Science.gov

Sample records for private sector development

  1. The private sector, international development and NCDs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses an area that has been largely underserved by the development community, and one in which there is a particularly good opportunity for the private sector to take a lead in making a difference to employees, customers and local communities: chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs). It highlights the extent of the epidemic of NCDs in developing countries, sets out the 'business case' for the private sector to act on NCDs, and gives examples of initiatives by business to ensure that the healthy choice really is an easier choice for employees, consumers and local communities. It makes the case that, to be genuinely sustainable, businesses should be addressing health as a core part of what they do and, by working in partnership - as called for by the Millennium Development Goals - they can make a real difference and become part of the solution. Identifying ways in which this can be done should form a key part both of planning for, and action after, the UN High-level Meeting on NCDs, to be held in September 2011. PMID:21798001

  2. The private sector, international development and NCDs.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Christine; Kingo, Lise; Raynaud, Olivier

    2011-07-28

    This article addresses an area that has been largely underserved by the development community, and one in which there is a particularly good opportunity for the private sector to take a lead in making a difference to employees, customers and local communities: chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs). It highlights the extent of the epidemic of NCDs in developing countries, sets out the 'business case' for the private sector to act on NCDs, and gives examples of initiatives by business to ensure that the healthy choice really is an easier choice for employees, consumers and local communities. It makes the case that, to be genuinely sustainable, businesses should be addressing health as a core part of what they do and, by working in partnership - as called for by the Millennium Development Goals - they can make a real difference and become part of the solution. Identifying ways in which this can be done should form a key part both of planning for, and action after, the UN High-level Meeting on NCDs, to be held in September 2011.

  3. Evaluation of Private Sector Roles in Space Resource Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamassoure, Elisabeth S.; Blair, Brad R.; Diaz, Javier; Oderman, Mark; Duke, Michael B.; Vaucher, Marc; Manvi, Ramachandra; Easter, Robert W.

    2003-01-01

    An integrated engineering and financial modeling approach has been developed and used to evaluate the potential for private sector investment in space resource development, and to assess possible roles of the public sector in fostering private interest. This paper presents the modeling approach and its results for a transportation service using propellant extracted from lunar regolith. The analysis starts with careful case study definition, including an analysis of the customer base and market requirements, which are the basis for design of a modular, scalable space architecture. The derived non-recurring, recurring and operations costs become inputs for a `standard' financial model, as used in any commercial business plan. This model generates pro forma financial statements, calculates the amount of capitalization required, and generates return on equity calculations using two valuation metrics of direct interest to private investors: market enterprise value and multiples of key financial measures. Use of this model on an architecture to sell transportation services in Earth orbit based on lunar propellants shows how to rapidly test various assumptions and identify interesting architectural options, key areas for investment in exploration and technology, or innovative business approaches that could produce an economically viable industry. The same approach can be used to evaluate any other possible private ventures in space, and conclude on the respective roles of NASA and the private sector in space resource development and solar system exploration.

  4. Development of Private Higher Education in Macau: Exploring the Relationship between Government and Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Cheng Man Diana; Yuen, Pong Kau

    2010-01-01

    The development of private higher education in Macau has experienced rapid growth in the past two decades. The purpose of this paper is to understand this trend by investigating the facts and figures supplied by official sources and to analyze the role between the Government and the private sector. This paper shows that the attitude of the Macau…

  5. Development of Private Higher Education in Macau: Exploring the Relationship between Government and Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Cheng Man Diana; Yuen, Pong Kau

    2010-01-01

    The development of private higher education in Macau has experienced rapid growth in the past two decades. The purpose of this paper is to understand this trend by investigating the facts and figures supplied by official sources and to analyze the role between the Government and the private sector. This paper shows that the attitude of the Macau…

  6. Privatization and management development in the healthcare sector of Georgia.

    PubMed

    West, Daniel J; Costello, Michael; Ramirez, Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare reforms in Georgia parallel some of the major changes made by other Central and Eastern European countries. This is especially true of efforts to privatize the health sector and secure capital investments from Western Europe. Privatization of Georgian healthcare requires an understanding of the Soviet-era healthcare system and ideological orientation. Many of the issues and problems of privatization in Georgia require new knowledge to enhance equity outcomes, improve financial performance, increase access to care and encourage healthcare competition. Training existing and future healthcare leaders in modern management theory and practice is paramount. A university based health-management education partnership model was developed and implemented between several universities in the United States and Europe, along with two Georgian universities, to address workforce demands, changing market conditions, management knowledge and leadership competencies. Health-management education concentrations were developed and implemented along with several short courses to meet market demand for trained leaders and managers.

  7. Trends in Private Sector Development in World Bank Education Projects. Policy Research Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosale, Shobhana

    The private sector is playing an increasingly important role in financing and providing educational services in many countries. (Often the term "private sector" encompasses households' out-of-pocket expenses rather than describing for-profit or not-for-profit sectors.) Private sector development has not arisen primarily through public…

  8. The private sector role in financing mineral development

    SciTech Connect

    Baiz, C.F. III

    1982-01-01

    The role of the private sector, specifically commercial banks, is one of growing demand in financing mineral development as these projects become more capital intensive. From straightforward lending, to various forms of project financing that today borders on the exotic, to technical analytical capabilities on an in-house basis, the commercial bank has a definite role in the funding of metals and mineral development. However, from the outset, the single most important, yet most misunderstood, concept of a commercial bank's money must be pointed out. That is, the commercial bank is a source of debt capital, not equity capital. The commercial bank does not expect, nor does it get, the equity returns on its money lent. Therefore, neither will it accept the risks assumed by equity capital. These equity risks are correctly placed as the responsibility of the corporative shareholders.

  9. Development of health biotechnology in developing countries: can private-sector players be the prime movers?

    PubMed

    Abuduxike, Gulifeiya; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Health biotechnology has rapidly become vital in helping healthcare systems meet the needs of the poor in developing countries. This key industry also generates revenue and creates employment opportunities in these countries. To successfully develop biotechnology industries in developing nations, it is critical to understand and improve the system of health innovation, as well as the role of each innovative sector and the linkages between the sectors. Countries' science and technology capacities can be strengthened only if there are non-linear linkages and strong interrelations among players throughout the innovation process; these relationships generate and transfer knowledge related to commercialization of the innovative health products. The private sector is one of the main actors in healthcare innovation, contributing significantly to the development of health biotechnology via knowledge, expertise, resources and relationships to translate basic research and development into new commercial products and innovative processes. The role of the private sector has been increasingly recognized and emphasized by governments, agencies and international organizations. Many partnerships between the public and private sector have been established to leverage the potential of the private sector to produce more affordable healthcare products. Several developing countries that have been actively involved in health biotechnology are becoming the main players in this industry. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of the private sector in health biotechnology development and to study its impact on health and economic growth through case studies in South Korea, India and Brazil. The paper also discussed the approaches by which the private sector can improve the health and economic status of the poor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Can developing countries achieve adequate improvements in child health outcomes without engaging the private sector?

    PubMed Central

    Bustreo, Flavia; Harding, April; Axelsson, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The private sector exerts a significant and critical influence on child health outcomes in developing countries, including the health of poor children. This article reviews the available evidence on private sector utilization and quality of care. It provides a framework for analysing the private sector's influence on child health outcomes. This influence goes beyond service provision by private providers and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Pharmacies, drug sellers, private suppliers, and food producers also have an impact on the health of children. Many governments are experimenting with strategies to engage the private sector to improve child health. The article analyses some of the most promising strategies, and suggests that a number of constraints make it hard for policy-makers to emulate these approaches. Few experiences are clearly described, monitored, and evaluated. The article suggests that improving the impact of child health programmes in developing countries requires a more systematic analysis of how to engage the private sector most effectively. The starting point should include the evaluation of the presence and potential of the private sector, including actors such as professional associations, producer organizations, community groups, and patients' organizations. PMID:14997241

  11. Power sector privatization in developing countries: Will it solve all problems?

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S.C.

    1995-05-01

    The wave of economic deregulation and privatization has been sweeping the world for quite some time. The energy sector is also touched by this wave, and there is a sort of competition among developing countries to move fast in order not to miss the train. The power subsector is a major area within the energy sector that is growing fast in the third world and is facing such problems as poor performance and high investment demand for capacity addition that is beyond the capability of the utility. Thus, the power subsector is a target for deregulation and privatization in many countries. However, in many cases the objectives of these programs are too narrow and are designed only to attract private investment. They argue that the problems faced by the power sector are diverse, and privatization and deregulation cannot solve all of them, though the financial burden of the utilities may be eased. At the same time, new institutional and regulatory issues will surface. The authors also argue that the privatization program may lead to neglect of long-term planning of the electricity sector and endanger the energy security of these countries. Finally, they argue for a harmonious cohabitation of private and public utilities in a changed environment where each will play a role.

  12. Guidelines for Developing a Preschool Level Gifted Program in the Private Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtry, Doyleen

    This practicum addresses the creation of an economically viable school in the private sector to meet the educational and social needs of cognitively developmentally accelerated preschool-age children. Anticipated outcomes of the practicum included development of a well-documented philosophical approach to preschool gifted education, curriculum…

  13. Private sector contributions and their effect on physician emigration in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Loh, Lawrence C; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; Darko, Kwame

    2013-03-01

    The contribution made by the private sector to health care in a low- or middle-income country may affect levels of physician emigration from that country. The increasing importance of the private sector in health care in the developing world has resulted in newfound academic interest in that sector's influences on many aspects of national health systems. The growth in physician emigration from the developing world has led to several attempts to identify both the factors that cause physicians to emigrate and the effects of physician emigration on primary care and population health in the countries that the physicians leave. When the relevant data on the emerging economies of Ghana, India and Peru were investigated, it appeared that the proportion of physicians participating in private health-care delivery, the percentage of health-care costs financed publicly and the amount of private health-care financing per capita were each inversely related to the level of physician expatriation. It therefore appears that private health-care delivery and financing may decrease physician emigration. There is clearly a need for similar research in other low- and middle-income countries, and for studies to see if, at the country level, temporal trends in the contribution made to health care by the private sector can be related to the corresponding trends in physician emigration. The ways in which private health care may be associated with access problems for the poor and therefore reduced equity also merit further investigation. The results should be of interest to policy-makers who aim to improve health systems worldwide.

  14. Applied research and development private sector accomplishments. Final summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Beskid, N.J.; Devgun, J.S.; Zielke, M.M.; Erickson, M.D.

    1993-12-01

    Because of the nature of most US Department of Energy (DOE) operations, contamination at DOE sites presents complex problems. DOE sites may have radioactive, hazardous, or mixed contamination. The major contaminants include radionuclides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and heavy metals. The contamination exists in soils, groundwater, and buildings and materials. DOE`s special problems in site remediation have created a need for better and less costly technologies. Thus, DOE has implemented several initiatives for developing new technologies. This report describes the results of the first set of procurement contracts in this area. Similar research and development (R&D) activities are currently managed for DOE by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center.

  15. Obstacles to Private Sector Activities in Africa,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    87 E. Effectiveness of US Government Agencies ... ............ .... 89 APPENDIX A : METHODOLOGY...source of negativism toward MNCs emanates from the LDCs. It stems from recent historical experience and, in some instances, ideological perspectives. Due...agricultural sector will obviously have a buoyant effect on private sector development generally. Nor will this analysis focus on other private sector

  16. Private sector contributions and their effect on physician emigration in the developing world

    PubMed Central

    Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; Darko, Kwame

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The contribution made by the private sector to health care in a low- or middle-income country may affect levels of physician emigration from that country. The increasing importance of the private sector in health care in the developing world has resulted in newfound academic interest in that sector’s influences on many aspects of national health systems. The growth in physician emigration from the developing world has led to several attempts to identify both the factors that cause physicians to emigrate and the effects of physician emigration on primary care and population health in the countries that the physicians leave. When the relevant data on the emerging economies of Ghana, India and Peru were investigated, it appeared that the proportion of physicians participating in private health-care delivery, the percentage of health-care costs financed publicly and the amount of private health-care financing per capita were each inversely related to the level of physician expatriation. It therefore appears that private health-care delivery and financing may decrease physician emigration. There is clearly a need for similar research in other low- and middle-income countries, and for studies to see if, at the country level, temporal trends in the contribution made to health care by the private sector can be related to the corresponding trends in physician emigration. The ways in which private health care may be associated with access problems for the poor and therefore reduced equity also merit further investigation. The results should be of interest to policy-makers who aim to improve health systems worldwide. PMID:23476095

  17. Enterprise Funds: Evolving Models for Private Sector Development in Central and Eastern Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    and program strategies and plans for sustainability, (2) their overall performance, (3) their management practices, and (4) oversight by U.S...to for information on the business climate in the countries of operation. The enterprise funds’ strategies to dispose of investments include sale to... Strategies of loan programs developed. Poland and Hungary had taken some steps toward the creation of a private sector before the collapse of communism

  18. Private sector participation in water supply and sanitation in latin America. World Bank directions in development

    SciTech Connect

    Idelovitch, E.; Ringskog, K.

    1995-12-31

    Private sector participation in water and sanitation has been a topic of discussion among various countries in Latin America. This publication is aimed at assisting the decisionmaking process that many countries face. It consists of two chapters. In the first--Options for Private Sector Participation--the main problems of the public sector are analyzed, the rationale for private sector participation (PSP) is explained, and the array of options for PSP is reviewed. In the second chapter--Case study: The Buenos Aires Concession--the large concession for the Greater Buenos Aires water supply and sewerage services awarded by the government of Argentina to a private consortium of foreign operators and local investors is presented and analyzed, because it provides an excellent example of the planning and implementation stages that are needed to ensure a successful transition from public to private management.

  19. Coverage of private sector community midwife services in rural Punjab, Pakistan: development and demand.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Zubia; Levay, Adrienne V; Jhangri, Gian S; Bhatti, Afshan

    2015-11-25

    In 2007, the Government of Pakistan introduced a new cadre of community midwives (CMWs) to address low skilled birth attendance rates in rural areas; this workforce is located in the private-sector. There are concerns about the effectiveness of the programme for increasing skilled birth attendance as previous experience from private-sector programmes has been sub-optimal. Indonesia first promoted private sector midwifery care, but the initiative failed to provide universal coverage and reduce maternal mortality rates. A clustered, stratified survey was conducted in the districts of Jhelum and Layyah, Punjab. A total of 1,457 women who gave birth in the 2 years prior to the survey were interviewed. χ(2) analyses were performed to assess variation in coverage of maternal health services between the two districts. Logistic regression models were developed to explore whether differentials in coverage between the two districts could be explained by differential levels of development and demand for skilled birth attendance. Mean cost of childbirth care by type of provider was also calculated. Overall, 7.9% of women surveyed reported a CMW-attended birth. Women in Jhelum were six times more likely to report a CMW-attended birth than women in Layyah. The mean cost of a CMW-attended birth compared favourably with a dai-attended birth. The CMWs were, however, having difficulty garnering community trust. The majority of women, when asked why they had not sought care from their neighbourhood CMW, cited a lack of trust in CMWs' competency and that they wanted a different provider. The CMWs have yet to emerge as a significant maternity care provider in rural Punjab. Levels of overall community development determined uptake and hence coverage of CMW care. The CMWs were able to insert themselves into the maternal health marketplace in Jhelum because of an existing demand. A lower demand in Layyah meant there was less 'space' for the CMWs to enter the market. To ensure universal

  20. The Children's Centre Teacher Role: Developing Practice in the Private, Voluntary and Independent Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrick, Ros; Morgan, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of the role of the teacher in two children's centres in England and identified some of the supporting and limiting factors that influenced outcomes. The teachers worked across several settings in the private, voluntary and independent (PVI) sector, with the aim of enhancing early years practice and practitioner…

  1. Colombia: in vivo test of health sector privatization in the developing world.

    PubMed

    De Groote, Tony; De Paepe, Pierre; Unger, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The reform of the Colombian health sector in 1993 was founded on the internationally advocated paradigm of privatization of health care delivery. Taking into account the lack of empirical evidence for the applicability of this concept to developing countries and the documented experience of failures in other countries, Colombia tried to overcome these problems by a theoretically sound, although complicated, model. Some ten years after the implementation of "Law 100," a review of the literature shows that the proposed goals of universal coverage and equitable access to high-quality care have not been reached. Despite an explosion in costs and a considerable increase in public and private health expenditure, more than 40 percent of the population is still not covered by health insurance, and access to health care proves uncreasingly difficult. Furthermore, key health indicators and disease control programs have deteriorated. These findings confirm the results in other middle- and low-income countries. The authors suggest the explanation lies in the inefficiency of contracting-out, the weak economic, technical, and political capacity of the Colombian government for regulation and control, and the absence of real participation of the poor in decision-making on (health) policies.

  2. Private sector joins family planning effort.

    PubMed

    1989-12-01

    Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from

  3. Mobilization of the private sector in effective development of fusion energy: Papers for and a summary of a workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Four papers and a summary of a workshop on the mobilization of the private sector in developing fusion energy is reported. The workshop is one of a series which assesses Federal policy options relating to the commercialization of selected energy technologies viewed as alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels. The papers focused on the potential roles to be played by fusion energy in the future electric generating industry; current commitments and participation of the private sector in fusion energy development; suggestions for policy incentives to enhance private participation in fusion research; organization, staffing, and operating a center for fusion engineering; the industrial structure and practices in developing and deploying power generating facilities and their implications in relation to fusion energy development; and characteristics required by any new energy-producing technology such as low capital and operating costs and minimal environmental output.

  4. Creative tensions: mutual responsiveness adapted to private sector research and development.

    PubMed

    Sonck, Matti; Asveld, Lotte; Landeweerd, Laurens; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2017-09-07

    The concept of mutual responsiveness is currently based on little empirical data in the literature of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI). This paper explores RRI's idea of mutual responsiveness in the light of recent RRI case studies on private sector research and development (R&D). In RRI, responsible innovation is understood as a joint endeavour of innovators and societal stakeholders, who become mutually responsive to each other in defining the 'right impacts' of the innovation in society, and in steering the innovation towards realising those impacts. Yet, the case studies identified several reasons for why the idea of mutual responsiveness does not always appear feasible or desirable in actual R&D situations. Inspired by the discrepancies between theory and practice, we suggest three further elaborations for the concept of responsiveness in RRI. Process-responsiveness is suggested for identifying situations that require stakeholder involvement specifically during R&D. Product-responsiveness is suggested for mobilising the potential of innovation products to be adaptable according to diverse stakeholder needs. Presponsiveness is suggested as responsiveness towards stakeholders that are not (yet) reachable at a given time of R&D. Our aim is to contribute to a more tangible understanding of responsiveness in RRI, and suggest directions for further analysis in upcoming RRI case studies.

  5. Private Sector Engagement: An Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, G.

    2016-12-01

    Public health organizations serve as scientific societies as a major part of their core mission. In addition, mobilizing partners to identify health threats and to work collaboratively to improve community health involves engagement of a variety of partners including those in the private sector. Increased concerns about conflicts of interest, transparency and undue influence are emerging as a major concern. This presentation will explore one framework for decision making to minimize risks and enhancing independence in scientific inquiry and public health programming.

  6. New forms of public-private partnership for sustainable development of the fuel and energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomova, E. O.; Goosen, E. V.; Nikitenko, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    Public-private partnership (PPP) as a form of interaction between the public and private sectors contributes to the improvement of social and economic situation in the country. PPP is viewed in a broad context and is presented as a system of financial and non-financial relations between government and business. A number of legislative initiatives contributed to the emergence of a new form of PPP that is a special investment contract (SPIC). In the Russian regions there are legislative initiatives that provide differences in terms of contracting. In a number of regions a federal-specific volume of mandatory investment has been reduced to attract investors, while there are regions where this volume is higher than at the federal level. Monitoring of regional legislation showed that the authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation are striving to obtain guarantee obligations to create jobs and receive salaries above the average in the region. Measures to encourage investors have been determined, and the benefits to the government and business from the implementation of a SPIC have been shown.

  7. Private Sector Contracting and Democratic Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMartino, Catherine; Scott, Janelle

    2013-01-01

    Public officials are increasingly contracting with the private sector for a range of educational services. With much of the focus on private sector accountability on cost-effectiveness and student performance, less attention has been given to shifts in democratic accountability. Drawing on data from the state of New York, one of the most active…

  8. Private Sector Contracting and Democratic Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMartino, Catherine; Scott, Janelle

    2013-01-01

    Public officials are increasingly contracting with the private sector for a range of educational services. With much of the focus on private sector accountability on cost-effectiveness and student performance, less attention has been given to shifts in democratic accountability. Drawing on data from the state of New York, one of the most active…

  9. Methods for studying private sector supply of public health products in developing countries: a conceptual framework and review.

    PubMed

    Conteh, Lesong; Hanson, Kara

    2003-10-01

    The private sector is an important supplier of public health products (PHPs) in developing countries. Although there are concerns about the quality and affordability of these products, private providers also offer possibilities for expanding access to key commodities. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for understanding the public health implications of private sales of PHPs. It reviews methods for studying these sales, together with their advantages and shortcomings. Ten methods are identified which can be used for studying the behaviour of providers and consumers. The effects of seasonal variation are discussed, together with the challenges of creating a sampling frame and studying illicit behaviour. We conclude that relatively little is known about the sales of PHPs, that more is known about contraceptives and drugs than about the newer products, and that the demand side of the market has been studied in greater depth than the behaviour of suppliers. The existing toolbox is biased towards formal providers, and thus, probably towards understanding the provision of PHPs to those who are better off. Methods for studying the supply of PHPs in outlets used by poor people is a priority area for further methodological development.

  10. Acid deposition research in the private sector

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsman, J.D.; Wisniewski, J.; Nelson, J.

    1984-02-01

    Acid deposition research funded by the private sector since 1980 is reviewed. Types of studies (e.g., atmospheric processes, emissions and monitoring, environmental effects) supported by the private sector during this period are overviewed. The specific industries/organizations (e.g., electric utility industry, environmental interest groups) funding reserach during 1980-1982 are discussed, with relation to the number of studies supported and funds (by year) provided by each. Finally, 13 research projects supported by the private sector and initiated by December 1983, each at greater than $1 million, are described.

  11. Private sector delivery of health services in developing countries: a mixed-methods study on quality assurance in social franchises

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Across the developing world health care services are most often delivered in the private sector and social franchising has emerged, over the past decade, as an increasingly popular method of private sector health care delivery. Social franchising aims to strengthen business practices through economies of scale: branding clinics and purchasing drugs in bulk at wholesale prices. While quality is one of the established goals of social franchising, there is no published documentation of how quality levels might be set in the context of franchised private providers, nor what quality assurance measures can or should exist within social franchises. The aim of this study was to better understand the quality assurance systems currently utilized in social franchises, and to determine if there are shared standards for practice or quality outcomes that exist across programs. Methods The study included three data sources and levels of investigation: 1) Self-reported program data; 2) Scoping telephone interviews; and 3) In-depth field interviews and clinic visits. Results Social Franchises conceive of quality assurance not as an independent activity, but rather as a goal that is incorporated into all areas of franchise operations, including recruitment, training, monitoring of provider performance, monitoring of client experience and the provision of feedback. Conclusions These findings are the first evidence to support the 2002 conceptual model of social franchising which proposed that the assurance of quality was one of the three core goals of all social franchises. However, while quality is important to franchise programs, quality assurance systems overall are not reflective of the evidence to-date on quality measurement or quality improvement best practices. Future research in this area is needed to better understand the details of quality assurance systems as applied in social franchise programs, the process by which quality assurance becomes a part of the

  12. Private-Sector Interest in Entrepreneurship Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, H. Naylor

    1981-01-01

    Describes private-sector institutions' stake in the success of small business and discusses the value of entrepreneurship training in achieving business success. Also presents an overview of some of the major content areas that entrepreneurship training should address. (CT)

  13. Privatizing responsibility: public sector reform under neoliberal government.

    PubMed

    Ilcan, Suzan

    2009-08-01

    In light of public sector reforms in Canada and elsewhere, this paper focuses on the shift of emphasis from social to private responsibilities and raises new questions about the forces of private enterprise and market-based partnerships. Under neoliberal governmental agendas, privatizing responsibility links to three main developments: the reconsideration of the relations of public and private; the mobilization of responsible citizenship; and the formation of a cultural mentality of rule that works alongside these developments. The research for this article is based on extensive analysis of policy documents and public sector reform initiatives, as well as interviews with Canadian federal public service employees.

  14. Motivating the Private vs. Public Sector Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khojasteh, Mak

    1993-01-01

    A questionnaire on intrinsic/extrinsic rewards received 362 responses from 380 managers. Pay and security were greater motivators for private than for public sector managers. Recognition had higher motivating potential in the public sector. Both groups were motivated by achievement and advancement. (SK)

  15. Motivating the Private vs. Public Sector Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khojasteh, Mak

    1993-01-01

    A questionnaire on intrinsic/extrinsic rewards received 362 responses from 380 managers. Pay and security were greater motivators for private than for public sector managers. Recognition had higher motivating potential in the public sector. Both groups were motivated by achievement and advancement. (SK)

  16. Use of net present value analysis to evaluate a publicly funded biomass-to-ethanol research, development, and demonstration program and valuate expected private sector participation.

    PubMed

    Hinman, N D; Yancey, M A

    1998-01-01

    One of the functions of government is to invest tax dollars in programs, projects, and properties that will result in greater public benefit than would have resulted from leaving the tax dollars in the private sector or using them to pay off the public debt. This paper describes the use of Net Present Value (NPV) as an approach to analyze and select investment opportunities for government money in public research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) programs and to evaluate potential private sector participation in the programs. This approach is then applied to a specific biomass-to-ethanol opportunity in California.

  17. Private Sector Initiative Between the U.S. and Japan

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    OAK-A258 Private Sector Initiative Between the U.S. and Japan. This report for calendar years 1993 through September 1998 describes efforts performed under the Private Sector Initiatives contract. The report also describes those efforts that have continued with private funding after being initiated under this contract. The development of a pyrochemical process, called TRUMP-S, for partitioning actinides from PUREX waste, is described in this report. This effort is funded by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), KHI, the United States Department of Energy, and Boeing.

  18. Private-public sector co-operation to improve pesticide safety standards in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ellis, W W

    1998-01-01

    This paper draws on the author's experiences of the pilot phase of the Safe Use Project (SUP) in Thailand; this project is a part of a major GIFAP initiative carried out in some developing countries. The SUP's objectives were; i) to raise awareness and compliance in the safe handling and storage of pesticides within the industry, the medical profession and the end-users; ii) to reduce the incidence of pesticide poisoning; iii) to protect the environment; iiii) to help relevant government agencies with resources, expertise and training. To achieve those objectives, the SUP used local-language training resources, provided basic training, lobbied for changes in governmental policies and regulations, and acted as a focal point for pesticide safety-related information. The SUP targeted the whole distribution chain, from importer/formulator, through to the endusers. Also medical profession, teachers and school students were targeted. On the base of independent audit and surveys, a general improvement in awareness has been shown within targeted groups; a longer time frame is required to detect meaningful changes in farmer practice. The SUP key programmes have been: I) training of trainers, retailers and farmers; II) schools programme; III) medical training; IV) protective clothing; V) industry standards; VI) model farm. The main conclusions of the pilot phase were: i) pesticide safety needs to be addressed by all concerned agencies in a joint effort; ii) a rural development perspective must be adopted in improving pesticide safety; iii) integrated pest management training programmes must include precautionary advice for proper handling, use and disposal of pesticides, wherever these are necessary.

  19. Higher Education and the Public, Private and Non-Profit Sectors. Equal Partners in Promoting Regional Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughey, Aaron W.

    2003-01-01

    Advocates collaboration by universities with public, private, and nonprofit organizations to create value-added innovative economies in their regions. Discusses the advantages of such partnerships and various approaches to regional economic development. (Contains 29 references.) (SK)

  20. 77 FR 44641 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ...: Once. Affected Public: Designated private sector employees of critical infrastructure entities or... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request AGENCY: National Protection and... Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP) will submit the following Information...

  1. 77 FR 21989 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request AGENCY: National Protection and... Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP) will submit the following Information... information provided. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program...

  2. Private-Sector Funding--Handle with Care!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Updating School Board Policies, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Financial partnerships are developing between local communities and schools based on the desire to improve public education by raising private sector funds to offset shrinking tax dollars. Those who develop education foundations for a school system must know the basics: defining the school system's role, determining what the fund can and cannot…

  3. Private sector participation in the petroleum industry of Trinidad & Tabago

    SciTech Connect

    Boopsingh, T.M.

    1993-12-31

    The limitations of size, domestic capital markets and the relative youth of the country, has seen shifts in the importance attributed to the private sector in energy over the past three (3) decades. The need for foreign capital and expertise has never been considered unimportant, but the corresponding need for deepening and widening the involvement of nationals in all aspects of energy sector developments has tended to make Trinidad and Tobago seek, where practicable, the joint venture as a preferred mode of operation. The need for efficient competition, not always easy to achieve in a mini-state, has led to a plural and diverse mix of arrangements, with state sector energy entities not always co-ordinated in the most efficient manner and with the local private sector in energy operating as small and mostly silent participants. The size of the country, particularly against that of international energy, thus dictates that wide domestic ownership in the energy sector in still some way off. However, the immediate benefits of new foreign capital and technology, new management expertise, more competition and greater efficiency of operations, have provided enough impetus to ensure that the role of the private sector in the energy sector in Trinidad and Tobago will continue to be enhanced to the benefit of the country, as it seeks to prepare itself for the 21st century.

  4. Rehabilitation Counseling in the Private Sector: Implications for Graduate Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos

    1979-01-01

    There are specific skill areas which are not addressed in present masters degree programs which could be addressed in terms of developing an effective specialty area in rehabilitation counseling in the private sector. These areas include knowledge of workers compensation, basic concepts in insurance, and understanding of law. (CT)

  5. Public-Private Partnerships in China's Urban Water Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Lijin; Mol, Arthur P. J.; Fu, Tao

    2008-06-01

    During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management and governance in which the private sector is involved. It is premature to conclude whether the various forms of private sector involvement will successfully overcome the major problems (capital shortage, inefficient operation, and service quality) in China’s water sector. But at the same time, private sector involvement in water provisioning and waste water treatments seems to have become mainstream in transitional China.

  6. Public-private partnerships in China's urban water sector.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Lijin; Mol, Arthur P J; Fu, Tao

    2008-06-01

    During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management and governance in which the private sector is involved. It is premature to conclude whether the various forms of private sector involvement will successfully overcome the major problems (capital shortage, inefficient operation, and service quality) in China's water sector. But at the same time, private sector involvement in water provisioning and waste water treatments seems to have become mainstream in transitional China.

  7. Evaluating NASA Technology Programs in Terms of Private Sector Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    NASA is currently developing spacecraft technology for application to NASA scientific missions, military missions and commercial missions which are part of or form the basis of private sector business ventures. The justification of R&D programs that lead to spacecraft technology improvements encompasses the establishment of the benefits in terms of improved scientific knowledge that may result from new and/or improved NASA science missions, improved cost effectiveness of NASA and DOD missions and new or improved services that may be offered by the private sector (for example communications satellite services). It is with the latter of these areas that attention will be focused upon. In particular, it is of interest to establish the economic value of spacecraft technology improvements to private sector communications satellite business ventures. It is proposed to assess the value of spacecraft technology improvements in terms of the changes in cash flow and present value of cash flows, that may result from the use of new and/or improved spacecraft technology for specific types of private sector communications satellite missions (for example domestic point-to-point communication or direct broadcasting). To accomplish this it is necessary to place the new and/or improved technology within typical business scenarios and estimate the impacts of technical performance upon business and financial performance.

  8. Evaluating NASA Technology Programs in Terms of Private Sector Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    NASA is currently developing spacecraft technology for application to NASA scientific missions, military missions and commercial missions which are part of or form the basis of private sector business ventures. The justification of R&D programs that lead to spacecraft technology improvements encompasses the establishment of the benefits in terms of improved scientific knowledge that may result from new and/or improved NASA science missions, improved cost effectiveness of NASA and DOD missions and new or improved services that may be offered by the private sector (for example communications satellite services). It is with the latter of these areas that attention will be focused upon. In particular, it is of interest to establish the economic value of spacecraft technology improvements to private sector communications satellite business ventures. It is proposed to assess the value of spacecraft technology improvements in terms of the changes in cash flow and present value of cash flows, that may result from the use of new and/or improved spacecraft technology for specific types of private sector communications satellite missions (for example domestic point-to-point communication or direct broadcasting). To accomplish this it is necessary to place the new and/or improved technology within typical business scenarios and estimate the impacts of technical performance upon business and financial performance.

  9. The Institutionalization of Private Sector Strategic Planning Methods in a Public Sector Research & Development Organization: The Naval Surface Warfare Center Case 1982-1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    strategic planning methods in a public sector federal government Department of Defense research and development organization. Corporate-style strategic planning means using a formal integrative strategic planning process whose cornerstone is the segmentation of the organization’s activities into strategic business units (SBUs). The role and mission of industrial organizations are key drivers or forcing functions in the process of execution motivation to plan and manage strategically. The U.S. federal system does not, by its

  10. The private sector's role in public sector genetically engineered crop projects.

    PubMed

    Potrykus, Ingo

    2010-11-30

    There is widespread interest within academia to work on public good genetically engineered (GE) projects to the benefit of the poor, especially to use GE-technology to contribute to food security. Not a single product from this work has reached the market. The major cause is GE-regulation, which prevents use of the technology for public good beyond proof-of-concept (Potrykus, I. (2010) Lessons from the Humanitarian Golden Rice project: Regulation prevents development of public good GE-products (these Proceedings)). There is, however, another key problem responsible for the lack of deployment of public good GE-plants: the public sector is incompetent and disinterested for work beyond proof-of-concept, and has neither capability nor funding to develop GE-plant products and introduce them to growers and consumers. The private sector has the expertise for both and in the right circumstances can be ready to support the public sector in public good enterprises. Public-private-partnerships are the best solution so far, to advance exploitation of GE-technology to the benefit of the poor. Public-private-partnerships are viable, however, only, if there is mutual interest from the private sector and initiative and funding from the public sector. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluating the benefits of government funded R & D aimed at the private sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    Federal funding of technological research and development is discussed with regard to the procedures for an economic analysis with the goals of (1) determining when the public sector should invest in a research and development program, (2) evaluating the likelihood of private sector participation in terms of public sector participation, and (3) considering the major factors in the formulation of a research and development program in terms of defining initiatives. Public sector investments are evaluated, noting procedures for determining whether benefits exceed costs. The role of the public sector research and development planning is described, considering the procedure for private sector implementation decisions and a methodology for evaluating the possibility of private sector commercialization. The economic value of the public sector research and development program is presented with attention given to a specific case of NASA-sponsored research and development aimed toward the commercialization of new public communications services.

  12. Evaluating the benefits of government funded R & D aimed at the private sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    Federal funding of technological research and development is discussed with regard to the procedures for an economic analysis with the goals of (1) determining when the public sector should invest in a research and development program, (2) evaluating the likelihood of private sector participation in terms of public sector participation, and (3) considering the major factors in the formulation of a research and development program in terms of defining initiatives. Public sector investments are evaluated, noting procedures for determining whether benefits exceed costs. The role of the public sector research and development planning is described, considering the procedure for private sector implementation decisions and a methodology for evaluating the possibility of private sector commercialization. The economic value of the public sector research and development program is presented with attention given to a specific case of NASA-sponsored research and development aimed toward the commercialization of new public communications services.

  13. Dynamics of Private Sector Support for Education: Experiences in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Kristin; Galisson, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    Recognizing the diversity of models and strategies for private sector participation in education that have emerged in Latin America, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) requested the Academy for Educational Development (AED) to conduct research with leaders in the public and private sectors in several countries. While…

  14. Harnessing Private-Sector Innovation to Improve Health Insurance Exchanges

    PubMed Central

    Gresenz, Carole Roan; Hoch, Emily; Eibner, Christine; Rudin, Robert S.; Mattke, Soeren

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Overhauling the individual health insurance market—including through the creation of health insurance exchanges—was a key component of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's multidimensional approach to addressing the long-standing problem of the uninsured in the United States. Despite succeeding in enrolling millions of Americans, the exchanges still face several challenges, including poor consumer experience, high operational and development costs, and incomplete market penetration. In light of these challenges, analysts considered a different model for the exchanges—privately facilitated exchanges—which could address these challenges and deepen the Affordable Care Act's impact. In this model, the government retains control over sovereign exchange functions but allows the private sector to assume responsibility for more-peripheral exchange functions, such as developing and sustaining exchange websites. Although private-sector entities have already undertaken exchange-related functions on a limited basis, privately facilitated exchanges could conceivably relieve the government of its responsibility for front-end website operations and consumer decision-support functions entirely. A shift to privately facilitated exchanges could improve the consumer experience, increase enrollment, and lower costs for state and federal governments. A move to such a model requires, nonetheless, managing its risks, such as reduced consumer protection, increased consumer confusion, and the possible lack of a viable revenue base for privately facilitated exchanges, especially in less populous states. On net, the benefits are large enough and the risks sufficiently manageable to seriously consider such a shift. This paper provides background information and more detail on the analysts' assessment. PMID:28083414

  15. Harnessing Private-Sector Innovation to Improve Health Insurance Exchanges.

    PubMed

    Gresenz, Carole Roan; Hoch, Emily; Eibner, Christine; Rudin, Robert S; Mattke, Soeren

    2016-05-09

    Overhauling the individual health insurance market-including through the creation of health insurance exchanges-was a key component of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's multidimensional approach to addressing the long-standing problem of the uninsured in the United States. Despite succeeding in enrolling millions of Americans, the exchanges still face several challenges, including poor consumer experience, high operational and development costs, and incomplete market penetration. In light of these challenges, analysts considered a different model for the exchanges-privately facilitated exchanges-which could address these challenges and deepen the Affordable Care Act's impact. In this model, the government retains control over sovereign exchange functions but allows the private sector to assume responsibility for more-peripheral exchange functions, such as developing and sustaining exchange websites. Although private-sector entities have already undertaken exchange-related functions on a limited basis, privately facilitated exchanges could conceivably relieve the government of its responsibility for front-end website operations and consumer decision-support functions entirely. A shift to privately facilitated exchanges could improve the consumer experience, increase enrollment, and lower costs for state and federal governments. A move to such a model requires, nonetheless, managing its risks, such as reduced consumer protection, increased consumer confusion, and the possible lack of a viable revenue base for privately facilitated exchanges, especially in less populous states. On net, the benefits are large enough and the risks sufficiently manageable to seriously consider such a shift. This paper provides background information and more detail on the analysts' assessment.

  16. Creating conditions for greater private sector participation in achieving contraceptive security.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suneeta; Dayaratna, Varuni

    2005-03-01

    The growing gap between donor/government funding and the expected need for contraceptives is an issue of great concern for most developing countries. Addressing this resource shortfall, and meeting the goals of contraceptive security requires that countries mobilize the full and active participation of the private sector in the contraceptive market. Private sector involvement will not only increase the resource base available for contraceptives, it can also free up scarce donor and government resources to serve those who have the greatest need for public subsidies. This paper provides an overview of policy processes, strategies, and tools that can be used in developing countries to create an enabling environment for greater private sector participation, foster complementary public-private sector roles, and enhance the contribution of the private sector to contraceptive security.

  17. Employment of Geoscientists in the Private Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, J. L.

    2001-05-01

    In the private sector, major employers of geoscientists engage in diverse activities ranging from resource exploration and extraction, assessment of geologic hazards, and determination of environmental impacts. These firms actively recruit, from the breadth of geoscience disciplines, technically qualified individuals with the ability to make pragmatic decisions in the context of multidisciplinary teams that commonly include non-scientists. Moreover, they expect applicants to communicate effectively verbally and in writing, as well as demonstrate skills and experience in integrating field investigations, conducting laboratory studies, and accomplishing computer modeling. These applicants should be capable of simultaneously working in multiple projects which are rapidly evolving. Successful recruiting and employment requires interactions between the job applicant and potential employer conducted with honesty and integrity. Resumes and associated transmittal letters should be directed to specific employers based on the applicant's review of information on the firm from the Internet and other sources. "Shotgun" or blanket approaches are seldom productive. Participation in pertinent professional societies, internships, and summer employment can provide valuable experiences and opportunities for networking with potential employers.

  18. Nursing education in the private sector.

    PubMed

    Orr, J G

    1993-03-01

    With perhaps some minor variations, it can be claimed that colleges/schools of nursing have viewed their raison d'être as providing education for pre-registration students of nursing. The particular philosophy of the college would determine whether or not in-service education and post basic courses figured highly as educational priorities. Whether pre- or post-registration, colleges have been their remit almost entirely within statutory frameworks. With the advent of Project 2000 many schools/colleges amalgamated in order to provide multiple branches of nurse education. However, anticipated numbers of entrants to nursing have not always materialized and we are now led to believe that revised staffing ratios will result in decreasing numbers of qualified nursing staff. Faced with decreased numbers of recruits to nursing, colleges of nursing can undergo even larger amalgamations or look elsewhere for some of their business. While nurse education should always be the central focus of colleges of nursing, the time has now come when we must sell our wares in a much wider marketplace. Consideration should be given to mounting multi-disciplinary courses within the health professions and to providing skills to other professions. Short courses, for instance on child abuse, could be provided for teachers in primary and secondary education. While recognizing a vast range of potential customers, this paper confines itself to education within the private sector.

  19. Leveraging the private health sector to enhance HIV service delivery in lower-income countries.

    PubMed

    Rao, Pamela; Gabre-Kidan, Tesfai; Mubangizi, Deus Bazira; Sulzbach, Sara

    2011-08-01

    Evidence that the private health sector is a key player in delivering health services and impacting health outcomes, including those related to HIV/AIDS, underscores the need to optimize the role of the private health sector to scale up national HIV responses in lower-income countries. This article reviews findings on the types of HIV/AIDS services provided by the private health sector in developing countries and elaborates on the role of private providers of HIV services in Ethiopia. Drawing on data from the nation's innovative Private Health Sector Project, a pilot project that has demonstrated the feasibility of public-private partnerships in this area, the article highlights the potential for national governments to scale up HIV/AIDS services by leveraging private health sector resources, innovations, and expertise while working to regulate quality and cost of services. Although concerns about uneven quality and affordability of private sector health services must be addressed through regulation, policy, or other innovative approaches, we argue that the benefits of leveraging the private sector outweigh these challenges, particularly in light of finite donor and public domestic resources.

  20. Private sector participation and health system performance in sub-saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Yoong, Joanne; Burger, Nicholas; Spreng, Connor; Sood, Neeraj

    2010-10-07

    The role of the private health sector in developing countries remains a much-debated and contentious issue. Critics argue that the high prices charged in the private sector limits the use of health care among the poorest, consequently reducing access and equity in the use of health care. Supporters argue that increased private sector participation might improve access and equity by bringing in much needed resources for health care and by allowing governments to increase focus on underserved populations. However, little empirical exists for or against either side of this debate. We examine the association between private sector participation and self-reported measures of utilization and equity in deliveries and treatment of childhood respiratory disease using regression analysis, across a sample of nationally-representative Demographic and Health Surveys from 34 SSA economies. We also examine the correlation between private sector participation and key background factors (socioeconomic development, business environment and governance) and use multivariate regression to control for potential confounders. Private sector participation is positively associated with greater overall access and reduced disparities between rich and poor as well as urban and rural populations. The positive association between private sector participation and improved health system performance is robust to controlling for confounders including per capita income and maternal education. Private sector participation is positively correlated with measures of socio-economic development and favorable business environment. Greater participation is associated with favorable intermediate outcomes in terms of access and equity. While these results do not establish a causal link between private sector participation and health system performance, they suggest that there is no deleterious link between private sector participation and health system performance in SSA.

  1. The role of the private sector in monitoring health care quality and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Blewett, Lynn A; Parente, Stephen T; Peterson, Eileen; Finch, Michael D

    2003-08-01

    As payers, purchasers, and providers, both the public and private sectors have a stake in developing sound methods of measuring health care quality and patient safety. However, the role of the private sector in a national quality monitoring system remains largely underdeveloped. There have been some attempts to pool private-sector data through health care industry efforts to measure and monitor the quality of health care services. Yet despite a number of public/private partnerships, no standard method exists for measuring and monitoring health care quality and safety across public and private payers. THE AHRQ WORKSHOP ON PRIVATE-SECTOR QUALITY MONITORING: The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) sponsored a workshop in fall 2000 to address the private sector's role in monitoring quality in the health care system. National experts developed a conceptual framework and recommendations on the design and scope of a private-sector data monitoring system. Ten key attributes of the monitoring system, such as timeliness of reports, flexibility, efficiency, and linkability, were identified. Barriers and gaps to the development of such a system include the cost of data collection, the diversity of the units of data collection, data privacy, and limitations of administrative data elements. A comprehensive, public/private data collection system would address the multidimensional nature of quality and use data to effectively represent this complexity to the extent possible.

  2. Using Internet-Based Language Testing Capacity to the Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Laborda, Jesus

    2009-01-01

    Language testing has a large number of commercial applications in both the institutional and the private sectors. Some jobs in the health services sector or the public services sector require foreign language skills and these skills require continuous and efficient language assessments. Based on an experience developed through the cooperation of…

  3. The AIDS threat and the private sector.

    PubMed

    Moore, D

    1999-01-01

    While commercial sector managers throughout southern Africa have invested considerable funds to ensure that reaching the year 2000 does not disrupt the routine functioning of their computer systems, they are failing to address the considerable damage which HIV/AIDS will likely inflict upon companies' human resources. How these managers address AIDS in the workplace will determine whether their companies survive the first decade of the 21st century. Based upon the most recently available statistics, the Metropolitan-Doyle model, developed in 1988 to produce estimates of the progression of HIV/AIDS in South Africa, projects that as of 1999, 11% of South Africa's work force is infected with HIV and an estimated 0.6% are sick with AIDS. The percentages of the country's work force projected to have HIV and to be sick due to AIDS in 2010 are 21% and 2.9%, respectively. The direct costs of AIDS will be felt through rising employee benefit and medical insurance costs, and there will also be numerous indirect costs in the workplace. Management and labor need to work together to find a proactive, holistic solution to the AIDS crisis facing South Africa. The indirect costs of HIV/AIDS to the commercial sector and the elements of a holistic solution to the AIDS problem are discussed.

  4. Private Sector Involvement in Urban School Reform. Emerging Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research for Action, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document presents findings on the impact of privatization to date at a meeting at the Ford Foundation co hosted by the William Penn Foundation, Carnegie Corporation of New York, and Ford. Increasingly, the private sector (both for-profit and non-profit) is providing resources and alternative delivery models for urban public schools. Beyond…

  5. School Effectiveness within the Public and Private Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willms, J. Douglas

    1984-01-01

    gh School and Beyond data are examined using an approach to multilevel data analysis that shows the diversity in school effectiveness within the public and private sectors and provides estimates of private schooling effects for different types of students in schools serving different demographic populations. (PN)

  6. Exploring Ohio's Private Education Sector. School Survey Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catt, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    Exploring Ohio's Private Education Sector is the second entry in the Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice's "School Survey Series." This report synthesizes information on Ohio's private schools collected by the U.S. Department of Education and the Ohio Department of Education (ODE). Two appendices provide supplementary tables and…

  7. Cyclical absenteeism among private sector, public sector and self-employed workers.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Christian

    2013-03-01

    This research note analyzes differences in the number of absent working days and doctor visits and in their cyclicality between private sector, public sector and self-employed workers. For this purpose, I used large-scale German survey data for the years 1995 to 2007 to estimate random effects negative binomial (count data) models. The main findings are as follows. (i) Public sector workers have on average more absent working days than private sector and self-employed workers. Self-employed workers have fewer absent working days and doctor visits than dependent employed workers. (ii) The regional unemployment rate is on average negatively correlated with the number of absent working days among private and public sector workers as well as among self-employed men. The correlations between regional unemployment rate and doctor visits are only significantly negative among private sector workers.

  8. Policy principles and implementation guidelines for private sector participation in the water sector--a step towards better results.

    PubMed

    Rothenberger, D; Frei, U; Brugger, F

    2005-01-01

    To achieve the Millennium Development Goals, all partners (public, private, NGOs) must be engaged for improving and expanding the water supply and sanitation services. Yet, high transaction costs, unclear role allocation and lack of trust and commitment put Private Sector Participation (PSP) at risk. The initiative "Policy Principles and Implementation Guidelines for Private Sector Participation in Sustainable Water Supply and Sanitation" contributes to equitable, effective, ecological and efficient PSP projects. Based on a multi stakeholder process, the Policy Principles are offering an open and transparent framework for the negotiation of valid, widely accepted and action-oriented solutions, while the Implementation Guidelines focus on success factors for building partnerships on the operational level.

  9. Health policy and the private sector. New vistas for nursing.

    PubMed

    Pulcini, J; Mason, D J; Cohen, S S; Kovner, C; Leavitt, J K

    2000-01-01

    During the past two decades, the drive to rein in rising health care costs has shifted some of the power in health care policy making from professional groups, government agencies, and not-for-profit health care organizations to large for-profit corporations (1-4). This has been a world-wide phenomenon, as the provision and financing of health care services is shifted from governments to private health care organizations (5,6). In the United States, the shift in power is manifested in profound ways. Market competition and bottom-line economics have permeated the health care system, creating powerful new incentives for mergers, other corporate restructuring, and the shift to for-profit status by formerly not-for-profit insurance companies and providers. Private sector health care is now increasingly influenced by for-profit organizations (3). Moreover, the health insurance industry has been transformed as traditional indemnity insurance is replaced by versions of managed care. The role of government, or the public sector, in setting parameters for health care financing and standards for the delivery of health care services is increasingly outpaced in cost cutting by organizations that directly face the bottom line. In addition, private foundations, many of which are under the auspices of managed care organizations, now fund a large proportion of health care research and demonstration projects, a task once largely within the realm of the government. Through education and experience, nurses have developed political sophistication and understanding of policy making in the public sector (7). The challenge now is to educate nurses to adapt their political and policy strategies to the new health care milieu. This challenge is particularly crucial for advanced practice nurses, who must survive in a managed care environment.

  10. Sector Distinctions and the Privatization of Public Education Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Current trends indicate declining distinctions between "public" and "private" sectors in education. Reformers see sector barriers as unnecessary impediments to innovation, distracting attention and effort from "what works". This analysis questions whether trends in education policy are simply a natural evolution away…

  11. Sector Distinctions and the Privatization of Public Education Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Current trends indicate declining distinctions between "public" and "private" sectors in education. Reformers see sector barriers as unnecessary impediments to innovation, distracting attention and effort from "what works". This analysis questions whether trends in education policy are simply a natural evolution away…

  12. Private sector involvement in the US program of technical assistance to IAEA safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, S.E.; Epel, L.; Maise, G.; Reisman, A.; Skalyo, J.

