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Sample records for prix observes sur

  1. Old Fire/Grand Prix Fire, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    On November 18, 2003, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite acquired this image of the Old Fire/Grand Prix fire east of Los Angeles. The image is being processed by NASA's Wildfire Response Team and will be sent to the United States Department of Agriculture's Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC) which provides interpretation services to Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams to assist in mapping the severity of the burned areas. The image combines data from the visible and infrared wavelength regions to highlight the burned areas.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Michael Abrams at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort dedicated to

  2. Alt-Energy Grand Prix Inspires an "I Can" Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessmer, Al; Trzeciak, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how a team comprised largely of high school students builds and races an E85-fueled car and takes first place at the Bowling Green (Ohio) State University (BGSU) Grand Prix. Free and open to the public, the event features student drivers and crews, racing go-karts powered by renewable, ethanol-based E85 fuel. The track is a…

  3. 75 FR 20920 - Safety Zone; Lake Havasu Grand Prix, Lake Havasu, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lake Havasu Grand Prix, Lake Havasu, AZ... temporary safety zone upon the navigable waters of Lake Havasu on the Colorado River in Lake Havasu City, Arizona for the Lake Havasu Grand Prix. This temporary safety zone is necessary to provide for the...

  4. 78 FR 22814 - Special Local Regulations; Miami Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Miami Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ..., Atlantic Ocean; Miami Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY... Miami Beach, Florida during the Miami Super Boat Grand Prix. The Miami Super Boat Grand Prix will... Beach, Florida. Approximately 25 high- speed power boats will be participating in the races, and it...

  5. 78 FR 7331 - SLR; Fajardo Offshore Grand Prix; Rada Fajardo; Fajardo, PR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 SLR; Fajardo Offshore Grand Prix; Rada Fajardo; Fajardo... establishing a special local regulation on the waters of Rada Fajardo in Fajardo, Puerto Rico during the Fajardo Offshore Grand Prix, a high speed boat race. The event is scheduled to take place on Sunday,...

  6. 33 CFR 100.717 - Annual Fort Myers Beach Offshore Grand Prix; Fort Myers, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... involved with the Fort Myers Beach Offshore Grand Prix, exiting Big Carlos Pass between 11 a.m. and 3 p.m... until finally past and clear of the racecourse. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (5)...

  7. 78 FR 25574 - Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Cocoa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final... Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, a series of high-speed... Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida. Approximately 30 high-speed power boats are anticipated...

  8. 78 FR 33969 - Special Local Regulations; Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... east of Daytona Beach, Florida, during the Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, a series of...

  9. 77 FR 15600 - Special Local Regulation; Emerald Coast Super Boat Grand Prix; Saint Andrew Bay; Panama City, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Emerald Coast Super Boat Grand... crews, vessels, and persons on navigable waters during the Emerald Coast Super Boat Grand Prix high... the Emerald Coast Super Boat Grand Prix high speed boat races. Basis and Purpose On January 31,...

  10. 77 FR 47522 - Special Local Regulation; Port Huron Offshore Gran Prix, St. Clair River; Port Huron, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Port Huron Offshore Gran Prix... prior to, during, and immediately after the Port Huron Offshore Gran Prix boat race. This special local..., the regulated navigation area is designed to minimize its impact on navigable waters. Furthermore,...

  11. 75 FR 22333 - Safety Zone; Michigan City Super Boat Grand Prix, Lake Michigan, Michigan City, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Michigan City Super Boat Grand Prix, Lake Michigan, Michigan City, IN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to establish a temporary safety zone on Lake Michigan near Michigan City,...

  12. 75 FR 34932 - Safety Zone; Michigan City Super Boat Grand Prix, Lake Michigan, Michigan City, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Michigan City Super Boat Grand Prix, Lake Michigan, Michigan City, IN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Michigan near Michigan City, Indiana. This zone...

  13. 75 FR 21194 - Special Local Regulation; Harrison Township Grand Prix, Lake St. Clair; Harrison Township, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Harrison Township Grand Prix, Lake St. Clair; Harrison Township, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Port Detroit Zone on Lake St. Clair, Harrison Township, Michigan. This special local regulation...

  14. 75 FR 39445 - Special Local Regulation; Harrison Township Grand Prix, Lake St. Clair, Harrison Township, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Harrison Township Grand Prix, Lake St. Clair, Harrison Township, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY... Detroit Zone on Lake St. Clair, Harrison Township, Michigan. This special local regulation is intended...

  15. 33 CFR 100.106 - Freeport Grand Prix, Long Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.106 Freeport Grand Prix, Long... of Long Island to the south of Long Beach, New York. The regulated area is one and one quarter (11/4...-45 North; 073-36-19 West. (3) Southwest Corner. east of East Rockaway Approach Buoy (R “4”;...

  16. 33 CFR 100.912 - Detroit Belle Isle Grand Prix, Detroit, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Detroit Belle Isle Grand Prix, Detroit, MI. 100.912 Section 100.912 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.912 Detroit Belle Isle...

  17. 33 CFR 100.912 - Detroit Bell Isle Grand Prix, Detroit, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Detroit Bell Isle Grand Prix, Detroit, MI. 100.912 Section 100.912 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.912 Detroit Bell Isle...

  18. 33 CFR 100.912 - Detroit Belle Isle Grand Prix, Detroit, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Detroit Belle Isle Grand Prix, Detroit, MI. 100.912 Section 100.912 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.912 Detroit Belle Isle...

  19. 33 CFR 100.912 - Detroit Bell Isle Grand Prix, Detroit, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Detroit Bell Isle Grand Prix, Detroit, MI. 100.912 Section 100.912 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.912 Detroit Bell Isle...

  20. 33 CFR 100.912 - Detroit Belle Isle Grand Prix, Detroit, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Detroit Belle Isle Grand Prix, Detroit, MI. 100.912 Section 100.912 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.912 Detroit Belle Isle...

  1. 76 FR 26931 - Safety Zone; Second Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Second Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix. The Second Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix will consist of a series of high- speed boat races. The event is scheduled to take place on Saturday, May 21, 2011 and Sunday, May 22, 2011. The temporary safety......

  2. Considérations nosographiques sur le délire d'infestation parasitaire à travers trois observations cliniques

    PubMed Central

    Berhili, Nabil; Bout, Amine; Hlal, Hayat; Aarab, Chadya; Aalouane, Rachid; Rammouz, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Le syndrome d'Ekbom, ou délire d'infestation parasitaire, est une pathologie rare, caractérisée par la conviction inébranlable d'avoir une peau infestée d'insectes ou de parasites. Il s'agit d'un délire monothématique à mécanisme hallucinatoire qui touche typiquement les femmes d’âge avancé. Nous rapportons les cas de trois patients qui présentent un délire d'infestation parasitaire dans des contextes cliniques différents. Le premier patient souffre d'un délire d'infestation isolé correspondant à la forme décrite par Karl Ekbom. Le deuxième cas présente un délire d'infestation secondaire, s'inscrivant dans le cadre d'une leuco-encéphalopathie de type CADASIL. Enfin, le troisième patient se présente dans un tableau évocateur d'un épisode dépressif avec une caractéristique psychotique qui intègre le délire d'infestation. Ces trois vignettes cliniques illustrent parfaitement le caractère trans-nosographique de ce syndrome ainsi que les difficultés de prise en charge de ces patients, tant au niveau de l'alliance thérapeutique que sur le plan des choix en matière de traitement pharmacologiques. PMID:27642468

  3. Lambeau Expanse du Cuir Chevelu dans la Couverture des Alopecies Cicatricielles sur Sequelles de Brulures. A Propos d'une Observation

    PubMed Central

    El Mazouz, S.; Hafidi, J.; Fejjal, N.; Mejjati, H.; Cherkab, L.; Gharib, N.; Abbassi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Les séquelles esthétiques des alopécies cicatricielles sur séquelles de brûlures sont responsables de préjudices empêchant parfois la réinsertion sociale du patient, surtout chez les sujets de sexe féminin. Le cuir chevelu permet la réalisation de lambeaux permettant de couvrir ces alopécies. Les Auteurs décrivent le cas d'une jeune patiente victime d'une alopécie cicatricielle sur séquelles de brûlures chez qui ils ont réalisé un lambeau expansé du cuir chevelu et mettent le point sur la prise en charge de ces lésions à travers ce cas clinique et une revue de littérature. PMID:21991195

  4. 77 FR 15006 - Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast... of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, a series of high-speed boat races. The event is scheduled to take place on Sunday, May...

  5. Les torsions sur testicules cryptorchides

    PubMed Central

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Amri, Najmeddine; Chambeh, Wahib; Braiek, Salem; Kamel, Rafik El

    2010-01-01

    Résumé But : La cryptorchidie est une pathologie assez fréquente en urologie. Elle est associée à un risque élevé d’infertilité et de dégénérescence. Elle semble aussi être associée à un risque important de torsion. Cette entité est très peu abordée dans la littérature. Nous rapportons tous les cas de torsion sur testicule cryptorchide observés à notre service dans le but de mieux caractériser cette pathologie et de réduire ainsi le taux d’orchidectomies. Méthodologie : Il s’agit d’une étude rétrospective portant sur tous les cas de torsion sur testicule cryptorchide opérés dans notre service d’urologie entre 1999 et 2007. Les patients ont fait l’objet d’une description basée sur le résumé de leurs observations. Résultats : Les patients étaient âgés de 7 mois à 39 ans. La torsion touchait le testicule droit dans 53 % des cas. Le tableau clinique comportait une douleur au niveau de la région inguinale d’apparition soudaine avec une masse sous-cutanée inflammatoire et douloureuse à ce niveau et surtout un hémiscrotum homolatéral vide. Dans 60 % des cas, le diagnostic était tardif et une orchidectomie a été réalisée. Dans les autre cas, un abaissement du testicule a été réalisé avec orchidopexie controlatéral dans le même temps opératoire. Conclusion : Bien qu’il s’agisse d’une pathologie peu courante, la torsion sur testicule cryptorchide doit être étudiée davantage. Le diagnostic précoce permettra de sauver et d’abaisser le testicule et faciliter ainsi le dépistage d’une éventuelle dégénérescence. PMID:21191497

  6. Suivi thérapeutique pharmacologique de trois médicaments antiépileptiques: retour sur vingt années d’expérience

    PubMed Central

    Serragui, Samira; Zalagh, Fatima; Tanani, Driss Soussi; Ouammi, Lahcen; Moussa, Latifa Ait; Badrane, Narjis; Bencheikh, Rachida Soulaymani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Le suivi thérapeutique pharmacologique (STP) des médicaments antiépileptiques (MAE) est un outil très utilisé dans la gestion de l'épilepsie. Au Maroc, ce dosage est réalisé au Centre Anti Poison et de Pharmacovigilance du Maroc (CAPM) depuis Avril 1995. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective s'étalant sur 20 ans. Elle concerne le STP du Phénobarbital (PB), de la Carbamazépine (CBZ) et de l'Acide Valproique (AVP). Résultats Le STP des 3 MAE représentaient 58,85% de l'ensemble des demandes de STP reçue par le CAPM. Le dosage du PB était classé en première position suivi par celui de la CBZ et enfin par l'AVP. La faible demande de STP au Maroc pouvait être expliquée par le faible nombre de neurologues auquel s'ajoutaient des facteurs sociaux. Grâce à son prix très accessible par les patients, le PB est le MAE le plus prescrit dans notre pays expliquant ainsi la demande élevée de son dosage. Quant aux motifs de STP des 3 MAE, ils étaient essentiellement liés à l'âge, à l'apparition d'effets indésirables, à l'association de MAE ou dans le cas de vérification de l'observance des malades. Conclusion Des efforts sont à fournir pour promouvoir l'intérêt du STP des MAE dans la prise en charge de l'épilepsie au Maroc. PMID:28154702

  7. Case Study: Competition Nutrition Intakes During the Open Water Swimming Grand Prix Races in Elite Female Swimmer.

    PubMed

    Kumstát, Michal; Rybárová, Silvie; Thomas, Andy; Novotný, Jan

    2016-08-01

    The nutritional intake of elite open water swimmers during competition is not well established, and therefore this case study aims to provide new insights by describing the feeding strategies adopted by an elite female swimmer (28 yrs; height; 1.71 m; body mass: 60 kg; body fat: 16.0%) in the FINA open water Grand Prix 2014.Seven events of varying distances (15-88 km) and durations (3-12 hrs) were included. In all events, except one, feeds were provided from support boats. Swimmer and support staff were instructed to track in detail all foods and beverages consumed during the events. Nutritional information was gathered from the packaging and dietary supplements labels and analyzed by nutrition software. Mean carbohydrate (CHO) and protein intake reached 83 ± 5 g·h-1 and 12 ± 8 g·h-1, respectively. Fat intake was neglected (~1 g·h-1). Mean in-race energy intake reached 394 ± 26 kcal·h-1. Dietary supplements in the form of sport beverages and gels, containing multitransportable CHO, provided 40 ± 4 and 49 ± 6% of all CHO energy, respectively. Caffeine (3.6 ± 1.8 mg·kg-1 per event) and sodium (423 ± 16 mg·h-1) were additionally supplemented in all events. It was established that continuous intake of high doses of CHO and sodium and moderate dose of caffeine were an essential part of the feeding strategy for elite-level high intensity ultra-endurance open-water swimming races. A well scheduled and well-prepared nutrition strategy is believed to have ensured optimal individual performance during Grand Prix events.

  8. Pockmarks off Big Sur, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paull, C.; Ussler, W.; Maher, N.; Greene, H. Gary; Rehder, G.; Lorenson, T.; Lee, H.

    2002-01-01

    A pockmark field was discovered during EM-300 multi-beam bathymetric surveys on the lower continental slope off the Big Sur coast of California. The field contains ??? 1500 pockmarks which are between 130 and 260 m in diameter, and typically are 8-12 m deep located within a 560 km2 area. To investigate the origin of these features, piston cores were collected from both the interior and the flanks of the pockmarks, and remotely operated vehicle observation (ROV) video and sampling transects were conducted which passed through 19 of the pockmarks. The water column within and above the pockmarks was sampled for methane concentration. Piston cores and ROV collected push cores show that the pockmark field is composed of monotonous fine silts and clays and the cores within the pockmarks are indistinguishable from those outside the pockmarks. No evidence for either sediment winnowing or diagenetic alteration suggestive of fluid venting was obtained. 14C measurements of the organic carbon in the sediments indicate continuous sedimentation throughout the time resolution of the radiocarbon technique ( ??? 45000 yr BP), with a sedimentation rate of ??? 10 cm per 1000 yr both within and between the pockmarks. Concentrations of methane, dissolved inorganic carbon, sulfate, chloride, and ammonium in pore water extracted from within the cores are generally similar in composition to seawater and show little change with depth, suggesting low biogeochemical activity. These pore water chemical gradients indicate that neither significant accumulations of gas are likely to exist in the shallow subsurface ( ??? 100 m) nor is active fluid advection occurring within the sampled sediments. Taken together the data indicate that these pockmarks are more than 45000 yr old, are presently inactive, and contain no indications of earlier fluid or gas venting events. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfrich, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Helfrich addresses two perspectives from which to think about observation in the classroom: that of the teacher observing her classroom, her group, and its needs, and that of the outside observer coming into the classroom. Offering advice from her own experience, she encourages and defends both. Do not be afraid of the disruption of outside…

  10. Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joosten, Albert Max

    2016-01-01

    Joosten begins his article by telling us that love and knowledge together are the foundation for our work with children. This combination is at the heart of our observation. With this as the foundation, he goes on to offer practical advice to aid our practice of observation. He offers a "List of Objects of Observation" to help guide our…

  11. Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kripalani, Lakshmi A.

    2016-01-01

    The adult who is inexperienced in the art of observation may, even with the best intentions, react to a child's behavior in a way that hinders instead of helping the child's development. Kripalani outlines the need for training and practice in observation in order to "understand the needs of the children and...to understand how to remove…

  12. Le Point sur... Astronomie IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecker, J.-C.

    Cet ouvrage regroupe des articles de mise au point sollicités par le rédacteur en chef de la rubrique Astronomie des Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences. Les textes se proposent de faire découvrir aux lecteurs, dans les principales disciplines de l'astronomie, les résultats les plus remarquables des dernières années.Leurs auteurs sont des spécialistes participant activement à l'accroissement des connaissances dans des domaines faisant l'objet de recherches intensives. Ces mises au point sur des questions particulièrement importantes de l'astronomie sont rédigées soit en français, soit en anglais et accompagnées d'une bibliographie détaillée.

  13. La tuberculose cutanée: observation de six cas confirmés au CHU Souro SANOU (CHUSS) de Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Andonaba, Jean Baptiste; Barro-Traoré, Fatou; Yaméogo, Téné; Diallo, Boukary; Korsaga-Somé, Nina; Traoré, Adama

    2013-01-01

    La localisation cutanée de la maladie tuberculeuse demeure une forme rare et représente seulement 2,1% des localisations. L'objet de cette étude est de rapporter le profil épidémiologique, anatomoclinique et évolutif des cas de tuberculose ganglio-cutanée diagnostiqués dans un CHU au Burkina Faso. La fréquence de la tuberculose cutanée est très faible au CHUSS. Six cas ont été diagnostiqués entre 2004 et 2010, soit une fréquence de un cas par an. La durée d’évolution des cas allait de deux jusqu’à dix ans avant leur diagnostic. Les lésions observées étaient: trois scrofulodermes, trois gommes, une tuberculose testiculaire associée à un mal de Pott, un cas de polyadénopathies et des cicatrices atropho-rétractiles dans la plupart des cas. Sur le plan anatomopathologique, des granulomes tuberculoïdes ont été mis en évidence dans tous les cas avec une forte réaction tuberculinique à l'IDR. Sous antituberculeux pendant six mois, l’évolution a été bonne dans tous les cas mais au prix de séquelles cutanées cicatricielles inesthétiques. Son ampleur reste peut-être encore méconnue. Le renforcement du plateau technique du CHU et une bonne collaboration interdisciplinaire contribuerait à un meilleur diagnostic et prise en charge de cette affection. PMID:24648863

  14. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the Grand Prix and Old Fires of 2003, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Rupert, Michael G.; Michael, John A.; Djokic, Dean; Sreedhar, Sreeresh

    2003-01-01

    These maps present preliminary assessments of the probability of debris-flow activity and estimates of peak discharges that can potentially be generated by debris flows issuing from basins burned by the Old and Grand Prix Fires of October 2003 in southern California in response to the 25-year, 10-year, and 2-year recurrence, 1-hour duration rain storms. The probability maps are based on the application of a logistic multiple regression model that describes the percent chance of debris-flow production from an individual basin as function of burned extent, soil properties, basin gradients and storm rainfall. The peak discharge maps are based on application of a multiple-regression model that can be used to estimate debris-flow peak discharge at a basin outlet as a function of basin gradient, burn extent, and storm rainfall. Probabilities of debris-flow occurrence range between 0 and 85% and estimates of debris flow peak discharges range between 460 and 5,900 ft3/s (13 to 167 m3/s). These maps are intended to identify those basins that are most prone to the largest debris-flow events and provide critical information for the preliminary design of mitigation measures and for the planning of evacuation timing and routes.

  15. AirMSPI PODEX BigSur Terrain Images

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-12-13

    ... Browse Images from the PODEX 2013 Campaign   Big Sur target (Big Sur, California) 02/03/2013 Terrain-projected   Select ...   Version number   For more information, see the Data Product Specifications (DPS)   ...

  16. Fires Burning near Big Sur, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Fires near Big Sur, Calif., continued to burn unchecked when the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image on Sunday, June 29. In Northern California alone, fires have consumed more than 346,000 acres.At least 18,000 people have deployed to attempt to extinguish or control the flames. Air quality as far away as San Francisco has been adversely impacted by the dense clouds of smoke and ash blowing towards the northwest. The satellite image combines a natural color portrayal of the landscape with thermal infrared data showing the active burning areas in red. The dark area in the lower right is a previous forest fire.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 35.4 by 57 kilometers (21.9 by 34.2 miles) Location: 36.1 degrees North latitude, 121.6 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49 feet) Dates Acquired: June 29

  17. Characterization of surface antigen protein 1 (SurA1) from Acinetobacter baumannii and its role in virulence and fitness.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Liu, Zeng-Shan; Hu, Pan; Cai, Ling; Fu, Bao-Quan; Li, Yan-Song; Lu, Shi-Ying; Liu, Nan-Nan; Ma, Xiao-Long; Chi, Dan; Chang, Jiang; Shui, Yi-Ming; Li, Zhao-Hui; Ahmad, Waqas; Zhou, Yu; Ren, Hong-Lin

    2016-04-15

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative bacillus that causes nosocomial infections, such as bacteremia, pneumonia, and meningitis and urinary tract and wound infections. In the present study, the surface antigen protein 1 (SurA1) gene of A. baumannii strain CCGGD201101 was identified, cloned and expressed, and then its roles in fitness and virulence were investigated. Virulence was observed in the human lung cancer cell lines A549 and HEp-2 at one week after treatment with recombinant SurA1. One isogenic SurA1 knock-out strain, GR0015, which was derived from the A. baumannii strain CCGGD201101 isolated from diseased chicks in a previous study, highlighted the effect of SurA1 on fitness and growth. Its growth rate in LB broth and killing activity in human sera were significantly decreased compared with strain CCGGD201101. In the Galleria mellonella insect model, the isogenic SurA1 knock-out strain exhibited a lower survival rate and decreased dissemination. These results suggest that SurA1 plays an important role in the fitness and virulence of A. baumannii.

  18. Patrik and Putrik and Clown Ferdl; Findings and Cognition on the Television Perception of Children and Young People Based on the Prize-Winning Programmes of Prix Jeunesse 1966. Publications of the Internationales Zentralinstitut fur das Jugend- und Bildungsfernsehen, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griebel, Francine, Ed.; Burger, Anette, Ed.

    The results of an investigation of the reactions of young children (ranging from four to nine years of age) in France, Germany, England, America, and Czechoslovkia to two Prix Jeunesse winning television films are examined in this document. Summarized reports from each of the participating countries for the film "Patrik and Putrik" and,…

  19. Sur8 mediates tumorigenesis and metastasis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Mi; Kaduwal, Saluja; Lee, Kug Hwa; Park, Jong-Chan; Jeong, Woo-Jeong; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2016-01-01

    Sur8, a scaffold protein of the Ras pathway, interacts with Ras and Raf and modulates the Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Here we show that Sur8 is overexpressed in established human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines and CRC patient tissues. Moreover, Sur8 expression is increased during liver metastasis in CRC patients. Sur8 knockdown decreases ERK and Akt activities in CRC cell lines, regardless of their K-Ras, B-Raf or PI3K mutation status. Overexpression or knockdown of Sur8 increases or decreases, respectively, the proliferation or transformation of CRC cell lines. Sur8 knockdown attenuates the migration and invasion of HCT116 CRC cells. Subcutaneous or orthotopic injection of HCT116 cells harboring a doxycycline (Dox)-mediated Sur8 knockdown system in nude mice resulted in decreased tumorigenic potential and inhibited the liver metastatic potential of HCT116 cells. Taken together, our data support the role of Sur8 as a promoter of tumorigenesis and liver metastasis in CRC through its modulation of the Ras-ERK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. PMID:27469030

  20. Le point sur les amas de galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, M.

    galaxies jouent donc un rôle de premier plan dans toute étude cosmologique et par conséquent, sont indispensables à notre compréhension globale de l'univers. Dans l'introduction générale, nous détaillons cet aspect fondamental en montrant comment l'étude des amas peut contribuer à contraindre les scénarios cosmologiques. Une fois le contexte scientifique délimité, les chapitres suivants s'attachent à présenter les diverses propriétés des amas et leur évolution cosmique observée dans diverses longueurs d'onde principalement dans les domaines visible (galaxies), X (gaz) et radio (gaz et particules). Nous verrons que l'étude détaillée d'un amas implique celle de l'interaction entre ses différentes composantes et est un passage obligé pour remonter au paramètre ultime (ou premier) qu'est sa masse. Loin d'être un détour ennuyeux, ceci sera l'occasion d'aborder des phénomènes physiques extrêmement variés tel l'aspect multi-phases du milieu intra-amas, les sursauts de formation d'étoiles et l'évolution morphologique des galaxies capturées par les amas, ou bien encore, l'interaction entre le plasma intra-amas et les particules relativistes accélérées lors de la fusion entre deux amas. Bien sûr, pour chaque longueur d'onde, nous ne manquerons pas de décrire simplement les techniques d'observation et d'analyse mises en oeuvre ; celles-ci sont particulièrement intéressantes dans le cas de l'instrumentation spatiale. Nous terminerons en présentant des projets d'observatoires pour l'horizon 2010 et leur impact prévu sur l'étude des amas de galaxies.

  1. Regard sur les lazarets en terre canadienne

    PubMed Central

    Milot, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Puisant dans les nombreuses références qu’offrent les publications médicales canadiennes du milieu du XIXe siècle à nos jours, l’auteur fait découvrir l’existence de lazarets en terre canadienne, décrit l’impact de la maladie sur les conditions vie des lépreux qui y étaient confinés et en souligne les contrecoups tant sur le plan physique et psychologique que social. Il présente un bref aperçu de la maladie, ses symptômes, ses signes ainsi que ses complications oculaires et rappelle les premiers moyens thérapeutiques à base d’huile de chaulmoogra introduits dans la colonie de Tracadie vers 1901. Il illustre son propos en évoquant la vie dans les lazarets de l’île de Sheldrake (1844–1848) et de Tracadie (1848–1965) au Nouveau-Brunswick, puis dans ceux des îles D’Arcy (1891–1924) et de Bentinck (1924–1957) en Colombie-Britannique. PMID:19352451

  2. Adolescence et pornographie sur la toile

    PubMed Central

    Haza, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Dans cet article, nous abordons la question de l’accès à la pornographie sur Internet par les adolescents. Nous déclinons plusieurs facettes de ces rencontres: la rencontre «fortuite», quand les adolescents sont confrontés à des images intempestives, des publicités ou spams avec des contenus pornographiques; la rencontre «spectatrice», quand les adolescents cherchent activement des vidéos ou photos mettant en scène la sexualité; et enfin la rencontre «actrice», quand les adolescents se mettent en scène eux-mêmes, seuls ou à plusieurs, de façon pornographique sur le Net. A partir d’exemple, nous réfléchissons aux enjeux de ces rencontres virtuelles précoces de la sexualité adulte par rapport au développement adolescent et à la représentation de leur propre sexualité en construction. PMID:22876261

  3. Grossesse sur cicatrice de césarienne: à propos d'un cas et revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Lachiri, Boutaina; Zazi, Abdelgheni; Benkerroum, Zineb; Hafidi, Moulay Rachid; Kouach, Jaouad; Rahali, Driss Moussaoui; Dehayni, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    La grossesse sur cicatrice de césarienne est une forme rare de grossesse ectopique qui engage le pronostic vital et fonctionnel utérin par hémorragie ou par rupture utérine précoce. Nous rapportons le cas d'une grossesse ectopique sur cicatrice de césarienne diagnostiquée à 11 semaines d'aménorrhée suite à une aspiration blanche pour grossesse arrêtée chez une patiente de 43 ans porteuse d'un utérus bi-cicatriciel. A travers cette observation ainsi qu'une revue de la littérature les auteurs vont essayer de mettre le point sur les méthodes diagnostiques et thérapeutiques de cette entité rare afin d'améliorer la prise en charge. PMID:26213603

  4. The Nucleotide-Binding Sites of SUR1: A Mechanistic Model

    PubMed Central

    Vedovato, Natascia; Ashcroft, Frances M.; Puljung, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels comprise four pore-forming Kir6.2 subunits and four modulatory sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) subunits. The latter belong to the ATP-binding cassette family of transporters. KATP channels are inhibited by ATP (or ADP) binding to Kir6.2 and activated by Mg-nucleotide interactions with SUR. This dual regulation enables the KATP channel to couple the metabolic state of a cell to its electrical excitability and is crucial for the KATP channel’s role in regulating insulin secretion, cardiac and neuronal excitability, and vascular tone. Here, we review the regulation of the KATP channel by adenine nucleotides and present an equilibrium allosteric model for nucleotide activation and inhibition. The model can account for many experimental observations in the literature and provides testable predictions for future experiments. PMID:26682803

  5. AirMSPI PODEX Big Sur Ellipsoid Images

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-12-11

    ... Browse Images from the PODEX 2013 Campaign   Big Sur target 02/03/2013 Ellipsoid-projected   Select link to ...   Version number   For more information, see the  Data Product Specifications (DPS) ...

  6. LeČOns Sur Les Ondes De Gravité Des Fluides Incompressibles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Dungen, F. H.

    Le 3 Janvier 1814 au moment où les Alliés franchissant le Rhin allaient entamer la campagne de France, la classe des Sciences de l'Institut de France proposait comme sujet du grand prix de mathématique à décerner en Janvier 1816 la question suivante: "La théorie de la propagation des ondes à la surface d'un fluide pesant d'une profondeur infinie".

  7. Lignes directrices canadiennes sur la rhinosinusite chronique

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter un résumé clinique des lignes directrices canadiennes sur la rhinosinusite chronique (RSC) qui comporte des recommandations pertinentes aux médecins de famille. Qualité des données Les auteurs des lignes directrices ont effectué une recherche documentaire systématique dans la littérature médicale et ont rédigé une ébauche de recommandations. Une cote a été donnée à la fois en fonction de la fiabilité des données probantes et de la solidité des recommandations. On a sollicité les commentaires d’experts en contenu de l’extérieur, ainsi que l’aval des sociétés médicales (Association pour la microbiologie médicale et l’infectiologie Canada, Société canadienne d’allergie et d’immunologie clinique, Canadian Society of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Association canadienne des médecins d’urgence et Regroupement canadien des médecins de famille en santé respiratoire). Message principal Le diagnostic d’une RSC se fonde sur le type et la durée des symptômes et une constatation objective d’une inflammation de la muqueuse nasale ou des sinus paranasaux. La rhinosinusite chronique est catégorisée en fonction de la présence ou de l’absence de polypes nasaux et cette distinction entraîne des différences dans le traitement. On traite la rhinosinusite chronique avec polypes nasaux au moyen de corticostéroïdes par voie intranasale. Des antibiotiques sont recommandés quand les symptômes indiquent une infection (douleur ou purulence). Pour une RSC sans polypes nasaux, on recommande des corticostéroïdes par voie intranasale et des antibiotiques de deuxième ligne (par ex. combinaisons amoxicilline–acide clavulanique ou fluoroquinolones à activité accrue contre Gram positif). Une irrigation avec une solution saline, des stéroïdes par voie orale et des tests d’allergies pourraient être appropriées. Si le patient ne répond pas au traitement, il faudrait envisager d

  8. Finding the SurPriSe: A Case Study of a Faculty Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Roberta M.

    2014-01-01

    This article details a faculty learning community (FLC) that started in 2009 on the campus of a Midwestern University and has evolved into an interdisciplinary research, teaching and social community of practice and learning called SurPriSe. SurPriSe is an acronym that reflects the interest area of the FLC; Sur for surveillance, Pri for privacy,…

  9. Antimicrobial screening of medicinal plants from Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Encarnación Dimayuga, R; Keer Garcia, S

    1991-02-01

    The ethanolic extracts of 72 plants belonging to 35 different families, and used in traditional medicine in Baja California Sur (México), were tested for antimicrobial activity in vitro using the filter paper disk assay method. Activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus faecalis (Gram-positive microorganisms), Escherichia coli (Gram-negative microorganisms) and Candida albicans (yeast) is discussed.

  10. Traditional medicine of Baja California Sur (Mexico). I.

    PubMed

    Dimayuga, R E; Agundez, J

    1986-08-01

    This study deals with the medicinal use of 30 plants collected in the Municipio de Los Cabos and part of the Municipio de la Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. The plants were all taxonomically identified at least to genus level, and their medicinal use, as described to us by elder people, is discussed.

  11. Modifications vibrationnelles induites par différentes vapeurs acides sur les polyanilines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochet, M.; Quillard, S.; Buisson, J. P.; Lefrant, S.; Louarn, G.

    1998-06-01

    We present a comparative study of conductive form of polyaniline, i.e, polyemeraldine doped with HCl vapor or with HCSA upon m-cresol vapor. UV-Vis.-nir absorption measurements on polyaniline thin films, vs acid vapors time exposure, have been made. In the same way, Raman spectra have been recorded with different excitation lines from the blue and red ranges to the infrared region. Finally, an assignment of Raman bands observed, is proposed and confirmed by vibrational calculations based on valence-force-field. Nous présentons une étude comparative de la forme conductrice de la polyaniline, c'est-à-dire de la polyéméraldine dopée par des vapeurs d'HCl ou dopée par l'acide camphre sulfonique (HCSA) sous vapeurs de m-crésol. Des mesures d'absorption UV-Vis-proche infrarouge sur des films minces de polyaniline, en fonction du temps d'exposition aux vapeurs acides, ont été réalisées. Parallèlement, les spectres Raman ont été obtenus pour différentes longueurs d'onde d'excitation allant du visible jusqu'au proche infrarouge. Finalement, une attribution des bandes Raman observées est proposée et confirmée par des calculs vibrationnels basés sur des champs de force de valence.

  12. Etude des effets du martelage repetitif sur les contraintes residuelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacini, Lyes

    L'assemblage par soudage peut engendrer des contraintes residuelles. Ces contraintes provoquent des fissurations prematurees et un raccourcissement de la duree de vie des composants. Dans ce contexte, le martelage robotise est utilise pour relaxer ces contraintes residuelles. Trois volets sont presentes: le premier est l'evaluation des effets des impacts unitaires repetes sur le champ de contraintes developpe dans des plaques d'acier inoxydable austenitique 304L vierges ou contenant des contraintes residuelles initiales. Dans la deuxieme partie de ce projet, le martelage est applique grace au robot SCOMPI. Les contraintes residuelles induites et relaxees par martelage sont ensuite mesurees par la methode des contours, qui a ete adaptee a cet effet. Dans la troisieme partie, le martelage est modelise par la methode des elements finis. Un modele axisymetrique developpe grace au logiciel ANSYS permet de simuler des impacts repetes d'un marteau elastique sur une plaque ayant un comportement elastoplastique.

  13. Traditional medicine of Baja California Sur (Mexico). II.

    PubMed

    Encarnacion Dimayuga, R; Fort Murillo, R; Luis Pantoja, M

    1987-08-01

    Continuing our studies of traditional medicine, as used in rural areas of Baja California Sur, now we wish to report on the medicinal uses of 49 more plants. Some of the more complex recipes of these medicinal plants, are discussed in the present paper. The information presented here was collected in the Municipio of Los Cabos and part of the Municipio of La Paz, B.C.S., Mexico.

