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Sample records for private queries based

  1. Quantum private query based on single-photon interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Sheng-Wei; Sun, Ying; Lin, Song

    2016-08-01

    Quantum private query (QPQ) has become a research hotspot recently. Specially, the quantum key distribution (QKD)-based QPQ attracts lots of attention because of its practicality. Various such kind of QPQ protocols have been proposed based on different technologies of quantum communications. Single-photon interference is one of such technologies, on which the famous QKD protocol GV95 is just based. In this paper, we propose two QPQ protocols based on single-photon interference. The first one is simpler and easier to realize, and the second one is loss tolerant and flexible, and more practical than the first one. Furthermore, we analyze both the user privacy and the database privacy in the proposed protocols.

  2. QKD-based quantum private query without a failure probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Gao, Fei; Huang, Wei; Wen, QiaoYan

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present a quantum-key-distribution (QKD)-based quantum private query (QPQ) protocol utilizing single-photon signal of multiple optical pulses. It maintains the advantages of the QKD-based QPQ, i.e., easy to implement and loss tolerant. In addition, different from the situations in the previous QKD-based QPQ protocols, in our protocol, the number of the items an honest user will obtain is always one and the failure probability is always zero. This characteristic not only improves the stability (in the sense that, ignoring the noise and the attack, the protocol would always succeed), but also benefits the privacy of the database (since the database will no more reveal additional secrets to the honest users). Furthermore, for the user's privacy, the proposed protocol is cheat sensitive, and for security of the database, we obtain an upper bound for the leaked information of the database in theory.

  3. Relativistic quantum private database queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Si-Jia; Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhang, Ming-Ou

    2015-04-01

    Recently, Jakobi et al. (Phys Rev A 83, 022301, 2011) suggested the first practical private database query protocol (J-protocol) based on the Scarani et al. (Phys Rev Lett 92, 057901, 2004) quantum key distribution protocol. Unfortunately, the J-protocol is just a cheat-sensitive private database query protocol. In this paper, we present an idealized relativistic quantum private database query protocol based on Minkowski causality and the properties of quantum information. Also, we prove that the protocol is secure in terms of the user security and the database security.

  4. Practical private database queries based on a quantum-key-distribution protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Jakobi, Markus; Simon, Christoph; Gisin, Nicolas; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Branciard, Cyril; Walenta, Nino; Zbinden, Hugo

    2011-02-15

    Private queries allow a user, Alice, to learn an element of a database held by a provider, Bob, without revealing which element she is interested in, while limiting her information about the other elements. We propose to implement private queries based on a quantum-key-distribution protocol, with changes only in the classical postprocessing of the key. This approach makes our scheme both easy to implement and loss tolerant. While unconditionally secure private queries are known to be impossible, we argue that an interesting degree of security can be achieved by relying on fundamental physical principles instead of unverifiable security assumptions in order to protect both the user and the database. We think that the scope exists for such practical private queries to become another remarkable application of quantum information in the footsteps of quantum key distribution.

  5. Enhancing user privacy in SARG04-based private database query protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fang; Qiu, Daowen; Situ, Haozhen; Wang, Xiaoming; Long, Shun

    2015-11-01

    The well-known SARG04 protocol can be used in a private query application to generate an oblivious key. By usage of the key, the user can retrieve one out of N items from a database without revealing which one he/she is interested in. However, the existing SARG04-based private query protocols are vulnerable to the attacks of faked data from the database since in its canonical form, the SARG04 protocol lacks means for one party to defend attacks from the other. While such attacks can cause significant loss of user privacy, a variant of the SARG04 protocol is proposed in this paper with new mechanisms designed to help the user protect its privacy in private query applications. In the protocol, it is the user who starts the session with the database, trying to learn from it bits of a raw key in an oblivious way. An honesty test is used to detect a cheating database who had transmitted faked data. The whole private query protocol has O( N) communication complexity for conveying at least N encrypted items. Compared with the existing SARG04-based protocols, it is efficient in communication for per-bit learning.

  6. Novel classical post-processing for quantum key distribution-based quantum private query

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Liu, Zhi-Chao; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Cao, Wei-Feng; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min

    2016-09-01

    Existing classical post-processing (CPP) schemes for quantum key distribution (QKD)-based quantum private queries (QPQs) including the kN→ N, N→ N, and rM→ N ones have been found imperfect in terms of communication efficiency and security. In this paper, we propose a novel CPP scheme for QKD-based QPQs. The proposed CPP scheme reduces the communication complexity and improves the security of QKD-based QPQ protocols largely. Furthermore, the proposed CPP scheme can provide a multi-bit query efficiently.

  7. Practical quantum private query of blocks based on unbalanced-state Bennett-Brassard-1984 quantum-key-distribution protocol

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chun-Yan; Gao, Fei; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Wang, Tian-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Until now, the only kind of practical quantum private query (QPQ), quantum-key-distribution (QKD)-based QPQ, focuses on the retrieval of a single bit. In fact, meaningful message is generally composed of multiple adjacent bits (i.e., a multi-bit block). To obtain a message from database, the user Alice has to query l times to get each ai. In this condition, the server Bob could gain Alice's privacy once he obtains the address she queried in any of the l queries, since each ai contributes to the message Alice retrieves. Apparently, the longer the retrieved message is, the worse the user privacy becomes. To solve this problem, via an unbalanced-state technique and based on a variant of multi-level BB84 protocol, we present a protocol for QPQ of blocks, which allows the user to retrieve a multi-bit block from database in one query. Our protocol is somewhat like the high-dimension version of the first QKD-based QPQ protocol proposed by Jacobi et al., but some nontrivial modifications are necessary. PMID:25518810

  8. Practical quantum private query of blocks based on unbalanced-state Bennett-Brassard-1984 quantum-key-distribution protocol.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chun-Yan; Gao, Fei; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Wang, Tian-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Until now, the only kind of practical quantum private query (QPQ), quantum-key-distribution (QKD)-based QPQ, focuses on the retrieval of a single bit. In fact, meaningful message is generally composed of multiple adjacent bits (i.e., a multi-bit block). To obtain a message a1a2···al from database, the user Alice has to query l times to get each ai. In this condition, the server Bob could gain Alice's privacy once he obtains the address she queried in any of the l queries, since each a(i) contributes to the message Alice retrieves. Apparently, the longer the retrieved message is, the worse the user privacy becomes. To solve this problem, via an unbalanced-state technique and based on a variant of multi-level BB84 protocol, we present a protocol for QPQ of blocks, which allows the user to retrieve a multi-bit block from database in one query. Our protocol is somewhat like the high-dimension version of the first QKD-based QPQ protocol proposed by Jacobi et al., but some nontrivial modifications are necessary. PMID:25518810

  9. Practical Quantum Private Database Queries Based on Passive Round-Robin Differential Phase-shift Quantum Key Distribution.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Yang, Yu-Guang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min

    2016-01-01

    A novel quantum private database query protocol is proposed, based on passive round-robin differential phase-shift quantum key distribution. Compared with previous quantum private database query protocols, the present protocol has the following unique merits: (i) the user Alice can obtain one and only one key bit so that both the efficiency and security of the present protocol can be ensured, and (ii) it does not require to change the length difference of the two arms in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and just chooses two pulses passively to interfere with so that it is much simpler and more practical. The present protocol is also proved to be secure in terms of the user security and database security. PMID:27539654

  10. Practical Quantum Private Database Queries Based on Passive Round-Robin Differential Phase-shift Quantum Key Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Yang, Yu-Guang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min

    2016-08-01

    A novel quantum private database query protocol is proposed, based on passive round-robin differential phase-shift quantum key distribution. Compared with previous quantum private database query protocols, the present protocol has the following unique merits: (i) the user Alice can obtain one and only one key bit so that both the efficiency and security of the present protocol can be ensured, and (ii) it does not require to change the length difference of the two arms in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and just chooses two pulses passively to interfere with so that it is much simpler and more practical. The present protocol is also proved to be secure in terms of the user security and database security.

  11. Practical Quantum Private Database Queries Based on Passive Round-Robin Differential Phase-shift Quantum Key Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Yang, Yu-Guang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min

    2016-01-01

    A novel quantum private database query protocol is proposed, based on passive round-robin differential phase-shift quantum key distribution. Compared with previous quantum private database query protocols, the present protocol has the following unique merits: (i) the user Alice can obtain one and only one key bit so that both the efficiency and security of the present protocol can be ensured, and (ii) it does not require to change the length difference of the two arms in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and just chooses two pulses passively to interfere with so that it is much simpler and more practical. The present protocol is also proved to be secure in terms of the user security and database security. PMID:27539654

  12. Experimental quantum private queries with linear optics

    SciTech Connect

    De Martini, Francesco; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth; Maccone, Lorenzo; Nagali, Eleonora; Sansoni, Linda; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2009-07-15

    The quantum private query is a quantum cryptographic protocol to recover information from a database, preserving both user and data privacy: the user can test whether someone has retained information on which query was asked and the database provider can test the amount of information released. Here we discuss a variant of the quantum private query algorithm that admits a simple linear optical implementation: it employs the photon's momentum (or time slot) as address qubits and its polarization as bus qubit. A proof-of-principle experimental realization is implemented.

  13. Flexible Phrase Based Query Handling Algorithms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbur, W. John; Kim, Won

    2001-01-01

    Flexibility in query handling can be important if one types a search engine query that is misspelled, contains terms not in the database, or requires knowledge of a controlled vocabulary. Presents results of experiments that suggest the optimal form of similarity functions that are applicable to the task of phrase based retrieval to find either…

  14. Performing private database queries in a real-world environment using a quantum protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Philip; Lucio-Martinez, Itzel; Mo, Xiaofan; Simon, Christoph; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2014-06-01

    In the well-studied cryptographic primitive 1-out-of-N oblivious transfer, a user retrieves a single element from a database of size N without the database learning which element was retrieved. While it has previously been shown that a secure implementation of 1-out-of-N oblivious transfer is impossible against arbitrarily powerful adversaries, recent research has revealed an interesting class of private query protocols based on quantum mechanics in a cheat sensitive model. Specifically, a practical protocol does not need to guarantee that the database provider cannot learn what element was retrieved if doing so carries the risk of detection. The latter is sufficient motivation to keep a database provider honest. However, none of the previously proposed protocols could cope with noisy channels. Here we present a fault-tolerant private query protocol, in which the novel error correction procedure is integral to the security of the protocol. Furthermore, we present a proof-of-concept demonstration of the protocol over a deployed fibre.

  15. Spatial information semantic query based on SPARQL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhifeng; Huang, Lei; Zhai, Xiaofang

    2009-10-01

    How can the efficiency of spatial information inquiries be enhanced in today's fast-growing information age? We are rich in geospatial data but poor in up-to-date geospatial information and knowledge that are ready to be accessed by public users. This paper adopts an approach for querying spatial semantic by building an Web Ontology language(OWL) format ontology and introducing SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language(SPARQL) to search spatial semantic relations. It is important to establish spatial semantics that support for effective spatial reasoning for performing semantic query. Compared to earlier keyword-based and information retrieval techniques that rely on syntax, we use semantic approaches in our spatial queries system. Semantic approaches need to be developed by ontology, so we use OWL to describe spatial information extracted by the large-scale map of Wuhan. Spatial information expressed by ontology with formal semantics is available to machines for processing and to people for understanding. The approach is illustrated by introducing a case study for using SPARQL to query geo-spatial ontology instances of Wuhan. The paper shows that making use of SPARQL to search OWL ontology instances can ensure the result's accuracy and applicability. The result also indicates constructing a geo-spatial semantic query system has positive efforts on forming spatial query and retrieval.

  16. Practical quantum private query with better performance in resisting joint-measurement attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chun-Yan; Wang, Tian-Yin; Gao, Fei

    2016-04-01

    As a kind of practical protocol, quantum-key-distribution (QKD)-based quantum private queries (QPQs) have drawn lots of attention. However, joint-measurement (JM) attack poses a noticeable threat to the database security in such protocols. That is, by JM attack a malicious user can illegally elicit many more items from the database than the average amount an honest one can obtain. Taking Jacobi et al.'s protocol as an example, by JM attack a malicious user can obtain as many as 500 bits, instead of the expected 2.44 bits, from a 104-bit database in one query. It is a noticeable security flaw in theory, and would also arise in application with the development of quantum memories. To solve this problem, we propose a QPQ protocol based on a two-way QKD scheme, which behaves much better in resisting JM attack. Concretely, the user Alice cannot get more database items by conducting JM attack on the qubits because she has to send them back to Bob (the database holder) before knowing which of them should be jointly measured. Furthermore, JM attack by both Alice and Bob would be detected with certain probability, which is quite different from previous protocols. Moreover, our protocol retains the good characters of QKD-based QPQs, e.g., it is loss tolerant and robust against quantum memory attack.

  17. Spatial relation query based on geographic ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Chong; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Si, Wangli; Liu, Bao; Zhang, Dapeng

    2010-11-01

    The description of a spatial relation is the reflection of human's cognition of spatial objects. It is not only affected by topology and metric, but also affected by geographic semantics, such as the categories of geographic entities and contexts. Currently, the researches about language aspects of spatial relations mostly focus on natural-language formalization, parsing of query sentences, and natural-language query interface. However, geographic objects are not simple geometric points, lines or polygons. In order to get a sound answer according with human cognition in spatial relation queries, we have to take geographic semantics into account. In this paper, the functions of natural-language spatial terms are designed based on previous work on natural-language formalization and human-subject tests. Then, the paper builds a geographic knowledge base based on geographic ontology using Protégé for discriminating geographic semantics. Finally, using the geographic knowledge in the knowledge base, a prototype of a query system is implemented on GIS platform.

  18. MPEG-7 multimedia-based query format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wo

    2006-08-01

    Searching multimedia content for image, audio, and video is getting more attention especially for personal media content due to the affordability of consumer electronic devices such as MP3 recordable players, digital cameras, DV camcorders, and well-integrated smart phones. The precise search and retrieval of the content derived from these devices can be a very challenging task. Many leading edge search engine vendors have been applying sophisticated and advanced indexing and retrieval techniques on various text-based document formats, but when it comes to retrieving multimedia content, searching based on the media clip filename is the most common practice. As a result, there is an imprecise and ineffective user experience for searching multimedia content. This paper presents a new development underway from a joint effort between International Organization for Standardization (ISO)/International Electrotechnial Commission (IEC) Subcommittee (SC) 29 Working Group (WG) 11 MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) and WG1 JPEG (Joint Picture Experts Group) for a universal standard query format called MPEG-7 Query Format (MP7QF) as a means to enable a good user experience for consumers searching multimedia content. It also provides the industry with a unified way to accept and respond to user queries. This paper presents the core requirements for such a universal query format.

  19. SPARQL Query Re-writing Using Partonomy Based Transformation Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Prateek; Yeh, Peter Z.; Verma, Kunal; Henson, Cory A.; Sheth, Amit P.

    Often the information present in a spatial knowledge base is represented at a different level of granularity and abstraction than the query constraints. For querying ontology's containing spatial information, the precise relationships between spatial entities has to be specified in the basic graph pattern of SPARQL query which can result in long and complex queries. We present a novel approach to help users intuitively write SPARQL queries to query spatial data, rather than relying on knowledge of the ontology structure. Our framework re-writes queries, using transformation rules to exploit part-whole relations between geographical entities to address the mismatches between query constraints and knowledge base. Our experiments were performed on completely third party datasets and queries. Evaluations were performed on Geonames dataset using questions from National Geographic Bee serialized into SPARQL and British Administrative Geography Ontology using questions from a popular trivia website. These experiments demonstrate high precision in retrieval of results and ease in writing queries.

  20. Enabling Ontology Based Semantic Queries in Biomedical Database Systems.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shuai; Wang, Fusheng; Lu, James; Saltz, Joel

    2012-01-01

    While current biomedical ontology repositories offer primitive query capabilities, it is difficult or cumbersome to support ontology based semantic queries directly in semantically annotated biomedical databases. The problem may be largely attributed to the mismatch between the models of the ontologies and the databases, and the mismatch between the query interfaces of the two systems. To fully realize semantic query capabilities based on ontologies, we develop a system DBOntoLink to provide unified semantic query interfaces by extending database query languages. With DBOntoLink, semantic queries can be directly and naturally specified as extended functions of the database query languages without any programming needed. DBOntoLink is adaptable to different ontologies through customizations and supports major biomedical ontologies hosted at the NCBO BioPortal. We demonstrate the use of DBOntoLink in a real world biomedical database with semantically annotated medical image annotations. PMID:23404054

  1. EHR query language (EQL)--a query language for archetype-based health records.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunlan; Frankel, Heath; Beale, Thomas; Heard, Sam

    2007-01-01

    OpenEHR specifications have been developed to standardise the representation of an international electronic health record (EHR). The language used for querying EHR data is not as yet part of the specification. To fill in this gap, Ocean Informatics has developed a query language currently known as EHR Query Language (EQL), a declarative language supporting queries on EHR data. EQL is neutral to EHR systems, programming languages and system environments and depends only on the openEHR archetype model and semantics. Thus, in principle, EQL can be used in any archetype-based computational context. In the EHR context described here, particular queries mention concepts from the openEHR EHR Reference Model (RM). EQL can be used as a common query language for disparate archetype-based applications. The use of a common RM, archetypes, and a companion query language, such as EQL, semantic interoperability of EHR information is much closer. This paper introduces the EQL syntax and provides example clinical queries to illustrate the syntax. Finally, current implementations and future directions are outlined.

  2. Controllable quantum private queries using an entangled Fibonacci-sequence spiral source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hong; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Pieprzyk, Josef; Xiao, Jinghua; Xue, Liyin; Jia, Zhongtian

    2015-10-01

    By changing the initial values in entangled Fibonacci-sequence spiral sources in Simon et al.'s (2013) experimental setup [13], we propose a controllable quantum private query protocol. Moreover, our protocol achieves flexible key expansion and even exhibits secure advantages during communications because of the following observations. We observe the close relationships between Lucas numbers and the first kind of Chebyshev maps, and the Chebyshev maps and k-Chebyshev maps; by adjusting the parameter m in k-Chebyshev maps, Alice and Bob can obtain their expected values of the key blocks and database respectively.

  3. Model-based query language for analyzing clinical processes.

    PubMed

    Barzdins, Janis; Barzdins, Juris; Rencis, Edgars; Sostaks, Agris

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays large databases of clinical process data exist in hospitals. However, these data are rarely used in full scope. In order to perform queries on hospital processes, one must either choose from the predefined queries or develop queries using MS Excel-type software system, which is not always a trivial task. In this paper we propose a new query language for analyzing clinical processes that is easily perceptible also by non-IT professionals. We develop this language based on a process modeling language which is also described in this paper. Prototypes of both languages have already been verified using real examples from hospitals.

  4. Autojoin: A Simple Rule Based Query Service for Complex Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, N. I.; Gardner, L.; Brandt, M.

    Most databases used today are no longer flat. While the power of using these more complex data stores is well known, construction of queries can be quite a complex task. Currently this often requires detailed knowledge of the database structure and schema. As we move towards a VO paradigm, users cannot be expected to know the structure of databases, but will need to query them. Databases will need to provide query engines to complete queries automatically given only what the user wants to have returned and any qualifications they place on the query. For years StarView, a database query and data retrieval tool for the Space Telescope Science Institute, relied on a complex third party LISP-based program (QUICK) to construct valid SQL queries for the one database it could query. This limited our ability to support StarView as we could not easily add new rules to the system without completely rebuilding the query engine. Furthermore, QUICK did not have the ability to create SQL that would join tables in different databases (but hosted on the same server). Finally, the cost of upgrading to a new version of QUICK was prohibitively high. Our solution was to develop a rather simple database table driven Perl CGI program which is able to take as its input a skeleton SQL program. This may come from a program or other web page. In the query only the SELECT and user qualified WHERE clause are specified; no FROM or WHERE clause join information is included. The service then returns a fully qualified and syntactically correct query for the host database SQL program that can be used to get the information the user needs. Thus, an additional layer of abstraction for dealing with databases is created, freeing the user from having to know how tables are related in the database. In this paper we discuss the design and algorithm used to make Autojoin work as well as discuss how, when combined with a robust and searchable description of all the fields that can be publicly queried in

  5. Concept-based query language approach to enterprise information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, Timo; Junkkari, Marko; Järvelin, Kalervo

    2014-01-01

    In enterprise information systems (EISs) it is necessary to model, integrate and compute very diverse data. In advanced EISs the stored data often are based both on structured (e.g. relational) and semi-structured (e.g. XML) data models. In addition, the ad hoc information needs of end-users may require the manipulation of data-oriented (structural), behavioural and deductive aspects of data. Contemporary languages capable of treating this kind of diversity suit only persons with good programming skills. In this paper we present a concept-oriented query language approach to manipulate this diversity so that the programming skill requirements are considerably reduced. In our query language, the features which need technical knowledge are hidden in application-specific concepts and structures. Therefore, users need not be aware of the underlying technology. Application-specific concepts and structures are represented by the modelling primitives of the extended RDOOM (relational deductive object-oriented modelling) which contains primitives for all crucial real world relationships (is-a relationship, part-of relationship, association), XML documents and views. Our query language also supports intensional and extensional-intensional queries, in addition to conventional extensional queries. In its query formulation, the end-user combines available application-specific concepts and structures through shared variables.

  6. Evaluation methodology for query-based scene understanding systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huster, Todd P.; Ross, Timothy D.; Culbertson, Jared L.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we are proposing a method for the principled evaluation of scene understanding systems in a query-based framework. We can think of a query-based scene understanding system as a generalization of typical sensor exploitation systems where instead of performing a narrowly defined task (e.g., detect, track, classify, etc.), the system can perform general user-defined tasks specified in a query language. Examples of this type of system have been developed as part of DARPA's Mathematics of Sensing, Exploitation, and Execution (MSEE) program. There is a body of literature on the evaluation of typical sensor exploitation systems, but the open-ended nature of the query interface introduces new aspects to the evaluation problem that have not been widely considered before. In this paper, we state the evaluation problem and propose an approach to efficiently learn about the quality of the system under test. We consider the objective of the evaluation to be to build a performance model of the system under test, and we rely on the principles of Bayesian experiment design to help construct and select optimal queries for learning about the parameters of that model.

  7. Ontology-based geospatial data query and integration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhao, T.; Zhang, C.; Wei, M.; Peng, Z.-R.

    2008-01-01

    Geospatial data sharing is an increasingly important subject as large amount of data is produced by a variety of sources, stored in incompatible formats, and accessible through different GIS applications. Past efforts to enable sharing have produced standardized data format such as GML and data access protocols such as Web Feature Service (WFS). While these standards help enabling client applications to gain access to heterogeneous data stored in different formats from diverse sources, the usability of the access is limited due to the lack of data semantics encoded in the WFS feature types. Past research has used ontology languages to describe the semantics of geospatial data but ontology-based queries cannot be applied directly to legacy data stored in databases or shapefiles, or to feature data in WFS services. This paper presents a method to enable ontology query on spatial data available from WFS services and on data stored in databases. We do not create ontology instances explicitly and thus avoid the problems of data replication. Instead, user queries are rewritten to WFS getFeature requests and SQL queries to database. The method also has the benefits of being able to utilize existing tools of databases, WFS, and GML while enabling query based on ontology semantics. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  8. An efficient query mechanism base on P2P networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Mu, Aiqin; Zhao, Defang

    2013-07-01

    How to implement the efficient query is the key problem deployed on P2P networks. This paper analyses the shortage of several query algorithm, and presents a new algorithm DDI, which means distributed searching with double indices. It discusses the popularity of documents and the linking status of the networks, and calculates the availability of the nodes in whole network, determines the route of the query process. It compares the items of time using, the quantity of requests and update information by the emulate experiments. Along with the rapid development of computer network technology, peer-to-peer (referred to as P2P) network research has gradually become mature, and it is widely used in different fields, some large P2P computing project has entered the implementation stage. At present, many more popular software systems such as Gnutella, Freenet, Napster are deployed based on P2P technology. How to achieve effective information query has become one of the key problems of P2P research.

  9. SQL level global query resolving for web based GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Huang, Fengru; Huang, Zhou; Sun, Yumei; Fang, Yu

    2007-06-01

    This paper introduced a SQL level approach to resolve global spatial query in Web based heterogeneous distributed spatial database environment. The main prohibit of this SQL level approach was its widespread compatibility and standardization. Firstly, a SQL based Equivalent Distributed Program (EDP) was introduced to express distributed spatial processing transactions. Then global resource directories for virtual global view describing were discussed to organize information that resolving need. The contents of global resource directories included data storage directory, hosts directory and working status directory. With these mechanisms, relational algebra expression equivalence principles were utilized to resolve global spatial queries to EDPs. Finally, several samples were presented to show the process of resolving. This approach was suitable to all sorts of distributed computing environments either centralized such as CORBA or decentralized such as P2P computing platforms.

  10. Skyline Query Processing in Sensor Network Based on Data Centric Storage

    PubMed Central

    Song, Seokil; Kwak, Yunsik; Lee, Seokhee

    2011-01-01

    Data centric storages for sensor networks have been proposed to efficiently process multi-dimensional range queries as well as exact matches. Usually, a sensor network does not process only one type of the query, but processes various types of queries such as range queries, exact matches and skyline queries. Therefore, a sensor network based on a data centric storage for range queries and exact matches should process skyline queries efficiently. However, existing algorithms for skyline queries have not considered the features of data centric storages. Some of the data centric storages store similar data in sensor nodes that are placed on geographically similar locations. Consequently, all data are ordered in a sensor network. In this paper, we propose a new skyline query processing algorithm that exploits the above features of data centric storages. PMID:22346642

  11. Multiple Query Evaluation Based on an Enhanced Genetic Algorithm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamine, Lynda; Chrisment, Claude; Boughanem, Mohand

    2003-01-01

    Explains the use of genetic algorithms to combine results from multiple query evaluations to improve relevance in information retrieval. Discusses niching techniques, relevance feedback techniques, and evolution heuristics, and compares retrieval results obtained by both genetic multiple query evaluation and classical single query evaluation…

  12. Does Query Expansion Limit Our Learning? A Comparison of Social-Based Expansion to Content-Based Expansion for Medical Queries on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Pentoney, Christopher; Harwell, Jeff; Leroy, Gondy

    2014-01-01

    Searching for medical information online is a common activity. While it has been shown that forming good queries is difficult, Google’s query suggestion tool, a type of query expansion, aims to facilitate query formation. However, it is unknown how this expansion, which is based on what others searched for, affects the information gathering of the online community. To measure the impact of social-based query expansion, this study compared it with content-based expansion, i.e., what is really in the text. We used 138,906 medical queries from the AOL User Session Collection and expanded them using Google’s Autocomplete method (social-based) and the content of the Google Web Corpus (content-based). We evaluated the specificity and ambiguity of the expansion terms for trigram queries. We also looked at the impact on the actual results using domain diversity and expansion edit distance. Results showed that the social-based method provided more precise expansion terms as well as terms that were less ambiguous. Expanded queries do not differ significantly in diversity when expanded using the social-based method (6.72 different domains returned in the first ten results, on average) vs. content-based method (6.73 different domains, on average). PMID:25954406

  13. Does query expansion limit our learning? A comparison of social-based expansion to content-based expansion for medical queries on the internet.

    PubMed

    Pentoney, Christopher; Harwell, Jeff; Leroy, Gondy

    2014-01-01

    Searching for medical information online is a common activity. While it has been shown that forming good queries is difficult, Google's query suggestion tool, a type of query expansion, aims to facilitate query formation. However, it is unknown how this expansion, which is based on what others searched for, affects the information gathering of the online community. To measure the impact of social-based query expansion, this study compared it with content-based expansion, i.e., what is really in the text. We used 138,906 medical queries from the AOL User Session Collection and expanded them using Google's Autocomplete method (social-based) and the content of the Google Web Corpus (content-based). We evaluated the specificity and ambiguity of the expansion terms for trigram queries. We also looked at the impact on the actual results using domain diversity and expansion edit distance. Results showed that the social-based method provided more precise expansion terms as well as terms that were less ambiguous. Expanded queries do not differ significantly in diversity when expanded using the social-based method (6.72 different domains returned in the first ten results, on average) vs. content-based method (6.73 different domains, on average).

  14. Geometry-Based Distributed Spatial Skyline Queries in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Song, Baoyan; Wang, Junlu; Zhang, Li; Wang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Algorithms for skyline querying based on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been widely used in the field of environmental monitoring. Because of the multi-dimensional nature of the problem of monitoring spatial position, traditional skyline query strategies cause enormous computational costs and energy consumption. To ensure the efficient use of sensor energy, a geometry-based distributed spatial query strategy (GDSSky) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the paper presents a geometry-based region partition strategy. It uses the skyline area reduction method based on the convex hull vertices, to quickly query the spatial skyline data related to a specific query area, and proposes a regional partition strategy based on the triangulation method, to implement distributed queries in each sub-region and reduce the comparison times between nodes. Secondly, a sub-region clustering strategy is designed to group the data inside into clusters for parallel queries that can save time. Finally, the paper presents a distributed query strategy based on the data node tree to traverse all adjacent sensors' monitoring locations. It conducts spatial skyline queries for spatial skyline data that have been obtained and not found respectively, so as to realize the parallel queries. A large number of simulation results shows that GDSSky can quickly return the places which are nearer to query locations and have larger pollution capacity, and significantly reduce the WSN energy consumption. PMID:27043563

  15. Geometry-Based Distributed Spatial Skyline Queries in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Song, Baoyan; Wang, Junlu; Zhang, Li; Wang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Algorithms for skyline querying based on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been widely used in the field of environmental monitoring. Because of the multi-dimensional nature of the problem of monitoring spatial position, traditional skyline query strategies cause enormous computational costs and energy consumption. To ensure the efficient use of sensor energy, a geometry-based distributed spatial query strategy (GDSSky) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the paper presents a geometry-based region partition strategy. It uses the skyline area reduction method based on the convex hull vertices, to quickly query the spatial skyline data related to a specific query area, and proposes a regional partition strategy based on the triangulation method, to implement distributed queries in each sub-region and reduce the comparison times between nodes. Secondly, a sub-region clustering strategy is designed to group the data inside into clusters for parallel queries that can save time. Finally, the paper presents a distributed query strategy based on the data node tree to traverse all adjacent sensors’ monitoring locations. It conducts spatial skyline queries for spatial skyline data that have been obtained and not found respectively, so as to realize the parallel queries. A large number of simulation results shows that GDSSky can quickly return the places which are nearer to query locations and have larger pollution capacity, and significantly reduce the WSN energy consumption. PMID:27043563

  16. Geometry-Based Distributed Spatial Skyline Queries in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Song, Baoyan; Wang, Junlu; Zhang, Li; Wang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Algorithms for skyline querying based on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been widely used in the field of environmental monitoring. Because of the multi-dimensional nature of the problem of monitoring spatial position, traditional skyline query strategies cause enormous computational costs and energy consumption. To ensure the efficient use of sensor energy, a geometry-based distributed spatial query strategy (GDSSky) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the paper presents a geometry-based region partition strategy. It uses the skyline area reduction method based on the convex hull vertices, to quickly query the spatial skyline data related to a specific query area, and proposes a regional partition strategy based on the triangulation method, to implement distributed queries in each sub-region and reduce the comparison times between nodes. Secondly, a sub-region clustering strategy is designed to group the data inside into clusters for parallel queries that can save time. Finally, the paper presents a distributed query strategy based on the data node tree to traverse all adjacent sensors' monitoring locations. It conducts spatial skyline queries for spatial skyline data that have been obtained and not found respectively, so as to realize the parallel queries. A large number of simulation results shows that GDSSky can quickly return the places which are nearer to query locations and have larger pollution capacity, and significantly reduce the WSN energy consumption.

  17. Medical case-based retrieval: integrating query MeSH terms for query-adaptive multi-modal fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seco de Herrera, Alba G.; Foncubierta-Rodríguez, Antonio; Müller, Henning

    2015-03-01

    Advances in medical knowledge give clinicians more objective information for a diagnosis. Therefore, there is an increasing need for bibliographic search engines that can provide services helping to facilitate faster information search. The ImageCLEFmed benchmark proposes a medical case-based retrieval task. This task aims at retrieving articles from the biomedical literature that are relevant for differential diagnosis of query cases including a textual description and several images. In the context of this campaign many approaches have been investigated showing that the fusion of visual and text information can improve the precision of the retrieval. However, fusion does not always lead to better results. In this paper, a new query-adaptive fusion criterion to decide when to use multi-modal (text and visual) or only text approaches is presented. The proposed method integrates text information contained in MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms extracted and visual features of the images to find synonym relations between them. Given a text query, the query-adaptive fusion criterion decides when it is suitable to also use visual information for the retrieval. Results show that this approach can decide if a text or multi{modal approach should be used with 77.15% of accuracy.

  18. Knowledge-Based Query Construction Using the CDSS Knowledge Base for Efficient Evidence Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad; Hussain, Maqbool; Ali, Taqdir; Hussain, Jamil; Khan, Wajahat Ali; Lee, Sungyoung; Kang, Byeong Ho

    2015-08-28

    Finding appropriate evidence to support clinical practices is always challenging, and the construction of a query to retrieve such evidence is a fundamental step. Typically, evidence is found using manual or semi-automatic methods, which are time-consuming and sometimes make it difficult to construct knowledge-based complex queries. To overcome the difficulty in constructing knowledge-based complex queries, we utilized the knowledge base (KB) of the clinical decision support system (CDSS), which has the potential to provide sufficient contextual information. To automatically construct knowledge-based complex queries, we designed methods to parse rule structure in KB of CDSS in order to determine an executable path and extract the terms by parsing the control structures and logic connectives used in the logic. The automatically constructed knowledge-based complex queries were executed on the PubMed search service to evaluate the results on the reduction of retrieved citations with high relevance. The average number of citations was reduced from 56,249 citations to 330 citations with the knowledge-based query construction approach, and relevance increased from 1 term to 6 terms on average. The ability to automatically retrieve relevant evidence maximizes efficiency for clinicians in terms of time, based on feedback collected from clinicians. This approach is generally useful in evidence-based medicine, especially in ambient assisted living environments where automation is highly important.

  19. Knowledge-Based Query Construction Using the CDSS Knowledge Base for Efficient Evidence Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Afzal, Muhammad; Hussain, Maqbool; Ali, Taqdir; Hussain, Jamil; Khan, Wajahat Ali; Lee, Sungyoung; Kang, Byeong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Finding appropriate evidence to support clinical practices is always challenging, and the construction of a query to retrieve such evidence is a fundamental step. Typically, evidence is found using manual or semi-automatic methods, which are time-consuming and sometimes make it difficult to construct knowledge-based complex queries. To overcome the difficulty in constructing knowledge-based complex queries, we utilized the knowledge base (KB) of the clinical decision support system (CDSS), which has the potential to provide sufficient contextual information. To automatically construct knowledge-based complex queries, we designed methods to parse rule structure in KB of CDSS in order to determine an executable path and extract the terms by parsing the control structures and logic connectives used in the logic. The automatically constructed knowledge-based complex queries were executed on the PubMed search service to evaluate the results on the reduction of retrieved citations with high relevance. The average number of citations was reduced from 56,249 citations to 330 citations with the knowledge-based query construction approach, and relevance increased from 1 term to 6 terms on average. The ability to automatically retrieve relevant evidence maximizes efficiency for clinicians in terms of time, based on feedback collected from clinicians. This approach is generally useful in evidence-based medicine, especially in ambient assisted living environments where automation is highly important. PMID:26343669

  20. Query Language for Location-Based Services: A Model Checking Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoareau, Christian; Satoh, Ichiro

    We present a model checking approach to the rationale, implementation, and applications of a query language for location-based services. Such query mechanisms are necessary so that users, objects, and/or services can effectively benefit from the location-awareness of their surrounding environment. The underlying data model is founded on a symbolic model of space organized in a tree structure. Once extended to a semantic model for modal logic, we regard location query processing as a model checking problem, and thus define location queries as hybrid logicbased formulas. Our approach is unique to existing research because it explores the connection between location models and query processing in ubiquitous computing systems, relies on a sound theoretical basis, and provides modal logic-based query mechanisms for expressive searches over a decentralized data structure. A prototype implementation is also presented and will be discussed.

  1. Query-handling in MLM-based decision support systems.

    PubMed

    Arkad, K; Gao, X M; Ahlfeldt, H

    1995-01-01

    Arden Syntax for Medical Logic Modules is a standard specification for creation and sharing of knowledge bases. The standard specification focuses on knowledge that can be represented as a set of independent Medical Logic Modules (MLMs) such as rules, formulas and protocols. The basic functions of an MLM are to retrieve patient data, manipulate the data, come to some decision, and possibly perform an action. All connections to the world outside an MLM are collected in the data-slot of the MLM. The institution specific parts of these connections are inside the notation of curly brackets ([]) to facilitate sharing of MLM between institutions. This paper focuses on some of the problems that occur in relation to Arden Syntax and connections to a patient database such as database queries. Problems related to possibilities of moving one or several module(s) are also discussed, with emphasis on database connections. As an example, an MLM based Decision Support System (DSS) developed at Linköping University is described. PMID:8882561

  2. Petri-net-based modeling and evaluation of pipelined processing of concurrent database queries

    SciTech Connect

    Mikkilimeni, K.P.; Chow, Y.C.; Su, S.Y.W.

    1988-11-01

    This paper describes a Petri-net-based methodology for modeling and evaluation pipelined processing of concurrent database queries in an integrated data network (IDN). An extended Petri-net model is presented to model two key approaches to concurrent data-base query processing in the IDN, namely, pipelined and data-flow-based execution of queries and intermediate data sharing among concurrent queries. Database operations are categorized, and the models for the data flow and control flow in them are presented. A general purpose Petri-net simulator has been developed using event-driven programming techniques. Using the simulator, the execution of the Petri-net models of some test queries has been simulated.

  3. a Vomr-Tree Based Parallel Range Query Method on Distributed Spatial Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Z.; Liu, S.

    2012-07-01

    Spatial index impacts upon the efficiency of spatial query seriously in distributed spatial database. In this paper, we introduce a parallel spatial range query algorithm, based on VoMR-tree index, which incorporates Voronoi diagrams into MR-tree, benefiting from the nearest neighbors. We first augments MR-tree to store the nearest neighbors and constructs the VoMR-tree index by Voronoi diagram. We then propose a novel range query algorithm based on VoMR-tree index. In processing a range query, we discuss the data partition method so that we can improve the efficiency by parallelization in distributed database. Just then a verification strategy is promoted. We show the superiority of the proposed method by extensive experiments using data sets of various sizes. The experimental results reveal that the proposed method improves the performance of range query processing up to three times in comparison with the widely-used R-tree variants.

  4. Semantic querying of relational data for clinical intelligence: a semantic web services-based approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical Intelligence, as a research and engineering discipline, is dedicated to the development of tools for data analysis for the purposes of clinical research, surveillance, and effective health care management. Self-service ad hoc querying of clinical data is one desirable type of functionality. Since most of the data are currently stored in relational or similar form, ad hoc querying is problematic as it requires specialised technical skills and the knowledge of particular data schemas. Results A possible solution is semantic querying where the user formulates queries in terms of domain ontologies that are much easier to navigate and comprehend than data schemas. In this article, we are exploring the possibility of using SADI Semantic Web services for semantic querying of clinical data. We have developed a prototype of a semantic querying infrastructure for the surveillance of, and research on, hospital-acquired infections. Conclusions Our results suggest that SADI can support ad-hoc, self-service, semantic queries of relational data in a Clinical Intelligence context. The use of SADI compares favourably with approaches based on declarative semantic mappings from data schemas to ontologies, such as query rewriting and RDFizing by materialisation, because it can easily cope with situations when (i) some computation is required to turn relational data into RDF or OWL, e.g., to implement temporal reasoning, or (ii) integration with external data sources is necessary. PMID:23497556

  5. Merging Ontology Navigation with Query Construction for Web-based Medicare Data Exploration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Cui, Licong; Teagno, Joe; Kaebler, David; Koroukian, Siran; Xu, Rong

    2013-01-01

    To enhance web-based exploration of Medicare data, we present a unique query interface merging ontology navigation with query construction, for cohort discovery based on demographics, disease classification codes, medication and other types of clinical data. Our interface seamlessly blends query construction with functions for hierarchical browsing and rendering of terms and associated codes from vocabulary systems and ontologies, such as International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). By unifying ontology navigation activities with query widget generation, a user can perform fine-tuned full boolean queries based on the substructure of the ontology, with flexibility to enable or disable subsumption-based queries. Query performance were evaluated on top disease subtypes of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services data, consisting of 5% of 2009 Limited Data Set files (inpatient and outpatient). Such interfaces will help moving the data access paradigm from a hypothesis-driven style to a data-driven one, while improving efficiency as a collective "secondary-use user community."

  6. Spatial Queries Entity Recognition and Disambiguation Using Rule-Based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzei, E.; Hakimpour, F.; Forati, A.

    2015-12-01

    In the digital world, search engines have been proposed as one of challenging research areas. One of the main issues in search engines studies is query processing, which its aim is to understand user's needs. If unsuitable spatial query processing approach is employed, the results will be associated with high degree of ambiguity. To evade such degree of ambiguity, in this paper we present a new algorithm which depends on rule-based systems to process queries. Our algorithm is implemented in the three basic steps including: deductively iterative splitting the query; finding candidates for the location names, the location types and spatial relationships; and finally checking the relationships logically and conceptually using a rule based system. As we finally present in the paper using our proposed method have two major advantages: the search engines can provide the capability of spatial analysis based on the specific process and secondly because of its disambiguation technique, user reaches the more desirable result.

  7. Symmetrically private information retrieval based on blind quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Yu, Jianping; Wang, Ping; Xu, Lingling

    2015-05-01

    Universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) is a new secure quantum computing protocol which allows a user Alice who does not have any sophisticated quantum technology to delegate her computing to a server Bob without leaking any privacy. Using the features of UBQC, we propose a protocol to achieve symmetrically private information retrieval, which allows a quantum limited Alice to query an item from Bob with a fully fledged quantum computer; meanwhile, the privacy of both parties is preserved. The security of our protocol is based on the assumption that malicious Alice has no quantum computer, which avoids the impossibility proof of Lo. For the honest Alice, she is almost classical and only requires minimal quantum resources to carry out the proposed protocol. Therefore, she does not need any expensive laboratory which can maintain the coherence of complicated quantum experimental setups.

  8. DBPQL: A view-oriented query language for the Intel Data Base Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishwick, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    An interactive query language (BDPQL) for the Intel Data Base Processor (DBP) is defined. DBPQL includes a parser generator package which permits the analyst to easily create and manipulate the query statement syntax and semantics. The prototype language, DBPQL, includes trace and performance commands to aid the analyst when implementing new commands and analyzing the execution characteristics of the DBP. The DBPQL grammar file and associated key procedures are included as an appendix to this report.

  9. Algorithms for effective querying of compound graph-based pathway databases

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Graph-based pathway ontologies and databases are widely used to represent data about cellular processes. This representation makes it possible to programmatically integrate cellular networks and to investigate them using the well-understood concepts of graph theory in order to predict their structural and dynamic properties. An extension of this graph representation, namely hierarchically structured or compound graphs, in which a member of a biological network may recursively contain a sub-network of a somehow logically similar group of biological objects, provides many additional benefits for analysis of biological pathways, including reduction of complexity by decomposition into distinct components or modules. In this regard, it is essential to effectively query such integrated large compound networks to extract the sub-networks of interest with the help of efficient algorithms and software tools. Results Towards this goal, we developed a querying framework, along with a number of graph-theoretic algorithms from simple neighborhood queries to shortest paths to feedback loops, that is applicable to all sorts of graph-based pathway databases, from PPIs (protein-protein interactions) to metabolic and signaling pathways. The framework is unique in that it can account for compound or nested structures and ubiquitous entities present in the pathway data. In addition, the queries may be related to each other through "AND" and "OR" operators, and can be recursively organized into a tree, in which the result of one query might be a source and/or target for another, to form more complex queries. The algorithms were implemented within the querying component of a new version of the software tool PATIKAweb (Pathway Analysis Tool for Integration and Knowledge Acquisition) and have proven useful for answering a number of biologically significant questions for large graph-based pathway databases. Conclusion The PATIKA Project Web site is http

  10. Evaluation of a flowchart-based EHR query system: a case study of RetroGuide.

    PubMed

    Huser, Vojtech; Narus, Scott P; Rocha, Roberto A

    2010-02-01

    Provision of query systems which are intuitive for non-experts has been recognized as an important informatics challenge. We developed a prototype of a flowchart-based analytical framework called RetroGuide that enables non-experts to formulate query tasks using a step-based, patient-centered paradigm inspired by workflow technology. We present results of the evaluation of RetroGuide in comparison to Structured Query Language (SQL) in laboratory settings using a mixed method design. We asked 18 human subjects with limited database experience to solve query tasks in RetroGuide and SQL, and quantitatively compared their test scores. A follow-up questionnaire was designed to compare both technologies qualitatively and investigate RetroGuide technology acceptance. The quantitative comparison of test scores showed that the study subjects achieved significantly higher scores using the RetroGuide technology. Qualitative study results indicated that 94% of subjects preferred RetroGuide to SQL because RetroGuide was easier to learn, it better supported temporal tasks, and it seemed to be a more logical modeling paradigm. Additional qualitative evaluation results, based on a technology acceptance model, suggested that a fully developed RetroGuide-like technology would be well accepted by users. Our study is an example of a structure validation study of a prototype query system, results of which provided significant guidance in further development of a novel query paradigm for EHR data. We discuss the strengths and weakness of our study design and results, and their implication for future evaluations of query systems in general.

  11. Infodemiology of status epilepticus: A systematic validation of the Google Trends-based search queries.

    PubMed

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Bacigaluppi, Susanna; Robba, Chiara; Nardone, Raffaele; Trinka, Eugen; Brigo, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    People increasingly use Google looking for health-related information. We previously demonstrated that in English-speaking countries most people use this search engine to obtain information on status epilepticus (SE) definition, types/subtypes, and treatment. Now, we aimed at providing a quantitative analysis of SE-related web queries. This analysis represents an advancement, with respect to what was already previously discussed, in that the Google Trends (GT) algorithm has been further refined and correlational analyses have been carried out to validate the GT-based query volumes. Google Trends-based SE-related query volumes were well correlated with information concerning causes and pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments. Google Trends can provide both researchers and clinicians with data on realities and contexts that are generally overlooked and underexplored by classic epidemiology. In this way, GT can foster new epidemiological studies in the field and can complement traditional epidemiological tools.

  12. Infodemiology of status epilepticus: A systematic validation of the Google Trends-based search queries.

    PubMed

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Bacigaluppi, Susanna; Robba, Chiara; Nardone, Raffaele; Trinka, Eugen; Brigo, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    People increasingly use Google looking for health-related information. We previously demonstrated that in English-speaking countries most people use this search engine to obtain information on status epilepticus (SE) definition, types/subtypes, and treatment. Now, we aimed at providing a quantitative analysis of SE-related web queries. This analysis represents an advancement, with respect to what was already previously discussed, in that the Google Trends (GT) algorithm has been further refined and correlational analyses have been carried out to validate the GT-based query volumes. Google Trends-based SE-related query volumes were well correlated with information concerning causes and pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments. Google Trends can provide both researchers and clinicians with data on realities and contexts that are generally overlooked and underexplored by classic epidemiology. In this way, GT can foster new epidemiological studies in the field and can complement traditional epidemiological tools. PMID:26773681

  13. Improving Concept-Based Web Image Retrieval by Mixing Semantically Similar Greek Queries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarinis, Fotis

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Image searching is a common activity for web users. Search engines offer image retrieval services based on textual queries. Previous studies have shown that web searching is more demanding when the search is not in English and does not use a Latin-based language. The aim of this paper is to explore the behaviour of the major search…

  14. Marketing Undergraduates' Attitudes towards Query-based Instructional Machines as a Possible Learning Medium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Roger; Kottasz, Rita

    2001-01-01

    Discusses Query-Based Instructional Machines (QBIM), common in museums, which are menu-driven and use touch-screens. Presents results of an investigation of student responses in a London university to the idea of incorporating QBIM instruction, exploring the influences of personal traits that might affect their attitudes as well as the impact of…

  15. Random and Directed Walk-Based Top-k Queries in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jun-Song; Liu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks, filter-based top-k query approaches are the state-of-the-art solutions and have been extensively researched in the literature, however, they are very sensitive to the network parameters, including the size of the network, dynamics of the sensors’ readings and declines in the overall range of all the readings. In this work, a random walk-based top-k query approach called RWTQ and a directed walk-based top-k query approach called DWTQ are proposed. At the beginning of a top-k query, one or several tokens are sent to the specific node(s) in the network by the base station. Then, each token walks in the network independently to record and process the readings in a random or directed way. A strategy of choosing the “right” way in DWTQ is carefully designed for the token(s) to arrive at the high-value regions as soon as possible. When designing the walking strategy for DWTQ, the spatial correlations of the readings are also considered. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that RWTQ and DWTQ both are very robust against these parameters discussed previously. In addition, DWTQ outperforms TAG, FILA and EXTOK in transmission cost, energy consumption and network lifetime. PMID:26016914

  16. Spatial query for decision support of cross-country movement. [in image-based geographic information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepner, George F.; Logan, Thomas L.; Bryant, Nevin A.

    1988-01-01

    The use of a query language processor for decision support of cross-country movement in an image-based geographic information system is evaluated. It is found that query processing yields results which are comparable to those obtained using conventional cross-country movement techniques and analysis. Query processing also provides a flexibility of information extraction, rapid display, and flexible decision support in time-critical, limited data situations.

  17. Automatic Concept-Based Query Expansion Using Term Relational Pathways Built from a Collection-Specific Association Thesaurus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyall-Wilson, Jennifer Rae

    2013-01-01

    The dissertation research explores an approach to automatic concept-based query expansion to improve search engine performance. It uses a network-based approach for identifying the concept represented by the user's query and is founded on the idea that a collection-specific association thesaurus can be used to create a reasonable representation of…

  18. Semi-automated query construction for content-based endomicroscopy video retrieval.

    PubMed

    Tafreshi, Marzieh Kohandani; Linard, Nicolas; André, Barbara; Ayache, Nicholas; Vercauteren, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Content-based video retrieval has shown promising results to help physicians in their interpretation of medical videos in general and endomicroscopic ones in particular. Defining a relevant query for CBVR can however be a complex and time-consuming task for non-expert and even expert users. Indeed, uncut endomicroscopy videos may very well contain images corresponding to a variety of different tissue types. Using such uncut videos as queries may lead to drastic performance degradations for the system. In this study, we propose a semi-automated methodology that allows the physician to create meaningful and relevant queries in a simple and efficient manner. We believe that this will lead to more reproducible and more consistent results. The validation of our method is divided into two approaches. The first one is an indirect validation based on per video classification results with histopathological ground-truth. The second one is more direct and relies on perceived inter-video visual similarity ground-truth. We demonstrate that our proposed method significantly outperforms the approach with uncut videos and approaches the performance of a tedious manual query construction by an expert. Finally, we show that the similarity perceived between videos by experts is significantly correlated with the inter-video similarity distance computed by our retrieval system.

  19. Modeling and query the uncertainty of network constrained moving objects based on RFID data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Liang; Xie, Kunqing; Ma, Xiujun; Song, Guojie

    2007-06-01

    The management of network constrained moving objects is more and more practical, especially in intelligent transportation system. In the past, the location information of moving objects on network is collected by GPS, which cost high and has the problem of frequent update and privacy. The RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) devices are used more and more widely to collect the location information. They are cheaper and have less update. And they interfere in the privacy less. They detect the id of the object and the time when moving object passed by the node of the network. They don't detect the objects' exact movement in side the edge, which lead to a problem of uncertainty. How to modeling and query the uncertainty of the network constrained moving objects based on RFID data becomes a research issue. In this paper, a model is proposed to describe the uncertainty of network constrained moving objects. A two level index is presented to provide efficient access to the network and the data of movement. The processing of imprecise time-slice query and spatio-temporal range query are studied in this paper. The processing includes four steps: spatial filter, spatial refinement, temporal filter and probability calculation. Finally, some experiments are done based on the simulated data. In the experiments the performance of the index is studied. The precision and recall of the result set are defined. And how the query arguments affect the precision and recall of the result set is also discussed.

  20. Image-based querying of urban knowledge databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Peter; Bae, Soonmin; Durand, Fredo

    2009-05-01

    We extend recent automated computer vision algorithms to reconstruct the global three-dimensional structures for photos and videos shot at fixed points in outdoor city environments. Mosaics of digital stills and embedded videos are georegistered by matching a few of their 2D features with 3D counterparts in aerial ladar imagery. Once image planes are aligned with world maps, abstract urban knowledge can propagate from the latter into the former. We project geotagged annotations from a 3D map into a 2D video stream and demonstrate their tracking buildings and streets in a clip with significant panning motion. We also present an interactive tool which enables users to select city features of interest in video frames and retrieve their geocoordinates and ranges. Implications of this work for future augmented reality systems based upon mobile smart phones are discussed.

  1. Age-Related Differences in the Accuracy of Web Query-Based Predictions of Influenza-Like Illness

    PubMed Central

    Domnich, Alexander; Panatto, Donatella; Signori, Alessio; Lai, Piero Luigi; Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Background Web queries are now widely used for modeling, nowcasting and forecasting influenza-like illness (ILI). However, given that ILI attack rates vary significantly across ages, in terms of both magnitude and timing, little is known about whether the association between ILI morbidity and ILI-related queries is comparable across different age-groups. The present study aimed to investigate features of the association between ILI morbidity and ILI-related query volume from the perspective of age. Methods Since Google Flu Trends is unavailable in Italy, Google Trends was used to identify entry terms that correlated highly with official ILI surveillance data. All-age and age-class-specific modeling was performed by means of linear models with generalized least-square estimation. Hold-out validation was used to quantify prediction accuracy. For purposes of comparison, predictions generated by exponential smoothing were computed. Results Five search terms showed high correlation coefficients of > .6. In comparison with exponential smoothing, the all-age query-based model correctly predicted the peak time and yielded a higher correlation coefficient with observed ILI morbidity (.978 vs. .929). However, query-based prediction of ILI morbidity was associated with a greater error. Age-class-specific query-based models varied significantly in terms of prediction accuracy. In the 0–4 and 25–44-year age-groups, these did well and outperformed exponential smoothing predictions; in the 15–24 and ≥ 65-year age-classes, however, the query-based models were inaccurate and highly overestimated peak height. In all but one age-class, peak timing predicted by the query-based models coincided with observed timing. Conclusions The accuracy of web query-based models in predicting ILI morbidity rates could differ among ages. Greater age-specific detail may be useful in flu query-based studies in order to account for age-specific features of the epidemiology of ILI. PMID:26011418

  2. Querying Proofs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aspinall, David; Denney, Ewen; Lueth, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    We motivate and introduce a query language PrQL designed for inspecting machine representations of proofs. PrQL natively supports hiproofs which express proof structure using hierarchical nested labelled trees. The core language presented in this paper is locally structured (first-order), with queries built using recursion and patterns over proof structure and rule names. We define the syntax and semantics of locally structured queries, demonstrate their power, and sketch some implementation experiments.

