04:01:01, DQB1*04:02:01, and HLA-C*07:02:01:01 indicated that they might confer susceptibility to the disease. It has been reported that HLA-C*07:02 is a risk factor for Graves disease. Further, eight patients in the study cohort carried HLA-A*03:01:01:01, which has been linked to susceptibility to multiple sclerosis. Four patients carried a combination of three HLA class II alleles that has been linked to type 1 diabetes (DQA1*05:01:01:01~DQB1*02:01:01~DRB1*03:01:01:01), and five patients carried a combination of HLA class II alleles that has been linked to the risk of contracting multiple sclerosis (DQA1*01:02:01:01, DQB1*06:02:01, DRB1*15:01:01:01). We also analyzed the diversity of αβ T cells in brain and blood specimens from 14 of these RE surgery cases by sequencing the third complementarity regions (CDR3s) of rearranged T cell receptor β genes. A total of 31 unique CDR3 sequences accounted for the top 5% of all CDR3 sequences in the 14 brain specimens. Thirteen of these sequences were found in sequencing data from healthy blood donors; the remaining 18 sequences were patient specific. These observations provide evidence for the clonal expansion of public and private T cells in the brain, which might be influenced by the RE patient’s HLA haplotype. PMID:28066418

  20. State Regulation of Private Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lines, Patricia M.

    1982-01-01

    Examines state laws and the actions of various courts on home instruction and unauthorized educational programs. Suggests reforming the regulation of private education through legislative action that requires periodic testing as an alternative to compulsory school attendance. (Author/MLF)

  1. What Future for Private Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cath Sch J, 1970

    1970-01-01

    After examining a small private school (Norwood Academy, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia) a group of leading educators give their answers to questions about its future and the future of such schools in general. (Editor)

  2. Private Trade and Technical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    Among the advantages of private trade and technical schools is their market orientation, a sensitivity to employers' current needs. Teachers recruited from industry, accelerated pace, flexible scheduling, and emphasis on job placement are other benefits found in proprietary schools. (SK)

  3. ART in South Africa: The price to pay

    PubMed Central

    Huyser, C.; Boyd, L.

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection together with limited resources adds to the hindrances in becoming a parent. Although the South African’s Bill of Rights proclaim that South Africans can “make decisions concerning reproduction”; access to and the use of Assisted Reproduction Technology (ART) are viewed in general as excessively expensive, accessible only to the privileged few. A dissection of cost-drivers within an ART laboratory, such as procedures; sperm preparations; laboratory supplies including embryo culture media and cryopreservation are discussed in the current overview. Subject to the nature of an ART practice, i.e. private vs. public/tertiary, the structure of a unit will vary with regards to patient demographics, costs and services offered. The average fees per procedure for 20 practices in the private sector in South Africa are: (i) IUI: € 542 ± €159, (ii) IVF: € 3,255 ± € 576 and (iii) ICSI: €3,302 ± € 625. Laboratory costs can contribute between 35 and 48% of ART fees payable in the private sector. Low-cost public ART services are available to citizens of the country at a few tertiary academic units. Some private practices also cater specifically for middle-income citizens. ART procedures need not be propelled towards the must-have and cannot-do without approach, but providers should also reflect on the validity of the techniques and equipment, without compromising treatment virtue. PMID:24753934

  4. Privatization of Military Family Housing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Rev. 2-89) (EG) Proscribed by ANSI S IU . 239,1 PRIVATIZATION OF MILITARY FAMILY HOUSING MAJOR PATRICK W. MOUDY* * Major Patrick W. Moudy, United...amendments for Development of Private Sector Housing, Corpus Christi, Texas.29 Landmark Residential, LLC (Landmark) was the successful offeror for the...office, the JAG office, the Civil Engineering office, the Comptroller office, the environmental experts, and the housing office, as well as the command

  5. Ways and Means to Utilize Private Practitioners for Tuberculosis Care in India

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The growing interest of utilizing the private practitioners in improving the outreach of public health services including Tuberculosis (TB) control programme stemmed out of people’s preference for private health facilities in situations where public health facilities fail to meet the expectations. In different parts of India, many models of Public Private Partnership have been tried and tested and proved successful in providing quality TB care in the concerned community. In this paper, several ways and means have been proposed to effectively utilize private practitioners for TB care in India. These strategies are discussed under different headings: (1) identification of potential private practitioners: (2) orientation of private practitioners: (3) networking of private practitioners with patients and Directly Observed Treatment Short course (DOTS) provider: (4) follow-up and sensitization of patients by private practitioners: (5) let the word of mouth work: and (6) evaluation of the involvement of private practitioners in TB care. However the following points must be addressed before utilizing the private practitioners for TB care: time constraints in notifying the disease, adherence to DOTS regime/alternative to DOTS regime, referral of patients to public health facilities for diagnosis and treatment, follow-up and sensitization of the patients and behaviour change communication and awareness in the community by the private practitioners. Few of these are mandatory for the private practitioners; most are practicable. With the effective utilization of private practitioners many problems can be sorted out that are currently plaguing the system such as irrational and excessive use of certain drugs, over reliance on chest X-ray for diagnosis, under use of sputum microscopy, lack of knowledge regarding standard treatment protocols and varied prescription practices. PMID:28384891

  6. Do Workers Pay for On-the-Job Training?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, John M.; Berger, Mark C.; Black, Dan A.