  14. Effets des electrons secondaires sur l'ADN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudaiffa, Badia

    Les interactions des electrons de basse energie (EBE) representent un element important en sciences des radiations, particulierement, les sequences se produisant immediatement apres l'interaction de la radiation ionisante avec le milieu biologique. Il est bien connu que lorsque ces radiations deposent leur energie dans la cellule, elles produisent un grand nombre d'electrons secondaires (4 x 104/MeV), qui sont crees le long de la trace avec des energies cinetiques initiales bien inferieures a 20 eV. Cependant, il n'y a jamais eu de mesures directes demontrant l'interaction de ces electrons de tres basse energie avec l'ADN, du principalement aux difficultes experimentales imposees par la complexite du milieu biologique. Dans notre laboratoire, les dernieres annees ont ete consacrees a l'etude des phenomenes fondamentaux induits par impact des EBE sur differentes molecules simples (e.g., N2, CO, O2, H2O, NO, C2H 4, C6H6, C2H12) et quelques molecules complexes dans leur phase solide. D'autres travaux effectues recemment sur des bases de l'ADN et des oligonucleotides ont montre que les EBE produisent des bris moleculaires sur les biomolecules. Ces travaux nous ont permis d'elaborer des techniques pour mettre en evidence et comprendre les interactions fondamentales des EBE avec des molecules d'interet biologique, afin d'atteindre notre objectif majeur d'etudier l'effet direct de ces particules sur la molecule d'ADN. Les techniques de sciences des surfaces developpees et utilisees dans les etudes precitees peuvent etre etendues et combinees avec des methodes classiques de biologie pour etudier les dommages de l'ADN induits par l'impact des EBE. Nos experiences ont montre l'efficacite des electrons de 3--20 eV a induire des coupures simple et double brins dans l'ADN. Pour des energies inferieures a 15 eV, ces coupures sont induites par la localisation temporaire d'un electron sur une unite moleculaire de l'ADN, ce qui engendre la formation d'un ion negatif transitoire

  15. Malformations vasculaires au cours du syndrome de Williams-Beuren: à propos de trois nouvelles observations

    PubMed Central

    Sator, Hicham; Rhouni, Fatima Ezzahra; Benjouad, Ibitihale; Rhouni, Fatima Ezzahra; Benjouad, Ibitihale; Dafiri, Rachida; Chat, Latifa

    2016-01-01

    Le syndrome de Williams-Beuren est une maladie génétique rare, il associe classiquement une dysmorphie faciale assez spécifique, des malformations cardiovasculaires et un profil neuropsychologique particulier. Nous rapportons les observations de trois enfants atteints du syndrome de Williams-Beuren en insistant surtout sur les anomalies vasculaires observées sur l'angio-scanner et angio-IRM. PMID:27200143

  16. Lignes directrices simplifiées sur les lipides

    PubMed Central

    Allan, G. Michael; Lindblad, Adrienne J.; Comeau, Ann; Coppola, John; Hudson, Brianne; Mannarino, Marco; McMinis, Cindy; Padwal, Raj; Schelstraete, Christine; Zarnke, Kelly; Garrison, Scott; Cotton, Candra; Korownyk, Christina; McCormack, James; Nickel, Sharon; Kolber, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Produire un guide de pratique clinique comportant une approche simplifiée à la prévention primaire des maladies cardiovasculaires (MCV), en insistant sur l’estimation du risque de MCV et la prise en charge des profils lipidiques à l’intention des cliniciens de soins primaires et leurs équipes; nous avons recherché la contribution de professionnels des soins primaires qui n’avaient que peu ou pas de conflits d’intérêts et nous nous sommes concentrés sur les données probantes de la plus haute qualité accessibles. Méthodes Neuf professionnels de la santé (4 médecins de famille, 2 internistes, 1 infirmière praticienne, 1 infirmière autorisée et 1 pharmacienne) et 1 membre non votant (pharmacienne gestionnaire de projet) formaient le comité principal appelé le Lipid Pathway Committee (le comité). La sélection des membres s’est fondée sur la profession, le milieu de pratique et son emplacement. Les membres ont divulgué tous leurs conflits d’intérêts potentiels ou réels. Le processus d’élaboration des lignes directrices était itératif et s’appuyait sur des affichages en ligne, une révision détaillée des données probantes, des réunions par téléphone et en ligne. Le comité a cerné 12 questions prioritaires à répondre. Le groupe de révision des données probantes a répondu à ces questions. À la suite d’un examen des réponses, les principales recommandations ont été formulées par consensus du comité. Nous avons produit une ébauche des lignes directrices qui a ensuite été peaufinée, distribuée à un groupe de cliniciens (médecins de famille, autres spécialistes, pharmaciens, infirmières et infirmières praticiennes) et à des patients pour obtenir de la rétroaction, la réviser en conséquence et le comité l’a ensuite finalisée. Recommandations Des recommandations sont présentées concernant le dépistage et les analyses, les évaluations du risque, le suivi, de même que le r

  17. Structure of thermotoga maritima stationary phase survival protein SurE : a novel acid phosphatase.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, R.-G; Skarina, T.; Katz, J. E.; Khachatryan, A; Vyas, S.; Arrowsmith, C. H.; Clarke, S.; Edwards, A.; Joachimiak, A.; Savchenko, A.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Toronto; Univ. of California; Clinical Genomics Centre /Proteomics, Univ. Health Network

    2001-11-01

    Background: The rpoS, nlpD, pcm, and surE genes are among many whose expression is induced during the stationary phase of bacterial growth. rpoS codes for the stationary-phase RNA polymerase {sigma} subunit, and nlpD codes for a lipoprotein. The pcm gene product repairs damaged proteins by converting the atypical isoaspartyl residues back to L-aspartyls. The physiological and biochemical functions of surE are unknown, but its importance in stress is supported by the duplication of the surE gene in E. coli subjected to high-temperature growth. The pcm and surE genes are highly conserved in bacteria, archaea, and plants. Results: The structure of SurE from Thermotoga maritima was determined at 2.0 Angstroms. The SurE monomer is composed of two domains; a conserved N-terminal domain, a Rossman fold, and a C-terminal oligomerization domain, a new fold. Monomers form a dimer that assembles into a tetramer. Biochemical analysis suggests that SurE is an acid phosphatase, with an optimum pH of 5.5-6.2. The active site was identified in the N-terminal domain through analysis of conserved residues. Structure-based site-directed point mutations abolished phosphatase activity. T. maritima SurE intra- and intersubunit salt bridges were identified that may explain the SurE thermostability. Conclusions: The structure of SurE provided information about the protein's fold, oligomeric state, and active site. The protein possessed magnesium-dependent acid phosphatase activity, but the physiologically relevant substrate(s) remains to be identified. The importance of three of the assigned active site residues in catalysis was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis.

  18. SUR1-Associated Mechanisms Are Not Involved in Ischemic Optic Neuropathy 1 Day Post-Injury

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, James D.; Guo, Yan; Bernstein, Steven L.

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury after central nervous system (CNS) injury presents a major health care challenge with few promising treatments. Recently, it has become possible to reduce edema after CNS injury by antagonizing a sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) regulated ion channel expressed after injury. SUR1 upregulation after injury is a necessary precondition for the formation of this channel, and has been implicated in white matter injury after clinical spinal cord trauma. Glibenclamide, an SUR1 antagonist, appears to have neuroprotective effect against cerebral stroke in an open-label small clinical trial and great effectiveness in reducing damage after varied experimental CNS injury models. Despite its importance in CNS injuries, SUR1 upregulation appears to play no part in rodent anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rAION) injury as tested by real-time PCR and immunohistochemical staining of rAION-injured rat optic nerve (ON). Furthermore, the SUR1 antagonist glibenclamide administered immediately after rAION injury provided no protection to proximal ON microvasculature 1 day post-injury but may reduce optic nerve head edema in a manner unrelated to ON SUR1 expression. Our results suggest that there may be fundamental differences between rAION optic nerve ischemia and other CNS white matter injuries where SUR1 appears to play a role. PMID:27560494

  19. [Marine algae of Baja California Sur, Mexico: nutritional value].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Domínguez, Silvia; Casas Valdez, Margarita; Ramos Ramos, Felipe; Pérez-Gil, Fernando; Sánchez Rodríguez, Ignacio

    2002-12-01

    The Baja California Peninsula is one of the richest regions of seaweed resources in México. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition of some marine algae species of Baja California Sur, with an economical potential due to their abundance and distribution, and to promote their use as food for human consumption and animal feeding. The algae studied were Green (Ulva spp., Enteromorpha intestinalis, Caulerpa sertularoides, Bryopsis hypnoides), Red (Laurencia johnstonii, Spyridia filamentosa, Hypnea valentiae) and Brown (Sargassum herporizum, S. sinicola, Padina durvillaei, Hydroclathrus clathrathus, Colpomenia sinuosa). The algae were dried and ground before analysis. In general, the results showed that algae had a protein level less than 11%, except L. johnstonii with 18% and low energy content. The ether extract content was lower than 1%. However, the algae were a good source of carbohydrates and inorganic matter.

  20. N-terminal transmembrane domain of SUR1 controls gating of Kir6.2 by modulating channel sensitivity to PIP2.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Emily B; Tewson, Paul; Bruederle, Cathrin E; Skach, William R; Shyng, Show-Ling

    2011-03-01

    Functional integrity of pancreatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels depends on the interactions between the pore-forming potassium channel subunit Kir6.2 and the regulatory subunit sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1). Previous studies have shown that the N-terminal transmembrane domain of SUR1 (TMD0) interacts with Kir6.2 and is sufficient to confer high intrinsic open probability (P(o)) and bursting patterns of activity observed in full-length K(ATP) channels. However, the nature of TMD0-Kir6.2 interactions that underlie gating modulation is not well understood. Using two previously described disease-causing mutations in TMD0 (R74W and E128K), we performed amino acid substitutions to study the structural roles of these residues in K(ATP) channel function in the context of full-length SUR1 as well as TMD0. Our results revealed that although R74W and E128K in full-length SUR1 both decrease surface channel expression and reduce channel sensitivity to ATP inhibition, they arrive there via distinct mechanisms. Mutation of R74 uniformly reduced TMD0 protein levels, suggesting that R74 is necessary for stability of TMD0. In contrast, E128 mutations retained TMD0 protein levels but reduced functional coupling between TMD0 and Kir6.2 in mini-K(ATP) channels formed by TMD0 and Kir6.2. Importantly, E128K full-length channels, despite having a greatly reduced P(o), exhibit little response to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) stimulation. This is reminiscent of Kir6.2 channel behavior in the absence of SUR1 and suggests that TMD0 controls Kir6.2 gating by modulating Kir6.2 interactions with PIP(2). Further supporting this notion, the E128W mutation in full-length channels resulted in channel inactivation that was prevented or reversed by exogenous PIP(2). These results identify a critical determinant in TMD0 that controls Kir6.2 gating by controlling channel sensitivity to PIP(2). Moreover, they uncover a novel mechanism of K

  1. N-terminal transmembrane domain of SUR1 controls gating of Kir6.2 by modulating channel sensitivity to PIP2

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Emily B.; Tewson, Paul; Bruederle, Cathrin E.; Skach, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Functional integrity of pancreatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels depends on the interactions between the pore-forming potassium channel subunit Kir6.2 and the regulatory subunit sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1). Previous studies have shown that the N-terminal transmembrane domain of SUR1 (TMD0) interacts with Kir6.2 and is sufficient to confer high intrinsic open probability (Po) and bursting patterns of activity observed in full-length KATP channels. However, the nature of TMD0–Kir6.2 interactions that underlie gating modulation is not well understood. Using two previously described disease-causing mutations in TMD0 (R74W and E128K), we performed amino acid substitutions to study the structural roles of these residues in KATP channel function in the context of full-length SUR1 as well as TMD0. Our results revealed that although R74W and E128K in full-length SUR1 both decrease surface channel expression and reduce channel sensitivity to ATP inhibition, they arrive there via distinct mechanisms. Mutation of R74 uniformly reduced TMD0 protein levels, suggesting that R74 is necessary for stability of TMD0. In contrast, E128 mutations retained TMD0 protein levels but reduced functional coupling between TMD0 and Kir6.2 in mini-KATP channels formed by TMD0 and Kir6.2. Importantly, E128K full-length channels, despite having a greatly reduced Po, exhibit little response to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) stimulation. This is reminiscent of Kir6.2 channel behavior in the absence of SUR1 and suggests that TMD0 controls Kir6.2 gating by modulating Kir6.2 interactions with PIP2. Further supporting this notion, the E128W mutation in full-length channels resulted in channel inactivation that was prevented or reversed by exogenous PIP2. These results identify a critical determinant in TMD0 that controls Kir6.2 gating by controlling channel sensitivity to PIP2. Moreover, they uncover a novel mechanism of KATP channel inactivation

  2. Taos Smart Growth Implementation Assistance: Concepts for the Paseo del Pueblo Sur Corridor

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report describes a technical assistance project with Taos, NM, to help make development along State Highway 68, the Paseo del Pueblo Sur commercial corridor, economically stronger and more attractive.

  3. Ability of a rapid HIV testing site to attract and test vulnerable populations: a cross-sectional study on Actuel sur Rue.

    PubMed

    Engler, Kim; Rollet, Kathleen; Lessard, David; Thomas, Réjean; Lebouché, Bertrand

    2016-10-01

    Quebec's HIV epidemic persists, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and in Montreal. Increasing access to HIV testing is necessary and community-based rapid testing offers one strategy. This paper examines the clienteles and activities of a rapid HIV testing site in Montreal, the pilot project Actuel sur Rue. Comparative analyses were conducted with 1357 MSM, 147 heterosexual men and 64 women who visited Actuel sur Rue between July 2012 and November 2013 on socio-demographics, health, drug use, sexual practices/infection and HIV testing/prevention. Significant group differences were observed in each category. Actuel sur Rue received 1901 clients, conducted 1417 rapid HIV tests and tested 77 never-tested individuals. Rapid testing produced a high reactive rate (2%). Only 1/28 of those with reactive tests had no previous HIV testing, and 36% had used post-exposure prophylaxis, suggesting missed opportunities for prevention. Findings highlight diverse client vulnerability profiles and the relevance of checkpoints and further prevention efforts.

  4. Sur Lago area, Venezuela: Three dimensional integrated seismic interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Growcott, A.; McIan, A.; Ramirez, R. )

    1993-02-01

    In 1988, 550 square km of 3D seismic data were acquired in the Sur Del Lago area. The aims of the survey were (1) To better define structures already identified from the existing 1 [times] 1 km 2D seismic grid at the level of potential Cretaceous limestone reservoirs and (2) To further study the prospectivity of potential structural and stratigraphic traps within the Tertiary section. Detailed interpretation of the 3D survey using an interactive workstation led to an improved structural definition at the Cogollo limestone level and the identification of fault related inversion lineaments and basement related Cretaceous limestone structures. Based upon the new seismic interpretation a 4 well exploration project was planned. The new program commenced with the drilling of exploration well SLA-7-IX in 1991 which proved commercial amounts of hydrocarbons in the western part of the area. Detailed information collected from the exploration wells includes a comprehensive electric log suite, ditch cuttings and vertical seismic profiles. The information is being used as detailed lithological, stratigraphic and seismic data input for velocity modeling, ray trace modeling, seismic attribute analysis, and reservoir characterization software in order to further understand the structural and stratigraphic potential of the area.

  5. Effets de la formation sur la violence conjugale

    PubMed Central

    Zaher, Eman; Keogh, Kelly; Ratnapalan, Savithiri

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Décrire et évaluer l’efficacité de la formation concernant la violence conjugale pour améliorer les connaissances et permettre la reconnaissance et la prise en charge par les médecins des femmes victimes de violence. Sources des données On a fait une recension dans la base de données des révisions systématiques de Cochrane, MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC et EMBASE pour trouver des articles publiés entre le 1e janvier 2000 et le 1e novembre 2012. Des recherches manuelles ont complété cette recension pour cerner des articles pertinents à l’aide d’une stratégie de recherche combinant des textes, mots et expressions MeSH. Sélection des études On a choisi des études randomisées contrôlées qui portaient sur des interventions éducatives à l’intention des médecins et fournissaient des données sur les effets des interventions. Synthèse On a inclus 9 études randomisées contrôlées qui décrivaient différentes approches pédagogiques et diverses mesures des résultats. Trois études examinaient les effets d’interventions éducatives pour des médecins en formation postdoctorale et ont constaté une augmentation des connaissances, mais il n’y a eu aucun changement dans le comportement en ce qui a trait à l’identification des victimes de violence conjugale. Six études portaient sur des interventions éducatives pour des médecins en pratique active. Trois d’entre elles utilisaient une approche à multiples facettes pour les médecins, qui combinait une formation ainsi que des interventions de soutien de la part du système pour changer les comportements des médecins, comme une sensibilisation générale accrue à la violence conjugale au moyen de brochures et d’affiches, des aide-mémoire pour rappeler aux médecins comment identifier les victimes, des moyens pour faciliter l’accès des médecins à des services de soutien pour les victimes, la réalisation d’audits et la fourniture de rétroaction. Les

  6. A functional role of the C-terminal 42 amino acids of SUR2A and SUR2B in the physiology and pharmacology of cardiovascular ATP-sensitive K(+) channels.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Mitsuhiko; Kurachi, Yoshihisa

    2005-07-01

    The ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel is composed of four pore-forming Kir6.2 subunits and four sulfonylurea receptors (SUR). Intracellular ATP inhibits K(ATP) channels through Kir6.2. SUR is an ABC protein bearing transmembrane domains and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBD1 and NBD2). SUR increases the open probability of K(ATP) channels by interacting with ATP and ADP through NBDs and with K(+) channel openers such as nicorandil through its transmembrane domain. Because NBDs and the drug receptor allosterically interact with each other, nucleotides and drugs probably activate K(ATP) channels by causing the same conformational change of SUR. SUR2A and SUR2B have the identical drug receptor and NBDs and differ only in the C-terminal 42 amino acids (C42). Nonetheless, nicorandil ~100 times more potently activates SUR2B/Kir6.2 than SUR2A/Kir6.2 channels. Based on our allosteric model, we have analyzed the interaction between NBDs and the drug receptor in SUR2A and SUR2B and found that both nucleotide-bound NBD1 and NBD2 more strongly induce the conformational change in SUR2B than SUR2A. Therefore, C42 modulates the function of not only NBD2 which is close to C42 in a primary structure but NBD1 which is more than 630 amino acid N-terminal to C42. This raises the possibility that in the presence of nucleotides, NBD1 and NBD2 dimerize to induce the conformational change and that the dimerization enables C42 to gain access to both NBDs. Modulation of the nucleotide-NBD1 and -NBD2 interactions by C42 would determine the stability of the nucleotide-dependent dimer and thus, the physiological and pharmacological properties of K(ATP) channels.

  7. [Distribution of aquatic and raptor birds in a freshwater artificial pond of Baja California Sur, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Castillo-Guerrero, J A; Carmona, R

    2001-01-01

    We determined the taxonomic composition and spatial-temporal distribution of aquatic and raptor birds in a freshwater artificial pond of El Centenario, Baja California Sur, México, during 24 biweekly censuses (April, 1998 to March, 1999). The pond is particularly attractive for birds because of its variety of food items. A total 25,563 records of 69 species were done, among them the first report of Chlidonias niger and Phalaropus tricolor for the region. Species richness and abundance were determined for the migrant component, mostly Anatidae (16 species and 55.6% of the total abundance) and shorebirds (18 species and 13.3%). The greater number of species and individuals was in C the deepest and more heterogeneous section of the pond. The most important species was Oxyura jamaicensis (30% of the total observed individuals), with highest abundance in the peninsula. The artificial pond presented an atypical and distinct ornithological composition because it is located in an arid region, and acts as a resting site for migrant birds. The site included species that usually live in freshwater and coastal areas, a characteristic reflected in their high richness. It contributes noticeably to the local avian biodiversity.

  8. Profil bactériologique du pied diabétique et son impact sur le choix des antibiotiques

    PubMed Central

    Zemmouri, Adil; Tarchouli, Mohamed; Benbouha, Abdellatif; Lamkinsi, Tarik; Bensghir, Mustapha; Elouennass, Mostafa; Haimeur, Cherqui

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Analyse du profil bactériologique des pieds diabétiques pris en charge à l'hôpital militaire de Rabat et son influence sur l'antibiothérapie de première intention. Méthodes Etude prospective non randomisée étalée sur 18 mois, ayant concerné 105 patients. Après recueil des données et en attente des résultats bactériologiques nos patients ont été divisés en deux groupes: un groupe a été mis sous Amoxicilline + Acide clavulanique + Gentamycine (59 patients) et un groupe sous Ertapénème±Gentamycine (46 patients). Résultats L’étude a regroupé 85 hommes et 20 femmes (sexe ratio = 4.26). L’âge moyen est de 64.4 ans. La gangrène a été observée chez 79% des malades; elle était humide-donc surinfectée en principe- dans 43% des cas. Par ailleurs, 67% des malades ont un chiffre de globules blancs 12000 définissant une infection sévère. L'ostéolyse a été mise en évidence chez 27% de nos patients. Parmi les différentes techniques de prélèvements: 81% ont été profonds dont 21% de biopsie osseuse per opératoire et 14% de prélèvements combinés. 42% de ces prélèvements sont poly microbiens et 21% sont stériles. Les résultats bactériologiques viennent confirmer la prédominance des bactéries aérobies à Gram positif. Le taux de remplacement de l'Ertapénème est de 22% contre un taux de 50% pour l'Amoxiclav. Conclusion L'antibiothérapie ne doit être instaurée qu'en cas d'infection du pied diabétique diagnostiquée sur les critères cliniques établis par les consensus internationaux récents. Le respect des mesures de lutte contre la diffusion de la résistance bactérienne s'avère primordiale. PMID:27386024

  9. Influence du traitement thermique sur l'usinabilite du laiton monophase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cholley, Airy

    La connaissance des proprietes et du comportement d'un materiau en usinage est primordiale pour optimiser son utilisation et obtenir une usinabilite maximale. Dans ce but, l'etude de la modification de la ductilite par traitement thermiques sur plusieurs criteres d'usinabilite tels que les efforts de coupe, la rugosite, les bavures et la formation du copeau a ete menee sur le laiton monophase. A cette fin, l'influence du traitement thermique sur la microstructure du laiton a d'abord ete etudiee. La taille des grains et la durete ont permis de determiner les proprietes mecaniques des etats metallurgiques. Des essais de percage ont ensuite ete effectues sur les etats metallurgiques H01 (99HV), OS100 (88HV) et OS250 (47HV) pour regarder l'influence du traitement thermique sur l'usinabilite. Cette etude experimentale a permis de comprendre l'influence du taux de laminage et de la temperature de recuit sur les proprietes mecaniques. Les essais d'usinabilite ont ensuite permis de prouver que les efforts de coupe sont dependants des conditions de coupe mais pas de la ductilite dans les etats metallurgiques testes. La taille des bavures augmente avec la ductilite et la vitesse de coupe, et diminue avec l'avance. La rugosite de la surface des trous apres l'usinage a egalement ete etudiee. Il a aussi ete prouve par une etude sur les copeaux que la temperature croit avec la vitesse de coupe. L'analyse de la segmentation des copeaux n'a en revanche pas permis de trouver une correlation significative avec les traitements thermiques testes. Enfin, le revetement de l'outil a montre une grande importance sur l'usinabilite du materiau. Il a ete conclu que l'usinabilite du laiton C26000 (CuZn30) est meilleure lorsqu'on travaille dans un etat metallurgique dur. Ces conclusions sont valables pour le laiton monophase etudie, il serait interessant d'examiner aussi le cas des laitons biphases.

  10. Perceptions des jeunes victimes de violence sexuelle au sein de leurs relations amoureuses sur leur pire expérience

    PubMed Central

    Van Camp, Tinneke; Hébert, Martine; Fernet, Mylène; Blais, Martin; Lavoie, Francine

    2016-01-01

    Cette étude explore les pires expériences vécues dans les relations amoureuses de jeunes qui ont rapporté avoir vécu de la violence sexuelle dans une relation de couple récente. Quelles sont les situations perçues comme étant les plus difficiles par les jeunes et est-ce que celles-ci se limitent à des incidents violents? Le questionnaire sur les parcours amoureux des jeunes (PAJ) a été complété par des jeunes Québécois âgés de 14 à 18 ans. Au total, plus de 600 participants ont rapporté au moins un épisode de violence sexuelle (souvent en combinaison avec d’autres formes de violence). Nous présentons les résultats de l’analyse qualitative inductive fondée sur une question ouverte concernant la pire expérience vécue. Les observations suggèrent que, en plus des expériences de violence, les difficultés relationnelles, les ruptures amoureuses et les sentiments amoureux non réciproques sont des situations particulièrement difficiles selon les propos des jeunes. Ces différents enjeux vécus par les jeunes devraient être pris en considération dans l’offre de services d’intervention à leur intention. PMID:28191266

  11. AGN Observations with STACEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramel, D. A.; Boone, L. M.; Carson, J.; Chae, E.; Covault, C. E.; Fortin, P.; Gingrich, D. M.; Hanna, D. S.; Hinton, J. A.; Mukherjee, R.; Mueller, C.; Ong, R. A.; Ragan, K.; Scalzo, R. A.; Schuette, D. R.; Theoret, C. G.; Williams, D. A.; Wong, J.; Zweerink, J.

    2003-03-01

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is a gamma-ray detector designed to study astrophysical sources at energies between 50 and 500 GeV. It uses 64 large, steerable mirrors at the National Solar Tower Test Facility near Albuquerque, NM, USA to collect Cherenkov light from extended air showers and concentrate it onto an array of photomultiplier tubes. The large light-collection area gives it a lower energy threshold than imaging-type Cherenkov detectors. STACEE is now fully operational, and we report here on the performance of the complete STACEE instrument, as well as preliminary results of recent observations of several AGN targets. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation (under Grant Numbers PHY-9983836, PHY-0070927, and PHY-0070953), the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, Le Fond Quebecois de la Recherche sur la Nature et les Technologies (FQRNT), the Research Corporation, and the California Space Institute. CEC is a Cottrell Scholar of the Research Corporation.

  12. Identifying tsunami deposits using shell taphonomy: Sur lagoon, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donato, S.; Reinhardt, E.; Rothaus, R.; Boyce, J.

    2007-05-01

    On November 28th, 1945 an 8.1 magnitude earthquake focused in the eastern portion of the Makran subduction zone (Arabian Sea) generated a powerful tsunami that destroyed many coastal villages in Pakistan and India. Reports indicate that the tsunami also caused significant damage in Muscat, Oman, although its effects elsewhere in Oman are unknown. A thick bivalve dominated shell horizon was discovered inside the Sur lagoon, which is located on the eastern promontory of Oman (200 km south of Muscat). This shell deposit is significant because it is laterally extensive (> 1 km2), extends deep within the lagoon (>2 km), ranges in thickness from 5 - 25 cm at the sample localities, contains numerous subtidal and offshore bivalve species, and articulated subtidal and offshore bivalve species are abundant. Although there is an absence of typical tsunami indicators such as allochthonous sediment in and around the lagoon, verbal accounts, cultural evidence recovered during coring, and the absence of strong storms during the past 100 years indicates that this shell unit was caused by the 1945 tsunami. In this setting, it would be advantageous to have another proxy for tsunami detection and risk prediction. The use of shell taphonomy is one of the potential indicators and here we present new evidence of its utility. We sampled this unit in eight locations, and compared the shell taphonomy to surface shell samples collected from beach and reworked horizons in the lagoon, and to shell samples from a known tsunami and corresponding storm/ballast deposit in Israel (Reinhardt et al., 2006). Taphonomic analysis yielded promising results, as the two tsunami horizons shared excellent agreement between the amount of fragmented shells, and the percentage of shells displaying angular breaks. Both of these categories were significantly different from the percentage of fragments and angular fragments recovered from the reworked, beach, and storm/ballast deposits, indicating different

  13. Office of Naval Research (ONR) Support for R/V Point Sur Ship Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-07

    WORK UNIT NUMBER N/A 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) San Jose State university Research Foundation 210 N. Fourth St...Discussion of Work : The ONR Ship Operations Award, N00014-15-1-2123, provided support for the Research Vessel Point Sur from January 1, 2014 through June

  14. Aircraft Operations on Repaired Runways (l’Exploitation des Aeronefs sur les Pistes Refaites)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    procedures d’cxploitaiion des acronels sur des pistes repar&s. le Panel AGiARI) des Structures ct Materiaux at organisii des reunions pour faire Ic...existing 4.6 Resistance des avions. AIR 2(4E L - length of obstacle H - height/depth of obstacle Single obstacle Repeated obstacles (STOL aircraft

  15. Seafloor Rocks and Sediments of the Continental Shelf From Monterey Bay to Point Sur, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eittreim, Stephen L.; Anima, Roberto J.; Stevenson, Andrew J.; Wong, Florence L.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction Acoustic swath mapping of the greater Monterey Bay area continental shelf from Point Ano Nuevo to Point Sur reveals complex patterns of rock outcrops on the shelf, and coarse sand bodies that occur in distinct depressions on the inner and mid-shelves. This publication portrays the seafloor components in a 36- by 48-inch map sheet at 1:100,000 scale.

  16. Reflections on "Petit Battement sur le Cou de Pied": Is It Still Relevant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paskevska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This article presents multiple perspectives of "petit battement sur le cou de pied". These perspectives include historical, biomechanical, and pedagogic points of view. The article offers useful information for ballet specialists and applied research studies aimed at ballet pedagogy. (Contains 2 tables and 5 figures.)

  17. The Classroom as Big Sur: Notes on the Liaison Between Evaluation and Professional Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneeden, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Bill Frisell's new album ("Big Sur") was heralded with a short documentary about its impulse and inception: Frisell's retreat to an isolated coastal ranch in Central California. In the video, he describes the influence of the place, the dramatic and evocative landscape, and how it ultimately became the subject and theme for the…

  18. Eisosomes promote the ability of Sur7 to regulate plasma membrane organization in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong X.; Douglas, Lois M.; Veselá, Petra; Rachel, Reinhard; Malinsky, Jan; Konopka, James B.

    2016-01-01

    The plasma membrane of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans forms a protective barrier that also mediates many processes needed for virulence, including cell wall synthesis, invasive hyphal morphogenesis, and nutrient uptake. Because compartmentalization of the plasma membrane is believed to coordinate these diverse activities, we examined plasma membrane microdomains termed eisosomes or membrane compartment of Can1 (MCC), which correspond to ∼200-nm-long furrows in the plasma membrane. A pil1∆ lsp1∆ mutant failed to form eisosomes and displayed strong defects in plasma membrane organization and morphogenesis, including extensive cell wall invaginations. Mutation of eisosome proteins Slm2, Pkh2, and Pkh3 did not cause similar cell wall defects, although pkh2∆ cells formed chains of furrows and pkh3∆ cells formed wider furrows, identifying novel roles for the Pkh protein kinases in regulating furrows. In contrast, the sur7∆ mutant formed cell wall invaginations similar to those for the pil1∆ lsp1∆ mutant even though it could form eisosomes and furrows. A PH-domain probe revealed that the regulatory lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate was enriched at sites of cell wall invaginations in both the sur7∆ and pil1∆ lsp1∆ cells, indicating that this contributes to the defects. The sur7∆ and pil1∆ lsp1∆ mutants displayed differential susceptibility to various types of stress, indicating that they affect overlapping but distinct functions. In support of this, many mutant phenotypes of the pil1∆ lsp1∆ cells were rescued by overexpressing SUR7. These results demonstrate that C. albicans eisosomes promote the ability of Sur7 to regulate plasma membrane organization. PMID:27009204

  19. Intramolecular interaction of SUR2 subtypes for intracellular ADP-Induced differential control of K(ATP) channels.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Kenji; Kinoshita, Kengo; Matsuoka, Tetsuro; Fujita, Akikazu; Fujikado, Takashi; Tano, Yasuo; Nakamura, Haruki; Kurachi, Yoshihisa

    2002-03-22

    ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channels are composed of sulfonylurea receptors (SURs) and inwardly rectifying Kir6.2-channels. The C-terminal 42 amino acid residues (C42) of SURs are responsible for ADP-induced differential activation of K(ATP) channels in SUR-subtypes. By examining ADP-effect on K(ATP) channels containing various chimeras of SUR2A and SUR2B, we identified a segment of 7 residues at central portion of C42 critical for this phenomenon. A 3-D structure model of the region containing the second nucleotide-binding domain (NBD2) of SUR and C42 was developed based on the structure of HisP, a nucleotide-binding protein forming the bacterial Histidine transporter complex. In the model, the polar and charged residues in the critical segment located within a distance that allows their electrostatic interaction with Arg1344 at the Walker-A loop of NBD2. Therefore, the interaction might be involved in the control of ADP-induced differential activation of SUR2-subtype K(ATP) channels.