  3. Adaptation to Pronunciation Variations in Indonesian Spoken Query-Based Information Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestari, Dessi Puji; Furui, Sadaoki

    Recognition errors of proper nouns and foreign words significantly decrease the performance of ASR-based speech applications such as voice dialing systems, speech summarization, spoken document retrieval, and spoken query-based information retrieval (IR). The reason is that proper nouns and words that come from other languages are usually the most important key words. The loss of such words due to misrecognition in turn leads to a loss of significant information from the speech source. This paper focuses on how to improve the performance of Indonesian ASR by alleviating the problem of pronunciation variation of proper nouns and foreign words (English words in particular). To improve the proper noun recognition accuracy, proper-noun specific acoustic models are created by supervised adaptation using maximum likelihood linear regression (MLLR). To improve English word recognition, the pronunciation of English words contained in the lexicon is fixed by using rule-based English-to-Indonesian phoneme mapping. The effectiveness of the proposed method was confirmed through spoken query based Indonesian IR. We used Inference Network-based (IN-based) IR and compared its results with those of the classical Vector Space Model (VSM) IR, both using a tf-idf weighting schema. Experimental results show that IN-based IR outperforms VSM IR.

  4. Army technology development. IBIS query. Software to support the Image Based Information System (IBIS) expansion for mapping, charting and geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, S. Z.; Walker, R. E.; Aitken, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    The Image Based Information System (IBIS) has been under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) since 1975. It is a collection of more than 90 programs that enable processing of image, graphical, tabular data for spatial analysis. IBIS can be utilized to create comprehensive geographic data bases. From these data, an analyst can study various attributes describing characteristics of a given study area. Even complex combinations of disparate data types can be synthesized to obtain a new perspective on spatial phenomena. In 1984, new query software was developed enabling direct Boolean queries of IBIS data bases through the submission of easily understood expressions. An improved syntax methodology, a data dictionary, and display software simplified the analysts' tasks associated with building, executing, and subsequently displaying the results of a query. The primary purpose of this report is to describe the features and capabilities of the new query software. A secondary purpose of this report is to compare this new query software to the query software developed previously (Friedman, 1982). With respect to this topic, the relative merits and drawbacks of both approaches are covered.

  5. PROTICdb: a web-based application to store, track, query, and compare plant proteome data.

    PubMed

    Ferry-Dumazet, Hélène; Houel, Gwenn; Montalent, Pierre; Moreau, Luc; Langella, Olivier; Negroni, Luc; Vincent, Delphine; Lalanne, Céline; de Daruvar, Antoine; Plomion, Christophe; Zivy, Michel; Joets, Johann

    2005-05-01

    PROTICdb is a web-based application, mainly designed to store and analyze plant proteome data obtained by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) and mass spectrometry (MS). The purposes of PROTICdb are (i) to store, track, and query information related to proteomic experiments, i.e., from tissue sampling to protein identification and quantitative measurements, and (ii) to integrate information from the user's own expertise and other sources into a knowledge base, used to support data interpretation (e.g., for the determination of allelic variants or products of post-translational modifications). Data insertion into the relational database of PROTICdb is achieved either by uploading outputs of image analysis and MS identification software, or by filling web forms. 2-D PAGE annotated maps can be displayed, queried, and compared through a graphical interface. Links to external databases are also available. Quantitative data can be easily exported in a tabulated format for statistical analyses. PROTICdb is based on the Oracle or the PostgreSQL Database Management System and is freely available upon request at the following URL: http://moulon.inra.fr/ bioinfo/PROTICdb.

  6. Framing memories: How the retrieval query format shapes the neural bases of remembering.

    PubMed

    Raposo, Ana; Frade, Sofia; Alves, Mara

    2016-08-01

    The way memory questions are framed influences the information that is searched, retrieved, and monitored during remembering. This fMRI study aimed at clarifying how the format of the retrieval query shapes the neural basis of source recollection. During encoding, participants made semantic (pleasantness) or perceptual (number of letters) judgments about words. Subsequently, in a source memory test, the retrieval query was manipulated such that for half of the items from each encoding task, the retrieval query emphasized the semantic source (i.e., semantic query format: "Is this word from the pleasantness task?"), whereas for the other half the retrieval query emphasized the alternate, perceptual source (i.e., perceptual query format: "Is this word from the letter task?"). The results showed that the semantic query format was associated with higher source recognition than the perceptual query format. This behavioral advantage was accompanied by increased activation in several regions associated to controlled semantic elaboration and monitoring of internally-generated features about the past event. In particular, for items semantically encoded, the semantic query, relative to the perceptual query, induced activation in medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampal, parahippocampal and middle temporal cortex. Conversely, for items perceptually encoded, the semantic query recruited the lateral PFC and occipital-fusiform areas. Interestingly, the semantic format also influenced the processing of new items, eliciting greater L lateral and medial PFC activation. In contrast, the perceptual query format (versus the semantic format) only prompted greater activation in R orbitofrontal cortex and the R inferior parietal lobe, for items encoded in a perceptual manner and for new items, respectively. The results highlight the role of the retrieval query format in source remembering, showing that the retrieval query that emphasizes the semantic source promotes the use of semantic

  7. Framing memories: How the retrieval query format shapes the neural bases of remembering.

    PubMed

    Raposo, Ana; Frade, Sofia; Alves, Mara

    2016-08-01

    The way memory questions are framed influences the information that is searched, retrieved, and monitored during remembering. This fMRI study aimed at clarifying how the format of the retrieval query shapes the neural basis of source recollection. During encoding, participants made semantic (pleasantness) or perceptual (number of letters) judgments about words. Subsequently, in a source memory test, the retrieval query was manipulated such that for half of the items from each encoding task, the retrieval query emphasized the semantic source (i.e., semantic query format: "Is this word from the pleasantness task?"), whereas for the other half the retrieval query emphasized the alternate, perceptual source (i.e., perceptual query format: "Is this word from the letter task?"). The results showed that the semantic query format was associated with higher source recognition than the perceptual query format. This behavioral advantage was accompanied by increased activation in several regions associated to controlled semantic elaboration and monitoring of internally-generated features about the past event. In particular, for items semantically encoded, the semantic query, relative to the perceptual query, induced activation in medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampal, parahippocampal and middle temporal cortex. Conversely, for items perceptually encoded, the semantic query recruited the lateral PFC and occipital-fusiform areas. Interestingly, the semantic format also influenced the processing of new items, eliciting greater L lateral and medial PFC activation. In contrast, the perceptual query format (versus the semantic format) only prompted greater activation in R orbitofrontal cortex and the R inferior parietal lobe, for items encoded in a perceptual manner and for new items, respectively. The results highlight the role of the retrieval query format in source remembering, showing that the retrieval query that emphasizes the semantic source promotes the use of semantic

  8. Data Parallel Bin-Based Indexing for Answering Queries on Multi-Core Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Gosink, Luke; Wu, Kesheng; Bethel, E. Wes; Owens, John D.; Joy, Kenneth I.

    2009-06-02

    The multi-core trend in CPUs and general purpose graphics processing units (GPUs) offers new opportunities for the database community. The increase of cores at exponential rates is likely to affect virtually every server and client in the coming decade, and presents database management systems with a huge, compelling disruption that will radically change how processing is done. This paper presents a new parallel indexing data structure for answering queries that takes full advantage of the increasing thread-level parallelism emerging in multi-core architectures. In our approach, our Data Parallel Bin-based Index Strategy (DP-BIS) first bins the base data, and then partitions and stores the values in each bin as a separate, bin-based data cluster. In answering a query, the procedures for examining the bin numbers and the bin-based data clusters offer the maximum possible level of concurrency; each record is evaluated by a single thread and all threads are processed simultaneously in parallel. We implement and demonstrate the effectiveness of DP-BIS on two multi-core architectures: a multi-core CPU and a GPU. The concurrency afforded by DP-BIS allows us to fully utilize the thread-level parallelism provided by each architecture--for example, our GPU-based DP-BIS implementation simultaneously evaluates over 12,000 records with an equivalent number of concurrently executing threads. In comparing DP-BIS's performance across these architectures, we show that the GPU-based DP-BIS implementation requires significantly less computation time to answer a query than the CPU-based implementation. We also demonstrate in our analysis that DP-BIS provides better overall performance than the commonly utilized CPU and GPU-based projection index. Finally, due to data encoding, we show that DP-BIS accesses significantly smaller amounts of data than index strategies that operate solely on a column's base data; this smaller data footprint is critical for parallel processors that possess

  9. Predicting neutron diffusion eigenvalues with a query-based adaptive neural architecture.

    PubMed

    Lysenko, M G; Wong, H I; Maldonado, G I

    1999-01-01

    A query-based approach for adaptively retraining and restructuring a two-hidden-layer artificial neural network (ANN) has been developed for the speedy prediction of the fundamental mode eigenvalue of the neutron diffusion equation, a standard nuclear reactor core design calculation which normally requires the iterative solution of a large-scale system of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDE's). The approach developed focuses primarily upon the adaptive selection of training and cross-validation data and on artificial neural-network (ANN) architecture adjustments, with the objective of improving the accuracy and generalization properties of ANN-based neutron diffusion eigenvalue predictions. For illustration, the performance of a "bare bones" feedforward multilayer perceptron (MLP) is upgraded through a variety of techniques; namely, nonrandom initial training set selection, adjoint function input weighting, teacher-student membership and equivalence queries for generation of appropriate training data, and a dynamic node architecture (DNA) implementation. The global methodology is flexible in that it can "wrap around" any specific training algorithm selected for the static calculations (i.e., training iterations with a fixed training set and architecture). Finally, the improvements obtained are carefully contrasted against past works reported in the literature.

  10. PropBase Query Layer: a single portal to UK subsurface physical property databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingdon, Andrew; Nayembil, Martin L.; Richardson, Anne E.; Smith, A. Graham

    2013-04-01

    Until recently, the delivery of geological information for industry and public was achieved by geological mapping. Now pervasively available computers mean that 3D geological models can deliver realistic representations of the geometric location of geological units, represented as shells or volumes. The next phase of this process is to populate these with physical properties data that describe subsurface heterogeneity and its associated uncertainty. Achieving this requires capture and serving of physical, hydrological and other property information from diverse sources to populate these models. The British Geological Survey (BGS) holds large volumes of subsurface property data, derived both from their own research data collection and also other, often commercially derived data sources. This can be voxelated to incorporate this data into the models to demonstrate property variation within the subsurface geometry. All property data held by BGS has for many years been stored in relational databases to ensure their long-term continuity. However these have, by necessity, complex structures; each database contains positional reference data and model information, and also metadata such as sample identification information and attributes that define the source and processing. Whilst this is critical to assessing these analyses, it also hugely complicates the understanding of variability of the property under assessment and requires multiple queries to study related datasets making extracting physical properties from these databases difficult. Therefore the PropBase Query Layer has been created to allow simplified aggregation and extraction of all related data and its presentation of complex data in simple, mostly denormalized, tables which combine information from multiple databases into a single system. The structure from each relational database is denormalized in a generalised structure, so that each dataset can be viewed together in a common format using a simple

  11. Automatic Construction of Information Queries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzelak, Hanna; Kowalski, Kazimierz

    1983-01-01

    Presents methods of information query building in selective dissemination of information systems based on user's publications and examines possible compatibility between user's information queries and his publications. Methods of information query construction determined by logical operators AND, OR, NOT and set of weighted keywords are described.…

  12. Value-of-Information based Middleware for Autonomic Querying of Distributed Sensor Databases

    SciTech Connect

    Sukumar, Sreenivas R.; Shankar, Mallikarjun

    2010-01-01

    With particular focus on distributed situational awareness in defense and security applications, we propose a value-of-information based middleware framework as a paradigm shift from crawl-index based centralized search. The proposed approach seeks to improve efficiency in search and retrieval by transforming sensors into programmable information points and enabling ubiquitous data and software flows through the infrastructure of the distributed network. We explain the different components of such a middleware framework to organize, tag and notify emerging spatial, temporal and causal patterns from the sensor measurements. We conclude the paper with a brief discussion on the top-down programming model that can realize the framework as a reconfigurable sensor query system.

  13. An RDF/OWL knowledge base for query answering and decision support in clinical pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    Samwald, Matthias; Freimuth, Robert; Luciano, Joanne S; Lin, Simon; Powers, Robert L; Marshall, M Scott; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Dumontier, Michel; Boyce, Richard D

    2013-01-01

    Genetic testing for personalizing pharmacotherapy is bound to become an important part of clinical routine. To address associated issues with data management and quality, we are creating a semantic knowledge base for clinical pharmacogenetics. The knowledge base is made up of three components: an expressive ontology formalized in the Web Ontology Language (OWL 2 DL), a Resource Description Framework (RDF) model for capturing detailed results of manual annotation of pharmacogenomic information in drug product labels, and an RDF conversion of relevant biomedical datasets. Our work goes beyond the state of the art in that it makes both automated reasoning as well as query answering as simple as possible, and the reasoning capabilities go beyond the capabilities of previously described ontologies.

  14. Declarative Visualization Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro da Silva, P.; Del Rio, N.; Leptoukh, G. G.

    2011-12-01

    In an ideal interaction with machines, scientists may prefer to write declarative queries saying "what" they want from a machine than to write code stating "how" the machine is going to address the user request. For example, in relational database, users have long relied on specifying queries using Structured Query Language (SQL), a declarative language to request data results from a database management system. In the context of visualizations, we see that users are still writing code based on complex visualization toolkit APIs. With the goal of improving the scientists' experience of using visualization technology, we have applied this query-answering pattern to a visualization setting, where scientists specify what visualizations they want generated using a declarative SQL-like notation. A knowledge enhanced management system ingests the query and knows the following: (1) know how to translate the query into visualization pipelines; and (2) how to execute the visualization pipelines to generate the requested visualization. We define visualization queries as declarative requests for visualizations specified in an SQL like language. Visualization queries specify what category of visualization to generate (e.g., volumes, contours, surfaces) as well as associated display attributes (e.g., color and opacity), without any regards for implementation, thus allowing scientists to remain partially unaware of a wide range of visualization toolkit (e.g., Generic Mapping Tools and Visualization Toolkit) specific implementation details. Implementation details are only a concern for our knowledge-based visualization management system, which uses both the information specified in the query and knowledge about visualization toolkit functions to construct visualization pipelines. Knowledge about the use of visualization toolkits includes what data formats the toolkit operates on, what formats they output, and what views they can generate. Visualization knowledge, which is not

  15. A query integrator and manager for the query web.

    PubMed

    Brinkley, James F; Detwiler, Landon T

    2012-10-01

    We introduce two concepts: the Query Web as a layer of interconnected queries over the document web and the semantic web, and a Query Web Integrator and Manager (QI) that enables the Query Web to evolve. QI permits users to write, save and reuse queries over any web accessible source, including other queries saved in other installations of QI. The saved queries may be in any language (e.g. SPARQL, XQuery); the only condition for interconnection is that the queries return their results in some form of XML. This condition allows queries to chain off each other, and to be written in whatever language is appropriate for the task. We illustrate the potential use of QI for several biomedical use cases, including ontology view generation using a combination of graph-based and logical approaches, value set generation for clinical data management, image annotation using terminology obtained from an ontology web service, ontology-driven brain imaging data integration, small-scale clinical data integration, and wider-scale clinical data integration. Such use cases illustrate the current range of applications of QI and lead us to speculate about the potential evolution from smaller groups of interconnected queries into a larger query network that layers over the document and semantic web. The resulting Query Web could greatly aid researchers and others who now have to manually navigate through multiple information sources in order to answer specific questions.

  16. Similarity extraction mechanism concerning historical personalities based on SQL queries in an RDBMS environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barouchou, Alexandra; Dendrinos, Markos

    2015-02-01

    An interesting issue in the domain of history of science and ideas is the concept of similarity of historical personalities. Similar objects of research of philosophers and scientists indicate prospective influences, caused either from one another's reading or meetings, communication or even cooperation. Key methodological role in the surfacing of the sought similarities play the keywords extracted from their works as well as their placement in a philosophical and scientific term taxonomy. The case study examined in the framework of this paper concerns scientists and philosophers, who lived in ancient Greece or Renaissance periods and dealt, in at least one work, with the subject God. All the available data (scientists, studies, recorded relations between scientists, keywords, and thematic hierarchy) have been organized in an RDBMS environment, aiming at the emergence of similarities and influences between scientists through properly created SQL queries based on date and thematic hierarchy criteria.

  17. Mapping query terms to data and schema using content based similarity search in clinical information systems.

    PubMed

    Safari, Leila; Patrick, Jon D

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the issues in mapping the terms of a query to the field names of the schema of an Entity Relationship (ER) model or to the data part of the Entity Attribute Value (EAV) model using similarity based Top-K algorithm in clinical information system together with an extension of EAV mapping for medication names. In addition, the details of the mapping algorithm and the required pre-processing including NLP (Natural Language Processing) tasks to prepare resources for mapping are explained. The experimental results on an example clinical information system demonstrate more than 84 per cent of accuracy in mapping. The results will be integrated into our proposed Clinical Data Analytics Language (CliniDAL) to automate mapping process in CliniDAL.

  18. BredeQuery: Coordinate-Based Meta-analytic Search of Neuroscientific Literature from the SPM Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkowski, Bartłomiej; Szewczyk, Marcin; Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Hansen, Lars Kai; Nielsen, Finn Årup

    Large amounts of neuroimaging studies are collected and have chan-ged our view on human brain function. By integrating multiple studies in meta-analysis a more complete picture is emerging. Brain locations are usually reported as coordinates with reference to a specific brain atlas, thus some of the databases offer so-called coordinate-based searching to the users (e.g. Brede, BrainMap). For such search, the publications, which relate to the brain locations represented by the user coordinates, are retrieved. We present BredeQuery - a plugin for the widely used SPM data analytic pipeline. BredeQuery offers a direct link from SPM to the Brede Database coordinate-based search engine. BredeQuery is able to 'grab' brain location coordinates from the SPM windows and enter them as a query for the Brede Database. Moreover, results of the query can be displayed in a MATLAB window and/or exported directly to some popular bibliographic file formats (BibTeX, Reference Manager, etc).

  19. Concept-based query expansion for retrieving gene related publications from MEDLINE

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Advances in biotechnology and in high-throughput methods for gene analysis have contributed to an exponential increase in the number of scientific publications in these fields of study. While much of the data and results described in these articles are entered and annotated in the various existing biomedical databases, the scientific literature is still the major source of information. There is, therefore, a growing need for text mining and information retrieval tools to help researchers find the relevant articles for their study. To tackle this, several tools have been proposed to provide alternative solutions for specific user requests. Results This paper presents QuExT, a new PubMed-based document retrieval and prioritization tool that, from a given list of genes, searches for the most relevant results from the literature. QuExT follows a concept-oriented query expansion methodology to find documents containing concepts related to the genes in the user input, such as protein and pathway names. The retrieved documents are ranked according to user-definable weights assigned to each concept class. By changing these weights, users can modify the ranking of the results in order to focus on documents dealing with a specific concept. The method's performance was evaluated using data from the 2004 TREC genomics track, producing a mean average precision of 0.425, with an average of 4.8 and 31.3 relevant documents within the top 10 and 100 retrieved abstracts, respectively. Conclusions QuExT implements a concept-based query expansion scheme that leverages gene-related information available on a variety of biological resources. The main advantage of the system is to give the user control over the ranking of the results by means of a simple weighting scheme. Using this approach, researchers can effortlessly explore the literature regarding a group of genes and focus on the different aspects relating to these genes. PMID:20426836

  20. NeuroExtract: facilitating neuroscience-oriented retrieval from broadly-focused bioscience databases using text-based query mediation.

    PubMed

    Crasto, Chiquito J; Masiar, Peter; Miller, Perry L

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes NeuroExtract, a pilot system which facilitates the integrated retrieval of Internet-based information relevant to the neurosciences. The approach involved extracting descriptive metadata from the sources using domain-specific queries; retrieving, processing, and organizing the data into structured text files; searching the data files using text-based queries; and, providing the results in a Web page along with descriptions to entries and URL links to the original sources. NeuroExtract has been implemented for three bioscience resources, SWISSPROT, GEO, and PDB, which provide neuroscience-related information as sub-topics. We discuss several issues that arose in the course of NeuroExtract's implementation. This project is a first step in exploring how this general approach might be used, in conjunction with other query mediation approaches, to facilitate the integration of many Internet-accessible resources relevant to the neurosciences.

  1. Analysis and Benchmark of Hydrological Network Representation Models for Improved Access and Query in Web-based System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, I.; Szczepanek, R.

    2015-12-01

    Web based systems allow users to delineate watersheds on interactive map environments using server side processing and databases. With increasing resolution of hydrological networks, optimized methods for storage of network representation in databases, and efficient queries and actions on the river network structure become critical. This presentation provides a comprehensive study on analysis of network models in relational databases for hydrological networks, and benchmarking common queries and operations on the network structure using these methods. The analysis has been applied to the hydrological network of the State of Iowa based on 90m DEM consist of 600,000 network nodes. The application results indicate that certain representation methods provide massive improvements on query times and storage of network structure in the database. Suggested method allows watershed delineation tools running on the client-side with desktop-like performance. This will allow users to carry out large scale analysis and visualizations tasks on the web.

  2. Intelligent query by humming system based on score level fusion of multiple classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyo Nam, Gi; Thu Trang Luong, Thi; Ha Nam, Hyun; Ryoung Park, Kang; Park, Sung-Joo

    2011-12-01

    Recently, the necessity for content-based music retrieval that can return results even if a user does not know information such as the title or singer has increased. Query-by-humming (QBH) systems have been introduced to address this need, as they allow the user to simply hum snatches of the tune to find the right song. Even though there have been many studies on QBH, few have combined multiple classifiers based on various fusion methods. Here we propose a new QBH system based on the score level fusion of multiple classifiers. This research is novel in the following three respects: three local classifiers [quantized binary (QB) code-based linear scaling (LS), pitch-based dynamic time warping (DTW), and LS] are employed; local maximum and minimum point-based LS and pitch distribution feature-based LS are used as global classifiers; and the combination of local and global classifiers based on the score level fusion by the PRODUCT rule is used to achieve enhanced matching accuracy. Experimental results with the 2006 MIREX QBSH and 2009 MIR-QBSH corpus databases show that the performance of the proposed method is better than that of single classifier and other fusion methods.

  3. A peer-to-peer music sharing system based on query-by-humming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianrong; Chang, Xinglong; Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, Yebin; Shi, Qingwei

    2007-09-01

    Today, the main traffic in peer-to-peer (P2P) network is still multimedia files including large numbers of music files. The study of Music Information Retrieval (MIR) brings out many encouraging achievements in music search area. Nevertheless, the research of music search based on MIR in P2P network is still insufficient. Query by Humming (QBH) is one MIR technology studied for years. In this paper, we present a server based P2P music sharing system which is based on QBH and integrated with a Hierarchical Index Structure (HIS) to enhance the relation between surface data and potential information. HIS automatically evolving depends on the music related items carried by each peer such as midi files, lyrics and so forth. Instead of adding large amount of redundancy, the system generates a bit of index for multiple search input which improves the traditional keyword-based text search mode largely. When network bandwidth, speed, etc. are no longer a bottleneck of internet serve, the accessibility and accuracy of information provided by internet are being more concerned by end users.

  4. Patient Encounters and Care Transitions in One Community Supported by Automated Query-Based Health Information Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Campion, Thomas R.; Vest, Joshua R.; Ancker, Jessica S.; Kaushal, Rainu

    2013-01-01

    Care transitions from one facility to another threaten patient safety due to the potential loss of critical clinical information. Electronic clinical data exchange may address the problem. Approaches to exchange range from manual directed exchange, or sending point-to-point messages, to automated query-based health information exchange (HIE), or aggregating data from multiple sources. In this study, we measured the extent to which automated query-based HIE supported patient encounters and care transitions in one community. During the 23-month study period, 41% (n=33,219) of affirmatively consented patients had at least one encounter supported by automated query-based HIE. Of these patients, 41% (n=13,685) visited two or more facilities and accounted for 68% of total encounters. Of total encounters, 28% (n=40,828) were care transitions from one facility to another. Findings suggest that automated query-based HIE may support care transitions with efficient information sharing and assist United States providers in achieving stage two of meaningful use. PMID:24551330

  5. A 5E Learning Cycle Approach-Based, Multimedia-Supplemented Instructional Unit for Structured Query Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piyayodilokchai, Hongsiri; Panjaburee, Patcharin; Laosinchai, Parames; Ketpichainarong, Watcharee; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

    2013-01-01

    With the benefit of multimedia and the learning cycle approach in promoting effective active learning, this paper proposed a learning cycle approach-based, multimedia-supplemented instructional unit for Structured Query Language (SQL) for second-year undergraduate students with the aim of enhancing their basic knowledge of SQL and ability to apply…

  6. The design and implementation of image query system based on color feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xu-Dong; Jia, Da-Chun; Li, Lin

    2013-07-01

    ASP.NET technology was used to construct the B/S mode image query system. The theory and technology of database design, color feature extraction from image, index and retrieval in the construction of the image repository were researched. The campus LAN and WAN environment were used to test the system. From the test results, the needs of user queries about related resources were achieved by system architecture design.

  7. Relevance Feedback Based Query Expansion Model Using Borda Count and Semantic Similarity Approach.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jagendra; Sharan, Aditi

    2015-01-01

    Pseudo-Relevance Feedback (PRF) is a well-known method of query expansion for improving the performance of information retrieval systems. All the terms of PRF documents are not important for expanding the user query. Therefore selection of proper expansion term is very important for improving system performance. Individual query expansion terms selection methods have been widely investigated for improving its performance. Every individual expansion term selection method has its own weaknesses and strengths. To overcome the weaknesses and to utilize the strengths of the individual method, we used multiple terms selection methods together. In this paper, first the possibility of improving the overall performance using individual query expansion terms selection methods has been explored. Second, Borda count rank aggregation approach is used for combining multiple query expansion terms selection methods. Third, the semantic similarity approach is used to select semantically similar terms with the query after applying Borda count ranks combining approach. Our experimental results demonstrated that our proposed approaches achieved a significant improvement over individual terms selection method and related state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26770189

  8. Relevance Feedback Based Query Expansion Model Using Borda Count and Semantic Similarity Approach

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jagendra; Sharan, Aditi

    2015-01-01

    Pseudo-Relevance Feedback (PRF) is a well-known method of query expansion for improving the performance of information retrieval systems. All the terms of PRF documents are not important for expanding the user query. Therefore selection of proper expansion term is very important for improving system performance. Individual query expansion terms selection methods have been widely investigated for improving its performance. Every individual expansion term selection method has its own weaknesses and strengths. To overcome the weaknesses and to utilize the strengths of the individual method, we used multiple terms selection methods together. In this paper, first the possibility of improving the overall performance using individual query expansion terms selection methods has been explored. Second, Borda count rank aggregation approach is used for combining multiple query expansion terms selection methods. Third, the semantic similarity approach is used to select semantically similar terms with the query after applying Borda count ranks combining approach. Our experimental results demonstrated that our proposed approaches achieved a significant improvement over individual terms selection method and related state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26770189

  9. LandEx - Fast, FOSS-Based Application for Query and Retrieval of Land Cover Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzel, P.; Stepinski, T.

    2012-12-01

    The amount of satellite-based spatial data is continuously increasing making a development of efficient data search tools a priority. The bulk of existing research on searching satellite-gathered data concentrates on images and is based on the concept of Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR); however, available solutions are not efficient and robust enough to be put to use as deployable web-based search tools. Here we report on development of a practical, deployable tool that searches classified, rather than raw image. LandEx (Landscape Explorer) is a GeoWeb-based tool for Content-Based Pattern Retrieval (CBPR) contained within the National Land Cover Dataset 2006 (NLCD2006). The USGS-developed NLCD2006 is derived from Landsat multispectral images; it covers the entire conterminous U.S. with the resolution of 30 meters/pixel and it depicts 16 land cover classes. The size of NLCD2006 is about 10 Gpixels (161,000 x 100,000 pixels). LandEx is a multi-tier GeoWeb application based on Open Source Software. Main components are: GeoExt/OpenLayers (user interface), GeoServer (OGC WMS, WCS and WPS server), and GRASS (calculation engine). LandEx performs search using query-by-example approach: user selects a reference scene (exhibiting a chosen pattern of land cover classes) and the tool produces, in real time, a map indicating a degree of similarity between the reference pattern and all local patterns across the U.S. Scene pattern is encapsulated by a 2D histogram of classes and sizes of single-class clumps. Pattern similarity is based on the notion of mutual information. The resultant similarity map can be viewed and navigated in a web browser, or it can download as a GeoTiff file for more in-depth analysis. The LandEx is available at http://sil.uc.edu

  10. Object-oriented query based on belief fusion: application to dermatological databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larabi, Mohamed-Chaker; Richard, Noel; Colot, Olivier; Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine

    2001-12-01

    This paper is dedicated to Computer-Aided Diagnosis CAD for skin cancers in order to help the expert (dermatologist) to diagnose a dermatological lesion as benign or malignant. The need of this kind of tools has largely expressed because of the difficulties that have the expert to distinguish benign lesion from melanoma. One way to help him without a classification is to find and display to the expert the most similar images (lesions) to the query (lesion of the patient). The similarity must be measured using features and their representation inspired from the medical diagnosis rules. In fact, the diagnosis rules known as ABCD mnemonics are very interesting because they describe a lesion using color, texture and shape. In order to approach the system from the reality, we build it as a Content-Based Image Retrieval CBIR scheme. Images are represented as an object model including the features and their representation and a set of belief degrees. The aim is to combine, on one hand, the experts analysis which include their knowledge, experience. but also their subjectivity, inexactness, uncertainty, etc. On the other hand, the ground truth based on biopsy results of all the database lesions. The combination gives to the system the autonomy and let it evolve without needing a relevance feedback.

  11. Fisher kernel based task boundary retrieval in laparoscopic database with single video query.

    PubMed

    Twinanda, Andru Putra; De Mathelin, Michel; Padoy, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    As minimally invasive surgery becomes increasingly popular, the volume of recorded laparoscopic videos will increase rapidly. Invaluable information for teaching, assistance during difficult cases, and quality evaluation can be accessed from these videos through a video search engine. Typically, video search engines give a list of the most relevant videos pertaining to a keyword. However, instead of a whole video, one is often only interested in a fraction of the video (e.g. intestine stitching in bypass surgeries). In addition, video search requires semantic tags, yet the large amount of data typically generated hinders the feasibility of manual annotation. To tackle these problems, we propose a coarse-to-fine video indexing approach that looks for the time boundaries of a task in a laparoscopic video based on a video snippet query. We combine our search approach with the Fisher kernel (FK) encoding and show that similarity measures on this encoding are better suited for this problem than traditional similarities, such as dynamic time warping (DTW). Despite visual challenges, such as the presence of smoke, motion blur, and lens impurity, our approach performs very well in finding 3 tasks in 49 bypass videos, 1 task in 23 hernia videos, and also 1 cross-surgery task between 49 bypass and 7 sleeve gastrectomy videos. PMID:25320826

  12. Secure web-based access to radiology: forms and databases for fast queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McColl, Roderick W.; Lane, Thomas J.

    2002-05-01

    Currently, Web-based access to mini-PACS or similar databases commonly utilizes either JavaScript, Java applets or ActiveX controls. Many sites do not permit applets or controls or other binary objects for fear of viruses or worms sent by malicious users. In addition, the typical CGI query mechanism requires several parameters to be sent with the http GET/POST request, which may identify the patient in some way; this in unacceptable for privacy protection. Also unacceptable are pages produced by server-side scripts which can be cached by the browser, since these may also contain sensitive information. We propose a simple mechanism for access to patient information, including images, which guarantees security of information, makes it impossible to bookmark the page, or to return to the page after some defined length of time. In addition, this mechanism is simple, therefore permitting rapid access without the need to initially download an interface such as an applet or control. In addition to image display, the design of the site allows the user to view and save movies of multi-phasic data, or to construct multi-frame datasets from entire series. These capabilities make the site attractive for research purposes such as teaching file preparation.

  13. Logic-Based Retrieval: Technology for Content-Oriented and Analytical Querying of Patent Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klampanos, Iraklis Angelos; Wu, Hengzhi; Roelleke, Thomas; Azzam, Hany

    Patent searching is a complex retrieval task. An initial document search is only the starting point of a chain of searches and decisions that need to be made by patent searchers. Keyword-based retrieval is adequate for document searching, but it is not suitable for modelling comprehensive retrieval strategies. DB-like and logical approaches are the state-of-the-art techniques to model strategies, reasoning and decision making. In this paper we present the application of logical retrieval to patent searching. The two grand challenges are expressiveness and scalability, where high degree of expressiveness usually means a loss in scalability. In this paper we report how to maintain scalability while offering the expressiveness of logical retrieval required for solving patent search tasks. We present logical retrieval background, and how to model data-source selection and results' fusion. Moreover, we demonstrate the modelling of a retrieval strategy, a technique by which patent professionals are able to express, store and exchange their strategies and rationales when searching patents or when making decisions. An overview of the architecture and technical details complement the paper, while the evaluation reports preliminary results on how query processing times can be guaranteed, and how quality is affected by trading off responsiveness.

  14. Fisher kernel based task boundary retrieval in laparoscopic database with single video query.

    PubMed

    Twinanda, Andru Putra; De Mathelin, Michel; Padoy, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    As minimally invasive surgery becomes increasingly popular, the volume of recorded laparoscopic videos will increase rapidly. Invaluable information for teaching, assistance during difficult cases, and quality evaluation can be accessed from these videos through a video search engine. Typically, video search engines give a list of the most relevant videos pertaining to a keyword. However, instead of a whole video, one is often only interested in a fraction of the video (e.g. intestine stitching in bypass surgeries). In addition, video search requires semantic tags, yet the large amount of data typically generated hinders the feasibility of manual annotation. To tackle these problems, we propose a coarse-to-fine video indexing approach that looks for the time boundaries of a task in a laparoscopic video based on a video snippet query. We combine our search approach with the Fisher kernel (FK) encoding and show that similarity measures on this encoding are better suited for this problem than traditional similarities, such as dynamic time warping (DTW). Despite visual challenges, such as the presence of smoke, motion blur, and lens impurity, our approach performs very well in finding 3 tasks in 49 bypass videos, 1 task in 23 hernia videos, and also 1 cross-surgery task between 49 bypass and 7 sleeve gastrectomy videos.

  15. Application of shape-based similarity query for aerodynamic optimization of wind tunnel primary nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolář, Jan

    2012-04-01

    The aerodynamic shape optimization of the supersonic flat nozzle is the aim of proposed paper. The nozzle discussed, is applied as a primary nozzle of the inlet part of supersonic wind tunnel. Supersonic nozzles of the measure area inlet parts need to guarantee several requirements of flow properties and quality. Mach number and minimal differences between real and required velocity and turbulence profiles at the nozzle exit are the most important parameters to meet. The aerodynamic shape optimization of the flat 2D nozzle in CFD is employed to reach as uniform exit velocity profile as possible, with the mean Mach number 1.4. Optimization process does not use any of standard routines of global or local optimum searching. Instead, newly formed routine, which exploits shape-based oriented sequence of nozzles, is used to research within whole discretized parametric space. The movement within optimization process is not driven by gradient or evolutionary too, instead, the Path of Minimal Shape Deformation is followed. Dynamic mesh approach is used to deform the shape and mesh from the actual nozzle to the subsequent one. Dynamic deformation of mesh allows to speed up whole converging process as an initialization of flow at the newly formed mesh is based on afore-computed shape. Shape-based similarity query in field of supersonic nozzles is discussed and applied. Evolutionary technique with genetic algorithm is used to search for minimal deformational path. As a result, the best variant from the set of solved shapes is analyzed at the base of momentum coefficient and desired Mach number at the nozzle exit.

  16. KSRQuerying: XML Keyword with Recursive Querying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Kamal; Elmasri, Ramez

    We propose an XML search engine called KSRQuerying. The search engine employs recursive querying techniques, which allows a query to query the results of a previous application of itself or of another query. It answers recursive queries, keyword-based queries, and loosely structured queries. KSRQuerying uses a sort-merge algorithm, which selects subsets from the set of nodes containing keywords, where each subset contains the smallest number of nodes that: (1) are closely related to each other, and (2) contain at least one occurrence of each keyword. We experimentally evaluated the quality and efficiency of KSRQuerying and compared it with 3 systems: XSeek, Schema-Free XQuery, and XKSearch.

  17. Evaluation of Internet-Based Dengue Query Data: Google Dengue Trends

    PubMed Central

    Gluskin, Rebecca Tave; Johansson, Michael A.; Santillana, Mauricio; Brownstein, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a common and growing problem worldwide, with an estimated 70–140 million cases per year. Traditional, healthcare-based, government-implemented dengue surveillance is resource intensive and slow. As global Internet use has increased, novel, Internet-based disease monitoring tools have emerged. Google Dengue Trends (GDT) uses near real-time search query data to create an index of dengue incidence that is a linear proxy for traditional surveillance. Studies have shown that GDT correlates highly with dengue incidence in multiple countries on a large spatial scale. This study addresses the heterogeneity of GDT at smaller spatial scales, assessing its accuracy at the state-level in Mexico and identifying factors that are associated with its accuracy. We used Pearson correlation to estimate the association between GDT and traditional dengue surveillance data for Mexico at the national level and for 17 Mexican states. Nationally, GDT captured approximately 83% of the variability in reported cases over the 9 study years. The correlation between GDT and reported cases varied from state to state, capturing anywhere from 1% of the variability in Baja California to 88% in Chiapas, with higher accuracy in states with higher dengue average annual incidence. A model including annual average maximum temperature, precipitation, and their interaction accounted for 81% of the variability in GDT accuracy between states. This climate model was the best indicator of GDT accuracy, suggesting that GDT works best in areas with intense transmission, particularly where local climate is well suited for transmission. Internet accessibility (average ∼36%) did not appear to affect GDT accuracy. While GDT seems to be a less robust indicator of local transmission in areas of low incidence and unfavorable climate, it may indicate cases among travelers in those areas. Identifying the strengths and limitations of novel surveillance is critical for these types of data to be used to make

  18. Code query by example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    We introduce code query by example for customisation of evolvable software products in general and of enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) in particular. The concept is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We motivate our design choices based on those empirical results, and we show how the proposed solution helps with respect to the infamous upgrade problem: the conflict between the need for customisation and the need for upgrade of ERP systems. We further show how code query by example can be used as a form of lightweight static analysis, to detect automatically potential defects in large software products. Code query by example as a form of lightweight static analysis is particularly interesting in the context of ERP systems: it is often the case that programmers working in this field are not computer science specialists but more of domain experts. Hence, they require a simple language to express custom rules.

  19. Out-of-core Interactive Display of Large Meshes Using an Oriented Bounding Box-based Hardware Depth Query

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, H; Gregorski, B; Joy, K I

    2004-06-24

    In this paper we present an occlusion culling method that uses hardware-based depth queries on oriented bounding boxes to cull unseen geometric primitives efficiently. An out-of-core design enables this method to interactively display data sets that are too large to fit into main memory. During a preprocessing phase, a spatial subdivision (such as an octree or BSP tree) of a given data set is constructed where, for each node, an oriented bounding box containing mesh primitives is computed using principal component analysis (PCA). At runtime, the tree indicated by the spatial subdivision is traversed in front-to-back order, and only nodes that are determined to be visible, based on a hardware accelerated depth query, are rendered.

  20. Comprehensive Metadata Query Interface for Heterogeneous Data Archives Based on Open-Source PostgreSQL ORDBMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotukhin, I.; Samokhvalov, N.; Bonnarel, F.; Chilingarian, I.

    2007-10-01

    We use the PostgreSQL DBMS for storing XML metadata, described by the IVOA Characterization Data Model. Initial XML type support in PostgreSQL has recently been implemented. We make heavy use of this feature in order to provide a comprehensive search capability over the Characterisation metadata tree. We built a prototype of the Characterization metadata query service, implementing two access methods: (1) HTTP-GET/POST based interface, which implements almost direct translation of the query parameter name into XPath of the data model element in the XML serialization; (2) Web-Service based interface to receive XQuery which is also directly translated into XPath. This service will be used in the ASPID-SR archive, containing science-ready data obtained with the Russian 6-m telescope.

  1. Querying Safety Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen W.; Naylor, Dwight; Pai, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Querying a safety case to show how the various stakeholders' concerns about system safety are addressed has been put forth as one of the benefits of argument-based assurance (in a recent study by the Health Foundation, UK, which reviewed the use of safety cases in safety-critical industries). However, neither the literature nor current practice offer much guidance on querying mechanisms appropriate for, or available within, a safety case paradigm. This paper presents a preliminary approach that uses a formal basis for querying safety cases, specifically Goal Structuring Notation (GSN) argument structures. Our approach semantically enriches GSN arguments with domain-specific metadata that the query language leverages, along with its inherent structure, to produce views. We have implemented the approach in our toolset AdvoCATE, and illustrate it by application to a fragment of the safety argument for an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) being developed at NASA Ames. We also discuss the potential practical utility of our query mechanism within the context of the existing framework for UAS safety assurance.

  2. A real-time proximity querying algorithm for haptic-based molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Iakovou, Georgios; Hayward, Steven; Laycock, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Intermolecular binding underlies every metabolic and regulatory processes of the cell, and the therapeutic and pharmacological properties of drugs. Molecular docking systems model and simulate these interactions in silico and allow us to study the binding process. Haptic-based docking provides an immersive virtual docking environment where the user can interact with and guide the molecules to their binding pose. Moreover, it allows human perception, intuition and knowledge to assist and accelerate the docking process, and reduces incorrect binding poses. Crucial for interactive docking is the real-time calculation of interaction forces. For smooth and accurate haptic exploration and manipulation, force-feedback cues have to be updated at a rate of 1 kHz. Hence, force calculations must be performed within 1 ms. To achieve this, modern haptic-based docking approaches often utilize pre-computed force grids and linear interpolation. However, such grids are time-consuming to pre-compute (especially for large molecules), memory hungry, can induce rough force transitions at cell boundaries and cannot be applied to flexible docking. Here we propose an efficient proximity querying method for computing intermolecular forces in real time. Our motivation is the eventual development of a haptic-based docking solution that can model molecular flexibility. Uniquely in a haptics application we use octrees to decompose the 3D search space in order to identify the set of interacting atoms within a cut-off distance. Force calculations are then performed on this set in real time. The implementation constructs the trees dynamically, and computes the interaction forces of large molecular structures (i.e. consisting of thousands of atoms) within haptic refresh rates. We have implemented this method in an immersive, haptic-based, rigid-body, molecular docking application called Haptimol_RD. The user can use the haptic device to orientate the molecules in space, sense the interaction

  3. Retrieval with gene queries

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Aditya K; Srinivasan, Padmini

    2006-01-01

    Background Accuracy of document retrieval from MEDLINE for gene queries is crucially important for many applications in bioinformatics. We explore five information retrieval-based methods to rank documents retrieved by PubMed gene queries for the human genome. The aim is to rank relevant documents higher in the retrieved list. We address the special challenges faced due to ambiguity in gene nomenclature: gene terms that refer to multiple genes, gene terms that are also English words, and gene terms that have other biological meanings. Results Our two baseline ranking strategies are quite similar in performance. Two of our three LocusLink-based strategies offer significant improvements. These methods work very well even when there is ambiguity in the gene terms. Our best ranking strategy offers significant improvements on three different kinds of ambiguities over our two baseline strategies (improvements range from 15.9% to 17.7% and 11.7% to 13.3% depending on the baseline). For most genes the best ranking query is one that is built from the LocusLink (now Entrez Gene) summary and product information along with the gene names and aliases. For others, the gene names and aliases suffice. We also present an approach that successfully predicts, for a given gene, which of these two ranking queries is more appropriate. Conclusion We explore the effect of different post-retrieval strategies on the ranking of documents returned by PubMed for human gene queries. We have successfully applied some of these strategies to improve the ranking of relevant documents in the retrieved sets. This holds true even when various kinds of ambiguity are encountered. We feel that it would be very useful to apply strategies like ours on PubMed search results as these are not ordered by relevance in any way. This is especially so for queries that retrieve a large number of documents. PMID:16630348

  4. Manchester visual query language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakley, John P.; Davis, Darryl N.; Shann, Richard T.

    1993-04-01

    We report a database language for visual retrieval which allows queries on image feature information which has been computed and stored along with images. The language is novel in that it provides facilities for dealing with feature data which has actually been obtained from image analysis. Each line in the Manchester Visual Query Language (MVQL) takes a set of objects as input and produces another, usually smaller, set as output. The MVQL constructs are mainly based on proven operators from the field of digital image analysis. An example is the Hough-group operator which takes as input a specification for the objects to be grouped, a specification for the relevant Hough space, and a definition of the voting rule. The output is a ranked list of high scoring bins. The query could be directed towards one particular image or an entire image database, in the latter case the bins in the output list would in general be associated with different images. We have implemented MVQL in two layers. The command interpreter is a Lisp program which maps each MVQL line to a sequence of commands which are used to control a specialized database engine. The latter is a hybrid graph/relational system which provides low-level support for inheritance and schema evolution. In the paper we outline the language and provide examples of useful queries. We also describe our solution to the engineering problems associated with the implementation of MVQL.

  5. Query and Visualization of extremely large network datasets over the web using Quadtree based KML Regional Network Links

    SciTech Connect

    Dadi, Upendra; Liu, Cheng; Vatsavai, Raju

    2009-01-01

    Geographic data sets are often very large in size. Interactive visualization of such data at all scales is not easy because of the limited resolution of the monitors and inability of visualization applications to handle the volume of data. This is especially true for large vector datasets. The end user s experience is frequently unsatisfactory when exploring such data over the web using a naive application. Network bandwidth is another contributing factor to the low performance. In this paper, a Quadtree based technique to visualize extremely large spatial network datasets over the web is described. It involves using custom developed algorithms leveraging a PostGIS database as the data source and Google Earth as the visualization client. This methodology supports both point and range queries along with non-spatial queries. This methodology is demonstrated using a network dataset consisting of several million links. The methodology is based on using some of the powerful features of KML (Keyhole Markup Language). Keyhole Markup Language (KML) is an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard for displaying geospatial data on Earth browsers. One of the features of KML is the notion of Network Links. Using network links, a wide range of geospatial data sources such as geodatabases, static files and geospatial data services can be simultaneously accessed and visualized seamlessly. Using the network links combined with Level of Detail principle, view based rendering and intelligent server and client-side caching, scalability in visualizing extremely large spatial datasets can be achieved.

  6. Web-based Visualization and Query of semantically segmented multiresolution 3D Models in the Field of Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, M.; Agugiaro, G.; Billen, N.; Loos, L.; Zipf, A.

    2014-05-01

    Many important Cultural Heritage sites have been studied over long periods of time by different means of technical equipment, methods and intentions by different researchers. This has led to huge amounts of heterogeneous "traditional" datasets and formats. The rising popularity of 3D models in the field of Cultural Heritage in recent years has brought additional data formats and makes it even more necessary to find solutions to manage, publish and study these data in an integrated way. The MayaArch3D project aims to realize such an integrative approach by establishing a web-based research platform bringing spatial and non-spatial databases together and providing visualization and analysis tools. Especially the 3D components of the platform use hierarchical segmentation concepts to structure the data and to perform queries on semantic entities. This paper presents a database schema to organize not only segmented models but also different Levels-of-Details and other representations of the same entity. It is further implemented in a spatial database which allows the storing of georeferenced 3D data. This enables organization and queries by semantic, geometric and spatial properties. As service for the delivery of the segmented models a standardization candidate of the OpenGeospatialConsortium (OGC), the Web3DService (W3DS) has been extended to cope with the new database schema and deliver a web friendly format for WebGL rendering. Finally a generic user interface is presented which uses the segments as navigation metaphor to browse and query the semantic segmentation levels and retrieve information from an external database of the German Archaeological Institute (DAI).

  7. A Frequency-based Technique to Improve the Spelling Suggestion Rank in Medical Queries

    PubMed Central

    Crowell, Jonathan; Zeng, Qing; Ngo, Long; Lacroix, Eve-Marie

    2004-01-01

    Objective: There is an abundance of health-related information online, and millions of consumers search for such information. Spell checking is of crucial importance in returning pertinent results, so the authors propose a technique for increasing the effectiveness of spell-checking tools used for health-related information retrieval. Design: A sample of incorrectly spelled medical terms was submitted to two different spell-checking tools, and the resulting suggestions, derived under two different dictionary configurations, were re-sorted according to how frequently each term appeared in log data from a medical search engine. Measurements: Univariable analysis was carried out to assess the effect of each factor (spell-checking tool, dictionary type, re-sort, or no re-sort) on the probability of success. The factors that were statistically significant in the univariable analysis were then used in multivariable analysis to evaluate the independent effect of each of the factors. Results: The re-sorted suggestions proved to be significantly more accurate than the original list returned by the spell-checking tool. The odds of finding the correct suggestion in the number one rank were increased by 63% after re-sorting using the authors' method. This effect was independent of both the dictionary and the spell-checking tools that were used. Conclusion: Using knowledge about the frequency of a given word's occurrence in the medical domain can significantly improve spelling correction for medical queries. PMID:14764616

  8. Boolean logic tree of graphene-based chemical system for molecular computation and intelligent molecular search query.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei Tao; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing

    2014-05-01

    The most serious, and yet unsolved, problem of constructing molecular computing devices consists in connecting all of these molecular events into a usable device. This report demonstrates the use of Boolean logic tree for analyzing the chemical event network based on graphene, organic dye, thrombin aptamer, and Fenton reaction, organizing and connecting these basic chemical events. And this chemical event network can be utilized to implement fluorescent combinatorial logic (including basic logic gates and complex integrated logic circuits) and fuzzy logic computing. On the basis of the Boolean logic tree analysis and logic computing, these basic chemical events can be considered as programmable "words" and chemical interactions as "syntax" logic rules to construct molecular search engine for performing intelligent molecular search query. Our approach is helpful in developing the advanced logic program based on molecules for application in biosensing, nanotechnology, and drug delivery.

  9. GORpipe: a query tool for working with sequence data based on a Genomic Ordered Relational (GOR) architecture

    PubMed Central

    Guðbjartsson, Hákon; Georgsson, Guðmundur Fr.; Guðjónsson, Sigurjón A.; Valdimarsson, Ragnar þór; Sigurðsson, Jóhann H.; Stefánsson, Sigmar K.; Másson, Gísli; Magnússon, Gísli; Pálmason, Vilmundur; Stefánsson, Kári

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Our aim was to create a general-purpose relational data format and analysis tools to provide an efficient and coherent framework for working with large volumes of DNA sequence data. Results: For this purpose we developed the GORpipe software system. It is based on a genomic ordered architecture and uses a declarative query language that combines features from SQL and shell pipe syntax in a novel manner. The system can for instance be used to annotate sequence variants, find genomic spatial overlap between various types of genomic features, filter and aggregate them in various ways. Availability and Implementation: The GORpipe software is freely available for non-commercial academic usage and can be downloaded from www.nextcode.com/gorpipe. Contact: hakon@wuxinextcode.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27339714

  10. Queries for Bias Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Diana F.

    1992-01-01

    Selecting a good bias prior to concept learning can be difficult. Therefore, dynamic bias adjustment is becoming increasingly popular. Current dynamic bias adjustment systems, however, are limited in their ability to identify erroneous assumptions about the relationship between the bias and the target concept. Without proper diagnosis, it is difficult to identify and then remedy faulty assumptions. We have developed an approach that makes these assumptions explicit, actively tests them with queries to an oracle, and adjusts the bias based on the test results.

  11. An advanced web query interface for biological databases.

    PubMed

    Latendresse, Mario; Karp, Peter D

    2010-07-06

    Although most web-based biological databases (DBs) offer some type of web-based form to allow users to author DB queries, these query forms are quite restricted in the complexity of DB queries that they can formulate. They can typically query only one DB, and can query only a single type of object at a time (e.g. genes) with no possible interaction between the objects--that is, in SQL parlance, no joins are allowed between DB objects. Writing precise queries against biological DBs is usually left to a programmer skillful enough in complex DB query languages like SQL. We present a web interface for building precise queries for biological DBs that can construct much more precise queries than most web-based query forms, yet that is user friendly enough to be used by biologists. It supports queries containing multiple conditions, and connecting multiple object types without using the join concept, which is unintuitive to biologists. This interactive web interface is called the Structured Advanced Query Page (SAQP). Users interactively build up a wide range of query constructs. Interactive documentation within the SAQP describes the schema of the queried DBs. The SAQP is based on BioVelo, a query language based on list comprehension. The SAQP is part of the Pathway Tools software and is available as part of several bioinformatics web sites powered by Pathway Tools, including the BioCyc.org site that contains more than 500 Pathway/Genome DBs.

  12. Restricting query relaxation through user constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Gaasterland, T.

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes techniques to restrict and to heuristically control relaxation of deductive database queries. The process of query relaxation provides a user with a means to automatically identify new queries that are related to the user`s original query. However, for large databases, many relaxations may be possible. The methods to control and restrict the relaxation process introduced in this paper focus the relaxation process and make it more efficient. User restrictions over the data base domain may be expressed as user constraints. This paper describes how user constraints can restrict relaxed queries. Also, a set of heuristics based on cooperative answering techniques are presented for controlling the relaxation process. Finally, the interaction of the methods for relaxing queries, processing user constraints, and applying the heuristic rules is described.

  13. Query-By-Keywords (QBK): Query Formulation Using Semantics and Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telang, Aditya; Chakravarthy, Sharma; Li, Chengkai

    The staples of information retrieval have been querying and search, respectively, for structured and unstructured repositories. Processing queries over known, structured repositories (e.g., Databases) has been well-understood, and search has become ubiquitous when it comes to unstructured repositories (e.g., Web). Furthermore, searching structured repositories has been explored to a limited extent. However, there is not much work in querying unstructured sources. We argue that querying unstructured sources is the next step in performing focused retrievals. This paper proposed a new approach to generate queries from search-like inputs for unstructured repositories. Instead of burdening the user with schema details, we believe that pre-discovered semantic information in the form of taxonomies, relationship of keywords based on context, and attribute & operator compatibility can be used to generate query skeletons. Furthermore, progressive feedback from users can be used to improve the accuracy of query skeletons generated.