    1995-12-01

    The US Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) relies on technical expertise found in the U. S private and public sectors. Since 1993, the international Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) has sought to increase the role of the private sector in POTAS. ISPO maintains and continues to develop a database of US companies interested in providing technical expertise to the IAEA. This database is used by ISPO to find appropriate contractors to respond to IAEA requests for technical assistance when the assistance can be provided by the private sector. The private sector is currently providing support in the development of equipment, training, and procedure preparation. POTAS also supports the work of private consultants. This paper discusses ISPO`s efforts to identify suitable vendors and discusses conditions that hinder more substantial involvement by the private sector. In addition, the paper will discuss selected projects that are currently in progress and identify common problems that impede the progress and success of tasks performed by the private sector.

  13. Health care markets in Australia: ownership of the private hospital sector.

    PubMed

    White, K; Collyer, F

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, the Australian hospital sector has undergone a massive economic and administrative reorganization with ramifications for both the private and the public sectors. Changes such as privatization, deregulation, and the entry of foreign capital into the hospital sector are occurring in the hospital systems of many countries, including Australia, the United States, and the United Kingdom. These developments are radically transforming the hospital sector, altering established relationships between the state, the medical profession, the consumer, and the corporate investor, and raising important questions about the future of hospital services in regard to equity, accessibility, and quality.

  14. Creating options in family planning for the private sector in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suneeta; Gribble, James N; Menotti, Elaine P

    2005-07-01

    The countries of Latin America and the Caribbean are facing the gradual phase-out of international-donor support of contraceptive commodities and technical and management assistance, as well as an increased reliance on limited public sector resources and a limited private sector role in providing contraceptives to the public. Therefore, those nations must develop multisectoral strategies to achieve contraceptive security. The countries need to consider information about the market for family planning commodities and services in order to define and promote complementary roles for the public sector, the commercial sector, and the nongovernmental-organization sector, as well as to better identify which segments of the population each of those sectors should serve. While it is unable to mandate private sector participation, the public sector can create conditions that support and promote a greater role for the private sector in meeting the growing needs of family planning users. Taking steps to actively involve and expand the private sector's market share is a critical strategy for achieving a more equitable distribution of available resources, addressing unmet need, and creating a more sustainable future for family planning commodities and services. This paper also discusses in detail the experiences of two countries, Paraguay and Peru. Paraguay's family planning market illustrates a vibrant private sector, but with limited access to family planning commodities and services for those who cannot afford private sector prices. In Peru a 1995 policy change that sought to increase family planning coverage had the effect of restricting access for the poor and leaving the Ministry of Health unable to pay for the growing need for family planning commodities and services.

  15. The private sector invades medicare's home town

    PubMed Central

    Gray, C

    1998-01-01

    If Canada's medicare system has a home town it is probably Ottawa, where the system was first welded together 30 years ago. Charlotte Gray reports that there is a certain irony now that examples of private health care are sprouting up in the nations's capital. PMID:9700332

  16. Resources on Private Sector Grantsmanship. AAHE-ERIC/Higher Education Research Currents, December 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Lynn; Honan, James P.

    1981-01-01

    Information on possible sources of funds and skills that are needed for obtaining grants from private foundations and corporations is presented to aid college administrators and faculty members. Attention is directed to private sector grants to higher education, grantsmanship within the institutions, grantsmanship as faculty development,…

  17. Intra-Sectoral Diversity: A Political Economy of Thai Private Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praphamontripong, Prachayani

    2010-01-01

    Private higher education (PHE) worldwide has been a rapid development in the last several decades. The private sector will continue to grow, diversify and undoubtedly play a significant role in the political economy of higher education. Nevertheless, systematically empirical studies on the trio relationships among PHE, institutional diversity and…

  18. Private Sector Initiative Program. Documentation and Assessment of CETA Title VII Implementation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas J.

    The development and performance, through 1981, of Private Industry Councils (PICs) in 16 study sites are described and assessed in this report. (PICs were set up under Title VII of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) to serve as a hub for attracting increased private sector involvement in employment and training activities for the…

  19. Intra-Sectoral Diversity: A Political Economy of Thai Private Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praphamontripong, Prachayani

    2010-01-01

    Private higher education (PHE) worldwide has been a rapid development in the last several decades. The private sector will continue to grow, diversify and undoubtedly play a significant role in the political economy of higher education. Nevertheless, systematically empirical studies on the trio relationships among PHE, institutional diversity and…

  20. Public-Private Partnerships: The Private Sector and Innovation in Education. Policy Insight Number 142.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Anna

    1992-01-01

    Partnerships between schools and the private sector as an alternative to increased taxes and service cuts are examined in this document. The introduction provides an overview of business involvement in U.S. education. The second section describes the private provision of infrastructure and types of school-business arrangements. Examples include…

  1. Strategies for engaging the private sector in sexual and reproductive health: how effective are they?

    PubMed

    Peters, David H; Mirchandani, Gita G; Hansen, Peter M

    2004-10-01

    The private health sector provides a significant portion of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services in developing countries. Yet little is known about which strategies for intervening with private providers can improve quality or coverage of services. We conducted a systematic review of the literature through PubMed from 1980 to 2003 to assess the effectiveness of private sector strategies for SRH services in developing countries. The strategies examined were regulating, contracting, financing, franchising, social marketing, training and collaborating. Over 700 studies were examined, though most were descriptive papers, with only 71 meeting our inclusion criteria of having a private sector strategy for one or more SRH services and the measurement of an outcome in the provider or the beneficiary. Nearly all studies (96%) had at least one positive association between SRH and the private sector strategy. About three-quarters of the studies involved training private providers, though combinations of strategies tended to give better results. Maternity services were most commonly addressed (55% of studies), followed by prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (32%). Using study design to rate the strength of evidence, we found that the evidence about effectiveness of private sector strategies on SRH services is weak. Most studies did not use comparison groups, or they relied on cross-sectional designs. Nearly all studies examined short-term effects, largely measuring changes in providers rather than changes in health status or other effects on beneficiaries. Five studies with more robust designs (randomized controlled trials) demonstrated that contraceptive use could be increased through supporting private providers, and showed cases where the knowledge and practices of private providers could be improved through training, regulation and incentives. Although tools to work with the private sector offer considerable promise, without stronger research

  2. Analysis of the research and development effort in the private sector to reduce energy consumption in irrigated agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, E.A.; Cone, B.W.

    1980-09-01

    Manufacturers of irrigation equipment perform research and development in an effort to improve or maintain their position in a very competitive market. The market forces and conditions that create the intense competition and provide incentive for invention are described. Particular emphasis is placed on the market force of increased energy costs, but the analysis is developed from the perspective that energy is but one of many inputs to agricultural production. The analysis is based upon published literature, patent activity profiles, microeconomic theory, and conversations with many representatives of the irrigation industry. The published literature provides an understanding of the historical development of irrigation technology, a description of the industry's structure, and various data, which were important for the quantitative analyses. The patent activity profiles, obtained from the US Patent Office, provided details of patent activity within the irrigation industry over the past decade. Microeconomic theory was used to estimate industry-wide research and development expenditures on energy-conserving products. The results of these analyses were then compared with the insights gained from conversations with the industry representatives.

  3. Vocational and Technical Preparation in Saudi Arabia (Manpower Development Programs Conducted by the Public and Private Sectors).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifton P.

    A serious constraint to the development of a modern and diversified industrial base in Saudi Arabia is the critical shortage of skilled manpower. To remedy this deficit, vocational and technical education programs in the country are being revised and expanded. Five secondary-level Vocational Industrial Schools have been established by the Ministry…

  4. Private sector initiatives to improve health in Africa.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Howard; Classen, Peter; Bourgeois, Shaun

    2006-01-01

    In a presentation made to the Nigerian Chapter of IHF in Lagos in September 2006, Howard Lyons described an analytical approach developed with his colleagues in PA Consulting, Peter Classen and Shaun Bourgeois, to capture large volumes of internationally available data to reflect, at a macro-economic level, the attractiveness or otherwise of African countries for investment in health care. He then reported at a micro-economic level on initiatives and business propositions developed by African health care professionals living overseas who are seeking funding to implement their schemes in their native countries. He concludes that, as a way of improving health outcomes in Africa, private sector investment should be given more serious attention with particular reference to exploiting the talents and commitment of the African diaspora.

  5. Full employment maintenance in the private sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    Operationally, full employment can be accomplished by applying modern computer capabilities, game and decision concepts, and communication feedback possibilities, rather than accepted economic tools, to the problem of assuring invariant full employment. The government must provide positive direction to individual firms concerning the net number of employees that each firm must hire or refrain from hiring to assure national full employment. To preserve free enterprise and the decision making power of the individual manager, this direction must be based on each private firm's own numerical employment projections.

  6. United States private-sector physicians and pharmaceutical contract research: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jill A; Kalbaugh, Corey A

    2012-01-01

    There have been dramatic increases over the past 20 years in the number of nonacademic, private-sector physicians who serve as principal investigators on US clinical trials sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry. However, there has been little research on the implications of these investigators' role in clinical investigation. Our objective was to study private-sector clinics involved in US pharmaceutical clinical trials to understand the contract research arrangements supporting drug development, and specifically how private-sector physicians engaged in contract research describe their professional identities. We conducted a qualitative study in 2003-2004 combining observation at 25 private-sector research organizations in the southwestern United States and 63 semi-structured interviews with physicians, research staff, and research participants at those clinics. We used grounded theory to analyze and interpret our data. The 11 private-sector physicians who participated in our study reported becoming principal investigators on industry clinical trials primarily because contract research provides an additional revenue stream. The physicians reported that they saw themselves as trial practitioners and as businesspeople rather than as scientists or researchers. Our findings suggest that in addition to having financial motivation to participate in contract research, these US private-sector physicians have a professional identity aligned with an industry-based approach to research ethics. The generalizability of these findings and whether they have changed in the intervening years should be addressed in future studies. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  7. United States Private-Sector Physicians and Pharmaceutical Contract Research: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jill A.; Kalbaugh, Corey A.

    2012-01-01

    Background There have been dramatic increases over the past 20 years in the number of nonacademic, private-sector physicians who serve as principal investigators on US clinical trials sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry. However, there has been little research on the implications of these investigators' role in clinical investigation. Our objective was to study private-sector clinics involved in US pharmaceutical clinical trials to understand the contract research arrangements supporting drug development, and specifically how private-sector physicians engaged in contract research describe their professional identities. Methods and Findings We conducted a qualitative study in 2003–2004 combining observation at 25 private-sector research organizations in the southwestern United States and 63 semi-structured interviews with physicians, research staff, and research participants at those clinics. We used grounded theory to analyze and interpret our data. The 11 private-sector physicians who participated in our study reported becoming principal investigators on industry clinical trials primarily because contract research provides an additional revenue stream. The physicians reported that they saw themselves as trial practitioners and as businesspeople rather than as scientists or researchers. Conclusions Our findings suggest that in addition to having financial motivation to participate in contract research, these US private-sector physicians have a professional identity aligned with an industry-based approach to research ethics. The generalizability of these findings and whether they have changed in the intervening years should be addressed in future studies. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. PMID:22911055

  8. Does labour epidural slow the progress of labour and lead to complications? Obstetricians’ perception working in private and public sector teaching hospitals in a developing country

    PubMed Central

    Sohaib, Muhammad; Ismail, Samina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Obstetricians play a major role in the decision making for provision of analgesia for the woman in labour. As epidural analgesia (EA) is the most preferred technique, it is important to know obstetricians' perception regarding its effect on progress of labour and associated complications. Methods: The 6 months cross-sectional study included 114 obstetricians from teaching hospitals. After informed consent, obstetricians were asked to fill a predesigned questionnaire containing 13 close ended questions regarding their perception on the effect of EA on progress of labour, EA complications and whether they would recommend EA to their patients or not. Other variables included age, gender, training in EA, practice type and hospital settings (private or public sector). Results: Majority of the obstetricians had the perception of EA prolonging the first stage (89.5%) and second stage (98.2%) of labour, increasing the rate of caesarean section (87.7%), instrumental delivery (58.8%) and increasing the incidence of backache (85.5%). None of the obstetricians received any formal training in EA. Majority (84.2%) were not sure if they would recommend EA to their patients. When these responses were compared between public and private sector, a statistically higher percentage (P < 0.001) of public sector obstetricians had negative perception of EA. Conclusion: Perception of obstetrician regarding EA is contrary to the current evidence. There is a need to introduce formal curriculum on EA in obstetric training program and conduct regular refresher courses. PMID:26903670

  9. Private-sector involvement in urban transportation. Final report, 1985-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The report documents ways to involve the private sector in the planning and implementation of highway and transit systems, and recommends procedures for improving public/private partnerships in urban transportation at the State, regional, and local levels. The report provides a broad overview of the opportunities available and briefly reviews a wide variety of techniques followed by successful applications in 20 cities across the Nation. These case studies cover the highway and transit modes and represent all major groups of private-sector participants, including local businesses and community groups, major developers and transit service providers. Six of those cases were studied in greater detail.

  10. Public and private sector interactions: an economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Maynard, A

    1986-01-01

    The debate about the public-private mix for health care has been dominated by rhetoric and the failure to evaluate the characteristics of the outcomes of public and private health care systems and to relate these to policy targets. After a brief analysis of the competing, liberal (conservative) and collectivist (socialist), objectives, the nature of the private health care sector in Britain is described and it is shown that growth has faltered due to cost containment problems. This outcome is the product of characteristics of the private health care system, paralleled precisely in the NHS: asymmetry information, monopoly power, moral hazard and third party pays. The final section discusses briefly some remedies for the inefficient and inequitable outcomes which are seen in all health care markets and it is argued that competition within public and private health care systems may enable each system type to achieve its own particular objectives more efficiently.

  11. Women Using Physics: Alternate Career Paths, The Private Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tams, Jessica

    2006-12-01

    For those who have spent their careers inside the safe walls of academia, the word is a little scary. Can I compete? Will I fit in? What do I need to know? Am I prepared? Will I succeed? While many would say: Yes! You are ready to excel! This isn’t actually the case. The private sector comes with many unanticipated shocks to many of us, especially women. This isn’t a group project. This session will discuss entering a quickly growing and competitive technical field and what one can do to prepare for continued success. Preparing and Entering the Private Sector * Women with technical skills are a desired part of the private workforcein general women posses stronger people skills, are more reliable and often more well rounded than their male counterparts. Key factors we will discuss to landing that first job: · Expand your knowledge base with current applications of technology · Preparing a solid employment pitch to highlight strengths: Overcoming stereotypes · Don’t show them your bad side: Why some student projects may hurt you · The private sector attitude toward performance and entry level expectations Excelling in the Private Sector * Now that we have landed a job * for better or worse we are now all about making money and exerting control. What to keep in mind while working in the private sector: · The formative first years: focus on your weaknesses and practice, practice, practice · Men & Women in the workplace: what women subconsciously do to hurt their careers · Politics: Working in a team environment · Polish & Detail & Reliabilit

  12. [Guidelines of the OIE (world organisation for animal health) for the organisation of Veterinary Services and their relations with private-sector partners, with particular reference to developing countries].

    PubMed

    Le Brun, Y

    2003-08-01

    Developing countries are being confronted with changes in the international rules governing trade in animal products. At the same time, state control over Veterinary Services, which has been in place for many years, is gradually giving way to private-sector involvement. In light of these developments, the International Animal Health Code (the Code), must ensure that it includes guidelines that take into account the new role of private-sector professionals. Integrating these professionals into the national networks of Veterinary Services is vital for the improvement of the services. Moreover, the situation in the field in developing countries has at times given rise to the emergence of 'alternative' methods of veterinary care, whose uncontrolled development may be an obstacle to achieving the required levels of service provision. It is recommended that countries shun apparently attractive short-term solutions, and adapt their national legislation to allow for the gradual reform of their Veterinary Services, pursuant to international standards.

  13. Private sector involvement in civil space remote sensing. Volume 1: Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A survey of private sector developers, users, and interpreters of Earth resources data was conducted in an effort to encourage private investment and participation in remote sensing systems. Results indicate positive interest in participation beyond the current hardware contracting level, however, there is a substantial gap between current market levels and system costs. Issues identified include the selection process for an operating entity, the public/private interface, data collection and access policies, price and profit regulation in a subsidized system, international participation, and the responsibility for research and development. It was agreed that the cost, complexity, and security implications of integrated systems need not be an absolute bar to their private operation.

  14. Online Tutoring and Emotional Labour in the Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: What happens when computer software is designed to replace the teacher and the human role is to service the relationship between the software and the learner? Specifically, this paper aims to consider whether or not emotional labour is performed in contexts mediated by technology in the private sector. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  15. Corporate Governance: Can Universities Learn from the Private Sector?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henze, Raphaela

    2010-01-01

    Corporate governance has several objectives: growth, transparency, leadership, social responsibility and trust, as well as the protection of shareholders and company assets. It also plays a key role in determining a company's control environment. In this article, the author takes a closer look at corporate governance in the private sector,…

  16. Information Technology Training: Practices of Leading Private Sector Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) examined private-sector workforce training practices for information technology (IT) and non-IT professionals. Data were collected from the following sources: a literature review; discussions with academic and professional authorities; interviews with executives and managers at leading companies regarding their…

  17. Corporate Governance: Can Universities Learn from the Private Sector?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henze, Raphaela

    2010-01-01

    Corporate governance has several objectives: growth, transparency, leadership, social responsibility and trust, as well as the protection of shareholders and company assets. It also plays a key role in determining a company's control environment. In this article, the author takes a closer look at corporate governance in the private sector,…

  18. Online Learning Trends in Private-Sector Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaman, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    For the past eight years, the Babson Survey Research Group has conducted surveys of higher education institutions on their attitudes, beliefs, and practices concerning online education. This current report is a new analysis of this collection of data, focusing on the role of online education among private-sector colleges and universities. For the…

  19. Casebook of Private Sector Summer Youth Employment Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westat, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This report profiles programs conducted in 19 cities during the summer of 1996 to employ youth in the private sector. In most of the programs, the youth served were disadvantaged; the programs were created or enhanced in order to replace funds that were cut under Title IIB of the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA). The report contains 20…

  20. Private Sector Views of Vocational Education: A Statewide Employer Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Thomas R.; Monthey, Wanda

    A study examined the views of private sector employers in Oregon on vocational education. During the study, researchers mailed questionnaires to a stratified random sample of 1,500 employers throughout Oregon. In addition, they surveyed another 140 employers who were identified as hiring the largest numbers of vocational education completers in…

  1. Wage Differentials Between Federal Government and Private Sector Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sharon Patricia

    This study examined the earnings and wage rate differentials between Federal government and private sector workers in 1960 and 1970 to consider the comparability of these workers and the application of the Comparability Doctrine in Federal pay policy during that period. Two types of earnings and wage rate equations were estimated by ordinary least…

  2. Online Tutoring and Emotional Labour in the Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: What happens when computer software is designed to replace the teacher and the human role is to service the relationship between the software and the learner? Specifically, this paper aims to consider whether or not emotional labour is performed in contexts mediated by technology in the private sector. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  3. Staffing Practices in the Private Sector in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to present and discuss the findings of a study of staffing practices in the Sri Lankan private sector with particular reference to junior level managerial jobs. The scope of staffing practices consisted of six major areas, namely the usage of information from job analysis in staffing, the sources of labour, selection…

  4. Staffing Practices in the Private Sector in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to present and discuss the findings of a study of staffing practices in the Sri Lankan private sector with particular reference to junior level managerial jobs. The scope of staffing practices consisted of six major areas, namely the usage of information from job analysis in staffing, the sources of labour, selection…

  5. Private health care sector investment in Brazil: opportunities and obstacles.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Reynaldo

    2003-01-01

    The Brazilian health system is based upon the constitutional right formulated in 1988, according to which health is the peoples' right and duty of the State. So being, it is essentially the government's responsibility, expressed in the so-called Sistema Unico de Saúde--SUS (single health system) Since its creation, however, it admits the existence of a supplementary health system, left to the private sector. In general terms, the public system is considered unsatisfactory in the services it renders. Its resources are distributed heterogeneously, favoring centers of advanced medical practice, to the detriment of basic health care. The supplementary system is considered of better quality, however with great variations and frequent accusations of being essentially profit driven, instead of being driven to the needs of the assisted population. The growing search for health plans is a direct consequence of the image perceived by the population regarding the quality and accessibility of the public services, as well as of the peoples' growing consciousness of their needs, rights and duties as citizens. The need for continuous quality improvement and cost reduction offers numberless opportunities for actions and investments. Initiatives to identify and implement the best medical practices, medical guidelines and actions are essential regarding those illnesses which are most frequent, of higher cost and of greater risk. Health plans and healthcare providers will necessarily have to focus on their common client. Therefore, organizations must be created in order to develop initiatives aimed to the quality of patient care, as well as to the collection and dissemination of data regarding the production and results of the main service providers. Consequently, immense opportunities are being opened for investments in the area of Information Technology, collection, analysis, and data dissemination. This paper analyses the main trends in the Brazilian health sector and from the

  6. Managed behavioral healthcare in the private sector.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, M; Riley, J

    2000-09-01

    Employers, in their search for cost containment and quality improvement, have driven the development of the behavioral health managed care vendor. More specifically, the behavioral health carve-out is an innovation that was developed to respond to employer and, more recently, health plan needs. Now that the product has matured, it is increasingly being asked to justify its existence. Costs have certainly been maintained, but improvements in quality have not always been evident. The issues the authors address include, as cost pressures continue, can the industry deliver on its promise to improve care? Will it need to evolve to yet another level, with new or different features?

  7. Occupational Opportunities in the Private Sector (OOPS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Dept. of Employment Security, Nashville.

    This curriculum guide was developed to provide high school students in Tennessee with an overview of various occupations, including educational requirements, expected labor supply and demand, wages, and job duties. In the first section, the guide describes the types of jobs in 13 career clusters: art, design, and communications; business and…

  8. Private Sector Thinking Saves Park U.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breckon, Donald; Gibb, John

    2000-01-01

    Recounts the restructuring and resulting survival of Park University (Missouri) over the last decade. A process of evaluating the university's competitive strategy resulted in changes in tuition pricing; development of the Park School of Distance Learning, which serves primarily military installations; minority student marketing; and development…

  9. Workplace Learning in Morocco: Private Sector Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, J. Ben; Al Arkoubi, Khadija

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore training and development practices in Morocco and examine them in light of international practices provided from benchmarking data. Distinctions were also made between multinationals operating in Morocco and Moroccan owned companies. Contrasts in the results are discussed with possible explanations and…

  10. Private Sector Thinking Saves Park U.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breckon, Donald; Gibb, John

    2000-01-01

    Recounts the restructuring and resulting survival of Park University (Missouri) over the last decade. A process of evaluating the university's competitive strategy resulted in changes in tuition pricing; development of the Park School of Distance Learning, which serves primarily military installations; minority student marketing; and development…

  11. Private Sector Adds to the Menu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Two school districts, Kennewick School District WA and Salem-Keizer School District OR, are leveraging their food service contractor's resources to establish work-based courses stressing sophisticated management, culinary, and life skills. Under these instructional partnerships, the contractor, cooperating with school officials, develops the…

  12. Emerging Strategies for Private-Sector Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Cristina

    This report delineates five governance strategies in U.S. corporations that have emerged over the last 20 years: (1) reform of corporate boards, which includes the role of boards and implementation approaches; (2) organizational improvement, which details employee involvement, total quality management, and reengineering; (3) developing team-based…

  13. Expanding the partnership. The private sector's role in HIV / AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    Lamptey, P

    1996-07-01

    The public sector supports most HIV/AIDS prevention and care activities in developing countries, with significant funding provided by the US Agency for International Development, the Overseas Development Authority, the European Community, and international banking institutions such as the World Bank. Local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and international private voluntary organizations (PVOs) implement many of the grassroots prevention and care efforts in developing countries, but often require support from donor agencies. While the private commercial sector has played a minor role in supporting HIV/AIDS prevention and care efforts, a number of local and multinational companies are beginning to recognize the importance of protecting their workers from HIV infection. These companies are motivated by a sense of moral obligation and/or view HIV/AIDS prevention as a cost-effective investment. Mainly affecting the most economically productive age groups, the HIV/AIDS epidemic will have a significant impact upon private industry. Workplace-based prevention programs and policies, private sector resources for HIV/AIDS prevention and care, how HIV/AIDS programs can benefit from the private sector's experience in commercial service delivery, research and development, and corporate direct cash and in-kind contributions to government and NGO HIV/AIDS prevention activities are discussed. The AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project's Businesses Managing AIDS Project helps owners and managers understand the potential impact of HIV/AIDS upon their businesses and the benefits of HIV/AIDS prevention.

  14. The USWRP Workshop on the Weather Research Needs of the Private Sector.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pielke, Roger A., Jr.; Abraham, Jim; Abrams, Elliot; Block, Jim; Carbone, Richard; Chang, David; Droegemeier, Kelvin; Emanuel, Kerry; Friday, Elbert W. Joe, Jr.; Gall, Robert; Gaynor, John; Getz, Rodger R.; Glickman, Todd; Hoggatt, Bradley; Hooke, William H.; Johnson, Edward R.; Kalnay, Eugenia; Kimpel, James Jeff; Kocin, Paul; Marler, Byron; Morss, Rebecca; Nathan, Ravi; Nelson, Steve; Pielke, Roger, Sr.; Pirone, Maria; Prater, Erwin; Qualley, Warren; Simmons, Kevin; Smith, Michael; Thomson, John; Wilson, Greg

    2003-07-01

    Private sector meteorology is a rapidly growing enterprise. It has been estimated that the provision of weather information has, by some estimates, a global market totaling in the billions of dollars. Further, the decisions based on such information could easily total trillions of dollars in the U.S. economy alone. The private sector clearly plays an important, and growing, role at the interface of weather research and the weather information needs of society. To date, little information has been paid to the connections of the meteorological research community and the scientific needs of the private sector. Thus, the time is ripe to stimulate a more active dialogue between what is generally considered the "basic" research community of physical and social scientists and those individuals and businesses that provide weather information to myriad customers across the U.S. economy. In December 2000, the U.S. Weather Research Program (supported by NSF, NOAA, NASA, and the U.S. Navy) sponsored a workshop in Palm Springs, California, to bring together weather researchers and representatives of private sector meteorology to discuss needs, wants, opportunities, and challenges and how to enhance the linkages between the two relatively detached communities. The workshop focused on developing a better understanding of the relations of research and private sector meteorology, which ultimately means a better understanding of one of the important connections of research and societal needs.

  15. Private-sector power generation in Indonesia: Opportunities and impediments

    SciTech Connect

    Palmedo, P.F.; Amin-Arsala, B.; Bagdon, M.; Eveleth, S.; Faulkner, M.

    1988-03-01

    The report assesses the potential for and implications of private power production in Indonesia and recommends government actions to further encourage private power. Background information is provided on the current state of electric power in Indonesia and experiences with private power in the United States, Turkey, and Pakistan. Three general approaches to private power production are assessed: new, large-scale power plants based on indigenous coal or natural gas; cogeneration in industry; and biomass/renewable energy systems. Technical, financial, and development aspects of each approach are discussed. Indonesia's financial and investment climate for power privatization is described. The report then proposes a framework for government actions. According to the study, private power production could be of significant benefit to Indonesia if properly managed and planned. Benefits would include an increase in the overall energy and economic efficiency of the power system; reduction in local currency and foreign exchange burdens; and accelerated rural electrification.

  16. Private health insurance: implications for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William

    2005-01-01

    Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage. PMID:15744405

  17. Private health insurance: implications for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William

    2005-02-01

    Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage.

  18. How Old Is Old? Employing Elderly Teachers in the Private Sector Schools in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhuwanthi, L. A. P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore why private sector schools in Sri Lanka employ elderly teachers (ETs). This paper used semi-structured in-depth interviews with 9 employers/principals in the private sector schools in Sri Lanka. The study found that the reasons for employing ETs in the private sector schools were shortfall of English medium…

  19. STD care in the South African private health sector.

    PubMed

    Schneider, H; Blaauw, D; Dartnall, E; Coetzee, D J; Ballard, R C

    2001-02-01

    To establish the accessibility and quality of sexually transmitted disease (STD) care provided by private general practitioners (GPs) and workplace health services in South Africa. Structured telephone interviews were conducted with a random national sample of 120 GPs and 244 occupational health nurses (OHNs) between May and July 1997. The interview schedules covered indicators of access (including utilisation) and processes (drug treatment, partner management, counselling and condom promotion) of STD care. An estimated 5 million STD-related visits were made to private general practices in 1997. Reported treatment of STDs was assessed for effectiveness using well-established syndromic case management guidelines. Only 28% of GPs reported effective treatment for urethral discharge. This dropped to 14% for genital ulcer and 4% for pelvic inflammatory disease. Fifty-five per cent of the OHNs interviewed indicated that their workplace clinics provided STD care. Nurses provided this care, with or without the support of doctors, in 87% of clinics. Reported urethral discharge and genital ulcer treatment regimens were assessed as effective in 34% and 14% of responses, respectively. The private sector is a major provider of STD care and is key to national efforts to achieve better STD control, thereby preventing the spread of HIV. However, the results of the research suggest that the poor quality of STD care may be undermining attempts to control these epidemics in our society. Although a complex task, strategies need to be found to improve the quality of care provided within the private sector.

  20. Educating the future public health workforce: do schools of public health teach students about the private sector?

    PubMed

    Rutkow, Lainie; Traub, Arielle; Howard, Rachel; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Recent surveys indicate that approximately 40% of graduates from schools of public health are employed within the private sector or have an employer charged with regulating the private sector. These data suggest that schools of public health should provide curricular opportunities for their students--the future public health workforce--to learn about the relationship between the private sector and the public's health. To identify opportunities for graduate students in schools of public health to select course work that educates them about the relationship between the private sector and public health. We systematically identified and analyzed data gathered from publicly available course titles and descriptions on the Web sites of accredited schools of public health. Data were collected in the United States. The sample consisted of accredited schools of public health. Descriptions of the number and types of courses that schools of public health offer about the private sector and identification of how course descriptions frame the private sector relative to public health. We identified 104 unique courses with content about the private sector's relationship to public health. More than 75% of accredited schools of public health offered at least 1 such course. Nearly 25% of identified courses focused exclusively on the health insurance industry. Qualitative analysis of the data revealed 5 frames used to describe the private sector, including its role as a stakeholder in the policy process. Schools of public health face a curricular gap, with relatively few course offerings that teach students about the relationship between the private sector and the public's health. By developing new courses or revising existing ones, schools of public health can expose the future public health workforce to the varied ways public health professionals interact with the private sector, and potentially influence students' career paths.

  1. Practicing Research Ethics: Private-Sector Physicians & Pharmaceutical Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on constructions of research ethics by primary care physicians in the USA as they engage in contract research for the pharmaceutical industry. Drawing first upon historical studies of physicians as investigators and then upon 12 months of qualitative fieldwork in the South Western US, this paper analyzes the shifting, contextualized ethics that shape physicians’ relationships with patients/subjects and pharmaceutical companies. Just as physicians followed professional codes of ethics prior to the codification of acceptable research conduct in the 1980s, physicians today continue to develop tacit systems of research ethics. This paper argues that private-sector physicians primarily conceptualize their ethical conduct in relation to the pharmaceutical companies hiring them, not to human subjects they enroll in clinical trials. This is not to say that these physicians do not follow the formal U.S. regulation to protect human subjects, but rather that their financial relationships with the pharmaceutical industry have a greater influence on their identities as researchers and on their constructions of their ethical responsibilities. PMID:18353515

  2. Private sector response to HIV/AIDS in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Terry, Paul E

    This study assessed HIV/AIDS prevention practices used by employers in Tanzania. The study also aimed to provide a feasibility analysis of the readiness for HIV/AIDS prevention and other employee health promotion, disease prevention and management interventions within the private sector in Tanzania and to inform emerging scientific literature on the prevalence and composition of employee health education programs in developing countries. Responses to a questionnaire were obtained via structured, face-to-face interviews during visits with company leaders at their workplaces in Tanzania. The survey was conducted from January to March of 2008. It was found that most companies (82%) offer some form of assistance for employees living with HIV/AIDS and other chronic health conditions, and most (73%) also offered HIV/AIDS prevention programs. Use of peer educators was a common feature of HIV prevention efforts. Companies commonly provided free condoms for men (64%); somewhat fewer (55%) provide female condoms. The majority of companies (72%) had a written HIV/AIDS policy. The high rates of program offerings for employees suggest that employers have adopted HIV/AIDS prevention programs, though the wide variability in program offerings indicates employers' beliefs vary concerning the impact of programs, health benefits, and policies.

  3. Regulating the for-profit private health sector: lessons from East and Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Jane E

    2015-03-01

    International evidence shows that, if poorly regulated, the private health sector may lead to distortions in the type, quantity, distribution, quality and price of health services, as well as anti-competitive behaviour. This article provides an overview of legislation governing the for-profit private health sector in East and Southern Africa. It identifies major implementation problems and suggests strategies Ministries of Health could adopt to regulate the private sector more effectively and in line with key public health objectives. This qualitative study was based on a document review of existing legislation in the region, and seven semi-structured interviews with individuals selected purposively on the basis of their experience in policymaking and legislation. Legislation was categorized according to its objectives and the level at which it operates. A thematic content analysis was conducted on interview transcripts. Most legislation focuses on controlling the entry of health professionals and organizations into the market. Most countries have not developed adequate legislation around behaviour following entry. Generally the type and quality of services provided by private practitioners and facilities are not well-regulated or monitored. Even where there is specific health insurance regulation, provisions seldom address open enrolment, community rating and comprehensive benefit packages (except in South Africa). There is minimal control of prices. Several countries are updating and improving legislation although, in most cases, this is without the benefit of an overarching policy on the private sector, or reference to wider public health objectives. Policymakers in the East and Southern African region need to embark on a programme of action to strengthen regulatory frameworks and instruments in relation to private health care provision and insurance. They should not underestimate the power of the private health sector to undermine efforts for increased

  4. Role of the private sector in vaccination service delivery in India: evidence from private-sector vaccine sales data, 2009-12.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abhishek; Kaplan, Warren A; Chokshi, Maulik; Zodpey, Sanjay P

    2016-09-01

    India's Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) provides basic vaccines free-of-cost in the public sector, yet national vaccination coverage is poor. The Government of India has urged an expanded role for the private sector to help achieve universal immunization coverage. We conducted a state-by-state analysis of the role of the private sector in vaccinating Indian children against each of the six primary childhood diseases covered under India's UIP. We analyzed IMS Health data on Indian private-sector vaccine sales, 2011 Indian Census data and national household surveys (DHS/NFHS 2005-06 and UNICEF CES 2009) to estimate the percentage of vaccinated children among the 2009-12 birth cohort who received a given vaccine in the private sector in 16 Indian states. We also analyzed the estimated private-sector vaccine shares as function of state-specific socio-economic status. Overall in 16 states, the private sector contributed 4.7% towards tuberculosis (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)), 3.5% towards measles, 2.3% towards diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT3) and 7.6% towards polio (OPV3) overall (both public and private sectors) vaccination coverage. Certain low income states (Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Assam and Bihar) have low private as well as public sector vaccination coverage. The private sector's role has been limited primarily to the high income states as opposed to these low income states where the majority of Indian children live. Urban areas with good access to the private sector and the ability to pay increases the Indian population's willingness to access private-sector vaccination services. In India, the public sector offers vaccination services to the majority of the population but the private sector should not be neglected as it could potentially improve overall vaccination coverage. The government could train and incentivize a wider range of private-sector health professionals to help deliver the vaccines, especially in the low

  5. Here's Why Public Schools Should Use Private-Sector Marketing Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, John H.

    1989-01-01

    Public school systems can adapt private sector strategies to make the most of their resources. The superintendent and the board should develop measurable objectives, agreed upon by the consumers and the producer, for delivering the product. Contracting with commercial companies can reduce costs while increasing services. (MLF)

  6. Private Sector Partnerships: Mutual Benefits for Libraries and Corporations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sager, Don, Ed.; Lynch, Sherry; Nicely, Donna; Strong, Gary E.; Youngman, Owen

    1997-01-01

    Contributors of four articles comment on the importance and benefits of effective partnerships between libraries and private business, and describe their experiences in developing cooperative programs. They also identify characteristics of successful partnerships. (AEF)

  7. Private sector participation in solid waste collection in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) by involving micro-enterprises.

    PubMed

    Tilaye, Mesfin; van Dijk, Meine Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Privatization of urban services focuses often on the involvement of foreign enterprises. This contribution deals with micro-privatization, the partial transfer of government responsibility for solid waste collection to micro-enterprises. It tries to shed light on whether the current private sector participation (PSP) of micro-enterprises in solid waste collection service is the best way to capture the expected advantages of private sector involvement. The article examines the relations of the micro-enterprises with beneficiaries and the public sector by focusing on the contract procedure, the tariff-setting process, the cost recovery mechanism and institutionalizing of market principles for micro-enterprises. The research was carried out using secondary and primary data sources. Primary data were collected through the interviewing of public sector officials at different levels, focus group discussions with community groups and micro-enterprises, and observation. A survey was conducted among 160 micro-enterprises in the city of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, using a standard questionnaire. What are some of the factors contributing to the results of PSP in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia? Policies at higher levels of government definitely produced an overall climate conducive to micro-privatization and recognized the need to develop micro-enterprises, but it is not clear what role the micro-enterprises are to play in solid waste management. New opportunities were created by formalization and taken up by communities and micro-enterprises. Coverage and waste collected both increased. The initiation and institutionalization of the formalization process was not without problems. The public sector over-stressed the autonomy of micro-enterprises. The fate of the micro-enterprises is largely determined by the reforms undertaken at local government level. The rapid changes in policies at the local level made waste-collecting micro-enterprises lose confidence and more dependent

  8. Transporting integrated primary care to the private sector: addressing the business challenges.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Ronald B; Pollard, C Alec; Niemiec, Ryan

    2013-09-01

    The primary care literature provides some useful information and several project examples for clinicians attempting to develop an integrated care practice, but prior discussion has been based largely on projects developed in government-funded or HMO systems. The current paper focuses on the business challenges of establishing an integrated care practice in a private, fee-for-service setting. Despite increasing commitment to the concept of the medical home, which embraces behavioral health care, physicians in the private sector remain cautious about proposed practice changes such as integrated care. There are additional obstacles that can impede successful implementation of integrated primary care in the private sector. The authors identify five major challenges and suggest potential strategies to address these challenges, drawing, in part, on their experience with a 4-year integrated primary care demonstration project.

  9. Patients as healthcare consumers in the public and private sectors: a qualitative study of acupuncture in the UK.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Felicity L; Barlow, Fiona; Coghlan, Beverly; Lee, Philippa; Lewith, George T

    2011-05-27

    The aim of this study was to compare patients' experiences of public and private sector healthcare, using acupuncture as an example. In the UK, acupuncture is popular with patients, is recommended in official guidelines for low back pain, and is available in both the private sector and the public sector (NHS). Consumerism was used as a theoretical framework to explore patients' experiences. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2007-8 with a purposive sample of 27 patients who had recently used acupuncture for painful conditions in the private sector and/or in the NHS. Inductive thematic analysis was used to develop themes that summarised the bulk of the data and provided insights into consumerism in NHS- and private practice-based acupuncture. Five main themes were identified: value for money and willingness to pay; free and fair access; individualised holistic care: feeling cared for; consequences of choice: empowerment and vulnerability; and "just added extras": physical environment. Patients who had received acupuncture in the private sector constructed detailed accounts of the benefits of private care. Patients who had not received acupuncture in the private sector expected minimal differences from NHS care, and those differences were seen as not integral to treatment. The private sector facilitated consumerist behaviour to a greater extent than did the NHS, but private consumers appeared to base their decisions on unreliable and incomplete information. Patients used and experienced acupuncture differently in the NHS compared to the private sector. Eight different faces of consumerist behaviour were identified, but six were dominant: consumer as chooser, consumer as pragmatist, consumer as patient, consumer as earnest explorer, consumer as victim, and consumer as citizen. The decision to use acupuncture in either the private sector or the NHS was rarely well-informed: NHS and private patients both had misconceptions about acupuncture in the

  10. Patients as healthcare consumers in the public and private sectors: a qualitative study of acupuncture in the UK

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare patients' experiences of public and private sector healthcare, using acupuncture as an example. In the UK, acupuncture is popular with patients, is recommended in official guidelines for low back pain, and is available in both the private sector and the public sector (NHS). Consumerism was used as a theoretical framework to explore patients' experiences. Methods Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2007-8 with a purposive sample of 27 patients who had recently used acupuncture for painful conditions in the private sector and/or in the NHS. Inductive thematic analysis was used to develop themes that summarised the bulk of the data and provided insights into consumerism in NHS- and private practice-based acupuncture. Results Five main themes were identified: value for money and willingness to pay; free and fair access; individualised holistic care: feeling cared for; consequences of choice: empowerment and vulnerability; and "just added extras": physical environment. Patients who had received acupuncture in the private sector constructed detailed accounts of the benefits of private care. Patients who had not received acupuncture in the private sector expected minimal differences from NHS care, and those differences were seen as not integral to treatment. The private sector facilitated consumerist behaviour to a greater extent than did the NHS, but private consumers appeared to base their decisions on unreliable and incomplete information. Conclusions Patients used and experienced acupuncture differently in the NHS compared to the private sector. Eight different faces of consumerist behaviour were identified, but six were dominant: consumer as chooser, consumer as pragmatist, consumer as patient, consumer as earnest explorer, consumer as victim, and consumer as citizen. The decision to use acupuncture in either the private sector or the NHS was rarely well-informed: NHS and private patients both had

  11. The problems and prospects of the public–private partnership in the Russian fuel and energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitenko, SM; Goosen, EV

    2017-02-01

    This article highlights some opportunities for shifting the paradigm for the development of natural resources in the Russian fuel and energy sector using public-private partnership instruments. It shows three main directions for developing public-private partnerships in the area of subsoil use and emphasizes the role of innovations in implementing the most promising projects in the fuel and energy sector of Russia.

  12. Private Sector Funding of Geoscience Societies: Can We Define Acceptability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissman, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    The stark reality is that the funding structure of professional scientific societies is evolving, and not necessarily in a positive way. In the past, publications, meetings, and membership support have provided the critical three legs in the structure. Open access will likely result in a decreased revenue stream from journal publications. Physical attendance at meetings may diminish in the future, rather than continue to grow, or even remain constant, due to diminished funding and the need to significantly reduce our carbon footprint. How will these organizations, which are so indispensable to fostering science and promoting science literacy in a far too scientifically illiterate world, survive in the future? My opinion is that, in an altruistic world, the membership, in terms of personal contributions, should provide the fiscal patch. Realistically, this is unlikely; thus private sector sources are increasingly looked upon as new targets for support. That said, several geoscience societies have been receiving modest, yet important, levels of support from the private sector (e.g., major and independent oil and gas as well as base and precious metal mining companies) for years, if not decades. One would like to think that the key reason for such support is an endorsement of the role that societies play in student education and professional development—thus preparing a much needed potential workforce as well-rounded, competent, and long-term employees. Such support should be completely unrestricted and, under normal circumstances, the acceptance of such support is justified. However, dissenting viewpoints by fractions of the membership should be welcomed and offer further dialogue concerning specific private sector support. A genuine test of any relationship between the private sector and a professional society is just how supportive the funding source is specific position statements or similar authoritative documents prepared by the society for general use. AGU

  13. Public-Private Partnerships in China’s Urban Water Sector

    PubMed Central

    Mol, Arthur P. J.; Fu, Tao

    2008-01-01

    During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management and governance in which the private sector is involved. It is premature to conclude whether the various forms of private sector involvement will successfully overcome the major problems (capital shortage, inefficient operation, and service quality) in China’s water sector. But at the same time, private sector involvement in water provisioning and waste water treatments seems to have become mainstream in transitional China. PMID:18256780

  14. Metric conversion: Future progress depends upon private sector and public support. Report to Congressional requesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-01-01

    In reviewing federal metric conversion (metrication) activities, the General Accounting Office (GAO) evaluated federal agency activities in (1) establishing metric guidelines and preparing reports on the transition, (2) using the metric system in procurements, (3) using the metric system in grants and other business activities, and (4) dealing with private sector and public attitudes toward conversion. Since 1990, federal preparations for metric conversion have advanced dramatically, with more than 30 agencies having developed some combination of guidelines, transition plans, and progress reports that indicate a substantially greater commitment to metrication. However, they are still facing serious difficulties in putting their plans into practice. These difficulties include a procurement environment in which most products are nonmetric and in which federal agencies represent too small a share of the total market to stimulate private sector conversion. Mixed progress has been made toward metric conversion in the areas of federal grants and other business activities. Grants for research require the use of the metric system, but such a commitment has not been made for grants in other areas, such as housing and education. Agencies that undertake other business-related activities, such as federal programs involving farmers or highway signs, are concerned about private sector and public resistance to conversion. Now that most agencies have made significant progress in preparing for metric conversion, a broader national dialogue between the government, the private sector, and the public is needed to discuss the next steps in decision-making about metric conversion.

  15. Physiotherapy practice in the private sector: organizational characteristics and models.

    PubMed

    Perreault, Kadija; Dionne, Clermont E; Rossignol, Michel; Poitras, Stéphane; Morin, Diane

    2014-08-29

    Even if a large proportion of physiotherapists work in the private sector worldwide, very little is known of the organizations within which they practice. Such knowledge is important to help understand contexts of practice and how they influence the quality of services and patient outcomes. The purpose of this study was to: 1) describe characteristics of organizations where physiotherapists practice in the private sector, and 2) explore the existence of a taxonomy of organizational models. This was a cross-sectional quantitative survey of 236 randomly-selected physiotherapists. Participants completed a purpose-designed questionnaire online or by telephone, covering organizational vision, resources, structures and practices. Organizational characteristics were analyzed descriptively, while organizational models were identified by multiple correspondence analyses. Most organizations were for-profit (93.2%), located in urban areas (91.5%), and within buildings containing multiple businesses/organizations (76.7%). The majority included multiple providers (89.8%) from diverse professions, mainly physiotherapy assistants (68.7%), massage therapists (67.3%) and osteopaths (50.2%). Four organizational models were identified: 1) solo practice, 2) middle-scale multiprovider, 3) large-scale multiprovider and 4) mixed. The results of this study provide a detailed description of the organizations where physiotherapists practice, and highlight the importance of human resources in differentiating organizational models. Further research examining the influences of these organizational characteristics and models on outcomes such as physiotherapists' professional practices and patient outcomes are needed.

  16. Private Development of University Land Invitations to Submit Development Proposals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, William, Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Rutgers has entered the development business by leasing land to the private sector for a term sufficient to generate investment interest, but short enough to guarantee the use of the land by future generations of the University. The developer selection process and the review and approval process are reported. (JMD)

  17. Job Satisfaction and Burnout among Greek Early Educators: A Comparison between Public and Private Sector Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Grammatikopoulos, Vasilios

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine perceived levels of burnout and job satisfaction of Greek early educators, across public and private sector. One hundred and seventy eight childhood educators participated in the study. 108 were working in the public sector, 67 in private sector, whereas three did not respond. Participants were…

  18. Private sector, human resources and health franchising in Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Prata, Ndola; Montagu, Dominic; Jefferys, Emma

    2005-01-01

    In much of the developing world, private health care providers and pharmacies are the most important sources of medicine and medical care and yet these providers are frequently not considered in planning for public health. This paper presents the available evidence, by socioeconomic status, on which strata of society benefit from publicly provided care and which strata use private health care. Using data from The World Bank's Health Nutrition and Population Poverty Thematic Reports on 22 countries in Africa, an assessment was made of the use of public and private health services, by asset quintile groups, for treatment of diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections, proxies for publicly subsidized services. The evidence and theory on using franchise networks to supplement government programmes in the delivery of public health services was assessed. Examples from health franchises in Africa and Asia are provided to illustrate the potential for franchise systems to leverage private providers and so increase delivery-point availability for public-benefit services. We argue that based on the established demand for private medical services in Africa, these providers should be included in future planning on human resources for public health. Having explored the range of systems that have been tested for working with private providers, from contracting to vouchers to behavioural change and provider education, we conclude that franchising has the greatest potential for integration into large-scale programmes in Africa to address critical illnesses of public health importance. PMID:15868018

  19. Private sector, human resources and health franchising in Africa.

    PubMed

    Prata, Ndola; Montagu, Dominic; Jefferys, Emma

    2005-04-01

    In much of the developing world, private health care providers and pharmacies are the most important sources of medicine and medical care and yet these providers are frequently not considered in planning for public health. This paper presents the available evidence, by socioeconomic status, on which strata of society benefit from publicly provided care and which strata use private health care. Using data from The World Bank's Health Nutrition and Population Poverty Thematic Reports on 22 countries in Africa, an assessment was made of the use of public and private health services, by asset quintile groups, for treatment of diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections, proxies for publicly subsidized services. The evidence and theory on using franchise networks to supplement government programmes in the delivery of public health services was assessed. Examples from health franchises in Africa and Asia are provided to illustrate the potential for franchise systems to leverage private providers and so increase delivery-point availability for public-benefit services. We argue that based on the established demand for private medical services in Africa, these providers should be included in future planning on human resources for public health. Having explored the range of systems that have been tested for working with private providers, from contracting to vouchers to behavioural change and provider education, we conclude that franchising has the greatest potential for integration into large-scale programmes in Africa to address critical illnesses of public health importance.

  20. Lessons from the private sector on performance-based management

    SciTech Connect

    Stoeckle, K.E.; Kolster, W.G.; Shangraw, R.F.

    1996-03-01

    Implementation of the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (GPRA) has provided a unique challenge for Federal Agencies, such as the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Waste Management (OWM). While performance measurement, as required by GPRA, is new to Federal Agencies, private industry has applied it at all organizational levels to better manage their operations for some time. There has been significant discussion about how the private sector uses performance measures, but there have been very few empirical studies systematically examining their use. To gather information on comparable private industry practices, waste management industry firms were surveyed through questionnaires and follow-on interviews. Questionnaires were sent to 75 waste management firms throughout the United States and Canada. Twenty-four percent of the firms responded to the questionnaire and participated in the follow-on interviews. The questionnaires were typically completed by vice-presidents or senior financial officers. Information collected from the questionnaire and follow-on interviews provided valuable insight into industry practices in the area of performance measurement. This paper discusses the study results and how they can be incorporated in the DOE OWM performance measures and influence the character of the ``critical few`` metrics used by senior DOE managers.

  1. Privatization of power sector in India -- an open invitation to foreign investors

    SciTech Connect

    Naikwadi, K.C.

    1998-12-31

    Power Sector in India is governed by Indian Electricity Act 1910 and Electricity (supply) act 1948. As per these Acts, Public Sector Power Utilities were established in 1948 which controlled power generation, transmission and distribution. Gradually the demand for electricity became too enormous and the Public Sector Power Utilities could not cope with the demand. Hence a need was felt for private participation in the Indian Power Sector. The present paper explains the provisions of amendments to Electricity Acts; broad features of the policy on private power development; status of implementation of private power policy; reserve bank of India notification regarding 100% foreign investment; depreciation norms; tariff negotiations; policy for renovation and modernization of existing stations; liquid fuel policy; procedure for obtaining CEA clearance; list of clearances to be obtained; policy for barge mounted stations and procedure for competitive bidding. Further the latest Indian Electricity Acts are compared with the US code of Federal Regulations, Title 10-Energy. The similarities are highlighted and the differences are explained, so that the Foreign Investors can have a total exposure for investment in Indian Power Sector.