  20. Influence des interactions du couple ciment/adjuvant dispersant sur les proprietes des betons: Importance du mode d'introduction des adjuvants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baalbaki, Moussa

    1998-12-01

    Les travaux de recherche de cette these de doctorat ont porte sur les phenomenes d'incompatibilite (ou de compatibilite) ciment/adjuvant dispersant en mettant l'accent sur l'influence du mode d'introduction des adjuvants sur les proprietes des betons frais et durcis. Les aspects physiques et chimiques de l'interaction ciment/adjuvant a ete relies aux proprietes des betons en tenant compte du rapport E/C, de la teneur en C3A du ciment ainsi que du type d'adjuvant dispersant. Le programme experimental propose debute par une etude rheologique et mecanique sur pate et sur beton. Le comportement du superplastifiant a base de polynaphtalene (PNS) depend surtout de son interaction avec les premiers produits d'hydratation du ciment. Cette interaction du superplastifiant PNS avec le ciment est remarquablement differente dans le cas ou l'ajout du PNS est differe de quelques minutes. Lorsque le superplastifiant PNS est introduit directement avec l'eau de gachage, on remarque la formation d'un gel blanc compose d'ettringite, de CaCO 3 et de polynaphtalene et ce compose organo-mineral est presque inexistant lorsque le superplastifiant PNS est ajoute en mode differe. Ce gel organo-mineral se forme a partir de la solution entre les aluminates de calcium hydrates, les sulfates et le PNS, et est responsable de la perte d'affaissement du beton. Les analyses au microscope electronique a balayage montrent que l'introduction du superplastifiant PNS en mode S1 (ajout direct) engendre la precipitation d'une plus grande quantite d'ettringite et de produit organo-mineral. Cette ettringite finement cristallisee, abondante et enchevetree aura pour consequence de diminuer les proprietes rheologiques des betons et des pates. Ce phenomene ne s'observe pas lorsque le superplastifiant PNS est introduit en mode differe. Le mode d'introduction du superplastifiant a base de polyacrylate (PAE) n'affecte nullement le comportement rheologique du beton. Par ailleurs, le gel organo-mineral n'apparait pas

  1. Syndrome de Sweet: étude clinique et natomopathologique sur 5 ans

    PubMed Central

    Bouzidi, Hanae; Gallouj, Salim; Amraoui, Nissrine; Mernissi, Fatima Zahra; Harmouch, Taoufiq

    2015-01-01

    Le syndrome de Sweet ou dermatose aiguë fébrile neutrophilique est une maladie inflammatoire rare à expression cutanée prédominante, appartenant au groupe des dermatoses neutrophiliques. Il est caractérisé par le polymorphisme de son expression clinique et la diversité des maladies qui peuvent lui être associées. Le but de ce travail était d’étudier les particularités cliniques, anatomopathologiques, thérapeutiques et évolutives du syndrome de Sweet. Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective et descriptive de 25 cas de syndrome de Sweet observés dans les services de dermatologie et d'anatomie pathologique du centre hospitalier universitaire de Fès sur une période de 5 ans. Notre série était constituée de 5 hommes et de 20 femmes avec un sex-ratio (hommes/femmes) de 0,25. L’âge moyen des patients était de 47 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 11 à 75 ans. Des maladies associées étaient retrouvées chez 17 patients: hémopathies (deux cas), tumeur solide (1cas), maladie chronique de l'intestin (1cas), tuberculose (1 cas), diabète (trois cas) et infections (9 cas). Deux patientes étaient enceintes au moment du diagnostic. Les manifestations cutanées étaient polymorphes avec atteintes muqueuses dans deux cas. Les lésions siégeaient le plus souvent au niveau acral. Histologiquement, le derme était le siège d'un infiltrat dense et diffus riche en polynucléaires neutrophiles dans tous les cas. Une inflammation de la paroi des vaisseaux étaient observées dans trois cas. Le syndrome de Sweet peut être révélateur ou précéder des maladies associées, ce qui impose une surveillance rigoureuse et prolongée. PMID:26185554

  2. L’opinion des étudiants en médecine de Québec sur les punitions corporelles

    PubMed Central

    Labbé, Jean; Laflamme, Nathalie; Makosso-Kallyth, Sun

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIF : L’objectif de la présente étude est de décrire l’opinion des étudiants en médecine de l’Université Laval sur le sujet controversé des punitions corporelles envers les enfants. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Un sondage a été réalisé auprès des étudiants en quatrième année de médecine de l’Université Laval pendant cinq années consécutives, soit de l’année scolaire 2006–2007 jusqu’à celle de 2010–2011 inclusivement, à l’occasion d’un séminaire portant sur la maltraitance envers les enfants. RÉSULTATS : Sur les 712 étudiants interrogés, 74 % étaient de sexe féminin et 91 % étaient âgés de moins de 30 ans. Concernant les punitions corporelles envers les enfants, 22 % des répondants s’y sont déclarés favorables. Plus de garçons que de filles se sont prononcés en faveur de cette pratique disciplinaire, soit 31 % des garçons par rapport à 18 % des filles respectivement (RC rajusté = 2,2, IC 95 % :1,4 à 3,4; p=0,0003). Près de 36 % des étudiants ayant eu des punitions corporelles y étaient favorables, comparativement à seulement 4 % de ceux qui n’avaient pas connu cette forme de discipline (RC rajusté = 16,5, IC 95 % :8,6 à 31,4; p<0,0001). Parmi ceux qui ont mentionné avoir été victimes d’abus physique, 25 % se sont déclarés en faveur de cette pratique, ce qui est similaire au 21 % observés chez ceux qui n’en ont pas été victimes (p=0,52). CONCLUSION : Alors que plusieurs organismes médicaux se sont prononcés contre l’utilisation des punitions corporelles, plus d’un futur médecin sur cinq à Québec se déclare favorable à cette méthode disciplinaire et pourrait influencer la conduite des parents en ce sens. PMID:24179417

  3. Developpement de competences de resolution reflexive de problemes environnementaux aupres d'enseignants en formation du Botswana: Apport d'un modele pedagogique base sur une recherche-action participative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Benoit

    2000-10-01

    Cette etude s'interesse au developpement de competences de resolution de problemes environnementaux dans un contexte culturel africain. Pour y parvenir, elle elabore un modele pedagogique pouvant se situer dans le cadre theorique de la vision reflexive emergeant presentement en education relative a l'environnement (ERE). Provenant du champ d'etude de la systemique, la methodologie des systemes souples (MSS) s'avere compatible avec le cadre de la reflexivite qui est emergent. Un modele pedagogique preliminaire fut ainsi etabli en transposant et en adaptant plusieurs des principes et des constituantes de la MSS au domaine de l'ERE. Ce modele, s'appuyant sur une strategie de recherche-action, a ete ensuite mis a l'essai aupres d'enseignants du secondaire en formation au Botswana, dans le cadre de leurs activites parascolaires. Cette recherche-developpement de type participatif s'appuie sur une analyse qualitative. Durant sa mise a l'essai, le modele preliminaire a subi plusieurs modifications generees entre autres par les interactions entre les participants et le facilitateur; ces modifications suggerent fortement une prise en charge par les participants de la demarche d'investigation, condition essentielle pour le developpement de competences de resolution de problemes environnementaux. Durant la demarche de resolution du probleme, des competences relatives a l'acquisition de connaissances sur la situation investiguee et a l'action environnementale ont ete sollicitees de maniere repetee. Ceci ne semble pas avoir ete le cas pour les competences associees a la reflexion par les participants sur leurs propres perceptions (metacognition), sur celles des autres ou encore sur la nature de la connaissance (cognition epistemique). En ce qui a trait a la conception de chaque apprenant concernant le probleme environnemental etudie, les observations recueillies tout au long de la demarche suggerent, pour certains des participants, une complexification. Le modele resultant de l

  4. Évolution des lignes directrices sur le traitement de la dyslipidémie

    PubMed Central

    John Bosomworth, N.

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Comprendre comment les nouvelles lignes directrices sur la prise en charge du risque cardiovasculaire publiées par l’American Heart Association et l’American College of Cardiology (AHA-ACC) peuvent être interprétées et utilisées dans le contexte canadien. Sources des données Les lignes directrices de l’AHA-ACC ont été examinées, de même que toutes les références. Des recherches indépendantes dans PubMed ont été effectuées pour inclure l’ajout aux statines d’autres antihyperlipidémiants et l’emploi de calculatrices médicales visant à aider le patient à comprendre. Message principal Les nouvelles lignes directrices de l’AHA-ACC s’appuient sur les meilleures données probantes disponibles actuellement en matière de traitement de la dyslipidémie. Cela inclut le risque cardiovasculaire (CV) sur 10 ans comme seuil thérapeutique au lieu du taux de cholestérol des lipoprotéines de faible densité, de même que l’abandon des cibles thérapeutiques de lipoprotéines de faible densité. On met de plus en plus l’accent sur les interventions alimentaires et l’exercice, avec l’amorce d’un effort pour quantifier l’effet de ces interventions. Les statines constituent la principale intervention pharmacologique, et l’ajout d’autres médicaments pour accentuer la baisse lipidique n’est plus recommandé. En ce qui concerne l’application au Canada, les tables de risque de Framingham sont plus appropriées pour évaluer le risque que les équations de cohortes regroupées utilisées aux États-Unis. Les calculatrices du risque de maladie cardiovasculaire (MCV) devraient contenir de l’information sur l’âge cardiovasculaire et devraient pouvoir illustrer le risque et les interventions de rechange afin d’aider le patient à comprendre et de favoriser la prise de décision éclairée. Conclusion L’attention sur les meilleures données probantes concernant le risque CV peut simplifier le traitement de la

  5. Effet de l'interaction coulombienne sur la localisation d'Anderson dans le gaz bidimensionnel d'électrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, G.

    2010-09-01

    Nous étudions l’effet des interactions coulombiennes sur la localisation d’Anderson dans le gaz bidimensionnel d’électrons désordonné. L’objectif est de statuer sur la question de l’existence de métaux à deux dimensions. En l’absence d’interaction, la théorie d’échelle de la localisation prédit qu’un désordre infinitésimal suffit à localiser la fonction d’onde électronique et donc à rendre le système isolant à température nulle (Abrahams et al., 1979). Dans certaines limites extrêmes, les interactions peuvent être prises en compte et l’on aboutit également à un état isolant. Cependant, aucune théorie analytique ne permet de traiter le régime quantique non-perturbatif où désordre et interaction sont intermédiaires. Expérimentalement, il est possible de l’explorer dans des échantillons de haute mobilité et basse densité. Depuis 1994, des comportements métalliques inexpliqués y ont été observés (Kravchenko et al., 1994). Nous avons mis au point une méthode numérique permettant d’étudier le problème couplé de la localisation d’Anderson en présence d’interaction. Cette méthode mêle Monte Carlo quantique à température nulle et théorie d’échelle pour la conductance de Thouless. Nous trouvons que la théorie d’échelle de la localisation est préservée en présence d’interaction et donc que le gaz bidimensionnel, même corrélé, est isolant à température nulle. Nos résultats montrent de plus que les interactions délocalisent le gaz bidimensionnel et que cet effet de délocalisation est accru en présence de dégénérescence de vallées. Ils nous permettent de proposer un mécanisme simple rendant compte des principales caractéristiques des comportements métalliques observés expérimentalement.

  6. Associations between trace elements and clinical health parameters in the North Pacific loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) from Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ley-Quiñónez, César Paúl; Rossi-Lafferriere, Natalia Alejandra; Espinoza-Carreon, Teresa Leticia; Hart, Catherine Edwina; Peckham, Sherwood Hoyt; Aguirre, Alfredo Alonso; Zavala-Norzagaray, Alan Alfredo

    2017-02-25

    This study investigated selected trace elements toxicity in sea turtles Caretta caretta population from Baja California Sur (BCS), Mexico, by analyzing associations among Zn, Se, Cu, As, Cd, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Hg with various biochemical parameters (packed cell volume, leukocytes, and selected blood parameters), and whether their concentrations could have an impact on the health status of sea turtles. Blood samples from 22 loggerhead (C. caretta) sea turtles from BCS, Mexico, were collected for trace elements on biochemistry parameter analyses. Significant associations among trace element levels and the biochemistry parameters were found: Cd vs ALP (R (2) = 0.874, p ˂ 0.001), As vs ALP (R (2) = 0.656, p ˂ 0.001), Mn vs ALP (R (2) = 0.834, p ˂ 0.001), and Ni vs LDH (R (2) = 0.587, p ˂ 0.001). This study is the first report of the biochemical parameters of the North Pacific loggerhead sea turtle (C. caretta) from Baja California Sur, Mexico, and it is the first to observe several associations with toxic and essential trace elements. Our study reinforces the usefulness of blood for the monitoring of the levels of contaminating elements and the results suggest that, based on the associations with health clinical parameters, high levels of Cd and As could be representing a risk to the North Pacific loggerhead population health.

  7. Survey of Hyperspectral and Multispectral Imaging Technologies (Etude sur les technologies d’imagerie hyperspectrale et multispectrale)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    SET-065-P3 Survey of Hyperspectral and Multispectral Imaging Technologies ( Etude sur les technologies d’imagerie hyperspectrale et multispectrale... Etude sur les technologies d’imagerie hyperspectrale et multispectrale) This Report forms part of RTG-33’s activities in assessing...that will guarantee a solid base for the future. The content of this publication has been reproduced directly from material supplied by RTO or the

  8. Réalisation de réseaux sur polymères par laser UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castex, M. C.; Fischer, A.; Simeonov, D.; Adès, D.; Siove, A.

    2003-06-01

    Nous présentons ici une méthode très simple de réalisation de réseaux d'amplitude de pas sub-micronique sur des films polymères à base de carbazote déposés sur des substrat de silice. Les réseaux sont fabriqués en irradiant avec un faisceau laser à 193nm un masque de phase placé au contact du film. La qualité des réseaux obtenus permet désormais d'envisager la réalisation de micro-cavités lasers de type planaire permettant de sélectionner une émission laser monomode autour de 400nm.

  9. Influence des inclusions sur la rupture d'un acier faiblement allié

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausild, P.; Berdin, C.; Bompard, P.; Prioul, C.

    2003-03-01

    L'étude de la rupture d'un acier faiblement allié dans le domaine de la transition ductile fragile a permis de mettre en évidence la présence croissante, avec la température de sollicitation, d'amas d'inclusions de seconde phase sur les surfaces de rupture. On montre, à l'aide de modélisations par éléments finis, que ces amas jouent néanmoins un rôle mineur dans le déclenchement du clivage. En revanche, leur influence sur la propagation de la rupture ductile est importante. On peut alors expliquer l'anisotropie de la résilience en prenant en compte la géométrie des inclusions et leur répartition spatiale.

  10. The Sur7 Protein Regulates Plasma Membrane Organization and Prevents Intracellular Cell Wall Growth in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Francisco J.; Douglas, Lois M.; Rosebrock, Adam

    2008-01-01

    The Candida albicans plasma membrane plays important roles in cell growth and as a target for antifungal drugs. Analysis of Ca-Sur7 showed that this four transmembrane domain protein localized to stable punctate patches, similar to the plasma membrane subdomains known as eisosomes or MCC that were discovered in S. cerevisiae. The localization of Ca-Sur7 depended on sphingolipid synthesis. In contrast to S. cerevisiae, a C. albicans sur7Δ mutant displayed defects in endocytosis and morphogenesis. Septins and actin were mislocalized, and cell wall synthesis was very abnormal, including long projections of cell wall into the cytoplasm. Several phenotypes of the sur7Δ mutant are similar to the effects of inhibiting β-glucan synthase, suggesting that the abnormal cell wall synthesis is related to activation of chitin synthase activity seen under stress conditions. These results expand the roles of eisosomes by demonstrating that Sur7 is needed for proper plasma membrane organization and cell wall synthesis. A conserved Cys motif in the first extracellular loop of fungal Sur7 proteins is similar to a characteristic motif of the claudin proteins that form tight junctions in animal cells, suggesting a common role for these tetraspanning membrane proteins in forming specialized plasma membrane domains. PMID:18799621

  11. ABCC9/SUR2 in the brain: implications for hippocampal sclerosis of aging and a potential therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Peter T.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Wang, Wang-Xia; Ighodaro, Eseosa; Artiushin, Sergey; Nichols, Colin G.; Fardo, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The ABCC9 gene and its polypeptide product, SUR2, are increasingly implicated in human neurologic disease, including prevalent diseases of the aged brain. SUR2 proteins are a component of the ATP-sensitive potassium (“KATP”) channel, a metabolic sensor for stress and/or hypoxia that has been shown to change in aging. The KATP channel also helps regulate the neurovascular unit. Most brain cell types express SUR2, including neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, vascular smooth muscle, pericytes, and endothelial cells. Thus it is not surprising that ABCC9 gene variants are associated with risk for human brain diseases. For example, Cantu syndrome is a result of ABCC9 mutations; we discuss neurologic manifestations of this genetic syndrome. More common brain disorders linked to ABCC9 gene variants include hippocampal sclerosis of aging (HS-Aging), sleep disorders, and depression. HS-Aging is a prevalent neurological disease with pathologic features of both neurodegenerative (aberrant TDP-43) and cerebrovascular (arteriolosclerosis) disease. As to potential therapeutic intervention, the human pharmacopeia features both SUR2 agonists and antagonists, so ABCC9/SUR2 may provide a “druggable target”, relevant perhaps to both HS-Aging and Alzheimer’s disease. We conclude that more work is required to better understand the roles of ABCC9/SUR2 in the human brain during health and disease conditions. PMID:26226329

  12. The Bacillus stearothermophilus NUB36 surA gene encodes a thermophilic sucrase related to Bacillus subtilis SacA.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Ferenci, T

    1996-07-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the surA gene, encoding a sucrase from Bacillus stearothermophilus NUB36, was determined. surA was composed of 1338 bp and encoded 445 amino acid residues. The deduced polypeptide of M(r) 51519 showed strong sequence similarity to sucrose and sucrose phosphate hydrolases from Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Vibrio alginolyticus, and contained the 'sucrose box' residues thought to be important for catalysis of the transfer of fructose from sucrose. The enzyme was partially purified using affinity chromotography from extracts of Escherichia coli containing the cloned surA. SurA displayed an optimum temperature for sucrose hydrolysis of 55 degrees C and high stability. The M(r) of SurA determined by gel filtration was 105,000, which suggested that the active form of the enzyme is a dimer. SurA exhibited an apparent Km of 40 mM for sucrose but, unlike the homologous B. subtilis enzyme, had no detectable sucrose phosphate hydrolase activity.

  13. [Polyplacophoran communities (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) at Bahia de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México].

    PubMed

    García Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez Ruiz, Migdalia

    2007-03-01

    Eight species of polyplacophorans have been reported from La Bahia de la Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. We add Lepidochitona beanii, Chaetopleura lurida, Stenoplax limaciformis, S. mariposa, Lepidozona clathrata, L. serrata and Acanthochitona arragonites, increasing the known number of species to 15. Ordination analysis of five chiton communities at the site suggests a correlation of wave exposure to species composition and diversity: communities with intermediate wave exposure have more species (richness) and higher diversity (Shannon's index).

  14. Carcinome papillaire sur kyste du tractus thyréoglosse: à propos de deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Dbab, Lamia; Nouri, Hassan; Iguelouane, Nassim; Rochdi, Youssef; Aderdour, Lahcen; Raji, Abdelaziz

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif de ce travail est de présenté deux cas de carcinomes papillaire sur kystes du tractus thyréoglosse (KTT) et d'exposer notre attitude thérapeutique. Il s'agit de deux patientes, une âgée de 30 ans et l'autre de 45 ans, qui ont été opéré dans notre centre. Le diagnostic du carcinome papillaire sur KTT a été retenu après étude anatomopathologique du kyste après exérèse selon la technique de Sistrunk. Une thyroïdectomie totale suivie d'une irathérapie et d'une hormonothérapie freinatrice a été réalisé chez l'une des patientes, pour l'autre une thyroïdectomie totale associée à une hormonothérapie freinatrice a été préconisé. L'évolution été favorable après un recule de 4 ans pour la première patiente et de 2 ans pour la deuxième. La thyroïdectomie totale après exérèse complète du KTT est le traitement recommandé pour le carcinome papillaire sur KTT. Il a été démontré qu'un cancer latent de la thyroïde peut être développé même après des années après l'exérèse du KTT. Le traitement du carcinome papillaire sur KTT est bien codifié, permettant un excellent pronostic. PMID:26848352

  15. Influence des macles sur le courant critique de transport selon c et sur la ligne d'irréversibilité dans les plans ab étudiée dans des échantillons monodomaines texturés d'YBaCuO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanfilippo, S.; Sulpice, A.; Bourgault, D.; Villard, C.; Gautier-Picard, P.; Chaud, X.; Beaugnon, E.; Tournier, R.

    1998-02-01

    Direct transport measurements at 77 K of the critical current density along the c-axis (J_c) and magnetic measurements are performed on the same bulk textured single domain YBaCuO samples with the longest dimension along the c-axis. A strong influence of the Twin Planes (TP) on J_c and on the ab-plane irreversibility line B(T^*) is reported when the field is rotated in the ab-planes perpendicularly to the c-axis. The different unusual behaviors observed for J_c and the B(T^*), depending on the range of temperature and field are explained by the strong influence of these extended correlated defects on the pinning of the flux lines. La densité de courant critique selon l'axe c (J_c) est mesurée à 77 K en transport et par des mesures magnétiques sur les mêmes échantillons texturés monodomaines d'YBaCuO. L'influence des plans de macles (TP) sur J_c et sur la ligne d'irréversibilité B(T^*) est étudiée en faisant tourner le champ dans les plans ab, perpendiculairement à l'axe c. Les résultats montrent que dans ces composés, J_c et B(T^*) sont fortement influencés par le piégeage par les TP. Divers comportements des lignes de flux résultant de l'influence de ces défauts corrélés sont proposés selon les gammes de température et de champ étudiées.

  16. Etude du stockage de l'hydrogene sur des nanostructures de carbone microporeuses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Eric

    2007-12-01

    Le stockage de l'hydrogene par adsorption sur des adsorbants nano-structures a ete etudie sous differentes conditions de pression et de temperature. Les adsorbants etudies sont principalement des nanotubes de carbone a simple paroi ainsi que des structures metallo-organiques. Les mesures ont ete realisees a l'aide de systemes gravimetriques et volumetriques tres sensibles specialement mis au point pour de petits echantillons necessitant un degazage in situ. Les appareils developpes, au nombre de quatre, comprennent deux systemes gravimetriques et deux systemes volumetriques. Ensemble, ces systemes couvrent la plage de pressions (0-100) bars ainsi que la plage de temperatures (77-295) K. Les differentes analyses montrent que l'adsorption d'hydrogene sur les adsorbants nano-structures etudies est maximale a 77 K et varie entre environ (1.5 et 4) % masse. A temperature ambiante, l'adsorption croit lineairement avec la pression et demeure sous les 1% masse pour des pressions inferieures a 100 bars. L'adsorption d'hydrogene sur ces materiaux dans ces conditions se compare notamment a celle obtenue sur des charbons actives. La modelisation de l'adsorption a egalement ete realisee dans des conditions cryogeniques a l'aide du modele de Dubinin-Astakhov sous une forme adaptee pour l'adsorption supercritique. Les enthalpies d'adsorption calculees a partir de ce modele varient sous les 6 kJ/mole et sont donc consistantes avec des processus de physisorption. L'applicabilite du modele de Dubinin-Astakhov suggere que l'adsorption d'hydrogene puisse etre representee par un processus de remplissage des pores par un pseudo-liquide. Ces travaux s'inscrivent dans un contexte ou la capacite d'adsorption reelle des nanostructures de carbone est sujette a la controverse. En consequence, l'approche experimentale adoptee se distingue par les differentes demarches mises de l'avant pour l'obtention de mesures fiables sur des echantillons de faibles masses ainsi que par son caractere

  17. 2010 Coalition Battle Management Language Workshop (Atelier 2010 sur le langage de gestion du champ de bataille pour les operations en coalition)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    Feb 2010 2010 Coalition Battle Management Language Workshop (Atelier 2010 sur le langage de gestion du champ de bataille pour les opérations en...RTO MEETING PROCEEDINGS MP-MSG-079 2010 Coalition Battle Management Language Workshop (Atelier 2010 sur le langage de gestion du champ de...RTO-MP-MSG-079 ES - 3 Atelier 2010 sur le langage de gestion du champ de bataille pour les opérations en coalition (RTO-MP-MSG-079

  18. Change of Cerebral Oxygenation during Surfactant Treatment in Preterm Infants: "LISA" versus "InSurE" Procedures.

    PubMed

    Bertini, Giovanna; Coviello, Caterina; Gozzini, Elena; Bianconi, Tommaso; Bresci, Cecilia; Leonardi, Valentina; Dani, Carlo

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to compare the effects on cerebral oxygenation in preterm infants of two different procedures for surfactant administration: the LISA (low-invasive method of surfactant administration) and the InSurE (Intubation, SURfactant administration, Extubation). Study Design Twenty premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome were assigned to receive surfactant either by "LISA" (n = 10) or "InSurE" (n = 10) procedure. Patients were continuously studied by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the measurement of cerebral regional oxygenation (rSO2C) and calculation of cerebral fractional oxygen extraction rate (cFTOE), and NIRS data were recorded 30 minutes before (T0) surfactant administration, during the procedure (Tproc), and 30 (T1), 60 (T2T2), and 120 minutes (T3) afterward. Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) was studied in the anterior cerebral artery at T0, T1, and T3. Results SpO2 significantly decreased at Tproc in comparison with T0, T1, T2, and T3 and the decrease was higher in the LISA than in the InSurE group. rSO2C was lower at tproc and T3 in the LISA than in the InSurE group. cFTOE was higher at tproc, t2, and t3 in the LISA group than in the InSurE group. CBFV did not change during the study periods in both groups. Conclusions The LISA and InSurE procedures transiently decreased rSO2C in our population, and the decrease was higher in the LISA group. Consistently, there was a contemporary increase in cFTOE that was higher in the LISA than in the InSurE group, suggesting that it represents a compensatory mechanism.

  19. Brulure par Foudre. A Propos d’une Observation

    PubMed Central

    Mradmi, W.; Fassi-Fihri, J.; Mehaji, G.; Ezzoubi, M.; Diouri, M.; Bahechar, N.; Boukind, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Summary Aussi loin que l’on remonte dans la littérature, on retrouve des récits relatant des accidents consécutifs à la fulguration chez l’homme. La foudre était alors associée à la colère des dieux ou à la notion de châtiment. La fulguration correspond à un transfert d’énergie entre un cumulonimbus de charge négative et un objet de charge positive se trouvant au niveau du sol. Les lésions déterminées sont à la fois thermiques et électrothermiques. Bien que l’arrêt cardiorespiratoire soit une cause bien documentée de décès, la plupart des cas rapportés dans la littérature décrivent un éventail très disparate des séquelles qui surviennent suite à cet accident. Les Auteurs rapportent le cas d’un patient atteint par la foudre en insistant particulièrement sur les complications neurologiques qui sont survenues en cours d’évolution. Se basant sur cette observation et sur une revue de la littérature, les Auteurs soulignent que le pronostic des patients atteints par la foudre est plus favorable que généralement rapporté. PMID:21990993

  20. Etude sur les tendons en materiaux composites et leur application aux ancrages postcontraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennouf, Adil

    L'objectif general de la presente these est d'evaluer le comportement a l'arrachement et au fluage d'ancrages injectes constitues de tendons en materiaux composites afin d'etablir des recommandations plus appropriees et realistes pour le dimensionnement et la conception. Quatre types de tendons en materiaux composites, deux a base de fibres d'aramide et deux a base de fibres de carbone, ont ete utilises dans l'etude. Les travaux de recherche de cette these ont porte notamment sur: (I) Une caracterisation physique et mecanique des tendons en materiaux composites utilises dans l'etude. (II) Une etude en laboratoire sur les coulis de scellement. La premiere etape de cette etude a concerne le developpement d'un coulis de scellement performant adapte aux tendons en materiaux composites et a differentes situations d'injection. La seconde etape a traite des essais de caracterisations physique et mecanique du coulis de scellement developpe comparativement a trois coulis de scellement usuels d'un meme rapport E/L de 0,4. (III) Une etude sur des modeles reduits d'ancrages injectes. (IV) Une etude sur des modeles d'ancrages a grande echelle. La synthese de ces etudes a permis d'enoncer les principales conclusions suivantes: (1) Les valeurs moyennes des charges de rupture des tendons en materiaux composites ont ete de 1% a 29% superieures a celles specifiees par les manufacturiers. (2) L'etude sur les coulis de scellement a permis le developpement de coulis de ciment repondant aux criteres fixes, soient une grande stabilite, une bonne fluidite, une legere expansion et de bonnes caracteristiques mecaniques. (3) Les tendons en materiaux composites ont montre des contraintes d'adherence maximum superieures a celles des tendons en acier. (4) Le type de fibre, la configuration et le fini de surface des tendons en materiaux composites gouvernent leur resistance a l'adherence. (5) L'introduction de sable et d'autres ajouts comme les fines de silice et la poudre d'aluminium au coulis

  1. Traumatismes fermés et pénétrants de l'abdomen: analyse rétrospective sur 175 cas et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Fanomezantsoa, Raherinantenaina; Davidà, Rakotomena Solonirina; Tianarivelo, Rajaonarivony; Fabienne, Rabetsiahiny Lalao; Aina, Rajaonanahary Toky Mamin'Ny; Auberlin, Rakototiana Felantsoa; Allen, Hunald Francis; Nirina, Rakoto Ratsimba Hery

    2015-01-01

    Les traumatismes abdominaux sont relativement fréquents mais graves dans les pays en développement. Le but de cette étude était de décrire les aspects épidémiologiques, diagnostiques, thérapeutiques et évolutifs des contusions et plaies pénétrantes de l'abdomen prises en charge dans un pays à faibles ressources. Patients et méthodes: Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective et descriptive de 2 ans (2011-2012) ayant colligé 175 cas de traumatisés abdominaux au CHU-JRA Tananarive Madagascar. Parmi ces blessés (144 hommes et 31 femmes), il existait 122 vivants (69,7%) et 53 décès (30,3%) avant tout geste thérapeutique hospitalier. Les étiologies étaient dominées par les accidents à responsabilité civile (52,5%) et de la voie publique (38,5%). Les contusions et plaies pénétrantes représentaient respectivement 41,8% et 58,2%. Parmi les blessés vivants, 112 ont été opérés (91,8%). L’évolution hospitalière était favorable dans 94,3%. Quatre patients avaient des suites opératoires compliquées (3,6%). Sept patients étaient décédés (5,7%). Parmi les décès préhospitaliers, nous avons observé 73,6% de polytraumatisme (n = 39) et 26,4% de traumatismes abdominaux isolés (n = 14). A l'autopsie, les lésions abdominales étaient hémorragiques dans 94,3% incluant des plaies vasculaires rétropéritonéales, des ruptures hépatospléniques et des traumatismes graves du bassin. En situation précaire, les traumatismes abdominaux ont une mortalité préhospitalière assez importante. A l'hôpital, l’évolution était généralement favorable au prix d'un acte opératoire invasif. PMID:26097633

  2. Phenylephrine preconditioning in embryonic heart H9c2 cells is mediated by up-regulation of SUR2B/Kir6.2: A first evidence for functional role of SUR2B in sarcolemmal KATP channels and cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Sofija; Ballantyne, Thomas; Du, Qingyou; Blagojević, Miloš; Jovanović, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels were originally described in cardiomyocytes, where physiological levels of intracellular ATP keep them in a closed state. Structurally, these channels are composed of pore-forming inward rectifier, Kir6.1 or Kir6.2, and a regulatory, ATP-binding subunit, SUR1, SUR2A or SUR2B. SUR1 and Kir6.2 form pancreatic type of KATP channels, SUR2A and Kir6.2 form cardiac type of KATP channels, SUR2B and Kir6.1 form vascular smooth muscle type of KATP channels. The presence of SUR2B has been described in cardiomyocytes, but its functional significance and role has remained unknown. Pretreatment with phenylephrine (100nM) for 24h increased mRNA levels of SUR2B and Kir6.2, without affecting those levels of SUR1, SUR2A and Kir6.1 in embryonic heart H9c2 cells. Such increase was associated with increased K(+) current through KATP channels and Kir6.2/SUR2B protein complexes as revealed by whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology and immunoprecipitation/Western blotting respectively. Pretreatment with phenylephrine (100nM) generated a cellular phenotype that acquired resistance to chemical hypoxia induced by 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP; 10mM), which was accompanied by increased in K(+) current in response to DNP (10mM). Cytoprotection afforded by phenylephrine (100nM) was abolished by infection of H9c2 cells with adenovirus containing Kir6.2AFA, a mutant form of Kir6.2 with largely reduced K(+) conductance. Taking all together, the present findings demonstrate that the activation of α1-adrenoceptors up-regulates SUR2B/Kir6.2 to confer cardioprotection. This is the first account of possible physiological role of SUR2B in cardiomyocytes.

  3. Sur la reponse en frequence du tissu nerveux dans le cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedard, Claude

    Dans cette These de Physique, nous avons etudie la dependance en frequence du champ electrique du tissu nerveux dans le cortex. Ce champ est aussi designe par "Local field Potential" LFP dans la litterature scientifique. Cette etude est fondee sur la theorie du champ electromagnetisme de Maxwell et sur de l'information tiree de la donne experimentale. Le resultat essentiel de cette These est que la grandeur enorme du temps de relaxation de Maxwell des membranes cellulaires semble etre la cause principale de la dependance en frequence des LFPs. Cette dependance en frequence causee par chaque membrane cellulaire est l'analogue d'un circuit RC ou la resistance R est la resistivite parallele d'une membrane cellulaire, et ou la capacite C est la permittivite electrique de la membrane. L'effet resultant d'un tres grand nombre de cellules donne un spectre de Fourier dont l'enveloppe est tres pres d'un signal en 1/f. Le modele physique propose dans cette These permet de lier les mesures prises a l'interieur d'une dendrite des variations de potentiel electrique a celles prises dans le liquide extracellulaire. De plus, cette These semble ouvrir la possibilite de mesurer le temps de relaxation de Maxwell des membranes cellulaires a l'aide de la mesure de la reponse en frequence du potentiel electrique extracellulaire (LFP). Enfin, cette These permet de lever le voile sur un sujet peu etudie, principalement en raison de la difficulte que represente l'etude des phenomenes electriques dans des milieux complexes comme les tissus vivants. En particulier, le probleme du filtrage frequentiel du potentiel electrique extracellulaire est une propriete fondamentale du tissu nerveux et son origine n'est pas connue.

  4. Instrumentation pour la spectroscopie laser sur faisceau d'ions rapides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazin, Marc

    Devant l'emergence des technologies exploitant l'infiniment petit, la spectroscopie atomique et moleculaire devient de plus en plus incontournable pour comprendre precisement les mecanismes quantiques impliques dans l'interaction des molecules. C'est le cas notamment de la nanotechnologie, de la dynamique reactionnelle des gaz a effet de serre ou simplement de l'identification des molecules constituant certains objets de l'astrophysique. Bien qu'un travail considerable soit deja accompli pour comprendre la dissociation ou la formation des molecules simples, il reste a vaincre la complexite des mecanismes impliques lorsque les molecules possedent plus de trois noyaux. Parmi les rares techniques de spectroscopie a tres haute resolution (jusqu'a la structure hyperfine), la spectroscopie laser sur faisceaux d'ions rapides est une methode experimentale eprouvee depuis trois decennies environ. Cette methode spectroscopique fournit des resultats comptant parmi les meilleurs pour obtenir des constantes moleculaires precises et permettre la reduction du spectre moleculaire. Une particularite remarquable de notre instrument est la possibilite d'enregistrer le signal de fragmentation moleculaire par laser via les etats de predissociation de la molecule etudiee. Notre contribution a ete d'ameliorer et de moderniser l'equipement existant. Nous avons augmente la resolution spectrale de notre instrument. Nous avons atteint notre principal objectif, a savoir, la possibilite d'acquerir des spectres selon deux modes : par detection du signal synchronisee sur le faisceau laser module en frequence ou par detection du signal directement par comptage. Cette derniere methode est une premiere sur ce type d'instrument et son principal interet a ete d'obtenir une meilleure mesure de l'elargissement de raie. Nous sommes parvenus a mettre clairement en evidence l'elargissement de raie avec la puissance laser en utilisant la methode de detection par comptage direct. La fluorescence induite par

  5. Fonction maximale centrée de Hardy-Littlewood sur les espaces hyperboliques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong-Quan; Lohoué, Noël

    2012-10-01

    On montre que la fonction maximale centrée de Hardy-Littlewood, M, sur les espaces hyperboliques réels {H}n = {R}^{{{raise .17exhbox riptstyle +}{raise .17exhbox riptstyle +}{raise .1exhbox riptscriptstyle +}riptscriptstyle +}} × {R}^{n - 1}, satisfait l'inégalité de type faible \\| M f \\|_{L^{1, infty}} ≤ A (n log {n}) \\| f\\|1 pour toute f∈ L 1(ℍ n ), où A>0 est une constante indépendante de la dimension n.

  6. Whipple Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trangsrud, A.

    2015-12-01

    The solar system that we know today was shaped dramatically by events in its dynamic formative years. These events left their signatures at the distant frontier of the solar system, in the small planetesimal relics that populate the vast Oort Cloud, the Scattered Disk, and the Kuiper Belt. To peer in to the history and evolution of our solar system, the Whipple mission will survey small bodies in the large volume that begins beyond the orbit of Neptune and extends out to thousands of AU. Whipple detects these objects when they occult distant stars. The distance and size of the occulting object is reconstructed from well-understood diffraction effects in the object's shadow. Whipple will observe tens of thousands of stars simultaneously with high observing efficiency, accumulating roughly a billion "star-hours" of observations over its mission life. Here we describe the Whipple observing strategy, including target selection and scheduling.