  14. A magnetostatic-coupling based remote query sensor for environmental monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimes, C. A.; Stoyanov, P. G.; Liu, Y.; Tong, C.; Ong, K. G.; Loiselle, K.; Shaw, M.; Doherty, S. A.; Seitz, W. R.

    1999-01-01

    A new type of in situ, remotely monitored magnetism-based sensor is presented that is comprised of an array of magnetically soft, magnetostatically-coupled ferromagnetic thin-film elements or particles combined with a chemically responsive material that swells or shrinks in response to the analyte of interest. As the chemically responsive material changes size the distance between the ferromagnetic elements changes, altering the inter-element magnetostatic coupling. This in turn changes the coercive force of the sensor, the amplitude of the voltage spikes detected in nearby pick-up coils upon magnetization reversal and the number of higher-order harmonics generated by the flux reversal. Since the sensor is monitored through changes in magnetic flux, no physical connections such as wires or cables are needed to obtain sensor information, nor is line of sight alignment required as with laser telemetry; the sensors can be detected from within sealed, opaque or thin metallic enclosures.

  15. Cluster-based query expansion using external collections in medical information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Oh, Heung-Seon; Jung, Yuchul

    2015-12-01

    Utilizing external collections to improve retrieval performance is challenging research because various test collections are created for different purposes. Improving medical information retrieval has also gained much attention as various types of medical documents have become available to researchers ever since they started storing them in machine processable formats. In this paper, we propose an effective method of utilizing external collections based on the pseudo relevance feedback approach. Our method incorporates the structure of external collections in estimating individual components in the final feedback model. Extensive experiments on three medical collections (TREC CDS, CLEF eHealth, and OHSUMED) were performed, and the results were compared with a representative expansion approach utilizing the external collections to show the superiority of our method.

  16. Teachers' Private Theories and their Design of Technology-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchill, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the private theories of four vocational education teachers in Singapore who have engaged in the design of technology-based learning for their own classes. The understanding of teachers' private theories is important in the context of contemporary educational reforms, which emphasise the shift towards student-centred practices…

  17. Dynamic link between ECG and clinical data by a CORBA-based query engine and temporal mapping.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Ohe, K; Kaihara, S

    1997-01-01

    It is important to create a dynamic link method to link distributed patient data across multiple hospitals on an "as needed" basis because the pre-defined links (an item of data has a character or group of characters that indicates the storage of another item of data) are difficult to be managed, or can only be established in part, or are not necessary to be pre-defined in many cases, especially in linking the descriptive data such as history data with the corresponding examination data across multiple hospitals. A method of linking electrocardiogram (ECG) with clinical data dynamically in a Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) environment has been achieved and verified in a real computing environment to approach to this goal. By this method, distributed patient data can be linked dynamically by a CORBA-based query engine and temporal mapping no matter where they are located on the Internet. The necessary temporal information is provided by either computing or human being. Since multiple time-axes for different databases are involved in, some temporal reasoning methods (such as mapping occurrences across temporal contexts and determining bounds for absolute occurrences, etc.) are applied to this study, and a series of temporal mappings including the first mapping, the secondary mapping, the contextual mapping, the extended mapping, the previous mapping and the next mapping are created. In comparison with the pre-defined link, the major strengths of this method are the dynamic link on an "as needed" basis, no limitation of institutional boundaries, easy creation, simplifying the data storage, and the high flexibility, etc.

  18. Quantum Private Comparison Protocol Based on Cluster States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Long, Dongyang

    2013-01-01

    We present a quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol, enabling two players to compare the equality of their information without revealing any information about their respective private inputs, in which the four-particle cluster states as the information carriers are used. The presented protocol can ensure correctness, privacy, and fairness with the assistance of a semi-trusted third party (TP). Meanwhile, the participants including the TP are just required having the ability to perform single-particle measurements, which make the presented protocol more feasible in technique. Furthermore, the photon transmission is a one-way distribution; the Trojan horse attacks can be automatically avoided. The security of this protocol is also analyzed.

  19. An Approach to Query Cost Modelling in Numeric Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvelin, Kalervo

    1989-01-01

    Examines factors that determine user charges based on query processing costs in numeric databases, and analyzes the problem of estimating such charges in advance. An approach to query cost estimation is presented which is based on the relational data model and the query optimization, cardinality estimation, and file design techniques developed in…

  20. Lessons from the private sector on performance-based management

    SciTech Connect

    Stoeckle, K.E.; Kolster, W.G.; Shangraw, R.F.

    1996-03-01

    Implementation of the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (GPRA) has provided a unique challenge for Federal Agencies, such as the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Waste Management (OWM). While performance measurement, as required by GPRA, is new to Federal Agencies, private industry has applied it at all organizational levels to better manage their operations for some time. There has been significant discussion about how the private sector uses performance measures, but there have been very few empirical studies systematically examining their use. To gather information on comparable private industry practices, waste management industry firms were surveyed through questionnaires and follow-on interviews. Questionnaires were sent to 75 waste management firms throughout the United States and Canada. Twenty-four percent of the firms responded to the questionnaire and participated in the follow-on interviews. The questionnaires were typically completed by vice-presidents or senior financial officers. Information collected from the questionnaire and follow-on interviews provided valuable insight into industry practices in the area of performance measurement. This paper discusses the study results and how they can be incorporated in the DOE OWM performance measures and influence the character of the ``critical few`` metrics used by senior DOE managers.

  1. Querying metabolism under different physiological constraints.

    PubMed

    Cakmak, Ali; Ozsoyoglu, Gultekin; Hanson, Richard W

    2010-04-01

    Metabolism is a representation of the biochemical principles that govern the production, consumption, degradation, and biosynthesis of metabolites in living cells. Organisms respond to changes in their physiological conditions or environmental perturbations (i.e. constraints) via cooperative implementation of such principles. Querying inner working principles of metabolism under different constraints provides invaluable insights for both researchers and educators. In this paper, we propose a metabolism query language (MQL) and discuss its query processing. MQL enables researchers to explore the behavior of the metabolism with a wide-range of predicates including dietary and physiological condition specifications. The query results of MQL are enriched with both textual and visual representations, and its query processing is completely tailored based on the underlying metabolic principles. PMID:20401946

  2. A similarity study between the query mass and retrieved masses using decision tree content-based image retrieval (DTCBIR) CADx system for characterization of ultrasound breast mass images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyun-Chong; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Sahiner, Berkman; Helvie, Mark; Paramagul, Chintana; Nees, Alexis V.

    2012-03-01

    We are developing a Decision Tree Content-Based Image Retrieval (DTCBIR) CADx scheme to assist radiologists in characterization of breast masses on ultrasound (US) images. Three DTCBIR configurations, including decision tree with boosting (DTb), decision tree with full leaf features (DTL), and decision tree with selected leaf features (DTLs) were compared. For DTb, the features of a query mass were combined first into a merged feature score and then masses with similar scores were retrieved. For DTL and DTLs, similar masses were retrieved based on the Euclidean distance between the feature vector of the query and those of the selected references. For each DTCBIR configuration, we investigated the use of the full feature set and the subset of features selected by the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and simplex optimization method, resulting in six retrieval methods. Among the six methods, we selected five, DTb-lda, DTL-lda, DTb-full, DTL-full and DTLs-full, for the observer study. For a query mass, three most similar masses were retrieved with each method and were presented to the radiologists in random order. Three MQSA radiologists rated the similarity between the query mass and the computer-retrieved masses using a ninepoint similarity scale (1=very dissimilar, 9=very similar). For DTb-lda, DTL-lda, DTb-full, DTL-full and DTLs-full, the average Az values were 0.90+/-0.03, 0.85+/-0.04, 0.87+/-0.04, 0.79+/-0.05 and 0.71+/-0.06, respectively, and the average similarity ratings were 5.00, 5.41, 4.96, 5.33 and 5.13, respectively. Although the DTb measures had the best classification performance among the DTCBIRs studied, and DTLs had the worst performance, DTLs-full obtained higher similarity ratings than the DTb measures.

  3. The RCSB Protein Data Bank: a redesigned query system and relational database based on the mmCIF schema

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Nita; Addess, Kenneth J.; Bluhm, Wolfgang F.; Merino-Ott, Jeffrey C.; Townsend-Merino, Wayne; Zhang, Qing; Knezevich, Charlie; Xie, Lie; Chen, Li; Feng, Zukang; Kramer Green, Rachel; Flippen-Anderson, Judith L.; Westbrook, John; Berman, Helen M.; Bourne, Philip E.

    2005-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is the central worldwide repository for three-dimensional (3D) structure data of biological macromolecules. The Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (RCSB) has completely redesigned its resource for the distribution and query of 3D structure data. The re-engineered site is currently in public beta test at http://pdbbeta.rcsb.org. The new site expands the functionality of the existing site by providing structure data in greater detail and uniformity, improved query and enhanced analysis tools. A new key feature is the integration and searchability of data from over 20 other sources covering genomic, proteomic and disease relationships. The current capabilities of the re-engineered site, which will become the RCSB production site at http://www.pdb.org in late 2005, are described. PMID:15608185

  4. Applying Query Structuring in Cross-language Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirkola, Ari; Puolamaki, Deniz; Jarvelin, Kalervo

    2003-01-01

    Explores ways to apply query structuring in cross-language information retrieval. Tested were: English queries translated into Finnish using an electronic dictionary, and run in a Finnish newspaper databases; effects of compound-based structuring using a proximity operator for translation equivalents of query language compound components; and a…

  5. Cumulative Query Method for Influenza Surveillance Using Search Engine Data

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dong-Woo; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Shin, Soo-Yong; Lee, JaeHo; Yu, Maengsoo; Kim, Won Young; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Sang-Il

    2014-01-01

    Background Internet search queries have become an important data source in syndromic surveillance system. However, there is currently no syndromic surveillance system using Internet search query data in South Korea. Objectives The objective of this study was to examine correlations between our cumulative query method and national influenza surveillance data. Methods Our study was based on the local search engine, Daum (approximately 25% market share), and influenza-like illness (ILI) data from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A quota sampling survey was conducted with 200 participants to obtain popular queries. We divided the study period into two sets: Set 1 (the 2009/10 epidemiological year for development set 1 and 2010/11 for validation set 1) and Set 2 (2010/11 for development Set 2 and 2011/12 for validation Set 2). Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated between the Daum data and the ILI data for the development set. We selected the combined queries for which the correlation coefficients were .7 or higher and listed them in descending order. Then, we created a cumulative query method n representing the number of cumulative combined queries in descending order of the correlation coefficient. Results In validation set 1, 13 cumulative query methods were applied, and 8 had higher correlation coefficients (min=.916, max=.943) than that of the highest single combined query. Further, 11 of 13 cumulative query methods had an r value of ≥.7, but 4 of 13 combined queries had an r value of ≥.7. In validation set 2, 8 of 15 cumulative query methods showed higher correlation coefficients (min=.975, max=.987) than that of the highest single combined query. All 15 cumulative query methods had an r value of ≥.7, but 6 of 15 combined queries had an r value of ≥.7. Conclusions Cumulative query method showed relatively higher correlation with national influenza surveillance data than combined queries in the development and validation

  6. Query Networks for Medical Information Retrieval-Assigning Probabilistic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Steve B.; Silverstein, Jonathan C.; Frisse, Mark E.

    1990-01-01

    Query networks are specializations of Belief networks used in information retrieval. We hypothesize that query networks can be incorporated into medical information systems in at least two ways: First, the relative values of nodes in the query networks can be used to initiate searches based on query term-weights. Second, query models can incorporate reader feedback and can become simple task-specific user models. If large query networks are to be useful, one must find means to assign reasonable “default” values to those nodes and edges which are not explicitly defined by some other means. This paper presents preliminary data assessing the suitability of various default heuristic query network edge assignment functions. Early evidence suggests that query networks using default assignment functions exhibit behavior consistent with that expected from an information retrieval aid.

  7. Using consensus-shape clustering to identify promiscuous ligands and protein targets and to choose the right query for shape-based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Nueno, Violeta I; Ritchie, David W

    2011-06-27

    Ligand-based shape matching approaches have become established as important and popular virtual screening (VS) techniques. However, despite their relative success, many authors have discussed how best to choose the initial query compounds and which of their conformations should be used. Furthermore, it is increasingly the case that pharmaceutical companies have multiple ligands for a given target and these may bind in different ways to the same pocket. Conversely, a given ligand can sometimes bind to multiple targets, and this is clearly of great importance when considering drug side-effects. We recently introduced the notion of spherical harmonic-based "consensus shapes" to help deal with these questions. Here, we apply a consensus shape clustering approach to the 40 protein-ligand targets in the DUD data set using PARASURF/PARAFIT. Results from clustering show that in some cases the ligands for a given target are split into two subgroups which could suggest they bind to different subsites of the same target. In other cases, our clustering approach sometimes groups together ligands from different targets, and this suggests that those ligands could bind to the same targets. Hence spherical harmonic-based clustering can rapidly give cross-docking information while avoiding the expense of performing all-against-all docking calculations. We also report on the effect of the query conformation on the performance of shape-based screening of the DUD data set and the potential gain in screening performance by using consensus shapes calculated in different ways. We provide details of our analysis of shape-based screening using both PARASURF/PARAFIT and ROCS, and we compare the results obtained with shape-based and conventional docking approaches using MSSH/SHEF and GOLD. The utility of each type of query is analyzed using commonly reported statistics such as enrichment factors (EF) and receiver-operator-characteristic (ROC) plots as well as other early performance metrics.

  8. Distributed Queries of Large Numerical Data Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemes, Richard M.

    1998-01-01

    We have extended a previously developed high-level data model, which combines numerical quantities and meta-data into a unified hybrid model, to distributed data. An elegant query language based on SQL is extended further to allow queries against such a distributed hybrid data base. The extension is realized by allowing statements in a non-SQL programming language to be embedded in SQL view definitions.

  9. Spatial Query for Planetary Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Khawaja S.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Powell, Mark W.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Fox, Jason M.

    2011-01-01

    Science investigators need to quickly and effectively assess past observations of specific locations on a planetary surface. This innovation involves a location-based search technology that was adapted and applied to planetary science data to support a spatial query capability for mission operations software. High-performance location-based searching requires the use of spatial data structures for database organization. Spatial data structures are designed to organize datasets based on their coordinates in a way that is optimized for location-based retrieval. The particular spatial data structure that was adapted for planetary data search is the R+ tree.

  10. A comprehensive physiologically based pharmacokinetic knowledgebase and web-based interface for rapid model ranking and querying

    EPA Science Inventory

    Published physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models from peer-reviewed articles are often well-parameterized, thoroughly-vetted, and can be utilized as excellent resources for the construction of models pertaining to related chemicals. Specifically, chemical-specific pa...

  11. Facilitating Learners' Web-Based Information Problem-Solving by Query Expansion-Based Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yueh-Min; Liu, Ming-Chi; Chen, Nian-Shing; Kinshuk; Wen, Dunwei

    2014-01-01

    Web-based information problem-solving has been recognised as a critical ability for learners. However, the development of students' abilities in this area often faces several challenges, such as difficulty in building well-organised knowledge structures to support complex problems that require higher-order skills (e.g., system thinking). To…

  12. Implementation of pseudoreceptor-based pharmacophore queries in the prediction of probable protein targets: explorations in the protein structural profile of Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sivakumar Prasanth; Jha, Prakash C; Pandya, Himanshu A; Jasrai, Yogesh T

    2014-07-01

    Molecular docking plays an important role in the protein target identification by prioritizing probable druggable proteins using docking energies. Due to the limitations of docking scoring schemes, there arises a need for structure-based approaches to acquire confidence in theoretical binding affinities. In this direction, we present here a receptor (protein)-based approach to predict probable protein targets using a small molecule of interest. We adopted a reverse approach wherein the ligand pharmacophore features were used to decipher interaction complementary amino acids of protein cavities (a pseudoreceptor) and expressed as queries to match the cavities or binding sites of the protein dataset. These pseudoreceptor-based pharmacophore queries were used to estimate total probabilities of each protein cavity thereby representing the ligand binding efficiency of the protein. We applied this approach to predict 3 experimental protein targets among 28 Zea mays structural data using 3 co-crystallized ligands as inputs and compared its effectiveness using conventional docking results. We suggest that the combination of total probabilities and docking energies increases the confidence in prioritizing probable protein targets using docking methods. These prediction hypotheses were further supported by DrugScoreX (DSX) pair potential calculations and molecular dynamic simulations. PMID:24756543

  13. Activity-based costing management in a private practice setting.

    PubMed

    Carlomagno, M; Draper, V

    1997-01-01

    Activity-based costing is a method of calculating cost of a service, focusing on operations. It gives quick and tangible cost information to operations and financial managers. While this method has be used more in the manufacturing area, it is gaining acceptance in the medical practice. This article describes activity-based costing and illustrates how to start utilizing it in a practice.

  14. Condorcet Query Engine: A Query Engine for Coordinated Index Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Vet, Paul E.; Mars, Nicolaas J. I.

    1999-01-01

    Coordinated index concepts are compound-index concepts that express a relationship between concepts that function as simple subject descriptors. The Condorcet Query Engine, a prototype query engine that can be run over the World Wide Web, demonstrates the feasibility of a query engine that can handle both simple and coordinated index concepts,…

  15. Assisting Consumer Health Information Retrieval with Query Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qing T.; Crowell, Jonathan; Plovnick, Robert M.; Kim, Eunjung; Ngo, Long; Dibble, Emily

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Health information retrieval (HIR) on the Internet has become an important practice for millions of people, many of whom have problems forming effective queries. We have developed and evaluated a tool to assist people in health-related query formation. Design: We developed the Health Information Query Assistant (HIQuA) system. The system suggests alternative/additional query terms related to the user's initial query that can be used as building blocks to construct a better, more specific query. The recommended terms are selected according to their semantic distance from the original query, which is calculated on the basis of concept co-occurrences in medical literature and log data as well as semantic relations in medical vocabularies. Measurements: An evaluation of the HIQuA system was conducted and a total of 213 subjects participated in the study. The subjects were randomized into 2 groups. One group was given query recommendations and the other was not. Each subject performed HIR for both a predefined and a self-defined task. Results: The study showed that providing HIQuA recommendations resulted in statistically significantly higher rates of successful queries (odds ratio = 1.66, 95% confidence interval = 1.16–2.38), although no statistically significant impact on user satisfaction or the users' ability to accomplish the predefined retrieval task was found. Conclusion: Providing semantic-distance-based query recommendations can help consumers with query formation during HIR. PMID:16221944

  16. A new method for generating an invariant iris private key based on the fuzzy vault system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youn Joo; Park, Kang Ryoung; Lee, Sung Joo; Bae, Kwanghyuk; Kim, Jaihie

    2008-10-01

    Cryptographic systems have been widely used in many information security applications. One main challenge that these systems have faced has been how to protect private keys from attackers. Recently, biometric cryptosystems have been introduced as a reliable way of concealing private keys by using biometric data. A fuzzy vault refers to a biometric cryptosystem that can be used to effectively protect private keys and to release them only when legitimate users enter their biometric data. In biometric systems, a critical problem is storing biometric templates in a database. However, fuzzy vault systems do not need to directly store these templates since they are combined with private keys by using cryptography. Previous fuzzy vault systems were designed by using fingerprint, face, and so on. However, there has been no attempt to implement a fuzzy vault system that used an iris. In biometric applications, it is widely known that an iris can discriminate between persons better than other biometric modalities. In this paper, we propose a reliable fuzzy vault system based on local iris features. We extracted multiple iris features from multiple local regions in a given iris image, and the exact values of the unordered set were then produced using the clustering method. To align the iris templates with the new input iris data, a shift-matching technique was applied. Experimental results showed that 128-bit private keys were securely and robustly generated by using any given iris data without requiring prealignment. PMID:18784013

  17. Query Evaluation: Strategies and Optimizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turtle, Howard; Flood, James

    1995-01-01

    Discusses two query evaluation strategies used in large text retrieval systems: (1) term-at-a-time; and (2) document-at-a-time. Describes optimization techniques that can reduce query evaluation costs. Presents simulation results that compare the performance of these optimization techniques when applied to natural language query evaluation. (JMV)

  18. A Semantic Graph Query Language

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I L

    2006-10-16

    Semantic graphs can be used to organize large amounts of information from a number of sources into one unified structure. A semantic query language provides a foundation for extracting information from the semantic graph. The graph query language described here provides a simple, powerful method for querying semantic graphs.

  19. Diversity Preparedness: A Reflection on Pre-Service Teacher Preparation in Private, Faith-Based Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclin, ShaRhonda A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory, quantitative study is to evaluate the diversity preparedness of teacher education graduates from private, faith-based colleges. More specifically, the study identifies how teacher education graduates perceive their preparation to work with diversity issues in the classroom. Participants shared their perceptions of…

  20. Using Internet-Based Language Testing Capacity to the Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Laborda, Jesus

    2009-01-01

    Language testing has a large number of commercial applications in both the institutional and the private sectors. Some jobs in the health services sector or the public services sector require foreign language skills and these skills require continuous and efficient language assessments. Based on an experience developed through the cooperation of…

  1. The Effects of a Cognitive-Based Intervention on Drug Awareness in Private School Preadolescent Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Phyllis M.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of a Cognitive-Based Intervention on Drug Awareness in Private School Preadolescent Students. Parsons, Phyllis M., 2005: Applied Dissertation, Nova Southeastern University, Fischler School of Education and Human Services. Adolescents/Substance Abuse/Prevention/Family Influence/Drug Education. This applied dissertation was designed to…

  2. In-network processing of an iceberg join query in wireless sensor networks based on 2-way fragment semijoins.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyunchul

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the in-network processing of an iceberg join query in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). An iceberg join is a special type of join where only those joined tuples whose cardinality exceeds a certain threshold (called iceberg threshold) are qualified for the result. Processing such a join involves the value matching for the join predicate as well as the checking of the cardinality constraint for the iceberg threshold. In the previous scheme, the value matching is carried out as the main task for filtering non-joinable tuples while the iceberg threshold is treated as an additional constraint. We take an alternative approach, meeting the cardinality constraint first and matching values next. In this approach, with a logical fragmentation of the join operand relations on the aggregate counts of the joining attribute values, the optimal sequence of 2-way fragment semijoins is generated, where each fragment semijoin employs a Bloom filter as a synopsis of the joining attribute values. This sequence filters non-joinable tuples in an energy-efficient way in WSNs. Through implementation and a set of detailed experiments, we show that our alternative approach considerably outperforms the previous one. PMID:25774710

  3. Querying genomic databases

    SciTech Connect

    Baehr, A.; Hagstrom, R.; Joerg, D.; Overbeek, R.

    1991-09-01

    A natural-language interface has been developed that retrieves genomic information by using a simple subset of English. The interface spares the biologist from the task of learning database-specific query languages and computer programming. Currently, the interface deals with the E. coli genome. It can, however, be readily extended and shows promise as a means of easy access to other sequenced genomic databases as well.

  4. Revenue-Based Financial Modeling: A Sustainable Model for Medium-Size, Private, Mission-Based Schools of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbouk, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the implementation and assessment of revenue-based budgeting at a medium-size, private, mission-based graduate school of education (SOE), under the pseudonym Peter Claver University (PCU). Additionally, two other similar schools were included in the study because they used revenue-based budgeting for a period of 10 years or…

  5. RadSearch: a RIS/PACS integrated query tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Sinchai; Documet, Jorge; Moin, Paymann; Wang, Kevin; Liu, Brent J.

    2008-03-01

    Radiology Information Systems (RIS) contain a wealth of information that can be used for research, education, and practice management. However, the sheer amount of information available makes querying specific data difficult and time consuming. Previous work has shown that a clinical RIS database and its RIS text reports can be extracted, duplicated and indexed for searches while complying with HIPAA and IRB requirements. This project's intent is to provide a software tool, the RadSearch Toolkit, to allow intelligent indexing and parsing of RIS reports for easy yet powerful searches. In addition, the project aims to seamlessly query and retrieve associated images from the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) in situations where an integrated RIS/PACS is in place - even subselecting individual series, such as in an MRI study. RadSearch's application of simple text parsing techniques to index text-based radiology reports will allow the search engine to quickly return relevant results. This powerful combination will be useful in both private practice and academic settings; administrators can easily obtain complex practice management information such as referral patterns; researchers can conduct retrospective studies with specific, multiple criteria; teaching institutions can quickly and effectively create thorough teaching files.

  6. An SQL query generator for CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, James; Chirica, Laurian

    1990-01-01

    As expert systems become more widely used, their access to large amounts of external information becomes increasingly important. This information exists in several forms such as statistical, tabular data, knowledge gained by experts and large databases of information maintained by companies. Because many expert systems, including CLIPS, do not provide access to this external information, much of the usefulness of expert systems is left untapped. The scope of this paper is to describe a database extension for the CLIPS expert system shell. The current industry standard database language is SQL. Due to SQL standardization, large amounts of information stored on various computers, potentially at different locations, will be more easily accessible. Expert systems should be able to directly access these existing databases rather than requiring information to be re-entered into the expert system environment. The ORACLE relational database management system (RDBMS) was used to provide a database connection within the CLIPS environment. To facilitate relational database access a query generation system was developed as a CLIPS user function. The queries are entered in a CLlPS-like syntax and are passed to the query generator, which constructs and submits for execution, an SQL query to the ORACLE RDBMS. The query results are asserted as CLIPS facts. The query generator was developed primarily for use within the ICADS project (Intelligent Computer Aided Design System) currently being developed by the CAD Research Unit in the California Polytechnic State University (Cal Poly). In ICADS, there are several parallel or distributed expert systems accessing a common knowledge base of facts. Expert system has a narrow domain of interest and therefore needs only certain portions of the information. The query generator provides a common method of accessing this information and allows the expert system to specify what data is needed without specifying how to retrieve it.

  7. Teaching Tacting of Private Events Based on Public Accompaniments: Effects of Contingencies, Audience Control, and Stimulus Complexity.

    PubMed

    Stocco, Corey S; Thompson, Rachel H; Hart, John M

    2014-06-01

    Our current understanding of the role of private events in the science of behavior is based largely on Skinner's natural science interpretation of private events. Skinner described public accompaniments as one source of control for a verbal community to differentially reinforce verbal behavior regarding private events. In this study, we developed an experimental analogue to study variables influencing tacting of private events. The participant had exclusive access to one set of stimuli (the private stimuli), and the experimenter attempted to teach tacts for private stimuli based on their correspondence with public stimuli accessible to both the experimenter and participant. Results of experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that reports of private stimuli were a function of degree of public-private correspondence, reinforcement contingency, and audience control. In some cases, we encountered reports controlled exclusively by public stimuli. Results of experiment 3 showed that public control was less likely when public stimuli were more complex and the experimenter had a unique behavioral history with respect to those stimuli that was not shared by the learner. The orderly patterns of data obtained suggest that analogue arrangements might be a useful, and even necessary, starting point for experimental investigations of how private events may enter into the analysis of behavior.

  8. Hybrid Filtering in Semantic Query Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Hanjo

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation presents a hybrid filtering method and a case-based reasoning framework for enhancing the effectiveness of Web search. Web search may not reflect user needs, intent, context, and preferences, because today's keyword-based search is lacking semantic information to capture the user's context and intent in posing the search query.…

  9. Querying and Extracting Timeline Information from Road Traffic Sensor Data.

    PubMed

    Imawan, Ardi; Indikawati, Fitri Indra; Kwon, Joonho; Rao, Praveen

    2016-08-23

    The escalation of traffic congestion in urban cities has urged many countries to use intelligent transportation system (ITS) centers to collect historical traffic sensor data from multiple heterogeneous sources. By analyzing historical traffic data, we can obtain valuable insights into traffic behavior. Many existing applications have been proposed with limited analysis results because of the inability to cope with several types of analytical queries. In this paper, we propose the QET (querying and extracting timeline information) system-a novel analytical query processing method based on a timeline model for road traffic sensor data. To address query performance, we build a TQ-index (timeline query-index) that exploits spatio-temporal features of timeline modeling. We also propose an intuitive timeline visualization method to display congestion events obtained from specified query parameters. In addition, we demonstrate the benefit of our system through a performance evaluation using a Busan ITS dataset and a Seattle freeway dataset.

  10. Querying and Extracting Timeline Information from Road Traffic Sensor Data

    PubMed Central

    Imawan, Ardi; Indikawati, Fitri Indra; Kwon, Joonho; Rao, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    The escalation of traffic congestion in urban cities has urged many countries to use intelligent transportation system (ITS) centers to collect historical traffic sensor data from multiple heterogeneous sources. By analyzing historical traffic data, we can obtain valuable insights into traffic behavior. Many existing applications have been proposed with limited analysis results because of the inability to cope with several types of analytical queries. In this paper, we propose the QET (querying and extracting timeline information) system—a novel analytical query processing method based on a timeline model for road traffic sensor data. To address query performance, we build a TQ-index (timeline query-index) that exploits spatio-temporal features of timeline modeling. We also propose an intuitive timeline visualization method to display congestion events obtained from specified query parameters. In addition, we demonstrate the benefit of our system through a performance evaluation using a Busan ITS dataset and a Seattle freeway dataset. PMID:27563900

  11. Querying and Extracting Timeline Information from Road Traffic Sensor Data.

    PubMed

    Imawan, Ardi; Indikawati, Fitri Indra; Kwon, Joonho; Rao, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    The escalation of traffic congestion in urban cities has urged many countries to use intelligent transportation system (ITS) centers to collect historical traffic sensor data from multiple heterogeneous sources. By analyzing historical traffic data, we can obtain valuable insights into traffic behavior. Many existing applications have been proposed with limited analysis results because of the inability to cope with several types of analytical queries. In this paper, we propose the QET (querying and extracting timeline information) system-a novel analytical query processing method based on a timeline model for road traffic sensor data. To address query performance, we build a TQ-index (timeline query-index) that exploits spatio-temporal features of timeline modeling. We also propose an intuitive timeline visualization method to display congestion events obtained from specified query parameters. In addition, we demonstrate the benefit of our system through a performance evaluation using a Busan ITS dataset and a Seattle freeway dataset. PMID:27563900

  12. A Typed Text Retrieval Query Language for XML Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colazzo, Dario; Sartiani, Carlo; Albano, Antonio; Manghi, Paolo; Ghelli, Giorgio; Lini, Luca; Paoli, Michele

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of XML focuses on a description of Tequyla-TX, a typed text retrieval query language for XML documents that can search on both content and structures. Highlights include motivations; numerous examples; word-based and char-based searches; tag-dependent full-text searches; text normalization; query algebra; data models and term language;…

  13. Smart Query Answering for Marine Sensor Data

    PubMed Central

    Shahriar, Md. Sumon; de Souza, Paulo; Timms, Greg

    2011-01-01

    We review existing query answering systems for sensor data. We then propose an extended query answering approach termed smart query, specifically for marine sensor data. The smart query answering system integrates pattern queries and continuous queries. The proposed smart query system considers both streaming data and historical data from marine sensor networks. The smart query also uses query relaxation technique and semantics from domain knowledge as a recommender system. The proposed smart query benefits in building data and information systems for marine sensor networks. PMID:22163772

  14. Smart query answering for marine sensor data.

    PubMed

    Shahriar, Md Sumon; de Souza, Paulo; Timms, Greg

    2011-01-01

    We review existing query answering systems for sensor data. We then propose an extended query answering approach termed smart query, specifically for marine sensor data. The smart query answering system integrates pattern queries and continuous queries. The proposed smart query system considers both streaming data and historical data from marine sensor networks. The smart query also uses query relaxation technique and semantics from domain knowledge as a recommender system. The proposed smart query benefits in building data and information systems for marine sensor networks.

  15. Automatic Building Information Model Query Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yufei; Yu, Nan; Ming, Jiang; Lee, Sanghoon; DeGraw, Jason; Yen, John; Messner, John I.; Wu, Dinghao

    2015-12-01

    Energy efficient building design and construction calls for extensive collaboration between different subfields of the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) community. Performing building design and construction engineering raises challenges on data integration and software interoperability. Using Building Information Modeling (BIM) data hub to host and integrate building models is a promising solution to address those challenges, which can ease building design information management. However, the partial model query mechanism of current BIM data hub collaboration model has several limitations, which prevents designers and engineers to take advantage of BIM. To address this problem, we propose a general and effective approach to generate query code based on a Model View Definition (MVD). This approach is demonstrated through a software prototype called QueryGenerator. By demonstrating a case study using multi-zone air flow analysis, we show how our approach and tool can help domain experts to use BIM to drive building design with less labour and lower overhead cost.

  16. Query Expansion and Query Translation as Logical Inference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nie, Jian-Yun

    2003-01-01

    Examines query expansion during query translation in cross language information retrieval and develops a general framework for inferential information retrieval in two particular contexts: using fuzzy logic and probability theory. Obtains evaluation formulas that are shown to strongly correspond to those used in other information retrieval models.…

  17. Distributed Query Plan Generation Using Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Panicker, Shina; Vijay Kumar, T. V.

    2014-01-01

    A distributed query processing strategy, which is a key performance determinant in accessing distributed databases, aims to minimize the total query processing cost. One way to achieve this is by generating efficient distributed query plans that involve fewer sites for processing a query. In the case of distributed relational databases, the number of possible query plans increases exponentially with respect to the number of relations accessed by the query and the number of sites where these relations reside. Consequently, computing optimal distributed query plans becomes a complex problem. This distributed query plan generation (DQPG) problem has already been addressed using single objective genetic algorithm, where the objective is to minimize the total query processing cost comprising the local processing cost (LPC) and the site-to-site communication cost (CC). In this paper, this DQPG problem is formulated and solved as a biobjective optimization problem with the two objectives being minimize total LPC and minimize total CC. These objectives are simultaneously optimized using a multiobjective genetic algorithm NSGA-II. Experimental comparison of the proposed NSGA-II based DQPG algorithm with the single objective genetic algorithm shows that the former performs comparatively better and converges quickly towards optimal solutions for an observed crossover and mutation probability. PMID:24963513

  18. TQuery: a context-sensitive temporal query language.

    PubMed

    Kahn, M G; Tu, S; Fagan, L M

    1991-10-01

    Users of electronic medical databases request pertinent information by recasting their clinical questions into a formal database query language. Because the query language is the user's only access to the data, the query language must be powerful enough to enable users to express their data requirements. However, a competing need is for the query language to be restrictive enough so that queries can have unambiguous semantics and the query processor can generate correct answers. We describe a query language, called TQuery , that was designed specifically to formulate database queries that are dependent on temporal and contextual relationships. TQuery specifications express contextual constraints without the need to explicitly reference calendar dates. TQuery is the database query language used to retrieve patient data from an object-oriented electronic patient medical-record system called the temporal network (TNET). TNET and TQuery were developed to support the real-time temporal reasoning and representation needs of a LISP workstation-based medical expert system. PMID:1743002

  19. Priming the Query Specification Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toms, Elaine G.; Freund, Luanne

    2003-01-01

    Tests the use of questions as a technique in the query specification process. Using a within-subjects design, 48 people interacted with a modified Google interface to solve four information problems in four domains. Half the tasks were entered as typical keyword queries, and half as questions or statements. Results suggest the typical search box…

  20. Querying Proofs (Work in Progress)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aspinall, David; Denney, Ewen; Lueth, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    We motivate and introduce the basis for a query language designed for inspecting electronic representations of proofs. We argue that there is much to learn from large proofs beyond their validity, and that a dedicated query language can provide a principled way of implementing a family of useful operations.

  1. Generation of plaintext-independent private key based on conditional decomposition strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chao; Shen, Xueju; Lei, Ming

    2016-11-01

    We propose to generate the plaintext-independent private keys in optical asymmetric cryptosystem (OACS) based on the strategy of conditional decomposition (CD). Following this strategy, an OACS is designed with the principle of superposition of two vectorial beams. The proposed cryptosystem can remove the silhouette which is discovered in the two beams interference-based cryptosystem. To relieve the difficulty of key distribution, a structured spiral phase key (SSPK) is utilized instead of the random phase key (RPK). And a comparison on the performance of two kinds of keys in both the encryption and decryption process is made to show the advantage of SSPK over RPK.

  2. Pareto-depth for multiple-query image retrieval.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Ko-Jen; Calder, Jeff; Hero, Alfred O

    2015-02-01

    Most content-based image retrieval systems consider either one single query, or multiple queries that include the same object or represent the same semantic information. In this paper, we consider the content-based image retrieval problem for multiple query images corresponding to different image semantics. We propose a novel multiple-query information retrieval algorithm that combines the Pareto front method with efficient manifold ranking. We show that our proposed algorithm outperforms state of the art multiple-query retrieval algorithms on real-world image databases. We attribute this performance improvement to concavity properties of the Pareto fronts, and prove a theoretical result that characterizes the asymptotic concavity of the fronts.

  3. DTI data modeling for unlimited query support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siadat, Mohammad-Reza; Hammad, Rafat; Shetty, Anil; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Sethi, Ishwar K.; Eetemadi, Ameen; Elisevich, Kost V.

    2009-02-01

    This paper describes Data Modeling for unstructured data of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). Data Modeling is an essential first step for data preparation in any data management and data mining procedure. Conventional Entity- Relational (E-R) data modeling is lossy, irreproducible, and time-consuming especially when dealing with unstructured image data associated with complex systems like the human brain. We propose a methodological framework for more objective E-R data modeling with unlimited query support by eliminating the structured content-dependent metadata associated with the unstructured data. The proposed method is applied to DTI data and a minimum system is implemented accordingly. Eventually supported with navigation, data fusion, and feature extraction modules, the proposed system provides a content-based support environment (C-BASE). Such an environment facilitates an unlimited query support with a reproducible and efficient database schema. Switching between different modalities of data, while confining the feature extractors within the object(s) of interest, we supply anatomically specific query results. The price of such a scheme is relatively large storage and in some cases high computational cost. The data modeling and its mathematical framework, behind the scene of query executions and the user interface of the system are presented in this paper.

  4. A social marketing approach to implementing evidence-based practice in VHA QUERI: the TIDES depression collaborative care model

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Collaborative care models for depression in primary care are effective and cost-effective, but difficult to spread to new sites. Translating Initiatives for Depression into Effective Solutions (TIDES) is an initiative to promote evidence-based collaborative care in the U.S. Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Social marketing applies marketing techniques to promote positive behavior change. Described in this paper, TIDES used a social marketing approach to foster national spread of collaborative care models. TIDES social marketing approach The approach relied on a sequential model of behavior change and explicit attention to audience segmentation. Segments included VHA national leadership, Veterans Integrated Service Network (VISN) regional leadership, facility managers, frontline providers, and veterans. TIDES communications, materials and messages targeted each segment, guided by an overall marketing plan. Results Depression collaborative care based on the TIDES model was adopted by VHA as part of the new Primary Care Mental Health Initiative and associated policies. It is currently in use in more than 50 primary care practices across the United States, and continues to spread, suggesting success for its social marketing-based dissemination strategy. Discussion and conclusion Development, execution and evaluation of the TIDES marketing effort shows that social marketing is a promising approach for promoting implementation of evidence-based interventions in integrated healthcare systems. PMID:19785754

  5. Query cardiac pain.

    PubMed

    Todd, J W

    1983-08-01

    Query cardiac pain is a common problem, and immense efforts are made to solve it. No test can prove that a patient has not had a cardiac infarct, though in the recent past eminent authorities wrongly stated that a normal ECG supplied this proof. This history is by far the most important means of interpreting recurrent pain. Coronary arteriography is only useful in diagnosis when the pain is certainly due to myocardial ischaemia but it is uncertain whether this is caused by coronary artery disease or some other cardiac lesion. In practice, much pain is not diagnosed. This need be no cause for concern, and patients who in fact have had a small cardiac infarct gain rather than lose if wrongly reassured of its non-existence. The history of cardiology is a depressing catalogue of error. Bogus cardiac diseases have been diagnosed on an enormous scale, mainly because attention has been concentrated on the cardiac manifestations, while the patient was ignored. Much "excluding" is fatuous. Because treatment was derived from theory, treatment for patients who had had cardiac infarcts was disastrous. The great error at present is to overvalue technology.

  6. Prioritizing Public- Private Partnership Models for Public Hospitals of Iran Based on Performance Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Gholamzadeh Nikjoo, Raana; Jabbari Beyrami, Hossein; Jannati, Ali; Asghari Jaafarabadi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Background: The present study was conducted to scrutinize Public- Private Partnership (PPP) models in public hospitals of different countries based on performance indicators in order to se-lect appropriated models for Iran hospitals. Methods: In this mixed (quantitative-qualitative) study, systematic review and expert panel has been done to identify varied models of PPP as well as performance indicators. In the second step we prioritized performance indicator and PPP models based on selected performance indicators by Analytical Hierarchy process (AHP) technique. The data were analyzed by Excel 2007 and Expert Choice11 software’s. Results: In quality – effectiveness area, indicators like the rate of hospital infections (100%), hospital accidents prevalence rate (73%), pure rate of hospital mortality (63%), patient satisfaction percentage (53%), in accessibility equity area indicators such as average inpatient waiting time (100%) and average outpatient waiting time (74%), and in financial – efficiency area, indicators including average length of stay (100%), bed occupation ratio (99%), specific income to total cost ratio (97%) have been chosen to be the most key performance indicators. In the pri¬oritization of the PPP models clinical outsourcing, management, privatization, BOO (build, own, operate) and non-clinical outsourcing models, achieved high priority for various performance in¬dicator areas. Conclusion: This study had been provided the most common PPP options in the field of public hospitals and had gathered suitable evidences from experts for choosing appropriate PPP option for public hospitals. Effect of private sector presence in public hospital performance, based on which PPP options undertaken, will be different. PMID:24688942

  7. Structured Query Language (SQL) fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Jamison, D Curtis

    2003-02-01

    Relational databases provide the most common platform for storing data. The Structured Query Language (SQL) is a powerful tool for interacting with relational database systems. SQL enables the user to concoct complex and powerful queries in a straightforward manner, allowing sophisticated data analysis using simple syntax and structure. This unit demonstrates how to use the MySQL package to build and interact with a relational database.

  8. Searching for Images: The Analysis of Users' Queries for Image Retrieval in American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Youngok; Rasmussen, Edie M.

    2003-01-01

    Studied users' queries for visual information in American history to identify the image attributes important for retrieval and the characteristics of users' queries for digital images, based on queries from 38 faculty and graduate students. Results of pre- and post-test questionnaires and interviews suggest principle categories of search terms.…

  9. Quantum private comparison protocol based on entanglement swapping of d-level Bell states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fen Zhuo; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su Juan; Zhang, Jie; Wen, Qiao Yan

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a quantum private comparison protocol based on entanglement swapping, where two distrustful parties can compare the values of their secrets with the help of a semi-trusted third party. The protocol can determine not only whether two secrets are equal, but also the size relationship between them. The two parties can deduce the comparison result based on the keys shared between them and the announcement of the third party. Others including the third party will learn nothing about the values of the secrets, as well as the comparison result. The security of our protocol is analyzed. Furthermore, all the particles can be reused in the same protocol model theoretically. So our protocol is efficient and feasible to expand in network service, which in turn gives a solution to the left problem in Lin et al. (Quantum Inf Process, doi: 10.1007/s11128-012-0395-6, 2012).

  10. Virtual Solar Observatory Distributed Query Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurman, J. B.; Dimitoglou, G.; Bogart, R.; Davey, A.; Hill, F.; Martens, P.

    2003-01-01

    Through a prototype implementation (Tian et al., this meeting) the VSO has already demonstrated the capability of unifying geographically distributed data sources following the Web Services paradigm and utilizing mechanisms such as the Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). So far, four participating sites (Stanford, Montana State University, National Solar Observatory and the Solar Data Analysis Center) permit Web-accessible, time-based searches that allow browse access to a number of diverse data sets. Our latest work includes the extension of the simple, time-based queries to include numerous other searchable observation parameters. For VSO users, this extended functionality enables more refined searches. For the VSO, it is a proof of concept that more complex, distributed queries can be effectively constructed and that results from heterogeneous, remote sources can be synthesized and presented to users as a single, virtual data product.

  11. Approximate Shortest Path Queries Using Voronoi Duals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honiden, Shinichi; Houle, Michael E.; Sommer, Christian; Wolff, Martin

    We propose an approximation method to answer point-to-point shortest path queries in undirected edge-weighted graphs, based on random sampling and Voronoi duals. We compute a simplification of the graph by selecting nodes independently at random with probability p. Edges are generated as the Voronoi dual of the original graph, using the selected nodes as Voronoi sites. This overlay graph allows for fast computation of approximate shortest paths for general, undirected graphs. The time-quality tradeoff decision can be made at query time. We provide bounds on the approximation ratio of the path lengths as well as experimental results. The theoretical worst-case approximation ratio is bounded by a logarithmic factor. Experiments show that our approximation method based on Voronoi duals has extremely fast preprocessing time and efficiently computes reasonably short paths.

  12. Translating relational queries into iterative programs

    SciTech Connect

    Freytag, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book investigates the problem of translating relational queries into iterative programs using methods and techniques from the areas of functional programming and program transformation. The first part presents two algorithms which generate iterative programs from algebra-based query specifications. While the first algorithm is based on the transformation of recursive programs, the second uses functional expressions to generate the final iterative form. In the second part the same techniques generate efficient programs for the evaluation of aggregate functions in relational database systems. In several steps, programs which perform aggregation after sorting, are transformed into programs which perform aggregation while sorting. The third part then investigates the Lisp-dialect T as a possible implementation language for database systems.

  13. Mining Longitudinal Web Queries: Trends and Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Peiling; Berry, Michael W.; Yang, Yiheng

    2003-01-01

    Analyzed user queries submitted to an academic Web site during a four-year period, using a relational database, to examine users' query behavior, to identify problems they encounter, and to develop techniques for optimizing query analysis and mining. Linguistic analyses focus on query structures, lexicon, and word associations using statistical…

  14. Cluster Analysis and Fuzzy Query in Ship Maintenance and Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Jianhua; He, Qinming; Zhao, Yinggang; Qian, Feng; Chen, Qi

    Cluster analysis and fuzzy query win wide-spread applications in modern intelligent information processing. In allusion to the features of ship maintenance data, a variant of hypergraph-based clustering algorithm, i.e., Correlation Coefficient-based Minimal Spanning Tree(CC-MST), is proposed to analyze the bulky data rooting in ship maintenance process, discovery the unknown rules and help ship maintainers make a decision on various device fault causes. At the same time, revising or renewing an existed design of ship or device maybe necessary to eliminate those device faults. For the sake of offering ship designers some valuable hints, a fuzzy query mechanism is designed to retrieve the useful information from large-scale complicated and reluctant ship technical and testing data. Finally, two experiments based on a real ship device fault statistical dataset validate the flexibility and efficiency of the CC-MST algorithm. A fuzzy query prototype demonstrates the usability of our fuzzy query mechanism.

  15. All-optical virtual private network and ONUs communication in optical OFDM-based PON system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongfu; Huang, Jian; Chen, Chen; Qiu, Kun

    2011-11-21

    We propose and demonstrate a novel scheme, which enables all-optical virtual private network (VPN) and all-optical optical network units (ONUs) inter-communications in optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing-based passive optical network (OFDM-PON) system using the subcarrier bands allocation for the first time (to our knowledge). We consider the intra-VPN and inter-VPN communications which correspond to two different cases: VPN communication among ONUs in one group and in different groups. The proposed scheme can provide the enhanced security and a more flexible configuration for VPN users compared to the VPN in WDM-PON or TDM-PON systems. The all-optical VPN and inter-ONU communications at 10-Gbit/s with 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (16 QAM) for the proposed optical OFDM-PON system are demonstrated. These results verify that the proposed scheme is feasible.

  16. A landholder-based approach to the design of private-land conservation programs.

    PubMed

    Moon, Katie; Cocklin, Chris

    2011-06-01

    Many ecosystems exist primarily, or solely, on privately owned (freehold) or managed (leasehold) land. In rural and semirural areas, local and regional government agencies are commonly responsible for encouraging landholders to conserve native vegetation and species on these private properties. Yet these agencies often lack the capacity to design and implement conservation programs tailored to rural and semirural landholdings and instead offer one program to all landholders. Landholders may elect not to participate because the program is irrelevant to their property or personal needs; consequently, vegetation-retention objectives may not be achieved. We differentiated landholders in Queensland, Australia, according to whether they derived income from the land (production landholders) or not (nonproduction landholders). We compared these two groups to identify similarities and differences that may inform the use of policy instruments (e.g., voluntary, economic, and regulatory) in conservation program design. We interviewed 45 landholders participating in three different conservation agreement programs (price-based rate [property tax] rebate; market-based tender; and voluntary, permanent covenant). Production landholders were more likely to participate in short-term programs that offered large financial incentives that applied to <25% of their property. Nonproduction landholders were more likely to participate in long-term programs that were voluntary or offered small financial incentives that applied to >75% of their property. These results may be explained by significant differences in the personal circumstances of production and nonproduction landholders (income, education, health) and differences in their norms (beliefs about how an individual is expected to act) and attitudes. Knowledge of these differences may allow for development of conservation programs that better meet the needs of landholders and thus increase participation in conservation programs and

  17. A Relation Routing Scheme for Distributed Semantic Media Query

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Zhuhua; Zhang, Guoqiang; Yi, Aiping; Zhang, Guoqing; Liang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Performing complex semantic queries over large-scale distributed media contents is a challenging task for rich media applications. The dynamics and openness of data sources make it uneasy to realize a query scheme that simultaneously achieves precision, scalability, and reliability. In this paper, a novel relation routing scheme (RRS) is proposed by renovating the routing model of Content Centric Network (CCN) for directly querying large-scale semantic media content. By using proper query model and routing mechanism, semantic queries with complex relation constrains from users can be guided towards potential media sources through semantic guider nodes. The scattered and fragmented query results can be integrated on their way back for semantic needs or to avoid duplication. Several new techniques, such as semantic-based naming, incomplete response avoidance, timeout checking, and semantic integration, are developed in this paper to improve the accuracy, efficiency, and practicality of the proposed approach. Both analytical and experimental results show that the proposed scheme is a promising and effective solution for complex semantic queries and integration over large-scale networks. PMID:24319383

  18. Summarization of Text Document Using Query Dependent Parsing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokade, P. P.; Mrunal, Bewoor; Patil, S. H.

    2010-11-01

    World Wide Web is the largest source of information. Huge amount of data is present on the Web. There has been a great amount of work on query-independent summarization of documents. However, due to the success of Web search engines query-specific document summarization (query result snippets) has become an important problem. In this paper a method to create query specific summaries by identifying the most query-relevant fragments and combining them using the semantic associations within the document is discussed. In particular, first a structure is added to the documents in the preprocessing stage and converts them to document graphs. The present research work focuses on analytical study of different document clustering and summarization techniques currently the most research is focused on Query-Independent summarization. The main aim of this research work is to combine the both approaches of document clustering and query dependent summarization. This mainly includes applying different clustering algorithms on a text document. Create a weighted document graph of the resulting graph based on the keywords. And obtain the document graph to get the summary of the document. The performance of the summary using different clustering techniques will be analyzed and the optimal approach will be suggested.

  19. A Query Tool Enabling Clinicians and Researchers to Explore Patient Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Lim Choi Keung, Sarah N; Khan, Omar; Asadipour, Ali; Dereli, Huseyin; Zhao, Lei; Robbins, Tim; Arvanitis, Theodoros N

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing amount of health information being gathered and the potential benefit of data reuse, it is now becoming a necessity for tools, which collect and analyse this data, to support integration of heterogeneous datasets, as well as provide intuitive user interfaces, which allow clinicians and researchers to query the data without needing to form complex SQL queries. The West Midlands Query Tool consists of an easy-to-use graph-based GUI, which interacts with a flexible middleware application. It has the main objective of querying heterogeneous data sources for exploring patient cohorts through a query builder and criteria set. PMID:26152952

  20. Estimating Influenza Outbreaks Using Both Search Engine Query Data and Social Media Data in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hyekyung; Shim, Eunyoung; Lee, Jong-Koo; Lee, Chang-Gun; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Background As suggested as early as in 2006, logs of queries submitted to search engines seeking information could be a source for detection of emerging influenza epidemics if changes in the volume of search queries are monitored (infodemiology). However, selecting queries that are most likely to be associated with influenza epidemics is a particular challenge when it comes to generating better predictions. Objective In this study, we describe a methodological extension for detecting influenza outbreaks using search query data; we provide a new approach for query selection through the exploration of contextual information gleaned from social media data. Additionally, we evaluate whether it is possible to use these queries for monitoring and predicting influenza epidemics in South Korea. Methods Our study was based on freely available weekly influenza incidence data and query data originating from the search engine on the Korean website Daum between April 3, 2011 and April 5, 2014. To select queries related to influenza epidemics, several approaches were applied: (1) exploring influenza-related words in social media data, (2) identifying the chief concerns related to influenza, and (3) using Web query recommendations. Optimal feature selection by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) and support vector machine for regression (SVR) were used to construct a model predicting influenza epidemics. Results In total, 146 queries related to influenza were generated through our initial query selection approach. A considerable proportion of optimal features for final models were derived from queries with reference to the social media data. The SVR model performed well: the prediction values were highly correlated with the recent observed influenza-like illness (r=.956; P<.001) and virological incidence rate (r=.963; P<.001). Conclusions These results demonstrate the feasibility of using search queries to enhance influenza surveillance in South Korea. In

  1. Query by pictionary: an alternative to medical image retrieval.

    PubMed

    Macura, K J; Macura, R T

    1995-01-01

    This paper focuses on the visual interface for image retrieval from radiology image database and describes a Radiologic Pictionary. A Radiologic Pictionary is a picture-based controlled vocabulary that allows visual query formulation by providing the user with images (samplers) that are linked to the hierarchical index of radiological findings and mapped into image data within the database. Samplers selected during query formulation point to image records that share their characteristics; all matching images are returned to the user.