    1999-01-01

    Employers pay higher starting wages to workers requiring less training, but do not give lower starting wages to workers requiring more training. Employers appear to pay most of the cost of and reap most of the returns to training. (SK)

  7. Implementing wait-time reductions under Ontario government benchmarks (Pay-for-Results): a Cluster Randomized Trial of the Effect of a Physician-Nurse Supplementary Triage Assistance team (MDRNSTAT) on emergency department patient wait times

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Internationally, emergency departments are struggling with crowding and its associated morbidity, mortality, and decreased patient and health-care worker satisfaction. The objective was to evaluate the addition of a MDRNSTAT (Physician (MD)-Nurse (RN) Supplementary Team At Triage) on emergency department patient flow and quality of care. Methods Pragmatic cluster randomized trial. From 131 weekday shifts (8:00–14:30) during a 26-week period, we randomized 65 days (3173 visits) to the intervention cluster with a MDRNSTAT presence, and 66 days (3163 visits) to the nurse-only triage control cluster. The primary outcome was emergency department length-of-stay (EDLOS) for patients managed and discharged only by the emergency department. Secondary outcomes included EDLOS for patients initially seen by the emergency department, and subsequently consulted and admitted, patients reaching government-mandated thresholds, time to initial physician assessment, left-without being seen rate, time to investigation, and measurement of harm. Results The intervention’s median EDLOS for discharged, non-consulted, high acuity patients was 4:05 [95th% CI: 3:58 to 4:15] versus 4:29 [95th% CI: 4:19–4:38] during comparator shifts. The intervention’s median EDLOS for discharged, non-consulted, low acuity patients was 1:55 [95th% CI: 1:48 to 2:05] versus 2:08 [95th% CI: 2:02–2:14]. The intervention’s median physician initial assessment time was 0:55 [95th% CI: 0:53 to 0:58] versus 1:21 [95th% CI: 1:18 to 1:25]. The intervention’s left-without-being-seen rate was 1.5% versus 2.2% for the control (p = 0.06). The MDRNSTAT subgroup analysis resulted in significant decreases in median EDLOS for discharged, non-consulted high (4:01 [95th% CI: 3:43–4:16]) and low acuity patients (1:10 95th% CI: 0:58–1:19]), as well as physician initial assessment time (0:25 [95th% CI: 0:23–0:26]). No patients returned to the emergency department after being discharged by the

  8. The importance and challenge of paying for quality nursing care.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Lynn Y; Hassmiller, Susan B; Reinhard, Susan C

    2008-05-01

    Historically, the economic value that nursing brings to the patient care process has not been recognized or quantified. Improving the quality of nursing care through work environment changes or increases in staffing is viewed by many as an added cost, but the benefits in terms of money saved through improved nursing satisfaction and patient outcomes are not considered. This article introduces nine articles that were originally presented at the Economics of Nursing Invitational Conference: Paying for Quality Nursing Care held at the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation in Princeton, New Jersey, June 13 and 14, 2007. Recommendations are to conduct research on the impact of policy and payment changes on the nursing workforce and quality of care and to correct the misalignment of socioeconomic and business case incentives for quality by payment systems and other changes.

  9. 29 CFR 1614.408 - Civil action: Equal Pay Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil action: Equal Pay Act. 1614.408 Section 1614.408... EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Appeals and Civil Actions § 1614.408 Civil action: Equal Pay Act. A..., three years of the date of the alleged violation of the Equal Pay Act regardless of whether he or...

  10. 12 CFR 268.407 - Civil action: Equal Pay Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil action: Equal Pay Act. 268.407 Section... Civil action: Equal Pay Act. A complainant is authorized under section 16(b) of the Fair Labor Standards..., if the violation is willful, three years of the date of the alleged violation of the Equal Pay...

  11. 29 CFR 1614.202 - Equal Pay Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal Pay Act. 1614.202 Section 1614.202 Labor Regulations... OPPORTUNITY Provisions Applicable to Particular Complaints § 1614.202 Equal Pay Act. (a) In its enforcement of the Equal Pay Act, the Commission has the authority to investigate an agency's employment practices...