  7. Mesure et retroaction sur un qubit multi-niveaux en electrodynamique quantique en circuit non lineair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissonneault, Maxime

    L'electrodynamique quantique en circuit est une architecture prometteuse pour le calcul quantique ainsi que pour etudier l'optique quantique. Dans cette architecture, on couple un ou plusieurs qubits supraconducteurs jouant le role d'atomes a un ou plusieurs resonateurs jouant le role de cavites optiques. Dans cette these, j'etudie l'interaction entre un seul qubit supraconducteur et un seul resonateur, en permettant cependant au qubit d'avoir plus de deux niveaux et au resonateur d'avoir une non-linearite Kerr. Je m'interesse particulierement a la lecture de l'etat du qubit et a son amelioration, a la retroaction du processus de mesure sur le qubit de meme qu'a l'etude des proprietes quantiques du resonateur a l'aide du qubit. J'utilise pour ce faire un modele analytique reduit que je developpe a partir de la description complete du systeme en utilisant principalement des transfprmations unitaires et une elimination adiabatique. J'utilise aussi une librairie de calcul numerique maison permettant de simuler efficacement l'evolution du systeme complet. Je compare les predictions du modele analytique reduit et les resultats de simulations numeriques a des resultats experimentaux obtenus par l'equipe de quantronique du CEASaclay. Ces resultats sont ceux d'une spectroscopie d'un qubit supraconducteur couple a un resonateur non lineaire excite. Dans un regime de faible puissance de spectroscopie le modele reduit predit correctement la position et la largeur de la raie. La position de la raie subit les decalages de Lamb et de Stark, et sa largeur est dominee par un dephasage induit par le processus de mesure. Je montre que, pour les parametres typiques de l'electrodynamique quantique en circuit, un accord quantitatif requiert un modele en reponse non lineaire du champ intra-resonateur, tel que celui developpe. Dans un regime de forte puissance de spectroscopie, des bandes laterales apparaissent et sont causees par les fluctuations quantiques du champ electromagnetique

  8. Estimating effective roughness parameters of the L-MEB model for soil moisture retrieval using passive microwave observations from SMAPVEX12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although there have been efforts to improve existing soil moisture retrieval algorithms, the ability to estimate soil moisture from passive microwave observations is still hampered by problems in accurately modeling the observed microwave signal. This paper focuses on the estimation of effective sur...

  9. Prix Fixe: Efferocytosis as a Four-Course Meal.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    During development, stress, infection, or normal homeostasis, billions of cells die on a daily basis, and the responsibility of clearing these cellular corpses lies with the phagocytes of innate immune system. This process, termed efferocytosis , is critical for the prevention of inflammation and autoimmunity , as well as modulation of the adaptive immune response. Defective clearance of dead cells is characteristic of many human autoimmune or autoinflammatory disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), atherosclerosis, and diabetes. The mechanisms that phagocytes employ to sense, engulf, and process dead cells for an appropriate immune response have been an area of great interest. However, insight into novel mechanisms of programmed cell death , such as necroptosis, has shed light on the fact that while the diner (or phagocyte) is important, the meal itself (the type of dead cell) can play a crucial role in shaping the pursuant immune response.

  10. Adsorption de gaz sur les materiaux microporeux modelisation, thermodynamique et applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Marc-Andre

    2009-12-01

    Nos travaux sur l'adsorption de gaz dans les materiaux microporeux s'inscrivent dans le cadre des recherches visant a augmenter l'efficacite du stockage de l'hydrogene a bord des vehicules. Notre objectif etait d'etudier la possibilite d'utiliser l'adsorption afin d'ameliorer l'efficacite de la liquefaction de l'hydrogene des systemes a petite echelle. Nous avons egalement evalue les performances d'un systeme de stockage cryogenique de l'hydrogene base sur la physisorption. Comme nous avons affaire a des plages de temperatures particulierement etendues et a de hautes pressions dans la region supercritique du gaz, nous avons du commencer par travailler sur la modelisation et la thermodynamique de l'adsorption. La representation de la quantite de gaz adsorbee en fonction de la temperature et de la pression par un modele semi-empirique est un outil utile pour determiner la masse de gaz adsorbee dans un systeme mais egalement pour calculer les effets thermiques lies a l'adsorption. Nous avons adapte le modele Dubinin-Astakhov (D-A) pour modeliser des isothermes d'adsorption d'hydrogene, d'azote et de methane sur du charbon actif a haute pression et sur une grande plage de temperatures supercritiques en considerant un volume d'adsorption invariant. Avec cinq parametres de regression (incluant le volume d'adsorption Va), le modele que nous avons developpe permet de tres bien representer des isothermes experimentales d'adsorption d'hydrogene (de 30 a 293 K, jusqu'a 6 MPa), d'azote (de 93 a 298 K, jusqu'a 6 MPa) et de methane (de 243 a 333 K, jusqu'a 9 MPa) sur le charbon actif. Nous avons calcule l'energie interne de la phase adsorbee a partir du modele en nous servant de la thermodynamique des solutions sans negliger le volume d'adsorption. Par la suite, nous avons presente les equations de conservation de la niasse et de l'energie pour un systeme d'adsorption et valide notre demarche en comparant des simulations et des tests d'adsorption et de desorption. En plus de l

  11. Visual Analysis and Dissemination of Scientific Literature Collections with SurVis.

    PubMed

    Beck, Fabian; Koch, Sebastian; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Bibliographic data such as collections of scientific articles and citation networks have been studied extensively in information visualization and visual analytics research. Powerful systems have been built to support various types of bibliographic analysis, but they require some training and cannot be used to disseminate the insights gained. In contrast, we focused on developing a more accessible visual analytics system, called SurVis, that is ready to disseminate a carefully surveyed literature collection. The authors of a survey may use our Web-based system to structure and analyze their literature database. Later, readers of the survey can obtain an overview, quickly retrieve specific publications, and reproduce or extend the original bibliographic analysis. Our system employs a set of selectors that enable users to filter and browse the literature collection as well as to control interactive visualizations. The versatile selector concept includes selectors for textual search, filtering by keywords and meta-information, selection and clustering of similar publications, and following citation links. Agreement to the selector is represented by word-sized sparkline visualizations seamlessly integrated into the user interface. Based on an analysis of the analytical reasoning process, we derived requirements for the system. We developed the system in a formative way involving other researchers writing literature surveys. A questionnaire study with 14 visual analytics experts confirms that SurVis meets the initially formulated requirements.

  12. Evaluation des connaissances des parents sur les bronchiolites aiguës

    PubMed Central

    Gueddari, Widad; Tazi, Abderrahmane; Ouardi, Amine; Nani, Samira; Zineddine, Abdelhadi

    2014-01-01

    Les infections respiratoires (IR) constituent la deuxième cause de mortalité infantile au Maroc, dû en partie à l'absence d'information et de sensibilisation. Le but de ce travail était d’évaluer les connaissances des parents sur la bronchiolite aiguë, infection respiratoire très fréquente. Nous avons réalisé une enquête basée sur un questionnaire, auprès de parents de nourrissons consultants pour toux, avec ou sans gêne respiratoire. 180 parents ont été inclus dans l’étude. Les parents pensaient que l'infection respiratoire était secondaire au climat froid (96%); seuls 4% ont évoqué une origine infectieuse. Aucun des parents ne savait que le lavage des mains était un moyen de prévention de la transmission. Les parents ont majoritairement répondu que la kinésithérapie respiratoire ne servait à rien (65%), et qu'elle était nocive (24.5%). Ce manque de connaissances fondamentales en matière d'IR et de bronchiolite en particulier, devrait inciter à entreprendre un programme de sensibilisation PMID:25328606

  13. Volvulus du grêle sur paquet d’ascaris: à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Cheikh; Kane, Ahmed; Ndoye, Ndeye Aby; Ndour, Oumar; Faye-Fall, Aimé Lakh; Fall, Mbaye; Alumeti, Désiré Munyali; Ngom, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Nous rapportons un cas exceptionnel de volvulus nécrosé de l'intestin grêle dû à des ascaris adultes chez un enfant de 7 ans. A l'admission, l'enfant présentait le tableau d'occlusion intestinale qui évoluait depuis deux jours avec altération de l'état général. La radiographie de l'abdomen sans préparation retrouvait des niveaux hydroaériques de type grêlique et un aspect tigré évoquant le diagnostic d'une occlusion intestinale haute sur masse abdominale. Après la réanimation, le traitement chirurgical consistait en une laparotomie qui avait retrouvé un volvulus nécrosé de l'iléon terminale contenant des ascaris adultes. Une résection du grêle sur environ un mètre emportant le segment nécrosé suivie d'une iléostomie était réalisée. L'évolution a été favorable, l'anastomose iléo-colique fut réalisée quatre semaines plus tard. Au recul de deux ans l'enfant est indemne de tout symptôme. PMID:27795803

  14. Effet de la composition des materiaux composites sur la caracterisation et detection par ondes de Lamb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostiguy, Pierre-Claude

    Les matériaux composites sont de plus en plus utilisés en aéronautique. Leurs excellentes propriétés mécaniques et leur faible poids leur procurent un avantage certain par rapport aux matériaux métalliques. Ceux-ci étant soumis à diverses conditions de chargement et environnementales, ils sont suceptibles de subir plusieurs types d'endommagements, compromettant leur intégrité. Des méthodes fiables d'inspection sont donc nécessaires pour évaluer leur intégrité. Néanmoins, peu d'approches non destructives, embarquées et efficaces sont présentement utilisées. Ce travail de recherche se penche sur l'étude de l'effet de la composition des matériaux composites sur la détection et la caractérisation par ondes guidées. L'objectif du projet est de développer une approche de caractérisation mécanique embarquée permettant d'améliorer la performance d'une approche d'imagerie par antenne piézoélectriques sur des structures composite et métalliques. La contribution de ce projet est de proposer une approche embarquée de caractérisation mécanique par ultrasons qui ne requiert pas une mesure sur une multitude d'échantillons et qui est non destructive. Ce mémoire par articles est divisé en quatre parties, dont les parties deux A quatre présentant les articles publiés et soumis. La première partie présente l'état des connaissances dans la matière nécessaires à l'acomplissement de ce projet de maîtrise. Les principaux sujets traités portent sur les matériaux composites, propagation d'ondes, la modélisation des ondes guidées, la caractérisation par ondes guidées et la surveillance embarquée des structures. La deuxième partie présente une étude de l'effet des propriétés mécaniques sur la performance de l'algorithme d'imagerie Excitelet. L'étude est faite sur une structure isotrope. Les résultats ont démontré que l'algorithme est sensible à l'exactitude des propriétés mécaniques utilisées dans le modèle. Cette

  15. Implementation of tsunami disaster prevention measures in the municipality of San Rafael del Sur, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauch, W.; Talavera, E.; Acosta, N.; Sanchez, M.; Mejia, E.

    2007-05-01

    The Nicaraguan Pacific coast presents considerable tsunami risk. On September 1, 1992, a tsunami caused enormous damage in the infrastructure and killed more than 170 people. A pilot project was conducted between 2006 and 2007 in the municipality of San Rafel del Sur, area of Masachapa, The project included multiple topics of tsunami prevention measures and considering the direct participation of the local population, as: -General education on disaster prevention, participative events; -Investigation of awareness level and information needs for different population groups; -Specific educational measures in the schools; -Publication of brochures, calendars, news paper articles, radio programs, TV spots -Development of local tsunami hazard maps, 1:5,000 scale; (based on previous regional tsunami hazard mapping projects and local participation) -Development of a tsunami warning plan; -Improvements of the national tsunami warning system. -Installation of sirens for tsunami warning -Installation of tsunami signs, indicating hazardous areas, evacuation routes, safe places; -Realization of evacuation drills in schools. Based on the experiences gained in Masachapa it is planned to run similar projects in other areas along the Nicaraguan Pacific coast. In the project participated the local municipality and local stakeholders of San Rafael del Sur, Ministry of Education, National Police, Nicaraguan Red Cross, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Tourism, Nicaraguan Geosciences Institute (INETER), National System for Disaster Prevention (SINAPRED), Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). It was financed by SDC and INETER.

  16. Les enjuex éthiques entourant la recherche en santé sur les enfants

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ La recherche en santé est un devoir moral parce qu’elle est la base des soins probants prodigués par tous les dispensateurs de soins. Des politiques et des règlements précis régissent la tenue des recherches sur des humains. Il faut procéder à une évaluation éthique d’un projet de recherche donné avant de pouvoir l’entreprendre. La recherche sur les enfants pose d’énormes défis en matière de consentement éclairé et d’assentiment, de vulnérabilité et de potentiel de conflit d’intérêts (CDI). Les chercheurs en santé pédiatrique devraient prôner la participation des enfants à la recherche, tout en se montrant attentifs à en limiter les risques.

  17. Flare Observations.

    PubMed

    Benz, Arnold O

    Solar flares are observed at all wavelengths from decameter radio waves to gamma-rays at 100 MeV. This review focuses on recent observations in EUV, soft and hard X-rays, white light, and radio waves. Space missions such as RHESSI, Yohkoh, TRACE, and SOHO have enlarged widely the observational base. They have revealed a number of surprises: Coronal sources appear before the hard X-ray emission in chromospheric footpoints, major flare acceleration sites appear to be independent of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), electrons, and ions may be accelerated at different sites, there are at least 3 different magnetic topologies, and basic characteristics vary from small to large flares. Recent progress also includes improved insights into the flare energy partition, on the location(s) of energy release, tests of energy release scenarios and particle acceleration. The interplay of observations with theory is important to deduce the geometry and to disentangle the various processes involved. There is increasing evidence supporting reconnection of magnetic field lines as the basic cause. While this process has become generally accepted as the trigger, it is still controversial how it converts a considerable fraction of the energy into non-thermal particles. Flare-like processes may be responsible for large-scale restructuring of the magnetic field in the corona as well as for its heating. Large flares influence interplanetary space and substantially affect the Earth's lower ionosphere. While flare scenarios have slowly converged over the past decades, every new observation still reveals major unexpected results, demonstrating that solar flares, after 150 years since their discovery, remain a complex problem of astrophysics including major unsolved questions.

  18. Boron and strontium isotope compositions of groundwater from the La Paz arid coastal aquifer, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlknecht, Jürgen; Rosner, Martin; Meixner, Anette

    2016-04-01

    In groundwater studies boron and strontium isotopic compositions can be used to identify natural and anthropogenic sources as well as processes related to groundwater recharge, flow and mixing. The La Paz arid costal aquifer in Baja California Sur, Mexico, is the most important source of drinking and irrigation water for La Paz area and suffers from anthropogenic contamination and intensive exploitation of the aquifer causing seawater intrusion and general groundwater abatement. The relatively un-radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios of the La Paz groundwater range in a narrow field between 0.7054 and 0.7062. In contrast to strontium the boron isotope composition displays a large variability between +27 and +55 permil d11B. The relatively low 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the La Paz groundwater highlight a significant contribution of strontium derived from local terrestrial sediments and igneous rocks with known 87Sr/86Sr ratios between 0.705 and 0.7035. The large variability of d11B values indicate that multiple sources and processes determine the boron isotope composition of La Paz groundwater. Rainwater (high d11B), seawater (~+40 permil) due to seawater intrusions, wastewater (low to medium d11B) and boron derived from the local geology (low to medium d11B) explain most of the observed groundwater d11B variability. However, d11B values higher than modern seawater point to significant boron isotope fractionation by preferential absorption of 10B onto clay minerals during the evolution of some groundwater samples. Due to low boron concentrations in rainwater a significant contribution of 11B-rich rainwater (>+40 permil) on the La Paz groundwater is unlikely.

  19. Hydrogeochemical characterization of the thermal springs in northeastern of Los Cabos Block, Baja California Sur, México.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Morales, Pablo; Wurl, Jobst

    2016-11-19

    The existence of hot springs in the northeastern part of Los Cabos Baja California Sur (BCS), is known from pre-Hispanic times, but their hydrochemical composition had not been previously described. Several springs are located within the watershed of Santiago, and the objective of this study was to define the hydrogeochemical composition of the thermal springs and to characterize the geothermal reservoir. A total of 16 water samples were taken in 11 geothermal manifestations under dry (June 2014) and humid (March 2015) conditions. A geothermal system of low enthalpy and low mineralization was found along the San José del Cabo Fault (FSJC), with an average salinity (TDS) of 261 mg/L and an alkaline pH (8.5-9.5). The hydrogeochemical composition corresponds to the sodium-bicarbonate type, and geothermometers (silica and Na-K) indicate temperatures ranging from 70 to 115 °C for the deep thermal reservoir in conditions of equilibrium. The thermal springs with these hydrogeochemical characteristics differ in respect to the hydrochemical composition of the springs, formally described on several sites of BCS. Br/Cl and B/Cl ratios as well as the enrichment factor (EF) indicate that rainwater with a seawater component represents the source of the thermal spring water. In the springs, a mixture between thermal water and surface water is observed, combined with a relatively deep water circulation, allowing a calcium-sodium exchange, according to the host rock geochemistry. The higher temperatures found at some hot springs are related to the main trace of the San José del Cabo Fault.

  20. Muon Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duldig, Marc L.

    2000-07-01

    Muon observations are complementary to neutron monitor observations but there are some important differences in the two techniques. Unlike neutron monitors, muon telescope systems use coincidence techniques to obtain directional information about the arriving particle. Neutron monitor observations require simple corrections for pressure variations to compensate for the varying mass of atmospheric absorber over a site. In contrast, muon observations require additional corrections for the positive and negative temperature effects. Muon observations commenced many years before neutron monitors were constructed. Thus, muon data over a larger number of solar cycles is available to study solar modulation on anisotropies and other cosmic ray variations. The solar diurnal and semi-diurnal variations have been studied for many years. Using the techniques of Bieber and Chen it has been possible to derive the radial gradient, parallel mean-free path and symmetric latitude gradient of cosmic rays for rigidities <200 GV. The radial gradient varies with the 11-year solar activity cycle whereas the parallel mean-free path appears to vary with the 22-year solar magnetic cycle. The symmetric latitudinal gradient reverses at each solar polarity reversal. These results are in general agreement with predictions from modulation models. In undertaking these analyses the ratio of the parallel to perpendicular mean-free path must be assumed. There is strong contention in the literature about the correct value to employ but the results are sufficiently robust for this to be, at most, a minor problem. An asymmetric latitude gradient of highly variable nature has been found. These observations do not support current modulation models. Our view of the sidereal variation has undergone a revolution in recent times. Nagashima, Fujimoto and Jacklyn proposed a narrow Tail-In source anisotropy and separate Loss-Cone anisotropy as being responsible for the observed variations. A new analysis

  1. Impact de la preparation des anodes crues et des conditions de cuisson sur la fissuration dans des anodes denses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amrani, Salah

    La fabrication de l'aluminium est realisee dans une cellule d'electrolyse, et cette operation utilise des anodes en carbone. L'evaluation de la qualite de ces anodes reste indispensable avant leur utilisation. La presence des fissures dans les anodes provoque une perturbation du procede l'electrolyse et une diminution de sa performance. Ce projet a ete entrepris pour determiner l'impact des differents parametres de procedes de fabrication des anodes sur la fissuration des anodes denses. Ces parametres incluent ceux de la fabrication des anodes crues, des proprietes des matieres premieres et de la cuisson. Une recherche bibliographique a ete effectuee sur tous les aspects de la fissuration des anodes en carbone pour compiler les travaux anterieurs. Une methodologie detaillee a ete mise au point pour faciliter le deroulement des travaux et atteindre les objectifs vises. La majorite de ce document est reservee pour la discussion des resultats obtenus au laboratoire de l'UQAC et au niveau industriel. Concernant les etudes realisees a l'UQAC, une partie des travaux experimentaux est reservee a la recherche des differents mecanismes de fissuration dans les anodes denses utilisees dans l'industrie d'aluminium. L'approche etait d'abord basee sur la caracterisation qualitative du mecanisme de la fissuration en surface et en profondeur. Puis, une caracterisation quantitative a ete realisee pour la determination de la distribution de la largeur de la fissure sur toute sa longueur, ainsi que le pourcentage de sa surface par rapport a la surface totale de l'echantillon. Cette etude a ete realisee par le biais de la technique d'analyse d'image utilisee pour caracteriser la fissuration d'un echantillon d'anode cuite. L'analyse surfacique et en profondeur de cet echantillon a permis de voir clairement la formation des fissures sur une grande partie de la surface analysee. L'autre partie des travaux est basee sur la caracterisation des defauts dans des echantillons d'anodes crues

  2. Lignes directrices pour le suivi des cardiostimulateurs au canada : consensus du groupe de travail canadien sur la cardiostimulation

    PubMed

    D Fraser JD; M Gillis AM; Irwin; Nishimura; Tyers; Philippon

    2000-03-01

    Un sondage sur les pratiques de cardiostimulation au Canada effectue en 1997 a revele un profond desir pour des lignes directrices nationales sur le suivi des cardiostimulateurs. Ces lignes directrices sur le suivi des cardiostimulateurs representent une declaration de consensus du Groupe de travail canadien sur la cardiostimulation. Le suivi des patients en personne plutot que par moyens transtelephoniques est preferable. Les patients devraient etre examines au minimum dans les 72 heures suivant l'implantation, 2 a 12 semaines et 6 mois apres l'implantation, et annuellement par la suite. Des examens plus frequents peuvent etre requis pour certains patients. Ceci dependra des problemes cardiovasculaires associes et des appareils en particulier. Une visite de suivi typique devrait comprendre un examen cardiovasculaire oriente, l'interrogation du systeme de cardiostimulation et une revue des donnees de telemetrie, un examen du rythme sous-jacent, un examen des seuils de stimulation et de detection et une reprogrammation adequate des parametres pour optimaliser le fonctionnement et la longevite de l'appareil.

  3. Sulfonylurea receptor -1 (SUR1): genetic and metabolic evidences for a role in the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Reis, A F; Velho, G

    2002-02-01

    The pancreatic B-cell ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K(ATP)) is composed of two distinct subunits, an inwardly rectifying ion channel forming the pore (Kir6.2), and a regulatory subunit, namely the sulfonylurea receptor-1 (SUR1), which binds this widely used class of insulin-secreting drugs. Mutations in the genes encoding Kir6.2 and SUR1 may result in familial persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemia of infancy, demonstrating their role in the regulation of insulin secretion. Studies in various populations with different ethnic background provided evidence that various alleles of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SUR1 gene, and to a less extent in the Kir6.2 gene, confer a significantly increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Allelic variations of these SNPs were shown to modulate insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in vivo, thus providing a pathophysiological background to explain their contribution to the genetic susceptibility to T2DM. The aim of this review is to summarise and discuss the significant results of recent literature on the implication of K(ATP), and particularly of SUR1, in the genetic and pathopysiological mechanisms of T2DM.

  4. A Mouse Model of Human Hyperinsulinism Produced by the E1506K Mutation in the Sulphonylurea Receptor SUR1

    PubMed Central

    Shimomura, Kenju; Tusa, Maija; Iberl, Michaela; Brereton, Melissa F.; Kaizik, Stephan; Proks, Peter; Lahmann, Carolina; Yaluri, Nagendra; Modi, Shalem; Huopio, Hanna; Ustinov, Jarkko; Otonkoski, Timo; Laakso, Markku; Ashcroft, Frances M.

    2013-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the KATP channel genes KCNJ11 and ABCC8 cause neonatal hyperinsulinism in humans. Dominantly inherited mutations cause less severe disease, which may progress to glucose intolerance and diabetes in later life (e.g., SUR1-E1506K). We generated a mouse expressing SUR1-E1506K in place of SUR1. KATP channel inhibition by MgATP was enhanced in both homozygous (homE1506K) and heterozygous (hetE1506K) mutant mice, due to impaired channel activation by MgADP. As a consequence, mutant β-cells showed less on-cell KATP channel activity and fired action potentials in glucose-free solution. HomE1506K mice exhibited enhanced insulin secretion and lower fasting blood glucose within 8 weeks of birth, but reduced insulin secretion and impaired glucose tolerance at 6 months of age. These changes correlated with a lower insulin content; unlike wild-type or hetE1506K mice, insulin content did not increase with age in homE1506K mice. There was no difference in the number and size of islets or β-cells in the three types of mice, or evidence of β-cell proliferation. We conclude that the gradual development of glucose intolerance in patients with the SUR1-E1506K mutation might, as in the mouse model, result from impaired insulin secretion due a failure of insulin content to increase with age. PMID:23903354

  5. Endocardite infectieuse sur communication interventriculaire: intérêt de l’échocardiographie? de l’antibioprophylaxie?

    PubMed Central

    Boussir, Hanane; Ghalem, Amine; Ismaili, Nabila; El Ouafi, Noha

    2016-01-01

    L’endocardite infectieuse peut survenir sur un cœur sain ou pathologique. Parmi les cardiopathies à risque, on trouve les cardiopathies congénitales dont la CIV est la plus fréquente. Nous rapportons le cas d’une endocardite infectieuse à streptocoque oral, survenue sur une CIV non connue jusqu’à maintenant, chez un patient de 17 ans, se présentant sous forme de fièvre prolongée associée à une éruption cutanée. L’examen de la sphère ORL révéla par ailleurs des angines pseudomembraneuses avec un mauvais état buccodentaire. Les EI sur CIV sont les plus fréquentes des EI sur cardiopathie congénitale. Leur présentation clinique peut être atypique d’où le rôle primordial de l’échocardiographie. La prévention dans ces cas passe par une hygiène bucco-dentaire et cutanée optimale et non par une antibioprophylaxie. PMID:28292116

  6. SurA Is Involved in the Targeting to the Outer Membrane of a Tat Signal Sequence-Anchored Protein

    PubMed Central

    Rondelet, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    The twin arginine translocation (Tat) pathway exports folded proteins from the cytoplasm to the periplasm of bacteria. The targeting of the exported proteins to the Tat pathway relies on a specific amino-terminal signal sequence, which is cleaved after exportation. In the phytopathogen Dickeya dadantii, the pectin lyase homologue PnlH is exported by the Tat pathway without cleavage of its signal sequence, which anchors PnlH into the outer membrane. In proteobacteria, the vast majority of outer membrane proteins consists of β-barrel proteins and lipoproteins. Thus, PnlH represents a new kind of outer membrane protein. In Escherichia coli, periplasmic chaperones SurA, Skp, and DegP work together with the β-barrel assembly machinery (Bam) to target and insert β-barrel proteins into the outer membrane. In this work, we showed that SurA is required for an efficient targeting of PnlH to the outer membrane. Moreover, we were able to detect an in vitro interaction between SurA and the PnlH signal sequence. Since the PnlH signal sequence contains a highly hydrophobic region, we propose that SurA protects it from the hydrophobic periplasm during targeting of PnlH to the outer membrane. We also studied the nature of the information carried by the PnlH signal sequence responsible for its targeting to the outer membrane after exportation by the Tat system. PMID:22961852

  7. Prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in landrace and mixed breed pigs slaughtered in Baja California Sur state, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose We performed a cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 308 domestic pigs slaughtered in La Paz, Baja California Sur State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25). Results Forty (13%) of the 308 pigs were seropositive ...

  8. Programmes d’apprentissage en petit groupe basé sur la pratique

    PubMed Central

    Zaher, Eman; Ratnapalan, Savithiri

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Identifier la forme, le contenu et les effets des programmes d’apprentissage en petit groupe basé sur la pratique (APGBP) auxquels participent des MF. Source des données On a fait une recherche dans les bases de données Ovide MEDLINE, EMBASE et ERIC, de leur création jusqu’à la deuxième semaine de novembre 2011, qui a produit 99 articles. Sélection des études On a inclus dans l’analyse les articles qui décrivaient la forme ou le contenu ou évaluaient des programmes d’APGBP auxquels participaient des MF, c’est-à-dire 13 articles. Synthèse Il existe 2 principales formes d’APGBP. La première est un apprentissage autodirigé, qui comporte un examen et des discussions de cas de patients problématiques ou difficiles. Le contenu de tels programmes varie selon les différents styles d’enseignement. La deuxième forme cible des problèmes particuliers tirés de la pratique pour améliorer certaines connaissances et habiletés ou encore mettre en œuvre de nouveaux guides de pratique en utilisant des cas de patients pour stimuler la discussion du sujet choisi. Les 2 formes se ressemblent sur le plan de l’objectif ultime, sont d’égale importance et sont bien acceptées des apprenants et des facilitateurs. Les évaluations des perceptions des apprenants et des résultats de l’apprentissage indiquent que l’APGBP constitue une méthode pratique et efficace de développement professionnel. Conclusion Les données actuelles font valoir que l’APGBP est une méthode prometteuse de développement professionnel continu pour les MF. De tels programmes peuvent être adaptés en fonction des besoins d’apprentissage. De futures études qui insistent sur les changements dans la pratique découlant de l’APGBP renforceront les données probantes à l’appui de cette forme d’apprentissage et motiveront les médecins et les établissements à l’adopter.

  9. Effets de la pollution de l’air sur la santé

    PubMed Central

    Abelsohn, Alan; Stieb, Dave M.

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Faire connaître aux médecins de famille les effets de la pollution atmosphérique sur la santé et indiquer quels conseils donner aux patients vulnérables pour qu’ils soient moins exposés. Sources de l’information On a consulté MEDLINE à l’aide des termes relatifs à la pollution atmosphérique et à ses effets indésirables. On a révisé les articles en anglais publiés entre janvier 2008 et décembre 2009. La plupart des études contenaient des preuves de niveau II. Principal message Au Canada, la pollution de l’air extérieur cause une morbidité et une mortalité importantes. Elle peut affecter le système respiratoire (exacerbation de l’asthme et de la maladie pulmonaire obstructive chronique) et le système cardiovasculaire (déclencher l’arythmie, l’insuffisance cardiaque et les AVC). La cote air santé (CAS) est un nouvel outil de communication mis au point par Santé Canada et Environnement Canada qui indique sur une échelle de 1 à 10, le risque pour la santé causé par la pollution atmosphérique. La CAS est largement diffusée dans les médias et cet outil pourrait être utile au médecin de famille pour inciter les patients à haut risque (comme ceux qui souffrent d’asthme, de maladie pulmonaire obstructive chronique ou d’insuffisance cardiaque) à réduire leur exposition à la pollution atmosphérique. Conclusion Le médecin de famille peut se servir de la CAS et de ses messages sur la santé pour enseigner aux asthmatiques et aux autres patients à risque élevé la façon de réduire les risques pour la santé causés par la pollution atmosphérique.

  10. Observational astrophysics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léna, P.; Lebrun, F.; Mignard, F.

    This book is the 2nd edition of an English translation published in 1988 (45.003.105) of the French original "Astrophysique: Méthodes physiques de l'observation" published in 1986 (42.003.048). Written specifically for physicists and graduate students in astronomy, this textbook focuses on astronomical observation and on the basic physical principles that astronomers use to conceive, build and exploit their instruments at their ultimate limits in sensitivity or resolution. This second edition has been entirely restructured and almost doubled in size, in order to improve its clarity and to account for the great progress achieved in the last 15 years. It deals with ground-based and space-based astronomy and their respective fields. It presents the new generation of giant ground-based telescopes, with the new methods of optical interferometry and adaptive optics, and also the ambitious concepts behind planned space missions for the next decades. Avoiding particulars, it covers the whole of the electromagnetic spectrum and touches upon the "new astronomies" becoming possible with gravitational waves and neutrinos.

  11. Ophthalmic Combination of SurR9-C84A and Trichostatin-A Targeting Molecular Pathogenesis of Alkali Burn

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Kislay; Sriramoju, Bhasker; Kanwar, Rupinder K.; Kanwar, Jagat R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alkali burn is a frequently occurring ocular injury that resembles ocular inflammation caused by eye allergies, infection, and refractive surgeries. Methods: We investigated the synergistic regenerative potential of dominant negative survivin mutant (SurR9-C84A) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin-A (TSA) against alkali burn and corneal haze using human keratocytes and rabbit alkali burn model (Female New Zealand white rabbits). Results: Combination of SurR9-C84A and TSA suppressed levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, alpha smooth-muscle actin (α-SMA), fibronectin and HDAC1, leading to apoptosis in myofibroblast cells and, showed the potential to clear the corneal haze. An insult with 0.5 N NaOH for 1 min led to neutrophils infiltration and formation of large vacuoles in the stroma. Treatments with TSA and SurR9-C84A for 40 min led to improvement in the conjunctival and corneal tissue integrity, marked by an increase in clathrin, and claudin expressions. An increase in TGF-β and endogenous survivin confirmed wound healing and cell proliferation in rabbit cornea. The blood analysis revealed a substantial decrease in the RBC, WBC, platelets, or the hemoglobin content post alkali burn. The cytokine array analysis revealed that NaOH induced expressions of IL-1α and MMP-9, which were found to be significantly downregulated (1.8 and 11.5 fold respectively) by the combinatorial treatment of SurR9-C84A and TSA. Conclusion: Our results confirmed that combination of SurR9-C84A with TSA worked in synergy to heal ocular injury and inflammations due to alkali burn and led to the regeneration of ocular tissue by increasing clathrin, claudin, survivin, and TGF-β and reversal of alkali burn by suppressing IL-1α and MMP-9 without inducing haze. PMID:27516741

  12. Late Cardiac Events after Childhood Cancer: Methodological Aspects of the Pan-European Study PanCareSurFup

    PubMed Central

    Feijen, Elizabeth A. M.; Font-Gonzalez, Anna; van Dalen, Elvira C.; van der Pal, Helena J. H.; Reulen, Raoul C.; Winter, David L.; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Haupt, Riccardo; Alessi, Daniela; Byrne, Julianne; Bardi, Edit; Jakab, Zsuzsanna; Grabow, Desiree; Garwicz, Stanislaw; Jankovic, Momcilo; Levitt, Gill A.; Skinner, Roderick; Zadravec Zaletel, Lorna; Hjorth, Lars; Tissing, Wim J. E.; de Vathaire, Florent; Hawkins, Mike M.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Childhood cancer survivors are at high risk of long-term adverse effects of cancer and its treatment, including cardiac events. The pan-European PanCareSurFup study determined the incidence and risk factors for cardiac events among childhood cancer survivors. The aim of this article is to describe the methodology of the cardiac cohort and nested case-control study within PanCareSurFup. Methods Eight data providers in Europe participating in PanCareSurFup identified and validated symptomatic cardiac events in their cohorts of childhood cancer survivors. Data on symptomatic heart failure, ischemia, pericarditis, valvular disease and arrhythmia were collected and graded according to the Criteria for Adverse Events. Detailed treatment data, data on potential confounders, lifestyle related risk factors and general health problems were collected. Results The PanCareSurFup cardiac cohort consisted of 59,915 5-year childhood cancer survivors with malignancies diagnosed between 1940 and 2009 and classified according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer 3. Different strategies were used to identify cardiac events such as record linkage to population/ hospital or regional based databases, and patient- and general practitioner-based questionnaires. Conclusion The cardiac study of the European collaborative research project PanCareSurFup will provide the largest cohort of 5-year childhood cancer survivors with systematically ascertained and validated data on symptomatic cardiac events. The result of this study can provide information to minimize the burden of cardiac events in childhood cancer survivors by tailoring the follow-up of childhood cancer survivors at high risk of cardiac adverse events, transferring this knowledge into evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and providing a platform for future research studies in childhood cancer patients.  PMID:27643694

  13. The Periplasmic Bacterial Molecular Chaperone SurA Adapts Its Structure to Bind Peptides in Different Conformations to Assert a Sequence Preference for Aromatic Residues

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.; Wang, S.; Hu, Y.-X.; McKay, D.B.