  2. Privatizing Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrard, Jane; Bolt, Nancy; Strege, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This timely special report from ALA Editions provides a succinct but comprehensive overview of the "privatization" of public libraries. It provides a history of the trend of local and state governments privatizing public services and assets, and then examines the history of public library privatization right up to the California legislation…

  3. Casemix based funding for private hospitals or there are still a number of options so can we please slow down.

    PubMed

    Herring, M M

    1991-01-01

    Australian private hospitals should ask themselves and answer four questions in relation to case mix based payment before they reach a firm decision of the merits of such funding. Firstly, does Australia in general and the private sector in particular need case mix based funding? Secondly, if we are to have case mix based funding, does it have to be based on DRGs and, in particular, the system in use in the United States--the Medicare prospective payment system? Thirdly, will the U.S. system be forced upon us? Fourthly, will sufficient time be allowed for development and phasing in of a new system? This paper addresses all these questions and argues that the case mix based system currently in use and being further developed within the private hospital sector may be a better proposition for long term private sector funding because of its relative simplicity and low administrative costs. The paper also urges less haste in the development and implementation of any radical change. PMID:10117334

  4. Query Expansion Using Heterogeneous Thesauri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandala, Rila; Tokunaga, Takenobu; Tanaka, Hozumi

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a method to improve the performance of information retrieval systems by expanding queries using heterogeneous thesauri. Experiments show that using heterogeneous thesauri with an appropriate weighting method results in better retrieval performance than using only one type of thesaurus. (Author/LRW)

  5. Automatically Preparing Safe SQL Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisht, Prithvi; Sistla, A. Prasad; Venkatakrishnan, V. N.

    We present the first sound program source transformation approach for automatically transforming the code of a legacy web application to employ PREPARE statements in place of unsafe SQL queries. Our approach therefore opens the way for eradicating the SQL injection threat vector from legacy web applications.

  6. Querying Large Biological Network Datasets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulsoy, Gunhan

    2013-01-01

    New experimental methods has resulted in increasing amount of genetic interaction data to be generated every day. Biological networks are used to store genetic interaction data gathered. Increasing amount of data available requires fast large scale analysis methods. Therefore, we address the problem of querying large biological network datasets.…

  7. A Semantic Basis for Proof Queries and Transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aspinall, David; Denney, Ewen W.; Luth, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    We extend the query language PrQL, designed for inspecting machine representations of proofs, to also allow transformation of proofs. PrQL natively supports hiproofs which express proof structure using hierarchically nested labelled trees, which we claim is a natural way of taming the complexity of huge proofs. Query-driven transformations enable manipulation of this structure, in particular, to transform proofs produced by interactive theorem provers into forms that assist their understanding, or that could be consumed by other tools. In this paper we motivate and define basic transformation operations, using an abstract denotational semantics of hiproofs and queries. This extends our previous semantics for queries based on syntactic tree representations.We define update operations that add and remove sub-proofs, and manipulate the hierarchy to group and ungroup nodes. We show that

  8. Private Cost of Education: A Comparative Study of Distance and Campus-Based University Students in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olakulehin, Felix K.; Panda, Santosh K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the comparative private costs of distance and conventional (classroom-based) university students in Nigeria. A total of 200 subjects comprising students registered for the B.Sc. Computer Science and B.A. English Studies programmes at the University of Lagos, Nigeria and the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) were…

  9. Urban Community Development and Private Education Dilemma: Based on a Field Study of a City in East China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Li; Anlei, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization is an issue of universal concern today distinctly affecting the supply, content, and orientation of education. Based on a field study in a city in East China, the article argues that rural-urban migration in the process of urbanization created private sectors in education enterprises that were in sync with the urban community…

  10. A distributed query execution engine of big attributed graphs.

    PubMed

    Batarfi, Omar; Elshawi, Radwa; Fayoumi, Ayman; Barnawi, Ahmed; Sakr, Sherif

    2016-01-01

    A graph is a popular data model that has become pervasively used for modeling structural relationships between objects. In practice, in many real-world graphs, the graph vertices and edges need to be associated with descriptive attributes. Such type of graphs are referred to as attributed graphs. G-SPARQL has been proposed as an expressive language, with a centralized execution engine, for querying attributed graphs. G-SPARQL supports various types of graph querying operations including reachability, pattern matching and shortest path where any G-SPARQL query may include value-based predicates on the descriptive information (attributes) of the graph edges/vertices in addition to the structural predicates. In general, a main limitation of centralized systems is that their vertical scalability is always restricted by the physical limits of computer systems. This article describes the design, implementation in addition to the performance evaluation of DG-SPARQL, a distributed, hybrid and adaptive parallel execution engine of G-SPARQL queries. In this engine, the topology of the graph is distributed over the main memory of the underlying nodes while the graph data are maintained in a relational store which is replicated on the disk of each of the underlying nodes. DG-SPARQL evaluates parts of the query plan via SQL queries which are pushed to the underlying relational stores while other parts of the query plan, as necessary, are evaluated via indexless memory-based graph traversal algorithms. Our experimental evaluation shows the efficiency and the scalability of DG-SPARQL on querying massive attributed graph datasets in addition to its ability to outperform the performance of Apache Giraph, a popular distributed graph processing system, by orders of magnitudes. PMID:27350905

  11. A distributed query execution engine of big attributed graphs.

    PubMed

    Batarfi, Omar; Elshawi, Radwa; Fayoumi, Ayman; Barnawi, Ahmed; Sakr, Sherif

    2016-01-01

    A graph is a popular data model that has become pervasively used for modeling structural relationships between objects. In practice, in many real-world graphs, the graph vertices and edges need to be associated with descriptive attributes. Such type of graphs are referred to as attributed graphs. G-SPARQL has been proposed as an expressive language, with a centralized execution engine, for querying attributed graphs. G-SPARQL supports various types of graph querying operations including reachability, pattern matching and shortest path where any G-SPARQL query may include value-based predicates on the descriptive information (attributes) of the graph edges/vertices in addition to the structural predicates. In general, a main limitation of centralized systems is that their vertical scalability is always restricted by the physical limits of computer systems. This article describes the design, implementation in addition to the performance evaluation of DG-SPARQL, a distributed, hybrid and adaptive parallel execution engine of G-SPARQL queries. In this engine, the topology of the graph is distributed over the main memory of the underlying nodes while the graph data are maintained in a relational store which is replicated on the disk of each of the underlying nodes. DG-SPARQL evaluates parts of the query plan via SQL queries which are pushed to the underlying relational stores while other parts of the query plan, as necessary, are evaluated via indexless memory-based graph traversal algorithms. Our experimental evaluation shows the efficiency and the scalability of DG-SPARQL on querying massive attributed graph datasets in addition to its ability to outperform the performance of Apache Giraph, a popular distributed graph processing system, by orders of magnitudes.

  12. Representation and alignment of sung queries for music information retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Norman H.; Wakefield, Gregory H.

    2005-09-01

    The pursuit of robust and rapid query-by-humming systems, which search melodic databases using sung queries, is a common theme in music information retrieval. The retrieval aspect of this database problem has received considerable attention, whereas the front-end processing of sung queries and the data structure to represent melodies has been based on musical intuition and historical momentum. The present work explores three time series representations for sung queries: a sequence of notes, a ``smooth'' pitch contour, and a sequence of pitch histograms. The performance of the three representations is compared using a collection of naturally sung queries. It is found that the most robust performance is achieved by the representation with highest dimension, the smooth pitch contour, but that this representation presents a formidable computational burden. For all three representations, it is necessary to align the query and target in order to achieve robust performance. The computational cost of the alignment is quadratic, hence it is necessary to keep the dimension small for rapid retrieval. Accordingly, iterative deepening is employed to achieve both robust performance and rapid retrieval. Finally, the conventional iterative framework is expanded to adapt the alignment constraints based on previous iterations, further expediting retrieval without degrading performance.

  13. Matching health information seekers' queries to medical terms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Internet is a major source of health information but most seekers are not familiar with medical vocabularies. Hence, their searches fail due to bad query formulation. Several methods have been proposed to improve information retrieval: query expansion, syntactic and semantic techniques or knowledge-based methods. However, it would be useful to clean those queries which are misspelled. In this paper, we propose a simple yet efficient method in order to correct misspellings of queries submitted by health information seekers to a medical online search tool. Methods In addition to query normalizations and exact phonetic term matching, we tested two approximate string comparators: the similarity score function of Stoilos and the normalized Levenshtein edit distance. We propose here to combine them to increase the number of matched medical terms in French. We first took a sample of query logs to determine the thresholds and processing times. In the second run, at a greater scale we tested different combinations of query normalizations before or after misspelling correction with the retained thresholds in the first run. Results According to the total number of suggestions (around 163, the number of the first sample of queries), at a threshold comparator score of 0.3, the normalized Levenshtein edit distance gave the highest F-Measure (88.15%) and at a threshold comparator score of 0.7, the Stoilos function gave the highest F-Measure (84.31%). By combining Levenshtein and Stoilos, the highest F-Measure (80.28%) is obtained with 0.2 and 0.7 thresholds respectively. However, queries are composed by several terms that may be combination of medical terms. The process of query normalization and segmentation is thus required. The highest F-Measure (64.18%) is obtained when this process is realized before spelling-correction. Conclusions Despite the widely known high performance of the normalized edit distance of Levenshtein, we show in this paper that its

  14. Subsidising artemisinin-based combination therapy in the private retail sector

    PubMed Central

    Opiyo, Newton; Yamey, Gavin; Garner, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria causes ill health and death in Africa. Treating illness promptly with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is likely to cure people and avoid the disease progressing to more severe forms and death. In many countries, ACT use remains low. Part of the problem is that most people seek treatment from the retail sector where ACTs are expensive; this expense is a barrier to their use. The Global Fund and other international organisations are subsidising the cost of ACTs for private retail providers to improve access to ACTs. The subsidy was initially organised through a stand-alone initiative, called the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm), but has since been integrated into the Global Fund core grant management and financial processes. Objectives To assess the effect of programmes that include ACT price subsidies for private retailers on ACT use, availability, price and market share. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 1, The Cochrane Library, including the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register); MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), CINAHL (EbscoHost), EconLit (ProQuest), Global Health (OvidSP), Regional Indexes (Global Health Library, WHO), LILACS (Global Health Library, WHO), Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index (ISI Web of Science) and Health Management (ProQuest). All databases were searched February 2015, except for Health Management which was searched November 2013, without any date, language or publication status restrictions. We also searched the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; WHO), ClinicalTrials.gov (NIH) and various grey literature sources. We also conducted a cited reference search for all included studies in ISI Web of Knowledge, checked references of identified articles and contacted authors to identify additional studies. Selection criteria Randomised trials, non

  15. Multi-Party Quantum Private Comparison Protocol Based on Entanglement Swapping of Bell Entangled States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Tian-Yu

    2016-09-01

    Recently, Liu et al. proposed a two-party quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol using entanglement swapping of Bell entangled state (Commun. Theor. Phys. 57 (2012) 583). Subsequently Liu et al. pointed out that in Liu et al.'s protocol, the TP can extract the two users' secret inputs without being detected by launching the Bell-basis measurement attack, and suggested the corresponding improvement to mend this loophole (Commun. Theor. Phys. 62 (2014) 210). In this paper, we first point out the information leakage problem toward TP existing in both of the above two protocols, and then suggest the corresponding improvement by using the one-way hash function to encrypt the two users' secret inputs. We further put forward the three-party QPC protocol also based on entanglement swapping of Bell entangled state, and then validate its output correctness and its security in detail. Finally, we generalize the three-party QPC protocol into the multi-party case, which can accomplish arbitrary pair's comparison of equality among K users within one execution. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61402407

  16. Graph Structures and Algorithms for Query-Log Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donato, Debora

    Query logs are repositories that record all the interactions of users with a search engine. This incredibly rich user behavior data can be modeled using appropriate graph structures. In the recent years there has been an increasing amount of literature on studying properties, models, and algorithms for query-log graphs. Understanding the structure of such graphs, modeling user querying patterns, and designing algorithms for leveraging the latent knowledge (also known as the wisdom of the crowds) in those graphs introduces new challenges in the field of graph mining. The main goal of this paper is to present the reader with an example of these graph-structures, i.e., the Query-flow graph. This representation has been shown extremely effective for modeling user querying patterns and has been extensively used for developing real time applications. Moreover we present graph-based algorithmic solutions applied in the context of problems appearing in web applications as query recommendation and user-session segmentation.

  17. Querying non-materialized ontology views.

    PubMed

    Detwiler, Landon T; Brinkley, James F

    2007-01-01

    One approach to simplifying ontologies, for inclusion in a more tractable semantic web, is through the use of non-materialized view queries. View queries define how a simplified "view" or "application" ontology is derived from larger more complex ontologies. In this work we look at a language for specifying view queries over OWL/RDFS sources, and we illustrate some initial ideas for how to execute user queries over our view ontology, without materializing it first.

  18. The Database Query Support Processor (QSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The number and diversity of databases available to users continues to increase dramatically. Currently, the trend is towards decentralized, client server architectures that (on the surface) are less expensive to acquire, operate, and maintain than information architectures based on centralized, monolithic mainframes. The database query support processor (QSP) effort evaluates the performance of a network level, heterogeneous database access capability. Air Force Material Command's Rome Laboratory has developed an approach, based on ANSI standard X3.138 - 1988, 'The Information Resource Dictionary System (IRDS)' to seamless access to heterogeneous databases based on extensions to data dictionary technology. To successfully query a decentralized information system, users must know what data are available from which source, or have the knowledge and system privileges necessary to find out this information. Privacy and security considerations prohibit free and open access to every information system in every network. Even in completely open systems, time required to locate relevant data (in systems of any appreciable size) would be better spent analyzing the data, assuming the original question was not forgotten. Extensions to data dictionary technology have the potential to more fully automate the search and retrieval for relevant data in a decentralized environment. Substantial amounts of time and money could be saved by not having to teach users what data resides in which systems and how to access each of those systems. Information describing data and how to get it could be removed from the application and placed in a dedicated repository where it belongs. The result simplified applications that are less brittle and less expensive to build and maintain. Software technology providing the required functionality is off the shelf. The key difficulty is in defining the metadata required to support the process. The database query support processor effort will provide

  19. Szegedy's quantum walk with queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Raqueline A. M.

    2016-08-01

    When searching for a marked vertex in a graph, Szegedy's usual search operator is defined by using the transition probability matrix of the random walk with absorbing barriers at the marked vertices. Instead of using this operator, we analyze searching with Szegedy's quantum walk by using reflections around the marked vertices, that is, the standard form of quantum query. We show we can boost the probability to 1 of finding a marked vertex in the complete graph. Numerical simulations suggest that the success probability can be improved for other graphs, like the two-dimensional grid. We also prove that, for a certain class of graphs, we can express Szegedy's search operator, obtained from the absorbing walk, using the standard query model.

  20. Privatizing Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.T.

    1995-07-01

    The sun is setting on Australia`s long tradition of state involvement in business. As part of efforts begun in the late-1980`s to stem the tide of debt rising within Australian federal and state treasuries, government-owned entities are being corporatized and privatized, and private companies are sponsoring a large share of the country`s new infrastructure projects.

  1. Using medline queries to generate image retrieval tasks for benchmarking.

    PubMed

    Müller, Henning; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Hersh, William; Geissbuhler, Antoine

    2008-01-01

    Medical visual information retrieval has been a very active research area over the past ten years as an increasing amount of images is produced digitally and made available in the electronic patient record. Tools are required to give access to the images and exploit the information inherently stored in medical cases including images. To compare image retrieval techniques of research prototypes based on the same data and tasks, ImageCLEF was started in 2003 and a medical task was added in 2004. Since then, every year a database was distributed, tasks developed, and systems compared based on realistic search tasks and large databases. For the year 2007 a set of almost 68,000 images was distributed among 38 research groups registered for the medical retrieval task. Realistic query topics were developed based on a log file of Medline. This log file contains the queries performed on Pubmed during 24 hours. Most queries could not be used as search topics directly as they do not contain image-related themes, but a few thousand do. Other types of queries had to be filtered out as well, as many stated information needs are very vague; for evaluation on the other hand clear and focused topics are necessary to obtain a limited number of relevant documents and limit ambiguity in the evaluation process. In the end, 30 queries were developed and 13 research groups submitted a total of 149 runs using a large variety of techniques, from textual to purely visual retrieval and multi-modal approaches.

  2. Query Specific Rank Fusion for Image Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaoting; Yang, Ming; Cour, Timothee; Yu, Kai; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2015-04-01

    Recently two lines of image retrieval algorithms demonstrate excellent scalability: 1) local features indexed by a vocabulary tree, and 2) holistic features indexed by compact hashing codes. Although both of them are able to search visually similar images effectively, their retrieval precision may vary dramatically among queries. Therefore, combining these two types of methods is expected to further enhance the retrieval precision. However, the feature characteristics and the algorithmic procedures of these methods are dramatically different, which is very challenging for the feature-level fusion. This motivates us to investigate how to fuse the ordered retrieval sets, i.e., the ranks of images, given by multiple retrieval methods, to boost the retrieval precision without sacrificing their scalability. In this paper, we model retrieval ranks as graphs of candidate images and propose a graph-based query specific fusion approach, where multiple graphs are merged and reranked by conducting a link analysis on a fused graph. The retrieval quality of an individual method is measured on-the-fly by assessing the consistency of the top candidates' nearest neighborhoods. Hence, it is capable of adaptively integrating the strengths of the retrieval methods using local or holistic features for different query images. This proposed method does not need any supervision, has few parameters, and is easy to implement. Extensive and thorough experiments have been conducted on four public datasets, i.e., the UKbench, Corel-5K, Holidays and the large-scale San Francisco Landmarks datasets. Our proposed method has achieved very competitive performance, including state-of-the-art results on several data sets, e.g., the N-S score 3.83 for UKbench. PMID:26353295

  3. Regular paths in SparQL: querying the NCI Thesaurus.

    PubMed

    Detwiler, Landon T; Suciu, Dan; Brinkley, James F

    2008-01-01

    OWL, the Web Ontology Language, provides syntax and semantics for representing knowledge for the semantic web. Many of the constructs of OWL have a basis in the field of description logics. While the formal underpinnings of description logics have lead to a highly computable language, it has come at a cognitive cost. OWL ontologies are often unintuitive to readers lacking a strong logic background. In this work we describe GLEEN, a regular path expression library, which extends the RDF query language SparQL to support complex path expressions over OWL and other RDF-based ontologies. We illustrate the utility of GLEEN by showing how it can be used in a query-based approach to defining simpler, more intuitive views of OWL ontologies. In particular we show how relatively simple GLEEN-enhanced SparQL queries can create views of the OWL version of the NCI Thesaurus that match the views generated by the web-based NCI browser.

  4. Incentives for Delay-Constrained Data Query and Feedback in Mobile Opportunistic Crowdsensing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Li, Fan; Wang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose effective data collection schemes that stimulate cooperation between selfish users in mobile opportunistic crowdsensing. A query issuer generates a query and requests replies within a given delay budget. When a data provider receives the query for the first time from an intermediate user, the former replies to it and authorizes the latter as the owner of the reply. Different data providers can reply to the same query. When a user that owns a reply meets the query issuer that generates the query, it requests the query issuer to pay credits. The query issuer pays credits and provides feedback to the data provider, which gives the reply. When a user that carries a feedback meets the data provider, the data provider pays credits to the user in order to adjust its claimed expertise. Queries, replies and feedbacks can be traded between mobile users. We propose an effective mechanism to define rewards for queries, replies and feedbacks. We formulate the bargain process as a two-person cooperative game, whose solution is found by using the Nash theorem. To improve the credit circulation, we design an online auction process, in which the wealthy user can buy replies and feedbacks from the starving one using credits. We have carried out extensive simulations based on real-world traces to evaluate the proposed schemes. PMID:27455261

  5. Incentives for Delay-Constrained Data Query and Feedback in Mobile Opportunistic Crowdsensing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Li, Fan; Wang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose effective data collection schemes that stimulate cooperation between selfish users in mobile opportunistic crowdsensing. A query issuer generates a query and requests replies within a given delay budget. When a data provider receives the query for the first time from an intermediate user, the former replies to it and authorizes the latter as the owner of the reply. Different data providers can reply to the same query. When a user that owns a reply meets the query issuer that generates the query, it requests the query issuer to pay credits. The query issuer pays credits and provides feedback to the data provider, which gives the reply. When a user that carries a feedback meets the data provider, the data provider pays credits to the user in order to adjust its claimed expertise. Queries, replies and feedbacks can be traded between mobile users. We propose an effective mechanism to define rewards for queries, replies and feedbacks. We formulate the bargain process as a two-person cooperative game, whose solution is found by using the Nash theorem. To improve the credit circulation, we design an online auction process, in which the wealthy user can buy replies and feedbacks from the starving one using credits. We have carried out extensive simulations based on real-world traces to evaluate the proposed schemes. PMID:27455261

  6. The Policy Environment of Private Higher Education in China: A Discussion Based upon Property Ownership Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Spring

    2012-01-01

    The reemergence and growth of private higher education institutions (HEIs) represent one of the most significant developments in Chinese higher education over recent decades. Against a macroeconomic background of decentralization, this phenomenon is essentially fuelled by a broad spectrum of political and socioeconomic forces. This study sets out…

  7. Analysis of Research Collaboration between Universities and Private Companies in Spain Based on Joint Scientific Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmeda-Gómez, Carlos; Ovalle-Perandones, María Antonia; de Moya-Anegón, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The article presents the results of a study on scientific collaboration between Spanish universities and private enterprise, measured in terms of the co-authorship of papers published in international journals. Method: Bibliometric analysis of papers published in journals listed in Scopus in 2003-2011. Indicators were calculated for…

  8. Assessing the Knowledge Base of Faculty at a Private, Four-Year Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasek, Dae

    2005-01-01

    The following study evaluated the knowledge, experience and attitudes, that faculty at a private four-year institution have towards students with disabilities. The 208 participants responded to a survey questionnaire. The findings of the study indicated that many of the faculty had little or no contact with this particular student population. Many…

  9. EquiX-A Search and Query Language for XML.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Sara; Kanza, Yaron; Kogan, Yakov; Sagiv, Yehoshua; Nutt, Werner; Serebrenik, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    Describes EquiX, a search language for XML that combines querying with searching to query the data and the meta-data content of Web pages. Topics include search engines; a data model for XML documents; search query syntax; search query semantics; an algorithm for evaluating a query on a document; and indexing EquiX queries. (LRW)

  10. Querying genomic databases: refining the connectivity map.

    PubMed

    Segal, Mark R; Xiong, Hao; Bengtsson, Henrik; Bourgon, Richard; Gentleman, Robert

    2012-01-01

    constitutes an ordered list. These involve using metrics proposed for analyzing partially ranked data, these being of interest in their own right and not widely used. Secondly, we advance an alternate inferential approach based on generating empirical null distributions that exploit the scope, and capture dependencies, embodied by the database. Using these refinements we undertake a comprehensive re-evaluation of Connectivity Map findings that, in general terms, reveal that accommodating ordered queries is less critical than the mode of inference. PMID:22499690

  11. Secure Nearest Neighbor Query on Crowd-Sensing Data.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ke; Wang, Liangmin; Zhong, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Nearest neighbor queries are fundamental in location-based services, and secure nearest neighbor queries mainly focus on how to securely and quickly retrieve the nearest neighbor in the outsourced cloud server. However, the previous big data system structure has changed because of the crowd-sensing data. On the one hand, sensing data terminals as the data owner are numerous and mistrustful, while, on the other hand, in most cases, the terminals find it difficult to finish many safety operation due to computation and storage capability constraints. In light of they Multi Owners and Multi Users (MOMU) situation in the crowd-sensing data cloud environment, this paper presents a secure nearest neighbor query scheme based on the proxy server architecture, which is constructed by protocols of secure two-party computation and secure Voronoi diagram algorithm. It not only preserves the data confidentiality and query privacy but also effectively resists the collusion between the cloud server and the data owners or users. Finally, extensive theoretical and experimental evaluations are presented to show that our proposed scheme achieves a superior balance between the security and query performance compared to other schemes. PMID:27669253

  12. Using Common Table Expressions to Build a Scalable Boolean Query Generator for Clinical Data Warehouses

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Daniel R.; Henderson, Darren W.; Kavuluru, Ramakanth; Stromberg, Arnold J.; Johnson, Todd R.

    2015-01-01

    We present a custom, Boolean query generator utilizing common-table expressions (CTEs) that is capable of scaling with big datasets. The generator maps user-defined Boolean queries, such as those interactively created in clinical-research and general-purpose healthcare tools, into SQL. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this generator by integrating our work into the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) query tool and show that it is capable of scaling. Our custom generator replaces and outperforms the default query generator found within the Clinical Research Chart (CRC) cell of i2b2. In our experiments, sixteen different types of i2b2 queries were identified by varying four constraints: date, frequency, exclusion criteria, and whether selected concepts occurred in the same encounter. We generated non-trivial, random Boolean queries based on these 16 types; the corresponding SQL queries produced by both generators were compared by execution times. The CTE-based solution significantly outperformed the default query generator and provided a much more consistent response time across all query types (M=2.03, SD=6.64 vs. M=75.82, SD=238.88 seconds). Without costly hardware upgrades, we provide a scalable solution based on CTEs with very promising empirical results centered on performance gains. The evaluation methodology used for this provides a means of profiling clinical data warehouse performance. PMID:25192572

  13. Using common table expressions to build a scalable Boolean query generator for clinical data warehouses.

    PubMed

    Harris, Daniel R; Henderson, Darren W; Kavuluru, Ramakanth; Stromberg, Arnold J; Johnson, Todd R

    2014-09-01

    We present a custom, Boolean query generator utilizing common-table expressions (CTEs) that is capable of scaling with big datasets. The generator maps user-defined Boolean queries, such as those interactively created in clinical-research and general-purpose healthcare tools, into SQL. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this generator by integrating our study into the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) query tool and show that it is capable of scaling. Our custom generator replaces and outperforms the default query generator found within the Clinical Research Chart cell of i2b2. In our experiments, 16 different types of i2b2 queries were identified by varying four constraints: date, frequency, exclusion criteria, and whether selected concepts occurred in the same encounter. We generated nontrivial, random Boolean queries based on these 16 types; the corresponding SQL queries produced by both generators were compared by execution times. The CTE-based solution significantly outperformed the default query generator and provided a much more consistent response time across all query types (M = 2.03, SD = 6.64 versus M = 75.82, SD = 238.88 s). Without costly hardware upgrades, we provide a scalable solution based on CTEs with very promising empirical results centered on performance gains. The evaluation methodology used for this provides a means of profiling clinical data warehouse performance.

  14. A Query Result Merging Scheme for Providing Energy Efficiency in Underwater Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yunsung; Park, Soo-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Underwater sensor networks are emerging as a promising distributed data management system for various applications in underwater environments, despite their limited accessibility and restricted energy capacity. With the aid of recent developments in ubiquitous data computing, an increasing number of users are expected to overcome low accessibility by applying queries to underwater sensor networks. However, when multiple users send queries to an underwater sensor network in a disorganized manner, it may incur lethal energy waste and problematic network traffic. The current query management mechanisms cannot effectively deal with this matter due to their limited applicability and unrealistic assumptions. In this paper, a novel query management scheme involving query result merging is proposed for underwater sensor networks. The mechanism is based on a relational database model and is adjusted to the practical restrictions affecting underwater communication environments. Network simulations will prove that the scheme becomes more efficient with a greater number of queries and a smaller period range. PMID:22247695

  15. A query result merging scheme for providing energy efficiency in underwater sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yunsung; Park, Soo-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Underwater sensor networks are emerging as a promising distributed data management system for various applications in underwater environments, despite their limited accessibility and restricted energy capacity. With the aid of recent developments in ubiquitous data computing, an increasing number of users are expected to overcome low accessibility by applying queries to underwater sensor networks. However, when multiple users send queries to an underwater sensor network in a disorganized manner, it may incur lethal energy waste and problematic network traffic. The current query management mechanisms cannot effectively deal with this matter due to their limited applicability and unrealistic assumptions. In this paper, a novel query management scheme involving query result merging is proposed for underwater sensor networks. The mechanism is based on a relational database model and is adjusted to the practical restrictions affecting underwater communication environments. Network simulations will prove that the scheme becomes more efficient with a greater number of queries and a smaller period range.

  16. Learning virulent proteins from integrated query networks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Methods of weakening and attenuating pathogens’ abilities to infect and propagate in a host, thus allowing the natural immune system to more easily decimate invaders, have gained attention as alternatives to broad-spectrum targeting approaches. The following work describes a technique to identifying proteins involved in virulence by relying on latent information computationally gathered across biological repositories, applicable to both generic and specific virulence categories. Results A lightweight method for data integration is used, which links information regarding a protein via a path-based query graph. A method of weighting is then applied to query graphs that can serve as input to various statistical classification methods for discrimination, and the combined usage of both data integration and learning methods are tested against the problem of both generalized and specific virulence function prediction. Conclusions This approach improves coverage of functional data over a protein. Moreover, while depending largely on noisy and potentially non-curated data from public sources, we find it outperforms other techniques to identification of general virulence factors and baseline remote homology detection methods for specific virulence categories. PMID:23198735

  17. Interactive ontology debugging: Two query strategies for efficient fault localization.

    PubMed

    Shchekotykhin, Kostyantyn; Friedrich, Gerhard; Fleiss, Philipp; Rodler, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Effective debugging of ontologies is an important prerequisite for their broad application, especially in areas that rely on everyday users to create and maintain knowledge bases, such as the Semantic Web. In such systems ontologies capture formalized vocabularies of terms shared by its users. However in many cases users have different local views of the domain, i.e. of the context in which a given term is used. Inappropriate usage of terms together with natural complications when formulating and understanding logical descriptions may result in faulty ontologies. Recent ontology debugging approaches use diagnosis methods to identify causes of the faults. In most debugging scenarios these methods return many alternative diagnoses, thus placing the burden of fault localization on the user. This paper demonstrates how the target diagnosis can be identified by performing a sequence of observations, that is, by querying an oracle about entailments of the target ontology. To identify the best query we propose two query selection strategies: a simple "split-in-half" strategy and an entropy-based strategy. The latter allows knowledge about typical user errors to be exploited to minimize the number of queries. Our evaluation showed that the entropy-based method significantly reduces the number of required queries compared to the "split-in-half" approach. We experimented with different probability distributions of user errors and different qualities of the a priori probabilities. Our measurements demonstrated the superiority of entropy-based query selection even in cases where all fault probabilities are equal, i.e. where no information about typical user errors is available.

  18. Wireless, remote-query, and high sensitivity Escherichia coli O157:H7 biosensor based on the recognition action of concanavalin A.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qingzhu; Lin, Hailan; Ge, Shutian; Luo, Shenglian; Cai, Qingyun; Grimes, Craig A

    2009-07-15

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is detected using a remote-query (wireless, passive) magnetoelastic sensor platform to which a 1 microm thick layer of Bayhydrol 110 and then a layer of functionalized mannose is applied. The multivalent binding of lectin concanavalin A (Con A) to the E. coli surface O-antigen and mannose favors the strong adhesion of E. coli to the mannose-modified magnetoelastic sensor; E. coli is rigidly and strongly attached on the mannose-modified sensor through Con A, which works as a bridge to bind E. coli to the mannose-modified sensor surface. As E. coli is bound to the sensor, its resonance frequency shifts, enabling quantification of E. coli concentration with a limit of detection of 60 cells/mL and a linear logarithmic response range of 6.0 x 10(1) to 6.1 x 10(9) cells/mL. The analysis can be directly conducted without incubation and completed in 3 h or less. PMID:19548666

  19. Subsidising artemisinin-based combination therapy in the private retail sector

    PubMed Central

    Opiyo, Newton; Yamey, Gavin; Garner, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria causes ill health and death in Africa. Treating illness promptly with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is likely to cure people and avoid the disease progressing to more severe forms and death. In many countries, ACT use remains low. Part of the problem is that most people seek treatment from the retail sector where ACTs are expensive; this expense is a barrier to their use. The Global Fund and other international organisations are subsidising the cost of ACTs for private retail providers to improve access to ACTs. The subsidy was initially organised through a stand-alone initiative, called the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm), but has since been integrated into the Global Fund core grant management and financial processes. Objectives To assess the effect of programmes that include ACT price subsidies for private retailers on ACT use, availability, price and market share. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 1, The Cochrane Library, including the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register); MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), CINAHL (EbscoHost), EconLit (ProQuest), Global Health (OvidSP), Regional Indexes (Global Health Library, WHO), LILACS (Global Health Library, WHO), Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index (ISI Web of Science) and Health Management (ProQuest). All databases were searched February 2015, except for Health Management which was searched November 2013, without any date, language or publication status restrictions. We also searched the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; WHO), ClinicalTrials.gov (NIH) and various grey literature sources. We also conducted a cited reference search for all included studies in ISI Web of Knowledge, checked references of identified articles and contacted authors to identify additional studies. Selection criteria Randomised trials, non

  20. Pragmatic privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, S.

    1995-10-01

    Chile was probably the first country in the world to privatize under a decentralized and competitive framework a former state-owned power sector. Power sector privatization was conducted with pragmatism, particularly in terms of the speed with which the changes occurred. In fact, the earliest privatization did not occur until 1980 and the process was not completed until early 1990. The privatized Chilean electric industry has performed fairly well in terms of the investments carried out not only in the power sector, but also in other economic activities and in foreign countries. The diversification of ownership and the competitive framework have been an incentive to reach efficiency and a guaranty for the stability of the rules of the game in the long run.

  1. The Ontology Lookup Service: more data and better tools for controlled vocabulary queries

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Richard G.; Jones, Philip; Martens, Lennart; Apweiler, Rolf; Hermjakob, Henning

    2008-01-01

    The Ontology Lookup Service (OLS) (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ols) provides interactive and programmatic interfaces to query, browse and navigate an ever increasing number of biomedical ontologies and controlled vocabularies. The volume of data available for querying has more than quadrupled since it went into production and OLS functionality has been integrated into several high-usage databases and data entry tools. Improvements have been made to both OLS query interfaces, based on user feedback and requirements, to improve usability and service interoperability and provide novel ways to perform queries. PMID:18467421

  2. Perspectives of comprehensive mineral exploitation based on the principles of public-private partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitenko, S. M.; Goosen, E. V.; Sablin, K. S.

    2016-10-01

    The opportunities of the public-private partnership instruments using to shift the paradigm of the natural resources development in the fuel and energy complex of Russia are highlighted in the article. Three main directions of PPP projects development in the subsoil use are pointed out. The role of innovations in the implementation of the most perspective PPP projects in the fuel and energy complex of Russia is shown.

  3. ConnectomeExplorer: query-guided visual analysis of large volumetric neuroscience data.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Johanna; Al-Awami, Ali; Kasthuri, Narayanan; Lichtman, Jeff W; Pfister, Hanspeter; Hadwiger, Markus

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents ConnectomeExplorer, an application for the interactive exploration and query-guided visual analysis of large volumetric electron microscopy (EM) data sets in connectomics research. Our system incorporates a knowledge-based query algebra that supports the interactive specification of dynamically evaluated queries, which enable neuroscientists to pose and answer domain-specific questions in an intuitive manner. Queries are built step by step in a visual query builder, building more complex queries from combinations of simpler queries. Our application is based on a scalable volume visualization framework that scales to multiple volumes of several teravoxels each, enabling the concurrent visualization and querying of the original EM volume, additional segmentation volumes, neuronal connectivity, and additional meta data comprising a variety of neuronal data attributes. We evaluate our application on a data set of roughly one terabyte of EM data and 750 GB of segmentation data, containing over 4,000 segmented structures and 1,000 synapses. We demonstrate typical use-case scenarios of our collaborators in neuroscience, where our system has enabled them to answer specific scientific questions using interactive querying and analysis on the full-size data for the first time.

  4. ConnectomeExplorer: Query-Guided Visual Analysis of Large Volumetric Neuroscience Data

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Johanna; Al-Awami, Ali; Kasthuri, Narayanan; Lichtman, Jeff W.; Pfister, Hanspeter; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents ConnectomeExplorer, an application for the interactive exploration and query-guided visual analysis of large volumetric electron microscopy (EM) data sets in connectomics research. Our system incorporates a knowledge-based query algebra that supports the interactive specification of dynamically evaluated queries, which enable neuroscientists to pose and answer domain-specific questions in an intuitive manner. Queries are built step by step in a visual query builder, building more complex queries from combinations of simpler queries. Our application is based on a scalable volume visualization framework that scales to multiple volumes of several teravoxels each, enabling the concurrent visualization and querying of the original EM volume, additional segmentation volumes, neuronal connectivity, and additional meta data comprising a variety of neuronal data attributes. We evaluate our application on a data set of roughly one terabyte of EM data and 750 GB of segmentation data, containing over 4,000 segmented structures and 1,000 synapses. We demonstrate typical use-case scenarios of our collaborators in neuroscience, where our system has enabled them to answer specific scientific questions using interactive querying and analysis on the full-size data for the first time. PMID:24051854

  5. Metadata-driven Ad Hoc Query of Patient Data

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Aniruddha M.; Brandt, Cynthia; Nadkarni, Prakash M.

    2002-01-01

    Clinical study data management systems (CSDMSs) have many similarities to clinical patient record systems (CPRSs) in their focus on recording clinical parameters. Requirements for ad hoc query interfaces for both systems would therefore appear to be highly similar. However, a clinical study is concerned primarily with collective responses of groups of subjects to standardized therapeutic interventions for the same underlying clinical condition. The parameters that are recorded in CSDMSs tend to be more diverse than those required for patient management in non-research settings, because of the greater emphasis on questionnaires for which responses to each question are recorded separately. The differences between CSDMSs and CPRSs are reflected in the metadata that support the respective systems' operation, and need to be reflected in the query interfaces. The authors describe major revisions of their previously described CSDMS ad hoc query interface to meet CSDMS needs more fully, as well as its porting to a Web-based platform. PMID:12087118

  6. Analysis of DNS cache effects on query distribution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the DNS cache effects that occur on query distribution at the CN top-level domain (TLD) server. We first filter out the malformed DNS queries to purify the log data pollution according to six categories. A model for DNS resolution, more specifically DNS caching, is presented. We demonstrate the presence and magnitude of DNS cache effects and the cache sharing effects on the request distribution through analytic model and simulation. CN TLD log data results are provided and analyzed based on the cache model. The approximate TTL distribution for domain name is inferred quantificationally.

  7. Anytime query-tuned kernel machine classifiers via Cholesky factorization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeCoste, D.

    2002-01-01

    We recently demonstrated 2 to 64-fold query-time speedups of Support Vector Machine and Kernel Fisher classifiers via a new computational geometry method for anytime output bounds (DeCoste,2002). This new paper refines our approach in two key ways. First, we introduce a simple linear algebra formulation based on Cholesky factorization, yielding simpler equations and lower computational overhead. Second, this new formulation suggests new methods for achieving additional speedups, including tuning on query samples. We demonstrate effectiveness on benchmark datasets.

  8. Approximate ad-hoc query engine for simulation data

    SciTech Connect

    Abdulla, G; Baldwin, C; Critchlow, T; Kamimura, R; Lozares, I; Musick, R; Tang, N; Lee, B S; Snapp, R

    2001-02-01

    In this paper, we describe AQSim, an ongoing effort to design and implement a system to manage terabytes of scientific simulation data. The goal of this project is to reduce data storage requirements and access times while permitting ad-hoc queries using statistical and mathematical models of the data. In order to facilitate data exchange between models based on different representations, we are evaluating using the ASCI common data model which is comprised of several layers of increasing semantic complexity. To support queries over the spatial-temporal mesh structured data we are in the process of defining and implementing a grammar for MeshSQL.

  9. Evidential significance of automotive paint trace evidence using a pattern recognition based infrared library search engine for the Paint Data Query Forensic Database.

    PubMed

    Lavine, Barry K; White, Collin G; Allen, Matthew D; Fasasi, Ayuba; Weakley, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    A prototype library search engine has been further developed to search the infrared spectral libraries of the paint data query database to identify the line and model of a vehicle from the clear coat, surfacer-primer, and e-coat layers of an intact paint chip. For this study, search prefilters were developed from 1181 automotive paint systems spanning 3 manufacturers: General Motors, Chrysler, and Ford. The best match between each unknown and the spectra in the hit list generated by the search prefilters was identified using a cross-correlation library search algorithm that performed both a forward and backward search. In the forward search, spectra were divided into intervals and further subdivided into windows (which corresponds to the time lag for the comparison) within those intervals. The top five hits identified in each search window were compiled; a histogram was computed that summarized the frequency of occurrence for each library sample, with the IR spectra most similar to the unknown flagged. The backward search computed the frequency and occurrence of each line and model without regard to the identity of the individual spectra. Only those lines and models with a frequency of occurrence greater than or equal to 20% were included in the final hit list. If there was agreement between the forward and backward search results, the specific line and model common to both hit lists was always the correct assignment. Samples assigned to the same line and model by both searches are always well represented in the library and correlate well on an individual basis to specific library samples. For these samples, one can have confidence in the accuracy of the match. This was not the case for the results obtained using commercial library search algorithms, as the hit quality index scores for the top twenty hits were always greater than 99%.

  10. Evidential significance of automotive paint trace evidence using a pattern recognition based infrared library search engine for the Paint Data Query Forensic Database.

    PubMed

    Lavine, Barry K; White, Collin G; Allen, Matthew D; Fasasi, Ayuba; Weakley, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    A prototype library search engine has been further developed to search the infrared spectral libraries of the paint data query database to identify the line and model of a vehicle from the clear coat, surfacer-primer, and e-coat layers of an intact paint chip. For this study, search prefilters were developed from 1181 automotive paint systems spanning 3 manufacturers: General Motors, Chrysler, and Ford. The best match between each unknown and the spectra in the hit list generated by the search prefilters was identified using a cross-correlation library search algorithm that performed both a forward and backward search. In the forward search, spectra were divided into intervals and further subdivided into windows (which corresponds to the time lag for the comparison) within those intervals. The top five hits identified in each search window were compiled; a histogram was computed that summarized the frequency of occurrence for each library sample, with the IR spectra most similar to the unknown flagged. The backward search computed the frequency and occurrence of each line and model without regard to the identity of the individual spectra. Only those lines and models with a frequency of occurrence greater than or equal to 20% were included in the final hit list. If there was agreement between the forward and backward search results, the specific line and model common to both hit lists was always the correct assignment. Samples assigned to the same line and model by both searches are always well represented in the library and correlate well on an individual basis to specific library samples. For these samples, one can have confidence in the accuracy of the match. This was not the case for the results obtained using commercial library search algorithms, as the hit quality index scores for the top twenty hits were always greater than 99%. PMID:27474314

  11. QBIC project: querying images by content, using color, texture, and shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niblack, Carlton W.; Barber, Ron; Equitz, Will; Flickner, Myron D.; Glasman, Eduardo H.; Petkovic, Dragutin; Yanker, Peter; Faloutsos, Christos; Taubin, Gabriel

    1993-04-01

    In the query by image content (QBIC) project we are studying methods to query large on-line image databases using the images' content as the basis of the queries. Examples of the content we use include color, texture, and shape of image objects and regions. Potential applications include medical (`Give me other images that contain a tumor with a texture like this one'), photo-journalism (`Give me images that have blue at the top and red at the bottom'), and many others in art, fashion, cataloging, retailing, and industry. Key issues include derivation and computation of attributes of images and objects that provide useful query functionality, retrieval methods based on similarity as opposed to exact match, query by image example or user drawn image, the user interfaces, query refinement and navigation, high dimensional database indexing, and automatic and semi-automatic database population. We currently have a prototype system written in X/Motif and C running on an RS/6000 that allows a variety of queries, and a test database of over 1000 images and 1000 objects populated from commercially available photo clip art images. In this paper we present the main algorithms for color texture, shape and sketch query that we use, show example query results, and discuss future directions.

  12. Querying Semi-Structured Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abiteboul, Serge

    1997-01-01

    The amount of data of all kinds available electronically has increased dramatically in recent years. The data resides in different forms, ranging from unstructured data in the systems to highly structured in relational database systems. Data is accessible through a variety of interfaces including Web browsers, database query languages, application-specic interfaces, or data exchange formats. Some of this data is raw data, e.g., images or sound. Some of it has structure even if the structure is often implicit, and not as rigid or regular as that found in standard database systems. Sometimes the structure exists but has to be extracted from the data. Sometimes also it exists but we prefer to ignore it for certain purposes such as browsing. We call here semi-structured data this data that is (from a particular viewpoint) neither raw data nor strictly typed, i.e., not table-oriented as in a relational model or sorted-graph as in object databases. As will seen later when the notion of semi-structured data is more precisely de ned, the need for semi-structured data arises naturally in the context of data integration, even when the data sources are themselves well-structured. Although data integration is an old topic, the need to integrate a wider variety of data- formats (e.g., SGML or ASN.1 data) and data found on the Web has brought the topic of semi-structured data to the forefront of research. The main purpose of the paper is to isolate the essential aspects of semi- structured data. We also survey some proposals of models and query languages for semi-structured data. In particular, we consider recent works at Stanford U. and U. Penn on semi-structured data. In both cases, the motivation is found in the integration of heterogeneous data.

  13. Using clinicians' search query data to monitor influenza epidemics.

    PubMed

    Santillana, Mauricio; Nsoesie, Elaine O; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Scales, David; Brownstein, John S

    2014-11-15

    Search query information from a clinician's database, UpToDate, is shown to predict influenza epidemics in the United States in a timely manner. Our results show that digital disease surveillance tools based on experts' databases may be able to provide an alternative, reliable, and stable signal for accurate predictions of influenza outbreaks.

  14. Boolean Queries and Term Dependencies in Probabilistic Retrieval Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croft, W. Bruce

    1986-01-01

    Proposes approach to integrating Boolean and statistical systems where Boolean queries are interpreted as a means of specifying term dependencies in relevant set of documents. Highlights include series of retrieval experiments designed to test retrieval strategy based on term dependence model and relation of results to other work. (18 references)…

  15. Form and Function: The Impact of Query Term and Operator Usage on Web Search Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Wendy; Topi, Heikki

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study of college students that investigated Web-based search engine queries and compared relevancy ratings with expert-formulated queries. Considers the number of subject terms used and the use of Boolean operators and discuses the need for designing search engine interfaces that provide greater support in term selection and operator…

  16. How Do Children Reformulate Their Search Queries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Sophie; Ford, Nigel; Clough, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This paper investigates techniques used by children in year 4 (age eight to nine) of a UK primary school to reformulate their queries, and how they use information retrieval systems to support query reformulation. Method: An in-depth study analysing the interactions of twelve children carrying out search tasks in a primary school…

  17. Improving Web Search for Difficult Queries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xuanhui

    2009-01-01

    Search engines have now become essential tools in all aspects of our life. Although a variety of information needs can be served very successfully, there are still a lot of queries that search engines can not answer very effectively and these queries always make users feel frustrated. Since it is quite often that users encounter such "difficult…

  18. Flexible Querying of Lifelong Learner Metadata

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulovassilis, A.; Selmer, P.; Wood, P. T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the provision of flexible querying facilities over heterogeneous data arising from lifelong learners' educational and work experiences. A key aim of such querying facilities is to allow learners to identify possible choices for their future learning and professional development by seeing what others have done. We motivate and…

  19. Query Term Weights as Constraints in Fuzzy Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordogna, G; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Presents an analytical approach to the interpretation of weighted Boolean queries. By distinguishing query term weights from query weights, a query becomes a means of describing classes of ideal documents and expressing relativity criteria among these descriptions. A formalization of query term weights is given in a fuzzy set theoretical context.…

  20. The ESIS query environment pilot project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuchs, Jens J.; Ciarlo, Alessandro; Benso, Stefano

    1993-01-01

    The European Space Information System (ESIS) was originally conceived to provide the European space science community with simple and efficient access to space data archives, facilities with which to examine and analyze the retrieved data, and general information services. To achieve that ESIS will provide the scientists with a discipline specific environment for querying in a uniform and transparent manner data stored in geographically dispersed archives. Furthermore it will provide discipline specific tools for displaying and analyzing the retrieved data. The central concept of ESIS is to achieve a more efficient and wider usage of space scientific data, while maintaining the physical archives at the institutions which created them, and has the best background for ensuring and maintaining the scientific validity and interest of the data. In addition to coping with the physical distribution of data, ESIS is to manage also the heterogenity of the individual archives' data models, formats and data base management systems. Thus the ESIS system shall appear to the user as a single database, while it does in fact consist of a collection of dispersed and locally managed databases and data archives. The work reported in this paper is one of the results of the ESIS Pilot Project which is to be completed in 1993. More specifically it presents the pilot ESIS Query Environment (ESIS QE) system which forms the data retrieval and data dissemination axis of the ESIS system. The others are formed by the ESIS Correlation Environment (ESIS CE) and the ESIS Information Services. The ESIS QE Pilot Project is carried out for the European Space Agency's Research and Information center, ESRIN, by a Consortium consisting of Computer Resources International, Denmark, CISET S.p.a, Italy, the University of Strasbourg, France and the Rutherford Appleton Laboratories in the U.K. Furthermore numerous scientists both within ESA and space science community in Europe have been involved in

  1. Research on private cloud computing based on analysis on typical opensource platform: a case study with Eucalyptus and Wavemaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaoyuan; Yuan, Jian; Chen, Shi

    2013-03-01

    Cloud computing is one of the most popular topics in the IT industry and is recently being adopted by many companies. It has four development models, as: public cloud, community cloud, hybrid cloud and private cloud. Except others, private cloud can be implemented in a private network, and delivers some benefits of cloud computing without pitfalls. This paper makes a comparison of typical open source platforms through which we can implement a private cloud. After this comparison, we choose Eucalyptus and Wavemaker to do a case study on the private cloud. We also do some performance estimation of cloud platform services and development of prototype software as cloud services.

  2. Aspects of endowment: a query theory of value construction.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric J; Häubl, Gerald; Keinan, Anat

    2007-05-01

    How do people judge the monetary value of objects? One clue is provided by the typical endowment study (D. Kahneman, J. L. Knetsch, & R. H. Thaler, 1991), in which participants are randomly given either a good, such as a coffee mug, that they may later sell ("sellers") or a choice between the good and amounts of cash ("choosers"). Sellers typically demand at least twice as much as choosers, inconsistent with economic theory. This result is usually explained by an increased weighting of losses, or loss aversion. The authors provide a memory-based account of endowment, suggesting that people construct values by posing a series of queries whose order differs for sellers and choosers. Because of output interference, these queries retrieve different aspects of the object and the medium of exchange, producing different valuations. The authors show that the content and structure of the recalled aspects differ for selling and choosing and that these aspects predict valuations. Merely altering the order in which queries are posed can eliminate the endowment effect, and changing the order of queries can produce endowment-like effects without ownership.

  3. Path querying system on mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xing; Wang, Yifei; Tian, Yuan; Wu, Lun

    2006-01-01

    Traditional approaches to path querying problems are not efficient and convenient under most circumstances. A more convenient and reliable approach to this problem has to be found. This paper is devoted to a path querying solution on mobile devices. By using an improved Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm and a natural language translating module, this system can help people find the shortest path between two places through their cell phones or other mobile devices. The chosen path is prompted in text of natural language, as well as a map picture. This system would be useful in solving best path querying problems and have potential to be a profitable business system.

  4. Privacy, privatization, and the politics of patronage: ethnographic challenges to penetrating the secret world of Middle Eastern, hospital-based in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2004-11-01

    In recent years, in vitro fertilization (IVF) has spread around the globe, including to the Middle East. Privacy, privatization, and the politics of patronage are all key issues affecting anthropological research in Middle Eastern hospital-based IVF clinics. IVF-seeking patients generally desire privacy, even total secrecy, when pursuing these treatments, due to cultural issues of stigmatization, particularly regarding male infertility. Thus, ethical issues surrounding the informed consent process are of prime importance. Furthermore, privatization of medical services in the Middle East has left patients--and anthropologists--with few choices other than private IVF clinic settings in which to pursue treatment and research. Both the ethos of patient privacy and medical privatization affect the ability of anthropologists to "penetrate" the secret world of IVF. Permission to conduct ethnography in private hospital IVF clinics may be difficult to obtain without the help of highly motivated physician patrons, who are willing to recruit their private IVF patients for ethnographic interviewing. This article provides a personal account of some of these challenges as faced by a medical anthropologist during a 15-year career of hospital-based IVF research in the Middle East.

  5. Business information query expansion through semantic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zhiguo; Muyeba, Maybin; Guo, Jingzhi

    2010-02-01

    In this article, we propose a method for business information query expansions. In our approach, hypernym/hyponymy and synonym relations in WordNet are used as the basic expansion rules. Then we use WordNet Lexical Chains and WordNet semantic similarity to assign terms in the same query into different groups with respect to their semantic similarities. For each group, we expand the highest terms in the WordNet hierarchies with hypernym and synonym, the lowest terms with hyponym and synonym and all other terms with only synonym. In this way, the contradictory caused by full expansion can be well controlled. Furthermore, we use collection-related term semantic network to further improve the expansion performance. And our experiment reveals that our solution for query expansion can improve the query performance dramatically.

  6. Interactive Graphical Queries for Bibliographic Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Martin; Campbell, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    Presents "Islands," an interactive graphical interface for construction, modification, and management of queries during a search session on a bibliographic database. Discusses motivation and bibliographic search semantics and compares the Islands interface to the Dialog interface. (Author/LRW)

  7. The StarView intelligent query mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, R. D.; Silberberg, D. P.

    1993-01-01

    The StarView interface is being developed to facilitate the retrieval of scientific and engineering data produced by the Hubble Space Telescope. While predefined screens in the interface can be used to specify many common requests, ad hoc requests require a dynamic query formulation capability. Unfortunately, logical level knowledge is too sparse to support this capability. In particular, essential formulation knowledge is lost when the domain of interest is mapped to a set of database relation schemas. Thus, a system known as QUICK has been developed that uses conceptual design knowledge to facilitate query formulation. By heuristically determining strongly associated objects at the conceptual level, QUICK is able to formulate semantically reasonable queries in response to high-level requests that specify only attributes of interest. Moreover, by exploiting constraint knowledge in the conceptual design, QUICK assures that queries are formulated quickly and will execute efficiently.

  8. On Relevance Weight Estimation and Query Expansion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, S. E.

    1986-01-01

    A Bayesian argument is used to suggest modifications to the Robertson and Jones relevance weighting formula to accommodate the addition to the query of terms taken from the relevant documents identified during the search. (Author)

  9. Implementing Graph Pattern Queries on a Relational Database

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I L; Abdulla, G M; Brugger, S T; Kohn, S R

    2007-12-26

    When a graph database is implemented on top of a relational database, queries in the graph query language are translated into relational SQL queries. Graph pattern queries are an important feature of a graph query language. Translating graph pattern queries into single SQL statements results in very poor query performance. By taking into account the pattern query structure and generating multiple SQL statements, pattern query performance can be dramatically improved. The performance problems encountered with the single SQL statements generated for pattern queries reflects a problem in the SQL query planner and optimizer. Addressing this problem would allow relational databases to better support semantic graph databases. Relational database systems that provide good support for graph databases may also be more flexible platforms for data warehouses.