  12. 12 CFR 268.202 - Equal Pay Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal Pay Act. 268.202 Section 268.202 Banks... REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Provisions Applicable to Particular Complaints § 268.202 Equal Pay Act. Complaints alleging violations of the Equal Pay Act shall be processed under this part....

  13. Some Thoughts on the Equal Pay Act and Coaching Salaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boring, Phyllis

    This paper discusses the Equal Pay Act, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as it applies to women athletic coaches and physical education teachers. The following points are considered: (1) application of the Equal Pay Act; (2) advantage of voluntary compliance with the Equal Pay Act; (3) factors used to measure "equal work"; (4)…

  14. 5 CFR 9901.364 - Foreign language proficiency pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Foreign language proficiency pay. 9901... language proficiency pay. (a) General provisions. (1) This section applies to employees who may be paid Foreign Language Proficiency Pay (FLPP) if they are certified as proficient in a foreign language...

  15. 78 FR 649 - Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... Public Law 112-175, it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Statutory Pay Systems. The rates of basic pay or salaries of the statutory pay systems (as defined in 5 U.S.C. 5302(1)), as adjusted under 5 U.S... See Food Safety and Inspection Service See Rural Utilities Service NOTICES Agency...

  16. 20 CFR 322.6 - Pay for time lost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pay for time lost. 322.6 Section 322.6 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.6 Pay for time lost. (a) Definition. The term “pay for time lost” means any payment made...

  17. 20 CFR 322.6 - Pay for time lost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Pay for time lost. 322.6 Section 322.6 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.6 Pay for time lost. (a) Definition. The term “pay for time lost” means any payment made...

  18. 20 CFR 322.6 - Pay for time lost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pay for time lost. 322.6 Section 322.6 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.6 Pay for time lost. (a) Definition. The term “pay for time lost” means any payment made...

  19. 20 CFR 322.6 - Pay for time lost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Pay for time lost. 322.6 Section 322.6 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.6 Pay for time lost. (a) Definition. The term “pay for time lost” means any payment made...

  20. 5 CFR 9701.372 - Creating initial pay ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Creating initial pay ranges. 9701.372 Section 9701.372 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Transitional Provisions § 9701.372...

  1. 5 CFR 9701.372 - Creating initial pay ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Creating initial pay ranges. 9701.372 Section 9701.372 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Transitional Provisions § 9701.372...

  2. 5 CFR 9701.372 - Creating initial pay ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Creating initial pay ranges. 9701.372 Section 9701.372 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Transitional Provisions § 9701.372...

  3. 5 CFR 9701.372 - Creating initial pay ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Creating initial pay ranges. 9701.372 Section 9701.372 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Transitional Provisions § 9701.372...

  4. 28 CFR 345.59 - Inmate performance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate performance pay. 345.59 Section 345.59 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.59 Inmate performance pay. Inmate...

  5. 28 CFR 345.59 - Inmate performance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inmate performance pay. 345.59 Section 345.59 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.59 Inmate performance pay. Inmate...

  6. 28 CFR 345.59 - Inmate performance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inmate performance pay. 345.59 Section 345.59 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.59 Inmate performance pay. Inmate...

  7. 28 CFR 345.59 - Inmate performance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inmate performance pay. 345.59 Section 345.59 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.59 Inmate performance pay. Inmate...

  8. 28 CFR 345.59 - Inmate performance pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inmate performance pay. 345.59 Section 345.59 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.59 Inmate performance pay. Inmate...

  9. Teachers' Perception on Pay-for-Performance Programs in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mighty, Nardiann Kenisha

    2013-01-01

    States are implementing performance programs to help reform compensation systems for teachers; however, little is known on teachers' perception on alternative pay plans. Accordingly, this research study examined the types of pay-for-performance programs Georgia teachers prefer by exploring their perceptions of pay for individual performance, pay…

  10. 5 CFR 536.302 - Optional pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... conversion rule in § 536.303(a) before determining whether an employee's rate of basic pay otherwise would be... entitled to pay retention under § 536.301, but whose payable rate of basic pay otherwise would be reduced (after application of any applicable geographic conversion under § 536.303(a)) as the result of...

  11. 5 CFR 532.419 - Grade and pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RATE SYSTEMS Pay Administration § 532.419 Grade and pay retention. (a) In accordance with section 9(a)(1) of Public Law 92-392 (86 Stat. 564, 573), an employee's initial rate of pay on conversion to a... Code, shall be determined under conversion rules prescribed by the Office of Personnel Management....

  12. 5 CFR 531.215 - Setting pay upon demotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Setting pay upon demotion. 531.215 Section 531.215 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY... Changes § 531.215 Setting pay upon demotion. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in this section,...