    2009-06-04

    The periplasmic molecular chaperone protein SurA facilitates correct folding and maturation of outer membrane proteins in Gram-negative bacteria. It preferentially binds peptides that have a high fraction of aromatic amino acids. Phage display selections, isothermal titration calorimetry and crystallographic structure determination have been used to elucidate the basis of the binding specificity. The peptide recognition is imparted by the first peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) domain of SurA. Crystal structures of complexes between peptides of sequence WEYIPNV and NFTLKFWDIFRK with the first PPIase domain of the Escherichia coli SurA protein at 1.3 A resolution, and of a complex between the dodecapeptide and a SurA fragment lacking the second PPIase domain at 3.4 A resolution, have been solved. SurA binds as a monomer to the heptapeptide in an extended conformation. It binds as a dimer to the dodecapeptide in an alpha-helical conformation, predicated on a substantial structural rearrangement of the SurA protein. In both cases, side-chains of aromatic residues of the peptides contribute a large fraction of the binding interactions. SurA therefore asserts a recognition preference for aromatic amino acids in a variety of sequence configurations by adopting alternative tertiary and quaternary structures to bind peptides in different conformations.

  14. Amplification Raman stimulée de signaux hyperfréquences sur porteuse optique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keïta, K.; Delaye, P.; Frey, R.; Roosen, G.; Dolfi, D.; Huignard, J.-P.

    2006-10-01

    À l'heure actuelle, lorsque l'on souhaite amplifier une porteuse optique, la solution consiste à utiliser un amplificateur à fibre dopée Erbium (EDFA). Toutefois, un problème se pose lorsque le signal modulant se trouve dans le domaine hyperfréquence car ces applications (principalement radars) demandent d'obéir à des critères de qualité très sévères. Nous démontrons ici la supériorité en termes de bruit de l'amplificateur Raman à fibre sur l'EDFA lorsqu'il s'agit d'amplifier de faibles signaux.

  15. Contributions from Particles in Europe (PiE) 2010, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France: an introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkelsen, Ole A.; Chami, Malik; Doxaran, David

    2012-04-01

    This special issue of Geo-Marine Letters presents selected contributions from the international conference Particles in Europe (PiE) 2010 organized by Sequoia Scientific, Inc., and the Laboratoire d'Océanographie de Villefranche (LOV) on 15-17 November 2010 in Villefranche-sur-Mer, France, and guest-edited by Ole Mikkelsen, Malik Chami and David Doxaran. PiE was initiated in 2008, in order to promote and further our understanding of the importance of suspended particulate matter (SPM) for a very wide range of processes in the aquatic environment—from optics and acoustics, over sediment transport, to the global carbon balance. The papers in this special issue are in particular concerned with the interaction between SPM and water optical properties, as well as how to use optical proxy measurements to understand SPM processes. The next PiE conference is scheduled for 17-19 October 2012 in Barcelona, Spain.

  16. Metal concentrations in demersal fish species from Santa Maria Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico (Pacific coast).

    PubMed

    Jonathan, M P; Aurioles-Gamboa, David; Villegas, Lorena Elizabeth Campos; Bohórquez-Herrera, Jimena; Hernández-Camacho, Claudia J; Sujitha, S B

    2015-10-15

    Concentrations of 11 trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, Cd, As, Hg) in 40 fish species from Santa Maria Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico, the strategically important area for marine mammals and organisms were analyzed. Based on their concentrations the ranking of metals Fe>Zn>Ni>Cr>Mn>Pb>Cu>Co>As>Cd>Hg suggests that organism size, metabolism and feeding habits are correlated with metal concentrations. Local geological formations affect the concentrations of different metals in the aquatic environment and are subsequently transferred to fishes. The correlation analysis suggests that metabolism and nurturing habits impact the concentration of metals. Concentrations of Fe and Mn appear to be influenced by scavenging and absorption processes, which vary by species. The considerable variability in the metal concentrations obtained in different species underscores the importance of regular monitoring.

  17. ASCA Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, David J.

    1998-01-01

    This recently expired grant has supported the work of the PI, his students, and his collaborators on a variety of ASCA projects over the past four years. Annual reports have summarized much of the work accomplished; here we provide a brief review of the work resulting from this effort, and a summary of the personnel who have benefited from the grant's support. Starburst Galaxies with Extreme X-ray Luminosities This project began as a careful examination of the claims of Boller et al. (1992) that there were dozens of "normal" galaxies in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey that had X-ray luminosities in excess of 1042 erg sec, higher than that seen in the hundreds of non-AGN galaxies observed with Einstein. If true, this suggested that X-ray emission associated with star formation activity might have a significant contribution to make to the still unexplained cosmic X-ray background (XRB). Since some of our earlier work with the Einstein Observatory Deep Surveys had suggested a similar possibility and several sets of authors over the years had modelled the starburst XRB contribution, these claims were worth pursuing. Our work expanded the examination beyond the RASS to include earlier claims of high-luminosity galaxies powered by starburst emission (selected in this case on the basis of the far-IR luminosities). The result of extensive followup observations under several programs using ROSAT, ASCA, and ground-based facilities was to show that nearly all of these objects in fact have hidden AGN at their cores, and that their luminosities are not in any way extraordinary.

  18. Recommandations sur l’examen pelvien de dépistage systématique

    PubMed Central

    Tonelli, Marcello; Gorber, Sarah Connor; Moore, Ainsley; Thombs, Brett D.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Examiner les lignes directrices de 2014 de l’American College of Physicians (ACP) en matière d’examens pelviens de dépistage du cancer (autre que du col), des maladies inflammatoires pelviennes ou d’autres affections gynécologiques bénignes afin de déterminer si les lignes directrices de l’ACP en matière d’examens pelviens systématiques sont conformes aux normes établies par le Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (GECSSP) et peuvent être adaptées ou adoptées. Méthodologie La méthode SNAP-IT (Smooth National Adaptation and Presentation of Guidelines to Improve Thrombosis Treatment) a servi à déterminer si les lignes directrices de l’ACP étaient conformes aux normes du GECSSP et pouvaient être adaptées ou adoptées. Recommandations Le GECSSP recommande de ne pas effectuer un examen pelvien de dépistage des cancers non cervicaux, des maladies inflammatoires pelviennes ou d’autres affections gynécologiques chez les femmes asymptomatiques. Il s’agit d’une forte recommandation reposant sur des données probantes de qualité modérée. Conclusion Le GECSSP adopte la recommandation en matière d’examen pelvien de dépistage, comme publiée par l’ACP en 2014.

  19. Segundo Catálogo Estelar del Hemisferio Sur con Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, W. T.; Podestá, R. C.; Alonso, E.; Actis, E. V.; Pacheco, A. M.; Bustos, G.; Lizhi, L.; Zezhi, W.; Fanmiao, Z.; Hongqi, W.; Perdomo, R.

    Recordamos que entre el Observatorio Astronómico ``Félix Aguilar'', el Observatorio Astronómico de Beijing y el Observatorio Astronómico de La Plata, se ha convenido en desarrollar un Proyecto de Investigación conjunto, para la observación sistemática de estrellas en el Hemisferio Sur, con el objeto de la elaboración de un Catálogo Estelar Global utilizando un Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII del Observatorio de Beijing, que ha sido usado con éxito en la República de China. En este trabajo se presenta el Segundo Catálogo Estelar del Hemisferio Sur, derivado de las observaciones realizadas con el PAII instalado en el OAFA, durante el períiodo Febrero de 1992 a Marzo de 1997. En este lapso se han observado mas de 400000 pasajes estelares, obteniéndose las correcciones Δ α y Δ δ de 5241 estrellas del FK4, FK5, FK5 Ext., SRS, CAMC y GC. Las precisiones medias son del orden de ± 3,2 ms en ascensión recta y ±0."057 en declinación. Rango de magnitudes : 2,0 a 11,5 Rango de declinaciones : -3o a -60o Epoca Media : 1994.9 Se analizan los residuos en función de la magnitud y tipo espectral, correcciones de grupo y frecuencia de distribución Δ α y Δ δ.

  20. Etude Bacteriologique sur 30 Mois dans un Service de Brulés

    PubMed Central

    Chaibdraa, A.; Bentakouk, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Le pronostic des brûlures est souvent tributaire de complications infectieuses. Les objectifs de cette étude préliminaire rétrospective sont une évaluation de la flore microbienne et ses fluctuations selon la durée d'hospitalisation chez les patients du Centre des brûlés adultes de Annaba (Algérie). Ce travail porte sur 633 prélèvements microbiologiques positifs obtenus entre juin 2003 (inauguration du service) et décembre 2005. Selon le site de prélèvement la répartition est: cutané (78%), hémoculture (9%), prélèvement trachéo-bronchique (4%), uroculture (3%), sonde urinaire (3%), cathéter(3%). Les germes isolés sont: les staphylocoques (58%), les Pseudomonas (20%), le Candida albicans (5%), l'Acinetobacter (3%) et les autres germes (14%). Parmi les staphylocoques et les Pseudomonas recensés, respectivement 19% et 11% sont isolés la première semaine, contre 43% et 52% au-delà de 21 jours. Ces résultats confrontés aux données de la littérature confirment la prédominance du staphylocoque et du Pseudomonas. Le risque de contamination à partir des techniques invasives de réanimation est commun à toutes les équipes. La prolifération bactérienne est en relation avec la durée d'hospitalisation. Ces constatations doivent nous inciter à tirer bénéfice de l'expérience des autres services, en particulier sur les moyens, accessibles, de prévention de l'infection nosocomiale. PMID:21991102

  1. Volvulus du mesentere sur lipome mesenterique: à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Dème, Hamidou; Badji, Nfally; Akpo, Léra Géraud; Touré, Mouhamed Hamine; Draha, Ronald; Niang, Fallou Gallas; Diop, Abdoulaye Dione; Niang, El Hadj

    2016-01-01

    Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente de 7 ans qui a consulté pour une douleur abdominale aigue paroxystique siégeant au niveau de l'épigastre associée à des vomissements sans arrêt des matières et des gaz. L'examen clinique ainsi que le bilan biologique étaient sans particularité. L'échographie abdominale demandée en première intention a montré une masse du flanc et de la fosse iliaque droite échogène, homogène à contours réguliers sans signal vasculaire au Doppler associée à un signe du tourbillon des vaisseaux mésentériques. A la tomodensitométrie cette masse correspondait à une formation lipomateuse, bien limitée, exerçant un effet de masse sur le cœcum avec volvulus du mésentère au contact. La disposition des vaisseaux mésentériques à leur origine était normale. Le diagnostic de volvulus du mésentère sur lipome a été retenu. La prise en charge chirurgicale et l'analyse anatomopathologique de la pièce opératoire a confirmé le diagnostic. Nous allons à travers ce cas clinique revoir l'apport de l'échographie et du scanner dans le diagnostic de volvulus du mésentère. PMID:28250879

  2. Modern carbonate sediments and environments of the LaPaz region, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Halfar, J.; Ingle, J.C. Jr.; Cruz-Orozco, R.; Godinez-Orta, L.

    1996-12-31

    The Gulf of California represents one of the most productive and unique marginal seas in the world. The mouth of the Gulf captures warm equatorial water while annual wind patterns assure major upwelling of nutrient-rich water leading to a rich marine biota. These conditions have created a wide array of tropical through warm temperate carbonate environments. The most unusual of these environments is located in the La Paz region of Baja California Sur where tropical-subtropical water temperatures and low rainfall have allowed growth of corals, calcareous red algae, and other shelled invertebrates to form a carbonate bank environment. Sampling and mapping transacts in shallow bays north of La Paz and on the adjacent Espiritu Santo island have revealed a full spectrum of subenvironments including mangrove bordered, terrigenous mud dominated coastal zones, which grade into carbonate tidal flats. In addition, single coral heads as well as incipient reef structures constructed by Porites and Pocillopora coral are present in deeper water areas. Coralline red algae, which are increasingly utilized for paleoenvironmental reconstructions, grow in high abundance on coral debris and in soft sediments and turn out to be main contributors to the La Paz carbonates. Analysis of siliciclastic admixtures, grain size and organic carbon content allow a classification of distinct environments. These data are supplemented by an evaluation of benthic foraminiferal zonations and the varying abundance of biogenic constituents. This Baja California Sur carbonate environment holds special relevance for the interpretation of analogous Neogene and Paleogene paleoenvironments marking major paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic events along the Pacific Coast of North America.

  3. Modern carbonate sediments and environments of the LaPaz region, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Halfar, J.; Ingle, J.C. Jr. ); Cruz-Orozco, R. ); Godinez-Orta, L. )

    1996-01-01

    The Gulf of California represents one of the most productive and unique marginal seas in the world. The mouth of the Gulf captures warm equatorial water while annual wind patterns assure major upwelling of nutrient-rich water leading to a rich marine biota. These conditions have created a wide array of tropical through warm temperate carbonate environments. The most unusual of these environments is located in the La Paz region of Baja California Sur where tropical-subtropical water temperatures and low rainfall have allowed growth of corals, calcareous red algae, and other shelled invertebrates to form a carbonate bank environment. Sampling and mapping transacts in shallow bays north of La Paz and on the adjacent Espiritu Santo island have revealed a full spectrum of subenvironments including mangrove bordered, terrigenous mud dominated coastal zones, which grade into carbonate tidal flats. In addition, single coral heads as well as incipient reef structures constructed by Porites and Pocillopora coral are present in deeper water areas. Coralline red algae, which are increasingly utilized for paleoenvironmental reconstructions, grow in high abundance on coral debris and in soft sediments and turn out to be main contributors to the La Paz carbonates. Analysis of siliciclastic admixtures, grain size and organic carbon content allow a classification of distinct environments. These data are supplemented by an evaluation of benthic foraminiferal zonations and the varying abundance of biogenic constituents. This Baja California Sur carbonate environment holds special relevance for the interpretation of analogous Neogene and Paleogene paleoenvironments marking major paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic events along the Pacific Coast of North America.

  4. Observational exobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarter, J.

    1986-01-01

    The Earth's atmosphere absorbs partially or completely many ultraviolet, infrared and submillimeter wavelengths. Atmospheric seeing distorts small images, imposing a limit on the achievable angular resolution at optical and infrared wavelengths that is much poorer than the intrinsic capability of telescope optics. The atomic and molecular species of the atmosphere confuse or prevent the spectral studies of similar compounds outside of the terrestrial environment. Telescopes placed in orbit above the atmosphere avoid these problems and enjoy a unique view of the universe. There are many complex questions pertaining to the origin and evolution of the biogenic elements and compounds and the existence of terrestrial types of planets elsewhere that can be only tackled from orbiting facilities. The detailed nature of the spacecraft, platforms and instrumentation most likely to be launched by the United States and Europe in the near future in an attempt to determine what observational programs would be tractable and which areas of interest to exobiology required hardware capabilities beyond those currently envisioned are considered.

  5. Evaluation d'impact sur la santé et évaluation d'impact sur l'équité en santé : éventail de pratiques et questions de recherche.

    PubMed

    Villeval, Mélanie; Bidault, Elsa; Lang, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    L'Evaluation d'Impact sur la Santé (EIS) se développe au niveau international et est encore au stade émergent en France. Elle vise à évaluer les effets positifs et négatifs potentiels d'un projet, d'un programme ou d'une politique sur la santé. L'objectif est de produire des recommandations en direction des décideurs, afin d'en maximiser les effets positifs et d'en diminuer les effets négatifs. L'EIS est un moyen particulièrement intéressant d'action sur les déterminants de la santé au-delà des comportements individuels et du système de santé. Les politiques de logement, de transport, de solidarité, économiques, etc. ont, en effet, des impacts souvent non prévus sur la santé. Au-delà des effets sur la santé, l'EIS doit aussi permettre d'apprécier la distribution de ces effets dans la population.Si la préoccupation pour l'équité en santé est centrale dans l'EIS, elle reste cependant difficilement traduite en pratique. Face à cette difficulté, des démarches d'évaluation d'impact ont été développées pour renforcer la prise en compte de l'équité à chaque étape de l'EIS ou « Equity Focused Health Impact Assessment », ou prendre en compte les impacts sur les inégalités de santé de façon spécifique. Ainsi, l'Evaluation de l'Impact sur l'Equité en Santé (EIES) semble, par exemple, particulièrement intéressante pour évaluer l'impact sur les inégalités de projets dans le champ sanitaire.L'EIS et l'EIES posent de nombreuses questions de recherche, notamment autour de la réunion, dans une même démarche, du politique, du citoyen et de l'expert. La participation des populations vulnérables potentiellement affectées par la politique évaluée est une valeur centrale de l'EIS, mais pose des questions d'acceptabilité sociale. La collaboration avec les décideurs politiques est également un enjeu majeur. Les difficultés méthodologiques, notamment de quantification des impacts, peuvent constituer des freins à la promotion

  6. Annuaire du bureau des Longitudes : guide de données astronomiques 2012 pour l'observation du ciel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Institut de Mécanique Céleste Et de Calcul Des Ephémérides (Imcce); Bureau Des Longitudes (Bdl)

    2011-07-01

    Destiné aux astronomes, professionnels ou amateurs, cet ouvrage se décompose de la façon suivante : Les trois premiers chapitres de cet ouvrage contiennent : les données sur les différents calendriers et leur concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les différentes échelles de temps, les dates de décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine parues au Journal Officiel depuis 1916 ; des notions nécessaires à la compréhension et à l'emploi des éphémérides contenues dans l'ouvrage. Les chapitres suivant fournissent des éphémérides astronomiques : les positions du Soleil et de la Lune ; les positions des planètes et de leurs satellites ; les positions des astéroïdes et des comètes ; les explications et des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel, une liste de constellations et les positions et occultations des étoiles ; des données sur les éclipses de Soleil et de Lune et sur les phénomènes astronomiques ; la liste des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus.

  7. Developpement d'un compresseur d'hydrogene base sur le cyclage thermique des hydrures metalliques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurencelle, Francois

    La compression de l'hydrogene est une etape incontournable de son utilisation dans l'industrie actuelle et dans les nouvelles applications energetiques de l'hydrogene (stockage stationnaire et transport). Les compresseurs mecaniques traditionnellement utilises posent plusieurs problemes d'ingenierie, de securite et de maintenance qui pourraient etre contournes en developpant de nouvelles technologies mieux adaptees a l'hydrogene. Dans cette these, notre objectif est de developper d'un compresseur d'hydrogene base sur les hydrures metalliques pouvant etre connecte a la sortie d'un electrolyseur fonctionnant a basse pression et d'ainsi repondre au besoin de productioncompression d'hydrogene decentralisee. La methodologie du projet comprend plusieurs etapes. Premierement, nous faisons la revue bibliographique des projets impliquant des compresseurs a hydrures metalliques. Deuxiemement, a travers des travaux experimentaux, nous recherchons des hydrures permettant une compression efficace entre 20 et 80°C. Les materiaux sont synthetises par fusion a arc electrique et caracterises sur bancs d'essais d'hydrogenation. La structure de certains materiaux est aussi investiguee par rayons X, methode de B.E.T. et microscopie electronique. Troisiemement, un reacteur d'hydrures est concu de maniere a promouvoir des echanges de chaleur rapides et efficaces. Quatriemement, le prototype et son interface de controle sont construits. Cinquiemement, le compresseur est caracterise pour en evaluer les performances en termes de debit et de capacite. Les resultats obtenus sont presentes dans trois articles publies et dans le chapitre 5 de cette these. Le compresseur (article I) est base sur trois hydrures (LaNi 4.8Sn0.2, LaNi5 et MMNi4.7Al0.3 ). Celui-ci permet d'atteindre un debit de compression de 10 a 20 L d'hydrogene par heure et son efficacite est, estimee a ˜5% par rapport a un compresseur adiabatique ideal. Il a ete demontre que l'efficacite pourrait etre augmentee en utilisant un

  8. Croissance epitaxiale de GaAs sur substrats de Ge par epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belanger, Simon

    La situation energetique et les enjeux environnementaux auxquels la societe est confrontee entrainent un interet grandissant pour la production d'electricite a partir de l'energie solaire. Parmi les technologies actuellement disponibles, la filiere du photovoltaique a concentrateur solaire (CPV pour concentrator photovoltaics) possede un rendement superieur et mi potentiel interessant a condition que ses couts de production soient competitifs. La methode d'epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques (CBE pour chemical beam epitaxy) possede plusieurs caracteristiques qui la rendent interessante pour la production a grande echelle de cellules photovoltaiques a jonctions multiples a base de semi-conducteurs III-V. Ce type de cellule possede la meilleure efficacite atteinte a ce jour et est utilise sur les satellites et les systemes photovoltaiques a concentrateur solaire (CPV) les plus efficaces. Une des principales forces de la technique CBE se trouve dans son potentiel d'efficacite d'utilisation des materiaux source qui est superieur a celui de la technique d'epitaxie qui est couramment utilisee pour la production a grande echelle de ces cellules. Ce memoire de maitrise presente les travaux effectues dans le but d'evaluer le potentiel de la technique CBE pour realiser la croissance de couches de GaAs sur des substrats de Ge. Cette croissance constitue la premiere etape de fabrication de nombreux modeles de cellules solaires a haute performance decrites plus haut. La realisation de ce projet a necessite le developpement d'un procede de preparation de surface pour les substrats de germanium, la realisation de nombreuses sceances de croissance epitaxiale et la caracterisation des materiaux obtenus par microscopie optique, microscopie a force atomique (AFM), diffraction des rayons-X a haute resolution (HRXRD), microscopie electronique a transmission (TEM), photoluminescence a basse temperature (LTPL) et spectrometrie de masse des ions secondaires (SIMS). Les experiences ont permis

  9. Lignes directrices canadiennes sur la rhinosinusite bactérienne aiguë

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Faire un résumé clinique des lignes directrices canadiennes sur la rhinosinusite bactérienne aiguë (RSBA) qui présente des éléments d’intérêt pour les médecins de famille. Source des données Les auteurs des lignes directrices ont effectué une recherche documentaire systématique et ont rédigé des recommandations. Une cote a été donnée à la fois en fonction de la fiabilité des données probantes et de la solidité des recommandations. On a sollicité les commentaires d’experts en la matière venant de l’extérieur, ainsi que l’aval de sociétés médicales canadiennes (Association pour la microbiologie médicale et l’infectiologie Canada, Société canadienne d’allergie et d’immunologie clinique, Société canadienne d’otorhinolaryngologie et de chirurgie cervicofaciale, Association canadienne des médecins d’urgence et Regroupement canadien des médecins de famille en santé respiratoire). Message principal Le diagnostic de la RSBA repose sur la présence de symptômes particuliers et leur durée; l’imagerie ou une culture n’est pas nécessaire dans les cas peu compliqués. Le traitement dépend de la gravité des symptômes, notamment avec des corticostéroïdes intranasaux (CSIN) recommandés comme monothérapie pour les cas de légers à modérés, quoique leurs bienfaits soient modestes. Le recours à des CSIN accompagnés d’antibiotiques est réservé aux patients qui ne répondent pas aux CSIN après 72 heures et comme traitement initial des patients dont les symptômes sont graves. Le choix de l’antibiotique doit tenir compte du pathogène soupçonné, du risque de résistance, des problèmes concomitants et des tendances locales de la résistance aux antimicrobiens. Des thérapies d’appoint comme l’irrigation nasale avec une solution saline sont recommandées. En présence de cas réfractaires au traitement, d’épisodes récurrents et de signes de complications, on devrait demander une

  10. Effets du titane et du niobium sur l'oxydation à 950circC d'aciers ferritiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issartel, C.; Buscail, H.; Caudron, E.; Cueff, R.; Riffard, F.; El Messki, S.; Karimi, N.; Antoni, L.

    2004-11-01

    Nous avons étudié l'effet du titane et du niobium sur l'oxydation à 950circC d'un acier Fe-Cr chrominoformeur. La DRX in situ montre que le titane semble s'oxyder en formant Cr{2}TiO{5} et TiO{2} qui contribuent à une augmentation de la prise de masse des échantillons. Une partie du titane issu de ces oxydes semble doper la couche de chromine. Sa présence augmente la concentration en lacunes cationiques dans la chromine et augmente donc la diffusion du chrome dans la couche. Nous avons aussi montré que le niobium n'a pas d'influence sur l'oxydation de ce type d'acier à 950circC.

  11. Allergie respiratoire et “sunko”: une association rare, à propos d'une observation

    PubMed Central

    Ngombe, Léon Kabamba; Kangulu, Ignace Bwana; Nzaji, Michel Kabamba

    2014-01-01

    Il est rapporté dans ce texte un cas d'allergie respiratoire ayant fait probablement suite à une consommation d'un tabac sans fumé couramment utilisé en République Démocratique du Congo, le « Sunko ». Une rhinite et un asthme allergiques sont les cas. Cette observation permet d'attirer l'attention du monde scientifique à mettre sur pieds des études concernant la composition et les effets du Sunko pour appréhender cette association, puis d'informer l'opinion sur les dangers que courent les consommateurs de ce type de tabac et de faire la revue de la littérature. PMID:25426218

  12. Enquete sur les aspects toxicologiques de la phytotherapie utilisee par un herboriste à Fes, Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Zeggwagh, Ali Amine; Lahlou, Younes; Bousliman, Yassir

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dans le but d'étudier l'aspect toxicologique des plantes médicinales utilisées en médecine traditionnelle, une étude ethnobotanique a été réalisée à la ville de Fès au centre du Maroc. Méthodes Ont été inclus dans l'étude tous les patients ayant bénéficié d'une prescription par l'herboriste de plantes à visée thérapeutique. La discussion de nos résultats s'est faite sur la base d'une revue de la littérature avec identification des principales plantes toxiques utilisées en phytothérapie au Maroc. L'approche bibliographique a permis de compléter les informations. Résultats L'âge moyen des patients traités par des plantes (38 femmes, 32 hommes) était de 35 ± 18 ans. L'enquête ethnobotanique à révélé que la majorité des plantes médicinales étaient utilisées contre les affections urinaires (21%), suivi des maladies de l'appareil digestif (19.6%) et des maladies rhumatologiques (18.2%). Le nombre de plantes prescrits par l'herboriste a été de 53 dont 5 sont potentiellement toxiques. L'identification taxonomique des plantes prescrites a recensé 30 familles dont les plus représentées sont les Lamiaceae (23.33%), les Apiaceae (13,33%) et les Asteraceae (10%). La prescription des plantes considérées comme toxiques a concerné 7,1% des consultants traités par les plantes médicinales. Aucune complication inhérente aux plantes prescrites n'a été déplorée. Conclusion Malgré les résultats encourageants de notre enquête sur le compte de la phytothérapie, la pratique de la phytothérapie est laissée à la vulgarisation et à l'oubli scientifique, législatif et universitaire. PMID:23734270

  13. Mise à jour sur l’utilisation clinique de la buprénorphine

    PubMed Central

    Ducharme, Simon; Fraser, Ronald; Gill, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Examiner les données scientifiques actuelles sur la buprénorphine-naloxone pour le traitement des troubles liés aux opioïdes, en insistant sur le contexte des soins primaires. Qualité des données On a fait une recension dans MEDLINE et la base de données Cochrane des synthèses critiques. Les données probantes sont surtout de niveau I. Message principal La buprénorphine est un agoniste partiel des récepteurs μ des opioïdes et un antagoniste des récepteurs κ des opioïdes ayant une longue demi-vie et un potentiel moins grand que la méthadone d’entraîner un usage abusif. Pour une désintoxication, la buprénorphine est au moins équivalente à la méthadone et supérieure à la clonidine. Comme thérapie de substitution, la buprénorphine est clairement supérieure au placebo. La méthadone comporte de légers avantages en ce qui a trait à la rétention en thérapie, mais une approche par étape en utilisant initialement la buprénorphine-naloxone est aussi efficace. Il est possible, sécuritaire et efficace de recourir à la buprénorphine en milieu de soins primaires. On peut obtenir l’autorisation de prescrire de la buprénorphine après avoir suivi une formation en ligne. Conclusion La buprénorphine est un agent sécuritaire et efficace pour la désintoxication en cas de dépendance aux opioïdes. Elle peut servir d’agent de première intention dans les programmes de thérapie de substitution, en raison de son potentiel plus faible d’usage abusif en comparaison d’autres opioïdes. Son efficacité en milieux de soins primaires en fait un outil thérapeutique utile pour les médecins de famille.

  14. La violence sur les réseaux canadiens de télévision

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Guy

    2003-01-01

    La question des effets de la violence à la télévision occupe une place très importante dans l’opinion publique depuis les vingt dernières années, et des centaines d’études y ont été consacrées. Plusieurs chercheurs concluent à une influence négative de cette violence sur le comportement. Le public, les diffuseurs et les autorités politiques ont tous endossé l’idée de réduire la quantité totale de violence présentée au petit écran – en particulier dans les émissions accessibles aux enfants. Nous avons analysé un millier d’émissions de fiction présentées entre 1993 et 2001 sur les principaux réseaux généralistes de télévision au Canada : TVA et TQS ainsi que CTV et Global pour les réseaux privés français et anglais, ainsi que Radio-Canada français et anglais pour les réseaux publics. La méthodologie utilisée est l’analyse de contenu classique, où l’acte de violence constitue l’unité d’analyse. Les données recueillies démontrent que la quantité de violence a augmenté régulièrement depuis 1993, malgré la volonté affirmée des télédiffuseurs de présenter une programmation moins violente. C’est le cas du nombre brut d’actes et du nombre d’actes à l’heure, qui est lui aussi en forte croissance. Les réseaux privés véhiculent trois fois plus de violence que les réseaux publics. On constate également qu’une très forte proportion d’actes de violence figure dans des émissions qui commencent avant 21 h, et que de nombreux enfants y sont probablement exposés. Nous signalons finalement la place de plus en plus importante occupée par la violence psychologique. PMID:20020031

  15. Map showing coastal cliff retreat rates along the Big Sur coast, Monterey and San Luis Obispo Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Green, Krystal R.

    2004-01-01

    The average coastal cliff retreat rate along the Big Sur coast is 18 ? 6 cm/yr as measured over a 52-year time period. The erosion reference features measured as the cliff edge include the well-defined cliff edges common to marine terraces, slight breaks in the slope defining the upper edge of the active lower slope, and the road grade. Cliff erosion and retreat are focused in isolated erosion hotspots that account for most of the calculated average retreat.

  16. Bio-optical profile data report coastal transition zone program, R/V Point Sur, June 15-28, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Curtiss O.; Rhea, W. Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Twenty vertical profiles of the bio-optical properties of the ocean were made during a research cruise on the R/V Point Sur, June 15 to 28, 1987, as part of the Coastal Transition Zone Program off Point Arena, California. Extracted chlorophyll values were also measured at some stations to provide calibration data for the in situ fluorometer. This summary provides investigators with an overview of the data collected. The entire data set is available in digital form.

  17. Étude par diffraction des rayons X de la nitruration plasma d'un acier 304L Influence sur l'oxydation à 1000 ^{circ}C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marot, L.; Buscail, H.; Straboni, A.; Riffard, F.; Caudron, E.; Cueff, R.

    2002-07-01

    This work presents the influence of various nitridation parameters on the 304L steel oxidation at 1000 ^{circ}C, in air under atmospheric pressure. Nitridation temperatures were ranging between 300 ^{circ}C and 430 ^{circ}C with exposure times lasting from 2 to 8 hours. At 300 and 430 ^{circ}C, the nitridation treatment leads to the solid solution surface formation γ-N without any nitride formation. After oxidation at 1000 ^{circ}C of blank specimens, X ray diffraction reveals the FeCr2O4 spinel formation. This oxide does not act as a good diffusion barrier. With nitrogen treated specimens, the higher the nitridation temperature is and the longer the exposure time is, better is the oxidation behaviour at 1000 ^{circ}C. We then observe that the Cr{1,3}Fe{0,7}O3 oxide is more present in the oxide sale from the very beginning of the oxidation test which is correlated to a final lower mass gain. Cette étude porte sur l'influence des paramètres de nitruration plasma sur l'oxydation de l'acier 304L à 1000 ^{circ}C, sous air, à la pression atmosphérique. Les températures employées lors de la nitruration ont été de 300 ^{circ}C et 430 ^{circ}C pour des durées de nitruration variant entre 2 et 8 heures. A 300 et 430 ^{circ}C, la nitruration conduit à la formation d'une solution solide γ-N en surface sans provoquer la formation de nitrures. Après oxydation à 1000 ^{circ}C du 304L non nitruré, la diffraction des rayons X révèle la formation d'une couche de type spinelle FeCr2O4 qui ne semble pas jouer le rôle de barrière de diffusion. Pour les échantillons préalablement nitrurés, plus la température de nitruration est élevée et plus la durée du traitement est longue, meilleur est le comportement en oxydation. Nous observons alors l'oxyde Cr{1,3}Fe{0,7}O3 en proportion importante dès le début de l'oxydation et une prise de masse finale plus faible.

  18. Une étude rétrospective sur le cancer de l'ovaire avec un recul médian de 42 mois

    PubMed Central

    Raherinantenaina, Fanomezantsoa; Rakotomena, Solonirina Davidà; Hasiniatsy, Nomeharisoa Rodrigue Emile; Rakototiana, Felantsoa Auberlin; Rafaramino, Florine; Ratsimba, Hery Nirina Rakoto

    2015-01-01

    Le cancer de l'ovaire est relativement fréquent mais grave et de mauvais pronostic. Le but de cette étude était de mettre en évidence les aspects épidémiologique, diagnostique, thérapeutique et évolutif de cette pathologie maligne prise en charge dans un pays en développement. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective et descriptive de 10 ans (2000- 2009) effectuée dans un CHU de chirurgie générale et d'Oncologie sur 62 patientes ayant développé un cancer de l'ovaire et opérées à visée curative. L’âge moyen des patientes était de 43 ans dont 53,23% avaient plus de 45 ans. Le dosage sanguin du CA-125 était positif chez 10 patientes sur 12. Les tumeurs étaient découvertes à l’échographie dans 87,10% des cas et à la laparotomie dans 12,90%. L'hystérectomie totale avec annexectomie bilatérale était l'intervention la plus pratiquée (64,52%). Les suites opératoires précoces étaient simples. Dix patientes étaient opérées de second regard (16,13%) pour des récidives locorégionales. Les tumeurs épithéliales étaient le type histologique le plus fréquent (93,55%) dont 79% au stade avancé (Ic-IV) et 21% au stade précoce (Ia-Ib). La chimiothérapie adjuvante était administrée chez 22,60% des patientes. Avec un recul médian de 42 mois, 29 patientes étaient perdues de vue. L’évolution était favorable dans 27,42% et dans 25,81% les décès se sont survenus en postopératoire tardif. Le cancer de l'ovaire n’était pas fréquent mais grave compte tenu des stades avancés et du taux élevé des décès postopératoires tardifs qui étaient largement observés chez les patientes privées d'une chimiothérapie adéquate. PMID:26113942

  19. Transport de particules massives dans un fluide turbulent: Application a l'erosion due au sable sur les parois d'une turbine hydraulique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Stephen

    'aide de ce logiciel correspondent très bien avec celles observées sur le terrain. Une parallélisation à gros grain (``coarse grain parallelism'') est incluse intrinsèquement dans l'algorithme résultant. Une version du logiciel utilisant le passage de message sur un réseau hétérogène de stations de travail a été mise au point et est utilisée dans le cas de géométries de taille intermédiaire. Cette implémentation permet ainsi de rentabiliser l'utilisation des stations de travail déjà disponibles plutôt que de recourir à un serveur plus coûteux, ce qui est un avantage dans un contexte de recherche industrielle.