  10. Querying and tasking in sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaikaeo, Chaiporn; Srisathapornphat, Chavalit; Shen, Chien-Chung

    2000-08-01

    With the advancement of hardware technology, it becomes feasible to develop a networked system of pervasive computing platforms that combine programmable general purpose computers with multiple sensing and wireless communication capability. This networked system of programmable sensor nodes, together called a sensor network, poses unique challenges on how information collected by and stored within the sensor network should be queried and accessed, and how concurrent sensing tasks should be programmed from external clients. In this paper, we describe an architecture that facilitates querying and tasking of sensor networks. The key idea to the architecture lies in the development of the Sensor Querying and Tasking Language (SQTL) and the corresponding Sensor Execution Environment (SEE). We model a sensor network as a distributed set of collaborating nodes that carry out querying and tasking activities programmed in SQTL. A frontend node injects a message, that encapsulates an SQTL program, into a sensor node and starts a diffusion computation. A sensor node may diffuse the encapsulated SQTL program to other nodes as dictated by its logic and collaborately perform the specified querying or tasking activity. We will present the SQTL language and demonstrate its applicability using a maximum temperature querying application and a vehicle tracking application.

  11. Differentially private distributed logistic regression using private and public data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Privacy protecting is an important issue in medical informatics and differential privacy is a state-of-the-art framework for data privacy research. Differential privacy offers provable privacy against attackers who have auxiliary information, and can be applied to data mining models (for example, logistic regression). However, differentially private methods sometimes introduce too much noise and make outputs less useful. Given available public data in medical research (e.g. from patients who sign open-consent agreements), we can design algorithms that use both public and private data sets to decrease the amount of noise that is introduced. Methodology In this paper, we modify the update step in Newton-Raphson method to propose a differentially private distributed logistic regression model based on both public and private data. Experiments and results We try our algorithm on three different data sets, and show its advantage over: (1) a logistic regression model based solely on public data, and (2) a differentially private distributed logistic regression model based on private data under various scenarios. Conclusion Logistic regression models built with our new algorithm based on both private and public datasets demonstrate better utility than models that trained on private or public datasets alone without sacrificing the rigorous privacy guarantee. PMID:25079786

  12. Peru privatizes

    SciTech Connect

    Suttil, K.R.

    1993-02-01

    Peru has been undergoing a revolution since the election of Alberto Fujimori as president in 1990. A revolution that is reversing many of the policies of the past 25 years and one which aims to bring Peru back into the mainstream of the world economy. All the enterprises nationalized in the heady days of the early 1970s are set up for privatization. The most important are the three mining companies: Hierro-Peru, Centromin, and Mineroo-Peru. It will not be easy to attract foreign investment after such a long period of political and economic instability but the rewards are there for the intrepid.

  13. Query by image example: The CANDID approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, P.M.; Cannon, M.; Hush, D.R.

    1995-02-01

    CANDID (Comparison Algorithm for Navigating Digital Image Databases) was developed to enable content-based retrieval of digital imagery from large databases using a query-by-example methodology. A user provides an example image to the system, and images in the database that are similar to that example are retrieved. The development of CANDID was inspired by the N-gram approach to document fingerprinting, where a ``global signature`` is computed for every document in a database and these signatures are compared to one another to determine the similarity between any two documents. CANDID computes a global signature for every image in a database, where the signature is derived from various image features such as localized texture, shape, or color information. A distance between probability density functions of feature vectors is then used to compare signatures. In this paper, the authors present CANDID and highlight two results from their current research: subtracting a ``background`` signature from every signature in a database in an attempt to improve system performance when using inner-product similarity measures, and visualizing the contribution of individual pixels in the matching process. These ideas are applicable to any histogram-based comparison technique.

  14. Evaluation of the Relevance of a Web-Based "Ask an Expert" Feature: StratSoy and Soy and Human Health Queries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wool, D. L.; Kanfer, A. G.; Michaels, J.; Thompson, S.; Morris, S. A.; Hasler, C. M.

    2000-01-01

    A study of the "Ask an Expert" feature of StratSoy, a Web-based information system, surveyed 50 users and 48 using it for the first time. Topic areas of interest and web site features desired by respondents were identified. (JOW)

  15. Evidence-based practice implementation: The impact of public versus private sector organization type on organizational support, provider attitudes, and adoption of evidence-based practice

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The goal of this study is to extend research on evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation by examining the impact of organizational type (public versus private) and organizational support for EBP on provider attitudes toward EBP and EBP use. Both organization theory and theory of innovation uptake and individual adoption of EBP guide the approach and analyses in this study. We anticipated that private sector organizations would provide greater levels of organizational support for EBPs leading to more positive provider attitudes towards EBPs and EBP use. We also expected attitudes toward EBPs to mediate the association of organizational support and EBP use. Methods Participants were mental health service providers from 17 communities in 16 states in the United States (n = 170). Path analyses were conducted to compare three theoretical models of the impact of organization type on organizational support for EBP and of organizational support on provider attitudes toward EBP and EBP use. Results Consistent with our predictions, private agencies provided greater support for EBP implementation, and staff working for private agencies reported more positive attitudes toward adopting EBPs. Organizational support for EBP partially mediated the association of organization type on provider attitudes toward EBP. Organizational support was significantly positively associated with attitudes toward EBP and EBP use in practice. Conclusion This study offers further support for the importance of organizational context as an influence on organizational support for EBP and provider attitudes toward adopting EBP. The study demonstrates the role organizational support in provider use of EBP in practice. This study also suggests that organizational support for innovation is a malleable factor in supporting use of EBP. Greater attention should be paid to organizational influences that can facilitate the dissemination and implementation of EBPs in community settings. PMID

  16. Private Loans: Facts and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for College Access & Success, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Private loans are one of the riskiest ways to finance a college education. Like credit cards, they typically have variable interest rates. Both variable and fixed rates are higher for those who can least afford them--as high as 13% in June 2014. Private loans are not eligible for the important deferment, income-based repayment, or loan forgiveness…

  17. Effectiveness of a workplace-based intervention program to promote mental health among employees in privately owned enterprises in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Wang, Xinchao

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to examine the effectiveness of a workplace-based intervention program to improve mental health, work ability, and work productivity in privately owned enterprises in China. A prospective cohort intervention study design was employed in which the intervention program was implemented for 30 months (from July 2009 to December 2012). Nine privately owned retail enterprises in China participated in the intervention study. Researchers administered a self-report survey to 2768 employees. The research team measured participants' job stress, resilience, work ability, absenteeism, depression, and work performance. A comprehensive Health Promotion Enterprise Program was implemented that entailed the following components: policies to support a healthy work environment, psychosocial interventions to promote mental health, provision of health services to people with mental illness, and professional skills training to deal with stress and build resilience. Analysis of variance was used to examine preintervention versus postintervention differences in stress, resilience, and work ability. Logistic regression was used to examine absenteeism related to depression. The results suggest that the intervention program was effective at improving participants' ability to work, their sense of control over their jobs, and, in particular, their ability to meet the mental demands of work. The intervention program also reduced participants' job stress levels and reduced the probability of absenteeism related to depression. The intervention programs incorporating both individual-level and organizational-level factors to promote mental health were effective and have implications for both practice and policy regarding enterprises taking more responsibility for the provision of mental health services to their employees.

  18. Scheduling in Heterogeneous Computing Environments for Proximity Queries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duksu; Lee, Jinkyu; Lee, Junghwan; Shin, Insik; Kim, John; Yoon, Sunggeui

    2013-04-01

    We present a novel, Linear Programming (LP) based scheduling algorithm that exploits heterogeneous multi-core architectures such as CPUs and GPUs to accelerate a wide variety of proximity queries. To represent complicated performance relationships between heterogeneous architectures and different computations of proximity queries, we propose a simple, yet accurate model that measures the expected running time of these computations. Based on this model, we formulate an optimization problem that minimizes the largest time spent on computing resources, and propose a novel, iterative LP-based scheduling algorithm. Since our method is general, we are able to apply our method into various proximity queries that have different characteristics. Our method achieves an order of magnitude performance improvement by using four different GPUs and two hexa-core CPUs over using a hexa-core CPU only. Unlike prior scheduling methods, our method continually improves the performance, as we add more computing resources. Also, our method achieves much higher performance improvement compared with prior methods as heterogeneity of computing resources is increased. We also show that our method provides results that are close to the performance provided by a conservative upper bound of the ideal throughput. These results demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of our algorithm that have not been achieved by prior methods.

  19. Scheduling in Heterogeneous Computing Environments for Proximity Queries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duksu; Lee, Jinkyu; Lee, Junghwan; Shin, Insik; Kim, John; Yoon, Sunggeui

    2013-04-01

    We present a novel, Linear Programming (LP) based scheduling algorithm that exploits heterogeneous multi-core architectures such as CPUs and GPUs to accelerate a wide variety of proximity queries. To represent complicated performance relationships between heterogeneous architectures and different computations of proximity queries, we propose a simple, yet accurate model that measures the expected running time of these computations. Based on this model, we formulate an optimization problem that minimizes the largest time spent on computing resources, and propose a novel, iterative LP-based scheduling algorithm. Since our method is general, we are able to apply our method into various proximity queries that have different characteristics. Our method achieves an order of magnitude performance improvement by using four different GPUs and two hexa-core CPUs over using a hexa-core CPU only. Unlike prior scheduling methods, our method continually improves the performance, as we add more computing resources. Also, our method achieves much higher performance improvement compared with prior methods as heterogeneity of computing resources is increased. We also show that our method provides results that are close to the performance provided by a conservative upper bound of the ideal throughput. These results demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of our algorithm that have not been achieved by prior methods. PMID:23568962

  20. IQARIS : a tool for the intelligent querying, analysis, and retrieval from information systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Hummel, J. R.; Silver, R. B.

    2002-04-26

    Information glut is one of the primary characteristics of the electronic age. Managing such large volumes of information (e.g., keeping track of the types, where they are, their relationships, who controls them, etc.) can be done efficiently with an intelligent, user-oriented information management system. The purpose of this paper is to describe a concept for managing information resources based on an intelligent information technology system developed by the Argonne National Laboratory for managing digital libraries. The Argonne system, Intelligent Query (IQ), enables users to query digital libraries and view the holdings that match the query from different perspectives.

  1. A Preliminary Mapping of Web Queries Using Existing Image Query Schemes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Bernard J.

    End user searching on the Web has become the primary method of locating images for many people. This study investigates the nature of Web image queries by attempting to map them to known image classification schemes. In this study, approximately 100,000 image queries from a major Web search engine were collected in 1997, 1999, and 2001. A…

  2. Fast Query-Optimized Kernel-Machine Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazzoni, Dominic; DeCoste, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    A recently developed algorithm performs kernel-machine classification via incremental approximate nearest support vectors. The algorithm implements support-vector machines (SVMs) at speeds 10 to 100 times those attainable by use of conventional SVM algorithms. The algorithm offers potential benefits for classification of images, recognition of speech, recognition of handwriting, and diverse other applications in which there are requirements to discern patterns in large sets of data. SVMs constitute a subset of kernel machines (KMs), which have become popular as models for machine learning and, more specifically, for automated classification of input data on the basis of labeled training data. While similar in many ways to k-nearest-neighbors (k-NN) models and artificial neural networks (ANNs), SVMs tend to be more accurate. Using representations that scale only linearly in the numbers of training examples, while exploring nonlinear (kernelized) feature spaces that are exponentially larger than the original input dimensionality, KMs elegantly and practically overcome the classic curse of dimensionality. However, the price that one must pay for the power of KMs is that query-time complexity scales linearly with the number of training examples, making KMs often orders of magnitude more computationally expensive than are ANNs, decision trees, and other popular machine learning alternatives. The present algorithm treats an SVM classifier as a special form of a k-NN. The algorithm is based partly on an empirical observation that one can often achieve the same classification as that of an exact KM by using only small fraction of the nearest support vectors (SVs) of a query. The exact KM output is a weighted sum over the kernel values between the query and the SVs. In this algorithm, the KM output is approximated with a k-NN classifier, the output of which is a weighted sum only over the kernel values involving k selected SVs. Before query time, there are gathered

  3. Private medical practitioners and managed care in Malaysia: a survey of knowledge and attitudes held by Federal Territory based doctors.

    PubMed

    Marnoch, Gordon; Lian, Paul C S

    2002-03-01

    This paper considers the subject of managed care in Malaysia, providing a questionnaire-based analysis of the position adopted by private medical practitioners. Managed care is now seen as the dominant health care system in the United States, with many other countries around the world including Malaysia beginning to selectively use component parts to tackle particular health care problems. In this survey it was found that three out of four respondents have concerns regarding the implementation of managed care. The survey was used to identify and categorise these concerns. At the same time, three out of four respondents held the opinion that principles of managed care were already a reality or would be in the next 5 years. This group expressed an eagerness to be trained in managed care principles and be given the opportunity to be part of managed care organisations. It is argued that clinicians' knowledge and interest perceptions are an important influence on the implementation of managed care based systems. The survey-based evidence presented in this article is intended as a measure of current understandings and beliefs, in relation to clinical micro-management process associated with managed care.

  4. Query optimization for graph analytics on linked data using SPARQL

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Seokyong; Lee, Sangkeun; Lim, Seung -Hwan; Sukumar, Sreenivas R.; Vatsavai, Ranga Raju

    2015-07-01

    Triplestores that support query languages such as SPARQL are emerging as the preferred and scalable solution to represent data and meta-data as massive heterogeneous graphs using Semantic Web standards. With increasing adoption, the desire to conduct graph-theoretic mining and exploratory analysis has also increased. Addressing that desire, this paper presents a solution that is the marriage of Graph Theory and the Semantic Web. We present software that can analyze Linked Data using graph operations such as counting triangles, finding eccentricity, testing connectedness, and computing PageRank directly on triple stores via the SPARQL interface. We describe the process of optimizing performance of the SPARQL-based implementation of such popular graph algorithms by reducing the space-overhead, simplifying iterative complexity and removing redundant computations by understanding query plans. Our optimized approach shows significant performance gains on triplestores hosted on stand-alone workstations as well as hardware-optimized scalable supercomputers such as the Cray XMT.

  5. Persuading consumers to form precise search engine queries.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Gondy

    2009-11-14

    Today's search engines provide a single textbox for searching. This input method has not changed in decades and, as a result, consumer search behaviour has not changed either: few and imprecise keywords are used. Especially with health information, where incorrect information may lead to unwise decisions, it would be beneficial if consumers could search more precisely. We evaluated a new user interface that supports more precise searching by using query diagrams. In a controlled user study, using paper-based prototypes, we compared searching with a Google interface with drawing new or modifying template diagrams. We evaluated consumer willingness and ability to use diagrams and the impact on query formulation. Users had no trouble understanding the new search method. Moreover, they used more keywords and relationships between keywords with search diagrams. In comparison to drawing their own diagrams, modifying existing templates led to more searches being conducted and higher creativity in searching.

  6. Towards subsidized malaria rapid diagnostic tests. Lessons learned from programmes to subsidise artemisinin-based combination therapies in the private sector: a review

    PubMed Central

    Lussiana, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The idea of a private sector subsidy programme of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) was first proposed in 2004. Since then, several countries around the world have hosted pilot projects or programmes on subsidized ACTs and/or the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria programme (AMFm). Overall the private sector subsidy programmes of ACTs have been effective in increasing availability of ACTs in the private sector and driving down average prices but struggled to crowd out antimalarial monotherapies. The results obtained from this ambitious strategy should inform policy makers in the designing of future interventions aimed to control malaria morbidity and mortality. Among the interventions recently proposed, a subsidy of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in the private sector has been recommended by governments and international donors to cope with over-treatment with ACTs and to delay the emergence of resistance to artemisinin. In order to improve the cost-effectiveness of co-paid RDTs, we should build on the lessons we learned from almost 10 years of private sector subsidy programmes of ACTs in malaria-endemic countries. PMID:25862732

  7. Private forest landowner willingness, community impacts and concerns, and the development of a wood-based biofuels industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Eric C.

    The technical/economic aspects of using wood-based biomass as an alternative source of fuel have been well represented in current academic literature. However, currently very few studies have examined the concerns of private forest landowners (PFLs) and communities toward increased harvesting rates to support a wood-based biofuels industry. Further, few studies have tried to study or to determine what factors might impact such willingness. The absence of studies that focus on understanding PFLs and community concerns as well as PFLs willingness to participate in harvesting biofuels for energy is in part traceable to two basic, but untested, assumptions regarding communities and forest landowners: (1) PFLs are able and willing to participate in the production of raw materials with few obstacles; and (2) they will make the transition because of the opportunity to increase profits. While the technical/economic aspects are clearly important, little attention has been paid to those social and cultural factors that may impact the viability of such activity. To address this issue, the present study focused on three questions. (1) What are the opportunities and concerns of PFLs, communities, residents, and existing wood-based industries regarding the development of a wood-based biofuel industry? (2) Will PFLs be willing to harvest raw materials for a wood-based biofuel industry? (2a) What sociocultural and sociodemographic dimensions influence PFLs' willingness to harvest raw materials for a wood-based biofuel industry? Data was collected using a mixed methods approach including using secondary data, key informant interviews and a phone survey of both the general public and PFLs in the Eastern forest region.

  8. Is School-Based Height and Weight Screening of Elementary Students Private and Reliable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Sarah A.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Skay, Carol

    2008-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommends school-based body mass index (BMI) screening as an obesity prevention strategy. While school nurses have provided height/weight screening for years, little has been published describing measurement reliability or process. This study evaluated the reliability of height/weight measures collected by school nurses…

  9. Performance-Based Contracting in Residential Care and Treatment: Driving Policy and Practice Change through Public-Private Partnership in Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Kathleen A.; McEwen, Erwin; Bloom-Ellis, Brice; Jordan, Neil

    2010-01-01

    The National Quality Improvement Center on the Privatization of Child Welfare Services selected Illinois as a demonstration site in 2007 to evaluate performance-based contracting in residential treatment services. This article discusses the first two years of project implementation including developing residential treatment performance indicators,…

  10. Indexing and querying moving objects with uncertain speed and direction in spatiotemporal databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuan-Ko

    2014-04-01

    Efficient processing of spatiotemporal queries over moving objects with uncertainty has become imperative due to the increasing need for real-time information in highly dynamic environments. Most of the existing approaches focus on designing an index structure for managing moving objects with uncertainty and then utilize it to improve the query performance. All the proposed indexes, however, have their own limitations. In this paper, we devote to developing an efficient index, named the R lsd - tree, to index moving objects with uncertain speed and direction varying within respective known ranges. We design several pruning criteria combined with the R lsd -tree to answer the probabilistic range queries. Moreover, two models, the sampling-based probability model and the ER-based probability model, are proposed to quantify the possibility of each object being the query result. Finally, a thorough experimental evaluation is conducted to show the merits of the proposed techniques.

  11. An Energy-Efficient Skyline Query for Massively Multidimensional Sensing Data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Wei, Wei; Deng, Qingxu; Liu, Wei; Song, Houbing

    2016-01-01

    Cyber physical systems (CPS) sense the environment based on wireless sensor networks. The sensing data of such systems present the characteristics of massiveness and multi-dimensionality. As one of the major monitoring methods used in in safe production monitoring and disaster early-warning applications, skyline query algorithms are extensively adopted for multiple-objective decision analysis of these sensing data. With the expansion of network sizes, the amount of sensing data increases sharply. Then, how to improve the query efficiency of skyline query algorithms and reduce the transmission energy consumption become pressing and difficult to accomplish issues. Therefore, this paper proposes a new energy-efficient skyline query method for massively multidimensional sensing data. First, the method uses a node cut strategy to dynamically generate filtering tuples with little computational overhead when collecting query results instead of issuing queries with filters. It can judge the domination relationship among different nodes, remove the detected data sets of dominated nodes that are irrelevant to the query, modify the query path dynamically, and reduce the data comparison and computational overhead. The efficient dynamic filter generated by this strategy uses little non-skyline data transmission in the network, and the transmission distance is very short. Second, our method also employs the tuple-cutting strategy inside the node and generates the local cutting tuples by the sub-tree with the node itself as the root node, which will be used to cut the detected data within the nodes of the sub-tree. Therefore, it can further control the non-skyline data uploading. A large number of experimental results show that our method can quickly return an overview of the monitored area and reduce the communication overhead. Additionally, it can shorten the response time and improve the efficiency of the query. PMID:26761010

  12. An Energy-Efficient Skyline Query for Massively Multidimensional Sensing Data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Wei, Wei; Deng, Qingxu; Liu, Wei; Song, Houbing

    2016-01-01

    Cyber physical systems (CPS) sense the environment based on wireless sensor networks. The sensing data of such systems present the characteristics of massiveness and multi-dimensionality. As one of the major monitoring methods used in in safe production monitoring and disaster early-warning applications, skyline query algorithms are extensively adopted for multiple-objective decision analysis of these sensing data. With the expansion of network sizes, the amount of sensing data increases sharply. Then, how to improve the query efficiency of skyline query algorithms and reduce the transmission energy consumption become pressing and difficult to accomplish issues. Therefore, this paper proposes a new energy-efficient skyline query method for massively multidimensional sensing data. First, the method uses a node cut strategy to dynamically generate filtering tuples with little computational overhead when collecting query results instead of issuing queries with filters. It can judge the domination relationship among different nodes, remove the detected data sets of dominated nodes that are irrelevant to the query, modify the query path dynamically, and reduce the data comparison and computational overhead. The efficient dynamic filter generated by this strategy uses little non-skyline data transmission in the network, and the transmission distance is very short. Second, our method also employs the tuple-cutting strategy inside the node and generates the local cutting tuples by the sub-tree with the node itself as the root node, which will be used to cut the detected data within the nodes of the sub-tree. Therefore, it can further control the non-skyline data uploading. A large number of experimental results show that our method can quickly return an overview of the monitored area and reduce the communication overhead. Additionally, it can shorten the response time and improve the efficiency of the query. PMID:26761010

  13. Analyzing Medical Image Search Behavior: Semantics and Prediction of Query Results.

    PubMed

    De-Arteaga, Maria; Eggel, Ivan; Kahn, Charles E; Müller, Henning

    2015-10-01

    Log files of information retrieval systems that record user behavior have been used to improve the outcomes of retrieval systems, understand user behavior, and predict events. In this article, a log file of the ARRS GoldMiner search engine containing 222,005 consecutive queries is analyzed. Time stamps are available for each query, as well as masked IP addresses, which enables to identify queries from the same person. This article describes the ways in which physicians (or Internet searchers interested in medical images) search and proposes potential improvements by suggesting query modifications. For example, many queries contain only few terms and therefore are not specific; others contain spelling mistakes or non-medical terms that likely lead to poor or empty results. One of the goals of this report is to predict the number of results a query will have since such a model allows search engines to automatically propose query modifications in order to avoid result lists that are empty or too large. This prediction is made based on characteristics of the query terms themselves. Prediction of empty results has an accuracy above 88%, and thus can be used to automatically modify the query to avoid empty result sets for a user. The semantic analysis and data of reformulations done by users in the past can aid the development of better search systems, particularly to improve results for novice users. Therefore, this paper gives important ideas to better understand how people search and how to use this knowledge to improve the performance of specialized medical search engines.

  14. [Impact of demographic chance on pharmaceutical expenses in private health insurance--a scenario-based analysis].

    PubMed

    Böcking, W; Tidelski, O; Skuras, B; Bäumler, A; Kitzmann, F

    2012-08-01

    Health Insurance costs in Germany have grown constantly over the last years. This increase of costs is not only observable in the total consideration but also in all single items. An outstanding growth rate exists in the field of pharmaceutical expenses. Detailed analyses of distribution and development of these costs, separated by age and indication groups, are currently only sporadically available and mostly focusing on the Statutory Health Insurance system in Germany. This research article is based on an initial data analysis and focuses on the question how pharmaceutical expenses in a German private health insurance company will develop until the year 2050, if the observed trend of the past years continues in the same way. This analysis focuses on different age groups. The objective is the demonstration of several scenarios, which illustrate the level of influence of different parameters (demographic changes, developments of prices for pharmaceuticals). Based on the cognition of certain effects measures for handling the growing challenge of financing the health system can be deduced. As a result, both demographic changes and price effects have an significant impact on the future development of per capita pharmaceutical expenses. Whereas older age groups will still cause the highest costs, the middle-aged people will show the highest growth rates. This strong cost increase is not sustainable for the German health insurance system. In addition to previous measures of a regulatory health policy (especially improved cost-benefit-assessments) the article shows new approaches for an intensified prevention and health promotion. PMID:22872541

  15. Private Stimuli, Covert Responses, and Private Events: Conceptual Remarks

    PubMed Central

    Tourinho, Emmanuel Zagury

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the concepts of private stimuli, covert responses, and private events, emphasizing three aspects: the conditions under which private stimuli may acquire discriminative functions to verbal responses, the conditions of unobservability of covert responses, and the complexity of events or phenomena described as private. I argue that the role of private stimuli in the control of self-descriptive verbal responses is dependent on a relation (correlation or equivalence relation) with public stimuli, and that responses vary along a continuum of observability. These remarks on private stimuli and covert responses are introductory to an examination of the varying complexity of phenomena described as private. I argue that private events is a verbal response emitted under the control of phenomena of different degrees of complexity, and I interpret these phenomena, based on the principle of selection by consequences. I introduce the notion of inclusiveness to suggest that some phenomena related to privacy are less or more complex as they include relations of a phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and cultural origin. PMID:22478451

  16. Comparative Analysis of Online Health Queries Originating From Personal Computers and Smart Devices on a Consumer Health Information Portal

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Ashutosh; Andrews, Donna; Fiksdal, Alexander; Kumbamu, Ashok; McCormick, Jennifer B; Misitano, Andrew; Nelsen, Laurie; Ryu, Euijung; Sheth, Amit; Wu, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Background The number of people using the Internet and mobile/smart devices for health information seeking is increasing rapidly. Although the user experience for online health information seeking varies with the device used, for example, smart devices (SDs) like smartphones/tablets versus personal computers (PCs) like desktops/laptops, very few studies have investigated how online health information seeking behavior (OHISB) may differ by device. Objective The objective of this study is to examine differences in OHISB between PCs and SDs through a comparative analysis of large-scale health search queries submitted through Web search engines from both types of devices. Methods Using the Web analytics tool, IBM NetInsight OnDemand, and based on the type of devices used (PCs or SDs), we obtained the most frequent health search queries between June 2011 and May 2013 that were submitted on Web search engines and directed users to the Mayo Clinic’s consumer health information website. We performed analyses on “Queries with considering repetition counts (QwR)” and “Queries without considering repetition counts (QwoR)”. The dataset contains (1) 2.74 million and 3.94 million QwoR, respectively for PCs and SDs, and (2) more than 100 million QwR for both PCs and SDs. We analyzed structural properties of the queries (length of the search queries, usage of query operators and special characters in health queries), types of search queries (keyword-based, wh-questions, yes/no questions), categorization of the queries based on health categories and information mentioned in the queries (gender, age-groups, temporal references), misspellings in the health queries, and the linguistic structure of the health queries. Results Query strings used for health information searching via PCs and SDs differ by almost 50%. The most searched health categories are “Symptoms” (1 in 3 search queries), “Causes”, and “Treatments & Drugs”. The distribution of search queries for

  17. Web Search Queries Can Predict Stock Market Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Bordino, Ilaria; Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Cristelli, Matthieu; Ukkonen, Antti; Weber, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    We live in a computerized and networked society where many of our actions leave a digital trace and affect other people’s actions. This has lead to the emergence of a new data-driven research field: mathematical methods of computer science, statistical physics and sociometry provide insights on a wide range of disciplines ranging from social science to human mobility. A recent important discovery is that search engine traffic (i.e., the number of requests submitted by users to search engines on the www) can be used to track and, in some cases, to anticipate the dynamics of social phenomena. Successful examples include unemployment levels, car and home sales, and epidemics spreading. Few recent works applied this approach to stock prices and market sentiment. However, it remains unclear if trends in financial markets can be anticipated by the collective wisdom of on-line users on the web. Here we show that daily trading volumes of stocks traded in NASDAQ-100 are correlated with daily volumes of queries related to the same stocks. In particular, query volumes anticipate in many cases peaks of trading by one day or more. Our analysis is carried out on a unique dataset of queries, submitted to an important web search engine, which enable us to investigate also the user behavior. We show that the query volume dynamics emerges from the collective but seemingly uncoordinated activity of many users. These findings contribute to the debate on the identification of early warnings of financial systemic risk, based on the activity of users of the www. PMID:22829871

  18. Web search queries can predict stock market volumes.

    PubMed

    Bordino, Ilaria; Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Cristelli, Matthieu; Ukkonen, Antti; Weber, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    We live in a computerized and networked society where many of our actions leave a digital trace and affect other people's actions. This has lead to the emergence of a new data-driven research field: mathematical methods of computer science, statistical physics and sociometry provide insights on a wide range of disciplines ranging from social science to human mobility. A recent important discovery is that search engine traffic (i.e., the number of requests submitted by users to search engines on the www) can be used to track and, in some cases, to anticipate the dynamics of social phenomena. Successful examples include unemployment levels, car and home sales, and epidemics spreading. Few recent works applied this approach to stock prices and market sentiment. However, it remains unclear if trends in financial markets can be anticipated by the collective wisdom of on-line users on the web. Here we show that daily trading volumes of stocks traded in NASDAQ-100 are correlated with daily volumes of queries related to the same stocks. In particular, query volumes anticipate in many cases peaks of trading by one day or more. Our analysis is carried out on a unique dataset of queries, submitted to an important web search engine, which enable us to investigate also the user behavior. We show that the query volume dynamics emerges from the collective but seemingly uncoordinated activity of many users. These findings contribute to the debate on the identification of early warnings of financial systemic risk, based on the activity of users of the www.

  19. NEOview: Near Earth Object Data Discovery and Query

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibbetts, M.; Elvis, M.; Galache, J. L.; Harbo, P.; McDowell, J. C.; Rudenko, M.; Van Stone, D.; Zografou, P.

    2013-10-01

    Missions to Near Earth Objects (NEOs) figure prominently in NASA's Flexible Path approach to human space exploration. NEOs offer insight into both the origins of the Solar System and of life, as well as a source of materials for future missions. With NEOview scientists can locate NEO datasets, explore metadata provided by the archives, and query or combine disparate NEO datasets in the search for NEO candidates for exploration. NEOview is a software system that illustrates how standards-based interfaces facilitate NEO data discovery and research. NEOview software follows a client-server architecture. The server is a configurable implementation of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) Table Access Protocol (TAP), a general interface for tabular data access, that can be deployed as a front end to existing NEO datasets. The TAP client, seleste, is a graphical interface that provides intuitive means of discovering NEO providers, exploring dataset metadata to identify fields of interest, and constructing queries to retrieve or combine data. It features a powerful, graphical query builder capable of easing the user's introduction to table searches. Through science use cases, NEOview demonstrates how potential targets for NEO rendezvous could be identified by combining data from complementary sources. Through deployment and operations, it has been shown that the software components are data independent and configurable to many different data servers. As such, NEOview's TAP server and seleste TAP client can be used to create a seamless environment for data discovery and exploration for tabular data in any astronomical archive.

  20. FastQuery: A Parallel Indexing System for Scientific Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Jerry; Wu, Kesheng; Prabhat,

    2011-07-29

    Modern scientific datasets present numerous data management and analysis challenges. State-of-the- art index and query technologies such as FastBit can significantly improve accesses to these datasets by augmenting the user data with indexes and other secondary information. However, a challenge is that the indexes assume the relational data model but the scientific data generally follows the array data model. To match the two data models, we design a generic mapping mechanism and implement an efficient input and output interface for reading and writing the data and their corresponding indexes. To take advantage of the emerging many-core architectures, we also develop a parallel strategy for indexing using threading technology. This approach complements our on-going MPI-based parallelization efforts. We demonstrate the flexibility of our software by applying it to two of the most commonly used scientific data formats, HDF5 and NetCDF. We present two case studies using data from a particle accelerator model and a global climate model. We also conducted a detailed performance study using these scientific datasets. The results show that FastQuery speeds up the query time by a factor of 2.5x to 50x, and it reduces the indexing time by a factor of 16 on 24 cores.

  1. Privacy-Aware Location Database Service for Granular Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyomoto, Shinsaku; Martin, Keith M.; Fukushima, Kazuhide

    Future mobile markets are expected to increasingly embrace location-based services. This paper presents a new system architecture for location-based services, which consists of a location database and distributed location anonymizers. The service is privacy-aware in the sense that the location database always maintains a degree of anonymity. The location database service permits three different levels of query and can thus be used to implement a wide range of location-based services. Furthermore, the architecture is scalable and employs simple functions that are similar to those found in general database systems.

  2. A New Publicly Available Chemical Query Language, CSRML, to support Chemotype Representations for Application to Data-Mining and Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new XML-based query language, CSRML, has been developed for representing chemical substructures, molecules, reaction rules, and reactions. CSRML queries are capable of integrating additional forms of information beyond the simple substructure (e.g., SMARTS) or reaction transfor...

  3. Privatization and Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Myron

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the ramifications of privatization (the withdrawal of government as the creator and provider of services) for public education. Includes discussion of vouchers and of privatization of instructional services through the contracting of instructional services from private organizations. (MD)

  4. Astroquery: querying astronomical web forms and databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipocz, Brigitta

    2016-03-01

    Astroquery is an Astropy affiliated package for a set of tools for querying astronomical web forms and databases. In this lightning talk I give an overview of the available services and the usage of the package including a live demo of a typical use case.

  5. Normalized Legal Drafting and the Query Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Layman E.; Engholm, C. Rudy

    1978-01-01

    Normalized legal drafting, a mode of expressing ideas in legal documents so that the syntax that relates the constituent propositions is simplified and standardized, and the query method, a question-asking activity that teaches normalized drafting and provides practice, are examined. Some examples are presented. (JMD)

  6. Visualizing multidimensional query results using animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, Amit P.; Healey, Christopher G.

    2008-01-01

    Effective representation of large, complex collections of information (datasets) presents a difficult challenge. Visualization is a solution that uses a visual interface to support efficient analysis and discovery within the data. Our primary goal in this paper is a technique that allows viewers to compare multiple query results representing user-selected subsets of a multidimensional dataset. We present an algorithm that visualizes multidimensional information along a space-filling spiral. Graphical glyphs that vary their position, color, and texture appearance are used to represent attribute values for the data elements in each query result. Guidelines from human perception allow us to construct glyphs that are specifically designed to support exploration, facilitate the discovery of trends and relationships both within and between data elements, and highlight exceptions. A clustering algorithm applied to a user-chosen ranking attribute bundles together similar data elements. This encapsulation is used to show relationships across different queries via animations that morph between query results. We apply our techniques to the MovieLens recommender system, to demonstrate their applicability in a real-world environment, and then conclude with a simple validation experiment to identify the strengths and limitations of our design, compared to a traditional side-by-side visualization.

  7. On the evaluation of fuzzy quantified queries in a database management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosc, Patrick; Pivert, Olivier

    1992-01-01

    Many propositions to extend database management systems have been made in the last decade. Some of them aim at the support of a wider range of queries involving fuzzy predicates. Unfortunately, these queries are somewhat complex and the question of their efficiency is a subject under discussion. In this paper, we focus on a particular subset of queries, namely those using fuzzy quantified predicates. More precisely, we will consider the case where such predicates apply to individual elements as well as to sets of elements. Thanks to some interesting properties of alpha-cuts of fuzzy sets, we are able to show that the evaluation of these queries can be significantly improved with respect to a naive strategy based on exhaustive scans of sets or files.

  8. An efficient algorithm for maximizing range sum queries in a road network.

    PubMed

    Phan, Tien-Khoi; Jung, HaRim; Kim, Ung-Mo

    2014-01-01

    Given a set of positive-weighted points and a query rectangle r (specified by a client) of given extents, the goal of a maximizing range sum (MaxRS) query is to find the optimal location of r such that the total weights of all the points covered by r are maximized. All existing methods for processing MaxRS queries assume the Euclidean distance metric. In many location-based applications, however, the motion of a client may be constrained by an underlying (spatial) road network; that is, the client cannot move freely in space. This paper addresses the problem of processing MaxRS queries in a road network. We propose the external-memory algorithm that is suited for a large road network database. In addition, in contrast to the existing methods, which retrieve only one optimal location, our proposed algorithm retrieves all the possible optimal locations. Through simulations, we evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  9. All-optical virtual private network system in OFDM based long-reach PON using RSOA re-modulation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang-Hun; Jung, Sang-Min; Kang, Su-Min; Han, Sang-Kook

    2015-01-01

    We propose an all-optical virtual private network (VPN) system in an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based long reach PON (LR-PON). In the optical access network field, technologies based on fundamental upstream (U/S) and downstream (D/S) have been actively researched to accommodate explosion of data capacity. However, data transmission among the end users which is arisen from cloud computing, file-sharing and interactive game takes a large weight inside of internet traffic. Moreover, this traffic is predicted to increase more if Internet of Things (IoT) services are activated. In a conventional PON, VPN data is transmitted through ONU-OLT-ONU via U/S and D/S carriers. It leads to waste of bandwidth and energy due to O-E-O conversion in the OLT and round-trip propagation between OLT and remote node (RN). Also, it causes inevitable load to the OLT for electrical buffer, scheduling and routing. The network inefficiency becomes more critical in a LR-PON which has been researched as an effort to reduce CAPEX and OPEX through metro-access consolidation. In the proposed system, the VPN data is separated from conventional U/S and re-modulated on the D/S carrier by using RSOA in the ONUs to avoid bandwidth consumption of U/S and D/S unlike in previously reported system. Moreover, the transmitted VPN data is re-directed to the ONUs by wavelength selective reflector device in the RN without passing through the OLT. Experimental demonstration for the VPN communication system in an OFDM based LR-PON has been verified.

  10. Web-Based Learning for Cultural Heritage: First Experienced with Students of the Private University of Technology in Northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Y.-N.; Wu, Y.-W.; Weng, K.-H.

    2013-07-01

    E-learning assisted teaching and learning is the trend of the 21st century and has many advantages - freedom from the constraints of time and space, hypertext and multimedia rich resources - enhancing the interaction between students and the teaching materials. The purpose of this study is to explore how rich Internet resources assisted students with the Western Architectural History course. First, we explored the Internet resources which could assist teaching and learning activities. Second, according to course objectives, we built a web-based platform which integrated the Google spreadsheets form, SIMILE widget, Wikipedia and the Google Maps and applied it to the course of Western Architectural History. Finally, action research was applied to understanding the effectiveness of this teaching/learning mode. Participants were the students of the Department of Architecture in the Private University of Technology in northern Taiwan. Results showed that students were willing to use the web-based platform to assist their learning. They found this platform to be useful in understanding the relationship between different periods of buildings. Through the view of the map mode, this platform also helped students expand their international perspective. However, we found that the information shared by students via the Internet were not completely correct. One possible reason was that students could easily acquire information on Internet but they could not determine the correctness of the information. To conclude, this study found some useful and rich resources that could be well-integrated, from which we built a web-based platform to collect information and present this information in diverse modes to stimulate students' learning motivation. We recommend that future studies should consider hiring teaching assistants in order to ease the burden on teachers, and to assist in the maintenance of information quality.

  11. Visual graph query formulation and exploration: a new perspective on information retrieval at the edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kase, Sue E.; Vanni, Michelle; Knight, Joanne A.; Su, Yu; Yan, Xifeng

    2016-05-01

    Within operational environments decisions must be made quickly based on the information available. Identifying an appropriate knowledge base and accurately formulating a search query are critical tasks for decision-making effectiveness in dynamic situations. The spreading of graph data management tools to access large graph databases is a rapidly emerging research area of potential benefit to the intelligence community. A graph representation provides a natural way of modeling data in a wide variety of domains. Graph structures use nodes, edges, and properties to represent and store data. This research investigates the advantages of information search by graph query initiated by the analyst and interactively refined within the contextual dimensions of the answer space toward a solution. The paper introduces SLQ, a user-friendly graph querying system enabling the visual formulation of schemaless and structureless graph queries. SLQ is demonstrated with an intelligence analyst information search scenario focused on identifying individuals responsible for manufacturing a mosquito-hosted deadly virus. The scenario highlights the interactive construction of graph queries without prior training in complex query languages or graph databases, intuitive navigation through the problem space, and visualization of results in graphical format.

  12. The Maine Vernal Pool Mapping and Assessment Program: Engaging Municipal Officials and Private Landowners in Community-Based Citizen Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansujwicz, Jessica S.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Lilieholm, Robert J.

    2013-12-01

    The Vernal Pool Mapping and Assessment Program (VPMAP) was initiated in 2007 to create a vernal pool database as a planning tool to foster local compliance with new state vernal pool regulations. In the northeastern United States, vernal pools are seasonal wetlands that provide critical breeding habitat for a number of amphibians and invertebrates and provide important resting and foraging habitat for some rare and endangered state-listed species. Using participant observation, interviews, and focus groups, we examined the engagement of municipal officials and private landowners in VPMAP. Important outcomes of municipal and landowner engagement included mobilization of town support for proactive planning, improved awareness and understanding of vernal pools, and increased interactions between program coordinators, municipal officials, and private landowners. Challenges to municipal and landowner engagement included an inconsistency in expectations between coordinators and municipal officials and a lack of time and sufficient information for follow-up with landowners participating in VPMAP. Our study highlights the importance of developing relationships among coordinators, municipal officials, and private landowners in facilitating positive outcomes for all stakeholders and for effective resource management. We suggest an expanded citizen science model that focuses on improving two-way communication among project coordinators, municipal officials, and local citizens and places communication with private landowners on par with volunteer citizen scientist recruitment and field training. Lessons learned from this research can inform the design and implementation of citizen science projects on private land.

  13. The Maine Vernal Pool Mapping and Assessment Program: engaging municipal officials and private landowners in community-based citizen science.

    PubMed

    Jansujwicz, Jessica S; Calhoun, Aram J K; Lilieholm, Robert J

    2013-12-01

    The Vernal Pool Mapping and Assessment Program (VPMAP) was initiated in 2007 to create a vernal pool database as a planning tool to foster local compliance with new state vernal pool regulations. In the northeastern United States, vernal pools are seasonal wetlands that provide critical breeding habitat for a number of amphibians and invertebrates and provide important resting and foraging habitat for some rare and endangered state-listed species. Using participant observation, interviews, and focus groups, we examined the engagement of municipal officials and private landowners in VPMAP. Important outcomes of municipal and landowner engagement included mobilization of town support for proactive planning, improved awareness and understanding of vernal pools, and increased interactions between program coordinators, municipal officials, and private landowners. Challenges to municipal and landowner engagement included an inconsistency in expectations between coordinators and municipal officials and a lack of time and sufficient information for follow-up with landowners participating in VPMAP. Our study highlights the importance of developing relationships among coordinators, municipal officials, and private landowners in facilitating positive outcomes for all stakeholders and for effective resource management. We suggest an expanded citizen science model that focuses on improving two-way communication among project coordinators, municipal officials, and local citizens and places communication with private landowners on par with volunteer citizen scientist recruitment and field training. Lessons learned from this research can inform the design and implementation of citizen science projects on private land.

  14. Leveraging user query sessions to improve searching of medical literature.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shiwen; Hristidis, Vagelis; Weiner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Published reports about searching medical literature do not refer to leveraging the query context, as expressed by previous queries in a session. We aimed to assess novel strategies for context-aware searching, hypothesizing that this would be better than baseline. Building upon methods using term frequency-inverse document frequency, we added extensions such as a function incorporating search results and terms of previous queries, with higher weights for more recent queries. Among 60 medical students generating queries against the TREC 9 benchmark dataset, we assessed recall and mean average precision. For difficult queries, we achieved improvement (27%) in average precision over baseline. Improvements in recall were also seen. Our methods outperformed baseline by 4% to 14% on average. Furthermore, the effectiveness of context-aware search was greater for longer query sessions, which are typically more challenging. In conclusion, leveraging the previous queries in a session improved overall search quality with this biomedical database.

  15. Fast Inbound Top-K Query for Random Walk with Restart

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Jiang, Shan; Chen, Yucheng; Sun, Yidan; Han, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    Random walk with restart (RWR) is widely recognized as one of the most important node proximity measures for graphs, as it captures the holistic graph structure and is robust to noise in the graph. In this paper, we study a novel query based on the RWR measure, called the inbound top-k (Ink) query. Given a query node q and a number k, the Ink query aims at retrieving k nodes in the graph that have the largest weighted RWR scores to q. Ink queries can be highly useful for various applications such as traffic scheduling, disease treatment, and targeted advertising. Nevertheless, none of the existing RWR computation techniques can accurately and efficiently process the Ink query in large graphs. We propose two algorithms, namely Squeeze and Ripple, both of which can accurately answer the Ink query in a fast and incremental manner. To identify the top-k nodes, Squeeze iteratively performs matrix-vector multiplication and estimates the lower and upper bounds for all the nodes in the graph. Ripple employs a more aggressive strategy by only estimating the RWR scores for the nodes falling in the vicinity of q, the nodes outside the vicinity do not need to be evaluated because their RWR scores are propagated from the boundary of the vicinity and thus upper bounded. Ripple incrementally expands the vicinity until the top-k result set can be obtained. Our extensive experiments on real-life graph data sets show that Ink queries can retrieve interesting results, and the proposed algorithms are orders of magnitude faster than state-of-the-art method. PMID:26709392

  16. The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus: The accuracy of the NSW perinatal data collection based on a private hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Anna S Y; Morris, Gary; Moses, Robert G

    2016-08-01

    Past studies have shown that the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been underestimated, and this can have major implications for healthcare planning. With the changes in diagnostic criteria for GDM, we wanted to assess the accuracy of the diagnosis in a private hospital setting. Using data from the hospital's obstetric database, medical records and a private pathology provider, we established the true prevalence of GDM and compared it with the NSW Perinatal Data Collection. The recorded prevalence of 6.8% was well below the real value of 15.0%. PMID:26799616

  17. Private Information and Insurance Rejections

    PubMed Central

    Hendren, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    Across a wide set of non-group insurance markets, applicants are rejected based on observable, often high-risk, characteristics. This paper argues that private information, held by the potential applicant pool, explains rejections. I formulate this argument by developing and testing a model in which agents may have private information about their risk. I first derive a new no-trade result that theoretically explains how private information could cause rejections. I then develop a new empirical methodology to test whether this no-trade condition can explain rejections. The methodology uses subjective probability elicitations as noisy measures of agents beliefs. I apply this approach to three non-group markets: long-term care, disability, and life insurance. Consistent with the predictions of the theory, in all three settings I find significant amounts of private information held by those who would be rejected; I find generally more private information for those who would be rejected relative to those who can purchase insurance; and I show it is enough private information to explain a complete absence of trade for those who would be rejected. The results suggest private information prevents the existence of large segments of these three major insurance markets. PMID:24187381

  18. Private Information and Insurance Rejections.

    PubMed

    Hendren, Nathaniel

    2013-09-01

    Across a wide set of non-group insurance markets, applicants are rejected based on observable, often high-risk, characteristics. This paper argues that private information, held by the potential applicant pool, explains rejections. I formulate this argument by developing and testing a model in which agents may have private information about their risk. I first derive a new no-trade result that theoretically explains how private information could cause rejections. I then develop a new empirical methodology to test whether this no-trade condition can explain rejections. The methodology uses subjective probability elicitations as noisy measures of agents beliefs. I apply this approach to three non-group markets: long-term care, disability, and life insurance. Consistent with the predictions of the theory, in all three settings I find significant amounts of private information held by those who would be rejected; I find generally more private information for those who would be rejected relative to those who can purchase insurance; and I show it is enough private information to explain a complete absence of trade for those who would be rejected. The results suggest private information prevents the existence of large segments of these three major insurance markets.

  19. Privatization and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Neena

    2009-01-01

    This paper highlights emerging trends, programmes and policies in privatization of education in Western countries. These trends are educational vouchers, choice of private schools, private school liberalization, private contracting of specific services, tuition tax credits and deductions for parents ,subsidies and assistance grants to private…

  20. Scheduling in heterogeneous computing environments for proximity queries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duksu; Lee, Jinkyu; Lee, Junghwan; Shin, Insik; Kim, John; Yoon, Sung-Eui

    2013-09-01

    We present a novel, linear programming (LP)-based scheduling algorithm that exploits heterogeneous multicore architectures such as CPUs and GPUs to accelerate a wide variety of proximity queries. To represent complicated performance relationships between heterogeneous architectures and different computations of proximity queries, we propose a simple, yet accurate model that measures the expected running time of these computations. Based on this model, we formulate an optimization problem that minimizes the largest time spent on computing resources, and propose a novel, iterative LP-based scheduling algorithm. Since our method is general, we are able to apply our method into various proximity queries used in five different applications that have different characteristics. Our method achieves an order of magnitude performance improvement by using four different GPUs and two hexa-core CPUs over using a hexa-core CPU only. Unlike prior scheduling methods, our method continually improves the performance, as we add more computing resources. Also, our method achieves much higher performance improvement compared with prior methods as heterogeneity of computing resources is increased. Moreover, for one of tested applications, our method achieves even higher performance than a prior parallel method optimized manually for the application. We also show that our method provides results that are close (e.g., 75 percent) to the performance provided by a conservative upper bound of the ideal throughput. These results demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of our algorithm that have not been achieved by prior methods. In addition, we integrate one of our contributions with a work stealing method. Our version of the work stealing method achieves 18 percent performance improvement on average over the original work stealing method. This result shows wide applicability of our approach.

  1. Scheduling in heterogeneous computing environments for proximity queries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duksu; Lee, Jinkyu; Lee, Junghwan; Shin, Insik; Kim, John; Yoon, Sung-Eui

    2013-09-01

    We present a novel, linear programming (LP)-based scheduling algorithm that exploits heterogeneous multicore architectures such as CPUs and GPUs to accelerate a wide variety of proximity queries. To represent complicated performance relationships between heterogeneous architectures and different computations of proximity queries, we propose a simple, yet accurate model that measures the expected running time of these computations. Based on this model, we formulate an optimization problem that minimizes the largest time spent on computing resources, and propose a novel, iterative LP-based scheduling algorithm. Since our method is general, we are able to apply our method into various proximity queries used in five different applications that have different characteristics. Our method achieves an order of magnitude performance improvement by using four different GPUs and two hexa-core CPUs over using a hexa-core CPU only. Unlike prior scheduling methods, our method continually improves the performance, as we add more computing resources. Also, our method achieves much higher performance improvement compared with prior methods as heterogeneity of computing resources is increased. Moreover, for one of tested applications, our method achieves even higher performance than a prior parallel method optimized manually for the application. We also show that our method provides results that are close (e.g., 75 percent) to the performance provided by a conservative upper bound of the ideal throughput. These results demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of our algorithm that have not been achieved by prior methods. In addition, we integrate one of our contributions with a work stealing method. Our version of the work stealing method achieves 18 percent performance improvement on average over the original work stealing method. This result shows wide applicability of our approach. PMID:23846096

  2. Remotely queried wireless embedded microsensors in composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krantz, Donald G.; Belk, John H.

    1997-05-01

    Embedding sensors in structural composites has been a topic of research in recent years. Embedded sensors can be used to monitor and optimize the manufacturing process, to monitor performance during use, and for structural health monitoring in high-performance applications. To date, optical fiber sensors have been the principal sensing technique for these applications. There are well-known problems with optical fiber sensors, including high manufacturing costs, fragility, the need to provide ingress and egress from the structure, and the interdependence of strain and temperature measurements. The US Naval Research Laboratory is funding a multi-disciplinary team to develop micro-machined sensors and an associated remote-querying capability to allow self- contained microsensors to be embedded in a composite structure and queried using methods that do not require physical connections. The sensors are to be left in place for the lifetime of the structure, are powered by the querying apparatus, and require no penetrations through the surface of the structure. Part of this work included studying electromagnetic propagation into graphite-epoxy (conductive) composites. A key part of this research has been the development of embeddable antennae that can operate within a conductive composite matrix with the efficiency required to both absorb power for the circuitry and to transmit and receive data. This paper describes the integrated approach taken to realize the goal of an interrogatable strain rosette that is embedded 0.25' into a graphite composite plate. Aspects of the sensors, the transponder, and the antenna are also covered.

  3. Mobile Virtual Private Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

    Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

  4. Effective Filtering of Query Results on Updated User Behavioral Profiles in Web Mining.

    PubMed

    Sadesh, S; Suganthe, R C

    2015-01-01

    Web with tremendous volume of information retrieves result for user related queries. With the rapid growth of web page recommendation, results retrieved based on data mining techniques did not offer higher performance filtering rate because relationships between user profile and queries were not analyzed in an extensive manner. At the same time, existing user profile based prediction in web data mining is not exhaustive in producing personalized result rate. To improve the query result rate on dynamics of user behavior over time, Hamilton Filtered Regime Switching User Query Probability (HFRS-UQP) framework is proposed. HFRS-UQP framework is split into two processes, where filtering and switching are carried out. The data mining based filtering in our research work uses the Hamilton Filtering framework to filter user result based on personalized information on automatic updated profiles through search engine. Maximized result is fetched, that is, filtered out with respect to user behavior profiles. The switching performs accurate filtering updated profiles using regime switching. The updating in profile change (i.e., switches) regime in HFRS-UQP framework identifies the second- and higher-order association of query result on the updated profiles. Experiment is conducted on factors such as personalized information search retrieval rate, filtering efficiency, and precision ratio.