  2. Public Disorder, Private Boons? Inter-Sectoral Dynamics Illustrated by the Kenyan Case. PROPHE Working Paper Series. WP No. 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otieno, Wycliffe; Levy, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Within and beyond Africa, it is the public sector much more than the private sector that is the scene of strikes and other forms of disorder, conflict and difficulty. Yet the private sector can be much affected by the public problems. Effects may be simultaneously positive for the private sector and deleterious for the public sector. Although a…

  3. Systematic literature review of integrated community case management and the private sector in Africa: Relevant experiences and potential next steps

    PubMed Central

    Awor, Phyllis; Miller, Jane; Peterson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite substantial investments made over the past 40 years in low income countries, governments cannot be viewed as the principal health care provider in many countries. Evidence on the role of the private sector in the delivery of health services is becoming increasingly available. In this study, we set out to determine the extent to which the private sector has been utilized in providing integrated care for sick children under 5 years of age with community–acquired malaria, pneumonia or diarrhoea. Methods We reviewed the published literature for integrated community case management (iCCM) related experiences within both the public and private sector. We searched PubMed and Google/Google Scholar for all relevant literature until July 2014. The search terms used were “malaria”, “pneumonia”, “diarrhoea”, “private sector” and “community case management”. Results A total of 383 articles referred to malaria, pneumonia or diarrhoea in the private sector. The large majority of these studies (290) were only malaria related. Most of the iCCM–related studies evaluated introduction of only malaria drugs and/or diagnostics into the private sector. Only one study evaluated the introduction of drugs and diagnostics for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea in the private sector. In contrast, most iCCM–related studies in the public sector directly reported on community case management of 2 or more of the illnesses. Conclusions While the private sector is an important source of care for children in low income countries, little has been done to harness the potential of this sector in improving access to care for non–malaria–associated fever in children within the community. It would be logical for iCCM programs to expand their activities to include the private sector to achieve higher population coverage. An implementation research agenda for private sector integrated care of febrile childhood illness needs to be developed and implemented in

  4. 77 FR 41204 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... the committee meeting of the State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee. To discuss the matters relating to the Classified National Security Information Program for State, Local... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office State, Local, Tribal, and Private...

  5. Technical progress report. Private sector initiatives between the United States and Japan. January 1989 - December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1990-02-01

    This annual report for calendar year 1989 describes the efforts performed under the Private Sector Initiatives contract. The report also describes those efforts that have continued with private funding after being initiated under this contract.

  6. Technical progress report. Private sector initiatives between the United States and Japan. January 1990 - December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    OAK A271 This annual report for calendar year 1990 describes the efforts performed under the Private Sector Initiatives contract. The report also describes those efforts that have continued with private funding after being initiated under this contract.

  7. Technical progress report. Private sector initiatives between the United States and Japan. January 1991 - December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    This annual report for calendar year 1991 describes the efforts performed under the Private Sector Initiatives contract. The report also describes those efforts that have continued with private funding after being initiated under this contract.

  8. Participation of the Private Sector in the Provision of Early Childhood Care, Development, and Education: Issues, Challenges, and Way Forward in Nigeria's Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthew, Ige Akindele

    2015-01-01

    While all children have a right to quality care and education in their early years, how to secure that right, especially in resource-limited contexts, is the subject of much debate. For some nations, private schools can seem like a good option, requiring few federal resources. However, the privatization of early education presents significant…

  9. Participation of the Private Sector in the Provision of Early Childhood Care, Development, and Education: Issues, Challenges, and Way Forward in Nigeria's Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthew, Ige Akindele

    2015-01-01

    While all children have a right to quality care and education in their early years, how to secure that right, especially in resource-limited contexts, is the subject of much debate. For some nations, private schools can seem like a good option, requiring few federal resources. However, the privatization of early education presents significant…

  10. Healthy firms: constraints to growth among private health sector facilities in Ghana and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Burger, Nicholas E; Kopf, Daniel; Spreng, Connor P; Yoong, Joanne; Sood, Neeraj

    2012-01-01

    Health outcomes in developing countries continue to lag the developed world, and many countries are not on target to meet the Millennium Development Goals. The private health sector provides much of the care in many developing countries (e.g., approximately 50 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa), but private providers are often poorly integrated into the health system. Efforts to improve health systems performance will need to include the private sector and increase its contributions to national health goals. However, the literature on constraints private health care providers face is limited. We analyze data from a survey of private health facilities in Kenya and Ghana to evaluate growth constraints facing private providers. A significant portion of facilities (Ghana: 62 percent; Kenya: 40 percent) report limited access to finance as the most significant barrier they face; only a small minority of facilities report using formal credit institutions to finance day to day operations (Ghana: 6 percent; Kenya: 11 percent). Other important barriers include corruption, crime, limited demand for goods and services, and poor public infrastructure. Most facilities have paper-based rather than electronic systems for patient records (Ghana: 30 percent; Kenya: 22 percent), accounting (Ghana: 45 percent; Kenya: 27 percent), and inventory control (Ghana: 41 percent; Kenya: 24 percent). A majority of clinics in both countries report undertaking activities to improve provider skills and to monitor the level and quality of care they provide. However, only a minority of pharmacies report undertaking such activities. The results suggest that improved access to finance and improving business processes especially among pharmacies would support improved contributions by private health facilities. These strategies might be complementary if providers are more able to take advantage of increased access to finance when they have the business processes in place for operating a successful business

  11. Healthy Firms: Constraints to Growth among Private Health Sector Facilities in Ghana and Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Nicholas E.; Kopf, Daniel; Spreng, Connor P.; Yoong, Joanne; Sood, Neeraj

    2012-01-01

    Background Health outcomes in developing countries continue to lag the developed world, and many countries are not on target to meet the Millennium Development Goals. The private health sector provides much of the care in many developing countries (e.g., approximately 50 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa), but private providers are often poorly integrated into the health system. Efforts to improve health systems performance will need to include the private sector and increase its contributions to national health goals. However, the literature on constraints private health care providers face is limited. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyze data from a survey of private health facilities in Kenya and Ghana to evaluate growth constraints facing private providers. A significant portion of facilities (Ghana: 62 percent; Kenya: 40 percent) report limited access to finance as the most significant barrier they face; only a small minority of facilities report using formal credit institutions to finance day to day operations (Ghana: 6 percent; Kenya: 11 percent). Other important barriers include corruption, crime, limited demand for goods and services, and poor public infrastructure. Most facilities have paper-based rather than electronic systems for patient records (Ghana: 30 percent; Kenya: 22 percent), accounting (Ghana: 45 percent; Kenya: 27 percent), and inventory control (Ghana: 41 percent; Kenya: 24 percent). A majority of clinics in both countries report undertaking activities to improve provider skills and to monitor the level and quality of care they provide. However, only a minority of pharmacies report undertaking such activities. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that improved access to finance and improving business processes especially among pharmacies would support improved contributions by private health facilities. These strategies might be complementary if providers are more able to take advantage of increased access to finance when they have

  12. Managerial competencies of hospital managers in South Africa: a survey of managers in the public and private sectors

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Rubin

    2008-01-01

    Background South Africa has large public and private sectors and there is a common perception that public sector hospitals are inefficient and ineffective while the privately owned and managed hospitals provide superior care and are more sustainable. The underlying assumption is that there is a potential gap in management capacity between the two sectors. This study aims to ascertain the skills and competency levels of hospital managers in South Africa and to determine whether there are any significant differences in competency levels between managers in the different sectors. Methods A survey using a self administered questionnaire was conducted among hospital managers in South Africa. Respondents were asked to rate their proficiency with seven key functions that they perform. These included delivery of health care, planning, organizing, leading, controlling, legal and ethical, and self-management. Ratings were based on a five point Likert scale ranging from very low skill level to very high skill level. Results The results show that managers in the private sector perceived themselves to be significantly more competent than their public sector colleagues in most of the management facets. Public sector managers were also more likely than their private sector colleagues to report that they required further development and training. Conclusion The findings confirm our supposition that there is a lack of management capacity within the public sector in South Africa and that there is a significant gap between private and public sectors. It provides evidence that there is a great need for further development of managers, especially those in the public sector. The onus is therefore on administrators and those responsible for management education and training to identify managers in need of development and to make available training that is contextually relevant in terms of design and delivery. PMID:18257936

  13. Managerial competencies of hospital managers in South Africa: a survey of managers in the public and private sectors.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Rubin

    2008-02-08

    South Africa has large public and private sectors and there is a common perception that public sector hospitals are inefficient and ineffective while the privately owned and managed hospitals provide superior care and are more sustainable. The underlying assumption is that there is a potential gap in management capacity between the two sectors. This study aims to ascertain the skills and competency levels of hospital managers in South Africa and to determine whether there are any significant differences in competency levels between managers in the different sectors. A survey using a self administered questionnaire was conducted among hospital managers in South Africa. Respondents were asked to rate their proficiency with seven key functions that they perform. These included delivery of health care, planning, organizing, leading, controlling, legal and ethical, and self-management. Ratings were based on a five point Likert scale ranging from very low skill level to very high skill level. The results show that managers in the private sector perceived themselves to be significantly more competent than their public sector colleagues in most of the management facets. Public sector managers were also more likely than their private sector colleagues to report that they required further development and training. The findings confirm our supposition that there is a lack of management capacity within the public sector in South Africa and that there is a significant gap between private and public sectors. It provides evidence that there is a great need for further development of managers, especially those in the public sector. The onus is therefore on administrators and those responsible for management education and training to identify managers in need of development and to make available training that is contextually relevant in terms of design and delivery.

  14. Performance of private sector health care: implications for universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Rosemary; Ensor, Tim; Waters, Hugh

    2016-08-06

    Although the private sector is an important health-care provider in many low-income and middle-income countries, its role in progress towards universal health coverage varies. Studies of the performance of the private sector have focused on three main dimensions: quality, equity of access, and efficiency. The characteristics of patients, the structures of both the public and private sectors, and the regulation of the sector influence the types of health services delivered, and outcomes. Combined with characteristics of private providers-including their size, objectives, and technical competence-the interaction of these factors affects how the sector performs in different contexts. Changing the performance of the private sector will require interventions that target the sector as a whole, rather than individual providers alone. In particular, the performance of the private sector seems to be intrinsically linked to the structure and performance of the public sector, which suggests that deriving population benefit from the private health-care sector requires a regulatory response focused on the health-care sector as a whole. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Building the Future: Summary of Four Studies to Develop the Private Sector, Education, Health Care, and Data for Decisionmaking for the Kurdistan Region - Iraq (with Arabic-language version).

    PubMed

    Anthony, C Ross; Hansen, Michael L; Kumar, Krishna B; Shatz, Howard J; Vernez, Georges

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) asked the RAND Corporation to undertake four studies aimed at improving the economic and social development of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. RAND's work was intended to help the KRG expand access to high-quality education and health care, increase private-sector development and employment for the expanding labor force, and design a data-collection system to support high-priority policies. The studies were carried out over the year beginning February 2010. The RAND teams worked closely with the Ministries of Planning, Education, and Health to develop targeted solutions to the critical issues faced by the KRG. This article summarizes the health care study. It is intended to provide a high-level overview of the approaches, followed by the studies, key findings, and major recommendations.

  16. Government stewardship of the for-profit private health sector in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Sayedi, Omarzaman; Irani, Laili; Archer, Lauren C.; Sears, Kathleen; Sharma, Suneeta

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Since 2003, Afghanistan's largely unregulated for-profit private health sector has grown at a rapid pace. In 2008, the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) launched a long-term stewardship initiative to oversee and regulate private providers and align the sector with national health goals. Aim: We examine the progress the MoPH has made towards more effective stewardship, consider the challenges and assess the early impacts on for-profit performance. Methods: We reviewed publicly available documents, publications and the grey literature to analyse the development, adoption and implementation of strategies, policies and regulations. We carried out a series of key informant/participant interviews, organizational capacity assessments and analyses of hospital standards checklists. Using a literature review of health systems strengthening, we proposed an Afghan-specific definition of six key stewardship functions to assess progress towards MoPH stewardship objectives. Results: The MoPH and its partners have achieved positive results in strengthening its private sector stewardship functions especially in generating actionable intelligence and establishing strategic policy directions, administrative structures and a legal and regulatory framework. Progress has also been made on improving accountability and transparency, building partnerships and applying minimum required standards to private hospitals. Procedural and operational issues still need resolution and the MoPH is establishing mechanisms for resolving them. Conclusions: The MoPH stewardship initiative is notable for its achievements to date under challenging circumstances. Its success is due to the focus on developing a solid policy framework and building institutions and systems aimed at ensuring higher quality private services, and a rational long-term and sustainable role for the private sector. Although the MoPH stewardship initiative is still at an early stage, the evidence suggests that

  17. Performance reporting for consumers: issues for the Australian private hospital sector.

    PubMed

    Sheahan, Margo; Little, Russ; Leggat, Sandra G

    2007-05-30

    A group of consumers of private hospital services and their carers collaborated with staff of a Melbourne private hospital and with industry representatives to develop a consumer-driven performance report on cardiac services. During the development process participating consumers identified situational and structural barriers to their right to be informed of costs, to choice and to quality care. Their growing appreciation of these barriers led them to a different perspective on performance reporting, which resulted in their redirecting the project. The consumer participants no longer wanted a performance report that provided comparative quantitative data. Instead they designed a report that outlined the structures, systems and processes the hospital had in place to address the quality and safety of services provided. In addition, consumer participants developed a decision support tool for consumers to use in navigating the private health care sector. The journey of these consumers in creating a consumer driven performance report for a private hospital service may assist those responsible for governance of Australia's health system in choosing appropriate strategies and mechanisms to enhance private hospital accountability. The situational and institutional industry barriers to choice, information and quality identified by these consumers need to be addressed before public performance reporting for private hospitals is introduced in Australia.

  18. Cybersecurity Information Sharing Between Public Private Sector Agencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    inhibit public - private cooperation, and to evaluate the effectiveness of public - private partnerships (PPPs) to advance cyber infonnation sharing, this... private cooperation, and to evaluate the effectiveness of public - private partnerships (PPPs) to advance cyber information sharing, this thesis examines...26  D.  DHS RESPONSE TO EO REQUIREMENT 8 ...........................................26  III.  PUBLIC - PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN

  19. The effect of increased private sector involvement in solid waste collection in five cities in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Oduro-Kwarteng, Sampson; van Dijk, Meine Pieter

    2013-10-01

    Private sector involvement in solid waste management in developing countries has increased, but the effect is not always clear. This study assesses how it has been organized in five cities in Ghana, what has been its effect and what lessons for private sector development in developing countries can be drawn. Data were collected from 25 private companies and a sample of 1200 households. More than 60% of solid waste in Ghanaian cities is now collected by private enterprises. Sometimes, and increasingly, competitive bidding takes place, although sometimes no bidding is organized leading to rendering of this service and no contract being signed. Local governments and local solid waste companies have not changed to more customer-oriented delivery because of the slow pace of charging users and the resulting low rate of cost recovery. The participation of the population has been limited, which contributes to low cost recovery. However, a gradual better functioning of the system put in place is shown. We observed an increasing use of competitive bidding, signing of contracts and city-wide user charging.

  20. The quality of outpatient primary care in public and private sectors in Sri Lanka--how well do patient perceptions match reality and what are the implications?

    PubMed

    Rannan-Eliya, Ravindra P; Wijemanne, Nilmini; Liyanage, Isuru K; Jayanthan, Janaki; Dalpatadu, Shanti; Amarasinghe, Sarasi; Anuranga, Chamara

    2015-03-01

    To compare the quality of clinical care and patient satisfaction in public and private outpatient primary care services in Sri Lanka. A prospective, cross-sectional comparison was done by direct observation of patient encounters and exit interviews of outpatients in 10 public hospital general outpatient clinics and 66 private practitioner clinics in three districts of Sri Lanka. A total of 1027 public sector patients and 944 private sector patients were surveyed. Data were collected for 39 quality indicators covering diarrhoea, cough, hypertension, diabetes, asthma, upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and five other conditions, along with prescribing indicators. The exit interviews collected data for 10 patient satisfaction indicators. The public sector performed better for some conditions (diarrhoea, cough and asthma) and the private sector performed better for others (hypertension, diabetes, URTI and tonsillitis). Overall quality was similar between the sectors in the domains of history taking, examination and investigations and management, but the private sector performed much better on patient education (57 vs 12%). Overall patient satisfaction was high in both sectors (98%), although the private sector performed much better in interpersonal satisfaction (94 vs 84%) and system-related indicators (95 vs 84%). Comparisons with studies from other countries suggest that both sectors perform considerably better than India, and similarly in many indicators to high-income countries. Quality of outpatient primary care in Sri Lanka is generally high for a lower-middle income developing country. The public and private sectors perform similarly, except that private sector patients have longer consultations, are more likely to receive education and advice, and obtain better interpersonal satisfaction. The public system, with its limited funding, is able to deliver care in diagnosis and management that is similar to the private sector, while private sector patients

  1. Gender Differences in Pay among Recent Graduates: Private Sector Employees in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Helen; Smyth, Emer; O'Connell, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we seek to investigate the role of different factors in accounting for the differences in earnings among recent graduates working in the private sector in Ireland. Three years after graduation there is a pay gap of 8 per cent in hourly wages between male and female graduates in the private sector and a 4 per cent non-significant gap…

  2. An Investigation of Conflict Management in Public and Private Sector Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Din, Siraj ud; Khan, Bakhtiar; Rehman, Rashid; Bibi, Zainab

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to gain an insight into the conflict management in public and private sector universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. To achieve the earlier mentioned purpose, survey method was used with the help of questionnaire. In this research, impact of university type (public and private sector) was examined on the conflict…

  3. Enhancing Emergency Preparedness and Response: Partnering with the Private Business Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited ENHANCING EMERGENCY...PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE: PARTNERING WITH THE PRIVATE BUSINESS SECTOR by Bonnie L. Regan December 2009 Thesis Advisor: John Rollins...Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Enhancing Emergency Preparedness and Response: Partnering with the Private Business Sector 5. FUNDING

  4. Private Sector Training of the Economically Disadvantaged: Key Elements of Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keppler, Mark; Juelich, Mike

    This study analyzes private sector training programs that benefit economically disadvantaged (CETA-eligible) persons. Information on ten private sector training programs in seven states (Iowa, Florida, Maryland, California, Kansas, Mississippi, and New York) collected from a mailed eleven-page questionnaire, a follow-up telephone interview, and…

  5. Preparing Rehabilitation Counselors for Private Sector Practice within a CORE Accredited Generalist Educational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanskas, Stephen; Leahy, Michael

    2007-01-01

    As private sector rehabilitation has matured as a field of practice, the issue of how rehabilitation counselor educators can effectively prepare rehabilitation counselors for practice in this setting remains. This article reviews the literature regarding the training needs of rehabilitation counselors entering private sector practice, and proposes…

  6. Stereosat: A proposed private sector/government joint venture in remote sensing from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anglin, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Stereosat, a free flying Sun synchronous satellite whose purpose is to obtain worldwide cloud-free stereoscopic images of the Earth's land masses, is proposed as a joint private sector/government venture. A number of potential organization models are identified. The legal, economic, and institutional issues which could impact the continuum of potential joint private sector/government institutional structures are examined.

  7. System Expertise Training Courses in Private Sector: Can They Be Given Online?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balci Demirci, Birim

    2014-01-01

    It is widely known that there are many schools in the private sector offering courses in Computer Technology, Computer Engineering, Information Systems and similar disciplines in addition to Universities presenting such courses. The private sector programs are extremely popular with students already studying at university as well as being of great…

  8. Preparing Rehabilitation Counselors for Private Sector Practice within a CORE Accredited Generalist Educational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanskas, Stephen; Leahy, Michael

    2007-01-01

    As private sector rehabilitation has matured as a field of practice, the issue of how rehabilitation counselor educators can effectively prepare rehabilitation counselors for practice in this setting remains. This article reviews the literature regarding the training needs of rehabilitation counselors entering private sector practice, and proposes…

  9. Are PhDs Winners or Losers? Wage Premiums for Doctoral Degrees in Private Sector Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Heidi Skovgaard

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers expect increasing numbers of PhDs to find employment in the private sector. However, the incentive structure for completing a PhD and subsequently seeking private sector employment has not been adequately assessed in the literature. This paper investigates the financial incentives for this career choice of recent Danish PhD…

  10. Are PhDs Winners or Losers? Wage Premiums for Doctoral Degrees in Private Sector Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Heidi Skovgaard

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers expect increasing numbers of PhDs to find employment in the private sector. However, the incentive structure for completing a PhD and subsequently seeking private sector employment has not been adequately assessed in the literature. This paper investigates the financial incentives for this career choice of recent Danish PhD…

  11. The Viability of Rural Towns: A Critical Appraisal of the Role of Public and Private Sectors in Sustainable Rural Town Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Philippa

    This paper addresses the need to sustain rural towns in Australia through private and public investments. Rural and remote areas of Australia have provided the national economy with crucial export earnings and provided governments with royalties and taxes collected on regional resources. However, government funding for upgrading infrastructures…

  12. A Directory of Training and Employment Programs in the Private Sector Emphasis: Disadvantaged Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburg, Adina

    This directory lists 117 programs sponsored by the private sector for the training and employment of disadvantaged youth. (It is the first in a series of program guides to be issued regularly by the Public/Private Ventures' Resource Center.) Programs had to meet two criteria to be included: (1) they involved participation of the private sector…

  13. WARF's stem cell patents and tensions between public and private sector approaches to research.

    PubMed

    Golden, John M

    2010-01-01

    While society debates whether and how to use public funds to support work on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), many scientific groups and businesses debate a different question - the extent to which patents that cover such stem cells should be permitted to limit or to tax their research. The Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), a non-profit foundation that manages intellectual property generated by researchers at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, owns three patents that have been at the heart of the latter controversy The story of WARF's patents and the controversy they have fostered highlights not only continuing tensions between proprietary and nonproprietary approaches to developing science and technology, but also an at least partly reassuring capacity of public and private sectors to deal with those tensions in a way that can render them substantially manageable, and frequently more manageable as a technology matures. More particularly, the cumulative story of WARF's patents features three leitmotifs that suggest how an attentive and engaged public sector might commonly succeed in working with public and private sector actors to achieve workable balances between proprietary rights and more general social interests: (1) right holders' decisions to pursue less than full rights assertion or enforcement; (2) the ability of government and other public sector actors to help bring about such decisions through co-option or pressure; and (3) the frequent availability or development of technological alternatives that limit research bottlenecks.

  14. Does the Wage Gap between Private and Public Sectors Encourage Political Corruption?

    PubMed Central

    Podobnik, Boris; Vukovic, Vuk; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2015-01-01

    We present a dynamic network model of corrupt and noncorrupt employees representing two states in the public and private sector. Corrupt employees are more connected to one another and are less willing to change their attitudes regarding corruption than noncorrupt employees. This behavior enables them to prevail and become the majority in the workforce through a first-order phase transition even though they initially represented a minority. In the model, democracy—understood as the principle of majority rule—does not create corruption, but it serves as a mechanism that preserves corruption in the long run. The motivation for our network model is a paradox that exists on the labor market. Although economic theory indicates that higher risk investments should lead to larger rewards, in many developed and developing countries workers in lower-risk public sector jobs are paid more than workers in higher-risk private sector jobs. To determine the long-run sustainability of this economic paradox, we study data from 28 EU countries and find that the public sector wage premium increases with the level of corruption. PMID:26495847

  15. Does the Wage Gap between Private and Public Sectors Encourage Political Corruption?

    PubMed

    Podobnik, Boris; Vukovic, Vuk; Stanley, H Eugene

    2015-01-01

    We present a dynamic network model of corrupt and noncorrupt employees representing two states in the public and private sector. Corrupt employees are more connected to one another and are less willing to change their attitudes regarding corruption than noncorrupt employees. This behavior enables them to prevail and become the majority in the workforce through a first-order phase transition even though they initially represented a minority. In the model, democracy-understood as the principle of majority rule-does not create corruption, but it serves as a mechanism that preserves corruption in the long run. The motivation for our network model is a paradox that exists on the labor market. Although economic theory indicates that higher risk investments should lead to larger rewards, in many developed and developing countries workers in lower-risk public sector jobs are paid more than workers in higher-risk private sector jobs. To determine the long-run sustainability of this economic paradox, we study data from 28 EU countries and find that the public sector wage premium increases with the level of corruption.

  16. Hospital safeguards capital program through private sector partnership.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J; Lungo, A; Bobrow, M

    1984-02-01

    As access to capital tightens, more hospitals are exploring the benefits of partnerships with private companies. A California hospital, burdened by the long-term debt it incurred for a medical office building, worked together with its medical staff and an outside real estate developer. By selling the building to the developer, not only was the hospital able to finance a much-needed expansion and reconstruction project, but the hospital's medical staff had an opportunity to become limited partners in the ownership of the building.

  17. Public/private sector partnership for emerging infections.

    PubMed Central

    Bond, E. C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives examples of public/private partnerships that support research, support drug development and that advance policy development, suggesting that such partnerships can advance our understanding and control of emerging infections. The investment in emerging infectious diseases from government and from industry is currently much larger than that from philanthropy. Nevertheless philanthropy, even with limited dollars, is able to play a catalytic function and provide risk capitol for innovative partnerships and could in the future play an even larger role if the value of such investment is better defined and argued to recruit additional dollars to this area. PMID:11485645

  18. Criteria for Developing a Successful Privatization Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    perception and adequate profit . :" iii BIOGRAPHICAL SKSI wEf; Thoas C. McSwain, Jr. Colonel (Sel) Thomas C. McSwain, Jr is a career Services Officer. He...the private sector in lieu of traditional governrmental financing and operation. In return, private sector entrepreneurs realize profits through long...military and DOD civilian con unity. The banks and credit unions derive normal profit through services they provide. More recently, Congressional and

  19. Valuing and Maintaining Independent Research with Private Sector Funding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinn, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    Industries have been funding important research programs in the Geosciences at universities for decades. This support has proven to be beneficial to both universities and the private sector. It is of course important that the independence of the researchers in this relationship is maintained. The relationship usually involves a common interest in understanding and solving a particular problem. Some common keys to maintaining independence have been transparency about the relationship, control of the research agenda by the researchers, and no censorship of publications. In addressing this topic, I will draw upon my experience in two programs that have been funded by industry as well as federal agencies. The 25-year-old Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change uses coupled earth system and economic models to quantify risks of climate change and assess affordable ways to evolve to low to zero emission energy in the future, and is funded by DOE and other federal agencies plus a large consortium of industries (globalchange.mit.edu). And the 38-year-old AGAGE global network that measures, and estimates emissions and lifetimes, of greenhouse and ozone-depleting gases, and is funded by NASA but was also supported in its first 6 years by a consortium of CFC manufacturing companies (agage.mit.edu).

  20. Competence Development in the Public Sector: Development, or Dismantling of Professionalism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjort, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    For more than a decade, competence development has been a key concept of modern management in both the private and the public sector, but to some extent its meaning and practice have been different in the two sectors. In the public sector in particular, competence development has been closely related to a number of other buzzwords characterizing…

  1. Roundtable discussion: what is the future role of the private sector in health?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role for the private sector in health remains subject to much debate, especially within the context of achieving universal health coverage. This roundtable discussion offers diverse perspectives from a range of stakeholders – a health funder, a representative from an implementing organization, a national-level policy-maker, and an expert working in a large multi-national company – on what the future may hold for the private sector in health. Discussion The first perspective comes from a health funder, who argues that the discussion about the future role of the private sector has been bogged down in language. He argues for a ‘both/and’ approach rather than an ‘either/or’ when it comes to talking about health service provision in low- and middle-income countries. The second perspective is offered by an implementer of health insurance in sub-Saharan Africa. The piece examines the comparative roles of public sector actors, private sector actors and funding agencies, suggesting that they must work together to mobilize domestic resources to fund and deliver health services in the longer term. Thirdly, a special advisor working in the federal government of Nigeria considers the situation in that country. He notes that the private sector plays a significant role in funding and delivering health services there, and that the government must engage the private sector or forever be left behind. Finally, a representative from a multi-national pharmaceutical corporation gives an overview of global shifts that are creating opportunities for the private sector in health markets. Summary Overall, the roundtable discussants agree that the private sector will play an important role in future health systems. But we must agree a common language, work together, and identify key issues and gaps that might be more effectively filled by the private sector. PMID:24961806

  2. Synergies between veterinarians and para-professionals in the public and private sectors: organisational and institutional relationships that facilitate the process of privatising animal health services in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Woodford, J D

    2004-04-01

    The delivery of veterinary services in most developing countries was, until recently, considered to be the responsibility of the public sector. However, over the past four decades, economic constraints and the imposition of structural adjustment policies (SAPs) have led to a gradual decline in public sector investment in real terms and thus a reduction in the quality and quantity of services available to livestock keepers. Many governments acknowledged that they were no longer able to provide services that were essentially of a 'private good' nature and introduced radical policy changes which sought to introduce the concepts of a market orientated approach towards agriculture and livestock production in particular. The role of government, in the future, would be to provide a reduced range of essential 'public good' services and to create a favourable environment in which the private sector could become established as a provider of 'private good' services and at the same time act as a partner in carrying out certain public functions under contract or 'sanitary mandates'. In almost all developing countries, however, these policy changes were not accompanied by appropriate development strategies. The reasons for this are complex. Firstly, SAPs may be considered to have been foisted upon governments by donors and are thus perceived by many policy-makers as the cause of financial problems, rather than a solution to them. Secondly, most animal health senior policy-makers in the public sector have been trained as veterinarians and lack the required management skills to plan change effectively. Furthermore, as regards clinical veterinary service delivery, especially in rural or more remote areas, the solution fostered by donor investment, which involves deregulation and the deployment of privately operating para-professionals, is often perceived as a threat to the veterinary profession and might result in limiting access to international markets for the trade of livestock

  3. Nurses' perceptions about health sector privatization in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Harmanci Seren, A K; Yildirim, A

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the perceptions of the nurses about the privatization implementation, as it pertains to privatization, health services privatization and the impact of privatization on nursing in Turkey. Turkey is taking important steps in health services privatization but the related choices made in political arena are not shared with the employees of the health institutions where the privatization implementations are to take place. The study was conducted among nurses who are working for the state health institutions and the members of professional organizations of healthcare workers, which are operating in Istanbul in Turkey. Data were collected via Nurses' Privatization Perception Scale in 2009 and were analysed using mean calculations, analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U-test, t-test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Cronbach's alpha analyses. Nurses' perceptions of privatization in general, health services privatization and the impact of privatization on nursing were found to be negative in all of the three sub-domains of the scale, as well as their perceptions of privatization implementations measured throughout the scale. The conducted comparisons showed that nurses' perceptions of the privatization implementations varied in accordance with independent variables. The privatization implementations put in place in health services are perceived negatively by nurses. Policy makers in relevant fields are recommended to take the findings of this study into consideration. © 2013 International Council of Nurses.

  4. The needs of having a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector on funding digitizing management work of historical buildings in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarudin, M. K.; Yahya, Z.; Harun, R.; Jaapar, A.

    2014-02-01

    In Malaysia, the government agencies that handle the management of historical buildings are finding themselves facing a shortage of funds to provide the necessary work on digitalising management works. Due to the rising cost of management, which also covers maintenance and infrastructure works, there is a need for a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector provision on infrastructure and management works. Therefore the government agencies need to find the suitable mechanism to encourage private sector especially the private property and developers to take part in it. This scenario has encouraged the authorities to look new ways of entering into partnership and collaboration with the private sector to secure the continuity of provision and funding. The paper first reviews the different approach to facilitate off-site local management system of historical buildings and then examines options for both private and public funding in digitalising the historical buildings management works by interviewing government officer, conservator and member of nongovernment agencies. It then explores how the current system of management may adopt the shift to avoid any vulnerability and threat to the existing historical buildings. This paper concludes with a short summary of key issues in management works of historical buildings and recommendations.

  5. Demonstrating and Deploying Private Sector Technologies at DOE Sites - Issues to be Overcome

    SciTech Connect

    Bedick, R. C.

    2002-02-27

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) continues to pursue cost-effective, environmental cleanup of the weapons complex sites with a concomitant emphasis on deployment of innovative technologies as a means to this end. The EM Office of Science and Technology (OST) pursues a strategy that entails identification of technologies that have potential applications throughout the DOE complex: at multiple DOE sites and at multiple facilities on those sites. It further encourages a competitive procurement process for the various applications entailed in the remediation of a given facility. These strategies require a competitive private-sector supplier base to help meet EM needs. OST supports technology development and deployment through investments in partnerships with private industry to enhance the acceptance of their technology products within the DOE market. Since 1992, OST and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have supported the re search and development of technology products and services offered by the private sector. During this time, NETL has managed over 140 research and development projects involving industrial and university partners. These projects involve research in a broad range of EM related topics, including deactivation and decommissioning, characterization, monitoring, sensors, waste separation, groundwater remediation, robotics, and mixed waste treatment. Successful partnerships between DOE and Industry have resulted in viable options for EM's cleanup needs, and require continued marketing efforts to ensure that these technology solutions are used at multiple DOE sites and facilities.

  6. Exploring Arkansas's Private Education Sector. School Survey Series #6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catt, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    This report synthesizes information about Arkansas's private schools from two separate surveys conducted by the Friedman Foundation and the U.S. Department of Education (USDOE). If the Friedman Foundation survey data are representative of the state's private schools, then Arkansas's private schools have enough empty seats to increase current…

  7. Private participation in infrastructure: A risk analysis of long-term contracts in power sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceran, Nisangul

    The objective of this dissertation is to assess whether the private participation in energy sector through long term contracting, such as Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) type investments, is an efficient way of promoting efficiency in the economy. To this end; the theoretical literature on the issue is discussed, the experience of several developing countries are examined, and a BOT project, which is undertaken by the Enron company in Turkey, has been studied in depth as a case study. Different risk analysis techniques, including sensitivity and probabilistic risk analysis with the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method have been applied to assess the financial feasibility and risks of the case study project, and to shed light on the level of rent-seeking in the BOT agreements. Although data on rent seeking and corruption is difficult to obtain, the analysis of case study investment using the sensitivity and MCS method provided some information that can be used in assessing the level of rent-seeking in BOT projects. The risk analysis enabled to test the sustainability of the long-term BOT contracts through the analysis of projects financial feasibility with and without the government guarantees in the project. The approach of testing the sustainability of the project under different scenarios is helpful to understand the potential costs and contingent liabilities for the government and project's impact on a country's overall economy. The results of the risk analysis made by the MCS method for the BOT project used as the case study strongly suggest that, the BOT projects does not serve to the interest of the society and transfers substantial amount of public money to the private companies, implying severe governance problems. It is found that not only government but also private sector may be reluctant about full privatization of infrastructure due to several factors such as involvement of large sunk costs, very long time period for returns to be received, political and

  8. Regulating the private health care sector: the case of the Indian Consumer Protection Act.

    PubMed

    Bhat, R

    1996-09-01

    Private medical provision is an important constituent of health care delivery services in India. The quality of care provided by this sector is a critical issue. Professional organizations such as the Medical Council of India and local medical associations have remained ineffective in influencing the behaviour of private providers. The recent decision to bring private medical practice under the Consumer Protection Act (COPRA) 1986 is considered an important step towards regulating the private medical sector. This study surveyed the views of private providers on this legislation. They believe the COPRA will be effective in minimizing malpractice and negligent behaviour, but it does have adverse consequences such as an increase in fees charged by doctors, an increase in the prescription of medicines and diagnostics, an adverse impact on emergency care, etc. The medical associations have also argued that the introduction of COPRA is a step towards expensive, daunting and needless litigation. A number of other concerns have been raised by consumer forums which focus on the lack of standards for private practice, the uncertainty and risks of medicines, the effectiveness of the judiciary system, and the responsibility of proving negligence. How relevant are these concerns? Is the enactment of COPRA really appropriate to the medical sector? The paper argues that while this development is a welcome step, we need to comprehensively look into the various quality concerns. The effective implementation of COPRA presumes certain conditions, the most important being the availability of standards. Besides this, greater involvement of professional organizations is needed to ensure appropriate quality in private practice, since health and medical cases are very different from other goods and services. The paper discusses the results of a mailed survey and interview responses of 130 providers from the city of Ahmedabad, India. The questionnaire study was designed to assess the

  9. A protocol for developing an evaluation framework for an academic and private-sector partnership to assess the impact of major food and beverage companies' investments in community health in the United States.

    PubMed

    Huang, Terry T-K; Ferris, Emily; Crossley, Rachel; Guillermin, Michelle; Costa, Sergio; Cawley, John

    2015-01-01

    Public health leaders increasingly recognize the importance of multi-sector partnerships and systems approaches to address obesity. Public-private partnerships (PPP), which are joint ventures between government agencies and private sector entities, may help facilitate this process, but need to be delivered through comprehensive, transparent frameworks to maximize potential benefits and minimize potential risks for all partners. The City University of New York (CUNY) School of Public Health and the Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation (HWCF) propose to engage in a unique academic-private-sector research partnership to evaluate the impact and effectiveness of the food and beverage industry's investment in obesity and hunger prevention and reduction through community-level healthful eating and active living programs. The CUNY-HWCF academic-private partnership protocol described here incorporates best practices from the literature on PPP into the partnership's design. The CUNY-HWCF partnership design demonstrates how established guidelines for partnership components will actively incorporate and promote the principles of successful PPPs identified in various research papers. These identified principles of successful PPP, including mutuality (a reciprocal relationship between entities), and equality among partners, recognition of partners' unique strengths and roles, alignment of resources and expertise toward a common cause, and coordination and delegation of responsibilities, will be embedded throughout the design of governance, management, funding, intellectual property and accountability structures. The CUNY-HWCF partnership responds to the call for increased multi-sector work in obesity prevention and control. This framework aims to promote transparency and the shared benefits of complementary expertise while minimizing shared risks and conflicts of interest. This framework serves as a template for future academic-private research partnerships.

  10. Study of energy R and D in the private sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This study supplies DOE with information pertinent to the formulation of realistic national energy research policies and facilitates cooperation between government and business in the development and commercialization of new and improved energy technologies. The study gathered information on the amount of energy-related research and development that private companies are doing, types of energy-related programs they report, and their perceptions about appropriate areas for government support. Mail questionnaires obtained data on the amount of corporate research funding in specific energy-related technology areas and the interviews gathered information on corporate energy strategies, major commercial activities, and specific research plans in four major areas - conservation, supply, energy production and transmission, and new products. (MCW)

  11. The private sector: revenue source of the 80's.

    PubMed

    York, D R

    1985-01-01

    An important and largely untapped source of revenue for community mental health centers is private business and industry. A model describes how one center is meeting the challenge of decreased government funding and budget cutbacks by offering profitable and needed services to local industry. Through the center's human resource consulting firm, Hamilton Associates, five programs are being delivered to businesses: Needs Assessment Programs, Management Training and Development Programs, Employee Assistance Programs, Health and Wellness Promotion Programs, and Selection and Appraisal Programs. The consulting firm publishes a bimonthly newsletter on human resource topics, conducts training workshops for the community, delivers regular speaking presentations to various business associations, and holds "wellness" luncheons to promote individual health. Suggestions and recommendations are given about service offerings, marketing, and development of such services.

  12. Between hype and veracity; privatization of municipal solid waste management and its impacts on the informal waste sector.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Kiran; Burton, Paul; Dedekorkut-Howes, Aysin

    2017-01-01

    The informal waste recycling sector has been an indispensable but ironically invisible part of the waste management systems in developing countries as India, often completely disregarded and overlooked by decision makers and policy frameworks. The turn towards liberalization of economy since 1991 in India opened the doors for privatization of urban services and the waste sector found favor with private companies facilitated by the local governments. In joining the privatization bandwagon, the local governments aim to create an image of a progressive city demonstrated most visibly through apt management of municipal solid waste. Resultantly, the long important stakeholder, the informal sector has been sidelined and left to face the adverse impacts of privatization. There is hardly any recognition of its contributions or any attempt to integrate it within the formal waste management systems. The study investigates the impacts of privatization on the waste pickers in waste recycling operations. Highlighting the other dimension of waste collection and management in urban India the study focuses on the waste pickers and small time informal scrap dealers and this is done by taking the case study of Amritsar city, which is an important historic centre and a metropolitan city in the state of Punjab, India. The paper develops an analytical framework, drawing from literature review to analyze the impacts. In conclusion, it supports the case for involving informal waste sector towards achieving sustainable waste management in the city. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In Taiwan, the private sector comes to the fore

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-20

    The petrochemical industry of Taiwan has played a major role in the country's development. Production value grew from $54 billion in 1990, or 32.8% of the total manufacturing sector, to $6.1 billion last year, an increase of more than 6%/year. Export value in 1990 reached $18.8 billion. Despite the need to import most of the raw materials, the industry has enjoyed healthy development due to cooperation among the upstream and downstream producers, and strong downstream processing capacity. The northern petrochemical complex is at Toufen; the southern complexes are located at Tasheh, Jenwu, and Linyuan. Until now the entire upstream industry has been in the hands of state-owned Chinese Petroleum Corp. (CPC; Taipei), which has little involvement in downstream affiliates are China Petrochemical Development Corp. (CPDC), in which it has a 76.4% stake, and China American Petrochemical Co. Ltd. (Capco), of which it owns 25%.

  14. Privatization of veterinary services in developing countries: a review.

    PubMed

    Sen, A; Chander, M

    2003-06-01

    Increasing fiscal constraints on the government, a lackadaisical performance by public sector animal health and breeding services and pressure from donor partners have prompted the governments of various developing countries to rethink the role of the public sector in the provision of veterinary services. Various countries have started to implement, or have already implemented, privatization of some veterinary services. The results are mixed. It is established that private provision alone is not optimal, and a blend of private and public sector veterinary services is required to utilize the virtues of both. The privatization process has also begun in India. Certain state governments in India are pursuing a cost recovery approach and are encouraging private practitioners to cope with the financial constraints and to deliver broad and effective animal health and breeding services. This paper considers the global aspects of the privatization of veterinary services as well as the scenario in India, so as to gain an insight into the very complex and debatable issue of privatization of veterinary services.

  15. Aviation or space policy: New challenges for the insurance sector to private human access to space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oijhuizen Galhego Rosa, Ana Cristina

    2013-12-01

    The phenomenon of private human access to space has introduced a new set of problems in the insurance sector. Orbital and suborbital space transportation will surely be unique commercial services for this new market. Discussions are under way regarding space insurance, in order to establish whether this new market ought to be regulated by aviation or space law. Alongside new definitions, infrastructures, legal frameworks and liability insurances, the insurance sector has also been introducing a new approach. In this paper, I aim to analyse some of the possibilities of new premiums, capacities, and policies (under aviation or space insurance rules), as well as the new insurance products related to vehicles, passengers and third party liability. This paper claims that a change toward new insurance regimes is crucial, due to the current stage in development of space tourism and the urgency to adapt insurance rules to support future development in this area.

  16. Intervention studies on rational use of drugs in public and private sector in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kafle, Kumud Kumar; Shrestha, Naveen; Karkee, Shiba Bahadur; Prasad, Radha Raman; Bhuju, Gajendra Bahadur; Das, Prabhakar Lal

    2005-06-01

    In developing countries, inappropriate, inefficient and ineffective use of pharmaceuticals have resulted into the poor health and medical cares for the community people. For improving the situation, various interventions have been tested and proved effective in different settings. In Nepal also, various strategies have been tested and found effective to improve the prescribing and dispensing practices. This paper has examined the process and results of different studies. The educational intervention, the training has not been effective in improving the prescribing practices but has limited effect on dispensing practices in the public sector. However, it becomes effective in improving prescribing practices if combined with a managerial intervention e.g. peer-group discussion. In private sector, training alone is effective in changing the drug recommendation practices of retailers. But none of interventions have been found to be effective in improving dispensing practices. After examining the effectiveness of different interventions, training combined with peer-group discussion is recommended for piloting in all Primary Health Care (PHC) outlets of a district to improve the prescribing practices. For improving the dispensing practices in both public and private sector, additional studies have to be carried out using different strategies.

  17. Disease Surveillance and Private Sector in the Metropolitans: A Troublesome Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Ayat; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Gholami, Jaleh; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: An effective response to health problems is completely dependent upon the capacities of the health system in providing timely and valid information to take action. This study was designed to identify various reasons from various perspectives for underreporting disease by physicians in the private sector in big cities in developing countries setting. Methods: In this qualitative study, we used focus group discussions (16 manager), and in-depth semi-structured interviews Results: Themes were classified in 6 categories: Infrastructure and legal issues, the priority of disease reporting, workflow processes, motivation and attitude, human resources and knowledge and awareness. As the main reasons of under reporting, most physicians pointed out complicacy in reporting process and inadequate attention by the public sector. Managers emphasized instituting legal incentives and penalties. Experts focused on physicians’ knowledge and expressed a need for continuing medical education programs. Conclusions: Independent interventions will have little chance of success and sustainability. Different intervention programs should consider legal issues, attitude and knowledge of physicians in the private sector, and building a simple reporting process for physicians. Intervention programs in which the reporting process offers incentives for all stakeholders can help improving and sustaining the disease reporting system. PMID:24130945

  18. 75 FR 80082 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of Establishment of a NARA Advisory Committee, Pursuant...

  19. 78 FR 75376 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTP-PAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... discuss matters relating to the Classified National Security Information Program for State, Local, Tribal... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector.... appendix 2), the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) announces a meeting of the...

  20. Prohibit, constrain, encourage, or purchase: how should we engage with the private health-care sector?

    PubMed

    Montagu, Dominic; Goodman, Catherine

    2016-08-06

    The private for-profit sector's prominence in health-care delivery, and concern about its failures to deliver social benefit, has driven a search for interventions to improve the sector's functioning. We review evidence for the effectiveness and limitations of such private sector interventions in low-income and middle-income countries. Few robust assessments are available, but some conclusions are possible. Prohibiting the private sector is very unlikely to succeed, and regulatory approaches face persistent challenges in many low-income and middle-income countries. Attention is therefore turning to interventions that encourage private providers to improve quality and coverage (while advancing their financial interests) such as social marketing, social franchising, vouchers, and contracting. However, evidence about the effect on clinical quality, coverage, equity, and cost-effectiveness is inadequate. Other challenges concern scalability and scope, indicating the limitations of such interventions as a basis for universal health coverage, though interventions can address focused problems on a restricted scale.

  1. 76 FR 41826 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration....

  2. 77 FR 76076 - Information Security Oversight Office; State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office; State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration, Information.... ADDRESSES: National Archives and Records Administration, 700 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Jefferson...

  3. 75 FR 67992 - Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program (PS-Prep Program). That notice did not... the plan. However, the notice that published on October 1, 2010 did not include a closing date for...

  4. 77 FR 36566 - National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of FY 2013 Arrangement AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Each year, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is required...

  5. 76 FR 45281 - National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of FY2012 Arrangement AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Each year, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is required...

  6. 75 FR 42766 - National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of FY2011 Arrangement AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Each year the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is required...

  7. 29 CFR Appendix C to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Interest Rates for Private-Sector Payments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lump Sum Interest Rates for Private-Sector Payments C... Appendix C to Part 4022—Lump Sum Interest Rates for Private-Sector Payments [In using this table: (1) For... (where y is an integer and 0 n 1 + n 2), interest rate i 3 shall apply from the valuation date for a...

  8. Is Satisfaction with the Acute-Care Experience Higher amongst Consumers Treated in the Private Sector? A Survey of Public and Private Sector Arthroplasty Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Justine M.; Descallar, Joseph; Grootemaat, Mechteld; Badge, Helen; Harris, Ian A.; Simpson, Grahame; Jenkin, Deanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Consumer satisfaction with the acute-care experience could reasonably be expected to be higher amongst those treated in the private sector compared to those treated in the public sector given the former relies on high-level satisfaction of its consumers and their subsequent recommendations to thrive. The primary aims of this study were to determine, in a knee or hip arthroplasty cohort, if surgery in the private sector predicts greater overall satisfaction with the acute-care experience and greater likelihood to recommend the same hospital. A secondary aim was to determine whether satisfaction across a range of service domains is also higher in the private sector. Methods A telephone survey was conducted 35 days post-surgery. The hospital cohort comprised eight public and seven private high-volume arthroplasty providers. Consumers rated overall satisfaction with care out of 100 and likeliness to recommend their hospital on a 5-point Likert scale. Additional Likert-style questions were asked covering specific service domains. Generalized estimating equation models were used to analyse overall satisfaction (dichotomised as ≥ 90 or < 90) and future recommendations for care (dichotomised as ‘definitely recommend’ or ‘other’), whilst controlling for covariates. The proportions of consumers in each sector reporting the best Likert response for each individual domain were compared using non-parametric tests. Results 457 survey respondents (n = 210 private) were included. Less patient-reported joint impairment pre-surgery [OR 1.03 (95% CI 1.01–1.05)] and absence of an acute complication (OR 2.13 95% CI 1.41–3.23) significantly predicted higher overall satisfaction. Hip arthroplasty [OR 1.84 (1.1–2.96)] and an absence of an acute complication [OR 2.31 (1.28–4.17] significantly predicted greater likelihood for recommending the hospital. The only care domains where the private out-performed the public sector were hospitality (46.7 vs 35.6%, p <0

  9. Public-private sector interactions and the demand for supplementary health insurance in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Bíró, Anikó; Hellowell, Mark

    2016-07-01

    We examine the demand for private health insurance (PHI) in the United Kingdom and relate this to changes in the supply of public and private healthcare. Using a novel collection of administrative, private sector and survey data, we re-assess the relationships between the quality and availability of public and private sector inpatient care, and the demand for PHI. We find that PHI coverage in the United Kingdom is positively related to the median of the region- and year-specific public sector waiting times. We find that PHI prevalence ceteris paribus increases with being self-employed and employed, while it decreases with having financial difficulties. In addition, we highlight the complexities of inter-sectoral relations and their impact on PHI demand. Within a region, we find that an increase in private healthcare supply is associated with a decrease in public sector waiting times, implying lower PHI demand. This may be explained by the usage of private facilities by NHS commissioners. These results have important implications for policymakers interested in the role of private healthcare supply in enhancing the availability of and equitable access to acute inpatient care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reducing Avoidable Deaths Among Veterans: Directing Private-Sector Surgical Care to High-Performance Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, William B.; West, Alan N.; Wallace, Amy E.; Lee, Richard E.; Goodman, David C.; Dimick, Justin B.; Bagian, James P.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We quantified older (65 years and older) Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients’ use of the private sector to obtain 14 surgical procedures and assessed the potential impact of directing that care to high-performance hospitals. Methods. Using a merged VHA–Medicare inpatient database for 2000 and 2001, we determined where older VHA enrollees obtained 6 cardiovascular surgeries and 8 cancer resections and whether private-sector care was obtained in high- or low-performance hospitals (based on historical performance and determined 2 years in advance of the service year). We then modeled the mortality and travel burden effect of directing private-sector care to high-performance hospitals. Results. Older veterans obtained most of their procedures in the private sector, but that care was equally distributed across high- and low-performance hospitals. Directing private-sector care to high-performance hospitals could have led to the avoidance of 376 to 584 deaths, most through improved cardiovascular care outcomes. Using historical mortality to define performance would produce better outcomes with lower travel time. Conclusions. Policy that directs older VHA enrollees’ private-sector care to high-performance hospitals promises to reduce mortality for VHA’s service population and warrants further exploration. PMID:17971543

  11. Acute appendicitis in the public and private sectors in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Yang, Estin; Cook, Colin; Kahn, Delawir

    2015-07-01

    South Africa has a low incidence of acute appendicitis, but poor outcomes. However, South African studies on appendicitis focus solely on public hospitals, neglecting those who utilize private facilities. This study aims to compare appendicitis characteristics and outcomes in public and private hospitals in South Africa. A prospective cohort study was conducted among two public and three private hospitals in the Cape Town metropole, from September 2013 to March 2014. Hospital records, operative notes, and histology results were reviewed for patients undergoing appendectomy for acute appendicitis. Patients were interviewed during their hospitalization and followed up at monthly intervals until normal function was attained. A total of 134 patients were enrolled, with 73 in the public and 61 in the private sector. Education and employment were higher among private sector patients. Public sector patients had a higher rupture rate (30.6 vs 13.2 %, p = 0.023). Times to presentation were not statistically different between the two cohorts. Public sector patients had longer hospital stays (5.3 vs 2.9 days, p = 0.036) and longer return to work times (23.0 vs 12.1 days, p < 0.0001). Although complication rates were similar, complications in public hospitals were more severe. Public sector patients in South Africa with appendicitis have higher rupture rates, worse complications, longer hospital stays, and longer recoveries than private sector patients. Patients with perforation had longer delays in presentation than patients without perforation.