  20. Isostatic gravity map of the Point Sur 30 x 60 quadrangle and adjacent areas, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watt, J.T.; Morin, R.L.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2011-01-01

    This isostatic residual gravity map is part of a regional effort to investigate the tectonics and water resources of the central Coast Range. This map serves as a basis for modeling the shape of basins and for determining the location and geometry of faults in the area. Local spatial variations in the Earth's gravity field (after removing variations caused by instrument drift, earth-tides, latitude, elevation, terrain, and deep crustal structure), as expressed by the isostatic anomaly, reflect the distribution of densities in the mid- to upper crust, which in turn can be related to rock type. Steep gradients in the isostatic gravity field often indicate lithologic or structural boundaries. Gravity highs reflect the Mesozoic granitic and Franciscan Complex basement rocks that comprise both the northwest-trending Santa Lucia and Gabilan Ranges, whereas gravity lows in Salinas Valley and the offshore basins reflect the thick accumulations of low-density alluvial and marine sediment. Gravity lows also occur where there are thick deposits of low-density Monterey Formation in the hills southeast of Arroyo Seco (>2 km, Marion, 1986). Within the map area, isostatic residual gravity values range from approximately -60 mGal offshore in the northern part of the Sur basin to approximately 22 mGal in the Santa Lucia Range.

  1. The Reality of Neandertal Symbolic Behavior at the Grotte du Renne, Arcy-sur-Cure, France

    PubMed Central

    Caron, François; d'Errico, Francesco; Del Moral, Pierre; Santos, Frédéric; Zilhão, João

    2011-01-01

    Background The question of whether symbolically mediated behavior is exclusive to modern humans or shared with anatomically archaic populations such as the Neandertals is hotly debated. At the Grotte du Renne, Arcy-sur-Cure, France, the Châtelperronian levels contain Neandertal remains and large numbers of personal ornaments, decorated bone tools and colorants, but it has been suggested that this association reflects intrusion of the symbolic artifacts from the overlying Protoaurignacian and/or of the Neandertal remains from the underlying Mousterian. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested these hypotheses against the horizontal and vertical distributions of the various categories of diagnostic finds and statistically assessed the probability that the Châtelperronian levels are of mixed composition. Our results reject that the associations result from large or small scale, localized or generalized post-depositional displacement, and they imply that incomplete sample decontamination is the parsimonious explanation for the stratigraphic anomalies seen in the radiocarbon dating of the sequence. Conclusions/Significance The symbolic artifacts in the Châtelperronian of the Grotte du Renne are indeed Neandertal material culture. PMID:21738702

  2. Uranium-series ages of marine terraces, La Paz Peninsula, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sirkin, L.; Szabo, B. J.; Padilla, G.A.; Pedrin, S.A.; Diaz, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Uranium-series dating of coral samples from raised marine terrace deposits between 1.5 and 10 m above sea level in the La Paz Peninsula area, Baja California Sur, yielded ages between 123 ka and 138 ka that are in agreement with previously reported results. The stratigraphy and ages of marine units near the El Coyote Arroyo indicate the presence of two high stands of the sea during the last interglacial or oxygen isotope substage 5e at about 140 ka and 123 ka. Accepting 5 m for the sea level during the last interglacial transgression, we calculate average uplift rates for the marine terraces of about ???70 mm/ka and 40 mm/ka. These slow rates of uplift indicate a relative stability of the La Paz peninsula area for the past 140 000 years. In contrast, areas of Baja California affected by major faultf experienced higher rates of uplift. Rockwell et al. (1987) reported vertical uplift rates of 180 to 300 mm/ka at Punta Banda within the Aqua Blanea fault zone in northern Baja California. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Kinetic development of biofilm on NF membranes at the Méry-sur-Oise plant, France.

    PubMed

    Houari, Ahmed; Seyer, Damien; Kecili, Karima; Heim, Véronique; Martino, Patrick Di

    2013-01-01

    The kinetic formation of biofilms developing on nanofiltration (NF) membranes was studied for 2 years in the water production unit of Méry-sur-Oise, France. New membranes were set up in a pilot train integrated to the plant and autopsied after operation for 7, 80, 475 and 717 days. The biofouling layer was studied by confocal laser scanning microscope after 4',6-diamidino-2-phenyindole dihydrochloride and lectin staining, and by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and rheology experiments. Three stages of biofilm growth were discriminated: (1) the presence of sessile microcolonies embedded in an exopolymeric matrix (after filtration for seven days); (2) membrane coverage expansion through microcolony development and biofilm growth in three dimensions (up to 80 days filtration); and (3) biofilm maturation by densification (after filtration for 80-717 days). Biofilm maturation resulted in total coverage of the membrane surface and matrix residue diversification, development of the polysaccharide network, and the strengthening of matrix cohesion through viscosity and elasticity increases. The wettability and permeability of the fouled NF membranes decreased quickly and continuously throughout the biofilm development process. The longitudinal pressure drop (LPD) increased only after the biofilm reached a quantitative threshold. The decline in membrane permeability may be the result of contributions from many fouling mechanisms but the LPD was more substantially influenced by biofilm development.

  4. The two Coissac's novels : l'Envol and Sur la Lune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villain, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    Coissac wrote two novels with his friend Charles Rouch.: "L'Envol" in 1934 and "Sur la Lune" in 1935. In these books he describes the preparation of the lunar rocket weigthing 3000 tons and powered by solid propellants. This rocket is launched from a base built at the top of a peruvian volcano. The seven men crew (5 french and one american) is sent to the Moon in a 45 tons command module from which two lunar modules can be separated and can descent to the lunar surface. Coissac describes along the trajectory the means to guide and control the rocket. The exploration of the Moon is done with bicycles ans suits. The explorers meet strange animals and strange people living under ground like termites in perfect love and happiness. After having explored the two faces of the Moon, the lunar modules leave the Moon for a docking with the main vehicle waiting on a lunar orbit and the crew comes back to the Earth. The spacecraft lands in the Pacific Ocean. Except the direct flight from Earth to the Moon, the travel to the Moon proposed by Coissac is very similar to that of Apollo but more than thirty years earlier.

  5. Geothermal Exploration Using Remote Sensing in the South of Baja California Sur, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Báncora, Cristina; Prol-Ledesma, Rosa María

    2008-05-01

    The area from Ciudad Constitución to Los Cabos in Baja California Sur was studied using a mosaic of four Landsat ETM+images. The main objective was to define favorable areas for utilization and exploitation of geothermal energy. The approach was to spectrally and spatially enhance the images to define characteristics related with geothermal activity, as are the presence of altered rock and main geological structures. The products of hydrothermal alteration are minerals that belong to two main groups: oxides and hydroxyls. Therefore, image processing is necessary to enhance oxides and hydroxyls spectral features and subdue the vegetation spectral characteristics. The band subtraction (4-3, 3-1, 5-7) gave the finest results due to the fact that it is a linear equation that does not cause loss of information when it is stretched. A color composite was done with these three layers and after a detailed visual analysis three areas were point out to be prospective to contain hydrothermal activity.

  6. Relevamiento total del hemisferio sur celeste en la frecuencia de 1420 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bava, J. A.; Colomb, F. R.; Hurrel, E.; Larrarte, J. J.; Sanz, A. J.; Testori, J. C.; Reich, P.; Reich, W.; Wielebinski, R.

    En el presente artículo se describe el relevamiento del cielo en el Hemisferio Sur Celeste en la frecuencia de 1420 MHz para declinaciones δ<= -19o realizado con la Antena II de 30 metros de diámetro del IAR. Este relevamiento posee igual sensibilidad (3xr.m.s=50 mK) que el realizado en el Hemisferio Norte con el radiotelescopio de 25 metros de Stockert de la Universidad de Bonn, operado por el Max-Planck Institute für Radioastronomie ( Reich W., 1982, A&ASS 48, 219; Reich P. and Reich W., 1986, A&ASS 63, 205). Con los datos obtenidos por ambos radiotelescopios se posee una base de datos de todo el cielo en esta frecuencia. En esta publicación presentamos los detalles del sistema receptor, técnicas de observación y reducción de datos, calibración y discusión de los errores en los resultados.

  7. When Marcel Mauss's Essai sur le Don becomes The Gift: variations on the theme of solidarity.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Simone

    2016-12-01

    Since the early 1970s, Marcel Mauss's Essai sur le Don (1923), translated into English as The Gift in 1954, has been a standard reference in the social science and bioethical literature on the use of human body parts and substances for medical and research purposes. At that time, three social scientists-political scientist Richard Titmuss in the United Kingdom and sociologist Renée C. Fox working with historian Judith Swazey in the United States-had the idea of using this concept to highlight the fundamental structure of the biomedical practices they were studying, respectively, blood donation, and hemodialysis and organ transplantation. The fact that these first applications of Mauss's essay should emerge in English- rather than in French-speaking countries raises the question of what the translation of the essay, and notably of the word don as gift, may have to do with this fact. Reading Mauss in translation undoubtedly inspired a seminal approach to interpreting medical and research practices based on bodily giving. This article posits that something may have also been lost: a much broader concept of giving with unquestionable links to the Durkheimian concept of solidarity, which Mauss conceptualizes not only as an obligation but also as a liberty to give.

  8. Modelisation de la diffusion sur les surfaces metalliques: De l'adatome aux processus de croissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Ghyslain

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude des processus de diffusion en surface dans le but ultime de comprendre, et de modeliser, la croissance d'une couche mince. L'importance de bien mai triser la croissance est primordiale compte tenu de son role dans la miniaturisation des circuits electroniques. Nous etudions ici les surface des metaux nobles et de ceux de la fin de la serie de transition. Dans un premier temps, nous nous interessons a la diffusion d'un simple adatome sur une surface metallique. Nous avons, entre autres, mis en evidence l'apparition d'une correlation entre evenements successifs lorsque la temperature est comparable a la barriere de diffusion, i.e., la diffusion ne peut pas etre associee a une marche aleatoire. Nous proposons un modele phenomenologique simple qui reproduit bien les resultats des simulations. Ces calculs nous ont aussi permis de montrer que la diffusion obeit a la loi de Meyer-Neldel. Cette loi stipule que, pour un processus active, le prefacteur augmente exponentiellement avec la barriere. En plus, ce travail permet de clarifier l'origine physique de cette loi. En comparant les resultats dynamiques aux resultats statiques, on se rend compte que la barriere extraite des calculs dynamiques est essentiellement la meme que celle obtenue par une approche statique, beaucoup plus simple. On peut donc obtenir cette barriere a l'aide de methodes plus precises, i.e., ab initio, comme la theorie de la fonctionnelle de la densite, qui sont aussi malheureusement beaucoup plus lourdes. C'est ce que nous avons fait pour plusieurs systemes metalliques. Nos resultats avec cette derniere approche se comparent tres bien aux resultats experimentaux. Nous nous sommes attardes plus longuement a la surface (111) du platine. Cette surface regorge de particularites interessantes, comme la forme d'equilibre non-hexagonale des i lots et deux sites d'adsorption differents pour l'adatome. De plus, des calculs ab initio precedents n'ont pas reussi a confirmer la

  9. A tree-ring reconstruction of past precipitation for Baja California Sur, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Sara C.; Touchan, Ramzi; Swetnam, Thomas W.

    2001-06-01

    There is great interest in the climatic variability of Baja California and the Sea of Cortes, but long-term information is limited because instrumental climate records begin in the 1940s or 1960s. The first tree-ring chronology of Pinus lagunae was developed from the southern part of the Baja California Peninsula and the chronology is used to reconstruct the history of precipitation variations. A September-July precipitation reconstruction is developed for the period AD 1862-1996 (R=0.71, p<0.0001, n=56, cross-validation=0.68). This reconstruction is used to assess precipitation variability over the past two centuries, including the relationship with ENSO events. The reconstructed precipitation series indicates a long drought period from 1939 to 1958. It also shows that 1983, one of the strongest El Niño events of the 20th century, is the wettest year. El Niño events during the 20th century are associated with above-normal precipitation, whereas La Niña events are characterized by below-normal precipitation. Four of the most extreme wet years occurred in association with these warm events (1905, 1912, 1919 and 1983). Seventy-one percent of La Niña events are characterized by below-normal precipitation. Sixty-two percent of El Niño events are characterized by above-normal precipitation. Tree-ring growth of P. lagunae is most strongly correlated with winter precipitation in Sonora, Sinaloa and southern Baja California Sur. Precipitation data from meteorological stations in northern Baja California do not correlate well with the tree-ring chronology because this zone has a Mediterranean climate, which differs from the rest of northwest Mexico.

  10. Terrain complexity characterization in the eastern coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Flores, G.; Nava-Sanchez, E. H.; Segovia Zavala, J. A.

    2013-05-01

    Terrain complexity is an important feature for geomorphological analysis and characterization, since it is associated with processes that control the landscape evolution, giving rise to geological formations of varying topographic complexity. In the geometrical sense, the terrain complexity depicts the shape of the landform surface or cross section, such as rugosity, curvature, fractal dimension, slope, aspect, etc. Moreover, the coastline complexity or indentation index has been used as an auxiliary parameter in coastline characterization. Currently, there are a variety of terrain and shoreline complexity indexes, derived from digital elevation models and digital coastlines, respectively, which usually are evaluated and interpreted independently. In this work the evaluation of these indexes was implemented in twenty watersheds of the eastern coast of the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. To evaluate the terrain complexity index, the slope, profile curvature and roughness were computed and weighted. For this purpose the digital elevation model of 30 m resolution, obtained from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI) was used. The coastline complexity was assessed based on the variability of angles of coastline segments, as are defined in the Global Self-consistent, Hierarchical, High-resolution Geography Database (GSHHG). Five classes were identified for each index, whose distribution was represented by digital cartography. In general, the gullies have the highest terrain complexity, while the lower values correspond to areas of alluvial fans and other areas of sedimentation close to the shoreline. The spatial distribution of these indexes could be useful to mapping terrain classification and as support to analyze geological and oceanographic processes that influence this region.

  11. Stratigraphy of Pyroclastic Deposits of EL Aguajito Caldera, Baja California Sur, MÉXICO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio Ocampo, L. S.; Macias, J. L.; García Sánchez, L.; Pola, A.; Saucedo, R.; Sánchez, J. M.; Avellán, D. R.; Cardona, S.; Reyes-Agustín, G.; Arce, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    El Aguajito caldera is located in the State of Baja California Sur, it comprises an area of 450 km2 and sits within the Santa Rosalía Basin which is controlled by NE-SW extensional structures and the NW-SE Cimarron Fault that transects the caldera structure. The oldest rocks are ~90 Ma granodiorites covered by an Oligocene-Miocene volcano-sedimentary sequence, the Miocene Santa Lucia Formation and La Esperanza basalt. Pliocene volcanism is represented by La Reforma caldera, El Aguajito caldera, and the Tres Vírgenes Volcanic complex. This study focuses on the cartography and stratigraphy of area in order to understand the evolution of the volcanic system. The stratigraphy from base to top consists of a series of shallow marine sediments (fossiliferous sandstones) covered by a thick sequence of ignimbrites and pyroclastic flows interbedded with volcaniclastic deposits (Gloria and El Infierno Formations). On top of these deposits is El Aguajito caldera, it consists of a 2 m thick pumice fallout followed by an ignimbrite with three transitional lithofacies: a ≤30-m thick light-pink pyroclastic flow enriched in pumice at the base that gradually becomes enrich in lithics towards the top with the occurrence of degasing pipes. On top rests a 15 m-thick light-purple ignimbrite slightly welded with fiammes and a sequence of pumiceous pyroclastic flows and fallouts. These deposits have been associate to the caldera formation with a collapse diameter of ~8 km marked by rhyolitic domes exposed along a ring collapse crowned the sequence as well as NW-SE aligned rhyolitic domes parallel to the seashore. This cartography allowed to present a preliminary new geological map with four stratigraphic units recognized so far, that were emplaced under subaerial conditions beginning with a Plinian column followed by the emplacement of El Aguajito ignimbrite with its subsequent caldera collapse and finally the extrusion of resurgent domes.

  12. Speech of italian ambassador

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-09

    L'ambassadeur italien (nom?)fait un discours sur l'aspect de la recherche au Cern, une organisation internationale qui a comme but la connaissance dans sa forme la plus pure et libre d'un intérêt planétaire. Il remet un prix au DG C.Rubbia qui lui remercie en français

  13. Simulation de l'accretion de glace sur un obstacle bidimensionnel par la methode des bissectrices et par la modelisation des ruisselets et des gouttes de surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Guy

    Le LIMA (Laboratoire International des Materiaux Antigivre) en collaboration avec le CIRA (Italian Aerospace Research Centre) a developpe un logiciel simulant l'accretion de la glace en regimes sec et humide sur un objet bidimensionnel fixe. L'approche utilisee s'appuie sur les travaux de Lozowski pour les bilans energetiques, sur une etude du comportement du film d'eau, des ruisselets et des gouttes de surface pour le calcul des rugosites et des masses d'eau residuelle, ainsi que sur une methode de bissectrice pour l'evolution de la surface de glace. La contribution du CIRA a ete de fournir le logiciel pour le calcul des ecoulements et de la captation. Le bilan energetique base sur la conservation de l'energie est la sommation de la chaleur latente de fusion, d'evaporation et de sublimation, du rechauffement adiabatique et cinetique, et des pertes de chaleur par convection et conduction, ainsi que de l'evolution thermodynamique de l'eau de son etat initial a son etat final. La densite de la glace, qui a un impact important sur la simulation, est calculee a partir d'une correlation empirique developpee avec les cylindres tournants. En se basant sur les travaux de Al-Khalil et Hansman, le comportement des gouttes en regimes sec et humide a ete decrit analytiquement, ce qui a mene a determiner la hauteur maximale que peuvent atteindre les gouttes avant mouvement. Cette hauteur, appelee hauteur de mouvement, permet de determiner l'etat de l'eau sur la surface (film, ruisselets ou gouttes), ainsi que la hauteur des rugosites lorsque l'eau existe sous forme de gouttes ou de ruisselets. La hauteur de mouvement est determinee par l'equilibre entre les forces de cisaillement, induites par les effets aerodynamiques et gravitationnels evalues pour une goutte non deformee, et la force de cisaillement, induite par la tension de surface et la deformation de la goutte. Elle a ete validee en laboratoire et la precision obtenue pour la partie aerodynamique et gravitationnelle est

  14. Effet de l'etat de la surface de l'acier au carbone 300W sur l'entartrage par la gibbsite dans le procede Bayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavril, Liliana

    Une etude a ete effectuee sur l'entartrage des surfaces en acier au carbone par la gibbsite dans le procede Bayer. Trois methodes ont ete utilisees afin de determiner le mecanisme de formation du tartre: mesure de la vitesse d'entartrage, etude electrochimique et protection cathodique. Cette etude demontre que le tartre de gibbsite est un tartre de cristallisation et que l'etat physico-chimique de la surface metallique a une influence marquee sur l'entartrage. Ainsi, l'oxyde en surface a ete identifie comme un facteur determinant pour l'entartrage. Les essais electrochimiques ont montre que la couche d'oxyde formee dans les solutions Bayer est un oxyde mixte de fer et d'aluminium. Les essais de protection cathodique a courant constant valident le role determinant joue par l'oxyde sur l'entartrage, puisqu'en empechant l'oxyde de se former, l'entartrage est pratiquement elimine. Le mecanisme d'adherence du tartre a l'acier implique trois etapes, soit l'oxydation du metal, la formation de la goethite/goethite alumineuse sur l'oxyde et finalement, la germination de la gibbsite sur la goethite/goethite alumineuse.

  15. Regulation of myometrial contraction by ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel via activation of SUR2B and Kir 6.2 in mouse

    PubMed Central

    HONG, Seung Hwa; KYEONG, Kyu-Sang; KIM, Chan Hyung; KIM, Young Chul; CHOI, Woong; YOO, Ra Young; KIM, Hun Sik; PARK, Yeon Jin; JI, Il Woon; JEONG, Eun-Hwan; KIM, Hak Soon; XU, Wen-Xie; LEE, Sang Jin

    2016-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are well characterized in cardiac, pancreatic and many other muscle cells. In the present study, functional expression of the KATP channel was examined in non-pregnant murine longitudinal myometrium. Isometric contraction measurements and Western blot were used. KATP channel openers (KCOs), such as pinacidil, cromakalim, diazoxide and nicorandil, inhibited spontaneous myometrial contractions in a reversible and glibenclamide-sensitive manner. KCOs inhibited oxytocin (OXT)- and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α)-induced phasic contractions in a glibenclamide-sensitive manner. SUR2B and Kir6.2 were detected by Western blot, whereas SUR1, SUR2A and Kir6.1 were not. These results show that pinacidl, cromakalim, diazoxide and nicorandil-sensitive KATP channels exist in murine myometrium, which are composed of SUR2B and Kir6.2. Based on the modulatory effects of the KATP channel on spontaneous contraction, OXT- and PGF2α-induced contractions, KATP channels seem to play an essential role in murine myometrial motility via activation of SUR2B and Kir6.2. PMID:27086859

  16. The Second NATO Modelling and Simulation Conference(Deuxieme conference OTAN sur la modelisation et la simulation)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    Exercising (CAX) capabilities to support, in particular, the NATO CJTF. d . The Synthetic Environment Data Representation and Interchange Standard...France) : le bureau de coordination des activités OTAN de modélisation et simulation (MSCO). Les activités du NMSG sont entreprises dans le cadre d’un...Ministère de la Défense du Royaume-Uni, conjointement avec la 3ème Conférence Internationale sur les Environnements Synthétiques (ISEC) au Royal

  17. Lose to win: marT pseudogenization in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi contributed to the surV-dependent survival to H2O2, and inside human macrophage-like cells.

    PubMed

    Ortega, A P; Villagra, N A; Urrutia, I M; Valenzuela, L M; Talamilla-Espinoza, A; Hidalgo, A A; Rodas, P I; Gil, F; Calderón, I L; Paredes-Sabja, D; Mora, G C; Fuentes, J A

    2016-11-01

    The difference in host range between Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) can be partially attributed to the gain of functions, to the loss of functions (i.e. pseudogenization), or to a combination of both processes. As previously reported, the loss of functions by pseudogenization may play a role in bacterial evolution, especially in host-restricted pathogens such as S. Typhi. The marT-fidL operon, located at the SPI-3, encodes the MarT transcriptional regulator and a hypothetical protein (i.e. FidL) with no significant similarities to known proteins, respectively. Even though predicted S. Typhimurium FidL exhibit 99.4% identity with S. Typhi FidL, marT has been annotated as a pseudogene in S. Typhi. In this work, we found that S. Typhi expressing S. Typhimurium marT-fidL exhibited an increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to a decreased survival in presence of H2O2. Moreover, we found that that the presence of a functional copy of S. Typhimurium marT-fidL in S. Typhi resulted in a repression of surV (STY4039), an ORF found in the S. Typhi SPI-3 but absent from S. Typhimurium SPI-3, that contribute to the resistance to H2O2 by decreasing the accumulation of ROS. Finally, we observed that the presence of S. Typhimurium marT-fidL in S. Typhi negatively affected the survival inside macrophage-like cells, but not in epithelial cells, after 24h post infection. Therefore, this work provides evidence arguing that marT pseudogenization in Salmonella Typhi contributed to the surV-dependent survival against H2O2, and inside human macrophage-like cells. This is a good example of how the loss of functions (marT pseudogenization) and the gain of functions (presence of surV) might contribute to phenotypic changes improving virulence.

  18. Impact of Emerging NDE-NDI Methods on Aircraft Design, Manufacture and Maintenance (L’Impact des Nouvelles Methodes d’Examen Non Destructif et de Controle Non Destructif (NDE-NDI) sur la Conception, la Fabrication et la Maintenance des Aeronefs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    contr~ler A un flux thermique bref dit InTpulslonnel, A l’aide d’une source de chaleur. Un sV’.t~m de d~tection infrarouge analyse alors sur l’une ou...devant l’analyseur thermique utilis6 en balayage ligne (1). Un syst~me de contr~le transportable avec: une source de chaleur surfacique a aussi 6t6 d...infrarouge consiste A stin-aler thermiquement la place A contr~ler, et A observer avec un analyseur thermicque infrarouge la distribution spatiale et

  19. Prediction de l’Eclatement Tourbillonnaire sur les Ailes Delta d’Avions Militaires (CFD Prediction of Vortex Breakdown on Delta Wings for Military Aircraft)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    contrôle spécifiques. Une première étape dans ce genre d’étude est de s’assurer que l’on peut simuler déjà de façon précise l’éclatement...tourbillonnaire sur une aile delta en l’absence de dispositif de contrôle . Dassault Aviation a réalisé des calculs (Euler et Navier-Stokes) sur la configuration...expérience Communication présentée lors du symposium RTO AVT sur «La gestion avancée des écoulements : Partie A – Les écoulements tourbillonnaires et les

  20. Modelling impacts of offshore wind farms on trophic web: the Courseulles-sur-Mer case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raoux, Aurore; Pezy, Jean-Philippe; Dauvin, Jean-Claude; Tecchio, samuele; Degraer, Steven; Wilhelmsson, Dan; Niquil, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    The French government is planning the construction of three offshore wind farms in Normandy. These offshore wind farms will integrate into an ecosystem already subject to a growing number of anthropogenic disturbances such as transportation, fishing, sediment deposit, and sediment extraction. The possible effects of this cumulative stressors on ecosystem functioning are still unknown, but they could impact their resilience, making them susceptible to changes from one stable state to another. Understanding the behaviour of these marine coastal complex systems is essential in order to anticipate potential state changes, and to implement conservation actions in a sustainable manner. Currently, there are no global and integrated studies on the effects of construction and exploitation of offshore wind farms. Moreover, approaches are generally focused on the conservation of some species or groups of species. Here, we develop a holistic and integrated view of ecosystem impacts through the use of trophic webs modelling tools. Trophic models describe the interaction between biological compartments at different trophic levels and are based on the quantification of flow of energy and matter in ecosystems. They allow the application of numerical methods for the characterization of emergent properties of the ecosystem, also called Ecological Network Analysis (ENA). These indices have been proposed as ecosystem health indicators as they have been demonstrated to be sensitive to different impacts on marine ecosystems. We present here in detail the strategy for analysing the potential environmental impacts of the construction of the Courseulles-sur-Mer offshore wind farm (Bay of Seine) such as the reef effect through the use of the Ecopath with Ecosim software. Similar Ecopath simulations will be made in the future on the Le Tréport offshore wind farm site. Results will contribute to a better knowledge of the impacts of the offshore wind farms on ecosystems. They also allow to

  1. Geochemistry of a Tertiary sedimentary phosphate deposit: Baja California Sur, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, D.Z.

    1991-01-01

    The San Gregorio Formation in Baja California Sur, a phosphate-enriched sedimentary unit of late Oligocene to early Miocene age, has been analyzed in two areas (La Purisima and San Hilario) for its chemical composition (major oxides, Cu, Cd, Cr, Co, V, and rare-earth elements - REE) and isotopic composition (??18O and ??13C). A detrital and a marine component were determined from major oxides. The detrital component consists of an unaltered volcanic-ash fraction and a terrigenous clay-silt fraction. The marine component, which accumulated initially as biogenic and hydrogenous material, is now present as opal-A, opal-CT, CaCO3, organic matter, and an authigenic phosphate fraction, mostly pelletal and composed of the carbonate-fluorapatite mineral francolite. The minor elements have been partitioned into these components by assuming a constant composition for the two detrital fractions. The composition of the marine component of minor elements can then be interpreted by assuming that the stoichiometry of the original accumulating organic matter was equal to that of modern plankton. The Cu and Cd contents in the marine component of all rocks require that the seawater-derived fractions of these two metals were supplied to the seafloor solely by organic matter. Enrichments of Cr and V at both sites required an additional marine input. On the basis of their geochemistry in the modern ocean, Cr and V could have precipitated, or been adsorbed, onto settling particles from an O2 minimum zone in which the O2 content was low enough to promote denitrification rather than oxygen respiration. An enrichment of the REE, now within the apatite fraction, resulted from their adsorption onto particulates also in the O2 minimum zone and to the dissolution and alteration of biogenic phases (predominantly silica) within the sediment. Co and Fe2O3 show no enrichment above a detrital contribution. The ??18O-values of apatites from the La Purisima site are heavier than those of apatites

  2. Challenges and opportunities for implementing sustainable energy strategies in coastal communities of Baja California Sur, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etcheverry, Jose R.

    This dissertation explores the potential of renewable energy and efficiency strategies to solve the energy challenges faced by the people living in the biosphere reserve of El Vizcaino, which is located in the North Pacific region of the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. This research setting provides a practical analytical milieu to understand better the multiple problems faced by practitioners and agencies trying to implement sustainable energy solutions in Mexico. The thesis starts with a literature review (chapter two) that examines accumulated international experience regarding the development of renewable energy projects as a prelude to identifying the most salient implementation barriers impeding this type of initiatives. Two particularly salient findings from the literature review include the importance of considering gender issues in energy analysis and the value of using participatory research methods. These findings informed fieldwork design and the analytical framework of the dissertation. Chapter three surveys electricity generation as well as residential and commercial electricity use in nine coastal communities located in El Vizcaino. Chapter three summarizes the fieldwork methodology used, which relies on a mix of qualitative and quantitative research methods that aim at enabling a gender-disaggregated analysis to describe more accurately local energy uses, needs, and barriers. Chapter four describes the current plans of the state government, which are focused in expanding one of the state's diesel-powered electricity grids to El Vizcaino. The Chapter also examines the potential for replacing diesel generators with a combination of renewable energy systems and efficiency measures in the coastal communities sampled. Chapter five analyzes strategies to enable the implementation of sustainable energy approaches in El Vizcaino. Chapter five highlights several international examples that could be useful to inform organizational changes at the federal

  3. The Palaeodiet of the Pericue Indians of the Cape Region of Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, N.; Gonzalez, S.; Huddart, D.; Rosales-Lopez, A.; Lamb, A.

    2008-05-01

    The archaeology of the Pericue Indians inhabiting the Cape region of Baja California has long been an area of interest. The dolichocranic traits exhibited by this population have lead to suggestions that these people were a relic population of an early coastal migration into North America. The antiquity of directly dated Pericue human remains only reaches 3,000 B.P. with occupation sites dating back to 9,000 B.P. The site of Babisuri cave in Isla Espiritu Santo may demonstrate a very early human presence in Baja California Sur between 36,000 to 45,000 B.P. although the exact nature of this evidence is unclear. Increasing tourist development within this region threatens many archaeological sites particularly coastal shell middens and rock shelters. Current rescue excavations are yielding important information regarding many aspects of the culture of the Pericue Indians. Geochemical evidence of diet {d13C and d15N} taken from Pericue bone samples, modern and archaeological animals and modern plants is helping us to understand the complicated subsistence strategies of this group. Initial results highlight a complicated and diverse diet including marine and terrestrial resources, most likely exploited seasonally. Similarities between the diet of the Pericue and other nearby coastal Indian groups are clear and will be discussed. Pericue Indian material culture, combined with the exploitation of marine mammals and the construction of enormous shell mounds display parallels with other central and North American groups. The exploitation of marine mammals and the associated stone tools display striking similarities to the Chumash people of the Channel Islands of Coastal Southern California. Some of these cultural similarities will be highlighted in this presentation. Current genetic work is attempting to discover the nature of the similarities between the Chumash and Pericue groups as some cultural elements of each group have parallels with the other. Initial genetic

  4. Le cancer en Mauritanie : résultats sur 10 ans du registre hospitalier de Nouakchott

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Nacer Dine Ould Mohamed; Sauvaget, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Le fardeau du cancer reste mal connu en Mauritanie. Il n'est basé que sur des extrapolations de l'incidence des cancers des pays avoisinants. Les données du registre de l'hôpital national permettent de décrire les cas avec un diagnostic histologique. Tous les cas de cancers enregistrés par le service d'anatomo-pathologie de l'hôpital national de Nouakchott de 2000 à 2009 ont été analysés. En 10 ans, 3305 prélèvements histologiques ont été analysés (hommes:42%, femmes:58%). Chez l'homme, le cancer le plus fréquemment analysé était le cancer de la peau (218 cas au total, 189 cas en excluant mélanome), suivi de la prostate (203), des cancers digestifs (179, colorectal et ‘sophage), et des lymphomes (151). Chez la femme, un quart des biopsies était des cancers du sein (485), suivi du col utérin (344), de la sphère gynécologique (218, ovaire et corps utérin), et de la peau (114). Les cancers du foie, du poumon ou de la vessie étaient peu fréquents. Ces résultats ne reflètent pas l'incidence ni l'actuel fardeau du cancer en Mauritanie puisque de nombreux patients diagnostiqués avec un cancer ne reçoivent pas d'examen anatomopathologique. Si, comme dans les pays avoisinants du Maroc et du Mali, les cancers du col et du sein sont les pathologies les plus fréquentes chez la femme, la distribution des cancers chez l'homme dans ce registre hospitalier diffère des résultats des registres de population du Maroc et du Mali où les cancers du poumon, du foie, de la prostate et de la vessie dominent. PMID:23785554

  5. Mise à jour sur la vaccination contre l’herpès zoster

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Marla; Kvern, Brent; Watson, Peter; Guenther, Lyn; McElhaney, Janet; McGeer, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Répondre aux questions fréquentes concernant l’utilisation du nouveau vaccin contre l’herpès zoster (HZ). Sources de l’information Les résultats publiés d’études cliniques et d’autres études, les recommandations du Comité consultatif national de l’immunisation du Canada et de l’Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices des États-Unis; des données ont aussi été obtenues dans la monographie du produit approuvée par Santé Canada sur le vaccin. Principal message L’herpès zoster est causé par la réactivation du virus varicelle-zoster; l’algie post-zostérienne (APZ) est sa complication la plus fréquente et la plus grave. L’incidence de l’APZ après un zona est directement reliée à l’âge, notamment 50 % des personnes affectées de plus de 60 ans qui ont des douleurs persistantes non soulagées. Le vaccin à base de virus vivant contre le HZ réduit l’incidence du zona d’environ 50 % et de 2 tiers l’apparition des APZ. De plus, les symptômes sont atténués et de plus courte durée chez les personnes vaccinées. Le vaccin est contre-indiqué chez de nombreux patients immunodéprimés et pourrait ne pas être efficace chez les patients qui prennent des médicaments antiviraux qui agissent contre le virus HZ. Les médecins devraient être au courant des différentes recommandations touchant ces groupes. Conclusion Le vaccin contre le HZ est une mesure de prévention sécuritaire et efficace pour réduire le fardeau global et la gravité du zona chez les adultes plus âgés. Le vaccin semble rentable lorsqu’il est administré à des adultes de 60 ans et plus.