  5. QuIN: A Web Server for Querying and Visualizing Chromatin Interaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Thibodeau, Asa; Márquez, Eladio J.; Luo, Oscar; Ruan, Yijun; Shin, Dong-Guk; Stitzel, Michael L.; Ucar, Duygu

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies of the human genome have indicated that regulatory elements (e.g. promoters and enhancers) at distal genomic locations can interact with each other via chromatin folding and affect gene expression levels. Genomic technologies for mapping interactions between DNA regions, e.g., ChIA-PET and HiC, can generate genome-wide maps of interactions between regulatory elements. These interaction datasets are important resources to infer distal gene targets of non-coding regulatory elements and to facilitate prioritization of critical loci for important cellular functions. With the increasing diversity and complexity of genomic information and public ontologies, making sense of these datasets demands integrative and easy-to-use software tools. Moreover, network representation of chromatin interaction maps enables effective data visualization, integration, and mining. Currently, there is no software that can take full advantage of network theory approaches for the analysis of chromatin interaction datasets. To fill this gap, we developed a web-based application, QuIN, which enables: 1) building and visualizing chromatin interaction networks, 2) annotating networks with user-provided private and publicly available functional genomics and interaction datasets, 3) querying network components based on gene name or chromosome location, and 4) utilizing network based measures to identify and prioritize critical regulatory targets and their direct and indirect interactions. AVAILABILITY: QuIN’s web server is available at http://quin.jax.org QuIN is developed in Java and JavaScript, utilizing an Apache Tomcat web server and MySQL database and the source code is available under the GPLV3 license available on GitHub: https://github.com/UcarLab/QuIN/. PMID:27336171

  6. Improve Performance of Data Warehouse by Query Cache

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gour, Vishal; Sarangdevot, S. S.; Sharma, Anand; Choudhary, Vinod

    2010-11-01

    The primary goal of data warehouse is to free the information locked up in the operational database so that decision makers and business analyst can make queries, analysis and planning regardless of the data changes in operational database. As the number of queries is large, therefore, in certain cases there is reasonable probability that same query submitted by the one or multiple users at different times. Each time when query is executed, all the data of warehouse is analyzed to generate the result of that query. In this paper we will study how using query cache improves performance of Data Warehouse and try to find the common problems faced. These kinds of problems are faced by Data Warehouse administrators which are minimizes response time and improves the efficiency of query in data warehouse overall, particularly when data warehouse is updated at regular interval.

  7. Advanced Query and Data Mining Capabilities for MaROS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Paul; Wallick, Michael N.; Allard, Daniel A.; Gladden, Roy E.; Hy, Franklin H.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Relay Operational Service (MaROS) comprises a number of tools to coordinate, plan, and visualize various aspects of the Mars Relay network. These levels include a Web-based user interface, a back-end "ReSTlet" built in Java, and databases that store the data as it is received from the network. As part of MaROS, the innovators have developed and implemented a feature set that operates on several levels of the software architecture. This new feature is an advanced querying capability through either the Web-based user interface, or through a back-end REST interface to access all of the data gathered from the network. This software is not meant to replace the REST interface, but to augment and expand the range of available data. The current REST interface provides specific data that is used by the MaROS Web application to display and visualize the information; however, the returned information from the REST interface has typically been pre-processed to return only a subset of the entire information within the repository, particularly only the information that is of interest to the GUI (graphical user interface). The new, advanced query and data mining capabilities allow users to retrieve the raw data and/or to perform their own data processing. The query language used to access the repository is a restricted subset of the structured query language (SQL) that can be built safely from the Web user interface, or entered as freeform SQL by a user. The results are returned in a CSV (Comma Separated Values) format for easy exporting to third party tools and applications that can be used for data mining or user-defined visualization and interpretation. This is the first time that a service is capable of providing access to all cross-project relay data from a single Web resource. Because MaROS contains the data for a variety of missions from the Mars network, which span both NASA and ESA, the software also establishes an access control list (ACL) on each data record

  8. [Collaboration between Fukushimura Brain Bank,based in a private geriatric hospital and a national/international network].

    PubMed

    Akatsu, Hiroyasu

    2010-10-01

    Fukushimura Brain Bank (FBB) was established in 1994, and to date, has accumulated 477 fresh frozen brain tissue samples. Our brain bank is based in Choju Medical Institute, Fukushimura Hospital, Toyohashi in Japan. At the time of its foundation, the institute could not establish working relationships with clinicopathological investigators and others engaged in basic neuroscience research. At this stage, we received the assistance of Yokohama City University in setting up standards for neuropathological diagnosis as well as the aid of Chiba University in establishing a method for Vancouver style snap-frozen sampling of brain tissue. However, both systems require considerable manpower and time. We now plan to introduce several improvements in these systems. At its inception, the Brain Bank operated without financial support from grants or foundation funding and was managed only as a hospital expense. However, since 1998, we have collaborated with researchers from several institutes, and the results of our labors have been presented at congresses, in journal publications and in foundation reports. In 2004, we obtained the status required to apply for a grant from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. Fukushimura Hospital is a geriatric institution that specializes in dementia. There are no other hospitals or nursing homes in the Toyohashi area that specialize in this field. Half of our patients have Alzheimer's disease,and a number of them have enormous plaques and huge neurofibrillary tangles patient for over 10 years. In general,private geriatric hospitals that care for such patients with severe AD lack the systems required for performing autopsies. Research carried out with animal models are not comparable with neuropathological and biochemical investigations using human tissues,and in terms of the quality,the range and size of our collection at FBB is unique. In the future,we intend to expand our network in order to share

  9. Is contracting a form of privatization?

    PubMed Central

    Perrot, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Contracting is often seen as a form of privatization, with contracts functioning as the tool that makes privatization possible. But contracting is also viewed by some as a means for the private sector to expand in a covert way its presence within the health sector. This article discusses the wider meaning of the term privatization in the health sector and the ways in which it is achieved. Privatization is seen here not simply as an action that leads to a new situation but also as one that leads to a change in behaviour. It is proposed that privatization may be assessed by looking at the ownership, management, and mission or objectives of the entity being privatized. Discussed also is the use of contracting by the state as a tool for state interventionism that is not based on authoritarian regulation. PMID:17143466

  10. Privacy-Aware Relevant Data Access with Semantically Enriched Search Queries for Untrusted Cloud Storage Services.

    PubMed

    Pervez, Zeeshan; Ahmad, Mahmood; Khattak, Asad Masood; Lee, Sungyoung; Chung, Tae Choong

    2016-01-01

    Privacy-aware search of outsourced data ensures relevant data access in the untrusted domain of a public cloud service provider. Subscriber of a public cloud storage service can determine the presence or absence of a particular keyword by submitting search query in the form of a trapdoor. However, these trapdoor-based search queries are limited in functionality and cannot be used to identify secure outsourced data which contains semantically equivalent information. In addition, trapdoor-based methodologies are confined to pre-defined trapdoors and prevent subscribers from searching outsourced data with arbitrarily defined search criteria. To solve the problem of relevant data access, we have proposed an index-based privacy-aware search methodology that ensures semantic retrieval of data from an untrusted domain. This method ensures oblivious execution of a search query and leverages authorized subscribers to model conjunctive search queries without relying on predefined trapdoors. A security analysis of our proposed methodology shows that, in a conspired attack, unauthorized subscribers and untrusted cloud service providers cannot deduce any information that can lead to the potential loss of data privacy. A computational time analysis on commodity hardware demonstrates that our proposed methodology requires moderate computational resources to model a privacy-aware search query and for its oblivious evaluation on a cloud service provider. PMID:27571421

  11. Privacy-Aware Relevant Data Access with Semantically Enriched Search Queries for Untrusted Cloud Storage Services.

    PubMed

    Pervez, Zeeshan; Ahmad, Mahmood; Khattak, Asad Masood; Lee, Sungyoung; Chung, Tae Choong

    2016-01-01

    Privacy-aware search of outsourced data ensures relevant data access in the untrusted domain of a public cloud service provider. Subscriber of a public cloud storage service can determine the presence or absence of a particular keyword by submitting search query in the form of a trapdoor. However, these trapdoor-based search queries are limited in functionality and cannot be used to identify secure outsourced data which contains semantically equivalent information. In addition, trapdoor-based methodologies are confined to pre-defined trapdoors and prevent subscribers from searching outsourced data with arbitrarily defined search criteria. To solve the problem of relevant data access, we have proposed an index-based privacy-aware search methodology that ensures semantic retrieval of data from an untrusted domain. This method ensures oblivious execution of a search query and leverages authorized subscribers to model conjunctive search queries without relying on predefined trapdoors. A security analysis of our proposed methodology shows that, in a conspired attack, unauthorized subscribers and untrusted cloud service providers cannot deduce any information that can lead to the potential loss of data privacy. A computational time analysis on commodity hardware demonstrates that our proposed methodology requires moderate computational resources to model a privacy-aware search query and for its oblivious evaluation on a cloud service provider.

  12. Privacy-Aware Relevant Data Access with Semantically Enriched Search Queries for Untrusted Cloud Storage Services

    PubMed Central

    Pervez, Zeeshan; Ahmad, Mahmood; Khattak, Asad Masood; Lee, Sungyoung; Chung, Tae Choong

    2016-01-01

    Privacy-aware search of outsourced data ensures relevant data access in the untrusted domain of a public cloud service provider. Subscriber of a public cloud storage service can determine the presence or absence of a particular keyword by submitting search query in the form of a trapdoor. However, these trapdoor-based search queries are limited in functionality and cannot be used to identify secure outsourced data which contains semantically equivalent information. In addition, trapdoor-based methodologies are confined to pre-defined trapdoors and prevent subscribers from searching outsourced data with arbitrarily defined search criteria. To solve the problem of relevant data access, we have proposed an index-based privacy-aware search methodology that ensures semantic retrieval of data from an untrusted domain. This method ensures oblivious execution of a search query and leverages authorized subscribers to model conjunctive search queries without relying on predefined trapdoors. A security analysis of our proposed methodology shows that, in a conspired attack, unauthorized subscribers and untrusted cloud service providers cannot deduce any information that can lead to the potential loss of data privacy. A computational time analysis on commodity hardware demonstrates that our proposed methodology requires moderate computational resources to model a privacy-aware search query and for its oblivious evaluation on a cloud service provider. PMID:27571421

  13. The I4 Online Query Tool for Earth Observations Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.; Vanderbloemen, Lisa A.; Lawrence, Samuel J.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Earth Observation System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) delivers an average of 22 terabytes per day of data collected by orbital and airborne sensor systems to end users through an integrated online search environment (the Reverb/ECHO system). Earth observations data collected by sensors on the International Space Station (ISS) are not currently included in the EOSDIS system, and are only accessible through various individual online locations. This increases the effort required by end users to query multiple datasets, and limits the opportunity for data discovery and innovations in analysis. The Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit of the Exploration Integration and Science Directorate at NASA Johnson Space Center has collaborated with the School of Earth and Space Exploration at Arizona State University (ASU) to develop the ISS Instrument Integration Implementation (I4) data query tool to provide end users a clean, simple online interface for querying both current and historical ISS Earth Observations data. The I4 interface is based on the Lunaserv and Lunaserv Global Explorer (LGE) open-source software packages developed at ASU for query of lunar datasets. In order to avoid mirroring existing databases - and the need to continually sync/update those mirrors - our design philosophy is for the I4 tool to be a pure query engine only. Once an end user identifies a specific scene or scenes of interest, I4 transparently takes the user to the appropriate online location to download the data. The tool consists of two public-facing web interfaces. The Map Tool provides a graphic geobrowser environment where the end user can navigate to an area of interest and select single or multiple datasets to query. The Map Tool displays active image footprints for the selected datasets (Figure 1). Selecting a footprint will open a pop-up window that includes a browse image and a link to available image metadata, along with a link to the online location to order or

  14. Do trust-based beliefs mediate the associations of frequency of private prayer with mental health? A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Pössel, Patrick; Winkeljohn Black, Stephanie; Bjerg, Annie C; Jeppsen, Benjamin D; Wooldridge, Don T

    2014-06-01

    Significant associations of private prayer with mental health have been found, while mechanisms underlying these associations are largely unknown. This cross-sectional online study (N = 325, age 35.74, SD 18.50, 77.5 % females) used path modeling to test if trust-based beliefs (whether, when, and how prayers are answered) mediated the associations of prayer frequency with the Anxiety, Confusion, and Depression Profile of Mood States-Short Form scales. The association of prayer and depression was fully mediated by trust-based beliefs; associations with anxiety and confusion were partially mediated. Further, the interaction of prayer frequency by stress was associated with anxiety.

  15. Medical knowledge evolution query constraining aspects.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Ann-Marie

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a first analysis towards better understanding of the query constraining aspects of knowledge, as expressed in the most used public medical bibliographic database MEDLINE. Our results indicate, possibly not surprising, that new terms occur, but also that traditional terms are replaced by more specific ones or even go out of use as they become common knowledge. Hence, as knowledge evolve over time, search methods may benefit from becoming more sensitive to knowledge expression, to enable finding new, as well as older, relevant database contents.

  16. The Private Language Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Gordon

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the private language argument (PLA)--the argument against the possibility of a private language. Raises questions about the PLA, suggesting there are a number of problems that PLA interpretation generates and fails to resolve. (Author/JL)

  17. Query-driven visualization of time-varying adaptive mesh refinement data.

    PubMed

    Gosink, Luke J; Anderson, John C; Bethel, E Wes; Joy, Kenneth I

    2008-01-01

    The visualization and analysis of AMR-based simulations is integral to the process of obtaining new insight in scientific research. We present a new method for performing query-driven visualization and analysis on AMR data, with specific emphasis on time-varying AMR data. Our work introduces a new method that directly addresses the dynamic spatial and temporal properties of AMR grids that challenge many existing visualization techniques. Further, we present the first implementation of query-driven visualization on the GPU that uses a GPU-based indexing structure to both answer queries and efficiently utilize GPU memory. We apply our method to two different science domains to demonstrate its broad applicability.

  18. Query-Driven Visualization of Time-Varying Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data

    SciTech Connect

    Gosink, Luke J.; Anderson, John C.; Bethel, E. Wes; Joy, Kenneth I.

    2008-08-01

    The visualization and analysis of AMR-based simulations is integral to the process of obtaining new insight in scientific research. We present a new method for performing query-driven visualization and analysis on AMR data, with specific emphasis on time-varying AMR data. Our work introduces a new method that directly addresses the dynamic spatial and temporal properties of AMR grids which challenge many existing visualization techniques. Further, we present the first implementation of query-driven visualization on the GPU that uses a GPU-based indexing structure to both answer queries and efficiently utilize GPU memory. We apply our method to two different science domains to demonstrate its broad applicability.

  19. SeqWare Query Engine: storing and searching sequence data in the cloud

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since the introduction of next-generation DNA sequencers the rapid increase in sequencer throughput, and associated drop in costs, has resulted in more than a dozen human genomes being resequenced over the last few years. These efforts are merely a prelude for a future in which genome resequencing will be commonplace for both biomedical research and clinical applications. The dramatic increase in sequencer output strains all facets of computational infrastructure, especially databases and query interfaces. The advent of cloud computing, and a variety of powerful tools designed to process petascale datasets, provide a compelling solution to these ever increasing demands. Results In this work, we present the SeqWare Query Engine which has been created using modern cloud computing technologies and designed to support databasing information from thousands of genomes. Our backend implementation was built using the highly scalable, NoSQL HBase database from the Hadoop project. We also created a web-based frontend that provides both a programmatic and interactive query interface and integrates with widely used genome browsers and tools. Using the query engine, users can load and query variants (SNVs, indels, translocations, etc) with a rich level of annotations including coverage and functional consequences. As a proof of concept we loaded several whole genome datasets including the U87MG cell line. We also used a glioblastoma multiforme tumor/normal pair to both profile performance and provide an example of using the Hadoop MapReduce framework within the query engine. This software is open source and freely available from the SeqWare project (http://seqware.sourceforge.net). Conclusions The SeqWare Query Engine provided an easy way to make the U87MG genome accessible to programmers and non-programmers alike. This enabled a faster and more open exploration of results, quicker tuning of parameters for heuristic variant calling filters, and a common data

  20. A Primer on Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menell, Seth J.; Phelps, Richard P.

    This paper provides a detailed examination of "contracting," a type of privatization, and is intended to clarify the issues surrounding decisions to privatize public services. Privatization introduces competition among market participants as a means of generating revenue, spurring development of an industry, and/or improving the quality of…

  1. Query-Time Optimization Techniques for Structured Queries in Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartright, Marc-Allen

    2013-01-01

    The use of information retrieval (IR) systems is evolving towards larger, more complicated queries. Both the IR industrial and research communities have generated significant evidence indicating that in order to continue improving retrieval effectiveness, increases in retrieval model complexity may be unavoidable. From an operational perspective,…

  2. Applied research in remotely queried embedded microsensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krantz, Donald G.; Belk, John H.; Dubow, Joel; Hautamaki, Charles; Mantell, Susan C.; Polla, Dennis L.; Zurn, Shayne M.

    1998-07-01

    Sensors embedded in structural composites have been a topic of research in recent years. Embedded sensors can be used to monitor and optimize the manufacturing process, to monitor performance during use, and for structural health monitoring in high-performance applications. For several years, embedded optical fibers were the predominant type of sensor. There are well-known reasons that optical fiber sensors have not yet been fully embraced in industry including primarily the cost of equipment and sensors, the fragility of the optical fiber itself, and the need to provide ingress and egress from the structure. Recent work by the authors and others has produced prototype wireless electronic sensors of various types that address these shortcomings. The US Office of Naval Research is funding a multi-disciplinary team to consolidate progress made in earlier programs towards self- contained microsensors to be embedded in a composite structure and queried using methods that do not require physical connections. The sensors are to be left in place for the lifetime of the structure, are powered by the querying apparatus, and require no penetrations through the surface of the structure. This paper describes the integrated approach taken to realize the goal of an interrogatable strain rosette that is embedded 0.25' into a graphite composite plate. It also describes the progress to date of the sensor system itself.

  3. Advances in nowcasting influenza-like illness rates using search query logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampos, Vasileios; Miller, Andrew C.; Crossan, Steve; Stefansen, Christian

    2015-08-01

    User-generated content can assist epidemiological surveillance in the early detection and prevalence estimation of infectious diseases, such as influenza. Google Flu Trends embodies the first public platform for transforming search queries to indications about the current state of flu in various places all over the world. However, the original model significantly mispredicted influenza-like illness rates in the US during the 2012-13 flu season. In this work, we build on the previous modeling attempt, proposing substantial improvements. Firstly, we investigate the performance of a widely used linear regularized regression solver, known as the Elastic Net. Then, we expand on this model by incorporating the queries selected by the Elastic Net into a nonlinear regression framework, based on a composite Gaussian Process. Finally, we augment the query-only predictions with an autoregressive model, injecting prior knowledge about the disease. We assess predictive performance using five consecutive flu seasons spanning from 2008 to 2013 and qualitatively explain certain shortcomings of the previous approach. Our results indicate that a nonlinear query modeling approach delivers the lowest cumulative nowcasting error, and also suggest that query information significantly improves autoregressive inferences, obtaining state-of-the-art performance.

  4. An Application of Multivariate Statistical Analysis for Query-Driven Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Gosink, Luke J.; Garth, Christoph; Anderson, John C.; Bethel, E. Wes; Joy, Kenneth I.

    2010-03-01

    Abstract?Driven by the ability to generate ever-larger, increasingly complex data, there is an urgent need in the scientific community for scalable analysis methods that can rapidly identify salient trends in scientific data. Query-Driven Visualization (QDV) strategies are among the small subset of techniques that can address both large and highly complex datasets. This paper extends the utility of QDV strategies with a statistics-based framework that integrates non-parametric distribution estimation techniques with a new segmentation strategy to visually identify statistically significant trends and features within the solution space of a query. In this framework, query distribution estimates help users to interactively explore their query's solution and visually identify the regions where the combined behavior of constrained variables is most important, statistically, to their inquiry. Our new segmentation strategy extends the distribution estimation analysis by visually conveying the individual importance of each variable to these regions of high statistical significance. We demonstrate the analysis benefits these two strategies provide and show how they may be used to facilitate the refinement of constraints over variables expressed in a user's query. We apply our method to datasets from two different scientific domains to demonstrate its broad applicability.

  5. Advances in nowcasting influenza-like illness rates using search query logs

    PubMed Central

    Lampos, Vasileios; Miller, Andrew C.; Crossan, Steve; Stefansen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    User-generated content can assist epidemiological surveillance in the early detection and prevalence estimation of infectious diseases, such as influenza. Google Flu Trends embodies the first public platform for transforming search queries to indications about the current state of flu in various places all over the world. However, the original model significantly mispredicted influenza-like illness rates in the US during the 2012–13 flu season. In this work, we build on the previous modeling attempt, proposing substantial improvements. Firstly, we investigate the performance of a widely used linear regularized regression solver, known as the Elastic Net. Then, we expand on this model by incorporating the queries selected by the Elastic Net into a nonlinear regression framework, based on a composite Gaussian Process. Finally, we augment the query-only predictions with an autoregressive model, injecting prior knowledge about the disease. We assess predictive performance using five consecutive flu seasons spanning from 2008 to 2013 and qualitatively explain certain shortcomings of the previous approach. Our results indicate that a nonlinear query modeling approach delivers the lowest cumulative nowcasting error, and also suggest that query information significantly improves autoregressive inferences, obtaining state-of-the-art performance. PMID:26234783

  6. A novel adaptive Cuckoo search for optimal query plan generation.

    PubMed

    Gomathi, Ramalingam; Sharmila, Dhandapani

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of multiple web pages day by day leads to the development of the semantic web technology. A World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standard for storing semantic web data is the resource description framework (RDF). To enhance the efficiency in the execution time for querying large RDF graphs, the evolving metaheuristic algorithms become an alternate to the traditional query optimization methods. This paper focuses on the problem of query optimization of semantic web data. An efficient algorithm called adaptive Cuckoo search (ACS) for querying and generating optimal query plan for large RDF graphs is designed in this research. Experiments were conducted on different datasets with varying number of predicates. The experimental results have exposed that the proposed approach has provided significant results in terms of query execution time. The extent to which the algorithm is efficient is tested and the results are documented. PMID:25215330

  7. RCQ-GA: RDF Chain Query Optimization Using Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogenboom, Alexander; Milea, Viorel; Frasincar, Flavius; Kaymak, Uzay

    The application of Semantic Web technologies in an Electronic Commerce environment implies a need for good support tools. Fast query engines are needed for efficient querying of large amounts of data, usually represented using RDF. We focus on optimizing a special class of SPARQL queries, the so-called RDF chain queries. For this purpose, we devise a genetic algorithm called RCQ-GA that determines the order in which joins need to be performed for an efficient evaluation of RDF chain queries. The approach is benchmarked against a two-phase optimization algorithm, previously proposed in literature. The more complex a query is, the more RCQ-GA outperforms the benchmark in solution quality, execution time needed, and consistency of solution quality. When the algorithms are constrained by a time limit, the overall performance of RCQ-GA compared to the benchmark further improves.

  8. A novel adaptive Cuckoo search for optimal query plan generation.

    PubMed

    Gomathi, Ramalingam; Sharmila, Dhandapani

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of multiple web pages day by day leads to the development of the semantic web technology. A World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standard for storing semantic web data is the resource description framework (RDF). To enhance the efficiency in the execution time for querying large RDF graphs, the evolving metaheuristic algorithms become an alternate to the traditional query optimization methods. This paper focuses on the problem of query optimization of semantic web data. An efficient algorithm called adaptive Cuckoo search (ACS) for querying and generating optimal query plan for large RDF graphs is designed in this research. Experiments were conducted on different datasets with varying number of predicates. The experimental results have exposed that the proposed approach has provided significant results in terms of query execution time. The extent to which the algorithm is efficient is tested and the results are documented.

  9. A Novel Adaptive Cuckoo Search for Optimal Query Plan Generation

    PubMed Central

    Gomathi, Ramalingam; Sharmila, Dhandapani

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of multiple web pages day by day leads to the development of the semantic web technology. A World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standard for storing semantic web data is the resource description framework (RDF). To enhance the efficiency in the execution time for querying large RDF graphs, the evolving metaheuristic algorithms become an alternate to the traditional query optimization methods. This paper focuses on the problem of query optimization of semantic web data. An efficient algorithm called adaptive Cuckoo search (ACS) for querying and generating optimal query plan for large RDF graphs is designed in this research. Experiments were conducted on different datasets with varying number of predicates. The experimental results have exposed that the proposed approach has provided significant results in terms of query execution time. The extent to which the algorithm is efficient is tested and the results are documented. PMID:25215330

  10. CrossQuery: a web tool for easy associative querying of transcriptome data.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Toni U; Fischer, Andreas; Thoma, Eva C; Schartl, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    Enormous amounts of data are being generated by modern methods such as transcriptome or exome sequencing and microarray profiling. Primary analyses such as quality control, normalization, statistics and mapping are highly complex and need to be performed by specialists. Thereafter, results are handed back to biomedical researchers, who are then confronted with complicated data lists. For rather simple tasks like data filtering, sorting and cross-association there is a need for new tools which can be used by non-specialists. Here, we describe CrossQuery, a web tool that enables straight forward, simple syntax queries to be executed on transcriptome sequencing and microarray datasets. We provide deep-sequencing data sets of stem cell lines derived from the model fish Medaka and microarray data of human endothelial cells. In the example datasets provided, mRNA expression levels, gene, transcript and sample identification numbers, GO-terms and gene descriptions can be freely correlated, filtered and sorted. Queries can be saved for later reuse and results can be exported to standard formats that allow copy-and-paste to all widespread data visualization tools such as Microsoft Excel. CrossQuery enables researchers to quickly and freely work with transcriptome and microarray data sets requiring only minimal computer skills. Furthermore, CrossQuery allows growing association of multiple datasets as long as at least one common point of correlated information, such as transcript identification numbers or GO-terms, is shared between samples. For advanced users, the object-oriented plug-in and event-driven code design of both server-side and client-side scripts allow easy addition of new features, data sources and data types.

  11. HDF5-FastQuery: Accelerating Complex Queries on HDF Datasets usingFast Bitmap Indices

    SciTech Connect

    Gosink, Luke; Shalf, John; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng; Bethel,Wes

    2006-03-30

    Large scale scientific data is often stored in scientific data formats such as FITS, netCDF and HDF. These storage formats are of particular interest to the scientific user community since they provide multi-dimensional storage and retrieval. However, one of the drawbacks of these storage formats is that they do not support semantic indexing which is important for interactive data analysis where scientists look for features of interests such as ''Find all supernova explosions where energy > 10{sup 5} and temperature > 10{sup 6}''. In this paper we present a novel approach called HDF5-FastQuery to accelerate the data access of large HDF5 files by introducing multi-dimensional semantic indexing. Our implementation leverages an efficient indexing technology called bitmap indexing that has been widely used in the database community. Bitmap indices are especially well suited for interactive exploration of large-scale read only data. Storing the bitmap indices into the HDF5 file has the following advantages: (a) Significant performance speedup of accessing subsets of multi-dimensional data and (b) portability of the indices across multiple computer platforms. We will present an API that simplifies the execution of queries on HDF5 files for general scientific applications and data analysis. The design is flexible enough to accommodate the use of arbitrary indexing technology for semantic range queries. We will also provide a detailed performance analysis of HDF5-FastQuery for both synthetic and scientific data. The results demonstrate that our proposed approach for multi-dimensional queries is up to a factor of 2 faster than HDF5.

  12. HDF5-FastQuery: Accelerating Complex Queries on HDF Datasets UsingFast Bitmap Indices

    SciTech Connect

    Gosink, Luke; Shalf, John; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng; Bethel,Wes

    2005-12-07

    Large scale scientific data is often stored in scientific data formats such as FITS, netCDF and HDF. These storage formats are of particular interest to the scientific user community since they provide multi-dimensional storage and retrieval. However, one of the drawbacks of these storage formats is that they do not support semantic indexing which is important for interactive data analysis where scientists look for features of interests such as ''Find all supernova explosions where energy >105 and temperature >106''. In this paper we present a novel approach called HDF5-FastQuery to accelerate the data access of large HDF5 files by introducing multi-dimensional semantic indexing. Our implementation leverages an efficient indexing technology called ''bitmapindexing'' that has been widely used in the database community. Bitmapindices are especially well suited for interactive exploration of large-scale read-only data. Storing the bitmap indices into the HDF5 file has the following advantages: (a) Significant performance speedup of accessing subsets of multi-dimensional data and (b) portability of the indices across multiple computer platforms. We will present an API that simplifies the execution of queries on HDF5 files for general scientific applications and data analysis. The design is flexible enough to accommodate the use of arbitrary indexing technology for semantic range queries. We will also provide a detailed performance analysis of HDF5-FastQuery for both synthetic and scientific data. The results demonstrate that our proposed approach for multi-dimensional queries is up to a factor of 2 faster than HDF5.

  13. Setting Up Private Practice in Psychiatry*

    PubMed Central

    De Sousa, Alan; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Setting up a private practice in Mumbai is an onerous task. The present paper looks at the difficulties face by young psychiatrists when starting a private practice in psychiatry. It suggests certain guidelines to be followed to ensure the development of a successful practice. It also suggests methods to gain popularity among patients and society along with the ethics to be followed, knowledge base to be garnered, and the role of using multiple therapies and versatility in private practice. PMID:25838718

  14. Web Image Re-Ranking UsingQuery-Specific Semantic Signatures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaogang; Qiu, Shi; Liu, Ke; Tang, Xiaoou

    2014-04-01

    Image re-ranking, as an effective way to improve the results of web-based image search, has been adopted by current commercial search engines such as Bing and Google. Given a query keyword, a pool of images are first retrieved based on textual information. By asking the user to select a query image from the pool, the remaining images are re-ranked based on their visual similarities with the query image. A major challenge is that the similarities of visual features do not well correlate with images' semantic meanings which interpret users' search intention. Recently people proposed to match images in a semantic space which used attributes or reference classes closely related to the semantic meanings of images as basis. However, learning a universal visual semantic space to characterize highly diverse images from the web is difficult and inefficient. In this paper, we propose a novel image re-ranking framework, which automatically offline learns different semantic spaces for different query keywords. The visual features of images are projected into their related semantic spaces to get semantic signatures. At the online stage, images are re-ranked by comparing their semantic signatures obtained from the semantic space specified by the query keyword. The proposed query-specific semantic signatures significantly improve both the accuracy and efficiency of image re-ranking. The original visual features of thousands of dimensions can be projected to the semantic signatures as short as 25 dimensions. Experimental results show that 25-40 percent relative improvement has been achieved on re-ranking precisions compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

  15. Bush, Clinton Respond to AASA's Queries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penning, Nick

    1992-01-01

    Presents presidential candidates' views concerning the federal role in education. Issues discussed include childhood poverty, educational inequities, Head Start funding, educational vouchers for private and parochial schools, national standards and examinations, funding for bilingual education, and redress for unequal access to education. Governor…

  16. Performance-based contracting in residential care and treatment: driving policy and practice change through public-private partnership in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Kathleen A; McEwen, Erwin; Bloom-Ellis, Brice; Jordan, Neil

    2010-01-01

    The National Quality Improvement Center on the Privatization of Child Welfare Services selected Illinois as a demonstration site in 2007 to evaluate performance-based contracting in residential treatment services. This article discusses the first two years of project implementation including developing residential treatment performance indicators, adjusting those indicators for risk at the provider level, and setting agency-specific benchmarks, as well as the project's fiscal foundation and related systemic improvements to support policy and practice change resulting from this initiative. PMID:20857879

  17. QVIZ: A FRAMEWORK FOR QUERYING AND VISUALIZING DATA

    SciTech Connect

    T. KEAHEY; P. MCCORMICK; ET AL

    2000-12-01

    Qviz is a lightweight, modular,and easy to use parallel system for interactive analytical query processing and visual presentation of large datasets. Qviz allows queries of arbitrary complexity to be easily constructed using a specialized scripting language. Visual presentation of the results is also easily achieved via simple scripted and interactive commands to our query-specific visualization tools. This paper describes our initial experiences with the Qviz system for querying and visualizing scientific datasets, showing how Qviz has been used in two different applications: ocean modeling and linear accelerator simulations.

  18. AQBE — QBE Style Queries for Archetyped Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdeva, Shelly; Yaginuma, Daigo; Chu, Wanming; Bhalla, Subhash

    Large-scale adoption of electronic healthcare applications requires semantic interoperability. The new proposals propose an advanced (multi-level) DBMS architecture for repository services for health records of patients. These also require query interfaces at multiple levels and at the level of semi-skilled users. In this regard, a high-level user interface for querying the new form of standardized Electronic Health Records system has been examined in this study. It proposes a step-by-step graphical query interface to allow semi-skilled users to write queries. Its aim is to decrease user effort and communication ambiguities, and increase user friendliness.

  19. Research on land information web query service for public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Dongdong; Li, Lin; Song, Pingchao; Cheng, Yang; Mei, Song; Min, Yuan

    2009-10-01

    With economics developing fast and internet spreading extensively, the public strongly desire to know about land information. Especially, the policy, Land registration information available to the public inquiry approach, has been executed since March 1st, 2003, which gives the Land Department with guidance to build land information web query service for public. Land information web query service for public requires Land Management Department to provide land registration information which contains attribute and graphics information. When it comes to querying attribute information, precise and fuzzy query methods are commonly used in realistic applications. To improve the speed and accuracy of fuzzy query, Chinese word segmentation method is currently used. Especially, there is no previous example by this method used in cadastre information inquiry. Meanwhile, as for querying lands' spatial information, it is necessary to query attribute information before retrieving the actual graphics information. Then turning to the map service, eagle eye can show which part of whole cadastre map the specified cadastre land located in. But it is obvious the display speed of eagle eye is not as fast as that of cadastre map. Hence, we try to implement the multi-level query with frame selection on cadastre map and identify the different cadastre land with different colors, as eagle eye's display and panning speed are also accelerated. The accomplishments of our research have been applied to Land information query system of Ningbo. It is hoped that the solutions in this system will help to develop and study analogous issues.

  20. PAQ: Persistent Adaptive Query Middleware for Dynamic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajamani, Vasanth; Julien, Christine; Payton, Jamie; Roman, Gruia-Catalin

    Pervasive computing applications often entail continuous monitoring tasks, issuing persistent queries that return continuously updated views of the operational environment. We present PAQ, a middleware that supports applications' needs by approximating a persistent query as a sequence of one-time queries. PAQ introduces an integration strategy abstraction that allows composition of one-time query responses into streams representing sophisticated spatio-temporal phenomena of interest. A distinguishing feature of our middleware is the realization that the suitability of a persistent query's result is a function of the application's tolerance for accuracy weighed against the associated overhead costs. In PAQ, programmers can specify an inquiry strategy that dictates how information is gathered. Since network dynamics impact the suitability of a particular inquiry strategy, PAQ associates an introspection strategy with a persistent query, that evaluates the quality of the query's results. The result of introspection can trigger application-defined adaptation strategies that alter the nature of the query. PAQ's simple API makes developing adaptive querying systems easily realizable. We present the key abstractions, describe their implementations, and demonstrate the middleware's usefulness through application examples and evaluation.

  1. VPipe: Virtual Pipelining for Scheduling of DAG Stream Query Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Song; Gupta, Chetan; Mehta, Abhay

    There are data streams all around us that can be harnessed for tremendous business and personal advantage. For an enterprise-level stream processing system such as CHAOS [1] (Continuous, Heterogeneous Analytic Over Streams), handling of complex query plans with resource constraints is challenging. While several scheduling strategies exist for stream processing, efficient scheduling of complex DAG query plans is still largely unsolved. In this paper, we propose a novel execution scheme for scheduling complex directed acyclic graph (DAG) query plans with meta-data enriched stream tuples. Our solution, called Virtual Pipelined Chain (or VPipe Chain for short), effectively extends the "Chain" pipelining scheduling approach to complex DAG query plans.

  2. Artemisinin-based combination therapy availability and use in the private sector of five AMFm phase 1 countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2009, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria established the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm) in order to increase access to quality-assured artemisinin combination therapy (QAACT). AMFm Phase 1, which includes nine pilot programmes in eight countries, was launched in 2009. The objective of this study was to assess anti-malarial stock and purchase patterns at private outlets in five AMFm Phase 1 countries in regard to three of the core AMFm goals: increase the affordability of QAACT, increase the availability of QAACT, and crowd out artemisinin monotherapies and other substandard therapies. Methods The study was conducted between April and May 2012 and included interviews with personnel in 598 private pharmaceutical outlets in Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda. Questionnaires were administered at private retail outlets and the data were analyzed to assess within- and between-country differences in QAACT price, availability, and popularity. Results AMFm medications were less expensive than their non-AMFm counterparts, yet prices for both types were above country-specific suggested retail prices. Market penetration of AMFm QAACT in both urban and rural areas was high, although stock-outs of both AMFm and non-AMFm products were more common in rural compared with urban outlets in Ghana and Kenya (p = 0.0013). Government recommendation was the most significant factor influencing anti-malarial stock choices in urban (41.5%) and rural (31.9%) outlets. The three top-selling anti-malarials reported for both urban and rural areas in each country were, with the exception of rural Uganda and urban Nigeria, combination therapies. Conclusions Results from this study indicate that the AMFm has not fully achieved its affordability and crowd-out objectives. Still, the final purchase price of AMFm QAACT was substantially lower than non-AMFm equivalents. Moreover, for both urban and rural areas, AMFm QAACT availability was

  3. Measuring persistence of implementation: QUERI Series

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Candice C; Sobo, Elisa J; Asch, Steven M; Gifford, Allen L

    2008-01-01

    As more quality improvement programs are implemented to achieve gains in performance, the need to evaluate their lasting effects has become increasingly evident. However, such long-term follow-up evaluations are scarce in healthcare implementation science, being largely relegated to the "need for further research" section of most project write-ups. This article explores the variety of conceptualizations of implementation sustainability, as well as behavioral and organizational factors that influence the maintenance of gains. It highlights the finer points of design considerations and draws on our own experiences with measuring sustainability, framed within the rich theoretical and empirical contributions of others. In addition, recommendations are made for designing sustainability analyses. This article is one in a Series of articles documenting implementation science frameworks and approaches developed by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI). PMID:18430200

  4. Compressed bitmap indices for efficient query processing

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kesheng; Otoo, Ekow; Shoshani, Arie

    2001-09-30

    Many database applications make extensive use of bitmap indexing schemes. In this paper, we study how to improve the efficiencies of these indexing schemes by proposing new compression schemes for the bitmaps. Most compression schemes are designed primarily to achieve good compression. During query processing they can be orders of magnitude slower than their uncompressed counterparts. The new schemes are designed to bridge this performance gap by reducing compression effectiveness and improving operation speed. In a number of tests on both synthetic data and real application data, we found that the new schemes significantly outperform the well-known compression schemes while using only modestly more space. For example, compared to the Byte-aligned Bitmap Code, the new schemes are 12 times faster and it uses only 50 percent more space. The new schemes use much less space(<30 percent) than the uncompressed scheme and are faster in a majority of the test cases.

  5. Analysing Twitter and web queries for flu trend prediction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Social media platforms encourage people to share diverse aspects of their daily life. Among these, shared health related information might be used to infer health status and incidence rates for specific conditions or symptoms. In this work, we present an infodemiology study that evaluates the use of Twitter messages and search engine query logs to estimate and predict the incidence rate of influenza like illness in Portugal. Results Based on a manually classified dataset of 2704 tweets from Portugal, we selected a set of 650 textual features to train a Naïve Bayes classifier to identify tweets mentioning flu or flu-like illness or symptoms. We obtained a precision of 0.78 and an F-measure of 0.83, based on cross validation over the complete annotated set. Furthermore, we trained a multiple linear regression model to estimate the health-monitoring data from the Influenzanet project, using as predictors the relative frequencies obtained from the tweet classification results and from query logs, and achieved a correlation ratio of 0.89 (p < 0.001). These classification and regression models were also applied to estimate the flu incidence in the following flu season, achieving a correlation of 0.72. Conclusions Previous studies addressing the estimation of disease incidence based on user-generated content have mostly focused on the english language. Our results further validate those studies and show that by changing the initial steps of data preprocessing and feature extraction and selection, the proposed approaches can be adapted to other languages. Additionally, we investigated whether the predictive model created can be applied to data from the subsequent flu season. In this case, although the prediction result was good, an initial phase to adapt the regression model could be necessary to achieve more robust results. PMID:25077431

  6. Design of a Low-Cost Adaptive Question Answering System for Closed Domain Factoid Queries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Huey Ling

    2010-01-01

    Closed domain question answering (QA) systems achieve precision and recall at the cost of complex language processing techniques to parse the answer corpus. We propose a "query-based" model for indexing answers in a closed domain factoid QA system. Further, we use a phrase term inference method for improving the ranking order of related questions.…

  7. Multicriteria approaches for a private equity fund

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammer, Christiane; Tannert, Johannes

    2012-09-01

    We develop a new model for a Private Equity Fund based on stochastic differential equations. In order to find efficient strategies for the fund manager we formulate a multicriteria optimization problem for a Private Equity Fund. Using the e-constraint method we solve this multicriteria optimization problem. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm is applied in order to get an approximation of the efficient frontier.

  8. Private Schools Put Spotlight on Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    Administrators and students at private schools tend to see their schools as safer than public schools. Spurred in part by the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, many private schools have joined the national push to revamp campus safety plans. Kenneth S. Trump, the president of the Cleveland-based National School Safety and Security Services,…

  9. Data Definition Ontology for clinical data integration and querying.

    PubMed

    Assélé Kama, Ariane; Primadhanty, Audi; Choquet, Rémy; Teodoro, Douglas; Enders, Frank; Duclos, Catherine; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to build a Data Definition Ontology (DDO) in the context of full domain ontology integration with datasets in order to share and query clinical heterogeneous data repositories. We have adapted an existing semantic web tool (D2RQ) to implement a process that automatically generates the DDO from a database information model, thanks to reverse engineering and schema mapping approaches. This study has been performed in the context of the DebugIT European project (Detecting and Eliminating Bacteria UsinG Information Technology) that aims to control and monitor the bacterial growth via a semantic interoperability platform (IP). The evaluation of the process is based, first, on the accuracy of the produced DDO for different samples of database storage and second, by checking the congruency between the DDO and the D2RQ database mapping file. PMID:22874148

  10. Can Google Trends search queries contribute to risk diversification?

    PubMed

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Portfolio diversification and active risk management are essential parts of financial analysis which became even more crucial (and questioned) during and after the years of the Global Financial Crisis. We propose a novel approach to portfolio diversification using the information of searched items on Google Trends. The diversification is based on an idea that popularity of a stock measured by search queries is correlated with the stock riskiness. We penalize the popular stocks by assigning them lower portfolio weights and we bring forward the less popular, or peripheral, stocks to decrease the total riskiness of the portfolio. Our results indicate that such strategy dominates both the benchmark index and the uniformly weighted portfolio both in-sample and out-of-sample. PMID:24048448

  11. Pattern Discovery and Change Detection of Online Music Query Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua-Fu

    In this paper, an efficient stream mining algorithm, called FTP-stream (Frequent Temporal Pattern mining of streams), is proposed to find the frequent temporal patterns over melody sequence streams. In the framework of our proposed algorithm, an effective bit-sequence representation is used to reduce the time and memory needed to slide the windows. The FTP-stream algorithm can calculate the support threshold in only a single pass based on the concept of bit-sequence representation. It takes the advantage of "left" and "and" operations of the representation. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm only scans the music query stream once, and runs significant faster and consumes less memory than existing algorithms, such as SWFI-stream and Moment.

  12. Data Definition Ontology for clinical data integration and querying.

    PubMed

    Assélé Kama, Ariane; Primadhanty, Audi; Choquet, Rémy; Teodoro, Douglas; Enders, Frank; Duclos, Catherine; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to build a Data Definition Ontology (DDO) in the context of full domain ontology integration with datasets in order to share and query clinical heterogeneous data repositories. We have adapted an existing semantic web tool (D2RQ) to implement a process that automatically generates the DDO from a database information model, thanks to reverse engineering and schema mapping approaches. This study has been performed in the context of the DebugIT European project (Detecting and Eliminating Bacteria UsinG Information Technology) that aims to control and monitor the bacterial growth via a semantic interoperability platform (IP). The evaluation of the process is based, first, on the accuracy of the produced DDO for different samples of database storage and second, by checking the congruency between the DDO and the D2RQ database mapping file.

  13. Can Google Trends search queries contribute to risk diversification?

    PubMed

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Portfolio diversification and active risk management are essential parts of financial analysis which became even more crucial (and questioned) during and after the years of the Global Financial Crisis. We propose a novel approach to portfolio diversification using the information of searched items on Google Trends. The diversification is based on an idea that popularity of a stock measured by search queries is correlated with the stock riskiness. We penalize the popular stocks by assigning them lower portfolio weights and we bring forward the less popular, or peripheral, stocks to decrease the total riskiness of the portfolio. Our results indicate that such strategy dominates both the benchmark index and the uniformly weighted portfolio both in-sample and out-of-sample.

  14. Searching the Web: The Public and Their Queries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spink, Amanda; Wolfram, Dietmar; Jansen, Major B. J.; Saracevic, Tefko

    2001-01-01

    Reports findings from a study of searching behavior by over 200,000 users of the Excite search engine. Analysis of over one million queries revealed most people use few search terms, few modified queries, view few Web pages, and rarely use advanced search features. Concludes that Web searching by the public differs significantly from searching of…

  15. Study of Message Text Formats: Bibliographic Search Queries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Philip L.

    This report presents an analysis of the search query arguments of several major bibliographic utilities and shows the commonalities and differences of the query structure among the various systems. The report illustrates a symbolic metalanguage that was developed to describe and compare the search arguments. In addition, status and error messages…

  16. 28 CFR 25.7 - Querying records in the system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Querying records in the system. 25.7 Section 25.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.7 Querying records in the system. (a) The...

  17. Query Classification and Study of University Students' Search Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maabreh, Majdi A.; Al-Kabi, Mohammed N.; Alsmadi, Izzat M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study is an attempt to develop an automatic identification method for Arabic web queries and divide them into several query types using data mining. In addition, it seeks to evaluate the impact of the academic environment on using the internet. Design/methodology/approach: The web log files were collected from one of the higher…

  18. Multidimensional indexing structure for use with linear optimization queries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Lawrence David (Inventor); Castelli, Vittorio (Inventor); Chang, Yuan-Chi (Inventor); Li, Chung-Sheng (Inventor); Smith, John Richard (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Linear optimization queries, which usually arise in various decision support and resource planning applications, are queries that retrieve top N data records (where N is an integer greater than zero) which satisfy a specific optimization criterion. The optimization criterion is to either maximize or minimize a linear equation. The coefficients of the linear equation are given at query time. Methods and apparatus are disclosed for constructing, maintaining and utilizing a multidimensional indexing structure of database records to improve the execution speed of linear optimization queries. Database records with numerical attributes are organized into a number of layers and each layer represents a geometric structure called convex hull. Such linear optimization queries are processed by searching from the outer-most layer of this multi-layer indexing structure inwards. At least one record per layer will satisfy the query criterion and the number of layers needed to be searched depends on the spatial distribution of records, the query-issued linear coefficients, and N, the number of records to be returned. When N is small compared to the total size of the database, answering the query typically requires searching only a small fraction of all relevant records, resulting in a tremendous speedup as compared to linearly scanning the entire dataset.

  19. 28 CFR 25.7 - Querying records in the system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Querying records in the system. 25.7 Section 25.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.7 Querying records in the system. (a) The...

  20. 28 CFR 25.7 - Querying records in the system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Querying records in the system. 25.7 Section 25.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.7 Querying records in the system. (a) The...

  1. 28 CFR 25.7 - Querying records in the system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Querying records in the system. 25.7 Section 25.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.7 Querying records in the system. (a) The...

  2. Mining the SDSS SkyServer SQL queries log

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Vitor M.; Santos, Rafael; Raddick, Jordan; Thakar, Ani

    2016-05-01

    SkyServer, the Internet portal for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) astronomic catalog, provides a set of tools that allows data access for astronomers and scientific education. One of SkyServer data access interfaces allows users to enter ad-hoc SQL statements to query the catalog. SkyServer also presents some template queries that can be used as basis for more complex queries. This interface has logged over 330 million queries submitted since 2001. It is expected that analysis of this data can be used to investigate usage patterns, identify potential new classes of queries, find similar queries, etc. and to shed some light on how users interact with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data and how scientists have adopted the new paradigm of e-Science, which could in turn lead to enhancements on the user interfaces and experience in general. In this paper we review some approaches to SQL query mining, apply the traditional techniques used in the literature and present lessons learned, namely, that the general text mining approach for feature extraction and clustering does not seem to be adequate for this type of data, and, most importantly, we find that this type of analysis can result in very different queries being clustered together.

  3. An Experimental Investigation of Complexity in Database Query Formulation Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casterella, Gretchen Irwin; Vijayasarathy, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Information Technology professionals and other knowledge workers rely on their ability to extract data from organizational databases to respond to business questions and support decision making. Structured query language (SQL) is the standard programming language for querying data in relational databases, and SQL skills are in high demand and are…

  4. Characteristics of Question Format Web Queries: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spink, Amanda; Ozmutlu, H. Cenk

    2002-01-01

    Provides results from a study that examined queries in question format submitted to two Web search engines, Ask Jeeves and Excite. Identifies four types of user Web queries: keyword, Boolean, question, and request; discusses implications for Web search services; and suggests further research needs. (Author/LRW)

  5. A Comparison of Two Methods for Boolean Query Relevancy Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Evaluates and compares two recently proposed automatic methods for relevance feedback of Boolean queries (Dillon method, which uses probabilistic approach as basis, and disjunctive normal form method). Conclusions are drawn concerning the use of effective feedback methods in a Boolean query environment. Nineteen references are included. (EJS)

  6. Massive Query Resolution for Rapid Selective Dissemination of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jonathan D.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines an efficient approach to performing query resolution which, when matched with a keyword scanner, offers rapid selecting and routing for massive Boolean queries, and which is suitable for implementation on a desktop computer. Demonstrates the system's operation with large examples in a practical setting. (AEF)

  7. Recursive Query Facilities in Relational Databases: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przymus, Piotr; Boniewicz, Aleksandra; Burzańska, Marta; Stencel, Krzysztof

    The relational model is the basis for most modern databases, while SQL is the most commonly used query language. However, there are data structures and computational problems that cannot be expressed using SQL-92 queries. Among them are those concerned with the bill-of-material and corporate hierarchies. A newer standard, called the SQL-99, introduced recursive queries which can be used to solve such tasks. Yet, only recently recursive queries have been implemented in most of the leading relational databases. In this paper we have reviewed and compared implementations of the recursive queries defined by SQL:1999 through SQL:2008 and offered by leading vendors of DBMSs. Our comparison concerns features, syntax and performance.

  8. Query log analysis of an electronic health record search engine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Mei, Qiaozhu; Zheng, Kai; Hanauer, David A

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed a longitudinal collection of query logs of a full-text search engine designed to facilitate information retrieval in electronic health records (EHR). The collection, 202,905 queries and 35,928 user sessions recorded over a course of 4 years, represents the information-seeking behavior of 533 medical professionals, including frontline practitioners, coding personnel, patient safety officers, and biomedical researchers for patient data stored in EHR systems. In this paper, we present descriptive statistics of the queries, a categorization of information needs manifested through the queries, as well as temporal patterns of the users' information-seeking behavior. The results suggest that information needs in medical domain are substantially more sophisticated than those that general-purpose web search engines need to accommodate. Therefore, we envision there exists a significant challenge, along with significant opportunities, to provide intelligent query recommendations to facilitate information retrieval in EHR.

  9. Privatization and emergency medical services.

    PubMed

    Reissman, S G

    1997-01-01

    Osborne and Gaebler's Reinventing Government has sparked discussion amongst elected officials, civil servants, the media, and the general public regarding advantages of privatizing government services. Its support stems from an effort to provide services to municipalities while reducing taxpayer expenditure. Many echo the sentiment of former New York Governor Mario Cuomo, who said, "It is not government's obligation to provide services, but to see that they're provided." Even in the area of public safety, privatization has found a "market." In many localities, privatizing Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is a popular and successful method for providing ambulance services. Privately owned ambulance services staff and respond to medical emergencies in a given community as part of the 9-1-1 emergency response system. Regulations for acceptable response times, equipment, and other essential components of EMS systems are specified by contract. This allows the municipality oversight of the service provided, but it does not provide the service directly. As will be discussed, this "contracting-out" model has many benefits. Privatizing EMS services is a decision based not only on cost-savings, but on accountability. A thorough evaluation must be utilized in the selection process. Issues of efficiency, effectiveness, quality, customer service, responsiveness, and equity must be considered by the government, in addition to cost of service. The uncertain future of health care in the United States has led those in EMS to look beyond the field's internal market to explore additional opportunities for expanding and redefining its roles beyond emergency care. It is important, however, to consider how emergency medical care, the original role of EMS, can be best delivered. Responding to emergencies is not just one of the functions involved in this field, it is the principal function from which public perception of EMS is formed, and from which support for entering other markets can

  10. The Limits of Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Paul

    Transferring public services and public assets to private ownership is not an entirely new idea. Governments at all levels in the United States have for years contracted out many services. However, under the recently coined label "privatization," such policies now come recommended as a more comprehensive approach to the problems of modern…

  11. Laboring through Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushweller, Kevin

    1994-01-01

    Hiring private contractors to manage school support services, such as food, maintenance, and busing, is a growing trend. Companies such as Marriott Corp., ServiceMaster, ARA Services, and Laidlaw Transit report that school business is steadily increasing. Unions staunchly oppose privatization. This article balances advantages and disadvantages,…

  12. Public Values, Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devins, Neal E.

    Controversy surrounding private education involves questions of compulsory education's role in inculcating values, how much alike public and private schools should be, and the duty of educational institutions to conform to constitutional norms. This book examines government regulation and resistance, legislative and judicial approaches, and issues…

  13. Procrustes and Private Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Beverley

    1983-01-01

    R. J. Royce (Journal of Philosophy of Education; v16 p105-13) argues that private school education may be better or worse than state schooling and, because of this inequality, it must be abolished. Royce's arguments are analyzed to determine if abolishing private schooling would create a fairer society. (SR)

  14. Information: Public or Private?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jean

    1984-01-01

    Examines policies concerning government-generated information and trend toward privatization of information, i.e., contracting out of government information functions to private sector. The impact these policies may have on public's access to government documents and reports and implications for information professionals are analyzed. A 42-item…

  15. Private Speech in Ballet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Dale

    2006-01-01

    Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…

  16. Query-Driven Visualization and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ruebel, Oliver; Bethel, E. Wes; Prabhat, Mr.; Wu, Kesheng

    2012-11-01

    This report focuses on an approach to high performance visualization and analysis, termed query-driven visualization and analysis (QDV). QDV aims to reduce the amount of data that needs to be processed by the visualization, analysis, and rendering pipelines. The goal of the data reduction process is to separate out data that is "scientifically interesting'' and to focus visualization, analysis, and rendering on that interesting subset. The premise is that for any given visualization or analysis task, the data subset of interest is much smaller than the larger, complete data set. This strategy---extracting smaller data subsets of interest and focusing of the visualization processing on these subsets---is complementary to the approach of increasing the capacity of the visualization, analysis, and rendering pipelines through parallelism. This report discusses the fundamental concepts in QDV, their relationship to different stages in the visualization and analysis pipelines, and presents QDV's application to problems in diverse areas, ranging from forensic cybersecurity to high energy physics.