  12. [Public-private partnerships (PPPs) in the health sector: global processes and national dynamics].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Celia

    2017-10-02

    This essay addresses several dimensions that promote and consolidate the growing participation by private stakeholders in the decision-making process in health, emphasizing international and domestic factors that have facilitated and sustained the persistence of the neoliberal political and ideological perspective over the course of nearly thirty years (since the 1990s). The article emphasizes the role of intergovernmental organizations in this process, highlighting public-private interactions at the global and domestic levels, with a specific focus on so-called public-private partnerships (PPPs). The working premise is that such linkages alter the power relations in policy formulation and implementation, with a predominance of private stakeholders. The article presents an overview of the development of PPPs in Europe, Latin America, and Brazil, identifying their specific origins and the simultaneity of triggering events. The text reiterates the importance of not overlooking the power of these actors in dislodging them from this political position, whether in multilateral organizations or national health systems. The aim is to emphasize the importance of more in-depth reflection on the subject, backing debates within the sector. This entire dynamic requires rethinking strategies of resistance to preserve the rights won through centuries of struggle.

  13. The Impact of Private Sector Competition on Public Schooling in Kuwait: Some Socio-Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shehab, Ali Jasem

    2010-01-01

    With the diminishing model of the welfare state, public education in Kuwait is facing the challenges of the competition of private schools, while the private sector has always struggled against the monopolistic power of the public schools that educate a broad spectrum of K-12 students. This article presents estimates of the effect of private…

  14. How Do Private Sector Schools Serve the Public Good by Fostering Inclusive Service Delivery Models?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Martin; Tichy, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Conversations about promoting educational reforms that redress educational inequities often ignore private schools as irrelevant. Yet pursuits of inclusivity in private sector schools serve the public interest. This article focuses on how the system of Catholic schools in the Archdiocese of St. Louis has been purposefully striving for 2 decades to…

  15. 76 FR 80971 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... committee meeting of the State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee. To discuss the matters relating to the Classified National Security Information Program for State, Local, Tribal, and... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office State, Local, Tribal, and Private...

  16. The Impact of Private Sector Competition on Public Schooling in Kuwait: Some Socio-Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shehab, Ali Jasem

    2010-01-01

    With the diminishing model of the welfare state, public education in Kuwait is facing the challenges of the competition of private schools, while the private sector has always struggled against the monopolistic power of the public schools that educate a broad spectrum of K-12 students. This article presents estimates of the effect of private…

  17. When the Private Sector Decamps and the Comparison Group Evaporates: What Went on Behind the Scenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronick, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    Describes what went on as a "Children's Plan" was being designed to meet the needs of children in a state with a very high juvenile incarceration rate. The state program was to be compared with a contemporaneous private sector program, but the private program was taken over by the state after two years, thus making comparison impossible. (JPS)

  18. How Do Private Sector Schools Serve the Public Good by Fostering Inclusive Service Delivery Models?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Martin; Tichy, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Conversations about promoting educational reforms that redress educational inequities often ignore private schools as irrelevant. Yet pursuits of inclusivity in private sector schools serve the public interest. This article focuses on how the system of Catholic schools in the Archdiocese of St. Louis has been purposefully striving for 2 decades to…

  19. The Medicaid School Program: An Effective Public School and Private Sector Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallett, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Privatized service delivery within Medicaid has greatly increased over the past two decades. This public program-private sector collaboration is quite common today, with a majority of Medicaid recipients receiving services in this fashion; yet controversy remains. This article focuses on just one program within Medicaid, school-based services for…

  20. Cooperation and Conflict. The Public and Private Sectors in Higher Education. AGB Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John W.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Relations between the public and private sectors of higher education are discussed. In the first chapter, John W. Gardner provides a historical perspective to the recent conflict in some states between public and private colleges and universities. In addition to discussing the pluralism and diversity that have characterized U.S. colleges and…

  1. The Medicaid School Program: An Effective Public School and Private Sector Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallett, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Privatized service delivery within Medicaid has greatly increased over the past two decades. This public program-private sector collaboration is quite common today, with a majority of Medicaid recipients receiving services in this fashion; yet controversy remains. This article focuses on just one program within Medicaid, school-based services for…

  2. Incorporating Private Sector Ideas into Military Retirement Reform: A Cash Balance Plan Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    sector retirement plans continually evolve as employment categories shift and the supporting financial environment fluctuates ( Costo , 2006). As such...contribution plans (Poterba, Venti, & Wise, 2007). Based 34 on data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics ( Costo , 2006), 32 percent of private industry...plan ( Costo , 2006). By 2013, the trend toward defined contribution participation continued with 42 percent of private industry workers participating

  3. Job satisfaction and motivation of health workers in public and private sectors: cross-sectional analysis from two Indian states

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ensuring health worker job satisfaction and motivation are important if health workers are to be retained and effectively deliver health services in many developing countries, whether they work in the public or private sector. The objectives of the paper are to identify important aspects of health worker satisfaction and motivation in two Indian states working in public and private sectors. Methods Cross-sectional surveys of 1916 public and private sector health workers in Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, India, were conducted using a standardized instrument to identify health workers' satisfaction with key work factors related to motivation. Ratings were compared with how important health workers consider these factors. Results There was high variability in the ratings for areas of satisfaction and motivation across the different practice settings, but there were also commonalities. Four groups of factors were identified, with those relating to job content and work environment viewed as the most important characteristics of the ideal job, and rated higher than a good income. In both states, public sector health workers rated "good employment benefits" as significantly more important than private sector workers, as well as a "superior who recognizes work". There were large differences in whether these factors were considered present on the job, particularly between public and private sector health workers in Uttar Pradesh, where the public sector fared consistently lower (P < 0.01). Discordance between what motivational factors health workers considered important and their perceptions of actual presence of these factors were also highest in Uttar Pradesh in the public sector, where all 17 items had greater discordance for public sector workers than for workers in the private sector (P < 0.001). Conclusion There are common areas of health worker motivation that should be considered by managers and policy makers, particularly the importance of non

  4. Accelerated reforms in healthcare financing: the need to scale up private sector participation in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ejughemre, Ufuoma John

    2014-01-01

    The health sector, a foremost service sector in Nigeria, faces a number of challenges; primarily, the persistent under-funding of the health sector by the Nigerian government as evidence reveals low allocations to the health sector and poor health system performance which are reflected in key health indices of the country.Notwithstanding, there is evidence that the private sector could be a key player in delivering health services and impacting health outcomes, including those related to healthcare financing. This underscores the need to optimize the role of private sector in complementing the government’s commitment to financing healthcare delivery and strengthening the health system in Nigeria. There are also concerns about uneven quality and affordability of private-driven health systems, which necessitates reforms aimed at regulation. Accordingly, the argument is that the benefits of leveraging the private sector in complementing the national government in healthcare financing outweigh the challenges, particularly in light of lean public resources and finite donor supports. This article, therefore, highlights the potential for the Nigerian government to scale up healthcare financing by leveraging private resources, innovations and expertise, while working to achieve the universal health coverage. PMID:24596895

  5. Surveillance of antibiotic use in the private sector in Namibia using sales and claims data.

    PubMed

    Pereko, Dawn Dineo; Lubbe, Martie S; Essack, Sabiha Y

    2016-11-24

    Antibiotics are among the most commonly used therapeutic agents for humans globally, and their use has been associated with the development of resistance. The objective of this study was to identify sources for quantifying antibiotic usage patterns and to assess such use in ambulatory patients in the private health sector of Namibia. A retrospective analysis of prescription claims data and sales data for the period 2008 to 2011 was conducted. Antibiotic use was expressed in the number of antibiotic-containing prescriptions and volume of units sold and then standardized using defined daily dose per 1,000 inhabitants per day. Antibiotic usage was highest in females (53%), in people 18-45 years of age (41%), and in Windhoek (34%). Overall, wholesale data showed higher antibiotic use than prescription claims data. However, both sources showed similar patterns of antibiotic use. Penicillins were the most used pharmacological group, with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination being the most used of the agents. Antibiotic use in the private sector of Namibia is comparable to that of high-consuming European countries such as Italy. A trend observed in this study was the decrease in the use of narrow-spectrum antibiotics in favour of broad-spectrum and newer antibiotics. Since this was the first study to assess antibiotic use in the private sector of Namibia, it could serve as a starting point for continued monitoring of antibiotic use in the whole of Namibia in the context of the World Health Organization's Global Action Plan to contain antibiotic resistance.

  6. Accelerating TB notification from the private health sector in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Debashish; Chopra, Kamal; Khanna, Ashwani; Babbar, Neeti; Padmini, T J

    2016-01-01

    In India, almost half of all patients with tuberculosis (TB) seek care in the private sector as the first point of care. The national programme is unable to support such TB patients and facilitate effective treatment, as there is no information on TB and Multi or Extensively Drug Resistant TB (M/XDR-TB) diagnosis and treatment in private sector. To improve this situation, Government of India declared TB a notifiable disease for establishing TB surveillance system, to extend supportive mechanism for TB treatment adherence and standardised practices in the private sector. But TB notification from the private sector is a challenge and still a lot needs to be done to accelerate TB notification. Delhi State TB Control Programme had taken initiatives for improving notification of TB cases from the private sector in 2014. Key steps taken were to constitute a state level TB notification committee to oversee the progress of TB notification efforts in the state and direct 'one to one' sensitisation of private practitioners (PPs) (in single PP's clinic, corporate hospitals and laboratories) by the state notification teams with the help of available tools for sensitising the PP on TB notification - TB Notification Government Order, Guidance Tool for TB Notification and Standards of TB Care in India. As a result of focussed state level interventions, without much external support, there was an accelerated notification of TB cases from the private sector. TB notification cases from the private sector rose from 341 (in 2013) to 4049 (by the end of March 2015). Active state level initiatives have led to increase in TB case notification. Copyright © 2016 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Wage Gaps Between the Public and Private Sectors in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassibille, Gerard

    1998-01-01

    Estimates separate earnings equations by employment sector and gender in Spain and identifies returns to human capital, based on 1990-91 household survey data. Public wages are higher, and civil servants more highly educated. However, the public sector pays lower returns to education and experience. Earnings advantage is largest for least skilled…

  8. A Survey of Discounting Theory and Its Applications in the Private and Public Sectors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    applied in a straight forward manner. The interest rate used is the firms cost of capital. In the public sector discounting should be applied when it...is reasonable to do so. The interest rate should be derived from the rats of return that could have been earned in the private sector had the funds

  9. An Analysis of Workers' Choice between Employment in the Public and Private Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Rebecca M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper estimates the extent to which workers with different personal characteristics are likely to be employed in the public versus the private sector. Results show that government employment is preferred by veterans, nonwhites, and women; and that highly educated and more experienced workers are more likely to choose the public sector. (CT)

  10. Barriers to private-sector participation in public transportation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, T.A.

    1986-09-01

    Chapter One considers the full range of public-transportation services the private sector could provide looking at current U.S. examples. Chapter Two describes the Federal, state, and local barriers currently limiting private-sector provision of these services. Chapter Three summarizes the unique contribution of this study: an analysis of three New York counties utilizing private operators to provide varying percentages of public transportation under different institutional structures. The full case studies of the three New York counties - Onondaga (Syracuse), Suffolk (eastern Long Island), and Westchester (New York City suburb) - are presented in Appendices A-C. Appendices D and E exemplify purchase of service contracts currently in New York.

  11. Profitable Partnerships: Public-Private Partners in Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, Barbara; MacDonald, William J.

    Four case studies are presented to demonstrate the economic development potential of partnerships between community colleges and public and private sectors, focusing on programs that targeted a specific area of need in Oregon's economic base and raised significant funds for program implementation. Introductory comments provide background…

  12. The Right Jobs: Identifying Career Advancement Opportunities for Low-Skilled Workers. A Guide for Public and Private Sector Workforce Development Practitioners. Advancement for Low-Wage Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberger, Susan; Lessell, Newell; Biswas, Radha Roy

    2005-01-01

    The Right Jobs provides workforce policymakers and directors of workforce development programs with a structured approach to: (1) Identifying the most promising employment opportunities within reach of low-skill workers; (2) Determining the postsecondary training and career preparation routes that will yield results for their clients; and (3)…

  13. Treatment of DOE and commercial mixed waste by the private sector

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, T.W.; Apel, M.L.; Owens, C.M.

    1993-03-01

    This paper presents a conceptual approach for private sector treatment of mixed low-level radioactive waste generated by the US Department of Energy and commercial industries. This approach focuses on MLLW treatment technologies and capacities available through the private sector in the near term. Wastestream characterization data for 108 MLLW streams at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were collected and combined with similar data for MLLWs generated through commercial practices. These data were then provided to private treatment facilities and vendors to determine if, and to what extent, they could successfully treat these wastes. Data obtained from this project have provided an initial assessment of private sector capability and capacity to treat a variety of MLLW streams. This information will help formulate plans for future treatment of these and similar wastestreams at DOE facilities. This paper presents details of the MLLW data-gathering efforts used in this research, private sector assessment methods employed, and results of this assessment. Advantages of private sector treatment, as well as barriers to its present use, are also addressed.

  14. The Global Education Industry: Lessons from Private Education in Developing Countries. IEA Studies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James

    This book focuses on the impact of private education in developing countries, such as Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Peru, Romania, Russia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. The private education sector is large and innovative in the countries studied and not the domain of the wealthy. Contrary to popular opinion, private education in…

  15. Enhanced disease surveillance through private health care sector cooperation in Karachi, Pakistan: experience from a vaccine trial.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad Imran; Sahito, Shah Muhammad; Khan, Mohammad Javed; Wassan, Shafi Mohammad; Shaikh, Abdul Wahab; Maheshwari, Ashok Kumar; Acosta, Camilo J.; Galindo, Claudia M.; Ochiai, Rion Leon; Rasool, Shahid; Peerwani, Sheeraz; Puri, Mahesh K.; Ali, Mohammad; Zafar, Afia; Hassan, Rumina; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Clemens, John D.; Nizami, Shaikh Qamaruddin; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In research projects such as vaccine trials, accurate and complete surveillance of all outcomes of interest is critical. In less developed countries where the private sector is the major health-care provider, the private sector must be included in surveillance systems in order to capture all disease of interest. This, however, poses enormous challenges in practice. The process and outcome of recruiting private practice clinics for surveillance in a vaccine trial are described. METHODS: The project started in January 2002 in two urban squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan. At the suggestion of private practitioners, a phlebotomy team was formed to provide support for disease surveillance. Children who had a reported history of fever for more than three days were enrolled for a diagnosis. RESULTS: Between May 2003 and April 2004, 5540 children younger than 16 years with fever for three days or more were enrolled in the study. Of the children, 1312 (24%) were seen first by private practitioners; the remainder presented directly to study centres. In total, 5329 blood samples were obtained for microbiology. The annual incidence of Salmonella typhi diagnosed by blood culture was 407 (95% confidence interval (95% CI), 368-448) per 100 000/year and for Salmonella paratyphi A was 198 (95% CI, 171-227) per 100 000/year. Without the contribution of private practitioners, the rates would have been 240 per 100 000/year (95% CI, 211-271) for S. typhi and 114 (95% CI, 94-136) per 100 000/year for S. paratyphi A. CONCLUSION: The private sector plays a major health-care role in Pakistan. Our experience from a surveillance and burden estimation study in Pakistan indicates that this objective is possible to achieve but requires considerable effort and confidence building. Nonetheless, it is essential to include private health care providers when attempting to accurately estimate the burden of disease in such settings. PMID:16501718

  16. Work satisfaction of professional nurses in South Africa: a comparative analysis of the public and private sectors

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Rubin

    2009-01-01

    Background Work satisfaction of nurses is important, as there is sufficient empirical evidence to show that it tends to affect individual, organizational and greater health and social outcomes. Although there have been several studies of job satisfaction among nurses in South Africa, these are limited because they relate to studies of individual organizations or regions, use small samples or are dated. This paper presents a national study that compares and contrasts satisfaction levels of nurses in both public and private sectors. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of professional nurses conducted throughout South Africa using a pretested and self-administered questionnaire. Univariate and bivariate statistical models were used to evaluate levels of satisfaction with various facets of work and to elicit the differences in satisfaction levels between different groups of nurses. A total of 569 professional nurses participated in the study. Results Private-sector nurses were generally satisfied, while public-sector nurses were generally dissatisfied. Public-sector nurses were most dissatisfied with their pay, the workload and the resources available to them. They were satisfied only with the social context of the work. Private-sector nurses were dissatisfied only with their pay and career development opportunities. Professional nurses in the more rural provinces, those intending to change sectors and those more likely not to be in their current positions within the next five years were also more likely to be dissatisfied with all facets of their work. Conclusion This study highlighted the overall dissatisfaction among South African nurses and confirmed the disparity between the levels of job satisfaction between the public and private sectors. Health managers should address those factors that affect job satisfaction, and therefore retention, of nurses in South Africa. Improving the work environment so that it provides a context congruent with the aspirations

  17. The private sector: A global pool of technical talent for remote sensing training and program support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, W. D.

    The growing global pool of highly trained, technical talent in the private sector throughout the world reflects the degree of maturation that remote sensing from air and space vehicles has undergone, especially during the past ten years. This has been further spawned by the US Government move to commercialize the Landsat system. The number of qualified technicians and scientists has grown in proportion to the amount of data that has become available for public and private use. Applications of the data have matured from research investigations to operational use in many disciplines and geographic areas. Private and public industry corporations have established their own image processing and analytical laboratories to ensure their competitive positions. This has been further enhanced by the simultaneous availability of lower cost, analytical computer systems. Training and operational project development remain prominent objectives. While these are all very positive aspects a note of caution must be raised. Concern has recently been expressed by representatives of developing nations that not enough attention is given by remote sensing specialists to spelling out the limitations of the sensing systems or qualifying the degree of accuracy of the results obtained. Such criticisms are probably justified and it is recommended that remote sensing workers be mindful of such concerns.

  18. Beyond Percheron - Launch vehicle systems from the private sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, W. C.; Pavia, T. C.; Schrick, B. L.; Wolf, R. S.; Fruchterman, J. R.; Ross, D. J.

    Private ventures for operation of spacecraft launching services are discussed in terms of alternative strategies for commercialization of space activities. The Percheron was the product of a philosophy of a cost-, rather than a weight-, minimized a lunch vehicle. Although the engine exploded during a static test firing, other private projects continued, including the launch of the Conestoga, an Aries second stage Minuteman I. Consideration is being directed toward commercial production and launch of the Delta rocket, and $1 and a $1.5 billion offers have been tendered for financing a fifth Orbiter for NASA in exchange for marketing rights. Funding for the ventures is contingent upon analyses of the size and projected growth rate of payload markets, a favorable national policy, investor confidence, and agreeable capitalization levels. It is shown that no significant barriers exist against satisfying the criteria, and private space ventures are projected to result in more cost-effective operations due to increased competition.

  19. The Public Health Innovation Model: Merging Private Sector Processes with Public Health Strengths

    PubMed Central

    Lister, Cameron; Payne, Hannah; Hanson, Carl L.; Barnes, Michael D.; Davis, Siena F.; Manwaring, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Public health enjoyed a number of successes over the twentieth century. However, public health agencies have arguably been ill equipped to sustain these successes and address the complex threats we face today, including morbidity and mortality associated with persistent chronic diseases and emerging infectious diseases, in the context of flat funding and new and changing health care legislation. Transformational leaders, who are not afraid of taking risks to develop innovative approaches to combat present-day threats, are needed within public health agencies. We propose the Public Health Innovation Model (PHIM) as a tool for public health leaders who wish to integrate innovation into public health practice. This model merges traditional public health program planning models with innovation principles adapted from the private sector, including design thinking, seeking funding from private sector entities, and more strongly emphasizing program outcomes. We also discuss principles that leaders should consider adopting when transitioning to the PHIM, including cross-collaboration, community buy-in, human-centered assessment, autonomy and creativity, rapid experimentation and prototyping, and accountability to outcomes. PMID:28824899

  20. The Public Health Innovation Model: Merging Private Sector Processes with Public Health Strengths.

    PubMed

    Lister, Cameron; Payne, Hannah; Hanson, Carl L; Barnes, Michael D; Davis, Siena F; Manwaring, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Public health enjoyed a number of successes over the twentieth century. However, public health agencies have arguably been ill equipped to sustain these successes and address the complex threats we face today, including morbidity and mortality associated with persistent chronic diseases and emerging infectious diseases, in the context of flat funding and new and changing health care legislation. Transformational leaders, who are not afraid of taking risks to develop innovative approaches to combat present-day threats, are needed within public health agencies. We propose the Public Health Innovation Model (PHIM) as a tool for public health leaders who wish to integrate innovation into public health practice. This model merges traditional public health program planning models with innovation principles adapted from the private sector, including design thinking, seeking funding from private sector entities, and more strongly emphasizing program outcomes. We also discuss principles that leaders should consider adopting when transitioning to the PHIM, including cross-collaboration, community buy-in, human-centered assessment, autonomy and creativity, rapid experimentation and prototyping, and accountability to outcomes.

  1. Private and Public Sector Enterprise Resource Planning System Post-Implementation Practices: A Comparative Mixed Method Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    While private sector organizations have implemented enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems since the mid 1990s, ERP implementations within the public sector lagged by several years. This research conducted a mixed method, comparative assessment of post "go-live" ERP implementations between public and private sector organization. Based on a…

  2. Private and Public Sector Enterprise Resource Planning System Post-Implementation Practices: A Comparative Mixed Method Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    While private sector organizations have implemented enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems since the mid 1990s, ERP implementations within the public sector lagged by several years. This research conducted a mixed method, comparative assessment of post "go-live" ERP implementations between public and private sector organization. Based on a…

  3. Health resources in a 200,000 urban Indian population argues the need for a policy on private sector health services.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Kheya Melo; Kar, Anita

    2014-04-01

    There are limited primary data on the number of urban health care providers in private practice in developing countries like India. These data are needed to construct and test models that measure the efficacy of public stewardship of private sector health services. This study reports the number and characteristics of health resources in a 200 000 urban population in Pune. Data on health providers were collected by walking through the 15.46 sq km study area. Enumerated data were compared with existing data sources. Mapping was carried out using a Global Positioning System device. Metrics and characteristics of health resources were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.0 and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, Version 16.0 software. Private sector health facilities constituted the majority (424/426, 99.5%) of health care services. Official data sources were only 39% complete. Doctor to population ratios were 2.8 and 0.03 per 1000 persons respectively in the private and public sector, and the nurse to doctor ratio was 0.24 and 0.71, respectively. There was an uneven distribution of private sector health services across the area (2-118 clinics per square kilometre). Bed strength was forty-fold higher in the private sector. Mandatory registration of private sector health services needs to be implemented which will provide an opportunity for public health planners to utilize these health resources to achieve urban health goals.

  4. Health Resources in a 200,000 Urban Indian Population Argues the Need for a Policy on Private Sector Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Furtado, Kheya Melo; Kar, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are limited primary data on the number of urban health care providers in private practice in developing countries like India. These data are needed to construct and test models that measure the efficacy of public stewardship of private sector health services. Objective: This study reports the number and characteristics of health resources in a 200 000 urban population in Pune. Materials and Methods: Data on health providers were collected by walking through the 15.46 sq km study area. Enumerated data were compared with existing data sources. Mapping was carried out using a Global Positioning System device. Metrics and characteristics of health resources were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.0 and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, Version 16.0 software. Results: Private sector health facilities constituted the majority (424/426, 99.5%) of health care services. Official data sources were only 39% complete. Doctor to population ratios were 2.8 and 0.03 per 1000 persons respectively in the private and public sector, and the nurse to doctor ratio was 0.24 and 0.71, respectively. There was an uneven distribution of private sector health services across the area (2-118 clinics per square kilometre). Bed strength was forty-fold higher in the private sector. Conclusions: Mandatory registration of private sector health services needs to be implemented which will provide an opportunity for public health planners to utilize these health resources to achieve urban health goals. PMID:24963226

  5. Exploring Indiana's Private Education Sector. School Survey Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catt, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    Indiana is at the national forefront on private school choice. With the broadest eligibility guidelines among the country's 22 other school voucher programs, Indiana's Choice Scholarship Program has seen enrollment more than double each year since being enacted in 2011. Today, when compared with voucher programs in 12 other states, Indiana has the…

  6. Organizational Perceptions of Telecommuting in the Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galusha, Repps J.

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has provided more organizations the opportunity to adopt telecommuting as a means to recruit and retain employees, boost productivity, and trim facility costs. This study expands on the work of a previous study by Hoang, Nickerson, Beckman, and Eng, in 2008 which found that private organizations, due to perceptions of organizational…

  7. Private-Sector Provision of Schooling: An Economic Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adnett, Nick

    2004-01-01

    In many countries the school choice agenda has promoted increased inter-school competition as a means of creating stronger incentives for state schools to raise measures of average pupil attainment. Privatization of the provision of schooling takes market-based reforms a stage further. We identify the factors that have increased governments'…

  8. The Role of Private Sector Management in Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Denis P.

    1994-01-01

    The school system's uniformity is clearly a liability in the modern era. Today's schools need entrepreneurship, not change by rule, regulation, and statute. The central issue of entrepreneurship is not risk-taking, but innovative, implementation methods. Eventually, using private contractors to improve the management of instructional services will…

  9. Organizational Perceptions of Telecommuting in the Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galusha, Repps J.

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has provided more organizations the opportunity to adopt telecommuting as a means to recruit and retain employees, boost productivity, and trim facility costs. This study expands on the work of a previous study by Hoang, Nickerson, Beckman, and Eng, in 2008 which found that private organizations, due to perceptions of organizational…

  10. The Role of Private Sector Management in Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Denis P.

    1994-01-01

    The school system's uniformity is clearly a liability in the modern era. Today's schools need entrepreneurship, not change by rule, regulation, and statute. The central issue of entrepreneurship is not risk-taking, but innovative, implementation methods. Eventually, using private contractors to improve the management of instructional services will…

  11. Policy Perspective: School Turnaround in England. Utilizing the Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This paper, written by strategic partner of the Center on School Turnaround (CST), Julie Corbett, provides research and examples on England's approach to turning around its lowest performing schools. The English education system utilizes private vendors to support chronically low-performing schools and districts. The introduction is followed by…

  12. Health sector reform agenda in the Philippines--its effect on private hospitals.

    PubMed

    Priela, J O

    2001-01-01

    Despite the gains that Philippines posted towards improving the health of the Filipinos, more challenges need to be hurdled to further improve the country's health status i.e. high threat from infectious diseases, increasing degenerative conditions, emerging health problems due to environmental and work-related factors, etc. The development and implementation of the Health Sector Reform Agenda (HSRA) is expected to address these problems through organization/policy changes and financing structure needed to improve health care delivery, regulation and financing: 1. Provide fiscal autonomy to government hospitals; 2. Secure funding for priority public health programs; 3. Promote development of local health systems; 4. Strengthen health regulatory agencies' capacities; 5. Expand the coverage of the National Health Insurance Program. There is a need however to evaluate the implications of the HSRA implementation in the private hospital system as this sector accounts for 67.91% of the total number of hospitals, servicing 48.35% of the country's total bed requirements. Major effects are: 1. Increased competition for patient market; and consequently; 2. for funding/payments; 3. Lesser capital and financing access for service/facility improvement; versus; 4. pressure from consumers/patients to render better quality, high-technology service at a lower cost. Certainly, any adverse effect on their operation will affect the access of a large percentage of the population currently using their services. This paper will provide an in-depth analysis of the implications of the HSRA implementation on private hospitals, major initiatives being undertaken to minimize adverse effect and innovations that can be capitalized to survive/grow in the new health environment. The authors' active participation in the National Health Planning Committee convened to oversee the HSRA implementation, the dialogues and conferences held with hospital sector for the Philippine Hospital Association, and

  13. PRIVATE SECTOR IN HEALTH CARE DELIVERY: A REALITY AND A CHALLENGE IN PAKISTAN.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Babar Tasneem

    2015-01-01

    Under performance of the public sector health care system in Pakistan has created a room for private sector to grow and become popular in health service delivery, despite its questionable quality, high cost and dubious ethics of medical practice. Private sector is no doubt a reality; and is functioning to plug many weaknesses and gaps in health care delivery to the poor people of Pakistan. Yet, it is largely unregulated and unchecked due to the absence of writ of the state. In spite of its inherent trait of profit making, the private sector has played a significant and innovative role both in preventive and curative service provision. Private sector has demonstrated great deal of responsiveness, hence creating a relation of trust with the consumers of health in Pakistan, majority of who spend out of their pocket to buy 'health'. There is definitely a potential to engage and involve private and non-state entities in the health care system building their capacities and instituting regulatory frameworks, to protect the poor's access to health care system.

  14. Comparative performance of public and private sector delivery of BCG vaccination: evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Zachary; Szilagyi, Peter G; Sood, Neeraj

    2014-07-31

    The private sector is an important source of health care in the developing world. However, there is limited evidence on how private providers compare to public providers, particularly for preventive services such as immunizations. We used data from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to assess public-private differences in Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine delivery. We used demographic and health surveys from 102,629 children aged 0-59 months from 29 countries across SSA to measure differences in BCG status for children born at private versus public health facilities (BCG is recommended at birth). We used a probit model to estimate public-private differences in BCG delivery, while controlling for key confounders. Next, we estimated how differences in BCG status evolved over time for children born at private versus public facilities. Finally, we estimated heterogeneity in public-private differences based on wealth and rural-urban residency. We found that children born at a private facility were 7.1 percentage points less likely to receive BCG vaccine in the same month as birth than children born at a public facility (95% CI 6.3-8.0; p<0.001). Most of this difference was driven by for-profit private providers (as opposed to NGOs) where the BCG provision rate was 10.0 percentage points less than public providers (95% CI 9.0-11.2; p<0.001) compared to only 2.4 percentage points for NGOs (95% CI 1.0-3. 8; p<0.01). Moreover, children born at private for-profit facilities remained less likely to be vaccinated up to 59 months after birth. Finally, public-private differences were more pronounced for poorer children and children in rural areas. The for-profit private sector performed substantially worse than the public sector in providing BCG vaccine to newborns, resulting in a longer duration of vulnerability to tuberculosis. This disparity was greater for poorer children and children in rural areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment and prevention of malaria in pregnancy in the private health sector in Uganda: implications for patient safety.

    PubMed

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Buregyeya, Esther; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Clarke, Siân E; Lal, Sham; Hansen, Kristian S; Magnussen, Pascal; LaRussa, Philip

    2016-04-14

    of people at risk of malaria, P = 0.02 and availability of malaria treatment guidelines, P = 0.03 were the factors that most influenced correct treatment of fever in pregnancy. Treatment of fever during pregnancy was poor in this study setting. These data highlight the need to develop interventions to improve patient safety and quality of care for pregnant women in the private health sector in Uganda.

  16. AN ANALYSIS OF THE INEQUALITIES BETWEEN THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR IN SOUTH AFRICA.

    PubMed

    Dell, A; Kahn, D; Klopper, J

    2017-09-01

    The full extent of the global burden of surgical disease is largely unknown, however, the scope of the problem is thought to be large. Despite the substantial burden of surgical disease, surgical services are inaccessible to many of those who need them most. There are disparities between public and private sectors in South Africa, which compounds inequitable access to surgical care. This study involved a descriptive analysis of surgical resources and included the total number of hospitals, of hospital beds, the number of surgical beds, the number of general surgeons (specialist and non-specialist), and the number of functional operating theatres in South Africa. A comparison was performed between the public and private sectors. Hospitals were contacted during the period from the 1st October 2014 until the 31st of December 2014. Surgical resources were concentrated in metropolitan areas of urban provinces. There were striking differences between the public and private sectors, where private resources were comparable to those available in high income countries (HICs). Improving access to surgical services in lower middle income countries (LMICs) requires addressing gaps between the public and private sector regarding infrastructure, personnel, as well as equipment. South Africa is unique in that although it is classified as an upper middle income country (UMIC), is comprises of two sectors; a public sector which has resources similar to other LMICs, and a private sector which has resources similar to HICs. These data identified disparities between geographic regions which may be contributing to ongoing inequity in South Africa, and by doing so allows for evidence-based planning towards improving surgical infrastructure and workforce.

  17. Potential collaboration with the private sector for the provision of ambulatory care in the Mekong region, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Duc, Ha Anh; Sabin, Lora L; Cuong, Le Quang; Thien, Duong Duc; Feeley, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, health insurance in Vietnam has expanded nationwide. Concurrently, Vietnam's private health sector has developed rapidly and become an increasingly integral part of the health system. To date, however, little is understood regarding the potential for expanding public-private partnerships to improve health care access and outcomes in Vietnam. To explore possibilities for public-private collaboration in the provision of ambulatory care at the primary level in the Mekong region, Vietnam. We employed a mixed methods research approach. Qualitative methods included focus group discussions with health officials and in-depth interviews with managers of private health facilities. Quantitative methods encompassed facility assessments, and exit surveys of clients at the same private facilities. Discussions with health officials indicated generally favorable attitudes towards partnerships with private providers. Concerns were also voiced, regarding the over- and irrational use of antibiotics, and in terms of limited capacity for regulation, monitoring, and quality assurance. Private facility managers expressed a willingness to collaborate in the provision of ambulatory care, and private providers facilites were relatively well staffed and equipped. The client surveys indicated that 80% of clients first sought treatment at a private facility, even though most lived closer to a public provider. This choice was motivated mainly by perceptions of quality of care. Clients who reported seeking care at both a public and private facility were more satisfied with the latter. Public-private collaboration in the provision of ambulatory care at the primary level in Vietnam has substantial potential for improving access to quality services. We recommend that such collaboration be explored by Vietnamese policy-makers. If implemented, we strongly urge attention to effectively managing such partnerships, establishing a quality assurance system, and strengthening

  18. Potential collaboration with the private sector for the provision of ambulatory care in the Mekong region, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Duc, Ha Anh; Sabin, Lora L.; Cuong, Le Quang; Thien, Duong Duc; Feeley, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the past two decades, health insurance in Vietnam has expanded nationwide. Concurrently, Vietnam's private health sector has developed rapidly and become an increasingly integral part of the health system. To date, however, little is understood regarding the potential for expanding public-private partnerships to improve health care access and outcomes in Vietnam. Objective To explore possibilities for public-private collaboration in the provision of ambulatory care at the primary level in the Mekong region, Vietnam. Design We employed a mixed methods research approach. Qualitative methods included focus group discussions with health officials and in-depth interviews with managers of private health facilities. Quantitative methods encompassed facility assessments, and exit surveys of clients at the same private facilities. Results Discussions with health officials indicated generally favorable attitudes towards partnerships with private providers. Concerns were also voiced, regarding the over- and irrational use of antibiotics, and in terms of limited capacity for regulation, monitoring, and quality assurance. Private facility managers expressed a willingness to collaborate in the provision of ambulatory care, and private providers facilites were relatively well staffed and equipped. The client surveys indicated that 80% of clients first sought treatment at a private facility, even though most lived closer to a public provider. This choice was motivated mainly by perceptions of quality of care. Clients who reported seeking care at both a public and private facility were more satisfied with the latter. Conclusions Public-private collaboration in the provision of ambulatory care at the primary level in Vietnam has substantial potential for improving access to quality services. We recommend that such collaboration be explored by Vietnamese policy-makers. If implemented, we strongly urge attention to effectively managing such partnerships, establishing a

  19. Funding the Military Retirement System: A Private Sector Investment Approach to Accrual Accounting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    investment within the government. The specific goals were to show whether a private investment strategy is feasible In terms of real Interest rate and...that the private sector approach can potentially compete with the real interest rate currently used in the intragovernmental investment of the military... Rates of Investment Plans-- 100% Issues/0% Taxes ... ........... 58 7. Real Interest Rates of Investment Plans-- 50% Issues/0% Taxes ........... 60 8

  20. Guidelines for public transportation contracting with the private sector in California: Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-30

    The manual provides practical assistance to public transit agencies in California in contracting for goods and services with the private sector. It also assists private firms seeking to provide goods and services to public transit agencies. The manual provides an overview of each of the processes involved in procurement from preparation of procurement documents to contract management and evaluation. It also provides detailed, practical guidance on each of these processes.

  1. An Evaluation of Public and Private Sector Housing Alternatives for Military Families

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    housing units. Today, the military relies on three primary alternatives in the public and private sector to house its military families: government ... housing (Defense Science Board, 1995:60). Today, housing military families is big business. In 2002, the military family housing budget for the...privatization provides housing faster and less costly to the government and the American taxpayer? 2) What costs are associated with

  2. Promoting safe motherhood through the private sector in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed Central

    Brugha, Ruair; Pritze-Aliassime, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    The formal private sector could play a significant role in determining whether success or failure is achieved in working towards goals for safe motherhood in many low- and middle-income settings. Established private providers, especially nurses/midwives, have the potential to contribute to safe motherhood practices if they are involved in the care continuum. However, they have largely been overlooked by policy-makers in low-income settings. The private sector (mainly doctors) contributes to overprovision and high Caesarean section rates in settings where it provides care to wealthier segments of the population; such care is often funded through third-party payment schemes. In poorer settings, especially rural areas, private nurses/midwives and the women who choose to use them are likely to experience similar constraints to those encountered in the public sector - for example, poor or unaffordable access to higher level facilities for the management of obstetrical emergencies. Policy-makers at the country-level need to map the health system and understand the nature and distribution of the private sector, and what influences it. This potential resource could then be mobilized to work towards the achievement of safe motherhood goals. PMID:14576894

  3. Promoting safe motherhood through the private sector in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Brugha, Ruair; Pritze-Aliassime, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    The formal private sector could play a significant role in determining whether success or failure is achieved in working towards goals for safe motherhood in many low- and middle-income settings. Established private providers, especially nurses/midwives, have the potential to contribute to safe motherhood practices if they are involved in the care continuum. However, they have largely been overlooked by policy-makers in low-income settings. The private sector (mainly doctors) contributes to overprovision and high Caesarean section rates in settings where it provides care to wealthier segments of the population; such care is often funded through third-party payment schemes. In poorer settings, especially rural areas, private nurses/midwives and the women who choose to use them are likely to experience similar constraints to those encountered in the public sector - for example, poor or unaffordable access to higher level facilities for the management of obstetrical emergencies. Policy-makers at the country-level need to map the health system and understand the nature and distribution of the private sector, and what influences it. This potential resource could then be mobilized to work towards the achievement of safe motherhood goals.

  4. Net present value analysis to select public R&D programs and valuate expected private sector participation.

    PubMed

    Hinman, N D; Yancey, M A

    1997-01-01

    One of the main functions of government is to invest taxpayer dollars in projects, programs, and properties that will result in social benefit. Public programs focused on the development of technology are examples of such opportunities. Selecting these programs requires the same investment analysis approaches that private companies and individuals use. Good use of investment analysis approaches to these programs will minimize our tax costs and maximize public benefit from tax dollars invested. This article describes the use of the net present value (NPV) analysis approach to select public R&D programs and valuate expected private sector participation in the programs.

  5. Independent sector mental health care: a 1-day census of private and voluntary sector placements in seven Strategic Health Authority areas in England.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Barbara; Ryan, Tony; Simpson, Victoria; Sharma, Indhu

    2007-09-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to map the extent of all mental health placements in the independent sector, for adults of working age, and elderly people (excluding those with a diagnosis of dementia placed in Local Authority care homes), on a census date, across the areas in which the study was commissioned; (ii) to identify the characteristics of the population in placements; (iii) to explore some of the characteristics of the placements and the patterns of use within the private and voluntary sectors; and (iv) to identify the funding source of placements, and cost differences between the private and voluntary sector. The study took place in seven Strategic Health Authority areas, and information was sought from all Primary Care Trust and Social Services commissioners of mental health services, including regional secure commissioning teams, within those areas. A cross-sectional sample was used. Information was requested in relation to every individual meeting the inclusion criteria, placed in independent (private or voluntary) psychiatric hospitals, registered mental nursing homes and care homes on a specified study 'census date' of 28 June 2004 in six of the Strategic Health Authority areas, and 7 October 2004 in the seventh. Information was recorded on a standard questionnaire specifically designed for the study. Information was obtained on 3535 adults and 1623 elderly people in private or voluntary facilities. The largest groups of adults and elderly people had diagnoses of severe mental illnesses (42.1% and 30.5%, respectively), and placements were described as 'continuing care' or rehabilitation, with a 'niche' in specialist forensic care. Around four-fifths of units were in the private sector, which for adults was significantly more expensive than the voluntary sector. A large proportion of units (47.2% of adult placements and 59.3% of placements for elderly people) had only single placements from particular commissioning authorities, whilst others had

  6. Lost opportunity cost of surgical training in the Australian private sector.

    PubMed

    Aitken, R James

    2012-03-01

    To meet Australia's future demands, surgical training in the private sector will be required. The aim of this study was to estimate the time and lost opportunity cost of training in the private sector. A literature search identified studies that compared the operation time required by a supervised trainee with a consultant. This time was costed using a business model. In 22 studies (34 operations), the median operation duration of a supervised trainee was 34% longer than the consultant. To complete a private training list in the same time as a consultant list, one major case would have to be dropped. A consultant's average lost opportunity cost was $1186 per list ($106,698 per year). Training in rooms and administration requirements increased this to $155,618 per year. To train 400 trainees in the private sector to college standards would require 54,000 training lists per year. The consultants' national lost opportunity cost would be $137 million per year. The average lost hospital case payment was $5894 per list, or $330 million per year nationally. The total lost opportunity cost of surgical training in the private sector would be about $467 million per year. When trainee salaries, other specialties and indirect expenses are included, the total cost will be substantially greater. It is unlikely that surgeons or hospitals will be prepared to absorb these costs. There needs to be a public debate about the funding implications of surgical training in the private sector. © 2012 The Author. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  7. Public-private partnerships in the Potuguese health sector.

    PubMed

    Simões, Jorge; Barros, Pedro Pita; Temido, Marta

    2010-01-01

    In Portugal, the PPP in the healthcare sector appeared only at the dawn of the new century, with the central feature of including clinical activities within its scope. Currently--except for one hospital--the Portuguese PPP experience can only be assessed in terms of conceptual model and tender processes. The analysis showed that, based on arguments associated with non-contractible investment and ex-post renegotiation opportunities, hospitals with higher technological complexity should exclude clinical activities from the PPP contract, and also that, despite the time-consuming process, the PPP can be considered a success in price competition dimension. The analysis also showed that, assessing the performance of the single PPP hospital in Portugal with two comparable units, there is no evidence that the best or worst results are correlated with the legal status and with the established management model.

  8. Benchmarking the quality of schizophrenia pharmacotherapy: a comparison of the Department of Veterans Affairs and the private sector.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Douglas L; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2003-09-01

    Comparing quality of care between large health care systems is important for health systems management. This study used measures of the quality of pharmacotherapy for patients with schizophrenia and compared these measures across a sample of patients from the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and the private sector. A random sample of all patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in the VA during fiscal year (FY) 2000 was identified using administrative data. In the private sector, a sample of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in 2000 was identified using MEDSTAT's MarketScan database. For both groups, use of antipsychotic medications was studied and measures of the quality of pharmacotherapy were constructed, including whether patients were prescribed any antipsychotic medication, one of the newer atypical antipsychotics, and whether dosing adhered to established treatment recommendations. These measures were compared across the two groups using logistic regression models, controlling for age, gender, and comorbid diagnoses. Most patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (82% in the VA and 73% in the private sector) received an antipsychotic medication, usually one of the newer atypical drugs. Patients in the VA were more likely to be dosed above treatment recommendations, and less likely to be dosed below treatment recommendations. Overall, differences in proportion schizophrenia patients dosed according to recommendations were not statistically different across the two systems (60% in the VA, 58% in the private sector). Differences between the two systems were mixed, with the VA outperforming the private sector with respect to some measures and doing worse on others. Although the VA and the private sector were comparable with respect to the quality measures used in this study, there is room for improvement in both systems. Treatment recommendations are based on the best available clinical evidence of effectiveness and safety. Quality of care might be improved

  9. Private sector involvement in civil space remote sensing. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Space Policy concerning the investment and direct participation in the establishment and operations of remote sensing systems is addressed. Private sector views and state and local government views are presented. Results of a market analysis are pregiven and the economic feasibility of such a program is considered.

  10. The Decline of Private-Sector Unionism and the Gender Wage Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Even, William E.; Macpherson, David A.

    1993-01-01

    Between 1973 and 1988, private sector union membership fell by 9.5 percentage points more for men than women; the gender wage gap decreased by 0.09. Unionism fell more slowly for women. Greater decline in male unionism is responsible for one-seventh of the decline in the wage gap. (SK)

  11. 31 CFR 50.35 - Entities that share profits and losses with private sector insurers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entities that share profits and losses with private sector insurers. 50.35 Section 50.35 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM State Residual Market Insurance Entities;...

  12. 31 CFR 50.35 - Entities that share profits and losses with private sector insurers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entities that share profits and losses with private sector insurers. 50.35 Section 50.35 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM State Residual Market Insurance Entities;...

  13. 31 CFR 50.35 - Entities that share profits and losses with private sector insurers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entities that share profits and losses with private sector insurers. 50.35 Section 50.35 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM State Residual Market Insurance Entities;...

  14. Private sector participation in domestic waste management in informal settlements in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Opoko, Akunnaya P; Oluwatayo, Adedapo A

    2016-12-01

    Lagos is one of the fastest growing cities in Africa, which is grappling with the challenges of poorly managed urbanisation. With an estimated population of about 17.5 million, solid waste management is one of the most pressing environmental challenges currently faced in the city. It is estimated that more than 9071847.4kg of urban waste is generated every day in the city. The city lacks the capacity to deal with such magnitude of waste. Consequently, the city has involved the private sector (private sector participation) in its waste management drive. This article examines the effectiveness of this public-private sector collaboration model in waste management in informal settlements in Lagos using empirical data. Major findings of the article include the irregularity of waste collection owing to a poor road network, an inadequate transport infrastructure and the desire to maximise profit, as well as poor waste handling and disposal methods by the private sector participation operators who are not chosen based on competence and capacity to perform. Another major finding is the lack of cooperation from residents evidenced in non-payment of bills and poor packaging of wastes, resulting in wastes being littered. The article concludes on the need to restructure the scheme through proper sensitisation of residents, selection of operators with demonstrable delivery capacity and provision of a well-maintained road network to facilitate access of operators to settlements.

  15. The Efficacy of Private Sector Providers in Improving Public Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Nisar, Hiren

    2013-01-01

    School districts required under No Child Left Behind (NCLB) to provide supplemental educational services (SES) to students in schools that are not making adequate yearly progress rely heavily on the private sector to offer choice in services. If the market does not drive out ineffective providers, students may not gain through SES participation.…

  16. The School and the Private Sector: Romance or Marriage of Convenience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauch I, James W.

    1999-01-01

    Presents the alliance between Reading High School (Pennsylvania) and a local corporation as a case study of the potential for incentives and private-sector involvement to improve student attendance. The partnership, Reading's Excellence and Attendance Programs, used positive reinforcements, including lottery drawings and ice-cream socials, to…

  17. Private sector involvement in times of armed conflict: What are the constraints for trading medical equipment?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Georg

    Today, healthcare facilities are highly dependent on the private sector to keep their medical equipment functioning. Moreover, private sector involvement becomes particularly important for the supply of spare parts and consumables. However, in times of armed conflict, the capacity of the corporate world appears to be seriously hindered. Subsequently, this study researches the influence of armed conflict on the private medical equipment sector. This study follows a qualitative approach by conducting 19 interviews with representatives of the corporate world in an active conflict zone. A semistructured interview guide, consisting of 10 questions, was used to examine the constraints of this sector. The results reveal that the lack of skilled personnel, complicated importation procedures, and a decrease in financial capacity are the major constraints faced by private companies dealing in medical equipment in conflict zones. Even when no official sanctions and embargoes for medical items exist, constraints for trading medical equipment are clearly recognizable. Countries at war would benefit from a centralized structure that deals with the importation procedures for medical items, to assist local companies in their purchasing procedures. A high degree of adaption is needed to continue operating, despite the emerging constraints of armed conflict. Future studies might research the constraints for manufacturers outside the conflict to export medical items to the country of war.

  18. Comparison of Environmental Remediation Contracting Approaches between the Department of Defense and the Private Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    35 IV. SWOT ANALYSIS .........................................................................................................37...weaknesses, opportunities, and threats ( SWOT ) analysis to determine the best approaches utilized by DOD and the private sector. The results of the SWOT ...down-sizing efforts were completed under the same regulatory guidance, same real estate market, and with the same pressures from the public for a

  19. The Vermont Survey of Employer Receptivity to Wage Subsidy Programs in the Private Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashman, John R.; Mattson, Robert E.