  13. 5 CFR 531.215 - Setting pay upon demotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting pay upon demotion. 531.215 Section 531.215 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY... Changes § 531.215 Setting pay upon demotion. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in this section,...

  14. 12 CFR 226.51 - Ability to Pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ability to Pay. 226.51 Section 226.51 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN... College Students § 226.51 Ability to Pay. (a) General rule. (1)(i) Consideration of ability to pay. A...

  15. 12 CFR 226.51 - Ability to Pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ability to Pay. 226.51 Section 226.51 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN... College Students § 226.51 Ability to Pay. (a) General rule. (1)(i) Consideration of ability to pay. A...

  16. 5 CFR 9701.372 - Creating initial pay ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Creating initial pay ranges. 9701.372 Section 9701.372 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Transitional Provisions § 9701.372...

  17. Reviving Pay Equity: New Strategies for Attacking the Wage Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peggy; Figart, Deborah M.

    1998-01-01

    Pay equity remains a problem linked to the problem of low pay. Pay equity must be understood as one solution to the problem of securing a living wage for women and men in the restructuring economy as well as a means for challenging gender equity. (JOW)

  18. 22 CFR 204.15 - Paying agent obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paying agent obligations. 204.15 Section 204.15 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS The Guaranty § 204.15 Paying agent obligations. Failure of the Paying Agent to perform any of its...

  19. 22 CFR 204.15 - Paying agent obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Paying agent obligations. 204.15 Section 204.15 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS The Guaranty § 204.15 Paying agent obligations. Failure of the Paying Agent to perform any of its...

  20. The "Decline" of Private Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    No topic in private higher education study has attracted as great attention globally as has growth. This is appropriate as private growth has soared to nearly a third of the world's total higher education enrolment. But while private growth continues to be the dominant trend, important declines in private shares have emerged. These must be…

  1. How To Pick a Perfect Private School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Harlow G.

    This book offers consumer information for parents who are considering enrolling their child in a private school. Beginning with a descriptive overview of private schools, the guide discusses advantages of private schools, how to finance a private school education, and how to determine a child's educational needs. The book offers criteria for…

  2. The escalating health care cost of AIDS: who will pay?

    PubMed

    Kerley, L J

    1990-01-01

    AIDS is a crisis that has been imposed on an imperfect healthcare system. The flaws are easy to recognize but difficult to treat. Difficult choices about who pays for the medical care for AIDS patients will be made by upper-class and upper middle-class policymakers who are influenced by their own sense of vulnerability and by an aroused public. Social prejudice and moral judgment must be set aside. While the public ethic speaks the language of social justice, public activity often speaks the language of market justice. Beauchamp (1984) cites the philosophy of Anthony Downs when he states that solving social problems "requires painful losses, the restructuring of society and the acceptance of new burdens by the most powerful and the most numerous on behalf of the least powerful or the least numerous" (p. 306). It is characteristic of the public to attend to social problems until "it becomes clear that solving these problems requires painful costs that the dominant interests in society are unwilling to pay" (p. 306). The problem of AIDS care will require painful costs; but unlike many social problems, it will refuse to be hidden, refuse to be contained, refuse to be silenced, and refuse to be equitable in the marketplace and in the social system.

  3. "The New York Times" Readers' Opinions about Paying People to Take Their Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, James D.; Metlay, Jessica; Asch, Jeremy M.; Asch, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: There has been considerable interest in using financial incentives to help people improve their health. However, paying people to improve their health touches on strongly held views about personal responsibility. Method: "The New York Times" printed two articles in June 2010 about patient financial incentives, which resulted in 394…

  4. Michigan School Privatization Survey 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohman, James M.; Kollmeyer, Josiah M.

    2013-01-01

    Michigan's School Aid fund increased once more this year, but many school administrators in the state continue to hunt for effective measures to reduce spending due to increased pension costs and phased-out stimulus money. Many options available for trimming costs, such as enacting pay-to-play for sports, are extremely unpopular for districts and…

  5. Receiving money for medicine: some tensions and resolutions for community-based private complementary therapists.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Gavin J; Peter, Elizabeth; Hammond, Robin

    2003-03-01

    During recent years, private complementary medicine has grown as a significant provider of healthcare in the UK and much of this provision is through small private businesses financed by out-of-pocket payments made by privately paying clients. Using a combined questionnaire (n = 426) and interview survey (n = 49), the present paper considers the potential tensions and dilemmas which therapists face and the resolutions which they come to in being carers, but in market terms, also profit makers. Therapists generally identified with being carers first and business people second, and this was reflected in their caring decisions. Indeed, under circumstances where the roles potentially conflicted (e.g. when clients could no longer afford to pay for their treatments), most therapists claimed that they continued to provide care, either by providing their services free-of-charge, at a reduced rate, by deferring payment or by accepting alternative forms of compensation. There is a relative lack of dedicated research literature on complementary therapists, their attitudes and actions, and this paper provides some important data on their specific management and caring decisions. At the same time, the evidence also provides some initial food-for-thought and indicates some potential research directions for exploring ethical issues in the private practice of complementary medicine.