  17. A new tool for sharing and querying of clinical documents modeled using HL7 Version 3 standard.

    PubMed

    Slavov, Vasil; Rao, Praveen; Paturi, Srivenu; Swami, Tivakar Komara; Barnes, Michael; Rao, Deepthi; Palvai, Raghuvarun

    2013-12-01

    We present a new software tool called CDN (Collaborative Data Network) for sharing and querying of clinical documents modeled using HL7 v3 standard (e.g., Clinical Document Architecture (CDA), Continuity of Care Document (CCD)). Similar to the caBIG initiative, CDN aims to foster innovations in cancer treatment and diagnosis through large-scale, sharing of clinical data. We focus on cancer because it is the second leading cause of deaths in the US. CDN is based on the synergistic combination of peer-to-peer technology and the extensible markup language XML and XQuery. Using CDN, a user can pose both structured queries and keyword queries on the HL7 v3 documents hosted by data providers. CDN is unique in its design--it supports location oblivious queries in a large-scale, network wherein a user does not explicitly provide the location of the data for a query. A location service in CDN discovers data of interest in the network at query time. CDN uses standard cryptographic techniques to provide security to data providers and protect the privacy of patients. Using CDN, a user can pose clinical queries pertaining to cancer containing aggregations and joins across data hosted by multiple data providers. CDN is implemented with open-source software for web application development and XML query processing. We ran CDN in a distributed environment using Amazon EC2 as a testbed. We report its performance on real and synthetic datasets of discharge summaries. We show that CDN can achieve good performance in a setup with large number of data providers and documents. PMID:24001923

  18. Dialogue on private events

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, David C.; Eshleman, John; Brandon, Paul; Layng, T. V. Joe; McDonough, Christopher; Michael, Jack; Schoneberger, Ted; Stemmer, Nathan; Weitzman, Ray; Normand, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    In the fall of 2003, the authors corresponded on the topic of private events on the listserv of the Verbal Behavior Special Interest Group. Extracts from that correspondence raised questions about the role of response amplitude in determining units of analysis, whether private events can be investigated directly, and whether covert behavior differs from other behavior except in amplitude. Most participants took a cautious stance, noting not only conceptual pitfalls and empirical difficulties in the study of private events, but doubting the value of interpretive exercises about them. Others argued that despite such obstacles, in domains where experimental analyses cannot be done, interpretation of private events in the light of laboratory principles is the best that science can offer. One participant suggested that the notion that private events can be behavioral in nature be abandoned entirely; as an alternative, the phenomena should be reinterpreted only as physiological events. PMID:22477293

  19. Differentially Private Frequent Subgraph Mining

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shengzhi; Xiong, Li; Cheng, Xiang; Xiao, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Mining frequent subgraphs from a collection of input graphs is an important topic in data mining research. However, if the input graphs contain sensitive information, releasing frequent subgraphs may pose considerable threats to individual's privacy. In this paper, we study the problem of frequent subgraph mining (FGM) under the rigorous differential privacy model. We introduce a novel differentially private FGM algorithm, which is referred to as DFG. In this algorithm, we first privately identify frequent subgraphs from input graphs, and then compute the noisy support of each identified frequent subgraph. In particular, to privately identify frequent subgraphs, we present a frequent subgraph identification approach which can improve the utility of frequent subgraph identifications through candidates pruning. Moreover, to compute the noisy support of each identified frequent subgraph, we devise a lattice-based noisy support derivation approach, where a series of methods has been proposed to improve the accuracy of the noisy supports. Through formal privacy analysis, we prove that our DFG algorithm satisfies ε-differential privacy. Extensive experimental results on real datasets show that the DFG algorithm can privately find frequent subgraphs with high data utility.

  20. Differentially Private Frequent Subgraph Mining

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shengzhi; Xiong, Li; Cheng, Xiang; Xiao, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Mining frequent subgraphs from a collection of input graphs is an important topic in data mining research. However, if the input graphs contain sensitive information, releasing frequent subgraphs may pose considerable threats to individual's privacy. In this paper, we study the problem of frequent subgraph mining (FGM) under the rigorous differential privacy model. We introduce a novel differentially private FGM algorithm, which is referred to as DFG. In this algorithm, we first privately identify frequent subgraphs from input graphs, and then compute the noisy support of each identified frequent subgraph. In particular, to privately identify frequent subgraphs, we present a frequent subgraph identification approach which can improve the utility of frequent subgraph identifications through candidates pruning. Moreover, to compute the noisy support of each identified frequent subgraph, we devise a lattice-based noisy support derivation approach, where a series of methods has been proposed to improve the accuracy of the noisy supports. Through formal privacy analysis, we prove that our DFG algorithm satisfies ε-differential privacy. Extensive experimental results on real datasets show that the DFG algorithm can privately find frequent subgraphs with high data utility. PMID:27616876

  1. Privatizing policy: Market solutions to energy and environmental problems

    SciTech Connect

    Stroup, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses how and why privatization can improve policy, not only in terms of managing production, but also in terms of regulation. Three major aspects of privatization are discussed. The importance for the environment of economic efficiency and prosperity is examined. The role of private law and a rights-based policy for controlling pollution is considered. Finally the claim that privatization would replace farsighted government decisions with shortsighted decisions by owners is examined. 83 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Health-Care-Seeking Patterns in the Emerging Private Sector in Burkina Faso: A Population-Based Study of Urban Adult Residents in Ouagadougou

    PubMed Central

    Beogo, Idrissa; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Huang, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Background The private medical care sector is expanding in urban cities in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, people’s health-care-seeking behaviors in this new landscape remain poorly understood; furthermore, distinguishing between public and private providers and among various types of private providers is critical in this investigation. This study assessed, by type, the healthcare providers urban residents in Burkina Faso visit, and their choice determinants. Method We conducted a population-based survey of a representative sample of 1,600 households in Ouagadougou from July to November 2011, consisting of 5,820 adults. We assessed the types of providers people typically sought for severe and non-severe conditions. We applied generalized estimating equations in this study. Results Among those surveyed, 97.7% and 53.1% indicated that they seek a formal provider for treating severe and non-severe conditions, respectively. Among the formal provider seekers, 20.5% and 17.0% chose for-profit (FP) providers for treating severe and non-severe conditions, respectively. Insurance coverage was held by 2.0% of those surveyed. Possessing insurance was the strongest predictor for seeking FP, for both severe (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04–1.28), and non-severe conditions (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.07–1.39). Other predictors included being a formal jobholder and holding a higher level education. By contrast, we observed no significant difference in predisposing, enabling, or need characteristics between not-for-profit (NFP) provider seekers and public provider seekers. Proximity was the primary reason for choosing a provider. Conclusion The results suggested that FP providers play a crucial role in the urban healthcare market in SSA. Socioeconomic status and insurance status are significant predictors of provider choice. The findings can serve as a crucial reference for policymakers in response to the emergence of FP providers in

  3. NoSQL: collection document and cloud by using a dynamic web query form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Hemn B.; Lin, Jinzhao; Li, Guoquan

    2015-07-01

    Mongo-DB (from "humongous") is an open-source document database and the leading NoSQL database. A NoSQL (Not Only SQL, next generation databases, being non-relational, deal, open-source and horizontally scalable) presenting a mechanism for storage and retrieval of documents. Previously, we stored and retrieved the data using the SQL queries. Here, we use the MonogoDB that means we are not utilizing the MySQL and SQL queries. Directly importing the documents into our Drives, retrieving the documents on that drive by not applying the SQL queries, using the IO BufferReader and Writer, BufferReader for importing our type of document files to my folder (Drive). For retrieving the document files, the usage is BufferWriter from the particular folder (or) Drive. In this sense, providing the security for those storing files for what purpose means if we store the documents in our local folder means all or views that file and modified that file. So preventing that file, we are furnishing the security. The original document files will be changed to another format like in this paper; Binary format is used. Our documents will be converting to the binary format after that direct storing in one of our folder, that time the storage space will provide the private key for accessing that file. Wherever any user tries to discover the Document files means that file data are in the binary format, the document's file owner simply views that original format using that personal key from receive the secret key from the cloud.

  4. Design of FastQuery: How to Generalize Indexing and Querying System for Scientific Data

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jerry; Wu, Kesheng

    2011-04-18

    Modern scientific datasets present numerous data management and analysis challenges. State-of-the-art index and query technologies such as FastBit are critical for facilitating interactive exploration of large datasets. These technologies rely on adding auxiliary information to existing datasets to accelerate query processing. To use these indices, we need to match the relational data model used by the indexing systems with the array data model used by most scientific data, and to provide an efficient input and output layer for reading and writing the indices. In this work, we present a flexible design that can be easily applied to most scientific data formats. We demonstrate this flexibility by applying it to two of the most commonly used scientific data formats, HDF5 and NetCDF. We present two case studies using simulation data from the particle accelerator and climate simulation communities. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the new design, we also present a detailed performance study using both synthetic and real scientific workloads.

  5. A journey to Semantic Web query federation in the life sciences

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Kei-Hoi; Frost, H Robert; Marshall, M Scott; Prud'hommeaux, Eric; Samwald, Matthias; Zhao, Jun; Paschke, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background As interest in adopting the Semantic Web in the biomedical domain continues to grow, Semantic Web technology has been evolving and maturing. A variety of technological approaches including triplestore technologies, SPARQL endpoints, Linked Data, and Vocabulary of Interlinked Datasets have emerged in recent years. In addition to the data warehouse construction, these technological approaches can be used to support dynamic query federation. As a community effort, the BioRDF task force, within the Semantic Web for Health Care and Life Sciences Interest Group, is exploring how these emerging approaches can be utilized to execute distributed queries across different neuroscience data sources. Methods and results We have created two health care and life science knowledge bases. We have explored a variety of Semantic Web approaches to describe, map, and dynamically query multiple datasets. We have demonstrated several federation approaches that integrate diverse types of information about neurons and receptors that play an important role in basic, clinical, and translational neuroscience research. Particularly, we have created a prototype receptor explorer which uses OWL mappings to provide an integrated list of receptors and executes individual queries against different SPARQL endpoints. We have also employed the AIDA Toolkit, which is directed at groups of knowledge workers who cooperatively search, annotate, interpret, and enrich large collections of heterogeneous documents from diverse locations. We have explored a tool called "FeDeRate", which enables a global SPARQL query to be decomposed into subqueries against the remote databases offering either SPARQL or SQL query interfaces. Finally, we have explored how to use the vocabulary of interlinked Datasets (voiD) to create metadata for describing datasets exposed as Linked Data URIs or SPARQL endpoints. Conclusion We have demonstrated the use of a set of novel and state-of-the-art Semantic Web technologies

  6. Capturing the Meaning of Internet Search Queries by Taxonomy Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikk, Domonkos; Kardkovács, Zsolt T.; Bánsághi, Zoltán

    Capturing the meaning of internet search queries can significantly improve the effectiveness of search retrieval. Users often have problem to find relevant answer to their queries, particularly, when the posted query is ambiguous. The orientation of the user can be greatly facilitated, if answers are grouped into topics of a fixed subject taxonomy. In this manner, the original problem can be transformed to the labelling of queries — and consequently, the answers — with the topic names. Thus the original problem is transformed into a classification set-up. This paper introduces our Ferrety algorithm that performs topic assignment, which also works when there is no directly available training data that describes the semantics of the subject taxonomy. The approach is presented via the example of ACM KDD Cup 2005 problem, where Ferrety was awarded for precision and creativity.

  7. 28 CFR 25.7 - Querying records in the system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Name; (2) Sex; (3) Race; (4) Complete date of birth; and (5) State of residence. (b) A unique numeric... place of birth. At the option of the querying agency, these additional identifiers may also be...

  8. Parasol: An Architecture for Cross-Cloud Federated Graph Querying

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, Michael; Choudhury, Sutanay; Hughes, Marisa; Patrone, Dennis; Hider, Sandy; Piatko, Christine; Chapman, Matthew; Marple, JP; Silberberg, David

    2014-06-22

    Large scale data fusion of multiple datasets can often provide in- sights that examining datasets individually cannot. However, when these datasets reside in different data centers and cannot be collocated due to technical, administrative, or policy barriers, a unique set of problems arise that hamper querying and data fusion. To ad- dress these problems, a system and architecture named Parasol is presented that enables federated queries over graph databases residing in multiple clouds. Parasol’s design is flexible and requires only minimal assumptions for participant clouds. Query optimization techniques are also described that are compatible with Parasol’s lightweight architecture. Experiments on a prototype implementation of Parasol indicate its suitability for cross-cloud federated graph queries.

  9. Using MPEG-7 audio descriptors for music querying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruhne, M.; Dittmar, C.

    2006-08-01

    Due to the growing amount of digital audio an increasing need to automatically categorize music and to create self-controlled and suitable playlists has been emerged. A few approaches to this task relying on low-level features have been published so far. Unfortunately the results utilizing those technologies are not sufficient yet. This paper gives an introduction how to enhance the results with regard to the perceptual similarity using different high-level descriptors and a powerful interaction between the algorithm and the user to consider his preferences. A successful interaction between server and client requires a powerful standardized query language. This paper describes the tools of the MPEG-7 Audio standard in detail and gives examples of already established query languages. Furthermore the requirements of a multimedia query language are identified and its application is exemplified by an automatic audio creation system using a query language.

  10. Transport Information System using Query Centric Cyber Physical Systems (QCPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundra, Ankit; Rathee, Geetanjali; Chawla, Meenu; Soni, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    To incorporate the computation and communication with the physical world, next generation architecture i.e. CPS is viewed as a new technology. To improve the better interaction with the physical world or to perk up the electricity delivery usage, various CPS based approaches have been introduced. Recently several GPS equipped smart phones and sensor based frameworks have been proposed which provide various services i.e. environment estimation, road safety improvement but encounter certain limitations like elevated energy consumption and high computation cost. To meet the high reliability and safety requirements, this paper introduces a novel approach based on QCPS model which provides several users services (discussed in this paper). Further, this paper proposed a Transport Information System (TIS), which provide the communication with lower cost overhead by arranging the similar sensors in the form of grids. Each grid has a coordinator which interacts with cloud to process the user query. In order to evaluate the performance of proposed approach we have implemented a test bed of 16 wireless sensor nodes and have shown the performance in terms of computation and communication cost.

  11. Private Housing or Alternative Financing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Nick

    1999-01-01

    Explores the history of privatizing university housing and some current financing options, including use of developer and private foundations. Examples of successful alternative financing methods are highlighted. (GR)

  12. Federated Space-Time Query for Earth Science Data Using OpenSearch Conventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynnes, C.; Beaumont, B.; Duerr, R. E.; Hua, H.

    2009-12-01

    The past decade has seen a burgeoning of remote sensing and Earth science data providers, as evidenced in the growth of the Earth Science Information Partner (ESIP) federation. At the same time, the need to combine diverse data sets to enable understanding of the Earth as a system has also grown. While the expansion of data providers is in general a boon to such studies, the diversity presents a challenge to finding useful data for a given study. Locating all the data files with aerosol information for a particular volcanic eruption, for example, may involve learning and using several different search tools to execute the requisite space-time queries. To address this issue, the ESIP federation is developing a federated space-time query framework, based on the OpenSearch convention (www.opensearch.org), with Geo and Time extensions. In this framework, data providers publish OpenSearch Description Documents that describe in a machine-readable form how to execute queries against the provider. The novelty of OpenSearch is that the space-time query interface becomes both machine callable and easy enough to integrate into the web browser's search box. This flexibility, together with a simple REST (HTTP-get) interface, should allow a variety of data providers to participate in the federated search framework, from large institutional data centers to individual scientists. The simple interface enables trivial querying of multiple data sources and participation in recursive-like federated searches--all using the same common OpenSearch interface. This simplicity also makes the construction of clients easy, as does existing OpenSearch client libraries in a variety of languages. Moreover, a number of clients and aggregation services already exist and OpenSearch is already supported by a number of web browsers such as Firefox and Internet Explorer.

  13. Secure and Privacy-Preserving Body Sensor Data Collection and Query Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hui; Gao, Lijuan; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    With the development of body sensor networks and the pervasiveness of smart phones, different types of personal data can be collected in real time by body sensors, and the potential value of massive personal data has attracted considerable interest recently. However, the privacy issues of sensitive personal data are still challenging today. Aiming at these challenges, in this paper, we focus on the threats from telemetry interface and present a secure and privacy-preserving body sensor data collection and query scheme, named SPCQ, for outsourced computing. In the proposed SPCQ scheme, users’ personal information is collected by body sensors in different types and converted into multi-dimension data, and each dimension is converted into the form of a number and uploaded to the cloud server, which provides a secure, efficient and accurate data query service, while the privacy of sensitive personal information and users’ query data is guaranteed. Specifically, based on an improved homomorphic encryption technology over composite order group, we propose a special weighted Euclidean distance contrast algorithm (WEDC) for multi-dimension vectors over encrypted data. With the SPCQ scheme, the confidentiality of sensitive personal data, the privacy of data users’ queries and accurate query service can be achieved in the cloud server. Detailed analysis shows that SPCQ can resist various security threats from telemetry interface. In addition, we also implement SPCQ on an embedded device, smart phone and laptop with a real medical database, and extensive simulation results demonstrate that our proposed SPCQ scheme is highly efficient in terms of computation and communication costs. PMID:26840319

  14. Secure and Privacy-Preserving Body Sensor Data Collection and Query Scheme.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui; Gao, Lijuan; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    With the development of body sensor networks and the pervasiveness of smart phones, different types of personal data can be collected in real time by body sensors, and the potential value of massive personal data has attracted considerable interest recently. However, the privacy issues of sensitive personal data are still challenging today. Aiming at these challenges, in this paper, we focus on the threats from telemetry interface and present a secure and privacy-preserving body sensor data collection and query scheme, named SPCQ, for outsourced computing. In the proposed SPCQ scheme, users' personal information is collected by body sensors in different types and converted into multi-dimension data, and each dimension is converted into the form of a number and uploaded to the cloud server, which provides a secure, efficient and accurate data query service, while the privacy of sensitive personal information and users' query data is guaranteed. Specifically, based on an improved homomorphic encryption technology over composite order group, we propose a special weighted Euclidean distance contrast algorithm (WEDC) for multi-dimension vectors over encrypted data. With the SPCQ scheme, the confidentiality of sensitive personal data, the privacy of data users' queries and accurate query service can be achieved in the cloud server. Detailed analysis shows that SPCQ can resist various security threats from telemetry interface. In addition, we also implement SPCQ on an embedded device, smart phone and laptop with a real medical database, and extensive simulation results demonstrate that our proposed SPCQ scheme is highly efficient in terms of computation and communication costs.

  15. Secure and Privacy-Preserving Body Sensor Data Collection and Query Scheme.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui; Gao, Lijuan; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    With the development of body sensor networks and the pervasiveness of smart phones, different types of personal data can be collected in real time by body sensors, and the potential value of massive personal data has attracted considerable interest recently. However, the privacy issues of sensitive personal data are still challenging today. Aiming at these challenges, in this paper, we focus on the threats from telemetry interface and present a secure and privacy-preserving body sensor data collection and query scheme, named SPCQ, for outsourced computing. In the proposed SPCQ scheme, users' personal information is collected by body sensors in different types and converted into multi-dimension data, and each dimension is converted into the form of a number and uploaded to the cloud server, which provides a secure, efficient and accurate data query service, while the privacy of sensitive personal information and users' query data is guaranteed. Specifically, based on an improved homomorphic encryption technology over composite order group, we propose a special weighted Euclidean distance contrast algorithm (WEDC) for multi-dimension vectors over encrypted data. With the SPCQ scheme, the confidentiality of sensitive personal data, the privacy of data users' queries and accurate query service can be achieved in the cloud server. Detailed analysis shows that SPCQ can resist various security threats from telemetry interface. In addition, we also implement SPCQ on an embedded device, smart phone and laptop with a real medical database, and extensive simulation results demonstrate that our proposed SPCQ scheme is highly efficient in terms of computation and communication costs. PMID:26840319

  16. High Performance Visualization using Query-Driven Visualizationand Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes; Campbell, Scott; Dart, Eli; Shalf, John; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng

    2006-06-15

    Query-driven visualization and analytics is a unique approach for high-performance visualization that offers new capabilities for knowledge discovery and hypothesis testing. The new capabilities akin to finding needles in haystacks are the result of combining technologies from the fields of scientific visualization and scientific data management. This approach is crucial for rapid data analysis and visualization in the petascale regime. This article describes how query-driven visualization is applied to a hero-sized network traffic analysis problem.

  17. Privatization in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Cartselos, T.

    1994-02-01

    Three factors have slowed the pace of power sector privatization, particularly in Europe: Capital shortages, political interests, scarce human capital resources. Balancing these factors are powerful drivers for privatization. These include the financial distress many European governments are facing, which limit their ability to continue subsidies and protection of unproductive state enterprises. Increasingly sophisticated customers are also demanding better products and services at lower prices. Privatization progress in Europe will probably move slowly and unevenly. Power generation will likely be the first beneficiary of any reform because it is not a natural monopoly. Transmission and distribution will remain regulated, despite discussion within the European Union regarding open or third-party access. What is likely to speed up the pace of privatization in some countries is a power crisis along the lines of what occurred in the Philippines. Greece, Italy and Portugal and perhaps the most likely prospects for such a scenario.

  18. Path Query Processing in Large-Scale XML Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haw, Su-Cheng; Radha Krishna Rao, G. S. V.

    With the ever-increasing popularity of XML (e-Xtensible Markup Language) as data representation and exchange on the Internet, querying XML data has become an important issue to be address. In Native XML Database (NXD), XML documents are usually modeled as trees and XML queries are typically specified in path expression. In path expression, the primitive structural relationships are Parent-Child (P-C) and Ancestor-Descendant (A-D). Thus, finding all occurrences of these relationships is crucial for XML query processing. Current methods for query processing on NXD usually employ either sequential traversing of tree-structured model or a decomposition-matching-merging processes. We adopt the later approach and propose a novel hybrid query optimization technique, INLAB comprising both indexing and labeling technologies. Furthermore, we also propose several algorithms to create INLAB encoding and analyze the path query. We implemented our technique and present performance results over several benchmarking datasets, which prove the viability of our approach.

  19. Latin American privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.; Hennagir, T.; Hernandez, L.A. Jr. )

    1994-01-01

    Fundamental change is reshaping the Latin America power sector as governments explore new and improved privatization schemes. Latin American power markets are second in size only to those found in Asia. As the region grows and capacity needs increase, governments are turning to private power as a way to meet new demands for electric energy. Following the privatization model initiated by Chile, an increasing number of Latin American countries are following suit with an array of private power schemes for their state-owned utilities. The move means great opportunities for developers willing to enter this growing market. The recently established Scudder Latin American Trust for Independent Power is a prime example of new equity players becoming involved in this region. In Chile, the privatization process started more than 12 years ago. Currently, the power sector has been fully restructured to concentrate price and quality regulation on transmission and distribution, leaving generation and sales to a marketplace largely in the hands of the private sector. Furthermore, the Chilean government controls only about 15 percent of the installed generation in the country, so there is free-flow in this segment of the industry or a free market modality.

  20. EarthServer: Information Retrieval and Query Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perperis, Thanassis; Koltsida, Panagiota; Kakaletris, George

    2013-04-01

    Establishing open, unified, seamless, access and ad-hoc analytics on cross-disciplinary, multi-source, multi-dimensional, spatiotemporal Earth Science data of extreme-size and their supporting metadata are the main challenges of the EarthServer project (www.earthserver.eu), funded by the European Commission under its Seventh Framework Program. One of EarthServer's main objectives is to provide users with higher level coverage and metadata search, retrieval and processing capabilities to multi-disciplinary Earth Science data. Six Lighthouse Applications are being established, each one providing access to Cryospheric, Airborne, Atmospheric, Geology, Oceanography and Planetary science raster data repositories through strictly WCS 2.0 standard based service endpoints. EarthServers' information retrieval subsystem aims towards exploiting the WCS endpoints through a physically and logically distributed service oriented architecture, foreseeing the collaboration of several standard compliant services, capable of exploiting modern large grid and cloud infrastructures and of dynamically responding to availability and capabilities of underlying resources. Towards furthering technology for integrated, coherent service provision based on WCS and WCPS the concept of a query language (QL), unifying coverage and metadata processing and retrieval is introduced. EarthServer's information retrieval subsystem receives QL requests involving high volumes of all Earth Science data categories, executes them on the services that reside on the infrastructure and sends the results back to the requester through a high performance pipeline. In this contribution we briefly discuss EarthServer's service oriented coverage data and metadata search and retrieval architecture and further elaborate on the potentials of EarthServer's Query Language, called xWCPS (XQuery compliant WCPS). xWCPS aims towards merging the path that the two widely adopted standards (W3C XQuery, OGC WCPS) have paved, into a

  1. [The national union for private hospital oncology].

    PubMed

    Parmentier, Gérard

    2013-06-01

    In the French health system, social security is the same for both public and private hospitals regardless of their status. In terms of number of patients screened, diagnosed, or treated, independant medicine is the most important sector in the French oncology. The multitude of organizations representing private hospitals or independant oncologists, physicians, radiologists or pathologists have a common organization, the National Union for Private Hospital Oncology (UNHPC). It bases its action on two founding postulates to ensure the quality of the oncology practice : the medical and managerial cultures are complementary and should be articulated ; the quality of organizations is as important as professional competence.

  2. Quantum Private Comparison Protocol with Linear Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qing-bin; Yang, Guo-wu; She, Kun; Li, Xiaoyu

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose an innovative quantum private comparison(QPC) protocol based on partial Bell-state measurement from the view of linear optics, which enabling two parties to compare the equality of their private information with the help of a semi-honest third party. Partial Bell-state measurement has been realized by using only linear optical elements in experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution(MDI-QKD) schemes, which makes us believe that our protocol can be realized in the near future. The security analysis shows that the participants will not leak their private information.

  3. A process for developing an implementation intervention: QUERI Series

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Geoffrey M; Mukherjee, Snigda; Allee, Elise; Owen, Richard R

    2008-01-01

    Background This article describes the process used by the authors in developing an implementation intervention to assist VA substance use disorder clinics in adopting guideline-based practices for treating depression. This article is one in a Series of articles documenting implementation science frameworks and tools developed by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI). Methods The process involves two steps: 1) diagnosis of site-specific implementation needs, barriers, and facilitators (i.e., formative evaluation); and 2) the use of multi-disciplinary teams of local staff, implementation experts, and clinical experts to interpret diagnostic data and develop site-specific interventions. In the current project, data were collected via observations of program activities and key informant interviews with clinic staff and patients. The assessment investigated a wide range of macro- and micro-level determinants of organizational and provider behavior. Conclusion The implementation development process described here is presented as an optional method (or series of steps) to consider when designing a small scale, multi-site implementation study. The process grew from an evidence-based quality improvement strategy developed for – and proven efficacious in – primary care settings. The authors are currently studying the efficacy of the process across a spectrum of specialty care treatment settings. PMID:18353186

  4. Lessons learned from the reimbursement profile of a mature private medical toxicology practice: office-based practice pays.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Trevonne M; Leikin, Jerrold B

    2015-03-01

    We previously reported the financial data for the first 5 years of one of the author's medical toxicology practice. The practice has matured; changes have been made. The practice is increasing its focus on office-based encounters and reducing hospital-based acute care encounters. We report the reimbursement rates and other financial metrics of the current practice. Financial records from October 2009 through September 2013 were reviewed. This is a period of 4 fiscal years and represents the currently available financial data. Charges, payments, and reimbursement rates were recorded according to the type and setting of the medical toxicology encounter: forensic consultations, outpatient clinic encounters, nonpsychiatric inpatient consultations, emergency department (ED) consultations, and inpatient psychiatric consultations. All patients were seen regardless of ability to pay or insurance status. The number of billed Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes for office-based encounters increased over the study period; the number of billed CPT codes for inpatient and ED consultations reduced. Office-based encounters demonstrate a higher reimbursement rate and higher payments. In the fiscal year (FY) of 2012, office-based revenue exceeded hospital-based acute care revenue by over $140,000 despite a higher number of billed CPT encounters in acute care settings, and outpatient payments were 2.39 times higher than inpatient, inpatient psychiatry, observation unit, and ED payments combined. The average payment per CPT code was higher for outpatient clinic encounters than inpatient encounters for each fiscal year studied. There was an overall reduction in CPT billing volume between FY 2010 and FY 2013. Despite this, there was an increase in total practice revenue. There was no change in payor mix, practice logistics, or billing/collection service company. In this medical toxicology practice, office-based encounters demonstrate higher reimbursement rates and overall

  5. Motivational Factors of Pay-for-Performance Plans in Educational Institutions: A Study of Select Private, Faith-Based Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrobbel, Paul H.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States there is considerable focus on the need for continuous improvement in the quality of schools, including student achievement and teacher performance. Performance-based pay has been repeatedly suggested as a way to improve teaching in school systems. Therefore, a more thorough understanding of the differences in the perceptions…

  6. The Psychosocial Effect of Residentially-Based Learning Communities on First Year Honors Students in a Highly Selective Private University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Henry J., III.

    2010-01-01

    Colleges and universities in the United States are currently in the midst of a debate on how to integrate students' academic and social lives in a manner similar to the centuries old model of Oxford and Cambridge. One of the major initiatives by colleges and universities is the re-establishment of residentially-based learning communities whose use…

  7. A study of the age attribute in a query tool for a clinical data warehouse.

    PubMed

    Scheufele, Elisabeth L; Scheufele, Elisabeth Lee; Dubey, Anil; Dubey, Anil Kumar; Murphy, Shawn N

    2008-11-06

    The RPDR, a clinical data warehouse with a user-friendly Querytool, allows researchers to perform studies on patient data. Currently, the RPDR represents age as the patient's age at the present time, which is problematic in situations where age at the time of the event is more appropriate. We will modify the Querytool to consider this by assessing the perception of age via survey, testing backend query solutions, and developing modifications based on these results.

  8. A High Speed Mobile Courier Data Access System That Processes Database Queries in Real-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatsheni, Barnabas Ndlovu; Mabizela, Zwelakhe

    A secure high-speed query processing mobile courier data access (MCDA) system for a Courier Company has been developed. This system uses the wireless networks in combination with wired networks for updating a live database at the courier centre in real-time by an offsite worker (the Courier). The system is protected by VPN based on IPsec. There is no system that we know of to date that performs the task for the courier as proposed in this paper.

  9. A Geospatial Semantic Enrichment and Query Service for Geotagged Photographs

    PubMed Central

    Ennis, Andrew; Nugent, Chris; Morrow, Philip; Chen, Liming; Ioannidis, George; Stan, Alexandru; Rachev, Preslav

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing abundance of technologies and smart devices, equipped with a multitude of sensors for sensing the environment around them, information creation and consumption has now become effortless. This, in particular, is the case for photographs with vast amounts being created and shared every day. For example, at the time of this writing, Instagram users upload 70 million photographs a day. Nevertheless, it still remains a challenge to discover the “right” information for the appropriate purpose. This paper describes an approach to create semantic geospatial metadata for photographs, which can facilitate photograph search and discovery. To achieve this we have developed and implemented a semantic geospatial data model by which a photograph can be enrich with geospatial metadata extracted from several geospatial data sources based on the raw low-level geo-metadata from a smartphone photograph. We present the details of our method and implementation for searching and querying the semantic geospatial metadata repository to enable a user or third party system to find the information they are looking for. PMID:26205265

  10. A Geospatial Semantic Enrichment and Query Service for Geotagged Photographs.

    PubMed

    Ennis, Andrew; Nugent, Chris; Morrow, Philip; Chen, Liming; Ioannidis, George; Stan, Alexandru; Rachev, Preslav

    2015-07-20

    With the increasing abundance of technologies and smart devices, equipped with a multitude of sensors for sensing the environment around them, information creation and consumption has now become effortless. This, in particular, is the case for photographs with vast amounts being created and shared every day. For example, at the time of this writing, Instagram users upload 70 million photographs a day. Nevertheless, it still remains a challenge to discover the "right" information for the appropriate purpose. This paper describes an approach to create semantic geospatial metadata for photographs, which can facilitate photograph search and discovery. To achieve this we have developed and implemented a semantic geospatial data model by which a photograph can be enrich with geospatial metadata extracted from several geospatial data sources based on the raw low-level geo-metadata from a smartphone photograph. We present the details of our method and implementation for searching and querying the semantic geospatial metadata repository to enable a user or third party system to find the information they are looking for.

  11. A Geospatial Semantic Enrichment and Query Service for Geotagged Photographs.

    PubMed

    Ennis, Andrew; Nugent, Chris; Morrow, Philip; Chen, Liming; Ioannidis, George; Stan, Alexandru; Rachev, Preslav

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing abundance of technologies and smart devices, equipped with a multitude of sensors for sensing the environment around them, information creation and consumption has now become effortless. This, in particular, is the case for photographs with vast amounts being created and shared every day. For example, at the time of this writing, Instagram users upload 70 million photographs a day. Nevertheless, it still remains a challenge to discover the "right" information for the appropriate purpose. This paper describes an approach to create semantic geospatial metadata for photographs, which can facilitate photograph search and discovery. To achieve this we have developed and implemented a semantic geospatial data model by which a photograph can be enrich with geospatial metadata extracted from several geospatial data sources based on the raw low-level geo-metadata from a smartphone photograph. We present the details of our method and implementation for searching and querying the semantic geospatial metadata repository to enable a user or third party system to find the information they are looking for. PMID:26205265

  12. A formal concept analysis and semantic query expansion cooperation to refine health outcomes of interest

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are frequently used by clinicians and researchers to search for, extract, and analyze groups of patients by defining Health Outcome of Interests (HOI). The definition of an HOI is generally considered a complex and time consuming task for health care professionals. Methods In our clinical note-based pharmacovigilance research, we often operate upon potentially hundreds of ontologies at once, expand query inputs, and we also increase the search space over clinical text as well as structured data. Such a method implies to specify an initial set of seed concepts, which are based on concept unique identifiers. This paper presents a novel method based on Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) and Semantic Query Expansion (SQE) to assist the end-user in defining their seed queries and in refining the expanded search space that it encompasses. Results We evaluate our method over a gold-standard corpus from the 2008 i2b2 Obesity Challenge. This experimentation emphasizes positive results for sensitivity and specificity measures. Our new approach provides better recall with high precision of the obtained results. The most promising aspect of this approach consists in the discovery of positive results not present our Obesity NLP reference set. Conclusions Together with a Web graphical user interface, our FCA and SQE cooperation end up being an efficient approach for refining health outcome of interest using plain terms. We consider that this approach can be extended to support other domains such as cohort building tools. PMID:26043839

  13. Asymmetric discounting in intertemporal choice: a query-theory account.

    PubMed

    Weber, E U; Johnson, E J; Milch, K F; Chang, H; Brodscholl, J C; Goldstein, D G

    2007-06-01

    People are impatient and discount future rewards more when they are asked to delay consumption than when they are offered the chance to accelerate consumption. The three experiments reported here provide a process-level account for this asymmetry, with implications for designing decision environments that promote less impulsivity. In Experiment 1, a thought-listing procedure showed that people decompose discount valuation into two queries. Whether one considers delayed or accelerated receipt of a gift certificate influences the order in which memory is queried to support immediate versus delayed consumption, and the order of queries affects the relative number of patient versus impatient thoughts. Relative frequency and clustering of impatient thoughts predicts discounting and mediates the discounting asymmetry. Experiment 2 implicated query order causally: When participants listed reasons for immediate versus delayed consumption in the order used spontaneously in acceleration and delay decisions, the discounting asymmetry was replicated; reversing the order in which reasons were listed eliminated the asymmetry. The results of Experiment 3, which used an implicit-memory task, support a memory-interference account of the effect of query order.

  14. Learning unions of boxes with membership and equivalence queries

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, P.W.; Goldman, S.A.; Mathias, H.D.

    1994-07-01

    The authors present two algorithms that use membership and equivalence queries to exactly identify the concepts given by the union of s discretized axis-parallel boxes in d-dimensional discretized Euclidean space where there are n discrete values that each coordinate can have. The first algorithm receives at most sd counterexamples and uses time and membership queries polynomial in s and log n for d any constant. Further, all equivalence queries made can be formulated as the union of O(sd log(s)) axis-parallel boxes. Next, they introduce a new complexity measure that better captures the complexity of a union of boxes than simply the number of boxes and dimensions. Their new measure, {sigma}, is the number of segments in the target polyhedron where a segment is a maximum portion of one of the sides of the polyhedron that lies entirely inside or entirely outside each of the other halfspaces defining the polyhedron. They then present an improvement of their first algorithm that uses time and queries polynomial in {sigma} and log n. The hypothesis class used here is decision trees of height at most 2sd. Further they can show that the time and queries used by this algorithm are polynomial in d and log n for s any constant thus generalizing the exact learnability of DNF formulas with a constant number of terms. In fact, this single algorithm is efficient for either s or d constant.

  15. Parallel Index and Query for Large Scale Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Jerry; Wu, Kesheng; Ruebel, Oliver; Howison, Mark; Qiang, Ji; Prabhat,; Austin, Brian; Bethel, E. Wes; Ryne, Rob D.; Shoshani, Arie

    2011-07-18

    Modern scientific datasets present numerous data management and analysis challenges. State-of-the-art index and query technologies are critical for facilitating interactive exploration of large datasets, but numerous challenges remain in terms of designing a system for process- ing general scientific datasets. The system needs to be able to run on distributed multi-core platforms, efficiently utilize underlying I/O infrastructure, and scale to massive datasets. We present FastQuery, a novel software framework that address these challenges. FastQuery utilizes a state-of-the-art index and query technology (FastBit) and is designed to process mas- sive datasets on modern supercomputing platforms. We apply FastQuery to processing of a massive 50TB dataset generated by a large scale accelerator modeling code. We demonstrate the scalability of the tool to 11,520 cores. Motivated by the scientific need to search for inter- esting particles in this dataset, we use our framework to reduce search time from hours to tens of seconds.

  16. A Novel Two-Tier Cooperative Caching Mechanism for the Optimization of Multi-Attribute Periodic Queries in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, ZhangBing; Zhao, Deng; Shu, Lei; Tsang, Kim-Fung

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks, serving as an important interface between physical environments and computational systems, have been used extensively for supporting domain applications, where multiple-attribute sensory data are queried from the network continuously and periodically. Usually, certain sensory data may not vary significantly within a certain time duration for certain applications. In this setting, sensory data gathered at a certain time slot can be used for answering concurrent queries and may be reused for answering the forthcoming queries when the variation of these data is within a certain threshold. To address this challenge, a popularity-based cooperative caching mechanism is proposed in this article, where the popularity of sensory data is calculated according to the queries issued in recent time slots. This popularity reflects the possibility that sensory data are interested in the forthcoming queries. Generally, sensory data with the highest popularity are cached at the sink node, while sensory data that may not be interested in the forthcoming queries are cached in the head nodes of divided grid cells. Leveraging these cooperatively cached sensory data, queries are answered through composing these two-tier cached data. Experimental evaluation shows that this approach can reduce the network communication cost significantly and increase the network capability. PMID:26131665

  17. High-performance web services for querying gene and variant annotation.

    PubMed

    Xin, Jiwen; Mark, Adam; Afrasiabi, Cyrus; Tsueng, Ginger; Juchler, Moritz; Gopal, Nikhil; Stupp, Gregory S; Putman, Timothy E; Ainscough, Benjamin J; Griffith, Obi L; Torkamani, Ali; Whetzel, Patricia L; Mungall, Christopher J; Mooney, Sean D; Su, Andrew I; Wu, Chunlei

    2016-01-01

    Efficient tools for data management and integration are essential for many aspects of high-throughput biology. In particular, annotations of genes and human genetic variants are commonly used but highly fragmented across many resources. Here, we describe MyGene.info and MyVariant.info, high-performance web services for querying gene and variant annotation information. These web services are currently accessed more than three million times permonth. They also demonstrate a generalizable cloud-based model for organizing and querying biological annotation information. MyGene.info and MyVariant.info are provided as high-performance web services, accessible at http://mygene.info and http://myvariant.info . Both are offered free of charge to the research community. PMID:27154141

  18. Querying Event Sequences by Exact Match or Similarity Search: Design and Empirical Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Wongsuphasawat, Krist; Plaisant, Catherine; Taieb-Maimon, Meirav; Shneiderman, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Specifying event sequence queries is challenging even for skilled computer professionals familiar with SQL. Most graphical user interfaces for database search use an exact match approach, which is often effective, but near misses may also be of interest. We describe a new similarity search interface, in which users specify a query by simply placing events on a blank timeline and retrieve a similarity-ranked list of results. Behind this user interface is a new similarity measure for event sequences which the users can customize by four decision criteria, enabling them to adjust the impact of missing, extra, or swapped events or the impact of time shifts. We describe a use case with Electronic Health Records based on our ongoing collaboration with hospital physicians. A controlled experiment with 18 participants compared exact match and similarity search interfaces. We report on the advantages and disadvantages of each interface and suggest a hybrid interface combining the best of both. PMID:22379286

  19. Research-IQ: Development and Evaluation of an Ontology-anchored Integrative Query Tool

    PubMed Central

    Borlawsky, Tara B.; Lele, Omkar; Payne, Philip R. O.

    2011-01-01

    Investigators in the translational research and systems medicine domains require highly usable, efficient and integrative tools and methods that allow for the navigation of and reasoning over emerging large-scale data sets. Such resources must cover a spectrum of granularity from bio-molecules to population phenotypes. Given such information needs, we report upon the initial design and evaluation of an ontology-anchored integrative query tool, Research-IQ, which employs a combination of conceptual knowledge engineering and information retrieval techniques to enable the intuitive and rapid construction of queries, in terms of semi-structured textual propositions, that can subsequently be applied to integrative data sets. Our initial results, based upon both quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the efficacy and usability of Research-IQ, demonstrate its potential to increase clinical and translational research throughput. PMID:21821150

  20. Salazar on private power

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.

    1995-02-01

    The Philipines power market, considered one of the more mature markets in Asia, continues to expand with economic growth. Independent power producers will find opportunities in the next few years as new additions are required. Currently, the government is encouraging private investment and is awaiting feedback from financiers as it considers eliminating its government guarantee. In a recent interview, the Honorable Mariano S. Salazar, secretary of energy, with the Philippines` Department of Energy, discussed the regulatory structure, encouragement of private power and his country`s capital needs.

  1. An Agent-Based Model of Private Woodland Owner Management Behavior Using Social Interactions, Information Flow, and Peer-To-Peer Networks.

    PubMed

    Huff, Emily Silver; Leahy, Jessica E; Hiebeler, David; Weiskittel, Aaron R; Noblet, Caroline L

    2015-01-01

    Privately owned woodlands are an important source of timber and ecosystem services in North America and worldwide. Impacts of management on these ecosystems and timber supply from these woodlands are difficult to estimate because complex behavioral theory informs the owner's management decisions. The decision-making environment consists of exogenous market factors, internal cognitive processes, and social interactions with fellow landowners, foresters, and other rural community members. This study seeks to understand how social interactions, information flow, and peer-to-peer networks influence timber harvesting behavior using an agent-based model. This theoretical model includes forested polygons in various states of 'harvest readiness' and three types of agents: forest landowners, foresters, and peer leaders (individuals trained in conservation who use peer-to-peer networking). Agent rules, interactions, and characteristics were parameterized with values from existing literature and an empirical survey of forest landowner attitudes, intentions, and demographics. The model demonstrates that as trust in foresters and peer leaders increases, the percentage of the forest that is harvested sustainably increases. Furthermore, peer leaders can serve to increase landowner trust in foresters. Model output and equations will inform forest policy and extension/outreach efforts. The model also serves as an important testing ground for new theories of landowner decision making and behavior.

  2. An Agent-Based Model of Private Woodland Owner Management Behavior Using Social Interactions, Information Flow, and Peer-To-Peer Networks

    PubMed Central

    Huff, Emily Silver; Leahy, Jessica E.; Hiebeler, David; Weiskittel, Aaron R.; Noblet, Caroline L.

    2015-01-01

    Privately owned woodlands are an important source of timber and ecosystem services in North America and worldwide. Impacts of management on these ecosystems and timber supply from these woodlands are difficult to estimate because complex behavioral theory informs the owner’s management decisions. The decision-making environment consists of exogenous market factors, internal cognitive processes, and social interactions with fellow landowners, foresters, and other rural community members. This study seeks to understand how social interactions, information flow, and peer-to-peer networks influence timber harvesting behavior using an agent-based model. This theoretical model includes forested polygons in various states of ‘harvest readiness’ and three types of agents: forest landowners, foresters, and peer leaders (individuals trained in conservation who use peer-to-peer networking). Agent rules, interactions, and characteristics were parameterized with values from existing literature and an empirical survey of forest landowner attitudes, intentions, and demographics. The model demonstrates that as trust in foresters and peer leaders increases, the percentage of the forest that is harvested sustainably increases. Furthermore, peer leaders can serve to increase landowner trust in foresters. Model output and equations will inform forest policy and extension/outreach efforts. The model also serves as an important testing ground for new theories of landowner decision making and behavior. PMID:26562429

  3. An Agent-Based Model of Private Woodland Owner Management Behavior Using Social Interactions, Information Flow, and Peer-To-Peer Networks.

    PubMed

    Huff, Emily Silver; Leahy, Jessica E; Hiebeler, David; Weiskittel, Aaron R; Noblet, Caroline L

    2015-01-01

    Privately owned woodlands are an important source of timber and ecosystem services in North America and worldwide. Impacts of management on these ecosystems and timber supply from these woodlands are difficult to estimate because complex behavioral theory informs the owner's management decisions. The decision-making environment consists of exogenous market factors, internal cognitive processes, and social interactions with fellow landowners, foresters, and other rural community members. This study seeks to understand how social interactions, information flow, and peer-to-peer networks influence timber harvesting behavior using an agent-based model. This theoretical model includes forested polygons in various states of 'harvest readiness' and three types of agents: forest landowners, foresters, and peer leaders (individuals trained in conservation who use peer-to-peer networking). Agent rules, interactions, and characteristics were parameterized with values from existing literature and an empirical survey of forest landowner attitudes, intentions, and demographics. The model demonstrates that as trust in foresters and peer leaders increases, the percentage of the forest that is harvested sustainably increases. Furthermore, peer leaders can serve to increase landowner trust in foresters. Model output and equations will inform forest policy and extension/outreach efforts. The model also serves as an important testing ground for new theories of landowner decision making and behavior. PMID:26562429

  4. Parallel multi-join query optimization algorithm for distributed sensor network in the internet of things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yan

    2015-03-01

    Internet of things (IoT), focusing on providing users with information exchange and intelligent control, attracts a lot of attention of researchers from all over the world since the beginning of this century. IoT is consisted of large scale of sensor nodes and data processing units, and the most important features of IoT can be illustrated as energy confinement, efficient communication and high redundancy. With the sensor nodes increment, the communication efficiency and the available communication band width become bottle necks. Many research work is based on the instance which the number of joins is less. However, it is not proper to the increasing multi-join query in whole internet of things. To improve the communication efficiency between parallel units in the distributed sensor network, this paper proposed parallel query optimization algorithm based on distribution attributes cost graph. The storage information relations and the network communication cost are considered in this algorithm, and an optimized information changing rule is established. The experimental result shows that the algorithm has good performance, and it would effectively use the resource of each node in the distributed sensor network. Therefore, executive efficiency of multi-join query between different nodes could be improved.

  5. Hashing hyperplane queries to near points with applications to large-scale active learning.

    PubMed

    Vijayanarasimhan, Sudheendra; Jain, Prateek; Grauman, Kristen

    2014-02-01

    We consider the problem of retrieving the database points nearest to a given hyperplane query without exhaustively scanning the entire database. For this problem, we propose two hashing-based solutions. Our first approach maps the data to 2-bit binary keys that are locality sensitive for the angle between the hyperplane normal and a database point. Our second approach embeds the data into a vector space where the euclidean norm reflects the desired distance between the original points and hyperplane query. Both use hashing to retrieve near points in sublinear time. Our first method's preprocessing stage is more efficient, while the second has stronger accuracy guarantees. We apply both to pool-based active learning: Taking the current hyperplane classifier as a query, our algorithm identifies those points (approximately) satisfying the well-known minimal distance-to-hyperplane selection criterion. We empirically demonstrate our methods' tradeoffs and show that they make it practical to perform active selection with millions of unlabeled points.

  6. Using ontology databases for scalable query answering, inconsistency detection, and data integration

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Dejing

    2011-01-01

    An ontology database is a basic relational database management system that models an ontology plus its instances. To reason over the transitive closure of instances in the subsumption hierarchy, for example, an ontology database can either unfold views at query time or propagate assertions using triggers at load time. In this paper, we use existing benchmarks to evaluate our method—using triggers—and we demonstrate that by forward computing inferences, we not only improve query time, but the improvement appears to cost only more space (not time). However, we go on to show that the true penalties were simply opaque to the benchmark, i.e., the benchmark inadequately captures load-time costs. We have applied our methods to two case studies in biomedicine, using ontologies and data from genetics and neuroscience to illustrate two important applications: first, ontology databases answer ontology-based queries effectively; second, using triggers, ontology databases detect instance-based inconsistencies—something not possible using views. Finally, we demonstrate how to extend our methods to perform data integration across multiple, distributed ontology databases. PMID:22163378

  7. Using ontology databases for scalable query answering, inconsistency detection, and data integration.

    PubMed

    Lependu, Paea; Dou, Dejing

    2011-10-01

    An ontology database is a basic relational database management system that models an ontology plus its instances. To reason over the transitive closure of instances in the subsumption hierarchy, for example, an ontology database can either unfold views at query time or propagate assertions using triggers at load time. In this paper, we use existing benchmarks to evaluate our method-using triggers-and we demonstrate that by forward computing inferences, we not only improve query time, but the improvement appears to cost only more space (not time). However, we go on to show that the true penalties were simply opaque to the benchmark, i.e., the benchmark inadequately captures load-time costs. We have applied our methods to two case studies in biomedicine, using ontologies and data from genetics and neuroscience to illustrate two important applications: first, ontology databases answer ontology-based queries effectively; second, using triggers, ontology databases detect instance-based inconsistencies-something not possible using views. Finally, we demonstrate how to extend our methods to perform data integration across multiple, distributed ontology databases.

  8. Evolutionary multiobjective query workload optimization of Cloud data warehouses.

    PubMed

    Dokeroglu, Tansel; Sert, Seyyit Alper; Cinar, Muhammet Serkan

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of Cloud databases, query optimizers need to find paretooptimal solutions in terms of response time and monetary cost. Our novel approach minimizes both objectives by deploying alternative virtual resources and query plans making use of the virtual resource elasticity of the Cloud. We propose an exact multiobjective branch-and-bound and a robust multiobjective genetic algorithm for the optimization of distributed data warehouse query workloads on the Cloud. In order to investigate the effectiveness of our approach, we incorporate the devised algorithms into a prototype system. Finally, through several experiments that we have conducted with different workloads and virtual resource configurations, we conclude remarkable findings of alternative deployments as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the multiobjective algorithms we propose. PMID:24892048

  9. Evolutionary Multiobjective Query Workload Optimization of Cloud Data Warehouses

    PubMed Central

    Dokeroglu, Tansel; Sert, Seyyit Alper; Cinar, Muhammet Serkan

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of Cloud databases, query optimizers need to find paretooptimal solutions in terms of response time and monetary cost. Our novel approach minimizes both objectives by deploying alternative virtual resources and query plans making use of the virtual resource elasticity of the Cloud. We propose an exact multiobjective branch-and-bound and a robust multiobjective genetic algorithm for the optimization of distributed data warehouse query workloads on the Cloud. In order to investigate the effectiveness of our approach, we incorporate the devised algorithms into a prototype system. Finally, through several experiments that we have conducted with different workloads and virtual resource configurations, we conclude remarkable findings of alternative deployments as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the multiobjective algorithms we propose. PMID:24892048

  10. Querying databases of trajectories of differential equations 2: Index functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Suppose that a large number of parameterized trajectories (gamma) of a dynamical system evolving in R sup N are stored in a database. Let eta is contained R sup N denote a parameterized path in Euclidean space, and let parallel to center dot parallel to denote a norm on the space of paths. A data structures and indices for trajectories are defined and algorithms are given to answer queries of the following forms: Query 1. Given a path eta, determine whether eta occurs as a subtrajectory of any trajectory gamma from the database. If so, return the trajectory; otherwise, return null. Query 2. Given a path eta, return the trajectory gamma from the database which minimizes the norm parallel to eta - gamma parallel.

  11. Browsing schematics: Query-filtered graphs with context nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciccarelli, Eugene C.; Nardi, Bonnie A.

    1988-01-01

    The early results of a research project to create tools for building interfaces to intelligent systems on the NASA Space Station are reported. One such tool is the Schematic Browser which helps users engaged in engineering problem solving find and select schematics from among a large set. Users query for schematics with certain components, and the Schematic Browser presents a graph whose nodes represent the schematics with those components. The query greatly reduces the number of choices presented to the user, filtering the graph to a manageable size. Users can reformulate and refine the query serially until they locate the schematics of interest. To help users maintain orientation as they navigate a large body of data, the graph also includes nodes that are not matches but provide global and local context for the matching nodes. Context nodes include landmarks, ancestors, siblings, children and previous matches.

  12. Are Selective Private and Public Colleges Affordable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karikari, John A.; Dezhbakhsh, Hashem

    2013-01-01

    We examine college affordability under the existing pricing and financial aid system that awards both non need-based and need-based aid. Using data of freshmen attending a large number of selective private and public colleges in the USA, we find that the prices students actually pay for college have increased over time. Need-based grant aid has…

  13. Slouching toward Privatization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickeson, Robert C.; Figuli, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a significant shift in the financial model of American higher education, laying groundwork for a transformation that could reshape people's understanding of the academy. The shift--toward increasing degrees of privatization--is unmistakable and has affected every American college and university to varying extents.…

  14. The Private Sector Beckons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Krista

    1998-01-01

    Whether from frustration, ambition, or financial necessity, administrators are inclined to say "yes" when private companies come calling. Sometimes superintendents initiate contacts themselves and begin new careers as well-credentialed salespeople or behind-the-scenes think tanks. At the Edison Project, former superintendents work in curriculum…

  15. Privatization and Educational Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Myron

    This book describes how and why educational choice movements will affect public education. It uses a public-choice approach to argue that both the supporters and opponents of private and school choice have failed to address several critical issues. Following an introductory chapter, chapter 2 is devoted to the rationale for contracting out…

  16. Public Roles, Private Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2008-01-01

    The role of a presidential spouse is very complex. Indeed, expectations vary among college governing boards and campus constituencies of what a presidential spouse's responsibilities should be. In this article, the author discusses the role of presidential spouses and how they balance their public roles with their private life.