    The Vermont study details employer responses to a two-phase survey designed to gauge employer receptivity to the use of wage subsidies in the private sector. The "mail survey" obtained from a sample of 1,084 employers (of whom 71% responded) elicited responses to a limited number of questions, while the "face-to-face survey"…

  20. Three methods of interfacing with the private sector by mental health agencies.

    PubMed

    McRae, J A

    1989-01-01

    This article outlines three methods of mental health marketing--formal, intermediary, and interactive. It discusses advantages and disadvantages of each method. These approaches are particularly good for public, non-profit agencies and individuals in contacting the private sector. The need for flexibility and marketing mix is emphasized.

  1. Comparison of Ethical Dilemmas across Public and Private Sectors in Rehabilitation Counseling Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beveridge, Scott; Garcia, Jorge; Siblo, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the nature of ethical dilemmas most frequently reported by rehabilitation counselors in the private and public sectors and determine if significant differences exist in how practitioners experience ethical dilemmas in these two settings. Method: A mixed-methods internet-based survey design was utilized and included descriptive,…

  2. Comparison of Ethical Dilemmas across Public and Private Sectors in Rehabilitation Counseling Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beveridge, Scott; Garcia, Jorge; Siblo, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the nature of ethical dilemmas most frequently reported by rehabilitation counselors in the private and public sectors and determine if significant differences exist in how practitioners experience ethical dilemmas in these two settings. Method: A mixed-methods internet-based survey design was utilized and included descriptive,…

  3. Predictors of Return to Work for People with Psychiatric Disabilities: A Private Sector Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluta, David J.; Accordino, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was a baseline study to determine if the speed of return to work could be predicted for people with psychiatric disabilities in a private sector setting. Participants with psychiatric disability claims who returned to work (N = 300) were obtained from a nationwide "Fortune 500" insurance company. The authors compared the speed…

  4. Recruitment and Selection in Business and Industry: Learning from the Private Sector Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Maria D.; Munoz, Marco A.

    Recruitment and selection practices in the private sector were examined through a literature review to identify strategies that human resource (HR) departments can use in designing new employee recruitment and selection processes or improving existing processes. The following were among the findings: (1) new employees recruited by using informal…

  5. The School and the Private Sector: Romance or Marriage of Convenience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauch I, James W.

    1999-01-01

    Presents the alliance between Reading High School (Pennsylvania) and a local corporation as a case study of the potential for incentives and private-sector involvement to improve student attendance. The partnership, Reading's Excellence and Attendance Programs, used positive reinforcements, including lottery drawings and ice-cream socials, to…

  6. Designing Graduate-Level Plant Breeding Curriculum: A Delphi Study of Private Sector Stakeholder Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jane K.; Repinski, Shelby L.; Hayes, Kathryn N.; Bliss, Frederick A.; Trexler, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    A broad-based survey using the Delphi method was conducted to garner current information from private sector stakeholders and build consensus opinions supporting key ideas for enhancing plant breeder education and training. This study asked respondents to suggest and rate topics and content they deemed most important to plant breeding graduate…

  7. The Private Sector in the Public School: Can It Improve Education? AEI Symposia 84B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Marsha, Ed.

    The American Enterprise Institute and the National Institute of Education commissioned six authors to prepare papers examining the barriers and incentives to private-sector involvement in public schools. These authors include representatives from two corporations, a former school superintendent and academic, a state policy analyst and attorney,…

  8. 31 CFR 50.35 - Entities that share profits and losses with private sector insurers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entities that share profits and losses with private sector insurers. 50.35 Section 50.35 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM State Residual Market Insurance Entities;...

  9. The Role of the Private Sector in The Right to Read Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Opal C.

    This booklet describes the many ways in which the private sector can become involved in the national Right to Read effort by giving assistance: seminars sponsored by business and industries, on-the-job literacy classes, encouragement from recognized athletes, and the Book Ownership Program (aids the community by making books readily available at…

  10. Welfare to Wages: Strategies To Assist the Private Sector To Employ Welfare Recipients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Brandon; Padden, Jeffrey D.

    This report explores how private sector employers are reacting to, responding to, and participating in welfare-to-work (WTW) efforts. Chapter 1 explains the study background and approach. Chapter 2 examines the environment, perspectives, experiences, and role of business in the WTW process and presents findings about employment patterns of welfare…

  11. Involving the private sector in Georgia's conservation initiatives for neotropical birds

    Treesearch

    Terry W. Johnson

    1993-01-01

    Faced with major financial and manpower restrictions, the Georgia Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Nongame-Endangered Wildlife Program (NGEWP) is aggressively encouraging the private sector to participate in a broad spectrum of innovative neotropical bird-related research, survey, fund raising, management and educational activities. A key element in this...

  12. Erosion of the At-Will Rule and Freedom of Communication in Private Sector Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Wayne

    The "at-will" rule in American law is defined as the right of a private sector employer to dismiss an employee without a contract for virtually any reason. The rule has thrived since the nineteenth century and is still a major factor in the employer-employee relationship. However, recent court decisions have fashioned common law…

  13. Electric and hybrid vehicle project. Quarterly report of private-sector operations, first quarter 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1982-06-01

    As of January 1, 1982 sixteen private-sector site operators at 30 sites in the US were involved in electric and hybrid electric-powered vehicle demonstration programs. Data for 1981 and the first quarter of 1982 are presented on vehicle selection, miles accumulated, energy usage, maintenance requirements, reliability and operating performance for demonstration vehicles at each site. (LCL)

  14. 78 FR 65218 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Private Sector Notification Requirements of In...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... Regulation Supplement: Private Sector Notification Requirements of In-Sourcing Actions DFARS Case 2012-D036... notification of in-sourcing actions. DATES: Effective date: October 31, 2013. Comment date: Comments on the...-sourcing actions. II. Discussion and Analysis Section 938 of the NDAA requires the Secretary of Defense to...

  15. The Role of the Private Sector in Education, Employment and Training Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    21st Century Policy Review, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This interview with Percy E. Pollard, Jr., Director of the Cultural and Human Services Program of International Business Machines, discusses new requirements for basic skills and competencies for American workers and considers the role of the private sector in the reforms needed for education and employment training. Women and minorities can take…

  16. 5 CFR 300.503 - Conditions for using private sector temporaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... help service firm for the brief or intermittent use of the skills of private sector temporaries, when... displaced Federal employee as required by 5 CFR part 330, subpart F (Agency Career Transition Assistance Plan for Displaced Employees) and subpart G (Interagency Career Transition Assistance Plan...

  17. Predictors of Return to Work for People with Psychiatric Disabilities: A Private Sector Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluta, David J.; Accordino, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was a baseline study to determine if the speed of return to work could be predicted for people with psychiatric disabilities in a private sector setting. Participants with psychiatric disability claims who returned to work (N = 300) were obtained from a nationwide "Fortune 500" insurance company. The authors compared the speed…

  18. Designing Graduate-Level Plant Breeding Curriculum: A Delphi Study of Private Sector Stakeholder Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jane K.; Repinski, Shelby L.; Hayes, Kathryn N.; Bliss, Frederick A.; Trexler, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    A broad-based survey using the Delphi method was conducted to garner current information from private sector stakeholders and build consensus opinions supporting key ideas for enhancing plant breeder education and training. This study asked respondents to suggest and rate topics and content they deemed most important to plant breeding graduate…

  19. Paid sick leave is associated with fewer ED visits among US private sector working adults.

    PubMed

    Bhuyan, Soumitra S; Wang, Yang; Bhatt, Jay; Dismuke, S Edward; Carlton, Erik L; Gentry, Dan; LaGrange, Chad; Chang, Cyril F

    2016-05-01

    The United States (US) is the only developed country that does not guarantee short-term or longer-term paid sick leave. This study used a multiyear nationally representative database to examine the association between availability of paid sick leave and frequency of emergency department (ED) use among US private sector employees. We used the National Health Interview Survey data (2012-2014). The final study sample consists of 42,460 US adults between 18 and 64years of age and working in nongovernmental private sector. Our results suggest that availability of paid sick leave is significantly associated with lower likelihood of ED use, for both moderate (1-3 times/year) and repeated users (4 or more times/year). After controlling for confounding factors, respondents with paid sick leave are 14% less likely to be moderate ED users (adjusted odds ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.79-0.93) and 32% less likely to be repeated ED users (adjusted odds ratio, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.50-0.91). Although expansion of health insurance coverage under the Affordable Care Act has not been shown to reduce utilization of high cost health care services such as the ED, our study suggests other factors such as the availability of paid sick leave may do so, by allowing patients to seek care through other more cost-effective mechanisms (eg, primary care providers). To reduce ED utilization, health policymakers should consider alternative reforms including paid sick leave. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cross-sector partnerships and public health: challenges and opportunities for addressing obesity and noncommunicable diseases through engagement with the private sector.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lee M; Finegood, Diane T

    2015-03-18

    Over the past few decades, cross-sector partnerships with the private sector have become an increasingly accepted practice in public health, particularly in efforts to address infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Now these partnerships are becoming a popular tool in efforts to reduce and prevent obesity and the epidemic of noncommunicable diseases. Partnering with businesses presents a means to acquire resources, as well as opportunities to influence the private sector toward more healthful practices. Yet even though collaboration is a core principle of public health practice, public-private or nonprofit-private partnerships present risks and challenges that warrant specific consideration. In this article, we review the role of public health partnerships with the private sector, with a focus on efforts to address obesity and noncommunicable diseases in high-income settings. We identify key challenges-including goal alignment and conflict of interest-and consider how changes to partnership practice might address these.

  1. A study on moral hazard in dentistry: costs of care in the private and the public sector.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Risto; Eriksson, Anna-Leena

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the costs of subsidized care for an adult population provided by private and public sector dentists. A sample of 210 patients was drawn systematically from the waiting list for nonemergency dental treatment in the city of Turku. Questionnaire data covering sociodemographic background, dental care utilization and marginal time cost estimates were combined with data from patient registers on treatment given. Information was available on 104 patients (52 from each of the public and the private sectors). The overall time taken to provide treatment was 181 days in the public sector and 80 days in the private sector (P<0.002). On average, public sector patients had significantly (P < 0.01) more dental visits (5.33) than private sector patients (3.47), which caused higher visiting fees. In addition, patients in the public sector also had higher other out-of-pocket costs than in the private sector. Those who needed emergency dental treatment during the waiting time for comprehensive care had significantly more costly treatment and higher total costs than the other patients. Overall time required for dental visits significantly increased total costs. The total cost of dental care in the public sector was slightly higher (P<0.05) than in the private sector. There is no direct evidence of moral hazard on the provider side from this study. The observed cost differences between the two sectors may indicate that private practitioners could manage their publicly funded patients more quickly than their private paying patients. On the other hand, private dentists providing more treatment per visit could be explained by private dentists providing more than is needed by increasing the content per visit. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Coordination of Vocational-Technical Education in Virginia: Transfer of Credit between Public & Private Sector Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Council on Vocational Education, Richmond.

    A task force on private-public sector education in Virginia concluded that transfer and award of credit between public and private sector education providers should be facilitated. Based on the task force recommendations, the Virginia Council on Vocational Education made three recommendations to the State Board for Community Colleges and…

  3. Saving mothers and newborns through an innovative partnership with private sector obstetricians: Chiranjeevi scheme of Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Mavalankar, Dileep; Singh, Amarjit; Patel, Sureshchandra R; Desai, Ajesh; Singh, Prabal V

    2009-12-01

    To document an innovative public-private partnership between the government of Gujarat, India and private obstetricians in rural areas that provides delivery care to the poor. This is a descriptive analysis of the scheme and analysis of secondary data. We estimate the lives of mothers and newborns potentially saved because of the scheme. More than 800 obstetricians have joined the scheme and more than 269000 poor women have delivered in private facilities in 2 years. We estimate that the percentage of institutional deliveries among poor women increased from 27% to 48% between April 2007 and September 2008. In addition, there are fewer reported maternal and newborn deaths among the beneficiaries compared with the number of deaths expected in the absence of the scheme. This innovative program shows that, at least in some areas of India, it is possible to develop a large scale partnership with the private sector to provide skilled birth attendance and emergency obstetric care to poor women at a relatively low cost. This is one way of addressing the human resource deficit in the public sector in rural areas of low-income countries to achieve Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. We also conclude that the skilled care thus provided can reduce maternal and neonatal mortality among the poor.

  4. 20 CFR 641.640 - How do the private sector training activities authorized under section 502(e) differ from other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... private businesses for section 502(e) activities. (e) Grantees may fund private-for-profit and other... authorized under section 502(e) differ from other SCSEP activities? 641.640 Section 641.640 Employees... COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM Private Sector Training Projects Under Section 502(e) of the OAA § 641...

  5. Infection prevention and control in health facilities in post-Ebola Liberia: don't forget the private sector!

    PubMed Central

    Musa, E.; Cooper, C.; Van den Bergh, R.; Owiti, P.; Baller, A.; Siafa, T.; Woldeyohannes, D.; Shringarpure, K.; Gasasira, A.

    2017-01-01

    Setting: Recognising the importance of infection prevention and control (IPC), a minimum standards tool (MST) was developed in Liberia to guide the safe (re-) opening and provision of care in health facilities. Objectives: To analyse the implementation of specific IPC measures after the 2014 Ebola virus outbreak between June 2015 and May 2016, and to compare the relative improvements in IPC between the public and private sectors. Design: A retrospective comparative cohort study. Results: We evaluated 723 (94%) of the 769 health facilities in Liberia. Of these, 437 (60%) were public and 286 (40%) were private. There was an overall improvement in the MST scores from a median of 13 to 14 out of a maximum possible score of 16. While improvements were observed in all aspects of IPC in both public and private health facilities, IPC implementation was systematically higher in public facilities. Conclusions: We demonstrate the feasibility of monitoring IPC implementation using the MST checklist in post-Ebola Liberia. Our study shows that improvements were made in key aspects of IPC after 1 year of evaluations and tailored recommendations. We also highlight the need to increase the focus on the private sector to achieve further improvements in IPC. PMID:28744446

  6. Injuries among solid waste collectors in the private versus public sectors.

    PubMed

    Bunn, Terry L; Slavova, Svetla; Tang, Minao

    2011-10-01

    Solid waste collection is among the occupations with the highest risk for injuries and illnesses. Solid waste collector injuries were characterized in terms of injury risk and employment industry sector (public versus private) using Kentucky workers' compensation first reports of injury and claims data. When compared to 35-44-year-old workers, solid waste collectors who were under 35 years of age were less likely to have a workers' compensation first report of injury or claim that resulted in awarded benefits. The probability that a workers' compensation first report of injury or claim would result in an awarded benefit was higher if the worker was employed as a solid waste collector in the private sector compared to the public sector, or was injured due to a motor vehicle-related injury or a push-or-pull type of injury. A better understanding of the differences in the contributing factors for an injury that results in a first report of injury or claim with awarded benefits (e.g., job activities, new and refresher worker safety training, type of equipment used, differences in collection vehicle automation, and differential reporting of injuries on the job) between the public and private sectors is necessary to target injury prevention strategies in this high-risk occupation.

  7. Methods for estimating and comparing VA outpatient drug benefits with the private sector.

    PubMed

    Render, Marta L; Nowak, John; Hammond, Emmett K; Roselle, Gary

    2003-06-01

    To estimate and compare Veterans Health Administration (VA) expenditures for outpatient pharmaceuticals for veterans at six VA facilities with hypothetical private sector costs. Using the VA Pharmacy Benefits Management Strategic Health Care Group (PBM) database, we extracted data for all dispensed outpatient prescriptions from the six study sites over federal fiscal year 1999. After extensive data validation, we converted prescriptions to the same units and merged relevant VA pricing information by National Drug Code to Redbook listed average wholesale price and the Medicaid maximal allowable charge, where available. We added total VA drug expenditures to personnel cost from the pharmacy portion of that medical center's cost distribution report. Hypothetical private sector payments were $200.8 million compared with an aggregate VA budget of $118.8 million. Using National Drug Code numbers, 97% of all items dispensed from the six facilities were matched to private sector price data. Nonmatched pharmaceuticals were largely generic over-the-counter pain relievers and commodities like alcohol swabs. The most commonly prescribed medications reflect the diseases and complaints of an older male population: pain, cardiovascular problems, diabetes, and depression or other psychiatric disorders. Use of the VA PBM database permits researchers to merge expenditure and prescription data to patient diagnoses and sentinel events. A critical element in its use is creating similar units among the systems. Such data sets permit a deeper view of the variability in drug expenditures, an important sector of health care whose inflation has been disproportionate to that of the economy and even health care.

  8. Investigating nurse practitioners in the private sector: a theoretically informed research protocol.

    PubMed

    Adams, Margaret; Gardner, Glenn; Yates, Patsy

    2017-06-01

    To report a study protocol and the theoretical framework normalisation process theory that informs this protocol for a case study investigation of private sector nurse practitioners. Most research evaluating nurse practitioner service is focused on public, mainly acute care environments where nurse practitioner service is well established with strong structures for governance and sustainability. Conversely, there is lack of clarity in governance for emerging models in the private sector. In a climate of healthcare reform, nurse practitioner service is extending beyond the familiar public health sector. Further research is required to inform knowledge of the practice, operational framework and governance of new nurse practitioner models. The proposed research will use a multiple exploratory case study design to examine private sector nurse practitioner service. Data collection includes interviews, surveys and audits. A sequential mixed method approach to analysis of each case will be conducted. Findings from within-case analysis will lead to a meta-synthesis across all four cases to gain a holistic understanding of the cases under study, private sector nurse practitioner service. Normalisation process theory will be used to guide the research process, specifically coding and analysis of data using theory constructs and the relevant components associated with those constructs. This article provides a blueprint for the research and describes a theoretical framework, normalisation process theory in terms of its flexibility as an analytical framework. Consistent with the goals of best research practice, this study protocol will inform the research community in the field of primary health care about emerging research in this field. Publishing a study protocol ensures researcher fidelity to the analysis plan and supports research collaboration across teams. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Great expectations: private sector activity in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and stem cell therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Lysaght, Michael J; Jaklenec, Ana; Deweerd, Elizabeth

    2008-02-01

    This report draws upon data from a variety of sources to provide a detailed estimate of the current scope of private sector development and commercial activity in the aggregate field comprising tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and stem cell therapeutics. Economic activity has grown a remarkable fivefold in the past 5 years. As of mid-2007 approximately 50 firms or business units with over 3000 employees offered commercial tissue-regenerative products or services with generally profitable annual sales in excess of $1.3 billion. Well over a million patients have been treated with these products. In addition, 110 development-stage companies with over 55 products in FDA-level clinical trials and other preclinical stages employed approximately 2500 scientists or support personnel and spent 850 million development dollars in 2007. These totals represent a remarkable recovery from the downturn of 2000-2002, at which time tissue engineering was in shambles because of disappointing product launches, failed regulatory trials, and the general investment pullback following the dot-com crash. Commercial success has resulted in large measure from identification of products that are achievable with available technology and under existing regulatory guidelines. Development-stage firms have become much more adept at risk management. The resilience of the field, as well as its current breadth and diversity, augurs well for the future of regenerative medicine.

  10. Private sector village enterprise a new approach to sustainable financing

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, C.F.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents an enterprise plan for introducing solar power in a rural market, while providing economic development, and hence the ability of the user to pay for the power source. This plan is based on a product called GEEP - a solar sewing machine conversion kit. This kit can be retrofit onto pedal sewing machines and marketed to village tailors in India, as part of a marketing program which includes increased demand for tailored products which will allow the tailors to be able to finance the conversion kits.

  11. Quality of anti-malarials collected in the private and informal sectors in Guyana and Suriname

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite a significant reduction in the number of malaria cases in Guyana and Suriname, this disease remains a major problem in the interior of both countries, especially in areas with gold mining and logging operations, where malaria is endemic. National malaria control programmes in these countries provide treatment to patients with medicines that are procured and distributed through regulated processes in the public sector. However, availability to medicines in licensed facilities (private sector) and unlicensed facilities (informal sector) is common, posing the risk of access to and use of non-recommended treatments and/or poor quality products. Methods To assess the quality of circulating anti-malarial medicines, samples were purchased in the private and informal sectors of Guyana and Suriname in 2009. The sampling sites were selected based on epidemiological data and/or distance from health facilities. Samples were analysed for identity, content, dissolution or disintegration, impurities, and uniformity of dosage units or weight variation according to manufacturer, pharmacopeial, or other validated method. Results Quality issues were observed in 45 of 77 (58%) anti-malarial medicines sampled in Guyana of which 30 failed visual & physical inspection and 18 failed quality control tests. The proportion of monotherapy and ACT medicines failing quality control tests was 43% (13/30) and 11% (5/47) respectively. A higher proportion of medicines sampled from the private sector 34% (11/32) failed quality control tests versus 16% (7/45) in the informal sector. In Suriname, 58 medicines were sampled, of which 50 (86%) were Artecom®, the fixed-dose combination of piperaquine-dihydroartemisinin-trimethoprim co-blistered with a primaquine phosphate tablet. All Artecom samples were found to lack a label claim for primaquine, thus failing visual and physical inspection. Conclusions The findings of the studies in both countries point to significant problems with

  12. Postgraduate Emergency Medicine Training in India: An Educational Partnership with the Private Sector.

    PubMed

    Douglass, Katherine; Pousson, Amelia; Gidwani, Shweta; Smith, Jeffrey

    2015-11-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) is a recently recognized specialty in India, still in its infancy. Local training programs are developing, but remain very limited. Private, for-profit hospitals are an important provider of graduate medical education (GME) in India, and are partnering with United States (US) universities in EM to expand training opportunities. Our aim was to describe current private-sector programs affiliated with a US university providing postgraduate EM training in India, the evolution and structure of these programs, and successes and challenges of program implementation. Programs have been established in seven cities in India in partnership with a US academic institution. Full-time trainees have required didactics, clinical rotations, research, and annual examinations. Faculty members affiliated with the US institution visit each program monthly. Regular evaluations have informed program modifications, and a local faculty development program has been implemented. Currently, 240 trainees are enrolled in the EM postgraduate program, and 141 physicians have graduated. A pilot survey conducted in 2012 revealed that 93% of graduates are currently practicing EM, 82% of those in India; 71% are involved in teaching, and 32% in research. Further investigation into programmatic impacts is necessary. Challenges include issues of formal program recognition both in India and abroad. This unique partnership is playing a major early role in EM GME in India. Future steps include official program recognition, expanded numbers of training sites, and a gradual transition of training and education to local faculty. Similar partnership programs may be effective in other settings outside of India. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Implications of private sector Hib vaccine coverage for the introduction of public sector Hib-containing pentavalent vaccine in India: evidence from retrospective time series data.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abhishek; Kaplan, Warren A; Chokshi, Maulik; Hasan Farooqui, Habib; Zodpey, Sanjay P

    2015-02-23

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine has been available in India's private sector market since 1997. It was not until 14 December 2011 that the Government of India initiated the phased public sector introduction of a Hib (and DPT, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus)-containing pentavalent vaccine. Our objective was to investigate the state-specific coverage and behaviour of Hib vaccine in India when it was available only in the private sector market but not in the public sector. This baseline information can act as a guide to determine how much coverage the public sector rollout of pentavalent vaccine (scheduled April 2015) will need to bear in order to achieve complete coverage. 16 of 29 states in India, 2009-2012. Retrospective descriptive secondary data analysis. (1) Annual sales of Hib vaccines, by volume, from private sector hospitals and retail pharmacies collected by IMS Health and (2) national household surveys. State-specific Hib vaccine coverage (%) and its associations with state-specific socioeconomic status. The overall private sector Hib vaccine coverage among the 2009-2012 birth cohort was low (4%) and varied widely among the studied Indian states (minimum 0.3%; maximum 4.6%). We found that private sector Hib vaccine coverage depends on urban areas with good access to the private sector, parent's purchasing capacity and private paediatricians' prescribing practices. Per capita gross domestic product is a key explanatory variable. The annual Hib vaccine uptake and the 2009-2012 coverage levels were several times higher in the capital/metropolitan cities than the rest of the state, suggesting inequity in access to Hib vaccine delivered by the private sector. If India has to achieve high and equitable Hib vaccine coverage levels, nationwide public sector introduction of the pentavalent vaccine is needed. However, the role of private sector in universal Hib vaccine coverage is undefined as yet but it should not be neglected as a useful complement to

  14. GIS technology transfer for use in private sector consulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibas, Dawn R.; Davis, Roger J.

    1996-03-01

    Summit Envirosolutions, Inc. (Summit) is an EOCAP '93 company working in partnership with NASA's Commercial Remote Sensing Program to integrate the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) technology into our environmental consulting business. The EOCAP program has allowed us to obtain the hardware and software necessary for this technology that would have been difficult for a small company, such as Summit, to purchase outright. We are integrating GIS/RS into our consulting business in several areas including wellhead protection and environmental assessments. The major emphasis in the EOCAP project is to develop a system, termed RealFlowSM. The goals of RealFlowSM are to reduce client costs associated with environmental compliance (in particular preparation of EPA-mandated Wellhead Protection Plans), more accurately characterize aquifer parameters, provide a scientifically sound basis for delineating Wellhead Protection Areas, and readily assess changes in well field operations and potential impacts of environmental stresses. RealFlowSM utilizes real-time telemetric data, digital imagery, GIS, Global Positioning System (GPS), and field data to characterize a study area at a lower cost. In addition, we are applying this technology in other service areas and showing a reduction in the overall costs for large projects.

  15. Review of private sector treatment, storage, and disposal capacity for radioactive waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Harris, J.G.; Moore-Mayne, S.; Mayes, R.; Naretto, C.

    1995-04-14

    This report is an update of a report that summarized the current and near-term commercial and disposal of radioactive and mixed waste. This report was capacity for the treatment, storage, dating and written for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) with the objective of updating and expanding the report entitled ``Review of Private Sector Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Capacity for Radioactive Waste``, (INEL-95/0020, January 1995). The capacity to process radioactively-contaminated protective clothing and/or respirators was added to the list of private sector capabilities to be assessed. Of the 20 companies surveyed in the previous report, 14 responded to the request for additional information, five did not respond, and one asked to be deleted from the survey. One additional company was identified as being capable of performing LLMW treatability studies and six were identified as providers of laundering services for radioactively-contaminated protective clothing and/or respirators.

  16. Partnership for a Healthier America: Creating Change Through Private Sector Partnerships.

    PubMed

    Simon, Caitlin; Kocot, S Lawrence; Dietz, William H

    2017-06-01

    This review provides background on the formation of the Partnership for a Healthier America (PHA), that was created in conjunction with the Let's Move! initiative, and an overview of its work to date. To encourage industry to offer and promote healthier options, PHA partners with the private sector. Principles that guide PHA partnerships include ensuring that partnerships represent meaningful change, partners sign a legally binding contract and progress is monitored and publicly reported. Since 2010, PHA has established private sector partnerships in an effort to transform the marketplace to ensure that every child has the chance to grow up at a healthy weight. Many agreements between PHA and its industry partners align with the White House Task Force Report on Childhood Obesity. The reach and impact of over 200 partnerships attest to the success of this initiative.

  17. What can be done about the private health sector in low-income countries?

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Anne; Brugha, Ruairi; Hanson, Kara; McPake, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    A very large private health sector exists in low-income countries. It consists of a great variety of providers and is used by a wide cross-section of the population. There are substantial concerns about the quality of care given, especially at the more informal end of the range of providers. This is particularly true for diseases of public health importance such as tuberculosis, malaria, and sexually transmitted infections. How can the activities of the private sector in these countries be influenced so that they help to meet national health objectives? Although the evidence base is not good, there is a fair amount of information on the types of intervention that are most successful in directly influencing the behaviour of providers and on what might be the necessary conditions for success. There is much less evidence, however, of effective approaches to interventions on the demand side and policies that involve strengthening the purchasing and regulatory roles of governments. PMID:12075370

  18. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a case study of the potential of public and private sector data in India and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Berhanu, Della; Taddesse, Nolawi; Srivastava, Aradhana; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Schellenberg, Joanna; Iqbal Avan, Bilal

    2016-09-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries have pluralistic health systems where private for-profit and not-for-profit sectors complement the public sector: data shared across sectors can provide information for local decision-making. The third article in a series of four on district decision-making for health in low-income settings, this study shows the untapped potential of existing data through documenting the nature and type of data collected by the public and private health systems, data flow and sharing, use and inter-sectoral linkages in India and Ethiopia. In two districts in each country, semi-structured interviews were conducted with administrators and data managers to understand the type of data maintained and linkages with other sectors in terms of data sharing, flow and use. We created a database of all data elements maintained at district level, categorized by form and according to the six World Health Organization health system blocks. We used content analysis to capture the type of data available for different health system levels. Data flow in the public health sectors of both counties is sequential, formal and systematic. Although multiple sources of data exist outside the public health system, there is little formal sharing of data between sectors. Though not fully operational, Ethiopia has better developed formal structures for data sharing than India. In the private and public sectors, health data in both countries are collected in all six health system categories, with greatest focus on service delivery data and limited focus on supplies, health workforce, governance and contextual information. In the Indian private sector, there is a better balance than in the public sector of data across the six categories. In both India and Ethiopia the majority of data collected relate to maternal and child health. Both countries have huge potential for increased use of health data to guide district decision-making.

  19. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a case study of the potential of public and private sector data in India and Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Berhanu, Della; Taddesse, Nolawi; Srivastava, Aradhana; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries have pluralistic health systems where private for-profit and not-for-profit sectors complement the public sector: data shared across sectors can provide information for local decision-making. The third article in a series of four on district decision-making for health in low-income settings, this study shows the untapped potential of existing data through documenting the nature and type of data collected by the public and private health systems, data flow and sharing, use and inter-sectoral linkages in India and Ethiopia. In two districts in each country, semi-structured interviews were conducted with administrators and data managers to understand the type of data maintained and linkages with other sectors in terms of data sharing, flow and use. We created a database of all data elements maintained at district level, categorized by form and according to the six World Health Organization health system blocks. We used content analysis to capture the type of data available for different health system levels. Data flow in the public health sectors of both counties is sequential, formal and systematic. Although multiple sources of data exist outside the public health system, there is little formal sharing of data between sectors. Though not fully operational, Ethiopia has better developed formal structures for data sharing than India. In the private and public sectors, health data in both countries are collected in all six health system categories, with greatest focus on service delivery data and limited focus on supplies, health workforce, governance and contextual information. In the Indian private sector, there is a better balance than in the public sector of data across the six categories. In both India and Ethiopia the majority of data collected relate to maternal and child health. Both countries have huge potential for increased use of health data to guide district decision-making. PMID:27591203

  20. Analyzing the Efficacy of Early Retirement Incentives in the Private Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. 12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release...This research paper reviews costs and ramifications of early retirement incentives and their efficacy as compared to other cost-reduction options, and...Business and Public Policy iv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ANALYZING THE EFFICACY OF EARLY RETIREMENT INCENTIVES IN THE PRIVATE SECTOR

  1. Administration and Regulation of a Military Retirement System Funded by Private Sector Investments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    Retirement Income Security Act ( ERISA ) in 1974 that were designed to protect participants in pension plans or their beneficiaries from fund...mismanagement. Although ERISA does not apply to Government pension plans, some of the provisions it sets forth with regard to the responsibilities and...liabilities of pension fund managers may be applicable to the investment manager of an MRS fund financed by the private sector. According to ERISA , all those

  2. Collaboration across private and public sector primary health care services: benefits, costs and policy implications.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Julie; Powell Davies, Gawaine; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Fort Harris, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Ongoing care for chronic conditions is best provided by interprofessional teams. There are challenges in achieving this where teams cross organisational boundaries. This article explores the influence of organisational factors on collaboration between private and public sector primary and community health services involved in diabetes care. It involved a case study using qualitative methods. Forty-five participants from 20 organisations were purposively recruited. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and from content analysis of documents. Thematic analysis was used employing a two-level coding system and cross case comparisons. The patterns of collaborative patient care were influenced by a combination of factors relating to the benefits and costs of collaboration and the influence of support mechanisms. Benefits lay in achieving common or complementary health or organisational goals. Costs were incurred in bridging differences in organisational size, structure, complexity and culture. Collaboration was easier between private sector organisations than between private and public sectors. Financial incentives were not sufficient to overcome organisational barriers. To achieve more coordinated primary and community health care structural changes are also needed to better align funding mechanisms, priorities and accountabilities of the different organisations.

  3. Direct and indirect economic costs among private-sector employees with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Berger, Ariel; Hartrick, Craig; Edelsberg, John; Sadosky, Alesia; Oster, Gerry

    2011-11-01

    To estimate direct and indirect economic costs among private-sector employees with osteoarthritis (OA). Using a large US employer benefits database, we identified all employees with evidence of OA during calendar year 2007, and compared their costs of health care and work loss to age-and-sex-matched employees without evidence of OA in that year. Private-sector employees with OA (n = 2399) averaged 62.9 days of absenteeism versus 36.7 days among matched comparators (n = 2399) (P < 0.01). Mean total direct costs among these persons were $17,751 and $5057, respectively (P < 0.01); 34% of health care costs among persons with OA arose from medical encounters with listed diagnoses of OA. Mean total indirect costs were two-fold higher among persons with OA ($5002 versus $2120 for those without OA; P < 0.01). Private-sector employees with OA have higher direct and indirect costs than those without this condition.

  4. [Chilean hospitals: availability and productivity of the public and private sectors].

    PubMed

    Medina, E; Kaempffer, A M

    1992-03-01

    Hospital bed availability, trends in number of beds, productivity and administrative aspects in the public and private hospital sectors are analyzed. At present, there are 3.3 beds per 1000 population in Chile. This represents a decrease from previous figures, in spite of increasing demands derived from population aging and greater birth assistance needs. Overall productivity of the hospital system is reflected in 31 annual admissions per bed, an average hospital stay of 8 days and a 75% occupancy rate. The National Health Service System is responsible for 76% of admissions. However, it takes care of more than 90% of bed needs for tuberculosis patients and more than 80% for hospital birth assistance, complications of pregnancy, perinatal disease, communicable diseases, respiratory illnesses, miscarriages and skin diseases. The private sector takes care of more than 40% of rheumatic and musculo skeletal diseases and more than one third of mental health problems. The National Health Service, compared to the private sector, exhibits a greater occupancy rate with an average stay only one day longer. Complexities of hospital administration, new world trends and the relation to external economic resources are discussed.

  5. Private Sector Participation in Urban Water and Sanitation Provision in Ghana: Experiences from the Tamale Metropolitan Area (TMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osumanu, Issaka Kanton

    2008-07-01

    African governments, like most countries in the developing world, face daunting tasks in their attempts to provide effective and equitable water and sanitation services for their ever increasing urban populations. Consequently, the past few years have witnessed increased private sector participation in urban water and sanitation provision, as many African governments strive to improve access to water and sanitation services for their citizens in line with Millennium Development Goal 7 (MDG7). Since the early 1990s, the government of Ghana and many local authorities have entered into various forms of public-private partnerships in urban water and sanitation provision. This article examines the outcome of such partnerships using the Tamale Metropolitan Area (TMA) as a case study with the aim of providing policy guidelines for the way forward. The article argues that the public-private arrangement for water supply and sanitation infrastructure management in the Tamale Metropolis has done nothing that an invigorated public sector could not have possibly achieved. It concludes that there can be no sustainable improvement in water and sanitation provision without political commitment, stakeholder ownership, and strong support for community driven initiatives.

  6. Outsourcing vaccine logistics to the private sector: The evidence and lessons learned from the Western Cape Province in South-Africa.

    PubMed

    Lydon, Patrick; Raubenheimer, Ticky; Arnot-Krüger, Michelle; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-06-26

    With few exceptions, immunization supply chains in developing countries continue to face chronic difficulties in providing uninterrupted availability of potent vaccines up to service delivery levels, and in the most efficient manner possible. As these countries struggle to keep pace with an ever growing number of vaccines, more and more Ministries of Health are considering options of engaging the private sector to manage vaccine storage, handling and distribution on their behalf. Despite this emerging trend, there is limited evidence on the benefits or challenges of this option to improve public supply chain performance for national immunization programmes. To bridge this knowledge gap, this study aims to shed light on the value proposition of outsourcing by documenting the specific experience of the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The methodology for this review rested on conducting two key supply chain assessments which allowed juxtaposing the performance of the government managed segments of the vaccine supply chain against those managed by the private sector. In particular, measures of effective vaccine management best practice and temperature control in the cold chain were analysed. In addition, the costs of engaging the private sector were analysed to get a better understanding of the economics underpinning outsourcing vaccine logistics. The results from this analysis confirmed some of the theoretical benefits of outsourcing to the private sector. Yet, if the experience in the Western Cape can be deemed a successful one, there are several policy and practice implications that developing countries should be mindful of when considering engaging the private sector. While outsourcing can help improve the performance of the vaccine supply chain, it has the potential to do the reverse if done incorrectly. The findings and lessons learnt from the Western Cape experience can serve as a step towards understanding the role of the private sector in immunization

  7. Eradication of iron deficiency anemia through food fortification: the role of the private sector.

    PubMed

    Mehansho, Haile

    2002-04-01

    Delivering iron fortified foods that provide meaningful levels of bioavailable iron without altering the accepted appearance and taste of the product presents multiple challenges. Issues relating to food technology, product formulation, acceptance and efficacy evaluation, marketing and quality control must all be addressed. Procter & Gamble Company has developed a unique technology that stabilizes iron in an aqueous system. Utilizing this technology, a fortified powder drink has been developed that is easy to distribute, store and use and that delivers 20-30% of the U. S. RDA for iron, as well as significant amounts of vitamin A, iodine, zinc and vitamin C in a single serving. Acceptance, bioavailability and effectiveness trials have all produced positive results. This type of fortified product can contribute to alleviating iron deficiency but requires scaling up, packaging, quality control and distribution through normal trade channels and public institutions to have a sustainable impact. To be effective, a well-planned communications campaign should also accompany any major iron fortification program. Eradication of iron deficiency anemia can be done but requires a holistic approach that addresses multiple barriers and leverages the untapped expertise and strength of the alliance between public and private sectors.

  8. Job functions of Swedish public and private sector vocational rehabilitation workers.

    PubMed

    Millet, Patrick B; Vaittinen, Pauli

    2009-01-01

    This study has had two main aims, the first to investigate and gather knowledge of the major job functions of Swedish rehabilitation workers, the second to study the frequency of use of these functions in the VR process. Structured questionnaires were sent to Swedish rehabilitation workers from public and private sectors. To identify the major dimensions of Swedish rehabilitation workers' job in the vocational rehabilitation (VR) process, a principal component factor analysis was performed. Results revealed that there are four main factors (dimensions) that comprised the VR process in Sweden. The four factors (dimensions) are job development and career counselling; assessment and counselling interventions; workplace adjustment and employer consultation and client support, personnel development and public relations. The VR process in Sweden is limited in both its scope and depth. This when one compares with the results of studies carried out in the USA, who found seven and six dimensions, respectively. It is argued that it cannot be excluded that the negative trend of extensive sick leave and early pensions are attributable to the limitations in the VR process that have been found. Suggested is the urgent need to put resources in place that would support the further advancement of the knowledge and competencies of the VR services in Sweden.

  9. The willingness of private-sector doctors to manage public-sector HIV/AIDS patients in the eThekwini metropolitan region of KwaZulu-Natal

    PubMed Central

    Jinabhai, Champaklal C.; Taylor, Myra

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background South Africa is severely affected by the AIDS pandemic and this has resulted in an already under-resourced public sector being placed under further stress, while there remains a vibrant private sector. To address some of the resource and personnel shortages facing the public sector in South Africa, partnerships between the public and private sectors are slowly being forged. However, little is known about the willingness of private-sector doctors in the eThekwini Metropolitan (Metro) region of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa to manage public-sector HIV and AIDS patients. Objectives To gauge the willingness of private-sector doctor to manage public-sector HIV and AIDS patients and to describe factors that may influence their responses. Method A descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken among private-sector doctors, both general practitioners (GPs) and specialists, working in the eThekwini Metro, using an anonymous, structured questionnaire to investigate their willingness to manage public-sector HIV and AIDS patients and the factors associated with their responses. Chi-square and independent t-tests were used to evaluate associations. Odds ratios were determined using a binary logistic regression model. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Most of the doctors were male GPs aged 30–50 years who had been in practice for more than 10 years. Of these, 133 (77.8%) were willing to manage public-sector HIV and AIDS patients, with 105 (78.9%) reporting adequate knowledge, 99 (74.4%) adequate time, and 83 (62.4%) adequate infrastructure. Of the 38 (22.2%) that were unwilling to manage these patients, more than 80% cited a lack of time, knowledge and infrastructure to manage them. Another reason cited by five doctors (3.8%) who were unwilling, was the distance from public-sector facilities. Of the 33 specialist doctors, 14 (42.4%) indicated that they would not be willing to manage public-sector HIV and AIDS patients

  10. Addressing Quality Challenges in the Private University Sector in Bangladesh: From Policy Formulation to Institutional Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco Ramírez, Gerardo; Jahirul Haque, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Private higher education is growing, especially in developing and transitioning countries. Rapid growth frequently comes with concerns about quality. This article explores challenges and opportunities for higher education quality among private universities in Bangladesh. By presenting a vertical case study that explores interactions among actors…

  11. Addressing Quality Challenges in the Private University Sector in Bangladesh: From Policy Formulation to Institutional Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco Ramírez, Gerardo; Jahirul Haque, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Private higher education is growing, especially in developing and transitioning countries. Rapid growth frequently comes with concerns about quality. This article explores challenges and opportunities for higher education quality among private universities in Bangladesh. By presenting a vertical case study that explores interactions among actors…

  12. Do elections matter for private-sector healthcare management in Brazil? An analysis of municipal health policy.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Alecia J; Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Blendon, Robert J

    2017-07-12

    This study analyzed several political determinants of increased private-sector management in Brazilian health care. In Brazil, the poor depend almost exclusively on the public Unified Health System (the SUS), which remains severely underfunded. Given the overhead costs associated with privately contracted health services, increased private management is one driver of higher expenditures in the system. Although left parties campaign most vocally in support of greater public control of the SUS, the extent to which their stated positions translate into health care policy remains untested. Drawing on multiple publicly available data sources, we used linear regression to analyze how political party-in-power and existing private sector health care contracting affect the share of privately managed health care services and outsourcing in municipalities. Data from two election periods-2004 to 2008 and 2008 to 2012-were analyzed. Our findings showed that although private sector contracting varies greatly across municipalities, this variation is not systematically associated with political party in power. This suggests that electoral politics plays a relatively minor role in municipal-level health care administration. Existing levels of private sector management appear to have a greater effect on the public-private makeup of the Brazilian healthcare system, suggesting a strong role of path dependence in the evolution of Brazilian health care delivery. Despite campaign rhetoric asserting distinct positions on privatization in the SUS, factors other than political party in power have a greater effect on private-sector health system management at the municipal-level in Brazil. Given the limited effect of elections on this issue, strengthening participatory bodies such as municipal health councils may better enfranchise citizens in the fundamental debate over public and private roles in the health care sector.

  13. [Limits of self regulation of the private food sector: the case of removing of vending machines from schools].

    PubMed

    Michaud, Claude; Baudier, François

    2007-01-01

    Conflicts of interest between the food industry and public decision makers have increasingly multiplied over the last few years, especially within the context of implementing the French National Nutrition Programme. This paper describes the rhetoric and the strategies developed by the private sector in order to counter the law's implementation and enforcement based on a concrete example, namely, the removal of vending machines from schools. After having evoked possibilities of developing new partnerships as suggested by national and international health authorities, it reaffirms the right and the duty of the State to regulate within the framework of a health promotion policy, an approach which integrates the necessary open democratic public debate between the different sectors.

  14. Private power development and environmental protection in India

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.; Wilbanks, T.J.

    1997-12-01

    This report assesses relationships between private power development in India and environmental protection in that country. The central question is whether private firms generating and distributing electricity in developing countries will do a better or a worse job in environmental protection, as a part of their overall corporate responsibility, than public-sector institutions. After reviewing the fundamental question, why it is asked, and the context in which it operates in the nation of India, this report continues with an analysis of available information, quantitative and qualitative, that can help to resolve the issues in the particular case of India. Finally, it ends with conclusions from the analysis and recommendations for reducing remaining uncertainties in the future.

  15. The dominance of the private sector in the provision of emergency obstetric care: studies from Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Mariano; Vora, Kranti; De Costa, Ayesha

    2016-07-07

    India has experienced a steep rise in institutional childbirth. The relative contributions of public and private sector facilities to emergency obstetric care (EmOC) has not been studied in this setting. This paper aims to study in three districts of Gujarat state, India:(a) the availability of EmOC facilities in the public and private sectors; (b) the availability and distribution of human resources for birth attendance in the two sectors; and (c) to benchmark the above against 2005 World Health Report benchmarks (WHR2005). A cross-sectional survey of obstetric care facilities reporting 30 or more births in the last three months was conducted (n = 159). Performance of EmOC signal functions and availability of human resources were assessed. EmOC provision was dominated by private facilities (112/159) which were located mainly in district headquarters or small urban towns. The number of basic and comprehensive EmOC facilities was below WHR2005 benchmarks. A high number of private facilities performed C-sections but not all basic signal functions (72/159). Public facilities were the main EmOC providers in rural areas and 40/47 functioned at less than basic EmOC level. The rate of obstetricians per 1000 births was higher in the private sector. The private sector is the dominant EmOC provider in the state. Given the highly skewed distribution of facilities and resources in the private sector, state led partnerships with the private sector so that all women in the state receive care is important alongside strengthening the public sector.

  16. A Conceptual Development Framework for Management and Leadership Learning in the UK Incubator Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D. Hannon, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Focuses attention upon a recent phenomenon promoted by public sector policy and government funding and adopted within the private sector as a vehicle for wealth creation, where wealth can mean the development of different forms of capital such as financial, intellectual and social. Incubators and incubation programmes have established themselves…

  17. Assessing the Impact of Privatization Policy on Telecommunications Sector Effectiveness and Economic Activity in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngwa, Oneurine B.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, privatization has been a growing phenomenon in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is viewed as an instrument used by the public sector to reduce the role of the state in the economies while enhancing the scope of private ownership and participation of goods and services (Akram et al, 2011). Researchers have noted that the telecommunication…

  18. Assessing the Impact of Privatization Policy on Telecommunications Sector Effectiveness and Economic Activity in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngwa, Oneurine B.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, privatization has been a growing phenomenon in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is viewed as an instrument used by the public sector to reduce the role of the state in the economies while enhancing the scope of private ownership and participation of goods and services (Akram et al, 2011). Researchers have noted that the telecommunication…

  19. The New Business Look in Employment and Training Programs. The Private Sector Initiative Program (PSIP). Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Uvaldo

    Intended to inform local communities (especially the business sector) of ways to join government-sponsored employment and training programs with the private employment market, this handbook provides broad guidelines for use in the establishment and operation of the Private Industry Council (PIC). (The PIC is the primary vehicle created by Title…

  20. Public and private donor financing for health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Howard, L M

    1991-06-01

    Among the many variables that influence the outcome of national health status in both developed and developing countries, the availability and efficiency of financing is critical. For 148 developing countries, annual public and private expenditures from domestic sources (1983) were estimated to be approximately $100 billion. For the United States alone, annual public and private costs for medical care are almost five times larger ($478 billion, 1988). In contrast to domestic expenditures, the total flow of donor assistance for health in 1986 was estimated to be $4 billion, approximately 5% of total current domestic expenditures by developing countries. Direct donor assistance for development purposes by the United States Government approximates 0.5% of the US federal budget (1988). Approximately 10% of all United States development assistance is allocated for health, nutrition, and population planning purposes. While the total health sector contribution is on the order of $500 million annually, the US contribution represents about 13% of health contributions by all external donors. In sub-Saharan Africa, all donor health allocations only reach 3.4% of total development assistance. While available data suggest that private and voluntary organizations contribute approximately 20% of total global health assistance, data reporting methods from private agencies are not sufficiently specific to provide accurate global estimates. Clearly, developing countries as a whole are dependent on the efficient use of their own resources because external financing remains a small fraction of total domestic financing. Nevertheless, improvement in health sector performance often depends on the sharing of western experience and technology, services available through external donor cooperation. In this effort, the available supply of donor financing for health is not restricted entirely by donor policy, but also by the official demand for external financing as submitted by developing

  1. Policies to Spur Energy Access. Executive Summary; Volume 1, Engaging the Private Sector in Expanding Access to Electricity; Volume 2, Case Studies to Public-Private Models to Finance Decentralized Electricity Access

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Terri; Rai, Neha; Esterly, Sean; Cox, Sadie; Reber, Tim; Muzammil, Maliha; Mahmood, Tasfiq; Kaur, Nanki; Tesfaye, Lidya; Mamuye, Simret; Knuckles, James; Morris, Ellen; de Been, Merijn; Steinbach, Dave; Acharya, Sunil; Chhetri, Raju Pandit; Bhushal, Ramesh

    2015-09-01

    Government policy is one of the most important factors in engaging the private sector in providing universal access to electricity. In particular, the private sector is well positioned to provide decentralized electricity products and services. While policy uncertainty and regulatory barriers can keep enterprises and investors from engaging in the market, targeted policies can create opportunities to leverage private investment and skills to expand electricity access. However, creating a sustainable market requires policies beyond traditional electricity regulation. The report reviews the range of policy issues that impact the development and expansion of a market for decentralized electricity services from establishing an enabling policy environment to catalyzing finance, building human capacity, and integrating energy access with development programs. The case studies in this report show that robust policy frameworks--addressing a wide range of market issues--can lead to rapid transformation in energy access. The report highlights examples of these policies in action Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Mali, Mexico, and Nepal.

  2. Improved malaria case management in formal private sector through public private partnership in Ethiopia: retrospective descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Argaw, Mesele D; Woldegiorgis, Asfawesen Gy; Abate, Derebe T; Abebe, Mesfin E

    2016-07-11

    Malaria is a major public health problem and still reported among the 10 top causes of morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia. More than one-third of the people sought treatment from the private health sector. Evaluating adherences of health care providers to standards are paramount importance to determine the quality and the effectiveness of service delivery. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of public private mix (PPM) approach in improving quality of malaria case management among formal private providers. A retrospective data analysis was conducted using 2959 facility-months data collected from 110 PPM for malaria care facilities located in Amhara, Dire Dawa, Hareri, Oromia, Southern Nation Nationalities and Peoples and Tigray regions. Data abstraction formats were used to collect and collate the data on quarterly bases. The data were manually cleaned and analysed using Microsoft Office Excel 2010. To claim statistical significance non-parametric McNemar test was done and decision accepted at P < 0.05. From April 2012-September 2015, a total of 873,707 malaria suspected patients were identified, of which one-fourth (25.6 %) were treated as malaria cases. Among malaria suspected cases the proportion of malaria investigation improved from recorded in first quarter 87.7-100.0 % in last quarter (X(2) = 66.84, P < 0.001). The majority (96.0 %) were parasitologically-confirmed cases either by using microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests. The overall slid positivity rate was 25.1 % of which half (50.7 %) were positive for Plasmodium falciparum and slightly lower than half (45.2 %) for Plasmodium vivax; the remaining 8790 (4.1 %) showed mixed infections of P. falciparum and P. vivax. Adherence to appropriate treatment using artemether-lumefantrine (AL) was improved from 47.8 % in the first quarter to 95.7 % in the last quarter (X(2) = 12.89, P < 0.001). Similarly, proper patient management using chloroquine (CQ) was improved

  3. Public Sector Industrial Relations: Recent Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaumont, Phil; Leopold, John

    1985-01-01

    This issue reviews trends in public sector employment (particularly in the light of government policy to reduce it), wages (in a context of cash limits), and strikes and other forms of industrial action. It also considers recent developments in the structure, organization, and policy of the "actors" in public sector industrial relations.…

  4. 75 FR 34148 - Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Editions 2. British Standards Institution 25999 (2007 Edition)--Business Continuity Management (BS 25999... the British Standards Institution, under the auspices of which the standard was developed, was not a... and their respective Sector Coordinating Councils to identify such existing sector activities. IP...