  6. Achieving equal pay for comparable worth through arbitration.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, S C

    1982-01-01

    Traditional "women's jobs" often pay relatively low wages because of the effects of institutionalized stereotypes concerning women and their role in the work place. One way of dealing with sex discrimination that results in job segregation is to narrow the existing wage differential between "men's jobs" and "women's jobs." Where the jobs are dissimilar on their face, this narrowing of pay differences involves implementing the concept of "equal pay for jobs of comparable worth." Some time in the future, far-reaching, perhaps even industrywide, reductions in male-female pay differentials may be achieved by pursuing legal remedies based on equal pay for comparable worth. However, as the author demonstrates, immediate, albeit more limited, relief for sex-based pay inequities found in specific work places can be obtained by implementing equal pay for jobs of comparable worth through the collective bargaining and arbitration processes.

  7. Buying best value health care: Evolution of purchasing among Australian private health insurers.

    PubMed

    Willcox, Sharon

    2005-03-31

    Since 1995 Australian health insurers have been able to purchase health services pro-actively through negotiating contracts with hospitals, but little is known about their experience of purchasing. This paper examines the current status of purchasing through interviews with senior managers representing all Australian private health insurers. Many of the traditional tools used to generate competition and enhance efficiency (such as selective contracting and co-payments) have had limited use due to public and political opposition. Adoption of bundled case payment models using diagnosis related groups (DRGs) has been slow. Insurers cite multiple reasons including poor understanding of private hospital costs, unfamiliarity with DRGs, resistance from the medical profession and concerns about premature discharge. Innovation in payment models has been limited, although some insurers are considering introduction of volume-outcome purchasing and pay for performance incentives. Private health insurers also face a complex web of regulation, some of which appears to impede moves towards more efficient purchasing.

  8. Impact of 'stretch' targets for cardiovascular disease management within a local pay-for-performance programme.

    PubMed

    Pape, Utz J; Huckvale, Kit; Car, Josip; Majeed, Azeem; Millett, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Pay-for-performance programs are often aimed to improve the management of chronic diseases. We evaluate the impact of a local pay for performance programme (QOF+), which rewarded financially more ambitious quality targets ('stretch targets') than those used nationally in the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF). We focus on targets for intermediate outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. A difference-in-difference approach is used to compare practice level achievements before and after the introduction of the local pay for performance program. In addition, we analysed patient-level data on exception reporting and intermediate outcomes utilizing an interrupted time series analysis. The local pay for performance program led to significantly higher target achievements (hypertension: p-value <0.001, coronary heart disease: p-values <0.001, diabetes: p-values <0.061, stroke: p-values <0.003). However, the increase was driven by higher rates of exception reporting (hypertension: p-value <0.001, coronary heart disease: p-values <0.03, diabetes: p-values <0.05) in patients with all conditions except for stroke. Exception reporting allows practitioners to exclude patients from target calculations if certain criteria are met, e.g. informed dissent of the patient for treatment. There were no statistically significant improvements in mean blood pressure, cholesterol or HbA1c levels. Thus, achievement of higher payment thresholds in the local pay for performance scheme was mainly attributed to increased exception reporting by practices with no discernable improvements in overall clinical quality. Hence, active monitoring of exception reporting should be considered when setting more ambitious quality targets. More generally, the study suggests a trade-off between additional incentive for better care and monitoring costs.