  17. Architecture of a federated query engine for heterogeneous resources.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Richard L; Matney, Susan; Livne, Oren E; Bray, Bruce E; Mitchell, Joyce A; Narus, Scott P

    2009-01-01

    The Federated Utah Research and Translational Health e-Repository (FURTHeR) is a Utah statewide informatics platform for the new Center for Clinical and Translational Science at the University of Utah. We have been working on one of FURTHeR's key components, a federated query engine for heterogeneous resources, that we believe has the potential to meet some of the fundamental needs of translational science to access and integrate diverse biomedical data and promote discovery of new knowledge. The architecture of the federated query engine for heterogeneous resources is described and demonstrated.

  18. Architecture of a Federated Query Engine for Heterogeneous Resources

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Richard L.; Matney, Susan; Livne, Oren E.; Bray, Bruce E.; Mitchell, Joyce A.; Narus, Scott P.

    2009-01-01

    The Federated Utah Research and Translational Health e-Repository (FURTHeR) is a Utah statewide informatics platform for the new Center for Clinical and Translational Science at the University of Utah. We have been working on one of FURTHeR’s key components, a federated query engine for heterogeneous resources, that we believe has the potential to meet some of the fundamental needs of translational science to access and integrate diverse biomedical data and promote discovery of new knowledge. The architecture of the federated query engine for heterogeneous resources is described and demonstrated. PMID:20351825

  19. Monotonically improving approximate answers to relational algebra queries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Kenneth P.; Liu, J. W. S.

    1989-01-01

    We present here a query processing method that produces approximate answers to queries posed in standard relational algebra. This method is monotone in the sense that the accuracy of the approximate result improves with the amount of time spent producing the result. This strategy enables us to trade the time to produce the result for the accuracy of the result. An approximate relational model that characterizes appromimate relations and a partial order for comparing them is developed. Relational operators which operate on and return approximate relations are defined.

  20. Cyber Graph Queries for Geographically Distributed Data Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Collins, Michael; Kearns, Aaron; Phillips, Cynthia A.; Saia, Jared

    2015-05-01

    We present new algorithms for a distributed model for graph computations motivated by limited information sharing we first discussed in [20]. Two or more independent entities have collected large social graphs. They wish to compute the result of running graph algorithms on the entire set of relationships. Because the information is sensitive or economically valuable, they do not wish to simply combine the information in a single location. We consider two models for computing the solution to graph algorithms in this setting: 1) limited-sharing: the two entities can share only a polylogarithmic size subgraph; 2) low-trust: the entities must not reveal any information beyond the query answer, assuming they are all honest but curious. We believe this model captures realistic constraints on cooperating autonomous data centers. We have algorithms in both setting for s - t connectivity in both models. We also give an algorithm in the low-communication model for finding a planted clique. This is an anomaly- detection problem, finding a subgraph that is larger and denser than expected. For both the low- communication algorithms, we exploit structural properties of social networks to prove perfor- mance bounds better than what is possible for general graphs. For s - t connectivity, we use known properties. For planted clique, we propose a new property: bounded number of triangles per node. This property is based upon evidence from the social science literature. We found that classic examples of social networks do not have the bounded-triangles property. This is because many social networks contain elements that are non-human, such as accounts for a business, or other automated accounts. We describe some initial attempts to distinguish human nodes from automated nodes in social networks based only on topological properties.

  1. Research on Extension of Sparql Ontology Query Language Considering the Computation of Indoor Spatial Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Zhu, X.; Guo, W.; Liu, Y.; Huang, H.

    2015-05-01

    A method suitable for indoor complex semantic query considering the computation of indoor spatial relations is provided According to the characteristics of indoor space. This paper designs ontology model describing the space related information of humans, events and Indoor space objects (e.g. Storey and Room) as well as their relations to meet the indoor semantic query. The ontology concepts are used in IndoorSPARQL query language which extends SPARQL syntax for representing and querying indoor space. And four types specific primitives for indoor query, "Adjacent", "Opposite", "Vertical" and "Contain", are defined as query functions in IndoorSPARQL used to support quantitative spatial computations. Also a method is proposed to analysis the query language. Finally this paper adopts this method to realize indoor semantic query on the study area through constructing the ontology model for the study building. The experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper can effectively support complex indoor space semantic query.

  2. Study of query expansion techniques and their application in the biomedical information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Rivas, A R; Iglesias, E L; Borrajo, L

    2014-01-01

    Information Retrieval focuses on finding documents whose content matches with a user query from a large document collection. As formulating well-designed queries is difficult for most users, it is necessary to use query expansion to retrieve relevant information. Query expansion techniques are widely applied for improving the efficiency of the textual information retrieval systems. These techniques help to overcome vocabulary mismatch issues by expanding the original query with additional relevant terms and reweighting the terms in the expanded query. In this paper, different text preprocessing and query expansion approaches are combined to improve the documents initially retrieved by a query in a scientific documental database. A corpus belonging to MEDLINE, called Cystic Fibrosis, is used as a knowledge source. Experimental results show that the proposed combinations of techniques greatly enhance the efficiency obtained by traditional queries.

  3. New activity-based funding model for Australian private sector overnight rehabilitation cases: the rehabilitation Australian National Sub-Acute and Non-Acute Patient (AN-SNAP) model.

    PubMed

    Hanning, Brian; Predl, Nicolle

    2015-09-01

    Traditional overnight rehabilitation payment models in the private sector are not based on a rigorous classification system and vary greatly between contracts with no consideration of patient complexity. The payment rates are not based on relative cost and the length-of-stay (LOS) point at which a reduced rate applies (step downs) varies markedly. The rehabilitation Australian National Sub-Acute and Non-Acute Patient (AN-SNAP) model (RAM), which has been in place for over 2 years in some private hospitals, bases payment on a rigorous classification system, relative cost and industry LOS. RAM is in the process of being rolled out more widely. This paper compares and contrasts RAM with traditional overnight rehabilitation payment models. It considers the advantages of RAM for hospitals and Australian Health Service Alliance. It also considers payment model changes in the context of maintaining industry consistency with Electronic Claims Lodgement and Information Processing System Environment (ECLIPSE) and health reform generally. PMID:25725655

  4. New activity-based funding model for Australian private sector overnight rehabilitation cases: the rehabilitation Australian National Sub-Acute and Non-Acute Patient (AN-SNAP) model.

    PubMed

    Hanning, Brian; Predl, Nicolle

    2015-09-01

    Traditional overnight rehabilitation payment models in the private sector are not based on a rigorous classification system and vary greatly between contracts with no consideration of patient complexity. The payment rates are not based on relative cost and the length-of-stay (LOS) point at which a reduced rate applies (step downs) varies markedly. The rehabilitation Australian National Sub-Acute and Non-Acute Patient (AN-SNAP) model (RAM), which has been in place for over 2 years in some private hospitals, bases payment on a rigorous classification system, relative cost and industry LOS. RAM is in the process of being rolled out more widely. This paper compares and contrasts RAM with traditional overnight rehabilitation payment models. It considers the advantages of RAM for hospitals and Australian Health Service Alliance. It also considers payment model changes in the context of maintaining industry consistency with Electronic Claims Lodgement and Information Processing System Environment (ECLIPSE) and health reform generally.

  5. Improving image retrieval effectiveness via query expansion using MeSH hierarchical structure

    PubMed Central

    Crespo Azcárate, Mariano; Mata Vázquez, Jacinto; Maña López, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Objective We explored two strategies for query expansion utilizing medical subject headings (MeSH) ontology to improve the effectiveness of medical image retrieval systems. In order to achieve greater effectiveness in the expansion, the search text was analyzed to identify which terms were most amenable to being expanded. Design To perform the expansions we utilized the hierarchical structure by which the MeSH descriptors are organized. Two strategies for selecting the terms to be expanded in each query were studied. The first consisted of identifying the medical concepts using the unified medical language system metathesaurus. In the second strategy the text of the query was divided into n-grams, resulting in sequences corresponding to MeSH descriptors. Measurements For the evaluation of the system, we used the collection made available by the ImageCLEF organization in its 2011 medical image retrieval task. The main measure of efficiency employed for evaluating the techniques developed was the mean average precision (MAP). Results Both strategies exceeded the average MAP score in the ImageCLEF 2011 competition (0.1644). The n-gram expansion strategy achieved a MAP of 0.2004, which represents an improvement of 21.89% over the average MAP score in the competition. On the other hand, the medical concepts expansion strategy scored 0.2172 in the MAP, representing a 32.11% improvement. This run won the text-based medical image retrieval task in 2011. Conclusions Query expansion exploiting the hierarchical structure of the MeSH descriptors achieved a significant improvement in image retrieval systems. PMID:22952301

  6. Querying Co-regulated Genes on Diverse Gene Expression Datasets Via Biclustering.

    PubMed

    Deveci, Mehmet; Küçüktunç, Onur; Eren, Kemal; Bozdağ, Doruk; Kaya, Kamer; Çatalyürek, Ümit V

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development and increasing popularity of gene expression microarrays have resulted in a number of studies on the discovery of co-regulated genes. One important way of discovering such co-regulations is the query-based search since gene co-expressions may indicate a shared role in a biological process. Although there exist promising query-driven search methods adapting clustering, they fail to capture many genes that function in the same biological pathway because microarray datasets are fraught with spurious samples or samples of diverse origin, or the pathways might be regulated under only a subset of samples. On the other hand, a class of clustering algorithms known as biclustering algorithms which simultaneously cluster both the items and their features are useful while analyzing gene expression data, or any data in which items are related in only a subset of their samples. This means that genes need not be related in all samples to be clustered together. Because many genes only interact under specific circumstances, biclustering may recover the relationships that traditional clustering algorithms can easily miss. In this chapter, we briefly summarize the literature using biclustering for querying co-regulated genes. Then we present a novel biclustering approach and evaluate its performance by a thorough experimental analysis.

  7. Digital terrain model (DTM) integration and three-dimensional query spaces in geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, Dieter; Schmidt, Dieter

    1994-08-01

    The integration of digital terrain models (DTM) in geographic information systems (GIS) implies automatically an extension of the GIS reference surface and its query space. It is trivial that a DTM is the natural boundary representation of the earth's surface. Man-made objects, for instance homes, streets, bridges, dams should be considered in a second step because these objects cannot be represented well by boundary surfaces. The link of these objects to DTM can be realized by keys and pointers. Therefore, an efficient DTM integration in GIS is the first task to be solved. The paper introduces DTM data structures represented by NIAM diagrams. Using the entity-relationship model these diagrams are very capable to describe the power of relations. Next a 3-D query space is defined keeping in mind 3-D coordinates and 2- D topological elements. Based on this query space spatial operators are derived which fit in standard SQL vocabulary. The implementation part of the paper uses the exodus storage manger to map the DTM of the Federal State Baden-Wurrtemberg in a spatial database system.

  8. Knowledge-level querying of temporal patterns in clinical research systems.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Martin J; Shankar, Ravi D; Parrish, David B; Das, Amar K

    2007-01-01

    Managing time-stamped data is essential to clinical research activities and often requires the use of considerable domain knowledge. Adequately representing this domain knowledge is difficult in relational database systems. As a result, there is a need for principled methods to overcome the disconnect between the database representation of time-oriented research data and corresponding knowledge of domain-relevant concepts. In this paper, we present a set of methodologies for undertaking knowledge level querying of temporal patterns, and discuss its application to the verification of temporal constraints in clinical-trial applications. Our approach allows knowledge generated from query results to be tied to the data and, if necessary, used for further inference. We show how the Semantic Web ontology and rule languages, OWL and SWRL, respectively, can support the temporal knowledge model needed to integrate low-level representations of relational data with high-level domain concepts used in research data management. We present a scalable bridge-based software architecture that uses this knowledge model to enable dynamic querying of time-oriented research data.

  9. Secure Quantum Private Comparison Protocol Based on the Entanglement Swapping Between Three-Particle W-Class State and Bell State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Jia, Lu; Zhou, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Ting-Ting

    2016-03-01

    We propose a new quantum private comparison protocol with the help of a semi-honest third party (TP), enabling two participants to compare the equality of their private inputs without exposing any information about their respective private inputs. Different from previous protocols, our protocol utilizes the properties of entanglement swapping between three-particle W-Class state and Bell state. The presented protocol can ensure correctness, fairness and security. Meanwhile, all the quantum particles undergo a one-way transmission, and all the participants including TP are just required having the ability to perform Bell-state measurement and exclusive-or operation which make our protocol more feasible and efficient. At last, the security of this protocol with respect to various kinds of attacks is analyzed in detail.

  10. Project Lefty: More Bang for the Search Query

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varnum, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Project Lefty, a search system that, at a minimum, adds a layer on top of traditional federated search tools that will make the wait for results more worthwhile for researchers. At best, Project Lefty improves search queries and relevance rankings for web-scale discovery tools to make the results themselves more relevant…

  11. Restructuring Large Data Hierarchies for Scientific Query Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M

    2005-02-08

    Today's large-scale scientific simulations produce data sets tens to hundreds of terabytes in size. The DataFoundry project is developing querying and analysis tools for these data sets. The Approximate Ad-Hoc Query Engine for Simulation Data (AQSIM) uses a multi-resolution, tree-shaped data structure that allows users to place runtime limits on queries over scientific simulation data. In this AQSIM data hierarchy, each node in the tree contains an abstract model describing all of the information contained in the subtree below that node. AQSIM is able to create the data hierarchy in a single pass. However, the nodes in the hierarchy frequently have low node fanout, which leads to inefficient I/O behavior during query processing. Low node fanout is a common problem in tree-shaped indices. This paper presents a set of one-pass tree ''pruning'' algorithms that efficiently restructure the data hierarchy by removing inner nodes, thereby increasing node fanout. As our experimental results show, the best approach is a combination of two algorithms, one that focuses on increasing node fanout and one that attempts to reduce the maximum tree height.

  12. Querying and computing with BioCyc databases.

    PubMed

    Krummenacker, Markus; Paley, Suzanne; Mueller, Lukas; Yan, Thomas; Karp, Peter D

    2005-08-15

    We describe multiple methods for accessing and querying the complex and integrated cellular data in the BioCyc family of databases: access through multiple file formats, access through Application Program Interfaces (APIs) for LISP, Perl and Java, and SQL access through the BioWarehouse relational database. PMID:15961440

  13. A Simple Blueprint for Automatic Boolean Query Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, G.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a new Boolean retrieval environment in which an extended soft Boolean logic is used to automatically construct queries from original natural language formulations provided by users. Experimental results that compare the retrieval effectiveness of this method to conventional Boolean and vector processing are discussed. (27 references)…

  14. Applying Genetic Algorithms To Query Optimization in Document Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horng, Jorng-Tzong; Yeh, Ching-Chang

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a novel approach to automatically retrieve keywords and then uses genetic algorithms to adapt the keyword weights. Discusses Chinese text retrieval, term frequency rating formulas, vector space models, bigrams, the PAT-tree structure for information retrieval, query vectors, and relevance feedback. (Author/LRW)

  15. Private Colleges: Strategies for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joyce; Finch, Harold L.

    1975-01-01

    By responding to the specialized needs of their clientele, private institutions have provided a personalized, value-oriented education to a degree not possible in the public sector. Notwithstanding the accomplishments of private institutions, demographic studies of postsecondary education indicate declines in private enrollments, a trend that is…

  16. Stimuli, Reinforcers, and Private Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Radical behaviorism considers private events to be a part of ongoing observable behavior and to share the properties of public events. Although private events cannot be measured directly, their roles in overt action can be inferred from mathematical models that relate private responses to external stimuli and reinforcers according to the same…

  17. The Privatization of Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    This study, The Privatization of Special Education, addresses a shift in the provision of special education and related services to students with disabilities in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Students with disabilities are being publicly placed in private day and residential schools at public expense. In Virginia, 125 private schools are licensed…

  18. IJA: an efficient algorithm for query processing in sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Chang; Lee, Young Jae; Lim, Ji Hyang; Kim, Dong Hwa

    2011-01-01

    One of main features in sensor networks is the function that processes real time state information after gathering needed data from many domains. The component technologies consisting of each node called a sensor node that are including physical sensors, processors, actuators and power have advanced significantly over the last decade. Thanks to the advanced technology, over time sensor networks have been adopted in an all-round industry sensing physical phenomenon. However, sensor nodes in sensor networks are considerably constrained because with their energy and memory resources they have a very limited ability to process any information compared to conventional computer systems. Thus query processing over the nodes should be constrained because of their limitations. Due to the problems, the join operations in sensor networks are typically processed in a distributed manner over a set of nodes and have been studied. By way of example while simple queries, such as select and aggregate queries, in sensor networks have been addressed in the literature, the processing of join queries in sensor networks remains to be investigated. Therefore, in this paper, we propose and describe an Incremental Join Algorithm (IJA) in Sensor Networks to reduce the overhead caused by moving a join pair to the final join node or to minimize the communication cost that is the main consumer of the battery when processing the distributed queries in sensor networks environments. At the same time, the simulation result shows that the proposed IJA algorithm significantly reduces the number of bytes to be moved to join nodes compared to the popular synopsis join algorithm. PMID:22319375

  19. Boolean versus ranked querying for biomedical systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The process of constructing a systematic review, a document that compiles the published evidence pertaining to a specified medical topic, is intensely time-consuming, often taking a team of researchers over a year, with the identification of relevant published research comprising a substantial portion of the effort. The standard paradigm for this information-seeking task is to use Boolean search; however, this leaves the user(s) the requirement of examining every returned result. Further, our experience is that effective Boolean queries for this specific task are extremely difficult to formulate and typically require multiple iterations of refinement before being finalized. Methods We explore the effectiveness of using ranked retrieval as compared to Boolean querying for the purpose of constructing a systematic review. We conduct a series of experiments involving ranked retrieval, using queries defined methodologically, in an effort to understand the practicalities of incorporating ranked retrieval into the systematic search task. Results Our results show that ranked retrieval by itself is not viable for this search task requiring high recall. However, we describe a refinement of the standard Boolean search process and show that ranking within a Boolean result set can improve the overall search performance by providing early indication of the quality of the results, thereby speeding up the iterative query-refinement process. Conclusions Outcomes of experiments suggest that an interactive query-development process using a hybrid ranked and Boolean retrieval system has the potential for significant time-savings over the current search process in the systematic reviewing. PMID:20937152

  20. Student Loans: Federal Web-Based Tool on Private Loans Would Pose Implementation Challenges and May Be Unnecessary. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-10-990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, George A.

    2010-01-01

    In this report, the author and his colleagues respond to a mandate in the Higher Education Opportunity Act requiring GAO (Government Accountability Office) to study the feasibility of developing a national clearinghouse of federal and private student loans on the Department of Education's (Education) Web site. They addressed the following…

  1. Grid platform for medical federated queries supporting semantic and visual annotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualán, Ronald; Guillermo, Juan; Pérez, Wilson; Solano-Quinde, Lizandro; Ramírez-Montalvan, Washington; La Cruz, Alexandra

    2015-12-01

    Grid computing has been successfully applied on teleradiology, leading to the creation of important platforms such as MEDICUS, VirtualPACS and mantisGRID, among others. These platforms are studied on the basis of their available documentation in order to compare and discuss differences and similarities, advantages and disadvantages between them. Then, a grid platform architecture is proposed, based on the best features of the surveyed platforms with an additional emphasis on general federated queries involving CBIR (Content-Based Image Retrieval) and Semantic Annotations.

  2. SUCCESSFUL PRIVATIZATION OF HANFORD SITE FABRICATION SERVICES

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY, D.S.

    2004-11-18

    This paper describes the elements of Fluor Hanford's successful privatization of a major support services function. The privatization has accelerated the closure of the Department of Energy's Hanford Site by streamlining operations and using the realized cost savings to maintain the accelerated schedules set by the Department of Energy (DOE) and other regulatory stakeholders. Issues with worker demographics, future workload forecasting, budget optimization, and long-term community economic development were key components to Fluor Hanford's decision to choose the controversial and difficult pathway of outsourcing a Cold War legacy function to a private company. Many privatization efforts are abandoned in the preliminary planning stages due to extreme risk: frequently the final return on investment is less than anticipated. In this case, Fluor Hanford has successfully leveraged onsite assets to support the ongoing clean-up mission, provide potential long-term employment for the displaced workforce as site closure progresses, and establish a manufacturing base supporting the local economy. Based on several factors, which are described in this paper, the privatization of the Hanford Site Fabrication Services to an offsite vendor operating a large local business unit has been successful for virtually all of the stakeholders.

  3. [Reflections on public-private participation in healthcare].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Regina R P; Fortes, Paulo A C; Garrafa, Volnei

    2014-04-01

    Health care is one of the major issues in social policy, affected by multiple factors, such as the increase in health costs, crisis, and the degree of private participation in the financing of services. In this essay we reflect on this participation of the private sector in health care, with Brazil as a reference country and taking into account member states of the Union of South American Nations. Based on a qualitative study using data from national and international organizations, we found significant private participation in health care of countries in various continents, with an increase of public and private spending between 2000 and 2010. Regardless of the adopted health system, there was an increase of private spending in most countries analyzed, which emphasizes the need to further evaluate the performance of public and private sectors, as well as the regulatory frameworks for their participation in health care, thus enabling policies that promote quality improvement and the expansion of coverage.

  4. A pharmacy too far? Equity and spatial distribution of outcomes in the delivery of subsidized artemisinin-based combination therapies through private drug shops

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Millions of individuals with malaria-like fevers purchase drugs from private retailers, but artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), the only effective treatment in regions with high levels of resistance to older drugs, are rarely obtained through these outlets due to their relatively high cost. To encourage scale up of ACTs, the Affordable Medicines Facility – malaria is being launched to subsidize their price. The Government of Tanzania and the Clinton Foundation piloted this subsidized distribution model in two Tanzanian districts to examine concerns about whether the intervention will successfully reach poor, rural communities. Methods Stocking of ACTs and other antimalarial drugs in all retail shops was observed at baseline and in four subsequent surveys over 15 months. Exit interviews were conducted with antimalarial drug customers during each survey period. All shops and facilities were georeferenced, and variables related to population density and proximity to distribution hubs, roads, and other facilities were calculated. To understand the equity of impact, shops stocking ACTs and consumers buying them were compared to those that did not, according to geographic and socioeconomic variables. Patterning in ACT stocking and sales was evaluated against that of other common antimalarials to identify factors that may have impacted access. Qualitative data were used to assess motivations underlying stocking, distribution, and buying disparities. Results Results indicated that although total ACT purchases rose from negligible levels to nearly half of total antimalarial sales over the course of the pilot, considerable geographic variation in stocking and sales persisted and was related to a variety of socio-spatial factors; ACTs were stocked more often in shops located closer to district towns (p<0.01) and major roads (p<0.01) and frequented by individuals of higher socioeconomic status (p<0.01). However, other antimalarial drugs displayed

  5. A METHOD FOR ESTIMATING GAS PRESSURE IN 3013 CONTAINERS USING AN ISP DATABASE QUERY

    SciTech Connect

    Friday, G; L. G. Peppers, L; D. K. Veirs, D

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) is responsible for the storage and surveillance of plutonium-bearing material. During storage, plutonium-bearing material has the potential to generate hydrogen gas from the radiolysis of adsorbed water. The generation of hydrogen gas is a safety concern, especially when a container is breached within a glove box during destructive evaluation. To address this issue, the DOE established a standard (DOE, 2004) that sets the criteria for the stabilization and packaging of material for up to 50 years. The DOE has now packaged most of its excess plutonium for long-term storage in compliance with this standard. As part of this process, it is desirable to know within reasonable certainty the total maximum pressure of hydrogen and other gases within the 3013 container if safety issues and compliance with the DOE standards are to be attained. The principal goal of this investigation is to document the method and query used to estimate total (i.e. hydrogen and other gases) gas pressure within a 3013 container based on the material properties and estimated moisture content contained in the ISP database. Initial attempts to estimate hydrogen gas pressure in 3013 containers was based on G-values (hydrogen gas generation per energy input) derived from small scale samples. These maximum G-values were used to calculate worst case pressures based on container material weight, assay, wattage, moisture content, container age, and container volume. This paper documents a revised hydrogen pressure calculation that incorporates new surveillance results and includes a component for gases other than hydrogen. The calculation is produced by executing a query of the ISP database. An example of manual mathematical computations from the pressure equation is compared and evaluated with results from the query. Based on the destructive evaluation of 17 containers, the estimated mean absolute pressure was significantly higher

  6. A study of medical and health queries to web search engines.

    PubMed

    Spink, Amanda; Yang, Yin; Jansen, Jim; Nykanen, Pirrko; Lorence, Daniel P; Ozmutlu, Seda; Ozmutlu, H Cenk

    2004-03-01

    This paper reports findings from an analysis of medical or health queries to different web search engines. We report results: (i). comparing samples of 10000 web queries taken randomly from 1.2 million query logs from the AlltheWeb.com and Excite.com commercial web search engines in 2001 for medical or health queries, (ii). comparing the 2001 findings from Excite and AlltheWeb.com users with results from a previous analysis of medical and health related queries from the Excite Web search engine for 1997 and 1999, and (iii). medical or health advice-seeking queries beginning with the word 'should'. Findings suggest: (i). a small percentage of web queries are medical or health related, (ii). the top five categories of medical or health queries were: general health, weight issues, reproductive health and puberty, pregnancy/obstetrics, and human relationships, and (iii). over time, the medical and health queries may have declined as a proportion of all web queries, as the use of specialized medical/health websites and e-commerce-related queries has increased. Findings provide insights into medical and health-related web querying and suggests some implications for the use of the general web search engines when seeking medical/health information.

  7. An Analysis of Image Queries in the Field of Art History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsin-liang

    2001-01-01

    Investigates end-users' queries by comparing the features of the queries to those identified in previous. Participants, 29 college students majoring in art history, were required to finish a term paper including at least 20 images. Participants' image queries were collected by pre- and post-search questionnaires, and three human reviewers mapped…

  8. Spatial grid services for adaptive spatial query optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Bingbo; Xie, Chuanjie; Sheng, Wentao

    2008-10-01

    Spatial information sharing and integration has now become an important issue of Geographical Information Science (GIS). Web Service technologies provide a easy and standard way to share spatial resources over network, and grid technologies which aim at sharing resources such as data, storage, and computational powers can help the sharing go deeper. However, the dynamic characteristic of grid brings complexity to spatial query optimization which is more stressed in GIS domain because spatial operations are both CPU intensive and data intensive. To address this problem, a new grid framework is employed to provide standard spatial services which can also manage and report their state information to the coordinator which is responsible for distributed spatial query optimization.

  9. Path planning by querying persistent stores of trajectory segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert L.; Mehta, S.; Qin, Xiao

    1993-01-01

    We introduce an algorithm for path planning (long duration) paths of dynamical systems, given a persistent object store containing suitable collections of short duration trajectory segments. We also describe experimental results from a proof-of-concept implementation of the algorithm. The basic idea is to interpret a path planning algorithm as a suitable query on a persistent object store consisting of short duration trajectory segments. The query returns a concatenation of short duration trajectory segments which is close to the desired path. The needed short duration segments are computed by using a divide and conquer algorithm to break up the original path into shorter paths; each shorter path is then matched to a nearby trajectory segment which is part of the persistent object store by using a suitable index function.

  10. Private Medical Record Linkage with Approximate Matching

    PubMed Central

    Durham, Elizabeth; Xue, Yuan; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Malin, Bradley

    2010-01-01

    Federal regulations require patient data to be shared for reuse in a de-identified manner. However, disparate providers often share data on overlapping populations, such that a patient’s record may be duplicated or fragmented in the de-identified repository. To perform unbiased statistical analysis in a de-identified setting, it is crucial to integrate records that correspond to the same patient. Private record linkage techniques have been developed, but most methods are based on encryption and preclude the ability to determine similarity, decreasing the accuracy of record linkage. The goal of this research is to integrate a private string comparison method that uses Bloom filters to provide an approximate match, with a medical record linkage algorithm. We evaluate the approach with 100,000 patients’ identifiers and demographics from the Vanderbilt University Medical Center. We demonstrate that the private approximation method achieves sensitivity that is, on average, 3% higher than previous methods. PMID:21346965

  11. Inner behavior: Empirical investigations of private events

    PubMed Central

    Calkin, Abigail B.

    2002-01-01

    The special section on private events in the Spring 2000 issue of The Behavior Analyst discussed the exploration of private events. The four articles focused on conceptualizations of issues related to private events and on behavior analysts' neglect of the area. This response cites 19 data-based articles and two doctoral dissertations involving measurement of what precision teachers term inner behavior—thoughts, feelings, and urges. Of the estimated 1.2 million standard celeration charts, at least 1,600 are inner behavior charts. These extensive data indicate that people can and do count and chart their inner behavior. This response discusses findings on inner behavior and its frequency, celeration (growth), variability, and improvement using antecedent and consequent events. PMID:22478390

  12. Spatiotemporal conceptual platform for querying archaeological information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Sartzetaki, Mary; Sarris, Apostolos

    2015-04-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of archaeological sites has been shown to associate with several attributes including marine, water, mineral and food resources, climate conditions, geomorphological features, etc. In this study, archeological settlement attributes are evaluated under various associations in order to provide a specialized query platform in a geographic information system (GIS). Towards this end, a spatial database is designed to include a series of archaeological findings for a secluded geographic area of Crete in Greece. The key categories of the geodatabase include the archaeological type (palace, burial site, village, etc.), temporal information of the habitation/usage period (pre Minoan, Minoan, Byzantine, etc.), and the extracted geographical attributes of the sites (distance to sea, altitude, resources, etc.). Most of the related spatial attributes are extracted with readily available GIS tools. Additionally, a series of conceptual data attributes are estimated, including: Temporal relation of an era to a future one in terms of alteration of the archaeological type, topologic relations of various types and attributes, spatial proximity relations between various types. These complex spatiotemporal relational measures reveal new attributes towards better understanding of site selection for prehistoric and/or historic cultures, yet their potential combinations can become numerous. Therefore, after the quantification of the above mentioned attributes, they are classified as of their importance for archaeological site location modeling. Under this new classification scheme, the user may select a geographic area of interest and extract only the important attributes for a specific archaeological type. These extracted attributes may then be queried against the entire spatial database and provide a location map of possible new archaeological sites. This novel type of querying is robust since the user does not have to type a standard SQL query but

  13. Federated query services provided by the Seamless SAR Archive project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, S.; Bryson, G.; Buechler, B.; Meertens, C. M.; Crosby, C. J.; Fielding, E. J.; Nicoll, J.; Youn, C.; Baru, C.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Advancing Collaborative Connections for Earth System Science (ACCESS) seamless synthetic aperture radar (SAR) archive (SSARA) project is a 2-year collaboration between UNAVCO, the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and OpenTopography at the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) to design and implement a seamless distributed access system for SAR data and derived data products (i.e. interferograms). A major milestone for the first year of the SSARA project was a unified application programming interface (API) for SAR data search and results at ASF and UNAVCO (WInSAR and EarthScope data archives) through the use of simple web services. A federated query service was developed using the unified APIs, providing users a single search interface for both archives (http://www.unavco.org/ws/brokered/ssara/sar/search). A command line client that utilizes this new service is provided as an open source utility for the community on GitHub (https://github.com/bakerunavco/SSARA). Further API development and enhancements added more InSAR specific keywords and quality control parameters (Doppler centroid, faraday rotation, InSAR stack size, and perpendicular baselines). To facilitate InSAR processing, the federated query service incorporated URLs for DEM (from OpenTopography) and tropospheric corrections (from the JPL OSCAR service) in addition to the URLs for SAR data. This federated query service will provide relevant QC metadata for selecting pairs of SAR data for InSAR processing and all the URLs necessary for interferogram generation. Interest from the international community has prompted an effort to incorporate other SAR data archives (the ESA Virtual Archive 4 and the DLR TerraSAR-X_SSC Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories collections) into the federated query service which provide data for researchers outside the US and North America.

  14. Query-Adaptive Reciprocal Hash Tables for Nearest Neighbor Search.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianglong; Deng, Cheng; Lang, Bo; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2016-02-01

    Recent years have witnessed the success of binary hashing techniques in approximate nearest neighbor search. In practice, multiple hash tables are usually built using hashing to cover more desired results in the hit buckets of each table. However, rare work studies the unified approach to constructing multiple informative hash tables using any type of hashing algorithms. Meanwhile, for multiple table search, it also lacks of a generic query-adaptive and fine-grained ranking scheme that can alleviate the binary quantization loss suffered in the standard hashing techniques. To solve the above problems, in this paper, we first regard the table construction as a selection problem over a set of candidate hash functions. With the graph representation of the function set, we propose an efficient solution that sequentially applies normalized dominant set to finding the most informative and independent hash functions for each table. To further reduce the redundancy between tables, we explore the reciprocal hash tables in a boosting manner, where the hash function graph is updated with high weights emphasized on the misclassified neighbor pairs of previous hash tables. To refine the ranking of the retrieved buckets within a certain Hamming radius from the query, we propose a query-adaptive bitwise weighting scheme to enable fine-grained bucket ranking in each hash table, exploiting the discriminative power of its hash functions and their complement for nearest neighbor search. Moreover, we integrate such scheme into the multiple table search using a fast, yet reciprocal table lookup algorithm within the adaptive weighted Hamming radius. In this paper, both the construction method and the query-adaptive search method are general and compatible with different types of hashing algorithms using different feature spaces and/or parameter settings. Our extensive experiments on several large-scale benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed techniques can significantly outperform both

  15. Computer systems and methods for the query and visualization of multidimensional databases

    DOEpatents

    Stolte, Chris; Tang, Diane L.; Hanrahan, Patrick

    2006-08-08

    A method and system for producing graphics. A hierarchical structure of a database is determined. A visual table, comprising a plurality of panes, is constructed by providing a specification that is in a language based on the hierarchical structure of the database. In some cases, this language can include fields that are in the database schema. The database is queried to retrieve a set of tuples in accordance with the specification. A subset of the set of tuples is associated with a pane in the plurality of panes.

  16. Computer systems and methods for the query and visualization of multidimensional database

    DOEpatents

    Stolte, Chris; Tang, Diane L.; Hanrahan, Patrick

    2010-05-11

    A method and system for producing graphics. A hierarchical structure of a database is determined. A visual table, comprising a plurality of panes, is constructed by providing a specification that is in a language based on the hierarchical structure of the database. In some cases, this language can include fields that are in the database schema. The database is queried to retrieve a set of tuples in accordance with the specification. A subset of the set of tuples is associated with a pane in the plurality of panes.

  17. Privatization of Early Childhood Education in Iceland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dýrfjörð, Kristín; Magnúsdóttir, Berglind Rós

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of this paper is to give a comprehensive picture of the marketization of early childhood education in Iceland. Our theoretical framework is based on Hursh's (2007) analysis of how the governance of schools is reshaped to serve a neoliberal agenda with the help of internal and external privatization (Ball and Youdell, 2007). In this…

  18. Institutionalisation in a Newly Created Private University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodson, Peter; Connolly, Michael; Younes, Said

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the introduction of a quality assurance system in a new, private university in Syria, and considers the extent to which the theoretical model based on institutional theory and isomorphism is reflected in practice. Design/methodology/approach: A five year longitudinal study which reviews the design,…

  19. Monitoring influenza epidemics in china with search query from baidu.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qingyu; Nsoesie, Elaine O; Lv, Benfu; Peng, Geng; Chunara, Rumi; Brownstein, John S

    2013-01-01

    Several approaches have been proposed for near real-time detection and prediction of the spread of influenza. These include search query data for influenza-related terms, which has been explored as a tool for augmenting traditional surveillance methods. In this paper, we present a method that uses Internet search query data from Baidu to model and monitor influenza activity in China. The objectives of the study are to present a comprehensive technique for: (i) keyword selection, (ii) keyword filtering, (iii) index composition and (iv) modeling and detection of influenza activity in China. Sequential time-series for the selected composite keyword index is significantly correlated with Chinese influenza case data. In addition, one-month ahead prediction of influenza cases for the first eight months of 2012 has a mean absolute percent error less than 11%. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the use of search query data from Baidu in conjunction with this approach for estimation of influenza activity in China.

  20. The Framework for Approximate Queries on Simulation Data

    SciTech Connect

    Abdulla, G; Baldwin, C; Critchlow, T; Kamimura, R; Lee, B; Musick, R; Snapp, R; Tang, N

    2001-09-27

    AQSim is a system intended to enable scientists to query and analyze a large volume of scientific simulation data. The system uses the state of the art in approximate query processing techniques to build a novel framework for progressive data analysis. These techniques are used to define a multi-resolution index, where each node contains multiple models of the data. The benefits of these models are two-fold: (1) they are compact representations, reconstructing only the information relevant to the analysis, and (2) the variety of models capture different aspects of the data which may be of interest to the user but are not readily apparent in their raw form. To be able to deal with the data interactively, AQSim allows the scientist to make an informed tradeoff between query response accuracy and time. In this paper, we present the framework of AQSim with a focus on its architectural design. We also show the results from an initial proof-of-concept prototype developed at LLNL. The presented framework is generic enough to handle more than just simulation data.

  1. Monitoring Influenza Epidemics in China with Search Query from Baidu

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Benfu; Peng, Geng; Chunara, Rumi; Brownstein, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Several approaches have been proposed for near real-time detection and prediction of the spread of influenza. These include search query data for influenza-related terms, which has been explored as a tool for augmenting traditional surveillance methods. In this paper, we present a method that uses Internet search query data from Baidu to model and monitor influenza activity in China. The objectives of the study are to present a comprehensive technique for: (i) keyword selection, (ii) keyword filtering, (iii) index composition and (iv) modeling and detection of influenza activity in China. Sequential time-series for the selected composite keyword index is significantly correlated with Chinese influenza case data. In addition, one-month ahead prediction of influenza cases for the first eight months of 2012 has a mean absolute percent error less than 11%. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the use of search query data from Baidu in conjunction with this approach for estimation of influenza activity in China. PMID:23750192

  2. A new technique for improving the dispersion of a set of samples. Application in multi-query motion planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaksar, Weria; Hong, Tang Sai; Sahari, Khairul Salleh Bin Mohamed; Khaksar, Mansoor

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we proposed a new learning strategy for probabilistic roadmap (PRM) algorithm. The proposed strategy is based on reducing the dispersion of the generated set of samples. We defined a forbidden range around each selected sample and ignore this region in further sampling. The resulted planner called LD-PRM is an effective multi-query sampling-based planner which is able to solve motion planning queries with smaller graphs. Simulation results indicated that the proposed planner improve the runtime of the PRM algorithm. Furthermore, the proposed planner is able to solve difficult motion planning cases including narrow passages and bug traps, which is a difficult task for classic sampling-based algorithms. For measuring the uniformity of the generated samples, a new algorithm was created to measure the dispersion of a set of samples based on any desired resolution. Also, comparison studies are provided to support the superiority claim of the proposed algorithm.

  3. Private Training Providers: Their Characteristics and Training Activities. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Roger; Simons, Michele; McCarthy, Carmel

    2006-01-01

    This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report, "Private Training Providers: Their Characteristics and Training Activities," [ED495181] and is an added resource for further information. That study examined the nature of the training activity of private registered training organisations (RTOs) offered to Australian…

  4. Corbi: a new R package for biological network alignment and querying

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, plenty of biological networks are built from the large scale experimental data produced by the rapidly developing high-throughput techniques as well as literature and other sources. But the huge amount of network data have not been fully utilized due to the limited biological network analysis tools. As a basic and essential bioinformatics method, biological network alignment and querying have been applied in many fields such as predicting new protein-protein interactions (PPI). Although many algorithms were published, the network alignment and querying problems are not solved satisfactorily. In this paper, we extended CNetQ, a novel network querying method based on the conditional random fields model, to solve network alignment problem, by adopting an iterative bi-directional mapping strategy. The new method, called CNetA, was compared with other four methods on fifty simulated and three real PPI network alignment instances by using four structural and five biological measures. The computational experiments on the simulated data, which were generated from a biological network evolutionary model to validate the effectiveness of network alignment methods, show that CNetA gets the best accuracy in terms of both nodes and networks. For the real data, larger biological conserved subnetworks and larger connected subnetworks were identified, compared with the structural-dominated methods and the biological-dominated methods, respectively, which suggests that CNetA can better balances the biological and structural similarities. Further, CNetQ and CNetA have been implemented in a new R package Corbi (http://doc.aporc.org/wiki/Corbi), and freely accessible and easy used web services for CNetQ and CNetA have also been constructed based on the R package. The simulated and real datasets used in this paper are available for downloading at http://doc.aporc.org/wiki/CNetA/. PMID:24565104

  5. Wastewater privatization: A beneficial alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeman, R.F.; Drewry, W.A.

    1999-07-01

    Municipalities with wastewater operations face increasing requirements to maximize efficiency, implement capital improvements, and ensure environmental compliance. Privatization is a relatively unused alternative offering benefits in the areas of cost-effective operations, flexible financing, technology access, and compliance assurance. Recent executive direction and tax code changes have opened new doors for mutually beneficial public-private partnerships. Wastewater privatization has historically consisted of short-term contract agreements for treatment operations, but looming infrastructure recapitalization and development requirements have catalyzed an exploration of non-traditional alternatives that include private sector financing, development, and operation of entire wastewater systems, The purpose of this paper is to show why privatization must be considered, evaluate the different levels available, and generate an analytical aid for communities taking their first look at privatization opportunities.

  6. Lower bounds for identifying subset members with subset queries

    SciTech Connect

    Knill, E.

    1994-04-01

    An instance of a group testing problem is a set of objects {Omicron}and an unknown subset P of {Omicron}.The task is to determine P by using queries of the type ``does P intersect ``Q``, where Q is a subset of {Omicron}. This problem occurs in areas such as fault detection, multiaccess communications, optimal search, blood testing and chromosome mapping. Consider the two stage algorithm for solving a group testing problem where in the first stage, a predetermined set of queries, are asked in parallel, and in the second stage, P is determined by testing individual objects. Let n = {vert_bar}{Omicron}{vert_bar}. Suppose that P is generated by independently adding each {chi} {element_of}{Omicron} to P with probability p/n. Let q{sub 1} (q{sub 2}) be the number of queries asked in the first (second) stage of this algorithm. We show that if q{sub 1} = o(log(n) log(n)/log log(n)), then Exp(q{sub 2}) = n{sup l{minus}0(1)}, while there exist algorithms with q{sub 1} = O(log(n)log(n)/loglog(n)) and Exp(q{sub 2}) = o(l). The proof involves a relaxation technique which can be used with arbitrary distributions. The best previously known bound is q{sub 1} + Exp(q{sub 2}) = {Omega}(p log(n)). For general group testing algorithms, our results imply that if the average number of queries over the course of n{sup {gamma}} ({gamma} > 0) independent experiments is O n{sup l{minus}{element_of}}, then with high probability {Omega}(log(n)log(n)/loglog(n)) non-singleton subsets are queried. This settles a conjecture of Bill Bruno and David Torney and has important consequences for the use of group testing in screening DNA libraries and other applications where its is more cost effective to use non-adaptive algorithms and/or expensive to prepare a subset Q for its first test.

  7. Interactive query workstation: a demonstration of the practical use of UMLS knowledge sources.

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, C.; Barnett, G. O.; Blewett, D. R.; Hassan, L. J.; Grundmeier, R.; Merz, R.; Kahn, J. A.; Gnassi, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Interactive Query Workstation (IQW) has been developed to provide clinicians with a uniform program interface for retrieving medical-related information from various computer-based information resources. These resources can vary in content (bibliographic databases, drug information, general medical text databases), function (article retrieval, differential diagnosis, drug interaction detection, or drug dosage and administration information), and media formats (local hard disk, CD-ROM, local area network, or distant telecommunication link). IQW allows modular addition of new resources as well as extension of previously installed resources. The National Library of Medicine's three Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Knowledge Sources, the Metathesaurus (Meta), the Semantic Network, and the Information Sources Map (ISM) have been incorporated into many aspects of IQW. Meta provides information about medical terminology and aids IQW in isolating the basic concepts from a clinician's question. The Semantic Network provides information about the categorization of concepts and possible relations between concepts. It also assists IQW in determining which queries are appropriate for a set of concepts contained in the clinician's question. The ISM provides information about the content available from a computer-based resources and aids IQW in selecting an appropriate resource from which to collect information. The computer-based resource selection is performed without user intervention. This interactive demonstration shows an environment which increases the accessibility of medical information to clinicians by utilizing the three UMLS Knowledge Sources. PMID:1483001

  8. CSRQ: Communication-Efficient Secure Range Queries in Two-Tiered Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hua; Ye, Qingqun; Yang, Geng; Xu, Jia; He, Ruiliang

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, we have seen many applications of secure query in two-tiered wireless sensor networks. Storage nodes are responsible for storing data from nearby sensor nodes and answering queries from Sink. It is critical to protect data security from a compromised storage node. In this paper, the Communication-efficient Secure Range Query (CSRQ)-a privacy and integrity preserving range query protocol-is proposed to prevent attackers from gaining information of both data collected by sensor nodes and queries issued by Sink. To preserve privacy and integrity, in addition to employing the encoding mechanisms, a novel data structure called encrypted constraint chain is proposed, which embeds the information of integrity verification. Sink can use this encrypted constraint chain to verify the query result. The performance evaluation shows that CSRQ has lower communication cost than the current range query protocols. PMID:26907293

  9. CSRQ: Communication-Efficient Secure Range Queries in Two-Tiered Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hua; Ye, Qingqun; Yang, Geng; Xu, Jia; He, Ruiliang

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, we have seen many applications of secure query in two-tiered wireless sensor networks. Storage nodes are responsible for storing data from nearby sensor nodes and answering queries from Sink. It is critical to protect data security from a compromised storage node. In this paper, the Communication-efficient Secure Range Query (CSRQ)—a privacy and integrity preserving range query protocol—is proposed to prevent attackers from gaining information of both data collected by sensor nodes and queries issued by Sink. To preserve privacy and integrity, in addition to employing the encoding mechanisms, a novel data structure called encrypted constraint chain is proposed, which embeds the information of integrity verification. Sink can use this encrypted constraint chain to verify the query result. The performance evaluation shows that CSRQ has lower communication cost than the current range query protocols. PMID:26907293

  10. CSRQ: Communication-Efficient Secure Range Queries in Two-Tiered Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hua; Ye, Qingqun; Yang, Geng; Xu, Jia; He, Ruiliang

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, we have seen many applications of secure query in two-tiered wireless sensor networks. Storage nodes are responsible for storing data from nearby sensor nodes and answering queries from Sink. It is critical to protect data security from a compromised storage node. In this paper, the Communication-efficient Secure Range Query (CSRQ)-a privacy and integrity preserving range query protocol-is proposed to prevent attackers from gaining information of both data collected by sensor nodes and queries issued by Sink. To preserve privacy and integrity, in addition to employing the encoding mechanisms, a novel data structure called encrypted constraint chain is proposed, which embeds the information of integrity verification. Sink can use this encrypted constraint chain to verify the query result. The performance evaluation shows that CSRQ has lower communication cost than the current range query protocols.

  11. From health search to healthcare: explorations of intention and utilization via query logs and user surveys

    PubMed Central

    White, Ryen W; Horvitz, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective To better understand the relationship between online health-seeking behaviors and in-world healthcare utilization (HU) by studies of online search and access activities before and after queries that pursue medical professionals and facilities. Materials and methods We analyzed data collected from logs of online searches gathered from consenting users of a browser toolbar from Microsoft (N=9740). We employed a complementary survey (N=489) to seek a deeper understanding of information-gathering, reflection, and action on the pursuit of professional healthcare. Results We provide insights about HU through the survey, breaking out its findings by different respondent marginalizations as appropriate. Observations made from search logs may be explained by trends observed in our survey responses, even though the user populations differ. Discussion The results provide insights about how users decide if and when to utilize healthcare resources, and how online health information seeking transitions to in-world HU. The findings from both the survey and the logs reveal behavioral patterns and suggest a strong relationship between search behavior and HU. Although the diversity of our survey respondents is limited and we cannot be certain that users visited medical facilities, we demonstrate that it may be possible to infer HU from long-term search behavior by the apparent influence that health concerns and professional advice have on search activity. Conclusions Our findings highlight different phases of online activities around queries pursuing professional healthcare facilities and services. We also show that it may be possible to infer HU from logs without tracking people's physical location, based on the effect of HU on pre- and post-HU search behavior. This allows search providers and others to develop more robust models of interests and preferences by modeling utilization rather than simply the intention to utilize that is expressed in search queries. PMID

  12. Lifetime cover in private insurance markets.

    PubMed

    Brown, H Shelton; Connelly, Luke B

    2005-03-01

    In the last few decades, private health insurance rates have declined in many countries. In countries and states with community rating, a major cause is adverse selection. In order to address age-based adverse selection, Australia has recently begun a novel approach which imposes stiff penalties for buying private insurance later in life, when expected costs are higher. In this paper, we analyze Australia's Lifetime Cover in the context of a modified version of the Rothschild-Stiglitz insurance model (Rothschild and Stiglitz, 1976). We allow empirically-based probabilities to increase by age for low-risk types. The model highlights the shortcomings of the Australian plan. Based on empirically-based probabilities of illness, we predict that Lifetime Cover will not arrest adverse selection. The model has many policy implications for government regulation encouraging long-term health coverage.

  13. Categorical and Specificity Differences between User-Supplied Tags and Search Query Terms for Images. An Analysis of "Flickr" Tags and Web Image Search Queries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, EunKyung; Yoon, JungWon

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to compare characteristics and features of user supplied tags and search query terms for images on the "Flickr" Website in terms of categories of pictorial meanings and level of term specificity. Method: This study focuses on comparisons between tags and search queries using Shatford's categorization…

  14. Development and validation of queries using structured query language (SQL) to determine the utilization of comparison imaging in radiology reports stored on PACS.

    PubMed

    Lakhani, Paras; Menschik, Elliot D; Goldszal, Alberto F; Murray, Joseph P; Weiner, Mark G; Langlotz, Curtis P

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop queries that quantify the utilization of comparison imaging in free-text radiology reports. The queries searched for common phrases that indicate whether comparison imaging was utilized, not available, or not mentioned. The queries were iteratively refined and tested on random samples of 100 reports with human review as a reference standard until the precision and recall of the queries did not improve significantly between iterations. Then, query accuracy was assessed on a new random sample of 200 reports. Overall accuracy of the queries was 95.6%. The queries were then applied to a database of 1.8 million reports. Comparisons were made to prior images in 38.69% of the reports (693,955/1,793,754), were unavailable in 18.79% (337,028/1,793,754), and were not mentioned in 42.52% (762,771/1,793,754). The results show that queries of text reports can achieve greater than 95% accuracy in determining the utilization of prior images.

  15. Optimising query execution time in LHCb Bookkeeping System using partition pruning and Partition-Wise joins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathe, Zoltan; Charpentier, Philippe

    2014-06-01

    The LHCb experiment produces a huge amount of data which has associated metadata such as run number, data taking condition (detector status when the data was taken), simulation condition, etc. The data are stored in files, replicated on the Computing Grid around the world. The LHCb Bookkeeping System provides methods for retrieving datasets based on their metadata. The metadata is stored in a hybrid database model, which is a mixture of Relational and Hierarchical database models and is based on the Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). The database access has to be reliable and fast. In order to achieve a high timing performance, the tables are partitioned and the queries are executed in parallel. When we store large amounts of data the partition pruning is essential for database performance, because it reduces the amount of data retrieved from the disk and optimises the resource utilisation. This research presented here is focusing on the extended composite partitioning strategy such as range-hash partition, partition pruning and usage of the Partition-Wise joins. The system has to serve thousands of queries per minute, the performance and capability of the system is measured when the above performance optimization techniques are used.

  16. On describing human white matter anatomy: the white matter query language.

    PubMed

    Wassermann, Demian; Makris, Nikos; Rathi, Yogesh; Shenton, Martha; Kikinis, Ron; Kubicki, Marek; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    The main contribution of this work is the careful syntactical definition of major white matter tracts in the human brain based on a neuroanatomist's expert knowledge. We present a technique to formally describe white matter tracts and to automatically extract them from diffusion MRI data. The framework is based on a novel query language with a near-to-English textual syntax. This query language allows us to construct a dictionary of anatomical definitions describing white matter tracts. The definitions include adjacent gray and white matter regions, and rules for spatial relations. This enables automated coherent labeling of white matter anatomy across subjects. We use our method to encode anatomical knowledge in human white matter describing 10 association and 8 projection tracts per hemisphere and 7 commissural tracts. The technique is shown to be comparable in accuracy to manual labeling. We present results applying this framework to create a white matter atlas from 77 healthy subjects, and we use this atlas in a proof-of-concept study to detect tract changes specific to schizophrenia. PMID:24505722

  17. On describing human white matter anatomy: the white matter query language.

    PubMed

    Wassermann, Demian; Makris, Nikos; Rathi, Yogesh; Shenton, Martha; Kikinis, Ron; Kubicki, Marek; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    The main contribution of this work is the careful syntactical definition of major white matter tracts in the human brain based on a neuroanatomist's expert knowledge. We present a technique to formally describe white matter tracts and to automatically extract them from diffusion MRI data. The framework is based on a novel query language with a near-to-English textual syntax. This query language allows us to construct a dictionary of anatomical definitions describing white matter tracts. The definitions include adjacent gray and white matter regions, and rules for spatial relations. This enables automated coherent labeling of white matter anatomy across subjects. We use our method to encode anatomical knowledge in human white matter describing 10 association and 8 projection tracts per hemisphere and 7 commissural tracts. The technique is shown to be comparable in accuracy to manual labeling. We present results applying this framework to create a white matter atlas from 77 healthy subjects, and we use this atlas in a proof-of-concept study to detect tract changes specific to schizophrenia.

  18. Michigan School Privatization Survey 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohman, James M.; Freeland, William L. E.

    2008-01-01

    Privatization of school support services is a time-tested means for lowering educational costs. The three major services that school districts in Michigan contract out for are food, custodial and transportation. The Mackinac Center for Public Policy's survey of privatization is the longest running and most comprehensive source of school support…

  19. Research Opportunities in Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Donald A.

    Private education as an area of study offers many opportunities to educational researchers. Four types of research that would include private education are discussed and examples of research possibilities under each type are offered. The first type involves fundamental educational processes. Suggested are studies of the effects of various levels…

  20. Private Schools in American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehrt, Roy C.

    The vital, sometimes controversial contribution of private schools to American education is documented by data gathered from 1976 to 1979. Although the totals reported are estimates because many values had to be statistically imputed, many patterns emerge. The proportion of private schools to all schools has varied only slightly since 1932.…