  5. The occupational and environmental status of Polish industry: a comparative study of the private and public sectors.

    PubMed

    Broszkiewicz, Roman; Brown, Halina Szejnwald; Hibner, Zofia

    2002-01-01

    During the last decade, Poland has made a successful transition toward democracy and market economy. Since the mid-1990s, we have studied the reforms in the environmental and occupational protection system in Poland, focusing on the privately owned firms. We found that considerable progress has taken place, especially in increasing the accountability of private employers and in improved enforcement. The fundamental legitimacy of regulators and the regulatory process, and the capacity for case-specific decision-making, are among the key explanatory factors. The case-specific implementation in Poland is consistent with models advocated by several authors in relation to other industrialized European economies. We attribute these developments in Poland to the continuity of institutions, and the generally good "fit" between the policies and institutions on one hand, and their social context on the other, including a wide sharing of certain values and norms. The outstanding question from our previous work has been the fate of state-owned firms, which may be facing different issues than the privatized ones, both in terms of economics, organizational culture, and relationships with the regulatory authorities. In this article, we report the results of a comparison between the private and state-owned firms, based on the questionnaire surveys of the two sectors. We find a striking similarity in performance of both sectors and in the authorities' attitudes toward both. These findings support our earlier proposition that Poland's success in instituting an effective occupational protection system is deeply embedded in the attitudes toward protecting workers' health and safety and toward balancing competing societal objectives. These attitudes have not changed during the transition to the market economy.

  6. Communication, Relationships, and Religious Difference in the Northern Ireland Workplace: A Study of Private and Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, David; Hargie, Owen; Wilson, Noel

    2008-01-01

    Four large organizations, two each from the private and public sectors of the Northern Ireland economy, were selected for this study which, first, explored the effects of religion-based workforce difference on intergroup relationships, second, investigated the contribution of organizational sector to communicative differences, and third, gauged…

  7. Communication, Relationships, and Religious Difference in the Northern Ireland Workplace: A Study of Private and Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, David; Hargie, Owen; Wilson, Noel

    2008-01-01

    Four large organizations, two each from the private and public sectors of the Northern Ireland economy, were selected for this study which, first, explored the effects of religion-based workforce difference on intergroup relationships, second, investigated the contribution of organizational sector to communicative differences, and third, gauged…

  8. Why do some physicians in Portuguese-speaking African countries work exclusively for the private sector? Findings from a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Russo, Giuliano; de Sousa, Bruno; Sidat, Mohsin; Ferrinho, Paulo; Dussault, Gilles

    2014-09-11

    informal sector, and those who decided to leave the civil service following a disagreement with the public employer. The study shows the importance of understanding the relation between health professionals' characteristics, motivations, and their engagement with the private sector to develop effective policies to regulate the profession. This may ultimately contribute to achieving universal access to medical services in low- and middle-income countries.

  9. The Economics of Private Sector R and D Decisionmaking in Aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Information which can be used in planning to insure commercial research and technology programs which are complementary to internally financed private sector activities are presented. The main concern is to identify the characteristics of productive projects in which firms are unlikely to invest. It is shown that: (1) if it is difficult to assess the commercial relevance of an R&D project or it it is characterized by high technical risk, or a relatively long payback period, private funding will be unlikely; and (2) if a project is large relative to the size of the firm, it is unlikely to be funded in the early stages of the R&D process. Firms tend to underinvest in projects with these characteristics.

  10. Private sector risk-sharing agreements in the United States: trends, barriers, and prospects.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Louis P; Carlson, Josh J; Bajaj, Preeti S; Towse, Adrian; Neumann, Peter J; Sullivan, Sean D; Westrich, Kimberly; Dubois, Robert W

    2015-09-01

    Risk-sharing agreements (RSAs) between drug manufacturers and payers link coverage and reimbursement to real-world performance or utilization of medical products. These arrangements have garnered considerable attention in recent years. However, greater use outside the United States raises questions as to why their use has been limited in the US private sector, and whether their use might increase in the evolving US healthcare system. To understand current trends, success factors, and challenges in the use of RSAs, we conducted a review of RSAs, interviews, and a survey to understand key stakeholders' experiences and expectations for RSAs in the US private sector. Trends in the numbers of RSAs were assessed using a database of RSAs. We also conducted in-depth interviews with stakeholders from pharmaceutical companies, payer organizations, and industry experts in the United States and European Union. In addition, we administered an online survey with a broader audience to identify perceptions of the future of RSAs in the United States. Most manufacturers and payers expressed interest in RSAs and see potential value in their use. Due to numerous barriers associated with outcomes-based agreements, stakeholders were more optimistic about financial-based RSAs. In the US private sector, however, there remains considerable interest--improved data systems and shifting incentives (via health reform and accountable care organizations) may generate more action. In the US commercial payer markets, there is continued interest among some manufacturers and payers in outcomes-based RSAs. Despite continued discussion and activity, the number of new agreements is still small.

  11. Availability and prescription practice of anti-malaria drugs in the private health sector in Yemen.

    PubMed

    Bin Ghouth, Abdulla Salim

    2013-05-13

    Although the government of Yemen changed the national policy for treating malaria in November 2005 from chloroquine to combination drugs in the form of artesunate + sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as first line and lumefantrine + artemether as second line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, clinicians in public and private health facilities continued to prescribe chloroquine because their knowledge about the new treatment policy was poor. A non-randomized trial of pre- and post-evaluation of the training and reporting interventions about prescription behaviors and availability of anti-malaria drugs among clinicians and pharmacists in the private sector in three governorates in Yemen was conducted. Adherence of clinicians in the private sector to the new national guidelines for anti-malaria drugs improved from 21% in pre-intervention period to 38% after the intervention for artesunate + SP being prescribed as the first-line treatment. Prescription of lumefantrine + artemether as the second-line anti-malaria treatment was also improved from 18% before the intervention to 22% post-intervention. Unfortunately the combination of halofantrine + SP continued to be frequently prescribed by clinicians in Sana'a city (18%). Artesunate + SP and quinine are increasing their marketing significantly from 8% in the pre-intervention period to 22% post-intervention (P-value 0.001). The study provides evidence of usefulness of the training intervention on the national guidelines for malaria treatment. Additionally, the involvement of private health-care providers in reporting procedures will promote the rational prescription and availability of anti-malaria drugs.

  12. Cost analysis of Healthcare in a Private sector Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in India.

    PubMed

    Karambelkar, Geeta; Malwade, Sudhir; Karambelkar, Rajendra

    2016-09-08

    To study the actual cost of care per patient in private-sector level IIIa Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Prospective cost-analysis study. Cost incurred by the family on the treatment of baby, separately for every newborn for entire length of hospitalization, was calculated. 126 newborns were enrolled; High level of intervention was needed for 25.4% babies. The mean cost of care was US $ 90.7 per patient per day. Bulk of the cost of care was the hospital bill.

  13. [Making census data accessible to local users in the public and private sectors].

    PubMed

    Conning, A; Silva, A

    1993-06-01

    The authors outline ways in which government statistical offices can make census data available to local public- and private-sector users. Several computer programs, including REDATAM-Plus and Geographical Information Systems, are discussed. "The successful implementation of the use of the census data at the local level will require that...national agencies facilitate the institutionalization of technology transfer by providing, among other things, technical support, training at a distance, data and cartography standards, and solutions to data protection issues." The geographical focus is on Latin America and the Caribbean. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  14. Convergence and dissonance: evolution in private-sector approaches to disease management and care coordination.

    PubMed

    Mays, Glen P; Au, Melanie; Claxton, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Disease management (DM) approaches survived the 1990s backlash against managed care because of their potential for consumer-friendly cost containment, but purchasers have been cautious about investing heavily in them because of uncertainty about return on investment. This study examines how private-sector approaches to DM have evolved over the past two years in the midst of the movement toward consumer-driven health care. Findings indicate that these programs have become standard features of health plan design, despite a thin evidence base concerning their effectiveness. Uncertainties remain regarding how well these programs will function within benefit designs that require higher consumer cost sharing.

  15. SBIR and STTR Programs: The Private Sector, Public Sector and University Trifecta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Bryan K.; Sander, Erik; Shino, Kathleen J.; Hardin, J. Michael

    2008-01-01

    The process of creating and transitioning the storehouse of university research and development to commercial products is by its nature a true partnership of great university innovators, experienced entrepreneurs and adequate funding sources. In the United States, the process of university innovation to commercialization begins deep in university…

  16. Engaging the private sector to increase tuberculosis case detection: an impact evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Aamir J; Khowaja, Saira; Khan, Faisal S; Qazi, Fahad; Lotia, Ismat; Habib, Ali; Mohammed, Shama; Khan, Uzma; Amanullah, Farhana; Hussain, Hamidah; Becerra, Mercedes C; Creswell, Jacob; Keshavjee, Salmaan

    2012-08-01

    In many countries with a high burden of tuberculosis, most patients receive treatment in the private sector. We evaluated a multifaceted case-detection strategy in Karachi, Pakistan, targeting the private sector. A year-long communications campaign advised people with 2 weeks or more of productive cough to seek care at one of 54 private family medical clinics or a private hospital that was also a national tuberculosis programme (NTP) reporting centre. Community laypeople participated as screeners, using an interactive algorithm on mobile phones to assess patients and visitors in family-clinic waiting areas and the hospital's outpatient department. Screeners received cash incentives for case detection. Patients with suspected tuberculosis also came directly to the hospital's tuberculosis clinic (self-referrals) or were referred there (referrals). The primary outcome was the change (from 2010 to 2011) in tuberculosis notifications to the NTP in the intervention area compared with that in an adjacent control area. Screeners assessed 388,196 individuals at family clinics and 81,700 at Indus Hospital's outpatient department from January-December, 2011. A total of 2416 tuberculosis cases were detected and notified via the NTP reporting centre at Indus Hospital: 603 through family clinics, 273 through the outpatient department, 1020 from self-referrals, and 520 from referrals. In the intervention area overall, tuberculosis case notification to the NTP increased two times (from 1569 to 3140 cases) from 2010 to 2011--a 2·21 times increase (95% CI 1·93-2·53) relative to the change in number of case notifications in the control area. From 2010 to 2011, pulmonary tuberculosis notifications at Indus Hospital increased by 3·77 times for adults and 7·32 times for children. Novel approaches to tuberculosis case-finding involving the private sector and using laypeople, mobile phone software and incentives, and communication campaigns can substantially increase case

  17. Quantifying solid waste and recycling employment in Florida, USA: Trends in public and private sectors.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunjoo; Yi, Hongtao; Feiock, Richard C

    2015-12-01

    Measuring and tracking the numbers of jobs in solid waste management and recycling industries over time provide basic data to inform decision makers about the important role played by this sector in a state or region's 'green economy'. This study estimates the number of people employed in the solid waste and recycling industry from 1989 through 2011 in the state of Florida (USA), applying a classification scheme based on the Standard Industrial Code (SIC) and utilizing the National Establishment Time Series (NETS) database. The results indicate that solid waste and recycling jobs in the private sector steadily increased from 1989 to 2011, whereas government employment for solid waste management fluctuated over the same period. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Subsidising artemisinin-based combination therapy in the private retail sector.

    PubMed

    Opiyo, Newton; Yamey, Gavin; Garner, Paul

    2016-03-09

    interrupted-time-series studies that compared the effects of ACT price subsidies for private retailers to no subsidies or alternative ACT financing mechanisms were eligible for inclusion. Two authors independently screened and selected studies for inclusion. Two review authors independently extracted data, assessed study risk of bias and confidence in effect estimates (certainty of evidence) using Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). We included four trials (two cluster-randomised trials reported in three articles and two non-randomised cluster trials). Three trials assessed retail sector ACT subsidies combined with supportive interventions (retail outlet provider training, community awareness and mass media campaigns). One trial assessed vouchers provided to households to purchase subsidised ACTs. Price subsidies ranged from 80% to 95%. One trial enrolled children under five years of age; the other three trials studied people of all age groups. The studies were done in rural districts in East Africa (Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania).In this East Africa setting, these ACT subsidy programmes increased the percentage of children under five years of age receiving ACTs on the day, or following day, of fever onset by 25 percentage points (95% confidence interval (CI) 14.1 to 35.9 percentage points; 1 study, high certainty evidence). This suggests that in practice, among febrile children under five years of age with an ACT usage rate of 5% without a subsidy, subsidy programmes would increase usage by between 19% and 41% over a one year period.The ACT subsidy programmes increased the percentage of retail outlets stocking ACTs for children under five years of age by 31.9 percentage points (95% CI 26.3 to 37.5 percentage points; 1 study, high certainty evidence). Effects on ACT stocking for patients of any age is unknown because the certainty of evidence was very low.The ACT subsidy programmes decreased the median cost of ACTs for children under five

  19. Shifting the burden: the private sector's response to the AIDS epidemic in Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon L.

    2003-01-01

    As the economic burden of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) increases in sub-Saharan Africa, allocation of the burden among levels and sectors of society is changing. The private sector has more scope to avoid the economic burden of AIDS than governments, households, or nongovernmental organizations, and the burden is being systematically shifted away from the private sector. Common practices that transfer the burden to households and government include pre-employment screening, reductions in employee benefits, restructured employment contracts, outsourcing of low skilled jobs, selective retrenchments, and changes in production technologies. Between 1997 and 1999 more than two-thirds of large South African employers reduced the level of health care benefits or increased employee contributions. Most firms also have replaced defined-benefit retirement funds, which expose the firm to large annual costs but provide long-term support for families, with defined-contribution funds, which eliminate risks to the firm but provide little for families of younger workers who die of AIDS. Contracting out previously permanent jobs is also shielding firms from benefit and turnover costs, effectively shifting the responsibility to care for affected workers and their families to households, nongovernmental organizations, and the government. Many of these changes are responses to globalization that would have occurred in the absence of AIDS, but they are devastating for the households of employees with HIV/AIDS. We argue that the shift in the economic burden of AIDS is a predictable response by business to which a deliberate public policy response is needed. Countries should make explicit decisions about each sector's responsibilities if a socially desirable allocation is to be achieved. PMID:12751421

  20. Power sector liberalization in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Seabright, J.

    1998-07-01

    Based on extensive experience of the US Agency for International Development (USAID) with power sector liberalization in developing countries over the past decade, it has become clear that liberalization is a powerful tool for helping achieve sustainable and environmentally sound social and economic development. The basic driving forces for liberalization are: The need for additional energy to support sustainable economic and social development; the lack of public sector financial resources for system improvement; the inefficiency of existing power generation, transmission, distribution and end use; and the poor environmental performance of public sector power utilities. Power sector liberalization has brought the benefits of greater efficiency in the power sector, increased investment, more economic pricing, greater independence from political interference, increased competition and dampening of tariff increase, and better environmental protection. Care needs to be taken, however, to insure that progress in the areas of energy efficiency, renewable energy, and rural electrification are not compromised in the drive to liberalize. USAID firmly believes that power sector liberalization offers a fundamental opportunity to all countries to improve the sustainable supply and use of energy for productive purposes for this and future generations. All nations should seriously consider energy sector liberalization and one or more of the various approaches.

  1. Contracting private sector providers for public sector health services in Jalisco, Mexico: perspectives of system actors

    PubMed Central

    Nigenda, Gustavo H; González, Luz María

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Contracting out health services is a strategy that many health systems in the developing world are following, despite the lack of decisive evidence that this is the best way to improve quality, increase efficiency and expand coverage. A large body of literature has appeared in recent years focusing on the results of several contracting strategies, but very few papers have addressed aspects of the managerial process and how this can affect results. Case description This paper describes and analyses the perceptions and opinions of managers and workers about the benefits and challenges of the contracting model that has been in place for almost 10 years in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. Both qualitative and quantitative information was collected. An open-ended questionnaire was used to obtain information from a group of managers, while information provided by a self-selected group of workers was collected via a closed-ended questionnaire. The analysis contrasted the information obtained from each source. Discussion and Evaluation Findings show that perceptions of managers and workers vary for most of the items studied. For managers the model has been a success, as it has allowed for expansion of coverage based on a cost-effective strategy, while for workers the model also possesses positive elements but fails to provide fair labour relationships, which negatively affects their performance. Conclusion Perspectives of the two main groups of actors in Jalisco's contracting model are important in the design and adjustment of an adequate contracting model that includes managerial elements to give incentives to worker performance, a key element necessary to achieve the model's ultimate objectives. Lessons learnt from this study could be relevant for the experience of contracting models in other developing countries. PMID:19849831

  2. Effectively engaging the private sector through vouchers and contracting - A case for analysing health governance and context.

    PubMed

    Nachtnebel, Matthias; O'Mahony, Ashleigh; Pillai, Nandini; Hort, Kris

    2015-11-01

    Health systems of low and middle income countries in the Asia Pacific have been described as mixed, where public and private sector operate in parallel. Gaps in the provision of primary health care (PHC) services have been picked up by the private sector and led to its growth; as can an enabling regulatory environment. The question whether governments should purchase services from the private sector to address gaps in service provision has been fiercely debated. This purposive review draws evidence from systematic reviews, and additional published and grey literature, for input into a policy brief on purchasing PHC-services from the private sector for underserved areas in the Asia Pacific region. Additional published and grey literature on vouchers and contracting as mechanisms to engage the private sector was used to supplement the conclusions from systematic reviews. We analysed the literature through a policy lens, or alternatively, a 'bottom-up' approach which incorporates components of a realist review. Evidence indicates that both vouchers and contracting can improve health service outcomes in underserved areas. These outcomes however are strongly influenced by (1) contextual factors, such as roles and functions attributable to a shared set of key actors (2) the type of delivered services and community demand (3) design of the intervention, notably provider autonomy and trust (4) governance capacity and provision of stewardship. Examining the experience of vouchers and contracting to expand health services through engagement with private sector providers in the Asia Pacific found positive effects with regards to access and utilisation of health services, but more importantly, highlighted the significance of contextual factors, appropriate selection of mechanism for services provided, and governance arrangements and stewardship capacity. In fact, for governments seeking to engage the private sector, analysis of context and capacities are potentially a more

  3. Mortality and Length of Stay in a Veterans Administration Hospital and Private Sector Hospitals Serving a Common Market

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Gary E; Sarrazin, Mary Vaughan; Harper, Dwain L; Fuehrer, Susan M

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare severity-adjusted in-hospital mortality and length of stay (LOS) in a Veterans Administration (VA) hospital and private sector hospitals serving the same health care market. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SETTING A large VA hospital and 27 private sector hospitals in the same metropolitan area. PATIENTS Consecutive VA (N = 1,960) and private sector (N = 157,147) admissions in 1994 to 1995 with 9 high-volume diagnoses. MEASUREMENTS Severity of illness was measured using validated multivariable models that were based on data abstracted from medical records. Outcomes were adjusted for severity and compared in VA and private sector patients using multiple logistic or linear regression analysis. MAIN RESULTS Unadjusted mortality was similar in VA and private sector patients (5.0% vs 5.6%, respectively; P = .26), although mean LOS was longer in VA patients (12.7 vs 7.0 days; P < .001). Adjusting for severity, the odds of death in VA patients was similar (odds ratio [OR] 1.07; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.74 to 1.54; P = .73). However, a larger proportion of deaths in VA patients occurred later during hospitalization (P < .001), and the odds of death in VA patients were actually lower (P < .05) in analyses limited to deaths during the first 7 (OR, 0.56) or 14 (OR, 0.63) days. Adjusted LOS was longer (P < .001) in VA patients for all 9 diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS If the current findings generalizable to other markets, hospital mortality, a widely used performance measure, may be similar or lower in VA and private sector hospitals serving the same markets. The longer LOS of VA patients may reflect differences in practice patterns and may be an important source of bias in comparisons of VA and private sector hospitals. PMID:12911641

  4. Trends in US private-sector energy R and D funding 1985--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, J.J.

    1996-09-01

    This report has been prepared in response to a set of four questions submitted by the International Energy Agency`s (IEA) Energy Technology Policy Division to the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Research. The IEA`s questions all center on trends in US industrial energy R{ampersand}D spending over the decade 1985--1995. IEA has asked all of its member countries similar questions and intends to use the resulting multi-country data set on trends in private-sector energy R and D as basis for discussions at its October 16, 1996, Governing Board Meeting. This report first describes the principal data sets used with caveats about their shortcomings, then characterizes the context of US R and D spending over the recent past and short-term future. The remainder of the report is organized by addressing each of the four IEA questions. The appendices provide further information. IEA Question {number_sign}1: Are industry (energy) R and D expenditures monitored by the US Government? If so, please describe the types of data that are collected. Question {number_sign}2: How much money did industry spend to support energy technology development in your country in the following years: 1985, 1993, 1994, 1995? Question {number_sign}3: From the experience of your country in working with industry what is the timeframe of their R and D efforts in terms of the expected payback of their investments (e.g., short term 0--3 years, medium term 3--7 years, long term 7--12 years, or very long term beyond 12 years)? Question {number_sign}4: How would you describe industry energy technology investment trends over the past ten years?

  5. Securing US energy supplies: the private sector as an instrument of public policy

    SciTech Connect

    Prast, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Dr. Prast suggests that policy options that rely on private companies to help secure energy supplies need to consider the conflicts and tensions that exist between these companies and the public agencies, especially Federal agencies, that regulate their activities. The US still needs a combination of private initiative and public control, but the naive approach of the 1960s should be replaced with an atmosphere of continuous assessment to make sure the companies are meeting public policy goals. A new kind of private/public arrangement may be needed to deal with the large reserves on Federal lands. This will require redefining present Federal roles in energy production to focus on frontier technology and eliminate a duplication of effort. Dr. Prast feels that improvements can be made in the effectiveness of the Federal bureaucracy by profiting from past errors, but that efforts to disband DOE are premature until a relationship of cooperation and confidence develops between private companies and regulators. 64 references. (DCK)

  6. Availability of pharmaceuticals in sub-Saharan Africa: roles of the public, private and church mission sectors.

    PubMed

    Vogel, R J; Stephens, B

    1989-01-01

    Although the availability of pharmaceuticals is critical for both curative and preventive health care, drugs are, at best, sporadically available in governmental facilities in sub-Saharan Africa. The religious missions and private sectors are more successful than the public sector in obtaining and distributing drugs. The public sector operates under a myriad of constraints inherent in a bureaucracy; the religious missions have the advantages of better management and access to foreign currency; the private sector is innately efficient. Donor assistance to increase the availability of drugs in the public sector has included support for revolving drug funds, national drug services, the improvement of management techniques, and the local production of pharmaceuticals. None of these interventions has been notably successful. In 1987, UNICEF presented The Bamako Initiative--a proposal to launch an internationally-financed fund for essential drugs for sub-Saharan Africa. However, the proposal is unrealistic in anticipating that the requisite resources and/or hard currency can be raised to support the proposal. As the private sector is a more efficient distributor, it is recommended that the private sector be given responsibility for the distribution of drugs. Nonetheless, some governmental controls will be necessary to ensure that essential drugs are available at the least cost to the consumer.

  7. Private sector embedded water risk: Merging the corn supply chain network and regional watershed depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Brauman, K. A.; Schmitt, J.; Goodkind, A. L.; Smith, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Water scarcity in US corn farming regions is a significant risk consideration for the ethanol and meat production sectors, which comprise 80% of all US corn demand. Water supply risk can lead to effects across the supply chain, affecting annual corn yields. The purpose of our study is to assess the water risk to the US's most corn-intensive sectors and companies by linking watershed depletion estimates with corn production, linked to downstream companies through a corn transport model. We use a water depletion index as an improved metric for seasonal water scarcity and a corn sourcing supply chain model based on economic cost minimization. Water depletion was calculated as the fraction of renewable (ground and surface) water consumption, with estimates of more than 75% depletion on an annual average basis indicating a significant water risk. We estimated company water risk as the amount of embedded corn coming from three categories of water stressed counties. The ethanol sector had 3.1% of sourced corn grown from counties that were more than 75% depleted while the beef sector had 14.0%. From a firm perspective, Tyson, JBS, Cargill, the top three US corn demanding companies, had 4.5%, 9.6%, 12.8% of their sourced corn respectively, coming from watersheds that are more than 75% depleted. These numbers are significantly higher than the global average of 2.2% of watersheds being classified as more than 75% depleted. Our model enables corn using industries to evaluate their supply chain risk of water scarcity through modeling corn sourcing and watershed depletion, providing the private sector a new method for risk estimation. Our results suggest corn dependent industries are already linked to water scarcity risk in disproportionate amounts due to the spatial heterogeneity of corn sourcing and water scarcity.

  8. Public-Private Partnerships in the health sector: the Danish experience.

    PubMed

    Vrangbaek, Karsten

    2008-04-01

    This article investigates the current use of Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) in the Danish health sector based on an initial discussion of theoretical approaches that analyze PPP. The empirical analysis concludes that PPP has been used very sparsely in the Danish health sector. There are few examples of large-scale partnership projects with joint investment and risk taking, but a number of smaller partnerships such as jointly owned companies at the regional level. When defining PPP more broadly, we can identify a long tradition for various types of collaboration between public and private actors in health care in Denmark. An analysis of the regulatory environment is offered as an explanation for the limited use of PPPs in Denmark. Major political and institutional actors at the central level differ in their enthusiasm for the PPP concept, and the regulatory framework is somewhat uncertain. A number of general issues and concerns related to PPPs are also discussed. It is suggested that a risk-based framework can be useful for mapping the potential and challenges for both private and public partners. Such a framework can be used to feed into game theoretical models of pros and cons for PPP projects. In general terms, it is concluded that more empirical research is needed for the assessment of the various risk factors involved in using PPPs in health care. Most PPPs are still very young, and the evidence on performance and broader governance issues is only just emerging. Ideally, such assessments should include comparisons with a purely public alternative.

  9. Cost benefit for assessment of intermediate coronary stenosis with fractional flow reserve in public and private sectors in australia.

    PubMed

    Murphy, J C; Hansen, P S; Bhindi, R; Figtree, G A; Nelson, G I C; Ward, M R

    2014-09-01

    Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) is a proven technology for guiding percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but is not reimbursed despite the fact that it is frequently used to defer PCI. Costs incurred with use of FFR were compared in both the public and private sectors with the costs that would have been incurred if the technology was not available using consecutive cases over a two year period in a public teaching hospital and its co-located private hospital. FFR was performed on 143 lesions in 120 patients. FFR was < 0.80 in 37 lesions in 34 patients and 25 underwent PCI while 11 had CABG. It was estimated that without FFR 78 lesions in 70 patients would have had PCI with 17 patients having CABG with 35 additional functional tests. Despite a cost of $A1200 per wire, FFR actually saved money. Mean savings in the public sector were $1200 per patient while in the private sector the savings were $5000 per patient. FFR use saves money for the Federal Government in the public sector and for the Private Health Funds in the private sector. These financial benefits are seen in addition to the improved outcomes seen with this technology. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Training's Policies: Public and Private Reinforcement for the American Economy. Final Report. The Impact of Public Policy on Education and Training in the Private Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerson, Martin; Zemsky, Robert

    A study examined the impact of public policy on education and training in the private sector. During the study, the following research activities were completed: a statistical examination of the scope and nature of firm-supplied training, 20 case studies of the training supplied by large firms representing a diverse set of industries across the…

  11. Comparing private sector family planning services to government and NGO services in Ethiopia and Pakistan: how do social franchises compare across quality, equity and cost?

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nirali M; Wang, Wenjuan; Bishai, David M

    2011-01-01

    Policy makers in developing countries need to assess how public health programmes function across both public and private sectors. We propose an evaluation framework to assist in simultaneously tracking performance on efficiency, quality and access by the poor in family planning services. We apply this framework to field data from family planning programmes in Ethiopia and Pakistan, comparing (1) independent private sector providers; (2) social franchises of private providers; (3) non-government organization (NGO) providers; and (4) government providers on these three factors. Franchised private clinics have higher quality than non-franchised private clinics in both countries. In Pakistan, the costs per client and the proportion of poorest clients showed no differences between franchised and non-franchised private clinics, whereas in Ethiopia, franchised clinics had higher costs and fewer clients from the poorest quintile. Our results highlight that there are trade-offs between access, cost and quality of care that must be balanced as competing priorities. The relative programme performance of various service arrangements on each metric will be context specific. PMID:21729919

  12. Comparing private sector family planning services to government and NGO services in Ethiopia and Pakistan: how do social franchises compare across quality, equity and cost?

    PubMed

    Shah, Nirali M; Wang, Wenjuan; Bishai, David M

    2011-07-01

    Policy makers in developing countries need to assess how public health programmes function across both public and private sectors. We propose an evaluation framework to assist in simultaneously tracking performance on efficiency, quality and access by the poor in family planning services. We apply this framework to field data from family planning programmes in Ethiopia and Pakistan, comparing (1) independent private sector providers; (2) social franchises of private providers; (3) non-government organization (NGO) providers; and (4) government providers on these three factors. Franchised private clinics have higher quality than non-franchised private clinics in both countries. In Pakistan, the costs per client and the proportion of poorest clients showed no differences between franchised and non-franchised private clinics, whereas in Ethiopia, franchised clinics had higher costs and fewer clients from the poorest quintile. Our results highlight that there are trade-offs between access, cost and quality of care that must be balanced as competing priorities. The relative programme performance of various service arrangements on each metric will be context specific.

  13. Private sector participation in delivering tertiary health care: a dichotomy of access and affordability across two Indian states

    PubMed Central

    Katyal, Anuradha; Singh, Prabal Vikram; Bergkvist, Sofi; Samarth, Amit; Rao, Mala

    2015-01-01

    Poor quality care in public sector hospitals coupled with the costs of care in the private sector have trapped India's poor in a vicious cycle of poverty, ill health and debt for many decades. To address this, the governments of Andhra Pradesh (AP) and Maharashtra (MH), India, have attempted to improve people’s access to hospital care by partnering with the private sector. A number of government-sponsored schemes with differing specifications have been launched to facilitate this strategy. Aims This article aims to compare changes in access to, and affordability and efficiency of private and public hospital inpatient (IP) treatments between MH and AP from 2004 to 2012 and to assess whether the health financing innovations in one state resulted in larger or smaller benefits compared with the other. Methods We used data from household surveys conducted in 2004 and 2012 in the two states and undertook a difference-in-difference (DID) analysis. The results focus on hospitalization, out-of-pocket expenditure and length of stay. Results The average IP expenditure for private hospital care has increased in both states, but more so in MH. There was also an observable increase in both utilization of and expenditure on nephrology treatment in private hospitals in AP. The duration of stay recorded in days for private hospitals has increased slightly in MH and declined in AP with a significant DID. The utilization of public hospitals has reduced in AP and increased in MH. Conclusion The state of AP appears to have benefited more than MH in terms of improved access to care by involving the private sector. The Aarogyasri scheme is likely to have contributed to these impacts in AP at least in part. Our study needs to be followed up with repeated evaluations to ascertain the long-term impacts of involving the private sector in providing hospital care. PMID:25759452

  14. Case-mix and quality indicators in Chinese elder care homes: are there differences between government-owned and private-sector facilities?

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Feng, Zhanlian; Mor, Vincent

    2014-02-01

    To assess the association between ownership of Chinese elder care facilities and their performance quality and to compare the case-mix profile of residents and facility characteristics in government-owned and private-sector homes. Cross-sectional study. Census of elder care homes surveyed in Nanjing (2009) and Tianjin (2010). Elder care facilities located in urban Nanjing (n = 140, 95% of all) and urban Tianjin (n = 157, 97% of all). A summary case-mix index based on activity of daily living (ADL) limitations and cognitive impairment was created to measure levels of care needs of residents in each facility. Structure, process, and outcome measures were selected to assess facility-level quality of care. A structural quality measure, understaffing relative to resident levels of care needs, which indicates potentially inadequate staffing given resident case-mix, was also developed. Government-owned homes had significantly higher occupancy rates, presumably reflecting popular demand for publicly subsidized beds, but served residents who, on average, have fewer ADL and cognitive functioning limitations than those in private-sector facilities. Across a range of structure, process, and outcome measures of quality, there is no clear evidence suggesting advantages or disadvantages of either ownership type, although when staffing-to-resident ratio is gauged relative to resident case-mix, private-sector facilities were more likely to be understaffed than government-owned facilities. In Nanjing and Tianjin, private-sector homes were more likely to be understaffed, although their residents were sicker and frailer on average than those in government facilities. It is likely that the case-mix differences are the result of selective admission policies that favor healthier residents in government facilities than in private-sector homes. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  15. Long shadow of fear in an epidemic: fearonomic effects of Ebola on the private sector in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bali, Sulzhan; Stewart, Kearsley A; Pate, Muhammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    The already significant impact of the Ebola epidemic on Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, was worsened by a fear of contagion that aggravated the health crisis. However, in contrast to other Ebola-affected countries, Nigeria fared significantly better due to its swift containment of the disease. The objective of our study was to describe the impact of Ebola on the Nigerian private sector. This paper introduces and defines the term fearonomic effect as the direct and indirect economic effects of both misinformation as well as fear-induced aversion behaviour, exhibited by individuals, organisations or countries during an outbreak or an epidemic. This study was designed as a cross-sectional mixed-methods study that used semistructured in-depth interviews and a supporting survey to capture the impact of Ebola on the Nigerian private sector after the outbreak. Themes were generated from the interviews on the direct and indirect impact of Ebola on the private sector; the impact of misinformation and fear-based aversion behaviour in the private sector. Our findings reveal that the fearonomic effects of Ebola included health service outages and reduced healthcare usage as a result of misinformation and aversion behaviour by both patients and providers. Although certain sectors (eg, health sector, aviation sector, hospitality sector) in Nigeria were affected more than others, no business was immune to Ebola's fearonomic effects. We describe how sectors expected to prosper during the outbreak (eg, pharmaceuticals), actually suffered due to the changes in consumption patterns and demand shocks. In a high-stressor epidemic-like setting, altered consumption behaviour due to distorted disease perception, misinformation and fear can trigger short-term economic cascades that can disproportionately affect businesses and lead to financial insecurity of the poorest and the most vulnerable in a society.

  16. Long shadow of fear in an epidemic: fearonomic effects of Ebola on the private sector in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Sulzhan; Stewart, Kearsley A

    2016-01-01

    Background The already significant impact of the Ebola epidemic on Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, was worsened by a fear of contagion that aggravated the health crisis. However, in contrast to other Ebola-affected countries, Nigeria fared significantly better due to its swift containment of the disease. The objective of our study was to describe the impact of Ebola on the Nigerian private sector. This paper introduces and defines the term fearonomic effect as the direct and indirect economic effects of both misinformation as well as fear-induced aversion behaviour, exhibited by individuals, organisations or countries during an outbreak or an epidemic. Methods This study was designed as a cross-sectional mixed-methods study that used semistructured in-depth interviews and a supporting survey to capture the impact of Ebola on the Nigerian private sector after the outbreak. Themes were generated from the interviews on the direct and indirect impact of Ebola on the private sector; the impact of misinformation and fear-based aversion behaviour in the private sector. Results Our findings reveal that the fearonomic effects of Ebola included health service outages and reduced healthcare usage as a result of misinformation and aversion behaviour by both patients and providers. Although certain sectors (eg, health sector, aviation sector, hospitality sector) in Nigeria were affected more than others, no business was immune to Ebola's fearonomic effects. We describe how sectors expected to prosper during the outbreak (eg, pharmaceuticals), actually suffered due to the changes in consumption patterns and demand shocks. Conclusion In a high-stressor epidemic-like setting, altered consumption behaviour due to distorted disease perception, misinformation and fear can trigger short-term economic cascades that can disproportionately affect businesses and lead to financial insecurity of the poorest and the most vulnerable in a society. PMID:28588965

  17. Sickness Absence in the Private Sector of Greece: Comparing Shipyard Industry and National Insurance Data

    PubMed Central

    Alexopoulos, Evangelos C.; Merekoulias, Georgios; Tanagra, Dimitra; Konstantinou, Eleni C.; Mikelatou, Efi; Jelastopulu, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 3% of employees are absent from work due to illness daily in Europe, while in some countries sickness absence exceeds 20 days per year. Based on a limited body of reliable studies, Greek employees in the private sector seem to be absent far less frequently (<5 days/year) compared to most of the industrialized world. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece, using shipyard and national insurance data. Detailed data on absenteeism of employees in a large shipyard company during the period 1999–2006 were utilized. National data on compensated days due to sickness absence concerning all employees (around 2 million) insured by the Social Insurance Institute (IKA, the largest insurance scheme in Greece) were retrieved from the Institute’s annual statistical reports for the period 1987–2006. Sick-leave days per employee and sick-leave rate (%) were calculated, among other indicators. In the shipyard cohort, the employment time loss due to sick leave was 1%. The mean number of sick-leave days per employee in shipyards ranged between 4.6 and 8.7 and sick-leave rate (sickness absenteeism rate) varied among 2% and 3.7%. The corresponding indicators for IKA were estimated between 5 and 6.3 sick-leave days per insured employee (median 5.8), and 2.14–2.72% (median 2.49%), respectively. Short sick-leave spells (<4 days) may account at least for the 25% of the total number of sick-leave days, currently not recorded in national statistics. The level of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece was found to be higher than the suggested by previous reports and international comparative studies, but still remains one of the lowest in the industrialized world. In the 20-years national data, the results also showed a 7-year wave in sickness absence indexes (a decrease during the period 1991–1997 and an increase in 1998–2004) combined with a small yet significant decline as a general trend. These

  18. Sickness absence in the private sector of Greece: comparing shipyard industry and national insurance data.

    PubMed

    Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Merekoulias, Georgios; Tanagra, Dimitra; Konstantinou, Eleni C; Mikelatou, Efi; Jelastopulu, Eleni

    2012-04-01

    Approximately 3% of employees are absent from work due to illness daily in Europe, while in some countries sickness absence exceeds 20 days per year. Based on a limited body of reliable studies, Greek employees in the private sector seem to be absent far less frequently (<5 days/year) compared to most of the industrialized world. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece, using shipyard and national insurance data. Detailed data on absenteeism of employees in a large shipyard company during the period 1999-2006 were utilized. National data on compensated days due to sickness absence concerning all employees (around 2 million) insured by the Social Insurance Institute (IKA, the largest insurance scheme in Greece) were retrieved from the Institute's annual statistical reports for the period 1987-2006. Sick-leave days per employee and sick-leave rate (%) were calculated, among other indicators. In the shipyard cohort, the employment time loss due to sick leave was 1%. The mean number of sick-leave days per employee in shipyards ranged between 4.6 and 8.7 and sick-leave rate (sickness absenteeism rate) varied among 2% and 3.7%. The corresponding indicators for IKA were estimated between 5 and 6.3 sick-leave days per insured employee (median 5.8), and 2.14-2.72% (median 2.49%), respectively. Short sick-leave spells (<4 days) may account at least for the 25% of the total number of sick-leave days, currently not recorded in national statistics. The level of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece was found to be higher than the suggested by previous reports and international comparative studies, but still remains one of the lowest in the industrialized world. In the 20-years national data, the results also showed a 7-year wave in sickness absence indexes (a decrease during the period 1991-1997 and an increase in 1998-2004) combined with a small yet significant decline as a general trend. These

  19. Large regional differences in incidence of arthroscopic meniscal procedures in the public and private sector in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Kristoffer Borbjerg; Vinther, Jesper Høeg; Lohmander, L Stefan; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A recent study reported a large increase in the number of meniscal procedures from 2000 to 2011 in Denmark. We examined the nation-wide distribution of meniscal procedures performed in the private and public sector in Denmark since different incentives may be present and the use of these procedures may differ from region to region. Setting We included data on all patients who underwent an arthroscopic meniscal procedure performed in the public or private sector in Denmark. Participants Data were retrieved from the Danish National Patient Register on patients who underwent arthroscopic meniscus surgery as a primary or secondary procedure in the years 2000 to 2011. Hospital identification codes enabled linkage of performed procedures to specific hospitals. Primary and secondary outcome measures Yearly incidence of meniscal procedures per 100 000 inhabitants was calculated with 95% CIs for public and private procedures for each region. Results Incidence of meniscal procedures increased at private and at public hospitals. The private sector accounted for the largest relative and absolute increase, rising from an incidence of 1 in 2000 to 98 in 2011. In 2011, the incidence of meniscal procedures was three times higher in the Capital Region than in Region Zealand. Conclusions Our study identified a large increase in the use of meniscal procedures in the public and private sector in Denmark. The increase was particularly conspicuous in the private sector as its proportion of procedures performed increased from 1% to 32%. Substantial regional differences were present in the incidence and trend over time of meniscal procedures. PMID:25712820

  20. Community Resilience: Workshops on Private Sector and Property Owner Requirements for Recovery and Restoration from a Diasaster

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2008-12-22

    This report summarizes the results of a proejct sponsored by DTRA to 1) Assess the readiness of private-sector businesses, building owners, and service providers to restore property and recover operations in the aftermath of a wide-area dispersal of anthrax; and 2) Understand what private property owners and businesses "want and need" from federal, state, and local government to support recovery and restoration from such an incident.

  1. [Mechanism and implication of regulation of the pricing of essential medicines in the private pharmaceutical sector in Mali].

    PubMed

    Maïga, D; Maïga, S; Maïga, M D

    2010-04-01

    The healthcare and pharmaceutical professions in Mali were privatized in 1985. Privatization led to swift expansion of the private sector and upset the balance that had existed between the public and private sectors. A national pharmaceutical policy did not emerge until a decade later. Its purpose was to promote a system ensuring fair access to essential generic medicines for all. It was hoped that synergy between the two sectors would promote that objective. However, the policy calling for distribution of essential generic medicine through the private sector was not accompanied by an adequate system for pricing. This problem led the government to adopt a price regulation policy to realign market dynamics with public health goals. This experience shows that a sustained effort from public policy makers is necessary to prevail against the professional and business interests that can conflict with the public interest. Analysis of this experience also demonstrates the need to improve, restructure, and control the pharmaceutical industry. The government must continue to play its crucial role in the context of limited resources and inequality between consumers and pharmaceutical companies.

  2. GlaxoSmithKline and Merck: private-sector collaboration for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Gustavsen, K M; Bradley, M H; Wright, A L

    2009-10-01

    More than 1000 million people in 82 countries are at risk of contracting the tropical disease lymphatic filariasis (LF). Although the disease is wide-spread, transmission of the causative parasites can be stopped through mass drug administrations based on a combination of anti-parasitic medicines. For more than 10 years, the pharmaceutical companies GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) and Merck & Co., Inc., have participated in a unique private-sector collaboration to support the global efforts to eliminate LF, through donations of drugs to prevent the disease. GSK's albendazole and Merck's ivermectin (Mectizan) now reach hundreds of millions of people each year, through national LF-elimination programmes carried out in collaboration with Ministries of Health, the World Health Organization, non-governmental organizations and local communities. Working in support of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, GSK and Merck not only provide donated medicines but also offer financial, programmatic and management expertise to support LF-elimination efforts worldwide.

  3. Innovative work behavior of managers: Implications regarding stressful challenges of modernized public- and private-sector organizations

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sudeshna Basu; Ray, Anjali

    2009-01-01

    Background: The present study was firstly aimed to find out the nature of stressful life events arising out of the innovative challenges in modernized organizations; and secondly, it tried to identify the relationship between innovative work behavior of managers and the levels of stress arising out of stressful events in modernized organizations (public and private) in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from a sample of 200 managers, by using 3 tools (General Information Schedule, Life Event Inventory and Innovative Work Behavior Scale) through a face-to-face interview. Responses were subjected to both quantitative and qualitative analyses. The data was statistically treated for ‘t’ and ANOVA. Results: Data highlighted the fact that the qualitative profile of stressful events in the lives of managers expressed specificity in terms of their organizational type (public- and private-sector modernized organizations), and levels of stress from stressful life events were significantly higher among the modernized private-sector managers than those among public-sector managers. The prevalence of innovative work behavior was moderately higher among managers of private-sector modernized organizations than their counterparts in public-sector organizations. The trends of innovative work behavior of the managers indicated much variability due to interaction of their level of perceived stressful challenges for innovation and the global forces of change that have unleashed dynamic, systematic and higher expectation level from them. PMID:21180486

  4. Innovative work behavior of managers: Implications regarding stressful challenges of modernized public- and private-sector organizations.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sudeshna Basu; Ray, Anjali

    2009-07-01

    The present study was firstly aimed to find out the nature of stressful life events arising out of the innovative challenges in modernized organizations; and secondly, it tried to identify the relationship between innovative work behavior of managers and the levels of stress arising out of stressful events in modernized organizations (public and private) in West Bengal. Data was collected from a sample of 200 managers, by using 3 tools (General Information Schedule, Life Event Inventory and Innovative Work Behavior Scale) through a face-to-face interview. Responses were subjected to both quantitative and qualitative analyses. The data was statistically treated for 't' and ANOVA. Data highlighted the fact that the qualitative profile of stressful events in the lives of managers expressed specificity in terms of their organizational type (public- and private-sector modernized organizations), and levels of stress from stressful life events were significantly higher among the modernized private-sector managers than those among public-sector managers. The prevalence of innovative work behavior was moderately higher among managers of private-sector modernized organizations than their counterparts in public-sector organizations. The trends of innovative work behavior of the managers indicated much variability due to interaction of their level of perceived stressful challenges for innovation and the global forces of change that have unleashed dynamic, systematic and higher expectation level from them.

  5. Antibiotic Prescribing among Pediatric Inpatients with Potential Infections in Two Private Sector Hospitals in Central India

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Ashish; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Infectious diseases are one of the major causes of child mortality in India. Pediatric patients are commonly prescribed antibiotics for non-bacterial infections. Monitoring of local antibiotic prescribing with respect to the diagnosis is necessary to improve the prescribing practices. The aim of the study was to describe antibiotic prescribing for potential infections among patients admitted in pediatric departments in two private sector hospitals; one teaching (TH) and one non-teaching (NTH) in Central India. Methods Data from all patients admitted at the pediatric departments of both study hospitals was collected manually, for 3 years (2008–2011) using a customized form. Data from inpatients aged 0–18 years, diagnosed with; acute gastroenteritis (AGE), respiratory tract infections, enteric fever, viral fever or unspecified fever were focused for analysis. Antibiotic prescriptions were analysed using the WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system and defined daily doses (DDDs). Adherence to the Indian Academy of Pediatrics list of essential medicines (IAP-LEM) was investigated. P-values <0.05 were considered significant. Results Oftotal6, 825 inpatients admitted at two pediatric departments, 510 patients from the TH and 2,479from the NTH were selected based on the assigned potential infectious diagnoses. Of these, 224 patients (44%) at the TH and 2,088 (84%) at the NTH were prescribed at least one antibiotic during hospital stay (odds ratio-0.69, 95%confidence interval-0.52 to 0.93; p<0.001). Patients with AGE, viral- and enteric fever were frequently prescribed antibiotics at both hospitals, yet higher proportion were prescribed antibiotics at the NTH compared to the TH. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were the most commonly prescribed antibiotic class in both hospitals, namely third generation cephalosporins, J01DD (69%) at the TH, and new fixed dose combinations of antibiotics J01R (FDCs, 42%) at the NTH. At the TH, 37% of the

  6. A compendium of options for government policy to encourage private sector responses to potential climate changes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The possibility of anthropogenic climate change is rapidly becoming an issue of significant public concern. Recent scientific research results combined with a very warm decade have led to growing apprehension that we may be on the brink of global warming inadvertently induced by human activity. As one manifestation of increasing concern, several Congressional Committee hearings on issues deriving from potential climate change have been held. Additionally, in 1986 Congress requested two studies by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the effects of climate change and on policy options to stabilize the atmosphere. Those reports currently are being reviewed by Federal agencies prior to submission to Congress. In the report language accompanying the Energy and Water Appropriations Act, 1989, the Senate Committee on Appropriations and the Conference Committee also requested four studies on climate change from the Department of Energy (DOE). The four reports are Alternative Energy R D -- to assess the state and direction of Federal R D on alternative energy sources, including conservation; Greenhouse Gas Data Collection -- to assess how greenhouse gas emission and climate trends data are coordinated, archived, and made available to scientists, both within and outside of government, Carbon Dioxide Inventory and Policy -- to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in 5-10 years and a 50% reduction in 15-20 years as well as provide an inventory of emission sources; and Study of Options to Mobilize the Private Sector -- to assess policy options for encouraging the private sector to cooperate in mitigating, adapting, and preventing global climate change. 286 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Challenges constraining access to insulin in the private-sector market of Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abhishek; Kaplan, Warren A

    2016-01-01

    India's majority of patients-including those living with diabetes-seek healthcare in the private sector through out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. We studied access to insulin in the private-sector market of Delhi state, India. A modified World Health Organization/Health Action International (WHO/HAI) standard survey to assess insulin availability and prices, and qualitative interviews with insulin retailers (pharmacists) and wholesalers to understand insulin market dynamics. In 40 pharmacy outlets analysed, mean availability of the human and analogue insulins on the 2013 Delhi essential medicine list was 44.4% and 13.1%, respectively. 82% of pharmacies had domestically manufactured human insulin phials, primarily was made in India under licence to overseas pharmaceutical companies. Analogue insulin was only in cartridge and pen forms that were 4.42 and 5.81 times, respectively, the price of human insulin phials. Domestically manufactured human phial and cartridge insulin (produced for foreign and Indian companies) was less expensive than their imported counterparts. The lowest paid unskilled government worker in Delhi would work about 1.5 and 8.6 days, respectively, to be able to pay OOP for a monthly supply of human phial and analogue cartridge insulin. Interviews suggest that the Delhi insulin market is dominated by a few multinational companies that import and/or license in-country production. Several factors influence insulin uptake by patients, including doctor's prescribing preference. Wholesalers have negative perceptions about domestic insulin manufacturing. The Delhi insulin market is an oligopoly with limited market competition. Increasing competition from Indian companies is going to require some additional policies, not presently in place. As more Indian companies produce biosimilars, brand substitution policies are needed to be able to benefit from market competition.