  6. General enzymatic screens identify three new nucleotidases in Escherichia coli. Biochemical characterization of SurE, YfbR, and YjjG.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Michael; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Brown, Greg; Rao, Narayana N; Kitagawa, Masanari; Mori, Hirotada; Savchenko, Alexei; Yakunin, Alexander F

    2004-12-24

    To find proteins with nucleotidase activity in Escherichia coli, purified unknown proteins were screened for the presence of phosphatase activity using the general phosphatase substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate. Proteins exhibiting catalytic activity were then assayed for nucleotidase activity against various nucleotides. These screens identified the presence of nucleotidase activity in three uncharacterized E. coli proteins, SurE, YfbR, and YjjG, that belong to different enzyme superfamilies: SurE-like family, HD domain family (YfbR), and haloacid dehalogenase (HAD)-like superfamily (YjjG). The phosphatase activity of these proteins had a neutral pH optimum (pH 7.0-8.0) and was strictly dependent on the presence of divalent metal cations (SurE: Mn(2+) > Co(2+) > Ni(2+) > Mg(2+); YfbR: Co(2+) > Mn(2+) > Cu(2+); YjjG: Mg(2+) > Mn(2+) > Co(2+)). Further biochemical characterization of SurE revealed that it has a broad substrate specificity and can dephosphorylate various ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside 5'-monophosphates and ribonucleoside 3'-monophosphates with highest affinity to 3'-AMP. SurE also hydrolyzed polyphosphate (exopolyphosphatase activity) with the preference for short-chain-length substrates (P(20-25)). YfbR was strictly specific to deoxyribonucleoside 5'-monophosphates, whereas YjjG showed narrow specificity to 5'-dTMP, 5'-dUMP, and 5'-UMP. The three enzymes also exhibited different sensitivities to inhibition by various nucleoside di- and triphosphates: YfbR was equally sensitive to both di- and triphosphates, SurE was inhibited only by triphosphates, and YjjG was insensitive to these effectors. The differences in their sensitivities to nucleotides and their varied substrate specificities suggest that these enzymes play unique functions in the intracellular nucleotide metabolism in E. coli.

  7. Impact of Materials Defects on Engine Structures Integrity (L’Impact des Defauts des Materiaux sur l’Integrite des Structures des Moteurs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    participants ont fait le point des aspects traitement et contr6le des mat~riaux. en mettant I’accent sur les materiaux constitutifs des disques moteur en...adapte. Pour le physicien. un -d~faur’" peut tres bien se resumer A une imperfection de Ia structure rericulaire d’un materiau. En science des materiaux ... materiaux sur l~integrite des structures des moteurs Defence Research Ag~ency Matenials & Structures Department Farnborough. Hants GUt 14 fITD Rovaume-Uni

  8. Sur la nature de la variabilite spectrale et photometrique periodique d'etoiles Wolf-Rayet apparemment isolees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, Thierry

    Il est depuis longtemps suspecté que les étoiles Wolf-Rayet apparemment isolées présentant des variations périodiques dans le profil de leurs raies spectrales, en photométrie ou en polarimétrie sont associées à un compagnon dégénéré (étoile à neutron ou trou noir), et constituent ainsi une phase évolutive dont l'existence, bien que prédite par les modèles évolutifs des systèmes binaires massifs rapprochés, n'a pas encore été catégoriquement confirmée observationnellement. Cependant, de récentes études ayant trait à la variabilité spectrale des étoiles OB laissent émettre quelques doutes quant à la pertinence de ce modèle, en démontrant que des vents largement asphériques peuvent se développer dans les étoiles de type précoce. Le scénario alternatif serait donc de considérer que la variabilité périodique observée n'est pas due à la présence d'un compagnon dégénéré affectant la structure à grande échelle du vent de l'étoile Wolf-Rayet, mais est au contraire induite par la modulation par rotation d'un vent nettement anisotropique. Cet ouvrage présente les résultats d'un vaste programme d'observations spectroscopiques et photométriques (généralement simultanées) se proposant de lever l'ambiguïté sur la nature précise des étoiles Wolf-Rayet apparemment isolées dont la périodicité des variations est. soit depuis longtemps établie (WR 6), soit suspectée (WR 1, WR 134, WR 136). Notre étude a permis de confirmer l'existence d'une périodicité de 2.3 jours pour l'étoile WR 134. En outre, nous présentons des arguments mettant en doute l'éventuelle association de WR 6 et WR 134 avec un compagnon dégénéré. Alternativement, nous proposons que la variabilité périodique observée serait plutôt induite, à l'instar de nombreuses étoiles OB, par la rotation de structures azimutalement étendues dans le vent. Ce modèle est plus à même d'appréhender certains aspects de la variabilité, notamment la

  9. Geology, petrology and tectonic significance of the Mesozoic Paleoceanic terranes of the Vizcaino Peninsula, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. E.

    The Viscaino Terrane, which is the most outboard terrane of mainland Baja California, can be divided into three principal terranes on the Vizcaino Peninsula. The structurally lowest is the disrupted composite Puerto Nuevo terrane which is represented by metamorphosed blocks in a serpentinite-matrix melange. The Viscaino Norte terrane structurally overlies the Puerto Nuevo terrane along a low-angle contact. To the south, the Vizcaino Sur terrane exposes a sequence consisting of ophiolite, tuffaceous chart and limestone of the San Hipolito Formation of Late Triassic age. Based on the petrologic, geochemical, and stratigraphic characteristics, the ophiolites of the Vizcaino Norte and Vizcaino Sur terranes are interpreted to have been formed in one or more marginal basin island arc systems during the Late Triassic whereas the ophiolitic rocks of the Puerto Nuevo terrane most likely formed at a midocean ridge. The subsequent pre-Upper Jurassic island arc deposits of the terranes are entirely volcanogenic and biogenic and contain no evidence of close proximity to a cratonal source. It is suggested that for as much as 80 my, the terranes were probably not associated with a continental margin as a fringing island arc, but instead represent allochthonous fragments of a paleogeographically complex paleo-Pacific Ocean.

  10. Prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in landrace and mixed breed pigs slaughtered in Baja California Sur State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Vazquez-Morales, Renata Fabiola; Colado-Romero, Edgar Eusebio; Guzmán-Sánchez, Ramiro; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Dubey, Jitender P

    2015-03-01

    We performed a cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 308 domestic pigs slaughtered in La Paz, Baja California Sur State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25). Forty (13%) of the 308 pigs were seropositive with MAT titers of 1:25 in 16, 1:50 in 5, 1:100 in 4, 1:200 in 5, 1:400 in 3, 1:800 in 3, 1:1600 in 2, and 1:3200 in 2. Multivariate analysis of pigs' characteristics showed that seropositivity to T. gondii was negatively associated with mixed breed (OR = 0.02; 95% CI: 0.003-0.26; P = 0.001). Other variables including sex, type of raising, and municipality did not show an association with T. gondii seropositivity by multivariate analysis. The frequency of high antibody titers (≥1:400) was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in Landrace pigs than mixed breed pigs. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in pigs for slaughter in Baja California Sur State is low compared with seroprevalences reported in pigs in other Mexican states. Landrace pigs demonstrated higher seroprevalence rates and antibody levels than mixed breed pigs. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in pigs raised in a desert climate.

  11. From Bretonneau to therapeutic antibodies, from specificity to specific remedies, Saint-Cyr-Sur-Loire, France, November 19, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Marchand, Claire; Nouat, Romaric; Watier, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Held on November 19, 2012 in Saint-Cyr-sur-Loire, France, the symposium “From Bretonneau to therapeutic antibodies, from specificity to specific remedies” focused on the historical development of antibodies as therapeutics, with an emphasis on the seminal work of the French physician Pierre-Fidèle Bretonneau (1778–1862). The morning session was devoted to discussion of the evolution of the concept of specificity in medicine, which started with an epistemological definition. The contributions of Bretonneau to the emergence of the concept of specificity, notably with his studies on diphtheria, and the subsequent development of antidiphtheric serotherapy in Europe during the period 1894–1898 were then presented in detail. The afternoon session began with a presentation on the role of French physiologists during the years 1860–1890 in establishing the basic concepts of specific immunity and the principles of serotherapy. The history of antivenom serotherapy, particularly its discovery by Césaire Phisalix, and the development of antilymphocyte globulins as successful transplantation drugs were then discussed. The symposium ended with the inauguration of a stele representing Bretonneau, who lived in Saint-Cyr-sur-Loire and died 150 y ago. PMID:23924799

  12. Methodologie de conception numerique d'un ventilateur helico-centrifuge basee sur l'emploi du calcul meridien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lallier-Daniels, Dominic

    La conception de ventilateurs est souvent basée sur une méthodologie « essais/erreurs » d'amélioration de géométries existantes ainsi que sur l'expérience de design et les résultats expérimentaux cumulés par les entreprises. Cependant, cette méthodologie peut se révéler coûteuse en cas d'échec; même en cas de succès, des améliorations significatives en performance sont souvent difficiles, voire impossibles à obtenir. Le projet présent propose le développement et la validation d'une méthodologie de conception basée sur l'emploi du calcul méridien pour la conception préliminaire de turbomachines hélico-centrifuges (ou flux-mixte) et l'utilisation du calcul numérique d'écoulement fluides (CFD) pour la conception détaillée. La méthode de calcul méridien à la base du processus de conception proposé est d'abord présentée. Dans un premier temps, le cadre théorique est développé. Le calcul méridien demeurant fondamentalement un processus itératif, le processus de calcul est également présenté, incluant les méthodes numériques de calcul employée pour la résolution des équations fondamentales. Une validation du code méridien écrit dans le cadre du projet de maîtrise face à un algorithme de calcul méridien développé par l'auteur de la méthode ainsi qu'à des résultats de simulation numérique sur un code commercial est également réalisée. La méthodologie de conception de turbomachines développée dans le cadre de l'étude est ensuite présentée sous la forme d'une étude de cas pour un ventilateur hélico-centrifuge basé sur des spécifications fournies par le partenaire industriel Venmar. La méthodologie se divise en trois étapes: le calcul méridien est employé pour le pré-dimensionnement, suivi de simulations 2D de grilles d'aubes pour la conception détaillée des pales et finalement d'une analyse numérique 3D pour la validation et l'optimisation fine de la géométrie. Les résultats de calcul m

  13. Arsenic content in groundwater from the southern part of the San Antonio-El Triunfo mining district, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurl, Jobst; Mendez-Rodriguez, Lía; Acosta-Vargas, Baudilio

    2014-10-01

    The San Antonio-El Triunfo mining district is located in a mountain region 60 km southeast of La Paz, the capital of the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. Mining activities, focused on gold and silver extraction, which began in the second half of the 18th century; the main activity took place between 1878 and 1911. The minerals were treated through the cyanide method, burned, and smelted. In effect between 800,000 and 1 million tons of mine waste materials were scattered in an area of approximately 350-400 km2. This area contains today several byproducts as a result from arsenopyrite oxidation, such as arsenolite (As2O3). The aim of this study was to analyze groundwater composition in order to define the actual concentrations of relevant parameters to detect ore mining contaminations, especially in respect to arsenic. In the autumn of 2010, 29 groundwater samples were obtained using flow-through bailer or down-hole pump methods, and a total of 37 variables were measured in each sample. Arsenic (dissolved) exceeded the values established by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2011) (0.01 mg/L) in 41% of the monitored sites. The maximum concentration of arsenic found in one observation well was 0.45 mg/L. Four water samples, which were characterized by elevated concentration of boron (max. conc. 9.5 mg/L), fluoride (max. conc. 3.25 mg/L) and alkaline pH values (>9), showed a composition typical for hydrothermal water. Because all four samples had arsenic concentration under 0.008 mg/L, we conclude that no significant impact of arsenic from hydrothermal fluids is found in the study area.

  14. Volvulus du grêle sur mésentère commun incomplet - une redoutable complication rare chez l'adulte: à propos de 1 cas

    PubMed Central

    Coulibaly, Mahamadoun; Boukatta, Brahim; Derkaoui, Ali; Sbai, Hicham; Ousadden, Abdelmalek; Kanjaa, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    Le mésentère commun résulte d'une anomalie de rotation du tube digestif. Il est caractérisé par la persistance d'une disposition anatomique embryonnaire secondaire à une anomalie de rotation de l'anse ombilicale primitive, constituant ainsi un méso commun à toute l'anse intestinale et une racine du mésentère extrêmement courte. Cette insuffisance de rotation est le plus souvent associée à un défaut d'accolement. Ces anomalies de rotation intestinale peuvent aboutir à des complications redoutables parfois mortelles, qui surviennent généralement au cours de la période néonatale où à l’âge pédiatrique. On estime que la prévalence de ces malformations congénitales à l’âge adulte est de l'ordre de 0,2% à 0,5% âge auquel elles demeurent très souvent asymptomatiques et donc non diagnostiquées. Le diagnostic de volvulus total du grêle peut se faire dans des circonstances très variées: en urgence devant un tableau d'occlusion intestinale aiguë, voire un état de choc pouvant conduire au décès, devant un tableau de douleurs abdominales répétées plus ou moins associées à des troubles du transit. Nous rapportons l'observation d'un patient de 18 ans admis pour volvulus total du grêle sur mésentère commun incomplet chez qui l’évolution était favorable. PMID:26113900

  15. Numerical modelling of circulation and dispersion processes in Boulogne-sur-Mer harbour (Eastern English Channel): sensitivity to physical forcing and harbour design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouanneau, Nicolas; Sentchev, Alexei; Dumas, Franck

    2013-12-01

    The MARS-3D model in conjunction with the particle tracking module Ichthyop is used to study circulation and tracer dynamics under a variety of forcing conditions in the eastern English Channel, and in the Boulogne-sur-Mer harbour (referred to hereafter as BLH). Results of hydrodynamic modelling are validated against the tidal gauge data, VHF radar surface velocities and ADCP measurements. Lagrangian tracking experiments are performed with passive particles to study tracer dispersal along the northern French coast, with special emphasis on the BLH. Simulations revealed an anticyclonic eddy generated in the harbour at rising tide. Tracers, released during flood tide at the Liane river mouth, move northward with powerful clockwise rotating current. After the high water, the current direction changes to westward, and tracers leave the harbour through the open boundary. During ebb tide, currents convergence along the western open boundary but no eddy is formed, surface currents inside the harbour are much weaker and the tracer excursion length is small. After the current reversal at low water, particles are advected shoreward resulting in a significant increase of the residence time of tracers released during ebb tide. The effect of wind on particle dispersion was found to be particularly strong. Under strong SW wind, the residence time of particles released during flood tide increases from 1.5 to 6 days. For release during ebb tide, SW wind weakens the southward tidally induced drift and thus the residence time decreases. Similar effects are observed when the freshwater inflow to the harbour is increased from 2 to 10 m3/s during the ebb tide flow. For flood tide conditions, the effect of freshwater inflow is less significant. We also demonstrate an example of innovative coastal management targeted at the reduction of the residence time of the pathogenic material accidentally released in the harbour.

  16. Clair de lune sur le port de Boulogne: enquête sur un tableau de Manet, traduction d'un article de Donald W. Olson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, Janet

    2016-10-01

    The 19th-century artist Edouard Manet created a spectacular nocturnal painting showing a full Moon over the harbor of Boulogne. Art historians have dated this work to either 1868 or 1869. Calculations of lunar phases, 19th-century maps and photographs of Boulogne harbor, the correspondence of the artist, and other clues allow us to determine a date and precise time when Manet observed this moonlit scene.

  17. Stratigraphy and geochronology of the Comondú Group near Loreto, Baja California sur, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umhoefer, Paul J.; Dorsey, Rebecca J.; Willsey, Shawn; Mayer, Larry; Renne, Paul

    2001-10-01

    Upper Oligocene to Middle Miocene volcanic and sedimentary rocks in the Loreto region, Baja California Sur, are widely exposed and make up the Comondú Group as redefined here following McFall. The Comondú Group is part of a volcanic arc and forearc basin that formed along the northwestern margin of Mexico. Regional to detailed scale mapping, stratigraphic analysis, and geochronology in a 10-20-km-wide and 70-km-long belt from the gulf escarpment to the coast near Loreto reveal three main units in the Comondú Group and a composite thickness of ˜1.5-2 km. (1) The lower clastic unit (˜30-19 Ma) contains 200-300 m of fluvial sandstone and conglomerate with probable local eolian deposits and numerous felsic tuffs and basalt flows that accumulated in a forearc basin. (2) The middle breccia and lava flow unit (˜19-15 Ma) is up to 750 m thick and consists of massive andesite breccia that was deposited as proximal debris flows interbedded with minor andesite lava flows. (3) The upper lava flow and breccia unit (˜15-12 Ma) consists almost entirely of up to ˜600 meters of andesite lava flows a few kilometers west of Loreto that are part of a composite volcano. North and south of Loreto for up to 25 km, the unit is composed of andesite lava flows and massive andesite breccia that formed from thick debris flows near that and other volcanic centers. The three units of the Comondú Group in the Loreto area correlated with the Salto, Pelones, and Ricasón formations of the Bahı´a Concepción area. The lower clastic unit of this study is time equivalent to the marine San Gregorio, El Cien, and Isidro formations on the western and southern Baja California peninsula. The middle and upper units of the Loreto area are the proximal equivalent to the type section of the Comondú Group near the village of Comondú. During deposition of the lower part of the Comondú Group, the arc lay to the east on mainland Mexico in the Sierra Madre Occidental, and then migrated to the

  18. Late Quaternary Faulting along the San Juan de los Planes Fault Zone, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, M. M.; Coyan, J. A.; Arrowsmith, J.; Maloney, S. J.; Gutierrez, G.; Umhoefer, P. J.

    2007-12-01

    As a result of continued distributed deformation in the Gulf Extensional Province along an oblique-divergent plate margin, active normal faulting is well manifest in southeastern Baja California. By characterizing normal-fault related deformation along the San Juan de los Planes fault zone (SJPFZ) southwest of La Paz, Baja California Sur we contribute to understanding the patterns and rates of faulting along the southwest gulf-margin fault system. The geometry, history, and rate of faulting provide constraints on the relative significance of gulf-margin deformation as compared to axial system deformation. The SJPFZ is a major north-trending structure in the southern Baja margin along which we focused our field efforts. These investigations included: a detailed strip map of the active fault zone, including delineation of active scarp traces and geomorphic surfaces on the hanging wall and footwall; fault scarp profiles; analysis of bedrock structures to better understand how the pattern and rate of strain varied during the development of this fault zone; and a gravity survey across the San Juan de los Planes basin to determine basin geometry and fault behavior. The map covers a N-S swath from the Gulf of California in the north to San Antonio in the south, an area ~45km long and ~1-4km wide. Bedrock along the SJPFZ varies from Cretaceous Las Cruces Granite in the north to Cretaceous Buena Mujer Tonalite in the south and is scarred by shear zones and brittle faults. The active scarp-forming fault juxtaposes bedrock in the footwall against Late Quaternary sandstone-conglomerate. This ~20m wide zone is highly fractured bedrock infused with carbonate. The northern ~12km of the SJPFZ, trending 200°, preserves discontinuous scarps 1-2km long and 1-3m high in Quaternary units. The scarps are separated by stretches of bedrock embayed by hundreds of meters-wide tongues of Quaternary sandstone-conglomerate, implying low Quaternary slip rate. Further south, ~2 km north of the

  19. Lipid Biomarkers for Methanogens in Hypersaline Cyanobacterial Mats for Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Embaye, Tsegereda; Summons, Roger E.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Analyses of sediments from the vicinity of active methane seeps have uncovered a particular suite of lipid biomarker patterns that characterize methane consuming archaea and their syntrophic, sulfate reducing partners. These isoprenoid biomarkers, largely identified by their anomalously light carbon isotopic signatures, have been a topic of intense research activity and are recorded in numerous methane-rich environments from Holocene to Cenozoic. This phenomenon has implications for depleted kerogens at 2.7 Ga on early Earth (Hinrichs 2002). In contrast, the lipid biosignatures of methane producing archaea are not readily identified through distinct isotopic labels and have received comparably little attention in analyses of archaea in environmental samples. Indeed, environmental analyses generally detect only free archaeal lipids, not the intact, polar molecules found in the membrane of living organisms. As part of the Ames NAI, the 'Early Microbial Ecosystem Research Group' (EMERG) is working to understand microbial processes in the hypersaline cyanobacterial mats growing in the salt evaporation ponds of the Exportadora de Sal at Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. The aim of this study was to develop methods by which we could identify the organisms responsible for methane generation in this environment. While the ester-bound fatty acids, hopanoids and wax esters provide a means to identify most of the bacterial components of these mats, the archaea which Ere evidently present through genomic assays and the fact of intense methane production (Hoehler et al. 200l), have not been identified through their corresponding lipid signatures. Archaeal core lipids present a number of analytical challenges. The core lipids of methanogens comprise C20, C40 and sometimes C25 isoprenoid chains, linked through ether bonds to glycerol. As well as archaeal (C20), sn-2- and sn-3-hydroxyarchaeol are associated particularly with methylotrophic methanogens. Recently, we have

  20. Toxoplasmose oculaire atypique chez une femme congolaise de 72 ans: à propos d'une observation

    PubMed Central

    Bienvenu, Yogolelo Asani; Angel, Musau Nkola; Eric, Kasamba Ilunga; Socrate, Kapalu Mwangala; Sebastien, Mbuyi Musanzayi; Philippe, Cilundika Mulenga; Leon, Kabamba Ngombe; Bruno, Iye Ombamba Kayimba; Gaby, Chenge Borasisi

    2015-01-01

    Les auteurs rapportent un cas de toxoplasmose oculaire binoculaire, rarement décrit dans la littérature, chez une personne âgée de 72 ans, de sexe féminin, à laquelle s'associe une rétinite pigmentaire unilatérale. Cette observation permet d'attirer l'attention de la communauté scientifique sur les autres formes ou variétés de présentation moins courantes, « atypiques », pouvant être rencontrées ou associées à la toxoplasmose oculaire. PMID:26958130

  1. Actes des journees de linguistique: Colloque sur la recherche etudiante (Proceedings of the Linguistics Conference: Colloquium on Student Research) (Quebec, Canada, March 18-19, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepage, Danielle, Ed.; Dominik, Annette, Ed.

    Presentations by students at a colloquium on student research on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the University of Laval's Faculty of Letters, March 18-19, 1988, include: "Une enquete sur la qualite du francais ecrit au Quebec"; "Amenagement linguistique et neologie"; "Analyse syntaxique des 'arrets et retours' en…

  2. Phosphorylation-dependent Changes in Nucleotide Binding, Conformation, and Dynamics of the First Nucleotide Binding Domain (NBD1) of the Sulfonylurea Receptor 2B (SUR2B)*

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo, Elvin D.; Alvarez, Claudia P.; López-Alonso, Jorge P.; Sooklal, Clarissa R.; Stagljar, Marijana; Kanelis, Voula

    2015-01-01

    The sulfonylurea receptor 2B (SUR2B) forms the regulatory subunit of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels in vascular smooth muscle. Phosphorylation of the SUR2B nucleotide binding domains (NBD1 and NBD2) by protein kinase A results in increased channel open probability. Here, we investigate the effects of phosphorylation on the structure and nucleotide binding properties of NBD1. Phosphorylation sites in SUR2B NBD1 are located in an N-terminal tail that is disordered. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data indicate that phosphorylation of the N-terminal tail affects multiple residues in NBD1, including residues in the NBD2-binding site, and results in altered conformation and dynamics of NBD1. NMR spectra of NBD1 lacking the N-terminal tail, NBD1-ΔN, suggest that phosphorylation disrupts interactions of the N-terminal tail with the core of NBD1, a model supported by dynamic light scattering. Increased nucleotide binding of phosphorylated NBD1 and NBD1-ΔN, compared with non-phosphorylated NBD1, suggests that by disrupting the interaction of the NBD core with the N-terminal tail, phosphorylation also exposes the MgATP-binding site on NBD1. These data provide insights into the molecular basis by which phosphorylation of SUR2B NBD1 activates KATP channels. PMID:26198630

  3. Conséquences des nouvelles formes de commande sur les matériaux de l'isolation statorique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellomo, J. P.; Lebey, Th.; Peltier, Fr.; Oraison, J. M.

    1997-05-01

    Use of inverter drive for rotating machines speed control leads to the application of new stress on stator insulation materials. The integrity of these materials under such stresses has therefore to be studied. Thanks to specially equipped motor, the different voltage shapes have been identified. Very short rise time fronts, large overvoltages and high oscillation frequencies are obtained. These voltages are then reproduced on laboratory samples (Polyethylene Terephtalate). The main result is the existence of trapped surface charges related both to the rise front value and to the existence of polar mechanisms in the material bulk. The consequences of this surface charge existence on the reliability of a real system are then discussed. L'utilisation de nouvelles formes de commande pour les machines à courant alternatif se traduit par l'apparition d'un nouveau type de contraintes sur les matériaux de l'isolation statorique. L'étude de leur comportement sous l'action de ce type de contraintes revêt un intérêt tout particulier pour la validation et la stabilité de ces systèmes dans le temps. Nous présentons, tout d'abord, ces différentes formes de tension identifiées à l'aide d'un moteur spécialement instrumenté. L'existence de fronts de tension très élevés, de surtensions importantes (jusqu'à 500V) et d'oscillations hautes fréquences (2MHz), est mise en évidence. La reproduction de ces contraintes en laboratoire sur des échantillons de polyesters (PolyÉthylène Térephthalate) permet alors de déterminer l'influence des formes de tension carrées sur les propriétés intrinsèques du matériau. Elle se traduit par l'existence d'une charge piégée en surface du diélectrique. Cette charge superficielle est associée, d'une part à l'existence de phénomènes de relaxation dans les matériaux étudiés et d'autre part à la valeur des fronts de tension appliqués. Pour finir, les conséquences possibles de l'existence de ces charges superficielles

  4. Les effets des interfaces sur les proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches nickel/iron et cobalt/silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, Teodor

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude de l'evolution structurale des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches Ni/Fe et nanostructures a base de Co et de l'Ag. Dans une premiere partie, essentiellement bibliographique, nous introduisons quelques concepts de base relies aux proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches metalliques. Ensuite, nous presentons une breve description des methodes d'analyse des resultats. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches ferromagnetiques/ferromagnetiques Ni/Fe. Nous montrerons qu'une interpretation coherente de ces proprietes necessite la prise en consideration des effets des interfaces. Nous nous attacherons a mettre en evidence, a evaluer et a etudier les effets de ces interfaces ainsi que leur evolution, et ce, suite a des traitements thermiques tel que le depot a temperature elevee et l'irradiation ionique. Les analyses correlees de la structure et de la magnetoresistance nous permettront d'emettre des conclusions sur l'influence des couches tampons entre l'interface et le substrat ainsi qu'entre les couches elles-memes sur le comportement magnetique des couches F/F. La troisieme partie est consacree aux systemes a Magneto-Resistance Geante (MRG) a base de Co et Ag. Nous allons etudier l'evolution de la microstructure suite a l'irradiation avec des ions Si+ ayant une energie de 1 MeV, ainsi que les effets de ces changements sur le comportement magnetique. Cette partie debutera par l'analyse des proprietes d'une multicouche hybride, intermediaire entre les multicouches et les materiaux granulaires. Nous analyserons a l'aide des mesures de diffraction, de relaxation superparamagnetique et de magnetoresistance, les evolutions structurales produites par l'irradiation ionique. Nous etablirons des modeles qui nous aideront a interpreter les resultats pour une serie des multicouches qui couvrent un large eventail de differents comportements magnetiques

  5. Une observation d'un goitre sur dysgénésie thyroïdienne pré-sternale

    PubMed Central

    Fanantenana, Herinirina Nicolas; Hasina, Rajaonarison Ny Ony Narindra Lova; Hery, Rafanomezantsoa; Claude, Rakotoarisoa Andriamihaja Jean; Ahmad, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    L'hétérotopie thyroïdienne est une localisation anormale de tissus thyroïdiens normaux coexistant avec un organe normal et de localisation normale. Elle se distingue de l'ectopie thyroïdienne et d'une métastase du cancer de la thyroïde. Nous rapportons un cas d'hétérotopie thyroïdienne pré-sternale chez une femme de 65 ans afin de discuter le mécanisme de la migration de la thyroïde, le problème diagnostique et thérapeutique posé par cette topographie exceptionnelle. L'origine thyroïdienne de la masse est confirmée par l'histologie. Dans les lieux isolés, la chirurgie d'exérèse reste le seul moyen pour avoir le diagnostic et pour traiter les patients. PMID:26327954

  6. Observer's Interface for JWST Observation Specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link, Miranda; Douglas, Robert; Moriarty, Christopher; Roman, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    In support of the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope, various teams at STScI (the Space Telescope Science Institute) have collaborated on how to re-structure the view of a an observing program within the Astronomer's Proposal Tool (APT) to accommodate for the differences between HST and JWST. For HST APT programs, the structure is visit-dominant, and there is one generic form for entering observing information that spans all instruments with their required fields and options. This can result in sometimes showing irrelevant fields to the user for a given observing goal. Also, the generation of mosaicked observations in HST requires the user to manually calculate the position of each tile within the mosaic, accounting for positional offsets and the roll of the telescope, which is a time consuming process. Now, for JWST programs in APT, the description of the observations has been segregated by instrument and mode into discrete observing templates. Each template's form allows instrument specific choices and displays of relevant information. APT will manually manage the number of visits needed to perform the observation. This is particularly useful for mosaics and dithering with JWST. For example, users will select how they would like a mosaic to be tiled at the observation level, and the visits are automatically created. In this, visits have been re-structured to be purely informational; all editing is done at the observation level. These options and concepts are illustrated to future users via the corresponding poster.

  7. Sur7 Promotes Plasma Membrane Organization and Is Needed for Resistance to Stressful Conditions and to the Invasive Growth and Virulence of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Lois M.; Wang, Hong X.; Keppler-Ross, Sabine; Dean, Neta; Konopka, James B.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans causes lethal systemic infections because of its ability to grow and disseminate in a host. The C. albicans plasma membrane is essential for virulence by acting as a protective barrier and through its key roles in interfacing with the environment, secretion of virulence factors, morphogenesis, and cell wall synthesis. Difficulties in studying hydrophobic membranes have limited the understanding of how plasma membrane organization contributes to its function and to the actions of antifungal drugs. Therefore, the role of the recently discovered plasma membrane subdomains termed the membrane compartment containing Can1 (MCC) was analyzed by assessing the virulence of a sur7Δ mutant. Sur7 is an integral membrane protein component of the MCC that is needed for proper localization of actin, morphogenesis, cell wall synthesis, and responding to cell wall stress. MCC domains are stable 300-nm-sized punctate patches that associate with a complex of cytoplasmic proteins known as an eisosome. Analysis of virulence-related properties of a sur7Δ mutant revealed defects in intraphagosomal growth in macrophages that correlate with increased sensitivity to oxidation and copper. The sur7Δ mutant was also strongly defective in pathogenesis in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis. The mutant cells showed a decreased ability to initiate an infection and greatly diminished invasive growth into kidney tissues. These studies on Sur7 demonstrate that the plasma membrane MCC domains are critical for virulence and represent an important new target for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:22202230

  8. Rupture utérine sur utérus bicorne à 12 semaines d'aménorrhée: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Itchimouh, Sanaa; Khabtou, Karima; Mahdaoui, Sakher; Boufettal, Houssine; Samouh, Naima

    2016-01-01

    La fréquence des malformations utérines ayant un impact sur la reproduction est difficile à apprécier. Leur mise en évidence nécessite un bilan spécifique (hystérosalpingographie, hystéroscopie, cœlioscopie). La fertilité spontanée peut être altérée en fonction du type d'anomalie utérine. Toutes ces anomalies peuvent avoir des répercussions sur l’évolution de la conception à type de fausses couches précoces et tardives, de grossesse extra utérine, de menace d'accouchement prématuré, d'accouchement prématuré, de pathologies vasculaires gravidiques et de retard de croissance intra-utérin. L'utérus bicorne est la plus connue des malformations et représente environ la moitié des anomalies de l'utérus. La survenue d'une telle grossesse constitue une situation à risque pouvant entraîner une mort maternelle, mais le diagnostic précoce et un bon suivi peut mener des grossesses à terme sur des utérus malformé. Le dépistage échographique devrait permettre la détection systématique de ce genre de cas afin de prendre préventivement les mesures qui s'imposent. Nous rapportons un cas de rupture utérine sur utérus bicorne unicervical sur grossesse à 12 semaines d'aménorrhée. PMID:27642490

  9. Reconnaissance geologic map of the Loreto and part of the San Janier quadrangles, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLean, Hugh

    1988-01-01

    The Loreto area of Baja California Sur, Mexico, contains a diverse association of igneous, sedimentary, and metasedimentary rocks exposed in the foothills and arroyos between the Sierra La Giganta and Gulf of California. The Loreto area was selected for this study to examine the possible relation of the marine rocks to the opening of the Gulf of California, and to determine the stratigraphic and structural relations between basement rocks composed of granitic and prebatholithic rocks and overlying Tertiary (mainly Miocene) sedimentary and volcanic rocks, and by a sequence of Pliocene marine and nonmarine sedimentary rocks. The Pliocene marine rocks lie in a structural depression informally called here, the Loreto embayment. This geologic map and report stem from a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Consejo de Recursos Minerales of Mexico that was initiated in 1982.

  10. Cancer développé sur dilatation kystique de la voie biliaire: à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Soufi, Mehdi; Lahlou, Mohammed Khalid; Chad, Bouziane

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs rapportent un cas de dilatation kystique du cholédoque intra- pancréatique découvert chez une femme de 46 ans et compliqué d'un carcinome tubulo-papillaire n'envahissant pas le pancréas. Le traitement a consisté en une duodénopancréatectomie céphalique avec un curage ganglionnaire et anastomose hépatico-jéjunale; la survie était de 30 mois; les auteurs abordent les aspects radiologiques, anatomopathologiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques de ces cancers développé sur dilatation kystique de la voie biliaire et discutent la place d'une radiothérapie complémentaire de la chirurgie susceptible d'améliorer la survie. PMID:25922635

  11. Oral Reading Observation System Observer's Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Mary Ella; And Others

    A self-instructional program for use by teachers of the handicapped, this training manual was developed to teach accurate coding with the Oral Reading Observation System (OROS)an observation system designed to code teacher-pupil verbal interaction during oral reading instruction. The body of the manual is organized to correspond to the nine…

  12. Learning to Observe--Observing to Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Dorothy H.

    In this address, Dorothy H. Cohen admonishes teachers to remain aware that in the classroom they are both teachers and observers trying to find clues to understanding and interaction. Because teachers are human beings with attitudes and beliefs of their own, it is difficult to be objective in making observations of children. An open mind ready to…

  13. Key species and impact of fishery through food web analysis: A case study from Baja California Sur, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocchi, Marta; Scotti, Marco; Micheli, Fiorenza; Bodini, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) aims to support the protection of natural ecosystems and to improve economic activities. It requires considering all of the actors interacting in social-ecological systems (e.g., fish and fishers) in the understanding that their interplay determines the dynamic behavior of the single actors as well as that of the system as a whole. Connections are thus central to EBM. Within the ecological dimension of socio-ecological systems, interactions between species define such connections. Understanding how connections affect ecosystem and species dynamics is often impaired by a lack of data. We propose food web network analysis as a tool to help bridge the gap between EBM theory and practice in data-poor contexts, and illustrate this approach through its application to a coastal marine ecosystem in Baja California Sur, Mexico. First, we calculated centrality indices to identify which key (i.e., most central) species must be considered when designing strategies for sustainable resource management. Second, we analyzed the resilience of the system by measuring changes in food web structure due to the local extinction of vulnerable species (i.e., by mimicking the possible effect of excessive fishing pressure). The consequences of species removals were quantified in terms of impacts on global structural indices and species' centrality indices. Overall, we found that this coastal ecosystem shows high resilience to species loss. We identified species (e.g., Octopus sp. and the kelp bass, Paralabrax clathratus) whose protection could further decrease the risk of potential negative impacts of fishing activities on the Baja California Sur food web. This work introduces an approach that can be applied to other ecosystems to aid the implementation of EBM in data-poor contexts.