  9. Pay-for-performance incentives for preventive care

    PubMed Central

    Kaczorowski, Janusz; Goldberg, Orli; Mai, Verna

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective The Provider and Patient Reminders in Ontario: Multi-Strategy Prevention Tools (P-PROMPT) project was designed to increase the rates of delivery of 4 targeted preventive care services to eligible patients in primary care network and family health network practices eligible for pay-for-performance incentives. Design Self-administered fax-back surveys completed before and after participation in the P-PROMPT project. Setting Southwestern Ontario. Participants A total of 246 physicians from 24 primary care network or family health network practices across 110 different sites. Interventions The P-PROMPT project provided several tools and services, including physician and patient reminders, office management tools, and administrative database integration. Main outcome measures Physicians’ views about the delivery of preventive health services and pay-for-performance incentives before and after participation in the P-PROMPT project. Results The preintervention survey was completed by 86.2% (212 of 246) of physicians and the postintervention survey was completed by 53.3% (131 of 246) of physicians; 46.7% (114 of 246) of the physicians completed both surveys. Overall, 80.5% of physicians indicated that the P-PROMPT project was useful (scores of 5 or higher on a 7-point Likert scale). Patient reminder letters (89.1%), physician approval lists of eligible patients (75.6%), administrative assistance with management fees (79.8%), and annual bonus calculations (75.2%) were rated as the most useful features of the program. Compared with the preintervention survey, there were statistically significant increases in the mean agreement scores that the established target levels and bonuses provided appropriate financial incentive to substantially increase the uptake of mammography (P = .012) and Papanicolaou tests (P = .003) but not to increase uptake of annual influenza vaccination or childhood immunizations. There were statistically significant changes in the

  10. Hazard pay for workers: risk and reward

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, J.; Shakow, D.

    1981-10-01

    The second in a series of articles on the differences between worker protection from hazards and that provided for the general public deals with worker reimbursement for job-associated risks. The justification for higher pay is based on market place economic theory that assumes a free choice of occupations, but overlooks skill, bargaining power, and regional variations as contributing factors. A debate is emerging over the concept of putting a dollar value on human life through either the discounted future earnings (DFE) or the willingness to pay (WTP) approach because some individuals are undervalued and because people respond to certain death differently than to statistical risk. As an alternative to extra compensation, employers can elect to make the work environment safer. The difference is one in which society values worker health over choice. Comparisons of actuarial risk data to test the doctrine of equalizing differences continue to be inconclusive and disparate in their results. A review of the literature confirms compensation only for the risk of death and opens up several questions about the level and uniformity of compensation and the definition of risk. 22 references, 3 tables. (DCK)

  11. 5 CFR 1605.13 - Back pay awards and other retroactive pay adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) The employing agency must give the participant the following options for electing makeup contributions... makeup contributions; or (ii) Instead of making contributions for the period of separation in accordance... deducted before payment or other retroactive pay adjustment. Employee makeup contributions required...

  12. 5 CFR 1605.13 - Back pay awards and other retroactive pay adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) The employing agency must give the participant the following options for electing makeup contributions... makeup contributions; or (ii) Instead of making contributions for the period of separation in accordance... deducted before payment or other retroactive pay adjustment. Employee makeup contributions required...

  13. Gender Differences in Pay Histories and Views on Pay Entitlement among University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Serge; Curtis, James

    1997-01-01

    Examines whether gender differences in recent pay experience influence entitlement views by providing different standards for female and male students' judgments of their entitlements. Responses from 309 undergraduate students reveal that income gaps in the full-time working world extended to their own recent work experiences and that these past…

  14. Paying Teachers According to Student Achievement: Questions regarding Pay-for-Performance Models in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caillier, James

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to correct for perceived deficiencies in the No Child Left Behind Act, value-added models were proposed as a way to find out how much students learned in schools and classrooms throughout the school year. What has garnered much controversy regarding the value-added model, however, is the attempt to link pay and tenure to performance.…

  15. Financing of Private Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A survey of financial institutions was undertaken by the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation to evaluate the demand and availability of private credit for enterprises that provide outdoor recreation. The survey provided basic information for (1) evaluating legislative proposals for loan guarantee programs, (2) nationwide planning, and (3) assessing the…

  16. Education Private Practice. Fastback 451.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuelke, Dennis C.

    This fastback document examines small education businesses that provide direct and personal instructional service to clients. Although education private-practice enterprises have not received the attention that high-profile companies have commanded, there are thousands of such one- and two-person enterprises. These practices work with and support…

  17. Private Tutoring and Social Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2011-01-01

    Mastering the public school curriculum is so important to a child's occupational future that in many regions of the world "shadow" education outside of the public system has now become the norm. In one way, this is excellent news because private investment in human capital is a strong contributor to economic and social development.…

  18. Privatization and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    After two centuries of public higher education in the United States, the covenant between public colleges and universities and the public that created and funded them is under strain. In a time of scarce resources and changing policy in many corners of the country and around the globe, privatization has emerged as a possible replacement for the…