  8. Challenges constraining access to insulin in the private-sector market of Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Warren A

    2016-01-01

    Objective India's majority of patients—including those living with diabetes—seek healthcare in the private sector through out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. We studied access to insulin in the private-sector market of Delhi state, India. Methods A modified World Health Organization/Health Action International (WHO/HAI) standard survey to assess insulin availability and prices, and qualitative interviews with insulin retailers (pharmacists) and wholesalers to understand insulin market dynamics. Results In 40 pharmacy outlets analysed, mean availability of the human and analogue insulins on the 2013 Delhi essential medicine list was 44.4% and 13.1%, respectively. 82% of pharmacies had domestically manufactured human insulin phials, primarily was made in India under licence to overseas pharmaceutical companies. Analogue insulin was only in cartridge and pen forms that were 4.42 and 5.81 times, respectively, the price of human insulin phials. Domestically manufactured human phial and cartridge insulin (produced for foreign and Indian companies) was less expensive than their imported counterparts. The lowest paid unskilled government worker in Delhi would work about 1.5 and 8.6 days, respectively, to be able to pay OOP for a monthly supply of human phial and analogue cartridge insulin. Interviews suggest that the Delhi insulin market is dominated by a few multinational companies that import and/or license in-country production. Several factors influence insulin uptake by patients, including doctor's prescribing preference. Wholesalers have negative perceptions about domestic insulin manufacturing. Conclusions The Delhi insulin market is an oligopoly with limited market competition. Increasing competition from Indian companies is going to require some additional policies, not presently in place. As more Indian companies produce biosimilars, brand substitution policies are needed to be able to benefit from market competition. PMID:28588966

  9. A study of technetium-99m wastage in selected private sector nuclear medicine imaging departments.

    PubMed

    Mathurine, Germaine; Bresser, Philippa; Teixeira, Nadia

    2013-12-01

    South African nuclear medicine imaging departments have been fortunate in being able to receive an uninterrupted supply of molybdenum-99 (99Mo)/technetium-99m (99mTc) generators. Nuclear medicine radiographers practising in private sector services in the northern Gauteng region indicated a possible problem with the quantities of wasted and unused 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals returned to the radiopharmaceutical supply laboratory. Daily radiopharmaceutical deliveries are a combination of ordered packages and standard packages. The purpose of the standard package is to accommodate emergency and after-hours nuclear medicine services. The purpose of the study was to interrogate the unconfirmed reports of 99mTc radiopharmaceutical wastage. A descriptive quantitative research design was conducted in six private sector nuclear medicine imaging practices in the northern Gauteng region. Overt observations of the quantities of radiopharmaceutical supply, usage and wastage were conducted over 2 days in each of these practices. Ordered packages comprised 14% of the total 99mTc radiopharmaceutical deliveries to these six nuclear medicine imaging departments. It was identified that:(1) a total of 83.2% of ordered packages and 35.1% of standard packages of preprepared syringes were utilized;(2) a total of 36% of ordered packages and 22.6% of standard packages of bulk 99mTc were utilized; and (3) a total of 70.6% of the total quantity of radiopharmaceuticals was returned to the radiopharmaceutical laboratory. The total wastage represented 45.5% of the ordered packages and 75.8% of the standard packages. Wastage of 74 GBq of 99mTc from six sites over 12 days should raise concerns for the nuclear medicine industry. A review of the system framework that supports communication between the radiopharmaceutical supplier/s and the nuclear medicine imaging practices is recommended.

  10. A study of technetium-99m wastage in selected private sector nuclear medicine imaging departments

    PubMed Central

    Bresser, Philippa; Teixeira, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Background South African nuclear medicine imaging departments have been fortunate in being able to receive an uninterrupted supply of molybdenum-99 (99Mo)/technetium-99m (99mTc) generators. Nuclear medicine radiographers practising in private sector services in the northern Gauteng region indicated a possible problem with the quantities of wasted and unused 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals returned to the radiopharmaceutical supply laboratory. Daily radiopharmaceutical deliveries are a combination of ordered packages and standard packages. The purpose of the standard package is to accommodate emergency and after-hours nuclear medicine services. The purpose of the study was to interrogate the unconfirmed reports of 99mTc radiopharmaceutical wastage. Methods A descriptive quantitative research design was conducted in six private sector nuclear medicine imaging practices in the northern Gauteng region. Overt observations of the quantities of radiopharmaceutical supply, usage and wastage were conducted over 2 days in each of these practices. Results Ordered packages comprised 14% of the total 99mTc radiopharmaceutical deliveries to these six nuclear medicine imaging departments. It was identified that: (1) a total of 83.2% of ordered packages and 35.1% of standard packages of preprepared syringes were utilized; (2) a total of 36% of ordered packages and 22.6% of standard packages of bulk 99mTc were utilized; and (3) a total of 70.6% of the total quantity of radiopharmaceuticals was returned to the radiopharmaceutical laboratory. The total wastage represented 45.5% of the ordered packages and 75.8% of the standard packages. Conclusion Wastage of 74 GBq of 99mTc from six sites over 12 days should raise concerns for the nuclear medicine industry. A review of the system framework that supports communication between the radiopharmaceutical supplier/s and the nuclear medicine imaging practices is recommended. PMID:24089081

  11. Unravelling the quality of HIV counselling and testing services in the private and public sectors in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Ron Levey, Ilana; Wang, Wenjuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the substantial investment for providing HIV counselling and testing (VCT) services in Zambia, there has been little effort to systematically evaluate the quality of VCT services provided by various types of health providers. This study, conducted in 2009, examines VCT in the public and private sectors including private for-profit and NGO/faith-based sectors in Copperbelt and Luapula. Methods The study used five primary data collection methods to gauge quality of VCT services: closed-ended client interviews with clients exiting VCT sites; open-ended client interviews; interviews with facility managers; review of service statistics; and an observation of the physical environment for VCT by site. Over 400 clients and 87 facility managers were interviewed from almost 90 facilities. Sites were randomly selected and results are generalizable at the provincial level. Results The study shows concerning levels of underperformance in VCT services across the sectors. It reveals serious underperformance in counselling about key risk-reduction methods. Less than one-third of clients received counselling on reducing number of sexual partners and only approximately 5% of clients received counselling about disclosing test results to partners. In terms of client profiles, the NGO sector attracts the most educated clients and less educated Zambians seek VCT services at very low rates (7%). The private for-profit performs equally or sometimes better than other sectors even though this sector is not adequately integrated into the Zambian national response to HIV. Conclusion The private for-profit sector provides VCT services on par in quality with the other sectors. Most clients did not receive counselling on partner reduction or disclosure of HIV test results to partners. In a generalized HIV epidemic where multiple concurrent sexual partners are a significant problem for transmitting the disease, risk-reduction methods and discussion should be a main focus of pre

  12. The changing role of the occupational physician in the private sector: the Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, T L; Cowell, J W

    1997-09-01

    The role of the occupational physician in the private sector is changing. Fewer large corporations maintain medical departments following the 'downsizing' trend of the late 1980's and early 1990's and those that do have extensively redefined the duties of the corporate medical director, often extending these duties to include responsibility for environmental health. Occupational medical services for employees previously covered by in-house services are now often provided by outsourcing. The private practice of occupational medicine has become the major growth area of the specialty in both the US and Canada. These trends have been driven primarily by economic imperatives and new management philosophies; the trend may have gone too far and a 'rightsizing' correction may be in progress. However, it is not clear that corporations in general are deriving the greatest value they can from their physicians or that the current generation of senior managers is utilizing its health professionals as effectively as they might. This is in part because the training, qualifications and capabilities of occupational physicians are not well understood. At least as important, however, is persistent confusion over desirable and appropriate roles that obscures the potential contribution of the medical professional within a management structure. We suggest that the greatest value in occupational medical services may be in the anticipation of risk related to health issues and the flexibility this gives the organization to manage the problem.

  13. Review of private sector and Department of Energy treatment, storage, and disposal capabilities for low-level and mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Willson, R.A.; Ball, L.W.; Mousseau, J.D.; Piper, R.B.

    1996-03-01

    Private sector capacity for treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of various categories of radioactive waste has been researched and reviewed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company, the primary contractor for the INEL. The purpose of this document is to provide assistance to the INEL and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites in determining if private sector capabilities exist for those waste streams that currently cannot be handled either on site or within the DOE complex. The survey of private sector vendors was limited to vendors currently capable of, or expected within the next five years to be able to perform one or more of the following services: low-level waste (LLW) volume reduction, storage, or disposal; mixed LLW treatment, storage, or disposal; alpha-contaminated mixed LLW treatment; LLW decontamination for recycling, reclamation, or reuse; laundering of radioactively-contaminated laundry and/or respirators; mixed LLW treatability studies; mixed LLW treatment technology development. Section 2.0 of this report will identify the approach used to modify vendor information from previous revisions of this report. It will also illustrate the methodology used to identify any additional companies. Section 3.0 will identify, by service, specific vendor capabilities and capacities. Because this document will be used to identify private sector vendors that may be able to handle DOE LLW and mixed LLW streams, it was decided that current DOE capabilities should also be identified. This would encourage cooperation between DOE sites and the various states and, in some instances, may result in a more cost-effective alternative to privatization. The DOE complex has approximately 35 sites that generate the majority of both LLW and mixed LLW. Section 4.0 will identify these sites by Operations Office, and their associated LLW and mixed LLW TSD units.

  14. Artemisinin combination therapies price disparity between government and private health sectors and its implication on antimalarial drug consumption pattern in Morogoro Urban District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Malisa, Allen Lewis; Kiriba, Deodatus

    2012-03-28

    Universal access to effective treatments is a goal of the Roll Back Malaria Partnership. However, despite official commitments and substantial increases in financing, this objective remains elusive, as development assistance continue to be routed largely through government channels, leaving the much needed highly effective treatments inaccessible or unaffordable to those seeking services in the private sector. To quantify the effect of price disparity between the government and private health systems, this study have audited 92 government and private Drug Selling Units (DSUs) in Morogoro urban district in Tanzania to determine the levels, trend and consumption pattern of antimalarial drugs in the two health systems. A combination of observation, interviews and questionnaire administered to the service providers of the randomly selected DSUs were used to collect data. ALU was the most selling antimalarial drug in the government health system at a subsidized price of 300 TShs (0.18 US$). By contrast, ALU that was available in the private sector (coartem) was being sold at a price of about 10,000 TShs (5.9 US$), the price that was by far unaffordable, prompting people to resort to cheap but failed drugs. As a result, metakelfin (the phased out drug) was the most selling drug in the private health system at a price ranging from 500 to 2,000 TShs (0.29-1.18 US$). In order for the prompt diagnosis and treatment with effective drugs intervention to have big impact on malaria in mostly low socioeconomic malaria-endemic areas of Africa, inequities in affordability and access to effective treatment must be eliminated. For this to be ensued, subsidized drugs should be made available in both government and private health sectors to promote a universal access to effective safe and affordable life saving antimalarial drugs.

  15. A literature review: the role of the private sector in the production of nurses in India, Kenya, South Africa and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The demand for nurses is growing and has not yet been met in most developing countries, including India, Kenya, South Africa, and Thailand. Efforts to increase the capacity for production of professional nurses, equitable distribution and better retention have been given high strategic priority. This study examines the supply of, demand for, and policy environment of private nurse production in four selected countries. Methods A scoping systematic review was undertaken to assess the evidence for the role of private sector involvement in the production of nurses in India, Kenya, South Africa, and Thailand. An electronic database search was performed, and grey literature was also captured from the websites of Human Resources for Health (HRH)-related organizations and networks. The articles were reviewed and selected according to relevancy. Results The review found that despite very different ratios of nurses to population ratios and differing degrees of international migration, there was a nursing shortage in all four countries which were struggling to meet growing demand. All four countries saw the private sector play an increasing role in nurse production. Policy responses varied from modifying regulation and accreditation schemes in Thailand, to easing regulation to speed up nurse production and recruitment in India. There were concerns about the quality of nurses being produced in private institutions. Conclusion Strategies must be devised to ensure that private nursing graduates serve public health needs of their populations. There must be policy coherence between producing nurses for export and ensuring sufficient supply to meet domestic needs, in particular in under-served areas. This study points to the need for further research in particular assessing the contributions made by the private sector to nurse production, and to examine the variance in quality of nurses produced. PMID:23587128

  16. Artemisinin combination therapies price disparity between government and private health sectors and its implication on antimalarial drug consumption pattern in Morogoro Urban District, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Universal access to effective treatments is a goal of the Roll Back Malaria Partnership. However, despite official commitments and substantial increases in financing, this objective remains elusive, as development assistance continue to be routed largely through government channels, leaving the much needed highly effective treatments inaccessible or unaffordable to those seeking services in the private sector. Methods To quantify the effect of price disparity between the government and private health systems, this study have audited 92 government and private Drug Selling Units (DSUs) in Morogoro urban district in Tanzania to determine the levels, trend and consumption pattern of antimalarial drugs in the two health systems. A combination of observation, interviews and questionnaire administered to the service providers of the randomly selected DSUs were used to collect data. Results ALU was the most selling antimalarial drug in the government health system at a subsidized price of 300 TShs (0.18 US$). By contrast, ALU that was available in the private sector (coartem) was being sold at a price of about 10,000 TShs (5.9 US$), the price that was by far unaffordable, prompting people to resort to cheap but failed drugs. As a result, metakelfin (the phased out drug) was the most selling drug in the private health system at a price ranging from 500 to 2,000 TShs (0.29–1.18 US$). Conclusions In order for the prompt diagnosis and treatment with effective drugs intervention to have big impact on malaria in mostly low socioeconomic malaria-endemic areas of Africa, inequities in affordability and access to effective treatment must be eliminated. For this to be ensued, subsidized drugs should be made available in both government and private health sectors to promote a universal access to effective safe and affordable life saving antimalarial drugs. PMID:22455367

  17. Partnerships between Public Schools and Private Developers. A Report of the Joint Legislative Audit Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armoudian, Maria

    The California Legislature's Joint Legislative Audit Committee investigated several "joint venture" partnerships between school districts and the private sector to develop school district-owned properties to determine the feasibility of such innovative school construction projects. This report presents findings from seven of these…

  18. Introducing a model of cardiovascular prevention in Nairobi's slums by integrating a public health and private-sector approach: the SCALE-UP study

    PubMed Central

    van de Vijver, Steven; Oti, Samuel; Tervaert, Thijs Cohen; Hankins, Catherine; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Gomez, Gabriela B.; Brewster, Lizzy; Agyemang, Charles; Lange, Joep

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with annual deaths expected to increase to 2 million by 2030. Currently, most national health systems in SSA are not adequately prepared for this epidemic. This is especially so in slum settlements where access to formal healthcare and resources is limited. Objective To develop and introduce a model of cardiovascular prevention in the slums of Nairobi by integrating public health and private sector approaches. Study design Two non-profit organizations that conduct public health research, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD) and African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC), collaborated with private-sector Boston Consulting Group (BCG) to develop a service delivery package for CVD prevention in slum settings. A theoretic model was designed based on the integration of public and private sector approaches with the focus on costs and feasibility. Results The final model includes components that aim to improve community awareness, a home-based screening service, patient and provider incentives to seek and deliver treatment specifically for hypertension, and adherence support. The expected outcomes projected by this model could prove potentially cost effective and affordable (1 USD/person/year). The model is currently being implemented in a Nairobi slum and is closely followed by key stakeholders in Kenya including the Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization (WHO), and leading non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Conclusion Through the collaboration of public health and private sectors, a theoretically cost-effective model was developed for the prevention of CVD and is currently being implemented in the slums of Nairobi. If results are in line with the theoretical projections and first impressions on the ground, scale-up of the service delivery package could be planned in other poor urban areas in Kenya by relevant policymakers

  19. Introducing a model of cardiovascular prevention in Nairobi's slums by integrating a public health and private-sector approach: the SCALE-UP study.

    PubMed

    van de Vijver, Steven; Oti, Samuel; Tervaert, Thijs Cohen; Hankins, Catherine; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Gomez, Gabriela B; Brewster, Lizzy; Agyemang, Charles; Lange, Joep

    2013-10-21

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with annual deaths expected to increase to 2 million by 2030. Currently, most national health systems in SSA are not adequately prepared for this epidemic. This is especially so in slum settlements where access to formal healthcare and resources is limited. To develop and introduce a model of cardiovascular prevention in the slums of Nairobi by integrating public health and private sector approaches. Two non-profit organizations that conduct public health research, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD) and African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC), collaborated with private-sector Boston Consulting Group (BCG) to develop a service delivery package for CVD prevention in slum settings. A theoretic model was designed based on the integration of public and private sector approaches with the focus on costs and feasibility. The final model includes components that aim to improve community awareness, a home-based screening service, patient and provider incentives to seek and deliver treatment specifically for hypertension, and adherence support. The expected outcomes projected by this model could prove potentially cost effective and affordable (1 USD/person/year). The model is currently being implemented in a Nairobi slum and is closely followed by key stakeholders in Kenya including the Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization (WHO), and leading non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Through the collaboration of public health and private sectors, a theoretically cost-effective model was developed for the prevention of CVD and is currently being implemented in the slums of Nairobi. If results are in line with the theoretical projections and first impressions on the ground, scale-up of the service delivery package could be planned in other poor urban areas in Kenya by relevant policymakers and NGOs.

  20. Willingness to pay for private primary care services in Hong Kong: are elderly ready to move from the public sector?

    PubMed

    Liu, Su; Yam, Carrie H K; Huang, Olivia H Y; Griffiths, Sian M

    2013-10-01

    How to provide better primary care and achieve the right level of public-private balance in doing so is at the centre of many healthcare reforms around the world. In a healthcare system like Hong Kong, where inpatient services are largely funded through general taxation and ambulatory services out of pocket, the family doctor model of primary care is underdeveloped. Since 2008, the Government has taken forward various initiatives to promote primary care and encourage more use of private services. However, little is known in Hong Kong or elsewhere about consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for private services when care is available in the public sector. This study assessed willingness of the Hong Kong elderly to pay for specific primary care and preventive services in the private sector, through a cross-sectional in-person questionnaire survey and focus group discussions among respondents. The survey revealed that the WTP for private services in general was low among the elderly; particularly, reported WTP for chronic conditions and preventive care both fell below the current market prices. Sub-group analysis showed higher WTP among healthier and more affluent elderly. Among other things, concerns over affordability and uncertainty (of price and quality) in the private sector were associated with this low level of WTP. These results suggest that most elderly, who are heavy users of public health services but with limited income, may not use more private services without seeing significant reduction in price. Financial incentives for consumers alone may not be enough to promote primary care or public-private partnership. Public education on the value of prevention and primary care, as well as supply-side interventions should both be considered. Hong Kong's policy-making process of the initiative studied here may also provide lessons for other countries with ongoing healthcare reforms.

  1. Traffic mitigation reference guide: a review of options available to the public and private sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Brittle, C.; McConnell, N.; O'Hare, S.

    1984-12-01

    The document is a reprint of a guide on how to reduce traffic impacts, through city, developer, and employer actions. It covers a wide variety of techniques, including carpooling and vanpooling programs, transit usage, parking management approaches, variable work hours, bicycle programs, and various kinds of brokerage activities. The document also includes material on incorporation of traffic-mitigation techniques into local plans, policies, ordinances, and development project approvals, along with specific techniques for monitoring of compliance and enforcement. Funding of traffic-mitigation activities from public or private sources is also discussed. The document should be of interest to traffic and highway planners, the transit community, staffs of elected officials, major employers, and private developers themselves.

  2. Improving sexually transmitted disease management in the private sector: the Jamaica experience.

    PubMed

    Green, M; Hoffman, I F; Brathwaite, A; Wedderburn, M; Figueroa, P; Behets, F; Dallabetta, G; Hoyo, C; Cohen, M S

    1998-01-01

    To improve the quality of sexually transmitted disease (STD) case management in Jamaica by providing comprehensive continuing medical education to private practitioners who manage 60% of all STDs on the island. Six half-day STD seminars were presented at 3-4-month intervals and repeated in three separate geographic locations. All Jamaican practitioners received invitations. The subjects were as follows: urethritis, genital ulcer disease, HIV infection, vaginal discharge syndrome, STDs in children and adolescents, and a review seminar. The program effectiveness was evaluated with a written, self-reported pre-test and a telephone post-test that measured changes in clinical management. Six hundred and twenty eight practitioners attended at least one seminar. Comparing pre- versus post-test scores, there were practitioner improvement trends in all four of the general STD management categories: counseling/education (69.8-73.3%; P > 0.05); diagnostics/screening (57.2-71.0%; P= 0.042); treatment (68.3-74.5%; P> 0.05); and knowledge (66.4-83.2%; P= 0.002). Obtaining syphilis serologies during pregnancy rose from 38.3 to 83.8% (P= 0.001), and providing effective treatment for gonorrhea rose from 57.8 to 81.1 % (P= 0.002), but correct responses on treatment for mucopurulent cervicitis at the post-test was a low 32.4%. The introduction of continuing medical education for improved STD care targeting private physicians in Jamaica was successful based on high attendance rates and self-reported STD management practices. However, efforts should continue to address the weaknesses found in STD management and counseling and to reach the providers who did not participate. In the global effort to reduce HIV transmission by improving STD care services, continuing education programs that target the private sector can be successful and should be included as a standard activity to improve care and provide a public/private link to STD/HIV control.

  3. The developing international private power market

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, J.B.

    1989-09-01

    A review group comprised of representatives from ten U.S. power industry companies recently released a report recommending increased assistance by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and other government agencies to provide reliable supplies of electricity and efficient use of energy. The report called for integrating U.S. foreign aid and trade policy to support U.S. industry in expanding overseas markets. The review group estimates a potential market of $370 billion to $900 billion worth of power equipment and services over the next 20 years. Recommendations of the Review Group include: Provide funding to support feasibility studies for electric power projects; Increase economic support funds and development assistance to emphasize energy, infrastructure, trade and investment; expand USAID's energy and private power activities through the formation of an Energy/Power, Infrastructure and Trade Institute as a public-private partnership; and include considerations of the U.S. trade balance in USAID's programs. The Report also criticized the U.S. power industry for an inadequate commitment to long term involvement in overseas markets.

  4. Black Literacy in South Africa--A Comparison of the Contribution of the Public and the Private Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, P. H.

    According to a 1980 estimate, 5,678,000 black South African adults are illiterate. A large number of organizations has been created to address the problem--among them such private sector operations as the South African Committee for Higher Education, Operation TEACH (Teach Every African Child), the Bureau of Literacy and Literature, the Urban…

  5. Employee Drug Testing. Information on Private Sector Programs. Report to the Honorable Charles Schumer, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. General Government Div.

    At the request of Congress, the General Accounting Office studied drug testing in the private sector to determine its extent, which testing methods are most often used, who receives drug testing and why, the reasons for having a drug testing program, and what happens to those persons who test positive. Data were obtained from 10 surveys to which a…

  6. 31 CFR 50.33 - Entities that do not share profits and losses with private sector insurers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entities that do not share profits and losses with private sector insurers. 50.33 Section 50.33 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM State Residual Market Insurance Entities;...

  7. 31 CFR 50.33 - Entities that do not share profits and losses with private sector insurers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entities that do not share profits and losses with private sector insurers. 50.33 Section 50.33 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM State Residual Market Insurance Entities;...

  8. 31 CFR 50.33 - Entities that do not share profits and losses with private sector insurers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entities that do not share profits and losses with private sector insurers. 50.33 Section 50.33 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM State Residual Market Insurance Entities;...

  9. Maine. The Demonstration of State Work/Welfare Initiatives. Final Report on the Training Opportunities in the Private Sector Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auspos, Patricia; And Others

    Training Opportunities in the Private Sector (TOPS) was a small-scale, voluntary program operated as one among many employment-related options available to recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children in Maine's Work Incentive (WIN) Program. TOPS was distinguished from Maine's other WIN demonstration activities by three program elements.…

  10. International Students in the Private VET Sector in Melbourne, Australia: Rethinking Their Characteristics and Aspirations outside the Deficit Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasura, Rinos

    2015-01-01

    The reconstruction of the Australian Vocational Education and Training (VET) sector into a competitive training market, which led to the participation of international students and commercial for-profit private VET providers, has until recently focused on the importance of international students to the national economy whilst ignoring the…

  11. The Impact of Sexuality in Contemporary Culture: An Interpretive Study of Perceptions and Choices in Private Sector Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risner, Doug; Godfrey, Heidi; Simmons, Linda C.

    2004-01-01

    The ways in which seven private sector dance professionals in the United States perceive the impact of sexuality in contemporary culture and the choices that they make for their own schools of dance because of these perceptions are explored. This study was conducted through in-depth interviews and a survey instrument. The participants' narratives…

  12. Addressing the Skills Gap in Saudi Arabia: Does Vocational Education Address the Needs of Private Sector Employers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baqadir, Abdullah; Patrick, Fiona; Burns, George

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of data drawn from doctoral research on the extent to which recent changes in vocational training have addressed a perceived skills gap between the needs of private sector employers and potential workers in Saudi Arabia. While the Saudi government has made efforts to enhance the quality of vocational education,…

  13. Holistic Sustainability as Key to Emiratization: Links between Job Satisfaction in the Private Sector and Young Emirati Adult Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daleure, Georgia M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines factors leading to unemployment among young Emirati adults and new entrants to the workforce despite the abundant employment opportunities available in the UAE private sector. The study points out that new entrants to the workforce, including a growing number of college graduates, find few opportunities in the preferred but…

  14. Managing the Tensions between Maintaining Academic Standards and the Commercial Imperative in a UK Private Sector Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitcher, Graham Simons

    2013-01-01

    In a changing landscape of higher education, universities have been moving towards a market-led approach to strategic management. This paper examines the case of a UK private sector education provider that gained degree-awarding powers following changes made in 2004 by the UK Government to the accreditation criteria for recognised degree-awarding…

  15. 48 CFR 237.102-79 - Private sector notification requirements in support of in-sourcing actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Private sector notification requirements in support of in-sourcing actions. 237.102-79 Section 237.102-79 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF...

  16. Managing the Tensions between Maintaining Academic Standards and the Commercial Imperative in a UK Private Sector Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitcher, Graham Simons

    2013-01-01

    In a changing landscape of higher education, universities have been moving towards a market-led approach to strategic management. This paper examines the case of a UK private sector education provider that gained degree-awarding powers following changes made in 2004 by the UK Government to the accreditation criteria for recognised degree-awarding…

  17. International Students in the Private VET Sector in Melbourne, Australia: Rethinking Their Characteristics and Aspirations outside the Deficit Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasura, Rinos

    2015-01-01

    The reconstruction of the Australian Vocational Education and Training (VET) sector into a competitive training market, which led to the participation of international students and commercial for-profit private VET providers, has until recently focused on the importance of international students to the national economy whilst ignoring the…

  18. Discussion Summary & Recommendations: Private Sector Members of Roundtable on Higher Education. Meeting at Kathryn, North Dakota, April 5, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota University System, 2006

    2006-01-01

    A majority of the private sector members on the Roundtable on Higher Education (See Attachment-A) gathered at the Corporate Adventures training center in Kathryn, North Dakota, on April 5, 2006. Also attending were Senator Ray Holmberg, Chair of the Roundtable on Higher Education and Eddie Dunn on behalf of Dr. Robert Potts, Chancellor of the…

  19. Welfare to Wages: Strategies To Assist the Private Sector To Employ Welfare Recipients. Companion Case Studies, Focus Groups & Data Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Brandon; Padden, Jeffrey D.

    This report, which is directed toward policymakers at the local, state, and national levels, is based on an extensive nationwide study of welfare-to-work initiatives. It identifies strategies to assist the private sector in employing welfare recipients. The document begins with an executive summary that discusses the following: the research study…

  20. 31 CFR 50.33 - Entities that do not share profits and losses with private sector insurers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entities that do not share profits and losses with private sector insurers. 50.33 Section 50.33 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM State Residual Market Insurance Entities;...

  1. "Table Top Theory" as a Policy Framework for Gauging the Confluence of Teaching and Private Sector Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Bruce A.

    2007-01-01

    Without question, the role of business, philanthropy, and other private sector interests in the day-to-day operation of public education has increased significantly over the past 25 years. Pundits of this phenomenon contend that a number of factors have contributed to the increase, such as (1) public dissatisfaction with the performance of school…

  2. Mentoring: At the Crossroads of Education, Business and Community. The Power and Promise of Private Sector Engagement in Youth Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MENTOR: National Mentoring Partnership, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This report examines private sector engagement in youth mentoring across the United States, starting with an overview of the youth mentoring movement, then offering perspectives on trends and best practices in corporate engagement and snapshots of a range of initiatives. The information provided in this report is based on a series of structured…

  3. 5 CFR 2641.207 - One-year restriction on any former private sector assignee under the Information Technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... private sector assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling... assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling or assisting in... the Information Technology Exchange Program, 5 U.S.C. chapter 37, no former assignee shall...

  4. 5 CFR 2641.207 - One-year restriction on any former private sector assignee under the Information Technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... private sector assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling... assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling or assisting in... the Information Technology Exchange Program, 5 U.S.C. chapter 37, no former assignee shall...

  5. 5 CFR 2641.207 - One-year restriction on any former private sector assignee under the Information Technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... private sector assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling... assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling or assisting in... the Information Technology Exchange Program, 5 U.S.C. chapter 37, no former assignee shall...

  6. 5 CFR 2641.207 - One-year restriction on any former private sector assignee under the Information Technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... private sector assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling... assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling or assisting in... the Information Technology Exchange Program, 5 U.S.C. chapter 37, no former assignee shall...

  7. 5 CFR 2641.207 - One-year restriction on any former private sector assignee under the Information Technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... private sector assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling... assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling or assisting in... the Information Technology Exchange Program, 5 U.S.C. chapter 37, no former assignee shall...

  8. The Impact of Sexuality in Contemporary Culture: An Interpretive Study of Perceptions and Choices in Private Sector Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risner, Doug; Godfrey, Heidi; Simmons, Linda C.

    2004-01-01

    The ways in which seven private sector dance professionals in the United States perceive the impact of sexuality in contemporary culture and the choices that they make for their own schools of dance because of these perceptions are explored. This study was conducted through in-depth interviews and a survey instrument. The participants' narratives…

  9. Family planning, antenatal and delivery care: cross-sectional survey evidence on levels of coverage and inequalities by public and private sector in 57 low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Oona M R; Benova, Lenka; MacLeod, David; Baggaley, Rebecca F; Rodrigues, Laura C; Hanson, Kara; Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Polonsky, Reen; Footman, Katharine; Vahanian, Alice; Pereira, Shreya K; Santos, Andreia Costa; Filippi, Veronique G A; Lynch, Caroline A; Goodman, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the role of the private sector in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We used Demographic and Health Surveys for 57 countries (2000-2013) to evaluate the private sector's share in providing three reproductive and maternal/newborn health services (family planning, antenatal and delivery care), in total and by socio-economic position. We used data from 865 547 women aged 15-49, representing a total of 3 billion people. We defined 'met and unmet need for services' and 'use of appropriate service types' clearly and developed explicit classifications of source and sector of provision. Across the four regions (sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East/Europe, Asia and Latin America), unmet need ranged from 28% to 61% for family planning, 8% to 22% for ANC and 21% to 51% for delivery care. The private-sector share among users of family planning services was 37-39% across regions (overall mean: 37%; median across countries: 41%). The private-sector market share among users of ANC was 13-61% across regions (overall mean: 44%; median across countries: 15%). The private-sector share among appropriate deliveries was 9-56% across regions (overall mean: 40%; median across countries: 14%). For all three healthcare services, women in the richest wealth quintile used private services more than the poorest. Wealth gaps in met need for services were smallest for family planning and largest for delivery care. The private sector serves substantial numbers of women in LMICs, particularly the richest. To achieve universal health coverage, including adequate quality care, it is imperative to understand this sector, starting with improved data collection on healthcare provision. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The Rise and Decline of U.S. Private Sector Investments in Energy R&D since the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents two distinct datasets that describe investments in energy research and development (R&D) by the US private sector since the mid1970s, which is when the US government began to systematically collect these data. The first dataset is based upon a broad survey of more than 20,000 firms’ industrial R&D activities. This broad survey of US industry is coordinated by the US National Science Foundation. The second dataset discussed here is a much narrower accounting of the energy R&D activities of the approximately two dozen largest US oil and gas companies conducted by the US Department of Energy’s Energy Information Agency. Even given the large disparity in the breadth and scope of these two surveys of the private sector’s support for energy R&D, both datasets tell the same story in terms of the broad outlines of the private sector’s investments in energy R&D since the mid 1970s. The broad outlines of the US private sector’s support for energy R&D since the mid 1970s is: (1) In the immediate aftermath of the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973, there is a large surge in US private sector investments in energy R&D that peaked in the period between 1980 and 1982 at approximately $3.7 billion to $6.7 billion per year (in inflation adjusted 2010 US dollars) depending upon which survey is used (2) Private sector investments in energy R&D declined from this peak until bottoming out at approximately $1.8 billion to $1 billion per year in 1999; (3) US private sector support for energy R&D has recovered somewhat over the past decade and stands at $2.2 billion to $3.4 billion. Both data sets indicate that the US private sector’s support for energy R&D has been and remains dominated by fossil energy R&D and in particular R&D related to the needs of the oil and gas industry.

  11. Assessing Private Sector Involvement in Health Care and Universal Health Coverage in Light of the Right to Health

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The goal of universal health coverage is to “ensure that all people obtain the health services they need without suffering financial hardship when paying for them.” There are many connections between this goal and the state’s legal obligation to realize the human right to health. In the context of this goal, it is important to assess private actors’ involvement in the health sector. For example, private actors may not always have the incentives to deal with externalities that affect the availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality of health care services; they may not be in a position to provide “public goods”; or they may operate under imperfect information. This paper sets out to answer the question, what legal human rights obligations do states have in terms of regulating private sector involvement in health care? PMID:28559678

  12. Subsidising artemisinin-based combination therapy in the private retail sector

    PubMed Central

    Opiyo, Newton; Yamey, Gavin; Garner, Paul

    2016-01-01

    -randomised trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted-time-series studies that compared the effects of ACT price subsidies for private retailers to no subsidies or alternative ACT financing mechanisms were eligible for inclusion. Two authors independently screened and selected studies for inclusion. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data, assessed study risk of bias and confidence in effect estimates (certainty of evidence) using Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Main results We included four trials (two cluster-randomised trials reported in three articles and two non-randomised cluster trials). Three trials assessed retail sector ACT subsidies combined with supportive interventions (retail outlet provider training, community awareness and mass media campaigns). One trial assessed vouchers provided to households to purchase subsidised ACTs. Price subsidies ranged from 80% to 95%. One trial enrolled children under five years of age; the other three trials studied people of all age groups. The studies were done in rural districts in East Africa (Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania). In this East Africa setting, these ACT subsidy programmes increased the percentage of children under five years of age receiving ACTs on the day, or following day, of fever onset by 25 percentage points (95% confidence interval (CI) 14.1 to 35.9 percentage points; 1 study, high certainty evidence). This suggests that in practice, among febrile children under five years of age with an ACT usage rate of 5% without a subsidy, subsidy programmes would increase usage by between 19% and 41% over a one year period. The ACT subsidy programmes increased the percentage of retail outlets stocking ACTs for children under five years of age by 31.9 percentage points (95% CI 26.3 to 37.5 percentage points; 1 study, high certainty evidence). Effects on ACT stocking for patients of any age is unknown because the certainty of evidence was

  13. 20 CFR 641.600 - What is the purpose of the private sector training projects authorized under section 502(e) of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... purpose of the private sector training projects authorized under section 502(e) of the OAA? The purpose of... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the purpose of the private sector training projects authorized under section 502(e) of the OAA? 641.600 Section 641.600 Employees' Benefits...

  14. Global public-private partnerships: Part I--A new development in health?

    PubMed Central

    Buse, K.; Walt, G.

    2000-01-01

    The proliferation of public-private partnerships is rapidly reconfiguring the international health landscape. This article (part I of two on the subject) traces the changing nature of partnership, and discusses the definitional and conceptual ambiguities surrounding the term. After defining global public-private partnerships (GPPPs) for health development, we analyse the factors which have led to the convergence of public and private actors and discuss the consequences of the trend toward partnership between UN agencies (including the World Bank) and commercial entities in the health sector. Generic factors such as globalization and disillusionment with the UN, and factors specific to the health sector, such as market failure in product development for orphan diseases, are examined. Reviewed are the interests, policies, practices and concerns of the UN, the private-for-profit sector, bilateral organizations, and governments of low-income countries with respect to public-private partnership. While GPPPs bring much needed resources to problems of international health, we highlight concerns regarding this new organizational format. Part II, which will be published in the May issue of the Bulletin, presents a conceptual framework for analysing health GPPPs and explores the issues raised. PMID:10885184

  15. Innovative health service delivery models in low and middle income countries - what can we learn from the private sector?

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Onil; Khor, Sara; McGahan, Anita; Dunne, David; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2010-07-15

    The poor in low and middle income countries have limited access to health services due to limited purchasing power, residence in underserved areas, and inadequate health literacy. This produces significant gaps in health care delivery among a population that has a disproportionately large burden of disease. They frequently use the private health sector, due to perceived or actual gaps in public services. A subset of private health organizations, some called social enterprises, have developed novel approaches to increase the availability, affordability and quality of health care services to the poor through innovative health service delivery models. This study aims to characterize these models and identify areas of innovation that have led to effective provision of care for the poor. An environmental scan of peer-reviewed and grey literature was conducted to select exemplars of innovation. A case series of organizations was then purposively sampled to maximize variation. These cases were examined using content analysis and constant comparison to characterize their strategies, focusing on business processes. After an initial sample of 46 studies, 10 case studies of exemplars were developed spanning different geography, disease areas and health service delivery models. These ten organizations had innovations in their marketing, financing, and operating strategies. These included approaches such a social marketing, cross-subsidy, high-volume, low cost models, and process reengineering. They tended to have a narrow clinical focus, which facilitates standardizing processes of care, and experimentation with novel delivery models. Despite being well-known, information on the social impact of these organizations was variable, with more data on availability and affordability and less on quality of care. These private sector organizations demonstrate a range of innovations in health service delivery that have the potential to better serve the poor's health needs and be

  16. Innovative health service delivery models in low and middle income countries - what can we learn from the private sector?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The poor in low and middle income countries have limited access to health services due to limited purchasing power, residence in underserved areas, and inadequate health literacy. This produces significant gaps in health care delivery among a population that has a disproportionately large burden of disease. They frequently use the private health sector, due to perceived or actual gaps in public services. A subset of private health organizations, some called social enterprises, have developed novel approaches to increase the availability, affordability and quality of health care services to the poor through innovative health service delivery models. This study aims to characterize these models and identify areas of innovation that have led to effective provision of care for the poor. Methods An environmental scan of peer-reviewed and grey literature was conducted to select exemplars of innovation. A case series of organizations was then purposively sampled to maximize variation. These cases were examined using content analysis and constant comparison to characterize their strategies, focusing on business processes. Results After an initial sample of 46 studies, 10 case studies of exemplars were developed spanning different geography, disease areas and health service delivery models. These ten organizations had innovations in their marketing, financing, and operating strategies. These included approaches such a social marketing, cross-subsidy, high-volume, low cost models, and process reengineering. They tended to have a narrow clinical focus, which facilitates standardizing processes of care, and experimentation with novel delivery models. Despite being well-known, information on the social impact of these organizations was variable, with more data on availability and affordability and less on quality of care. Conclusions These private sector organizations demonstrate a range of innovations in health service delivery that have the potential to better

  17. Improving access to malaria medicine through private-sector subsidies in seven African countries.

    PubMed

    Tougher, Sarah; Mann, Andrea G; Ye, Yazoume; Kourgueni, Idrissa A; Thomson, Rebecca; Amuasi, John H; Ren, Ruilin; Willey, Barbara A; Ansong, Daniel; Bruxvoort, Katia; Diap, Graciela; Festo, Charles; Johanes, Boniface; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Mallam, Oumarou; Mberu, Blessing; Ndiaye, Salif; Nguah, Samual Blay; Seydou, Moctar; Taylor, Mark; Wamukoya, Marilyn; Arnold, Fred; Hanson, Kara; Goodman, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    Improving access to quality-assured artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) is an important component of malaria control in low- and middle-income countries. In 2010 the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria launched the Affordable Medicines Facility--malaria (AMFm) program in seven African countries. The goal of the program was to decrease malaria morbidity and delay drug resistance by increasing the use of ACTs, primarily through subsidies intended to reduce costs. We collected data on price and retail markups on antimalarial medicines from 19,625 private for-profit retail outlets before and 6-15 months after the program's implementation. We found that in six of the AMFm pilot programs, prices for quality-assured ACTs decreased by US$1.28-$4.34, and absolute retail markups on these therapies decreased by US$0.31-$1.03. Prices and markups on other classes of antimalarials also changed during the evaluation period, but not to the same extent. In all but two of the pilot programs, we found evidence that prices could fall further without suppliers' losing money. Thus, concerns may be warranted that wholesalers and retailers are capturing subsidies instead of passing them on to consumers. These findings demonstrate that supranational subsidies can dramatically reduce retail prices of health commodities and that recommended retail prices communicated to a wide audience may be an effective mechanism for controlling the market power of private-sector antimalarial retailers and wholesalers. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  18. The skills gap in hospital management: a comparative analysis of hospital managers in the public and private sectors in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Rubin

    2010-02-01

    A lack of management capacity has been identified as the key stumbling block to attaining the goals of health for all in South Africa. As part of the overall management development process, this research aims to identify the skills that are important for health services management and to evaluate managers' self-assessed proficiency in each of these skills. We also examined the impact of past training on perceived competency levels. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among 404 hospital managers in the South African public and private sectors. Respondents were asked to rate the level of importance that each proposed competency had in their job and to indicate their proficiency in each skill. Both public and private sector managers rated competencies related to 'people management', 'self-management' and 'task-related skills' highest followed by 'strategic planning' and 'health delivery', respectively. The largest differences between mean importance rating and mean skill rating for public sector managers were for people management skills, task-related skills and self-management skills. The largest deficits for private sector managers were for people management skills, self-management skills and health delivery skills. Informal management development programmes were found to be more valuable in improving management skills. These findings reflect the reality of the local health service environment and the need of health managers. It will be useful in the conceptualization, design and delivery of health management programmes aimed at enhancing current and future management and leadership capacity in the health sector in South Africa.

  19. Price subsidies increase the use of private sector ACTs: evidence from a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Alexandra; Ward, Abigail; Moonen, Bruno; Sabot, Oliver; Cohen, Justin M

    2015-01-01

    Background Although artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) are the recommended first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in most endemic countries, they have been prohibitively expensive in the retail sector where many suspected malaria cases purchase treatment. ACT subsidies seek to stimulate consumer demand for the drugs over cheaper but often ineffective alternatives by reducing their prices. Recent evidence from eight regions implementing such subsidies suggests that they are generally successful in improving availability of the drugs and decreasing their retail prices, but it remains unclear whether these outcomes translate to improved use by patients with suspected malaria. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to identify reports of experimental or programmatic ACT subsidies to assess the impact of subsidies on consumer use. Relationships between price, use and potential confounding factors were examined using logistic and repeated measures binomial regression models, and approximate magnitudes of associations were assessed with linear regression. In total, 40 studies, 14 peer-reviewed and 26 non-peer-reviewed, were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. The reviewed studies found a substantial increase in private sector ACT use following the introduction of a subsidy. Overall, each $1 decrease in price was linked to a 24 percentage point increase in the fraction of suspected malaria cases purchasing ACTs (R2 = 0.302). No significant differences were evident in this relationship when comparing the poorest and richest groups, rural vs urban populations or children vs adults. Conclusions These findings suggest that ACT price reductions can increase their use for suspected malaria, even within poorer, more remote populations that may be most at risk of malaria mortality. Whether a subsidy is appropriate will depend upon local context, including treatment-seeking behaviours and malaria prevalence. This review provides an initial foundation

  20. Private sector drug shops in integrated community case management of malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea in children in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Awor, Phyllis; Wamani, Henry; Bwire, Godfrey; Jagoe, George; Peterson, Stefan

    2012-11-01

    We conducted a survey involving 1,604 households to determine community care-seeking patterns and 163 exit interviews to determine appropriateness of treatment of common childhood illnesses at private sector drug shops in two rural districts of Uganda. Of children sick within the last 2 weeks, 496 (53.1%) children first sought treatment in the private sector versus 154 (16.5%) children first sought treatment in a government health facility. Only 15 (10.3%) febrile children treated at drug shops received appropriate treatment for malaria. Five (15.6%) children with both cough and fast breathing received amoxicillin, although no children received treatment for 5-7 days. Similarly, only 8 (14.3%) children with diarrhea received oral rehydration salts, but none received zinc tablets. Management of common childhood illness at private sector drug shops in rural Uganda is largely inappropriate. There is urgent need to improve the standard of care at drug shops for common childhood illness through public-private partnerships.

  1. A private sector view of health, surveillance, and communities of color.

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, S A

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. population is fast evolving into a patchwork of health behaviors, incomes, and ethnic backgrounds. Simple cultural labeling will not do. A growing number of Americans, now numbering about 10 million, cannot or will not describe their race in any one of the Census Bureau's standard categories--white, black, American Indian, Eskimo, Aleut, Asian Pacific, or Hispanic. They group themselves as a multicultural population rather than a single racial or ethnic category. To guide health interventions, the private sector now relies more on statistical clusters based on geography, lifestyle, behavior, financial status, and attitudes instead of on race. In marketing, the challenge is to reach diverse markets without stereotyping the product as one designed for only a certain ethnic group. The emphasis on athletics instead of on race is one example of how some marketers solve this problem of reaching minorities without giving the impression that specific products are only for blacks, or Hispanics, or Asians. Surveillance professionals can expand the way data are collected and publicized. Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans should not be categorized simply by race; other variables of health, such as income and age, should be given careful attention. PMID:8303013

  2. Using and Joining a Franchised Private Sector Provider Network in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Kathryn; Hom, Mo; Aung, Tin; Theuss, Marc; Huntington, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Background Quality is central to understanding provider motivations to join and remain within a social franchising network. Quality also appears as a key issue from the client's perspective, and may influence why a client chooses to use a franchised provider over another type of provider. The dynamic relationships between providers of social franchising clinics and clients who use these services have not been thoroughly investigated in the context of Myanmar, which has an established social franchising network. This study examines client motivations to use a Sun Quality Health network provider and provider motivations to join and remain in the Sun Quality Health network. Taken together, these two aims provide an opportunity to explore the symbiotic relationship between client satisfaction and provider incentives to increase the utilization of reproductive health care services. Methods and Findings Results from a series of focus group discussions with clients of reproductive health services and franchised providers shows that women chose health services provided by franchised private sector general practitioners because of its perceived higher quality, associated with the availability of effective, affordable, drugs. A key finding of the study is associated with providers. Provider focus group discussions indicate that a principle determinate for joining and remaining in the Sun Quality Health Network was serving the poor. PMID:22180781

  3. A case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Non-regulatory animal health issues, such as Johne's disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and mastitis will become increasing important, with ongoing globalisation of markets in animals and animal products. In response, Ireland may need to broaden the scope of its national animal health services. However, there have been concerns about the respective roles and responsibilities (both financial and otherwise) of government and industry in any such moves. This paper argues the case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services, based both on theoretical considerations and country case studies (the Netherlands and Australia). The Dutch and Australian case studies present examples of successful partnerships between government and industry, including systems and processes to address non-regulatory animal health issues. In each case, the roles and responsibilities of government are clear, as are the principles underpinning government involvement. Furthermore, the roles and responsibilities (financial and otherwise) of the Dutch and Australian industry are determined through enabling legislation, providing both legitimacy and accountability. There are constraints on the use of EU and national government funds to support non-regulatory animal health services in EU member states (such as Ireland and the Netherlands). PMID:21851708

  4. Working conditions under multiple exposures: A cross-sectional study of private sector administrative workers.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Denis A; Tavares, Carla S D; Lourenço, Miguel L; Lima, Tânia M

    2015-01-01

    Office workers are increasingly exposed to physical and psychosocial risk factors. To assess the association between environmental, physical and organizational working conditions and the physical and psychosocial well-being of a sample of private sector office workers. Musculoskeletal pain was collected from a body map and the Disabilities of the Arms, Shoulders and Hands questionnaire. The short version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire enabled collecting information on six job related satisfaction and dissatisfaction subscales. A checklist for ergonomics in computer work guided the analysis of ergonomic factors and measurements were taken to characterize environmental conditions. Association between exposures and outcomes was calculated using IBM SPSS Statistics 20 software. Significant moderate positive association was found between dissatisfaction with job psychological demands and musculoskeletal pain in the upper body (0.40; p= 0.05), as well as between postural ergonomic mismatches and dissatisfaction with job insecurity towards the future (0.42; p= 0.04). A significant moderate negative association (-0,47; p= 0.02) was found as well between satisfaction with job social support and with leadership quality and location of the work station in an open-plan office as opposed to smaller office rooms. The results show how raising awareness of the risk factors encountered in contemporary office work is still necessary to promote widespread improvement of working conditions, from both a physical and a psychosocial perspective.

  5. Focus groups among public, military, and private sector mothers: insights to improve the immunization process.

    PubMed

    Houseman, C; Butterfoss, F D; Morrow, A L; Rosenthal, J

    1997-08-01

    The underimmunization of children younger than 2 years old is a major health problem in U.S. cities. Innovative methods to increase immunization rates are being researched and implemented. In 1993, six focus groups were conducted with 41 mothers (25 African Americans and 16 Caucasians) to discuss their views regarding immunizations and the services they received from health care providers in the public health (n = 27), military (n = 4), and private (n = 10) sectors. Participants viewed immunizations positively, but perceived many barriers to immunization. They suggested the following ways to improve the immunization process: enhancing knowledge acquisition, improving reminder and appointment systems, providing transportation and child care, decreasing waiting times, improving the clinic environment, and making the immunizations less traumatic. According to mothers in this study, obtaining an immunization on time is a complex task that requires planning and resources. The fewer resources that are available to mothers, the more difficult it is to succeeded. Health care providers must help mothers identify and remove barriers if immunization rates are to be increased.

  6. Does the private sector care about AIDS? Evidence from firm surveys in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Vijaya; Shah, Manju K; Turner, Ginger L

    2007-07-01

    Our objective was to identify the determinants of HIV/AIDS prevention activity and pre-employment health checks by private firms in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. We used data from the World Bank Enterprise Surveys for Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania, encompassing 860 formally registered firms in the manufacturing sector. Econometric analysis of firm survey data was used to identify the determinants of HIV/AIDS prevention including condom distribution and voluntary counselling and testing (VCT). Multivariate regression analysis was the main tool used to determine statistical significance. Approximately a third of enterprises invest in HIV/AIDS prevention. Prevention activity increases with size, most likely because larger firms and firms with higher skilled workers have greater replacement costs. Even in the category of larger firms, less than 50% provide VCT. We found that the propensity of firms to carry out pre-employment health checks of workers also varies by the size of firm and skill level of the workforce. Finally, data from worker surveys showed a high degree of willingness on the part of workers to be tested for HIV in the three East African countries.

  7. A private sector view of health, surveillance, and communities of color.

    PubMed

    Rabin, S A

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. population is fast evolving into a patchwork of health behaviors, incomes, and ethnic backgrounds. Simple cultural labeling will not do. A growing number of Americans, now numbering about 10 million, cannot or will not describe their race in any one of the Census Bureau's standard categories--white, black, American Indian, Eskimo, Aleut, Asian Pacific, or Hispanic. They group themselves as a multicultural population rather than a single racial or ethnic category. To guide health interventions, the private sector now relies more on statistical clusters based on geography, lifestyle, behavior, financial status, and attitudes instead of on race. In marketing, the challenge is to reach diverse markets without stereotyping the product as one designed for only a certain ethnic group. The emphasis on athletics instead of on race is one example of how some marketers solve this problem of reaching minorities without giving the impression that specific products are only for blacks, or Hispanics, or Asians. Surveillance professionals can expand the way data are collected and publicized. Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans should not be categorized simply by race; other variables of health, such as income and age, should be given careful attention.

  8. Private Higher Education and Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisz, Robert D.; Stock, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    In Western Europe, especially in Germany, private higher education is generally perceived as an alternative to public higher education for students from relatively affluent families; more broadly, there is a general perception that attending a private higher education institution is correlated to wealth. This perception is influenced by private…

  9. Private Higher Education and Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisz, Robert D.; Stock, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    In Western Europe, especially in Germany, private higher education is generally perceived as an alternative to public higher education for students from relatively affluent families; more broadly, there is a general perception that attending a private higher education institution is correlated to wealth. This perception is influenced by private…

  10. The Shifting Politics of the Private in Education: Debates and Developments in Researching Private School Outreach in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashley, Laura Day

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the politics of researching private education with special reference to the Indian context. Due to a recent increase in privatised forms of education globally and recognition of the private sector by governments, international agencies and researchers as a policy and academic interest, this is shifting ground. The evolving…

  11. The Shifting Politics of the Private in Education: Debates and Developments in Researching Private School Outreach in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashley, Laura Day

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the politics of researching private education with special reference to the Indian context. Due to a recent increase in privatised forms of education globally and recognition of the private sector by governments, international agencies and researchers as a policy and academic interest, this is shifting ground. The evolving…

  12. Collaboration, Competition, and Co-opetition: Interorganizational Dynamics Between Private Child Welfare Agencies and Child Serving Sectors

    PubMed Central

    Collins-Camargo, Crystal; McBeath, Bowen; Chuang, Emmeline; Perez-Jolles, Monica; Wells, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Human service agencies are encouraged to collaborate with other public and private agencies in providing services to children and families. However, they also often compete with these same partners for funding, qualified staff, and clientele. Although little is known about complex interagency dynamics of competition and collaboration in the child-serving sector, evidence suggests that competition can undermine collaboration unless managed strategically. This study explores the interrelationship between competition and collaboration, sometimes referred to as “co-opetition.” Using a national dataset of private child and family serving agencies, we examine their relationships with other child serving sectors (N=4460 pair-wise relationships), and explore how variations in patterns of collaboration and competition are associated with several organizational, environmental and relational factors. Results suggest that most relationships between private child welfare agencies and other child serving agencies are characterized by both competition and collaboration (i.e. “co-opetition”), and is most frequently reported with other local private child welfare agencies. Logistic regression analyses indicate that co-opetition is likely to occur when private child welfare agencies have a good perceived relationship or a sub-contract with their partner. Findings have implications for how agency leaders manage partner relationships, and how public child welfare administrators structure contracts. PMID:25267868

  13. The New Zealand framework for government and private sector research, and its operation with respect to the upstream petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Beggs, J.M.

    1995-08-01

    The New Zealand government has replaced its science bureaucracy with ten Crown Research Institutes, which are structured as government-owned limited-liability companies. Government research funding is allocated by a Foundation, while a small Ministry has been retained to deal exclusively with science policy. As a Crown Research Institute, the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences gains approximately 70% of its revenues from contracts with the Foundation for Research, Science and Technology, and the remainder from a wide range of consultancy services to several industries. Petroleum exploration and development is a particular focus, and applied research and consultancy activities in basin analysis, source rock and reservoir systems, thermal modelling etc. are underpinned by research programmes in related fundamental areas such as paleontology and deep crustal structure. Situated on an active plate boundary with a complex configuration and history of development, New Zealand serves as a natural laboratory in which to develop and test models of deformation and depositional systems. The Institute`s private-sector research funding, in many cases in collaboration with international partners, addresses such topics as Quaternary sequence stratigraphy, deep-water depositional systems, basin thermal modelling and charge prediction (including distribution of inert gases). The results of this research are applicable world-wide. Insights from active tectonic and depositional processes in New Zealand improve the effectiveness of exploration and development in older or less understood basins which have developed in complex subduction and strike-slip tectonic settings.

  14. Addressing unfunded training mandates in hospitals: engaging the private sector in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Preker, Alexander S; Keuffel, Eric; Tuckman, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Health worker finance and provision are discussed in this article in the context of the global shortage of human resources. Key issues related to public and private finance or provision of tertiary health education institutions are highlighted, and costs, benefits, and feasibility of potential financing or provision solutions are identified. Engagement of the private sector can expand the resources available for education and align incentives to address an important inefficiency: the unfunded mandate of post-graduate in-service training at hospitals that jointly provide education and health services.

  15. Assessing gaps and poverty-related inequalities in the public and private sector family planning supply environment of urban Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jessica K; Curtis, Sian; Zimmer, Catherine; Speizer, Ilene S

    2014-02-01

    Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, and its population is expected to double in <25 years (Central Intelligence Agency 2012; Fotso et al. 2011). Over half of the population already lives in an urban area, and by 2050, that proportion will increase to three quarters (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division 2012; Measurement Learning & Evaluation Project, Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative, National Population Commission 2012). Reducing unwanted and unplanned pregnancies through reliable access to high-quality modern contraceptives, especially among the urban poor, could make a major contribution to moderating population growth and improving the livelihood of urban residents. This study uses facility census data to create and assign aggregate-level family planning (FP) supply index scores to 19 local government areas (LGAs) across six selected cities of Nigeria. It then explores the relationships between public and private sector FP services and determines whether contraceptive access and availability in either sector is correlated with community-level wealth. Data show pronounced variability in contraceptive access and availability across LGAs in both sectors, with a positive correlation between public sector and private sector supply environments and only localized associations between the FP supply environments and poverty. These results will be useful for program planners and policy makers to improve equal access to contraception through the expansion or redistribution of services in focused urban areas.

  16. Future projections of insured losses in the German private building sector following the A1B climatic change scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, H.; Gerstengarbe, F.-W.; Hattermann, F.; Pinto, J. G.; Ulbrich, U.; Böhm, U.; Born, K.; Büchner, M.; Donat, M. G.; Kücken, M.; Leckebusch, G. C.; Nissen, K.; Nocke, T.; Österle, H.; Pardowitz, T.; Werner, P. C.; Burghoff, O.; Broecker, U.; Kubik, A.

    2012-04-01

    We present an overview of a complementary-approaches impact project dealing with the consequences of climate change for the natural hazard branch of the insurance industry in Germany. The project was conducted by four academic institutions together with the German Insurance Association (GDV) and finalized in autumn 2011. A causal chain is modeled that goes from global warming projections over regional meteorological impacts to regional economic losses for private buildings, hereby fully covering the area of Germany. This presentation will focus on wind storm related losses, although the method developed had also been applied in part to hail and flood impact losses. For the first time, the GDV supplied their collected set of insurance cases, dating back for decades, for such an impact study. These data were used to calibrate and validate event-based damage functions which in turn were driven by three different types of regional climate models to generate storm loss projections. The regional models were driven by a triplet of ECHAM5 experiments following the A1B scenario which were found representative in the recent ENSEMBLES intercomparison study. In our multi-modeling approach we used two types of regional climate models that conceptually differ at maximum: a dynamical model (CCLM) and a statistical model based on the idea of biased bootstrapping (STARS). As a third option we pursued a hybrid approach (statistical-dynamical downscaling). For the assessment of climate change impacts, the buildings' infrastructure and their economic value is kept at current values. For all three approaches, a significant increase of average storm losses and extreme event return levels in the German private building sector is found for future decades assuming an A1B-scenario. However, the three projections differ somewhat in terms of magnitude and regional differentiation. We have developed a formalism that allows us to express the combined effect of multi-source uncertainty on return

  17. Government-to-private sector energy programs: Identification of common elements leading to successful implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, Keith M.

    -and-control programs we examined also create market distortions that both limit the flexibility of private markets to adjust to changing economic conditions and discourage the adoption of competing technologies. We conclude our research by recommending that future policy makers maximize the range of methods availability to the private sector to meet legislative goals and limit the use of financial incentives. With these measures, energy programs may achieve higher levels of success by reaching their goals with maximum economic efficiency and minimal negative unanticipated consequences.

  18. The role of job satisfaction, job dissatisfaction and demographic factors on physicians' intentions to switch work sector from public to private.

    PubMed

    Kankaanranta, Terhi; Nummi, Tapio; Vainiomäki, Jari; Halila, Hannu; Hyppölä, Harri; Isokoski, Mauri; Kujala, Santero; Kumpusalo, Esko; Mattila, Kari; Virjo, Irma; Vänskä, Jukka; Rissanen, Pekka

    2007-09-01

    This study is based on a unique data set for the years 1988-2003 and uses structural equation models to examine the impact of job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction on physicians' intention to switch from public- to private-sector work. In Finland, physicians who work primarily in a public-hospital or health-centre setting can also run a private practice. Therefore, we also analysed the impact of having a private practice on a physician's intention to change sector. We found that private practice had a positive, statistically significant effect on the intention to switch sector in 1998 and 2003. Results also suggest that job satisfaction decreases a physician's intention to switch sector, although for 1998 it had no effect. Surprisingly, job dissatisfaction significantly increased the physicians' intentions to leave the public sector only in the 1988 data.

  19. A Survey of Michigan's Private Education Sector. A Mackinac Center Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rachel; DeGrow, Ben

    2016-01-01

    According to data collected by the state, Michigan has 601 private schools that enroll about 113,000 students--about 7 percent of all students in the state. All but 14 of Michigan's 84 counties have at least one private school operating within their boundaries. Despite the fact that private schools in Michigan are widespread, there is very little…

  20. Possible Solutions for Financial Crises of the Private Sector of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolling, Landrum R.

    Our society is at a point where a number of interlocking crises-inflation, ever rising expectations, war, urban problems, youth's discontent-are coming together. Money is needed at every point and the private college cannot rely on the federal government or private sources to save them from financial disaster. The private college can tackle its…

  1. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office evaluation of feasibility studies for private sector treatment of alpha and TRU mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is currently storing a large quantity of alpha contaminated mixed low level waste which will require treatment prior to disposal. The DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) recognized that current knowledge and funding were insufficient to directly pursue services for the requisite treatment. Therefore, it was decided that private sector studies would be funded to clarify cost, regulatory, technology, and contractual issues associated with procuring treatment services. This report analyzes the three private sector studies procured and recommends a path forward for DOE in procuring retrieval, assay, characterization, and treatment services for INEL transuranic and alpha contaminated mixed low level waste. This report was prepared by a team of subject matter experts from the INEL referred to as the DOE-ID Evaluation Team.

  2. Antibiotic prescribing in medical intensive care units--a comparison between two private sector hospitals in Central India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Megha; Damlin, Anna L; Sharma, Ashish; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2015-05-01

    Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, common in India, contributes to increased risk for development of bacterial resistance. Patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) are often prescribed antibiotics. Paucity of local data on antibiotic prescribing hinders development of appropriate interventions. The aim of the study was to describe and compare antibiotic prescribing in medical ICUs (MICUs) at two private sector hospitals, one teaching (TH) and one non-teaching (NTH) in Ujjain, India. The study was conducted prospectively for 3 years at MICUs of both hospitals. Patients were compared for demographic variables and diagnosis, prescribed antibiotics, generic name prescribing, and route of administration. Adherence to the World Health Organization list of essential medicines (WHOLEM) and the National List of Essential Medicines of India (NLEMI) was analyzed. In total, 4843 of 6141 patients admitted to the MICUs stayed at least one night. More than 70% were prescribed antibiotics. Generic name prescribing was more common at the TH than at the NTH. Prescriptions at the TH had higher compliance to WHOLEM and NLEMI compared with that at the NTH (p < 0.001). Of the 1371 patients at the TH, 189 (14%) and of 3472 at the NTH, 400 (12%) patients were diagnosed with infections. More than 75% of patients at both hospitals had no infection-associated diagnoses. Antibiotic prescribing was common at both hospitals. The antibiotic prescriptions at the TH had higher compliance to WHOLEM and NLEMI. However, there is a need to develop appropriate interventions to improve antibiotic prescribing at both hospitals.

  3. Price subsidies increase the use of private sector ACTs: evidence from a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Morris, Alexandra; Ward, Abigail; Moonen, Bruno; Sabot, Oliver; Cohen, Justin M

    2015-04-01

    Although artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) are the recommended first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in most endemic countries, they have been prohibitively expensive in the retail sector where many suspected malaria cases purchase treatment. ACT subsidies seek to stimulate consumer demand for the drugs over cheaper but often ineffective alternatives by reducing their prices. Recent evidence from eight regions implementing such subsidies suggests that they are generally successful in improving availability of the drugs and decreasing their retail prices, but it remains unclear whether these outcomes translate to improved use by patients with suspected malaria. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify reports of experimental or programmatic ACT subsidies to assess the impact of subsidies on consumer use. Relationships between price, use and potential confounding factors were examined using logistic and repeated measures binomial regression models, and approximate magnitudes of associations were assessed with linear regression. In total, 40 studies, 14 peer-reviewed and 26 non-peer-reviewed, were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. The reviewed studies found a substantial increase in private sector ACT use following the introduction of a subsidy. Overall, each $1 decrease in price was linked to a 24 percentage point increase in the fraction of suspected malaria cases purchasing ACTs (R(2) = 0.302). No significant differences were evident in this relationship when comparing the poorest and richest groups, rural vs urban populations or children vs adults. These findings suggest that ACT price reductions can increase their use for suspected malaria, even within poorer, more remote populations that may be most at risk of malaria mortality. Whether a subsidy is appropriate will depend upon local context, including treatment-seeking behaviours and malaria prevalence. This review provides an initial foundation for policymakers to make

  4. Economic burden of malaria on businesses in Ghana: a case for private sector investment in malaria control.

    PubMed

    Nonvignon, Justice; Aryeetey, Genevieve Cecilia; Malm, Keziah L; Agyemang, Samuel Agyei; Aubyn, Vivian N A; Peprah, Nana Yaw; Bart-Plange, Constance N; Aikins, Moses

    2016-09-06

    Despite the significant gains made globally in reducing the burden of malaria, the disease remains a major public health challenge, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) including Ghana. There is a significant gap in financing malaria control globally. The private sector could become a significant source of financing malaria control. To get the private sector to appreciate the need to invest in malaria control, it is important to provide evidence of the economic burden of malaria on businesses. The objective of this study, therefore, was to estimate the economic burden on malaria on businesses in Ghana, so as to stimulate the sector's investment in malaria control. Data covering 2012-2014 were collected from 62 businesses sampled from Greater Accra, Ashanti and Western Regions of Ghana, which have the highest concentration of businesses in the country. Data on the cost of businesses' spending on treatment and prevention of malaria in staff and their dependants as well as staff absenteeism due to malaria and expenditure on other health-related activities were collected. Views of business leaders on the effect of malaria on their businesses were also compiled. The analysis was extrapolated to cover 5828 businesses across the country. The results show that businesses in Ghana lost about US$6.58 million to malaria in 2014, 90 % of which were direct costs. A total of 3913 workdays were lost due to malaria in firms in the study sample during the period 2012-2014. Businesses in the study sample spent an average of 0.5 % of the annual corporate returns on treatment of malaria in employees and their dependants, 0.3 % on malaria prevention, and 0.5 % on other health-related corporate social responsibilities. Again business leaders affirmed that malaria affects their businesses' efficiency, employee attendance and productivity and expenses. Finally, about 93 % of business leaders expressed the need private sector investment in malaria control. The economic burden of

  5. Inter-Professional Practices of Private-Sector Physiotherapists for Low Back Pain Management: Who, How, and When?

    PubMed

    Perreault, Kadija; Dionne, Clermont E; Rossignol, Michel; Poitras, Stéphane; Morin, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Although there have been increasing demands for health care providers to take part in inter-professional practices in recent years, very little attention has been paid to the actualization of such practices in the private sector. This study describes private-sector physiotherapists' inter-professional practices regarding low back pain (LBP) management and identifies organizational and provider-level variables associated with the intensity of such practices. Method: A total of 327 randomly selected physiotherapists were surveyed in the province of Quebec. Data were analyzed using descriptive and multiple regression analyses. Results: Physiotherapists reported frequent interactions with other physiotherapists (daily/weekly for 52.6%), family physicians (51.0%), and physiotherapy (PT) assistants (45.2%), but infrequent interactions with psychologists (3.6%), neurosurgeons (0.9%), and chiropractors (0.3%). Frequently reported means of interactions were written and oral messages sent through clients (55.1% and 24.1%, respectively), face-to-face unplanned discussions (41.9%), and faxed or mailed letters (23.2%). Variables associated with the intensity of inter-professional practices (mean of 6.7 [SD 1.7] out of 10 on the Intensity of Interprofessional Practices Questionnaire for Private Sector Physiotherapists) were related to physiotherapists' clientele, social activities with other providers, and perceptions of inter-professional practices as well as organizational models, vision, and provision of PT training. Conclusions: There is room to improve inter-professional practices with private-sector physiotherapists involved in managing LBP. Targets for action include physiotherapists and their workplaces.

  6. Jeffrey J. Magnavita: award for distinguished professional contributions to independent or institutional practice in the private sector.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation for Jeffrey J. Magnavita, who received the Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Independent or Institutional Practice in the Private Sector "for his passionate devotion to the advancement of the practice and science of psychotherapy." Accompanying the citation are a brief profile and a selected bibliography, as well as Magnavita's award address, entitled In Search of the Unifying Principles of Psychotherapy: Conceptual, Empirical, and Clinical Convergence. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Inter-Professional Practices of Private-Sector Physiotherapists for Low Back Pain Management: Who, How, and When?

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, Kadija; Dionne, Clermont E.; Rossignol, Michel; Poitras, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Although there have been increasing demands for health care providers to take part in inter-professional practices in recent years, very little attention has been paid to the actualization of such practices in the private sector. This study describes private-sector physiotherapists' inter-professional practices regarding low back pain (LBP) management and identifies organizational and provider-level variables associated with the intensity of such practices. Method: A total of 327 randomly selected physiotherapists were surveyed in the province of Quebec. Data were analyzed using descriptive and multiple regression analyses. Results: Physiotherapists reported frequent interactions with other physiotherapists (daily/weekly for 52.6%), family physicians (51.0%), and physiotherapy (PT) assistants (45.2%), but infrequent interactions with psychologists (3.6%), neurosurgeons (0.9%), and chiropractors (0.3%). Frequently reported means of interactions were written and oral messages sent through clients (55.1% and 24.1%, respectively), face-to-face unplanned discussions (41.9%), and faxed or mailed letters (23.2%). Variables associated with the intensity of inter-professional practices (mean of 6.7 [SD 1.7] out of 10 on the Intensity of Interprofessional Practices Questionnaire for Private Sector Physiotherapists) were related to physiotherapists' clientele, social activities with other providers, and perceptions of inter-professional practices as well as organizational models, vision, and provision of PT training. Conclusions: There is room to improve inter-professional practices with private-sector physiotherapists involved in managing LBP. Targets for action include physiotherapists and their workplaces. PMID:27904232

  8. Climate, Companies, and Public Policy: How Transparent Is the Private Sector in Reporting Climate Policy Influence?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, G. T.; Carlson, C.

    2014-12-01

    To enact effective policies to address climate change, decision makers need both scientific and political support. One major barrier to U.S. climate policy enactment has been the opposition of private sector actors to proposed policies and to climate science itself. Increasingly, the public and investors are holding companies accountable for their actions around climate change—including political activies, affiliations with trade groups, and involvement with climate science. However, this accountability is inhibited by the prominent role that trade associations have played in climate policy debates in recent years. The opaque nature of such groups is problematic, as it inhibits the public from understanding who is obstructing progress on addressing climate change, and in some cases, impedes the public's climate literacy. Voluntary climate reporting can yield some information on companies' climate engagement and demonstrates the need for greater transparency in corporate political activities around climate change. We analyze CDP climate reporting data from 1,824 companies to assess the degree to which corporate actors disclosed their political influence on climate policies through their trade associations. Results demonstrate the limitations of voluntary reporting and the extent to which companies utilize their trade associations to influence climate change policy debates without being held accountable for these positions. Notably, many companies failed to acknowledge their board seat on trade groups with significant climate policy engagement. Of those that did acknowledge their board membership, some claimed not to agree with their trade associations' positions on climate change. These results raise questions about who trade groups are representing when they challenge the science or obstruct policies to address climate change. Recommendations for overcoming this barrier to informed decision making to address climate change will be discussed.

  9. Factors leading to under-reporting of tuberculosis in the private sector in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, S-J; Park, Y-S; An, H; Kang, S-M; Cho, E-H; Shin, S-S

    2012-09-01

    To identify factors associated with under-reporting of tuberculosis (TB) in the private sector in Korea. A cross-sectional study of 37,820 cases in whom treatment was initiated between January and December 2008 using data from the Nationwide Medical Records Survey of Patients with TB. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for under-reporting with respect to socio-demographic and clinical factors were estimated. Among the 37,820 identified cases, 21,611 (57.1%) were reported to the Korean TB Surveillance System. Factors associated with under-reporting on univariate analysis included young children, foreign-born persons, non-multidrug-resistant TB, persons prescribed fewer than four anti-tuberculosis drugs, non-performance of or negative result on sputum smear and extra-pulmonary TB (particularly abdominal or genitourinary TB). For pulmonary TB, cases with no sputum smear results vs. smear-positive patients (aOR 2.23, P < 0.001) and those prescribed <4 drugs vs. those who were prescribed ≥4 drugs (aOR 1.60, P < 0.001) were strongly related to under-reporting on multivariate analysis. The extent of under-reporting was greater among young children, persons who had not received sputum smear testing and those who had been prescribed fewer than four drugs. Furthermore, TB diagnostic investigations were often inadequate. Education on reporting requirements, including the importance of following guidelines on TB management, and a stricter enforcement of the existing TB Prevention Law, are needed.

  10. TWRS privatization Phase I site development design requirements document

    SciTech Connect

    Shord, A.L.

    1997-01-21

    The DOE-RL is pursuing a strategy of hiring private contractors for treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes. This strategy is called privatization and includes design, permitting,construction, operation, and deactivation of facilities for tank waste treatment. The TWRS Privatization Infrastructure Project consists of several sub- projects which will provide key services needed to support the privatization mission. This document identifies the design requirements for the site development sub-project, including construction, power, water, and road modifications. It will be used in development of the project`s conceptual design.

  11. TWRS privatization phase I site development engineering study

    SciTech Connect

    Shord, A.L.

    1996-09-30

    The DOE-RL is pursuing a new business strategy of hiring private contractors for treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes. This strategy is called `privatization` and includes design, permitting, construction, operation and deactivation of facilities for tank waste treatment. The TWRS Privatization Infrastructure Project consists of several sub-projects which will provide key services needed to support the privatization mission. One sub-project is to develop the selected site for the privatization facilities. This study addresses the pertinent issues related to the development of the site and specific parcels to be assigned to each of two private contractors. It also summarizes other studies that address provisions for utilities and other site services.

  12. Findings from a hepatitis B birth dose assessment in health facilities in the Philippines: opportunities to engage the private sector.

    PubMed

    Patel, Minal K; Capeding, Rosario Z; Ducusin, Joyce U; de Quiroz Castro, Maricel; Garcia, Luzviminda C; Hennessey, Karen

    2014-09-03

    Hepatitis B vaccination in the Philippines was introduced in 1992 to reduce the high burden of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the population; in 2007, a birth dose (HepB-BD) was introduced to decrease perinatal HBV transmission. Timely HepB-BD coverage, defined as doses given within 24h of birth, was 40% nationally in 2011. A first step in improving timely HepB-BD coverage is to ensure that all newborns born in health facilities are vaccinated. In order to assess ways of improving the Philippines' HepB-BD program, we evaluated knowledge, attitudes, and practices surrounding HepB-BD administration in health facilities. Teams visited selected government clinics, government hospitals, and private hospitals in regions with low reported HepB-BD coverage and interviewed immunization and maternity staff. HepB-BD coverage was calculated in each facility for a 3-month period in 2011. Of the 142 health facilities visited, 12 (8%) did not provide HepB-BD; seven were private hospitals and five were government hospitals. Median timely HepB-BD coverage was 90% (IQR 80%-100%) among government clinics, 87% (IQR 50%-97%) among government hospitals, and 50% (IQR 0%-90%) among private hospitals (p=0.02). The private hospitals were least likely to receive supervision (53% vs. 6%-31%, p=0.0005) and to report vaccination data to the national Expanded Programme on Immunization (36% vs. 96%-100%, p<0.0001). Private sector hospitals in the Philippines, which deliver 18% of newborns, had the lowest timely HepB-BD coverage. Multiple avenues exist to engage the private sector in hepatitis B prevention including through existing laws, newborn health initiatives, hospital accreditation processes, and raising awareness of the government's free vaccine program. Copyright © 2013 World Health Organization (WHO). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of private developers in local infrastructure provision in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salleh, Dani; Okinono, Otega

    2016-08-01

    Globally, the challenge of local infrastructure provision has attracted much debate amongst different nations including Malaysia, on how to achieve an effective and efficient infrastructural management. This approach therefore, has intensified the efforts of local authorities in incorporating private developers in their developmental agenda in attaining a sustainable infrastructural development in local areas. Basically, the knowledge of the need for adequate provision of local infrastructure is well understood by both local and private authorities. Likewise, the divergent opinions on the usage of private delivery services. Notwithstanding the common perception, significant loopholes have been identified on the most appropriate and ideal approach and practices to adopt in enhancing local infrastructure development. The study therefore examined the role of private developers in local infrastructure provision and procedure adopted by both local authorities and the privates sector in local infrastructure development. Data was obtained using the questionnaire through purposive sampling, administered to 22 local authorities and 16 developers which was descriptively analysed. Emanating from the study findings, the most frequently approved practices by local authorities are joint venture and complete public delivery systems. Likewise, negotiation was identified as a vital tool for stimulating the acquisition of local infrastructure provision. It was also discovered the one of the greatest challenge in promoting private sector involvement in local infrastructure development is due to unregulated-procedure. The study therefore recommends, there is need for local authorities to adopt a collective and integrated approach, nevertheless, cognisance and priority should be given to developing a well-structured and systematic process of local infrastructure provision and development.

  14. 36 CFR 907.15 - Approval of private development proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... categorically excluded, shall require, at a minimum, an environmental assessment. (b) The Board of Directors may.... (c) At a minimum, and as part of any submission made by a private developer to the Board of Directors for its approval, a private developer shall make available data and materials concerning the...

  15. Public/private cross-training programs to expedite clean-up and development of environmentally impaired property

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, B.

    1994-12-31

    There is a need to learn how to partner better. In this regard, it would be most useful to monitor a partnership from its inception and as it develops. Such a partnership to follow through its various development stages is the California Environmental Enterprise (CEE), a dynamic Statewide environmental technology services partnership linking private industry, the DOE National Laboratories, State and local governments, regulatory agencies community colleges and universities, public interest and environmental organizations, for the common purpose of facilitating the economic and rehabilitative reuse of environmentally impaired property. In cooperation with Federal agencies, CEE will work actively with the private sector and other major institutions to seek innovative technological solutions to environmental restoration and waste management problems. Through the development of public-private partnerships CEE will broker and facilitate private sector solutions that will leverage collective resources as well as demonstrating and commercializing environmental technologies and systems to the economic benefit of the State and the Nation.

  16. Nordic privatization and private healthcare.

    PubMed

    Ovretveit, John

    2003-01-01

    The role of the private sector in public healthcare systems is much debated, but there is little research to inform the debate. In the Nordic countries the extent and type of private sector involvement is largely unknown and the changes and the consequences have not been studied. This paper presents a conceptual framework and some limited data about the changing private-public mix and privatization in the Nordic countries between 1985 and 2000. The data suggest a small increase in both private financing and provision which has accelerated in recent years, especially in specific healthcare fields such as diagnostic centres, dentistry, primary medical care and care for older people. The overall increase is small, but large in certain sectors. Differences between the countries can only be understood in relation to their historical, financial, economic and political context, even though there are many commonalities. Impact also is context dependent, but the findings do show a cross-country pattern of a willingness to experiment and a change in underlying assumptions. The findings show a more extensive interpenetration of private and public than previously recognized but more research is required, especially about changes in recent years about which data are scarce. The paper considers the factors driving these trends, the likely larger changes in the next 10 years and the possible consequences for patients, professionals, managers and governments. It notes the different ways governments can control or influence finance and provision. It proposes that the Nordic and other governments improve regulation and data collection about the private sector and consider influencing private providers through partnership arrangements, rather than leaving the developments to be shaped by growing consumer demands or market logic alone.

  17. Ethics in public health research: masters of marketing: bringing private sector skills to public health partnerships.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Valerie A; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Scott, Beth

    2007-04-01

    Skill in marketing is a scarce resource in public health, especially in developing countries. The Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap set out to tap the consumer marketing skills of industry for national handwashing programs. Lessons learned from commercial marketers included how to (1) understand consumer motivation, (2) employ 1 single unifying idea, (3) plan for effective reach, and (4) ensure effectiveness before national launch. After the first marketing program, 71% of Ghanaian mothers knew the television ad and the reported rates of handwashing with soap increased. Conditions for the expansion of such partnerships include a wider appreciation of what consumer marketing is, what it can do for public health, and the potential benefits to industry. Although there are practical and philosophical difficulties, there are many opportunities for such partnerships.

  18. Referral of tuberculosis symptomatic clients from private pharmacies to public sector clinics for diagnosis and treatment in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Bell, Carolyn A; Ilomäki, Jenni; Pichenda, Koeut; Duncan, Gregory J; Saini, Bandana

    2015-04-01

    Cambodia is one of the 22 countries with a high burden of tuberculosis (TB). People often first seek treatment for cough and other TB symptoms through private pharmacies. The National Tuberculosis Programme trained willing private sector pharmacies to refer TB symptomatic clients to their closest public sector clinic for diagnosis and treatment. The study objective was to investigate factors associated with referral of TB symptomatic clients from pharmacies to public sector clinics in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted with staff from a stratified random sample of 180 private pharmacies in Phnom Penh in 2012. Trained interviewers were Khmer speakers. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for factors associated with self-reported referral during the previous 3 months. Fifty (29.6%) pharmacies reported that they had referred 125 clients (range 1-10) to public sector clinics during the previous 3 months. In total, 164 (96.5%) pharmacies reported that they always referred all TB symptomatic clients to DOTS (directly observed treatment, short course) clinics. More than 6-year participation in the programme (OR 5.23, 95% CI 1.93-14.18) and willingness to always continue referring (OR 12.24, 95% CI 11.61-93.10) were associated with referral of one or more clients in the previous 3 months. Referral to the client's closest clinic was negatively associated with referral (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.23-0.99). Pharmacies' ongoing commitment to the Referral Programme was strongly associated with referral. Increased advocacy among the high number of non-referring pharmacies may improve programme performance. Factors negatively associated with referral may need investigation. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The private sector role in HIV/AIDS in the context of an expanded global response: expenditure trends in five sub-Saharan African countries.

    PubMed

    Sulzbach, Sara; De, Susna; Wang, Wenjuan

    2011-07-01

    Global financing for the HIV response has reached unprecedented levels in recent years. Over US$10 billion were mobilized in 2007, an effort credited with saving the lives of millions of people living with HIV (PLHIV). A relatively unexamined aspect of the global HIV response is the role of the private sector in financing HIV/AIDS services. As the nature of the response evolves from emergency relief to long-term sustainability, understanding current and potential contributions from the private sector is critical. This paper examines trends in private sector financing, management and resource consumption related to HIV/AIDS in five sub-Saharan African countries, with a particular emphasis on the effects of recently scaled-up donor funding on private sector contributions. We analysed National Health Accounts HIV/AIDS subaccount data for Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia between 2002 and 2006. HIV subaccounts provide comparable data on the flow of HIV/AIDS funding from source to use. Findings indicate that private sector contributions decreased in all countries except Tanzania. With regards to managing HIV/AIDS funds, non-governmental organizations are increasingly controlling the largest share of resources relative to other stakeholders, whereas private for-profit entities are managing fewer HIV/AIDS resources since the donor influx. The majority of HIV/AIDS funds were spent in the public sector, although a considerable amount was spent at private facilities, largely fuelled by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. On the whole, OOP spending by PLHIV decreased over the 4-year period, with the exception of Malawi, demonstrating that PLHIV have increased access to free or subsidized HIV/AIDS services. Our findings suggest that the influx of donor funding has led to decreased private contributions for HIV/AIDS. The reduction in private sector investment and engagement raises concerns about the sustainability of HIV/AIDS programmes over the long term, particularly in

  20. Examination of the factors and issues for an environmental technology utilization partnership between the private sector and the Department of Energy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brouse, P.

    1997-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) held a meeting on November 12, 1992 to evaluate the DOE relations with industry and university partners concerning environmental technology utilization. The goal of this meeting was to receive feedback from DOE industry and university partners for the identification of opportunities to improve the DOE cooperative work processes with the private sector. The meeting was designed to collect information and to turn that information into action to improve private sector partnerships with DOE.

  1. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a qualitative study in Uttar Pradesh, India, on engaging the private health sector in sharing health-related data.

    PubMed

    Gautham, Meenakshi; Spicer, Neil; Subharwal, Manish; Gupta, Sanjay; Srivastava, Aradhana; Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Health information systems are an important planning and monitoring tool for public health services, but may lack information from the private health sector. In this fourth article in a series on district decision-making for health, we assessed the extent of maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH)-related data sharing between the private and public sectors in two districts of Uttar Pradesh, India; analysed barriers to data sharing; and identified key inputs required for data sharing. Between March 2013 and August 2014, we conducted 74 key informant interviews at national, state and district levels. Respondents were stakeholders from national, state and district health departments, professional associations, non-governmental programmes and private commercial health facilities with 3-200 beds. Qualitative data were analysed using a framework based on a priori and emerging themes. Private facilities registered for ultrasounds and abortions submitted standardized records on these services, which is compulsory under Indian laws. Data sharing for other services was weak, but most facilities maintained basic records related to institutional deliveries and newborns. Public health facilities in blocks collected these data from a few private facilities using different methods. The major barriers to data sharing included the public sector's non-standardized data collection and utilization systems for MNCH and lack of communication and follow up with private facilities. Private facilities feared information disclosure and the additional burden of reporting, but were willing to share data if asked officially, provided the process was simple and they were assured of confidentiality. Unregistered facilities, managed by providers without a biomedical qualification, also conducted institutional deliveries, but were outside any reporting loops. Our findings suggest that even without legislation, the public sector could set up an effective MNCH data sharing strategy with private

  2. Financial development and sectoral CO2 emissions in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Maji, Ibrahim Kabiru; Habibullah, Muzafar Shah; Saari, Mohd Yusof

    2017-03-01

    The paper examines the impacts of financial development on sectoral carbon emissions (CO2) for environmental quality in Malaysia. Since the financial sector is considered as one of the sectors that will contribute to Malaysian economy to become a developed country by 2020, we utilize a cointegration method to investigate how financial development affects sectoral CO2 emissions. The long-run results reveal that financial development increases CO2 emissions from the transportation and oil and gas sector and reduces CO2 emissions from manufacturing and construction sectors. However, the elasticity of financial development is not significant in explaining CO2 emissions from the agricultural sector. The results for short-run elasticities were also consistent with the long-run results. We conclude that generally, financial development increases CO2 emissions and reduces environmental quality in Malaysia.

  3. The contribution of health selection to occupational status inequality in Germany - differences by gender and between the public and private sectors.

    PubMed

    Kröger, H

    2016-04-01

    Estimating the size of health inequalities between hierarchical levels of job status and the contribution of direct health selection to these inequalities for men and women in the private and public sector in Germany. The study uses prospective data from the Socio-Economic Panel study on 11,788 women and 11,494 men working in the public and private sector in Germany. Direct selection effects of self-rated health on job status are estimated using fixed-effects linear probability models. The contribution of health selection to overall health-related inequalities between high and low status jobs is calculated. Women in the private sector who report very good health have a 1.9 [95% CI: 0.275; 3.507] percentage point higher probability of securing a high status job than women in poor self-rated health. This direct selection effect constitutes 20.12% of total health inequalities between women in high and low status jobs. For men in the private and men and women in the public sector no relevant health selection effects were identified. The contribution of health selection to total health inequalities between high and low status jobs varies with gender and public versus private sector. Women in the private sector in Germany experience the strongest health selection. Possible explanations are general occupational disadvantages that women have to overcome to secure high status jobs. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Health Insurance: Comparison of Coverage for Federal and Private Sector Employees. Briefing Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Civil Service, Post Office, and General Services, Committee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This briefing report was developed to provide a Senate subcommittee with information concerning certain benefit features of the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP). It compares coverage for selected health benefits in the federal and private sectors for a 6-year period (1980-1985). A description of methodology states that information…

  5. The Private Sector/University Technology Alliance: Making It Work. Proceedings of a Conference of the National Council of University Research Administrators (Dallas, Texas, September 4-7, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freise, Earl J., Ed.

    The transfer of technology from U.S. research universities in cooperation with the private sector is addressed in proceedings of a National Council of University Research Administrators conference. The first discussion session, "New Technology from University Research and Development (R&D)," examines the university research…

  6. Applying a Total Market Lens: Increased IUD Service Delivery Through Complementary Public- and Private-Sector Interventions in 4 Countries.

    PubMed

    White, Julia N; Corker, Jamaica

    2016-08-11

    Increasing access to the intrauterine device (IUD), as part of a comprehensive method mix, is a key strategy for reducing unintended pregnancy and maternal mortality in low-income countries. To expand access to IUDs within the framework of informed choice, Population Services International (PSI) has historically supported increased IUD service delivery through private providers. In applying a total market lens to better understand the family planning market and address major market gaps, PSI identified a lack of high-quality public provision of IUDs. In 2013, PSI started a pilot in 4 countries (Guatemala, Laos, Mali, and Uganda) to grow public-provider IUD service delivery through increased public-sector engagement while maintaining its ongoing focus on private providers. In collaboration with country governments, PSI affiliates carried out family planning market analyses in the 4 pilot countries to identify gaps in IUD service delivery and create sustainable strategies for scaling up IUD services in the public sector. Country-specific interventions to increase service delivery were implemented across all levels of the public health system, including targeted advocacy at the national level to promote government ownership and program sustainability. Mechanisms to ensure government ownership were built into the program design, including a proof-of-concept approach to convince governments of the feasibility and value of taking over and scaling up interventions. In the first 2 years of the pilot (2013-2014), 102,055 IUD services were provided to women at 417 targeted public-sector facilities. These preliminary results suggest that there is untapped demand for IUD service delivery in the public sector that can be met in part through greater participation of the public sector in family planning and IUD provision. © White et al.

  7. Applying a Total Market Lens: Increased IUD Service Delivery Through Complementary Public- and Private-Sector Interventions in 4 Countries

    PubMed Central

    White, Julia N; Corker, Jamaica

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Increasing access to the intrauterine device (IUD), as part of a comprehensive method mix, is a key strategy for reducing unintended pregnancy and maternal mortality in low-income countries. To expand access to IUDs within the framework of informed choice, Population Services International (PSI) has historically supported increased IUD service delivery through private providers. In applying a total market lens to better understand the family planning market and address major market gaps, PSI identified a lack of high-quality public provision of IUDs. In 2013, PSI started a pilot in 4 countries (Guatemala, Laos, Mali, and Uganda) to grow public-provider IUD service delivery through increased public-sector engagement while maintaining its ongoing focus on private providers. In collaboration with country governments, PSI affiliates carried out family planning market analyses in the 4 pilot countries to identify gaps in IUD service delivery and create sustainable strategies for scaling up IUD services in the public sector. Country-specific interventions to increase service delivery were implemented across all levels of the public health system, including targeted advocacy at the national level to promote government ownership and program sustainability. Mechanisms to ensure government ownership were built into the program design, including a proof-of-concept approach to convince governments of the feasibility and value of taking over and scaling up interventions. In the first 2 years of the pilot (2013–2014), 102,055 IUD services were provided to women at 417 targeted public-sector facilities. These preliminary results suggest that there is untapped demand for IUD service delivery in the public sector that can be met in part through greater participation of the public sector in family planning and IUD provision. PMID:27540122

  8. Economic Public Private Partnerships for Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Thomas C.; Kistler, Walter P.; Citron, Bob

    2008-01-01

    Space transportation has evolved to entrepreneurs offering affordable transportation services to LEO. Society expects space tourism to produce low costs quickly, but entrepreneurs need the larger commercial transportation markets to raise the private money to build the orbital vehicles. Early heavy cargo is the logistics model of remote bases on Earth and is likely to be similar for off planet remote bases. Public Private Partnerships (PPP), (Norment, 2006) and other alliances with governments offer new transportation markets and combines private funding with government markets to accelerate the movement of mankind into space, (Kistler, 2004a). Entrepreneurs bring change like a multitude of innovation, changes to the traditional aerospace industry status quo, commercial market forces and the lowering of the cost of transportation to orbit. Within PPPs, government stretches space budgets, increases vehicle innovation without cost and gains cost advantages of larger markets. Examples of PPPs show some opportunity for change in space commerce is possible, (Stainback, 2000 and Spekman, 2000). Some of the items entrepreneurs bring include innovation in hardware, a maturing of the normal market forces such as the pressures from buyers and sellers rather than those from government planners or from regulation. Launch costs are high, society wants orbital hotels and current/future markets are not emerging because of high transportation costs. The paper proposes a new approach with examples, because mankind has taken a long time to transition from expendable launch vehicles to newer more affordable launch innovation and may require the introduction of new innovative approaches.

  9. Shaping Collective Functions in Privatized Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems: The Positioning and Embedding of a Network Broker in the Dutch Dairy Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klerkx, Laurens; Leeuwis, Cees

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines new organizational arrangements that have emerged in the context of a privatized extension system. It investigates the positioning and embedding of a network broker aimed at enhancing interaction in the privatized agricultural knowledge and information system (AKIS), to assess whether tensions reported in other sectors also…

  10. Shaping Collective Functions in Privatized Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems: The Positioning and Embedding of a Network Broker in the Dutch Dairy Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klerkx, Laurens; Leeuwis, Cees

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines new organizational arrangements that have emerged in the context of a privatized extension system. It investigates the positioning and embedding of a network broker aimed at enhancing interaction in the privatized agricultural knowledge and information system (AKIS), to assess whether tensions reported in other sectors also…

  11. Education and the Private Finance Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Clive

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the development of Private Finance Initiative schemes in the United Kingdom, and reflects on how profitable opportunities for private financiers and construction companies were created at the expense of the public sector. (Contains 72 notes.)

  12. Education and the Private Finance Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Clive

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the development of Private Finance Initiative schemes in the United Kingdom, and reflects on how profitable opportunities for private financiers and construction companies were created at the expense of the public sector. (Contains 72 notes.)

  13. Transfer and utilization of government technology assets to the private sector in the fields of health care and information technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, Luis G.

    1995-10-01

    During the first Health Care Technology Policy conference last year, during health care reform, four major issues were brought up in regards to the efforts underway to develop a computer based patient record (CBPR), the National Information Infrastructure (NII) as part of the high performance computers and communications (HPCC), and the so-called 'patient card.' More specifically it was explained how a national information system will greatly affect the way health care delivery is provided to the United States public and reduce its costs. These four issues were: (1) Constructing a national information infrastructure (NII); (2) Building a computer based patient record system; (3) Bringing the collective resources of our national laboratories to bear in developing and implementing the NII and CBPR, as well as a security system with which to safeguard the privacy rights of patients and the physician-patient privilege; (4) Utilizing government (e.g., DOD, DOE) capabilities (technology and human resources) to maximize resource utilization, create new jobs, and accelerate technology transfer to address health care issues. This year a section of this conference entitled: 'Health Care Technology Assets of the Federal Government' addresses benefits of the technology transfer which should occur for maximizing already developed resources. This section entitled: 'Transfer and Utilization of Government Technology Assets to the Private Sector,' will look at both health care and non-health care related technologies since many areas such as information technologies (i.e. imaging, communications, archival/retrieval, systems integration, information display, multimedia, heterogeneous data bases, etc.) already exist and are part of our national labs and/or other federal agencies, i.e., ARPA. These technologies although they are not labeled under health care programs they could provide enormous value to address technical needs. An additional issue deals with both the technical

  14. Funding long-term care: applications of the trade-off principle in both public and private sectors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Ping

    2003-02-01

    The uncertain need for long-term care services is a risk best protected by insurance. However, the current funding relies heavily on personal payment and public welfare, and only lightly on social and private insurances. This method, akin to sitting on a two-legged stool, is unlikely to be sustainable. To incorporate insurance as a key component of funding and to mobilize public and private resources more effectively, we propose a three-legged-stool funding model under which social insurance would provide a basic protection, to be supplemented by private insurance and personal payment. When these sources do not provide sufficient protection for some individuals, Medicaid as public welfare would serve as a safety net. This article (a) discusses how to implement this funding model by using the trade-off principle in both the public and private sectors when resources for long-term care are scarce, and (b) analyzes several objections to this model from cognitive psychology/behavioral economics

  15. Adherence of the private sector to national tuberculosis guidelines in the Islamic Republic of Iran, 2001-02.

    PubMed

    Shirzadi, M R; Majdzadeh, R; Pourmalek, F; Naraghi, K

    2003-07-01

    We determined the knowledge and practice of private sector physicians in three cites regarding management of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and their determinants. A random sample questionnaire survey was conducted of 732 private physicians. Stratified analysis and logistic regression were used to identify the adjusted determinants of the two outcomes. A high proportion of the doctors had correct knowledge about the major diagnostic criteria but there was a low level of knowledge and practice of TB management. Significant risk factors for poor knowledge were age > or = 36 years, being a GP rather than a specialist and no attendance in TB training courses or attendance in courses held by institutions other than the public health system. Age > or = 36 years was the only significant risk factor for poor practice.

  16. 20 CFR 641.630 - What private sector training activities are allowable under section 502(e)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., including: (1) Training in new technological skills; (2) On-the-job training with private-for-profit... training; (6) Occupational skills training; (7) In combination with other services listed in paragraphs (a...

  17. Recent trends in working with the private sector to improve basic healthcare: a review of evidence and interventions.

    PubMed

    Montagu, Dominic; Goodman, Catherine; Berman, Peter; Penn, Amy; Visconti, Adam

    2016-10-01

    The private sector provides the majority of health care in Africa and Asia. A number of interventions have, for many years, applied different models of subsidy, support and engagement to address social and efficiency failures in private health care markets. We have conducted a review of these models, and the evidence in support of them, to better understand what interventions are currently common, and to what extent practice is based on evidence. Using established typologies, we examined five models of intervention with private markets for care: commodity social marketing, social franchising, contracting, accreditation and vouchers. We conducted a systematic review of both published and grey literature, identifying programmes large enough to be cited in publications, and studies of the listed intervention types. 343 studies were included in the review, including both published and grey literature. Three hundred and eighty programmes were identified, the earliest having begun operation in 1955. Commodity social marketing programmes were the most common intervention type, with 110 documented programmes operating for condoms alone at the highest period. Existing evidence shows that these models can improve access and utilization, and possibly quality, but for all programme types, the overall evidence base remains weak, with practice in private sector engagement consistently moving in advance of evidence. Future research should address key questions concerning the impact of interventions on the market as a whole, the distribution of benefits by socio-economic status, the potential for scale up and sustainability, cost-effectiveness compared to relevant alternatives and the risk of unintended consequences. Alongside better data, a stronger conceptual basis linking programme design and outcomes to context is also required. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. LANDSAT technology transfer to the private and public sectors through community colleges and other locally available institutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Major first year accomplishments are summarized and plans are provided for the next 12-month period for a program established by NASA with the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan to investigate methods of making LANDSAT technology readily available to a broader set of private sector firms through local community colleges. The program applies a network where the major participants are NASA, university or research institutes, community colleges, and obtain hands-on training in LANDSAT data analysis techniques, using a desk-top, interactive remote analysis station which communicates with a central computing facility via telephone line, and provides for generation of land cover maps and data products via remote command.

  19. LANDSAT technology transfer to the private and public sectors through community colleges and other locally available institutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The results achieved during the first eight months of a program to transfer LANDSAT technology to practicing professionals in the private and public sectors (grass roots) through community colleges and other locally available institutions are reported. The approach offers hands-on interactive analysis training and demonstrations through the use of color desktop computer terminals communicating with a host computer by telephone lines. The features of the terminals and associated training materials are reviewed together with plans for their use in training and demonstration projects.

  20. Learning from the private sector: towards a keener understanding of the end-user for microbicide introduction planning

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Amy H; Breger, Tiffany L; Barnhart, Matthew; Kim, Ann; Vangsgaard, Charlotte; Harris, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In planning for the introduction of vaginal microbicides and other new antiretroviral (ARV)-based prevention products for women, an in-depth understanding of potential end-users will be critically important to inform strategies to optimize uptake and long-term adherence. User-centred private sector companies have contributed to the successful launch of many different types of products, employing methods drawn from behavioural and social sciences to shape product designs, marketing messages and communication channels. Examples of how the private sector has adapted and applied these techniques to make decisions around product messaging and targeting may be instructive for adaptation to microbicide introduction. Discussion In preparing to introduce a product, user-centred private sector companies employ diverse methods to understand the target population and their lifestyles, values and motivations. ReD Associates’ observational research on user behaviours in the packaged food and diabetes fields illustrates how ‘tag along’ or ‘shadowing’ techniques can identify sources of non-adherence. Another open-ended method is self-documentation, and IDEO's mammography research utilized this to uncover user motivations that extended beyond health. Mapping the user journey is a quantitative approach for outlining critical decision-making stages, and Monitor Inclusive Markets applied this framework to identify toilet design opportunities for the rural poor. Through an iterative process, these various techniques can generate hypotheses on user drop-off points, quantify where drop-off is highest and prioritize areas of further research to uncover usage barriers. Although research constraints exist, these types of user-centred techniques have helped create effective messaging, product positioning and packaging of health products as well as family planning information. These methods can be applied to microbicide acceptability testing outside of clinical trials