  19. Differentially Private Frequent Subgraph Mining

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shengzhi; Xiong, Li; Cheng, Xiang; Xiao, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Mining frequent subgraphs from a collection of input graphs is an important topic in data mining research. However, if the input graphs contain sensitive information, releasing frequent subgraphs may pose considerable threats to individual's privacy. In this paper, we study the problem of frequent subgraph mining (FGM) under the rigorous differential privacy model. We introduce a novel differentially private FGM algorithm, which is referred to as DFG. In this algorithm, we first privately identify frequent subgraphs from input graphs, and then compute the noisy support of each identified frequent subgraph. In particular, to privately identify frequent subgraphs, we present a frequent subgraph identification approach which can improve the utility of frequent subgraph identifications through candidates pruning. Moreover, to compute the noisy support of each identified frequent subgraph, we devise a lattice-based noisy support derivation approach, where a series of methods has been proposed to improve the accuracy of the noisy supports. Through formal privacy analysis, we prove that our DFG algorithm satisfies ε-differential privacy. Extensive experimental results on real datasets show that the DFG algorithm can privately find frequent subgraphs with high data utility. PMID:27616876

  20. Public vs. Private (and beyond)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliniak, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Different types of schools make for different experiences. Pros and cons abound, whether one teaches at a public, private, magnet, or charter school. Although it's certainly true that some individual schools may offer better environments for music education than others, no type of school is categorically the "best." Still, it can be instructive to…

  1. Michigan School Privatization Survey 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daniel J.; LaFaive, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    From April 25 through June 30, 2007, the Mackinac Center for Public Policy conducted its fifth survey of the privatization of bus, food and janitorial services among Michigan's 552 conventional public school districts. All Michigan school districts responded. In 2007, the Mackinac Center also conducted a nationwide survey of state education…

  2. Financing a Private School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    A recent National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS) survey of more than 1,200 individuals who filed financial aid forms underscores the central role financial aid plays in their ability to pursue a private education for their children. This article highlights the survey findings, demonstrating why school leaders need to thoroughly analyze…

  3. [Trust at the heart of private nursing practice].

    PubMed

    Pivot, Annie

    2013-10-01

    In order to obtain the state nursing diploma nurses must acquire a specific number of skills. Where does trust fit in? Although it is not implicit it forms the core of the nursing relationship with the patient and his or her family. This article presents the personal account of a private nurse practitioner.

  4. 38 CFR 1.514a - Disclosure to private psychologists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... patient from a private psychologist, such information in the medical record as may be pertinent may be... psychologists will be considered pertinent, although other information from the medical record may be released... GENERAL PROVISIONS Release of Information from Department of Veterans Affairs Claimant Records §...

  5. Private and Public Self-Consciousness in Clinical and Non-Clinical Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Patricia Ann; Deluty, Robert H.

    1987-01-01

    Explored private and public self-consciousness as measured by two subscales of Self-Consciousness Scale. Results from study of 60 college students support assumption that private and public subscales measure relatively stable traits. Psychiatric patient subjects (N=120) in second study differed from undergraduates in first study in strength of…

  6. Students' Futures as Investments: The Promise and Challenges of Income-Share Agreements. AEI Series on Private Financing in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Income-share agreements (ISAs) are an emerging idea for helping students pay for college. Under an ISA, investors provide upfront sums of money toward students' college tuition and other associated costs in exchange for a fixed percentage of the recipients' earnings after graduation. This paper--the first in a series examining private financing in…

  7. Gender pay gap and employment sector: sources of earnings disparities in the United States, 1970-2010.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Hadas; Semyonov, Moshe

    2014-10-01

    Using data from the IPUMS-USA, the present research focuses on trends in the gender earnings gap in the United States between 1970 and 2010. The major goal of this article is to understand the sources of the convergence in men's and women's earnings in the public and private sectors as well as the stagnation of this trend in the new millennium. For this purpose, we delineate temporal changes in the role played by major sources of the gap. Several components are identified: the portion of the gap attributed to gender differences in human-capital resources; labor supply; sociodemographic attributes; occupational segregation; and the unexplained portion of the gap. The findings reveal a substantial reduction in the gross gender earnings gap in both sectors of the economy. Most of the decline is attributed to the reduction in the unexplained portion of the gap, implying a significant decline in economic discrimination against women. In contrast to discrimination, the role played by human capital and personal attributes in explaining the gender pay gap is relatively small in both sectors. Differences between the two sectors are not only in the size and pace of the reduction but also in the significance of the two major sources of the gap. Working hours have become the most important factor with respect to gender pay inequality in both sectors, although much more dominantly in the private sector. The declining gender segregation may explain the decreased impact of occupations on the gender pay gap in the private sector. In the public sector, by contrast, gender segregation still accounts for a substantial portion of the gap. The findings are discussed in light of the theoretical literature on sources of gender economic inequality and in light of the recent stagnation of the trend.

  8. Incentive Pay for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Career Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    attracting and retaining pilots and sensor operators.” This mono- graph addresses this subject using an econometric model of officer and enlisted...Incentive Pays Evaluating incentive pays requires estimates of their effect on retention and their cost. We used an econometric model of officer and...theoretical overview of how and why pilots and SOs should receive incentive pays. Additionally, the Air Force was tasked with using an econometric

  9. Continuation of NHS Pay Review body benefits all.

    PubMed

    2014-08-19

    The prospect of yet another year in which most nurses' standard of living will fall because the English government is too mean to fund a pay rise could hardly be more depressing. Last week's announcement by the Treasury that nurses will not receive a cost-of-living pay award next year - only a 1 per cent one-off payment if they are at the top of their pay band - demonstrates the lack of respect ministers have for the profession.

  10. NASA and Public-Private Partnerships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews ways to build public-private partnerships with NASA, and the many efforts that Ames Research Center is engaged in in building partnerships with private businesses, not profit organizations and universities.

  11. Privatization and the Globalization of Energy Markets

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    Discusses recent efforts at privatization in petroleum, electricity, and coal, as well as the impetus that privatization has provided in fostering the evolution of the multinational and multidimensional energy company.

  12. Education and the Private Finance Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Clive

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the development of Private Finance Initiative schemes in the United Kingdom, and reflects on how profitable opportunities for private financiers and construction companies were created at the expense of the public sector. (Contains 72 notes.)

  13. Paying for On-Patent Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Goldfield, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    In this article we propose a new approach to pricing for patent-protected (on-patent) pharmaceuticals. We describe and define limit pricing as a method for drug companies to maximize revenue for their investment by offering budget-neutral pricing to encourage early adoption by payers. Under this approach, payers are incentivized to adopt innovative but expensive drugs more quickly if drug companies provide detailed analyses of the net impact of the new pharmaceutical upon total health budgets. For payers to adopt use of a new pharmaceutical, they would require objective third-party evaluation and pharmaceutical manufacturer accountability for projected outcomes efficacy of their treatments on population health. The pay for outcomes underpinning of this approach falls within the wider aspirations of health reform. PMID:26945298

  14. Unwinding the State subsidisation of private health insurance in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Turner, Brian

    2015-10-01

    Ireland's private health insurance market provides primarily supplementary health insurance for hospital services, operating alongside a public hospital system to which residents have universal access entitlements, subject to some copayments for those without a medical card. The State subsidises the purchase of private health insurance through measures including tax relief on premiums and not charging the full economic cost for private beds in public hospitals. Furthermore, privately insured patients occupying public beds in public hospitals did not, until 2014, incur charges for such accommodation, apart from modest statutory charges. In the Budget in October 2013, a number of measures were announced that began to unwind these subsidies. Although it was initially feared that these measures would add to premium inflation, leading in turn to further discontinuation of health insurance, the evidence suggests that premium inflation has eased and take-up has stabilised, although some of this may have been due to the introduction of lifetime community rating in May 2015. Nevertheless, it would appear that the restriction on the subsidisation of private health insurance has not had a significant adverse effect on the market, while it has reduced an inequitable cross-subsidy.

  15. 49 CFR 176.90 - Private automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private automobiles. 176.90 Section 176.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 176.90 Private automobiles. A private automobile which is carrying any Class 1 (explosive)...

  16. Private quantum subsystems and quasiorthogonal operator algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levick, Jeremy; Jochym-O'Connor, Tomas; Kribs, David W.; Laflamme, Raymond; Pereira, Rajesh

    2016-03-01

    We generalize a recently discovered example of a private quantum subsystem to find private subsystems for Abelian subgroups of the n-qubit Pauli group, which exist in the absence of private subspaces. In doing so, we also connect these quantum privacy investigations with the theory of quasiorthogonal operator algebras through the use of tools from group theory and operator theory.

  17. Private vs. Public Higher Education Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamer, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Private higher education institutions are those entities owned and operated by the private sector, while public institutions are those established, supported, and controlled by a governmental agency, most often a state. Key differences exist between private and public institutions that affect budgeting in critical ways. Such differences include…

  18. An Analysis of Private School Mission Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerema, Albert J.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a study of private school mission/vision statements using content analysis. Statements from private schools in British Columbia, Canada, that provided instruction to Grade 12 students were analyzed to explore the diversity that lies within the private school sector. The concepts that emerged from the analysis were grouped into five…

  19. Private and Public Schools: Cooperation or Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denig, Stephen J.

    This papers explores the relationship between private and public schools. It challenges the assumption that competition between the private and public sectors is desirable and argues for a cooperative model in which public and private schools work together to educate children. Each sector has strengths that can help the other. These strengths…

  20. An Alternative Instrument for Private School Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Zada, D.

    2009-01-01

    Empirical studies estimating the effect of private school competition on student outcomes commonly use the share of Catholics in the local population as an instrument for private school competition. I show that this is not a valid instrument since it is endogenous to private school competition and suggest using instead the local share of Catholics…