  14. Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO) is a Department of Defense experiment that observes shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System engine burns for the purpose of improving plume models. On STS-107 the appropriate sensors will observe selected rendezvous and orbit adjust burns.

  15. SMM Observations of Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnopper, Herbert; Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    During the past year I have participated in a series of team telecons to I plan our observation of Saturn with SMM. The observation, scheduled for this month (September), was canceled and a new observation is being planned for 2002.

  16. DRESS syndrome: à propos de trois observations

    PubMed Central

    Chebbi, Wafa; Souissi, Jihed; Chelli, Jihène; Larbi, Fatma; Zantour, Baha; Habib Sfar, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Le syndrome d'hypersensibilité médicamenteuse ou Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) est une toxidermie rare mais sévère. Nous rapportons trois observations de DRESS syndromes secondaires à la prise de carbamazipine dans deux cas et de salazopyrine dans un cas. Le délai moyen entre la prise médicamenteuse et la survenue du DRESS syndrome était de six semaines. Le médicament incriminé était arrêté d'une façon définitive dans tous les cas. Une corticothérapie par voie générale était instaurée chez tous les patients devant l'atteinte hépatique sévère. L’évolution était favorable avec disparation des lésions cutanées et normalisation du bilan hépatique. Le diagnostic du syndrome DRESS doit être évoqué devant un tableau associant une éruption fébrile et des signes systémiques faisant suite à une prise médicamenteuse. La précocité du diagnostic est fondamentale pour l'arrêt définitif des médicaments suspects. Le traitement n'est pas bien codifié mais repose actuellement sur la corticothérapie générale. PMID:25810802

  17. A Week of Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colasacco, Jenne

    2011-01-01

    Even the most effective teachers have room to grow, but it's not always easy for principals to give adequate guidance through short observations. High school principal Jenne Colasacco decided to bring more depth to her observations by observing each of her teachers during one class for an entire week. The new observation structure, which included…

  18. The Observation Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shaughnessy, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Once the reasons for habitual observation in the classroom have been established, and the intent to observe has been settled, the practical details of observation must be organized. In this article, O'Shaughnessy gives us a model for the implementation of observation. She thoroughly reviews Montessori's work curves and how they can be used to show…

  19. Ondes de surface transverses sur plaques piézoélectriques avec réseaux de bandes metalliques déposés sur les 2 faces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballandras, S.; Gavignet, E.; Bigler, E.

    1995-09-01

    A theoretical model has been implemented to study surface transverse waves propagating on piezoelectric plates of finite thickness with thin metal strip gratings on both sides. Calculations have been performed for AT-cuts of quartz of thickness varying from 140 to 120 μm. The spatial period of the gratings was fixed to 20 μm (acoustic wavelength equal to 40 μm). The dispersion curve relating the angular frequency to the wavenumber presents more than one stopband as found in the usual analyses on semi-infinite substrates. These multiple high-frequency stopbands allow to design and realize high stability resonators or highly sensitive sensors for gravimetry, accelerometer applications, etc. Un modèle théorique a été mis en œuvre pour l'étude des propriétés des ondes de surface transverses se propageant sur des plaques piézoélectriques d'épaisseur finie avec des réseaux de fines bandes métalliques déposés sur chaque face. Les calculs ont été effectués pour des plaques de quartz voisines de la coupe AT et d'épaisseur variant de 140 à 120 μm. La périodicité des réseaux en regard a été fixée à 20 μm (longueur d'onde acoustique 40 μm). La courbe de dispersion reliant la pulsation au nombre d'ondes présente plusieurs bandes d'arrêt incluant celle habituellement mise en évidence pour un substrat semi-infini. L'existence de ces multiples bandes d'arrêt haute fréquence ouvre de nouvelles perspectives pour la réalisation de résonateurs ultrastables ou de capteurs de très grande sensibilité gravimétrique, accélérométrique, etc.

  20. Facteurs prédictifs de l’issue de l’accouchement sur utérus unicicatriciel, expérience du centre de Maternité de Bizerte

    PubMed Central

    Ayachi, Amira; Derouich, Sadok; Morjene, Insaf; Mkaouer, Lassaad; Mnaser, Dalila; Mourali, Mechaal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction L’incidence des utérus cicatriciels est en nette augmentation ces dernières décennies. L’obstétricien est alors fréquemment sollicité à décider du mode d’accouchement le plus approprié à la mère et son fœtus. L’objectif de cette étude est de décrire la pratique obstétricale d’un accouchement sur utérus unicicatriciel au sein de notre service et d’identifier les facteurs significativement associés à l’échec de la tentative de voie basse après césarienne. Méthodes Nous avons mené notre étude sur une population de femmes porteuses d’un utérus unicicatriciel. Elle était rétrospective longitudinale de type descriptif et analytique. Nous l’avons réalisée sur une période de deux ans et trois mois du 1er Janvier 2012 au 31 Mars 2014 durant laquelle nous avons colligé 423 dossiers de patientes qui ont eu une tentative de voie basse au centre de maternité et de néonatologie de Bizerte. Résultats Le taux de tentatives de voie basse après césarienne était de 47%. Les taux de succès et d’échec de ces tentatives étaient respectivement de 82,7% et 17,3%. Les principaux facteurs de mauvais pronostic de la tentative de voie basse après césarienne étaient: l’absence d’antécédent d'accouchement par voie basse (p=0,005), une indication de la césarienne antérieure pour stagnation de la dilatation ou défaut d’engagement (p respectifs de 0,049 et 0,002), un terme d’accouchement? 40 SA (p=0,046), une parité < 3 (p=0,75.10-4), un score de Bishop <6 au début du travail (p=0,23.10-47), une phase active de durée? 6h (p=0,002), un travail de durée >8h (p=0,0031) et la survenue d’une anomalie du RCF au cours du travail (p=0,144.10-9). Nous avons observé sept cas de rupture utérine soit un taux de 1,7%. Nous n’avons observé aucun cas de mortalité maternelle. La morbidité maternelle globale était de 9,5%. La différence des taux de complications maternelles entre les deux groupes échec et succ

  1. Active Crustal Deformation in the Area of San Carlos, Baja California Sur, Mexico as Shown by Data of Local Earthquake Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munguía, Luis; González-Escobar, Mario; Navarro, Miguel; Valdez, Tito; Mayer, Sergio; Aguirre, Alfredo; Wong, Victor; Luna, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    We analyzed earthquakes of sequences that occurred at different times near San Carlos, a town of approximately 5000 inhabitants. The seismic sequences happened during March-April 1989, October 2000-June 2001, and 5-15 February 2004 at about 200 km west of the Pacific-North America plate boundary. The strong shaking from initial earthquakes of the first two sequences prompted the installation of temporary seismic stations in the area. With data recorded by these stations, we found an earthquake distribution that is consistent with the northwest segment of the Santa Margarita fault. Both the focal depth, that seemed to increase in E-NE direction, and a composite fault-plane solution, obtained from polarity data of the small earthquakes, were also consistent with the main characteristics of that fault. We also found that our normal-faulting mechanism (east side down) was quite similar to centroid moment tensor solutions for earthquakes with M w 5.4 and 5.3 that occurred in the area in February 2004. It is likely, then, that these larger earthquakes also occurred along the Santa Margarita Fault. To get some insight into the regional stress pattern, we compared the above mechanisms with mechanisms reported for other earthquakes of the Pacific margin of Baja California Sur and the Gulf of California regions. We observed that focal mechanisms of the two regions have T axes of stress that plunge sub horizontally in E-NE average direction. The corresponding P axes have N-NW average trend, but for the Pacific earthquakes these axes plunge at angles that are ~35° larger than those for the Gulf earthquakes. These more vertically inclined P axes of compressive stress mean substantial oblique fault motions. The mixture of oblique and strike-slip components of fault motions, as the focal mechanisms show, confirms a transtensional stress regime for the region. Before this research, we knew little about the seismicity and styles of faulting in the area. Now we know that

  2. Characterization of Fog Water Collection Potential and Quality on California State University Monterey Bay and Glen Deven Ranch Near Big Sur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, G. E.

    2005-12-01

    Since June 25, 2005 I have had three standard fog collectors (SFCs) in place at various locales throughout the Greater Monterey Area. From June 25 until July 22, the three SFCs were all located on the California State University Monterey Bay (CSUMB) campus, only a few meters above sea level. Their orientations were all due west. On July 22 two of the SFCs were relocated to a hilly coastal location in Big Sur several hundred meters above sea level known as Glen Deven Ranch. They will remain there until October 15. An SFC is a device that collects fog water from the air. They each consist of a 1 m2 copper frame with a mesh net wound around it. This frame is affixed to two steel posts and is 2 m off the ground. Below the frame sits a trough that has a bottom slanted so that all water in it flows towards a spout at one end. This spout is connected by a tube to a container or data logging rain gauge. Preliminary data analysis shows that maximal collection occurs in the early morning hours at CSUMB and during the evening at Glen Deven Ranch. The weekly volumes of water collected at Glen Deven thus far have been between 2 and 30 times the volume collected on CSUMB. During the time period of operation, the SFCs connected to containers collected 114.37 L in total. The maximum collected for one week is 6.75 L on campus and 19.21 L at the ranch. The data logged by the rain gauge is currently being analyzed to determine how much water has been collected by the SFC it has been connected to. Water from the Glen Deven SFCs and from the CSUMB SFC has been sent to the Santa Clara Municipal Water District where the purity and potability of the water are being investigated. Initially, I wanted to determine about how much water could be obtained in this fashion for use in the Monterey Bay Area. I assumed my results would be broadly applicable, but due to the high variability of fog collection rates I observed even in collectors only a couple hundred of meters apart, any conclusions I

  3. Computing by Observing Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaliere, Matteo; Leupold, Peter

    Computing by Observing is a paradigm for the implementation of models of Natural Computing. It was inspired by the setup of experiments in biochemistry. One central feature is an observer that translates the evolution of an underlying observed system into sequences over a finite alphabet. We take a step toward more realistic observers by allowing them to notice only an occurring change in the observed system rather than to read the system's entire configuration. Compared to previous implementations of the Computing by Observing paradigm, this decreases the computational power; but with relatively simple systems we still obtain the language class generated by matrix grammars.

  4. Analysis of Temperature Variability Between Davidson Seamount and Sur Ridge: The Tomographic Inverse Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    processing. Finally, I would like to thank my wife Julia and son Forrest for their patience and support over my two years at NPS. x THIS PAGE...Ramp, F. Chavez , C.S. Chiu, and C.A. Collins, “Development and Maintenance of the ICON Observing System in Monterey Bay.” Proceedings, American

  5. Volvulus gastrique aigu sur éventration diaphragmatique de l'adulte: à propos d'un cas et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Guèye, Mohamadou Lamine; Touré, Alpha Oumar; Thiam, Ousmane; Seck, Mamadou; Cissé, Mamadou; Kâ, Ousmane; Dieng, Madieng; Touré, Cheikh Tidiane

    2015-01-01

    Le volvulus gastrique aigu sur éventration diaphragmatique est une affection rare et une urgence diagnostique et thérapeutique. Sa présentation clinique est peu spécifique et la tomodensitométrie abdominale permet de confirmer le diagnostic. Nous rapportons le cas d'un patient de 22 ans qui présentaitun syndrome occlusif et une voussure épigastrique. A la radiographie de l'Abdomen Sans Préparation, on notait 2 niveaux hydro-aériques sous la coupole diaphragmatique gauche qui était surélevée. Une dévolvulation et une gastrectomie atypique ont été réalisées devant un volvulus gastrique aigu avec nécrose du fundus mis en évidence à la laparotomie. Les suites opératoires ont été simples. PMID:26161223

  6. Sur les différentes techniques de validation de la méthode de l'onde thermique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherifi, A.; Santana, J.

    1993-06-01

    The measurement of space charge location in insulating material is necessary to know phenomenon which are important such as the breakdown. In this article, we show the precision and the reliability of the thermal step method by using some validations. The experimental validation consists in putting, between two insulating slabs of unknow thickness, a plane of charges realized by an aluminium sheet which has been submitted to a high tension before the measure. The experiment holds in the order to determine charges and to deduce the thickness of each slab. We valid the numerical treatments by simulations ; by using a known distribution of charge, we calcul the current; from this current we determine the new distribution of charge which is compared to the first one. We valid also the thermal step method by using two different numerical treatments (by Fourier and by derivation) which are applied to an experimental current. La mesure des charges d'espace dans les isolants synthétiques est une nécessité si l'on veut étendre nos connaissances sur ces matériaux et sur des phénomènes importants tel que le claquage. Dans cet article, nous montrons la précision et la fiabilité de la méthode de l'onde thermique en mettant en valeur un ensemble de validations. La validation expérimentale consiste à placer entre deux plaques isolantes déchargées, d'épaisseurs inconnues, une feuille d'aluminium portée à un potentiel connu avant la mesure. Il s'agit de mesurer ces charges et d'en déduire ainsi les épaisseurs de chaque échantillon. Nous validons les traitements numériques par des simulations. En partant d'une distribution de charge connue, on calcule le courant correspondant, puis on en déduit le champ électrique et la charge d'espace issus de ce courant que l'on compare aux distributions originales. Enfin la comparaison de résultats obtenus à partir d'un courant experimental traité par deux méthodes numériques différentes (par séries de Fourier et par

  7. Restauration fonctionnelle du rachis : effet du niveau initial de douleur sur les performances des sujets lombalgiques chroniques

    PubMed Central

    Caby, Isabelle; Olivier, N; Mendelek, F; Kheir, R Bou; Vanvelcenaher, J; Pelayo, P

    2014-01-01

    HISTORIQUE : La lombalgie chronique est une douleur lombaire persistante d’origine multifactorielle. Le niveau de douleur initial reste faiblement utilisé pour analyser et comparer les réponses des patients lombalgiques au programme de reconditionnement. OBJECTIFS : Apprécier et évaluer les réponses des sujets lombalgiques chroniques très douloureux à une prise en charge dynamique et intensive. MÉTHODOLOGIE : 144 sujets atteints de lombalgie chronique ont été inclus dans un programme de restauration fonctionnelle du rachis de 5 semaines. Les sujets ont été classés en deux groupes de niveau de douleur: un groupe atteint de douleur sévère (n = 28) et un groupe atteint de douleur légère à modérée (n = 106). L’ensemble des sujets ont bénéficié d’une prise en charge identique comprenant principalement de la kinésithérapie, de l’ergothérapie, du reconditionnement musculaire et cardio-vasculaire ainsi qu’un suivi psychologique. Les paramètres physiques (flexibilité, force musculaire) et psychologiques (qualité de vie) ont été mesurés avant (T0) et après le programme (T5sem). RÉSULTATS : L’ensemble des performances physiques et fonctionnelles des sujets très douloureux sont moins bonnes et le retentissement de la lombalgie sur la qualité de vie, pour ces mêmes sujets, est majoré à T0. Toutes les différences significatives constatées à T0 entre les deux groupes s’effacent à T5sem. CONCLUSIONS : Les sujets lombalgiques chroniques très douloureux répondent favorablement au programme dynamique et intensif. L’intensité douloureuse de la lombalgie n’aurait pas d’effet sur les réponses au programme. La restauration fonctionnelle du rachis apporterait aux sujets la possibilité de mieux gérer leur douleur quel que soit son niveau. PMID:25299476

  8. SVOM Observing Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachaud, C.; SVOM Consortium

    2016-10-01

    We will present the observing strategy developed to optimize the scientific return of the SVOM mission. We will review the attitude law, the communication processes and the different observation programs (Core Program, ToO and General Program).

  9. Defence SDI - A Useful Current Awareness System (Dissemination Selective de L’Information sur la Defense: Un Systeme Pratique D’Information Permanente).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    would yield: Flight characteristics, Flight clothing, Flight control , etc. Mode 3 - accepts the term only if bounded by blank spaces or punctuation. Mode...authorities. A waiting period must be expected and even then "orders" may be refused and DSIS has no control over these circumstances. The U.S. will...aux usagers accredites 5 de i’information scientifique et technique tuuchint les questions de defense, sous torme de publications r~guiieres portant sur

  10. Teacher Observation Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Educational Research Center.

    The Teacher Observation Scales include four instruments: Observer Rating Scale (ORS), Reading Strategies Check List, Arithmetic Strategies Check List, and Classroom Description. These instruments utilize trained observers to describe the teaching behavior, instructional strategies and physical characteristics in each classroom. On the ORS, teacher…

  11. Traitement orthopédique d'une fracture pathologique du fémur sur malformation veineuse: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Guelzim, Soufiane; Lamrani, Omar; Kharmaz, Mohammed; Lahlou, Abdo; Elouadghiri, Mohammed; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El Yaccoubi, Mouradh

    2015-01-01

    Les malformations vasculaires artérioveineuse, veineuse ou lymphatique représentent des défects localisés dans la morphogénèse vasculaire. Elles peuvent survenir dans tous les organes, mais prédominent au niveau de membres, plus souvent dans la peau, les espaces celluleux ou les muscles. Le bilan de nombreuses malformations a été transformé par l'utilisation de l'angioscanner avec reconstruction ou de l'IRM. Les auteurs rapportent un cas de fracture pathologique du fémur proximal gauche sur malformation veineuse, chez une patiente de 35 ans. Le diagnostic a été porté sur un faisceau d'arguments cliniques et paracliniques. La radiographie standard a montré une fracture diaphysaire du tiers supérieur du fémur gauche sur os pathologique. L'IRM de la cuisse gauche ainsi qu'un phléboscanner des membres inférieurs ont objectivé un aspect en faveur d'une malformation veineuse. Vu le déplacement minime de la fracture et le risque très important de saignement peropératoire, la patiente a bénéficié d'un traitement orthopédique; l’évolution a été simple, marquée par une consolidation au sixième mois. PMID:26600903

  12. Détermination expérimentale de la résistance thermique d'interface d'un dépôt métallique submicronique sur son substrat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmina, N.; Scudeller, Y.

    1995-06-01

    de la résistance électrique du dépôt. La détection à large bande passante (25 MHz) assure une bonne restitution du signal. Celui-ci est filtré numériquement pour être ensuite analysé. De très faibles résistances, comprises entre 10^{-8} et 10^{-6} m^2 K/W, peuvent être détectées lorsque l'observation des variations de température s'effectue avant la première microseconde. Le principe de la méthode et le dispositif expérimental sont présentés. La sensibilité de la méthode est analysée en détail. Des résultats, obtenus sur des dépôts de 200 à 600 nm de cuivre pulvérisés sur un substrat de verre de Silice, sont présentés. Des résistances d'interfaces de l'ordre de 10^{-7} m^2 K/W ont été identifiées avec une précision d'environ 30 %.

  13. Syndrome de larva migrans cutanée sur pied malformé (à propos d'un cas)

    PubMed Central

    Benbella, Imane; Khalki, Hanane; Lahmadi, Khalid; Kouara, Sara; Abbadi, Abderrahim; Er-rami, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Le syndrome de larva migrans cutanée est une dermite sous cutanée causée par des larves d'ankylostomes d'animaux en impasse parasitaire chez l'homme. L'infestation transcutanée est favorisée par le contact avec le sol contaminé par les larves du parasite. Nous rapportons le cas d'un nourrisson de 15 mois, originaire de Guinée-Bissau, atteint d'un syndrome de larva migrans cutanée sur un pied malformé. Cette malformation sous forme d'une syndactylie associée à une tuméfaction du pied, était à l'origine d'un retard d'acquisition de la station debout. De même, on a rapporté une notion de pieds nus, vue la difficulté de chausser le pied malformé du patient. Tous ces facteurs auraient contribués à favoriser l'infestation du malade par les larves du nématode. PMID:27217876

  14. Infection rates in Dipetalogaster maximus (Reduviidae: Triatominae) by Trypanosoma cruzi in the Cape Region, Baja California Sur, México.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, María-Luisa; Llinas, Jorge; Palacios, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Infection rates of Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas (in the blood-sucking bug Dipetalogaster maximus [Uhler]) were determined from specimens collected at 12 localities in the Cape Region of Baja California Sur, Mexico. Eight collection sites were located in the tropical dry forest, two in desert shrub, and two in the ecotone between these two communities. Of the 245 D. maximus collected, 65% were first and second instar nymphs; 32.6% were third, fourth, and fifth instar nymphs; and 2.4% were adults. The highest proportion of specimens came from El Fandango (30%) and San Bartolo (23%) canyons and La Cruz hill (12%) in the mountain slopes facing the Gulf of California. In feces from individual bugs analyzed for T. cruzi, we found an overall infection rate of 7.0%. Infection rates increased from 4.1% in second instars to 42.% in fifth instars. High infection rates were found in bugs collected from La Poza (38.4%), El Gato (27.2%), and El Pedregoso (25%) hills; low infection rates were found in specimens from La Cruz hill and San Bartolo canyon. Specimens from some collection sites were not infected with T. cruzi.

  15. SUR1 Receptor Interaction with Hesperidin and Linarin Predicts Possible Mechanisms of Action of Valeriana officinalis in Parkinson

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Gesivaldo; Giraldez-Alvarez, Lisandro Diego; Ávila-Rodriguez, Marco; Capani, Francisco; Galembeck, Eduardo; Neto, Aristóteles Gôes; Barreto, George E.; Andrade, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders. A theoretical approach of our previous experiments reporting the cytoprotective effects of the Valeriana officinalis compounds extract for PD is suggested. In addiction to considering the PD as a result of mitochondrial metabolic imbalance and oxidative stress, such as in our previous in vitro model of rotenone, in the present manuscript we added a genomic approach to evaluate the possible underlying mechanisms of the effect of the plant extract. Microarray of substantia nigra (SN) genome obtained from Allen Brain Institute was analyzed using gene set enrichment analysis to build a network of hub genes implicated in PD. Proteins transcribed from hub genes and their ligands selected by search ensemble approach algorithm were subjected to molecular docking studies, as well as 20 ns Molecular Dynamics (MD) using a Molecular Mechanic Poison/Boltzman Surface Area (MMPBSA) protocol. Our results bring a new approach to Valeriana officinalis extract, and suggest that hesperidin, and probably linarin are able to relieve effects of oxidative stress during ATP depletion due to its ability to binding SUR1. In addition, the key role of valerenic acid and apigenin is possibly related to prevent cortical hyperexcitation by inducing neuronal cells from SN to release GABA on brain stem. Thus, under hyperexcitability, oxidative stress, asphyxia and/or ATP depletion, Valeriana officinalis may trigger different mechanisms to provide neuronal cell protection. PMID:27199743

  16. Rupture utérine spontanée sur léiomyosarcome utérin

    PubMed Central

    Boussouni, Khouloud; Benoulaid, Meryem; Dafiri, Rachida

    2016-01-01

    Les sarcomes utérins sont des cancers rares caractérisés par leur polymorphisme clinique et histologique. Ce sont des tumeurs malignes de mauvais pronostic. Ils se révèlent, généralement, par des symptômes non spécifiques à type de douleurs pelviennes, métrorragies. Un tableau d'abdomen aigu avec hémopneumopéritoine est une présentation rare. Nous rapportons le cas d'un léiomyosarcome utérin qui s'est manifesté par une péritonite aigue généralisée inaugurale chez une femme de 43 ans. Le diagnostic de perforation utérine sur tumeur maligne a été suspecté par l'imagerie préopératoire en urgence (échographie et TDM) et confirmé histologiquement. PMID:27642425

  17. Marine diet and tobacco exposure affects mercury concentrations in pregnant women (I) from Baja California Sur, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bentzen, Rebecca; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Castellini, J. Margaret; Celis, Alfredo; O’Hara, Todd; Celina Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía

    2017-01-01

    Seafood provides essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and other nutrients to pregnant women and their fetus(es) while a diet rich in finfish can be a major pathway of monomethyl mercury (MeHg+) exposure. We measured total mercury concentration ([THg]) in hair samples provided by 75 women in Baja California Sur (BCS) to assess its relationship with age, parity, tobacco smoke exposure, and diet based on survey methodologies. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used to explain the possible association of the different variables with [THg] in hair. Median [THg] in hair was 1.52 µgg−1, ranging from 0.12 to 24.19 µgg−1 and varied significantly by segment. Approximately 72% (54/75) of those evaluated exceed 1 µgg−1 [THg] and 8% (6/75) exceed 5 µgg−1 [THg] in hair. Although frequency of fish consumption contributed significantly to explaining hair [THg], fish consumption only explained 43% of [THg] in a GLM incorporating tobacco exposure and body mass index. This study establishes possible relationships among multiple potential sources of exposure and other factors related to [THg] in hair of women in the prenatal period. A more detailed examination of other sources of exposure and factors contributing to [THg] is warranted. PMID:28203532

  18. Marine diet and tobacco exposure affects mercury concentrations in pregnant women (I) from Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bentzen, Rebecca; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Castellini, J Margaret; Celis, Alfredo; O'Hara, Todd; Celina Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía

    2014-01-01

    Seafood provides essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and other nutrients to pregnant women and their fetus(es) while a diet rich in finfish can be a major pathway of monomethyl mercury (MeHg(+)) exposure. We measured total mercury concentration ([THg]) in hair samples provided by 75 women in Baja California Sur (BCS) to assess its relationship with age, parity, tobacco smoke exposure, and diet based on survey methodologies. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used to explain the possible association of the different variables with [THg] in hair. Median [THg] in hair was 1.52 µgg(-1), ranging from 0.12 to 24.19 µgg(-1) and varied significantly by segment. Approximately 72% (54/75) of those evaluated exceed 1 µgg(-1) [THg] and 8% (6/75) exceed 5 µgg(-1) [THg] in hair. Although frequency of fish consumption contributed significantly to explaining hair [THg], fish consumption only explained 43% of [THg] in a GLM incorporating tobacco exposure and body mass index. This study establishes possible relationships among multiple potential sources of exposure and other factors related to [THg] in hair of women in the prenatal period. A more detailed examination of other sources of exposure and factors contributing to [THg] is warranted.

  19. La grossesse gémellaire sur un utérus pseudo unicorne: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    aheri, Hafsa; Saadi, Hanane; Benkirane, Saad; Mimouni, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    L'incidence des malformations utérines est estimée dans la population générale entre 0,1 et 3%. La survenue d'une grossesse en cas de malformation utérine est une situation potentiellement à haut risque obstétrical. Nous décrivons un cas très rare d'une grossesse gémellaire sur un utérus pseudo unicorne découverte précocement à 8 SA, permettant la réalisation d'une hémihysterectomie de la corne rudimentaire prévenant ainsi le risque majeur de la rupture utérine. L’évolution était favorable jusqu’à 37 SA où la patiente a été programmée pour césarienne prophylactique. Le dépistage échographique au premier trimestre de la grossesse est donc primordial permettant la détection systématique de ce genre de malformation afin de prévenir les complications. PMID:26977238

  20. Biological influences on modern sulfates: Textures and composition of gypsum deposits from Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Marilyn B.; Des Marais, David J.; Parenteau, Mary N.; Jahnke, Linda L.; Turk, Kendra A.; Kubo, Michael D. Y.

    2010-01-01

    Gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O) deposits from a range of sedimentary environments at Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico were investigated for microscale texture and composition in order to differentiate features formed under substantial microbial influence from those for which microbial effects were relatively minor or absent. Gypsum deposits were classified according to their sedimentary environment, textures, crystal habit, brine composition and other geochemical factors. The environments studied included subaqueous sediments in anchialine pools and in solar salterns, as well as subsurface sediments of mudflats and saltpans. Gypsum that developed in the apparent absence of biofilms included crystals precipitated in the water column and subsedimentary discs that precipitated from phreatic brines. Subsedimentary gypsum developed in sabkha environments exhibited a sinuous microtexture and poikilitically enclosed detrital particles. Water column precipitates had euhedral prismatic habits and extensive penetrative twinning. Gypsum deposits influenced by biofilms included bottom nucleated crusts and gypsolites developing in anchialine pools and saltern ponds. Gypsum precipitating within benthic biofilms, and in biofilms within subaerial sediment surfaces provided compelling evidence of biological influences on crystal textures and habits. This evidence included irregular, high relief surface textures, accessory minerals (S°, Ca-carbonate, Sr/Ca-sulfate and Mg-hydroxide) and distinctive crystal habits such as equant forms and crystals having distorted prism faces.

  1. Baseline heavy metals and metalloid values in blood of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ley-Quiñónez, C; Zavala-Norzagaray, A A; Espinosa-Carreón, T L; Peckham, H; Marquez-Herrera, C; Campos-Villegas, L; Aguirre, A A

    2011-09-01

    Environmental pollution due to heavy metals is having an increased impact on marine wildlife accentuated by anthropogenic changes in the planet including overfishing, agricultural runoff and marine emerging infectious diseases. Sea turtles are considered sentinels of ecological health in marine ecosystems. The objective of this study was to determine baseline concentrations of zinc, cadmium, copper, nickel, selenium, manganese, mercury and lead in blood of 22 clinically healthy, loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta), captured for several reasons in Puerto López Mateos, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Zinc was the most prevalent metal in blood (41.89 μg g⁻¹), followed by Selenium (10.92 μg g⁻¹). The mean concentration of toxic metal Cadmium was 6.12 μg g⁻¹ and 1.01μg g⁻¹ respectively. Mean concentrations of metals followed this pattern: Zn>Se>Ni>Cu>Mn>Cd>Pb and Hg. We can conclude that blood is an excellent tissue to measure in relatively non-invasive way baseline values of heavy metals in Caretta caretta.

  2. BOOK REVIEW: Observational Cosmology Observational Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Dale Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Observational Cosmology by Stephen Serjeant fills a niche that was underserved in the textbook market: an up-to-date, thorough cosmology textbook focused on observations, aimed at advanced undergraduates. Not everything about the book is perfect - some subjects get short shrift, in some cases jargon dominates, and there are too few exercises. Still, on the whole, the book is a welcome addition. For decades, the classic textbooks of cosmology have focused on theory. But for every Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect there is a Butcher-Oemler effect; there are as many cosmological phenomena established by observations, and only explained later by theory, as there were predicted by theory and confirmed by observations. In fact, in the last decade, there has been an explosion of new cosmological findings driven by observations. Some are so new that you won't find them mentioned in books just a few years old. So it is not just refreshing to see a book that reflects the new realities of cosmology, it is vital, if students are to truly stay up on a field that has widened in scope considerably. Observational Cosmology is filled with full-color images, and graphs from the latest experiments. How exciting it is that we live in an era where satellites and large experiments have gathered so much data to reveal astounding details about the origin of the universe and its evolution. To have all the latest data gathered together and explained in one book will be a revelation to students. In fact, at times it was to me. I've picked up modern cosmological knowledge through a patchwork of reading papers, going to colloquia, and serving on grant and telescope allocation panels. To go back and see them explained from square one, and summarized succinctly, filled in quite a few gaps in my own knowledge and corrected a few misconceptions I'd acquired along the way. To make room for all these graphs and observational details, a few things had to be left out. For one, there are few derivations

  3. Observing Double Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, Russell M.; Fulton, B. J.; Bianco, Federica B.; Martinez, John; Baxter, John; Brewer, Mark; Carro, Joseph; Collins, Sarah; Estrada, Chris; Johnson, Jolyon; Salam, Akash; Wallen, Vera; Warren, Naomi; Smith, Thomas C.; Armstrong, James D.; McGaughey, Steve; Pye, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Church, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Double stars have been systematically observed since William Herschel initiated his program in 1779. In 1803 he reported that, to his surprise, many of the systems he had been observing for a quarter century were gravitationally bound binary stars. In 1830 the first binary orbital solution was obtained, leading eventually to the determination of stellar masses. Double star observations have been a prolific field, with observations and discoveries - often made by students and amateurs - routinely published in a number of specialized journals such as the Journal of Double Star Observations. All published double star observations from Herschel's to the present have been incorporated in the Washington Double Star Catalog. In addition to reviewing the history of visual double stars, we discuss four observational technologies and illustrate these with our own observational results from both California and Hawaii on telescopes ranging from small SCTs to the 2-meter Faulkes Telescope North on Haleakala. Two of these technologies are visual observations aimed primarily at published "hands-on" student science education, and CCD observations of both bright and very faint doubles. The other two are recent technologies that have launched a double star renaissance. These are lucky imaging and speckle interferometry, both of which can use electron-multiplying CCD cameras to allow short (30 ms or less) exposures that are read out at high speed with very low noise. Analysis of thousands of high speed exposures allows normal seeing limitations to be overcome so very close doubles can be accurately measured.

  4. Les effets du travail en equipe dans l'apprentissage par projets sur la motivation des etudiantes et des etudiants en formation des ingenieurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Nicolas

    Les representants des secteurs industriels et les, milieux professionnels en Amerique du Nord reprochaient aux universites de former des ingenieurs avec peu d'experience pratique en resolution de problemes et en conception. Quelques programmes de genie ont alors mis en place le travail en equipe dans l'apprentissage par projets. Beaucoup d'ecrits font valoir les benefices de l'apprentissage par projets sur la motivation des etudiants. Or, ces benefices commencent a peine a faire l'objet de recherches visant a produire des donnees probantes a ce sujet. Les travaux sur la motivation en contexte d'apprentissage et les modeles theoriques developpes sont issus d'environnements d'apprentissage marques par l'enseignement magistral. Le modele de la valeur attendue de la tache (Eccles et Wigfield, 1995; Neuville, 2004) et le modele du systeme-groupe (St-Arnaud, 2008) ont ete retenus pour mesurer les effets du travail en equipe dans l'apprentissage par projets sur la motivation. La recherche visait aussi a approfondir et a nuancer la comprehension de la motivation des etudiants universitaires apprenant en contexte innovant. Les sujets constituent des etudiants (n=100) travaillant sur des projets d'integration au cours des trois sessions initiales du programme de genie mecanique d'une universite canadienne. L'analyse de regression multiple revele que les construits de la motivation expliquent un tiers de la variance de l'engagement academique dans la realisation du projet d'integration. Les perceptions de l' "expectancy", de la valeur intrinseque et utilitaire sont les determinants principaux de l'engagement des etudiants. L'analyse de variance multivariee a mesures repetees indique que la motivation des etudiants pour le travail sur les projets d'integration a augmente au cours des trois sessions initiales du parcours de formation. Finalement, malgre l'absence d'interaction significative entre les variables de motivation et de l'equipe, les reponses des sujets indiquent une

  5. Influence de l'environnement sur la tenue des ciments alumineux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coatanlem, P.; Jauberthie, R.

    2004-11-01

    Le fondu alumineux est un ciment à prise rapide, bonne tenue à l'eau de mer, aux solutions sulfatées et aux sols alcalins. Actuellement, il est communément utilisé pour des applications à des ouvrages requérant une exécution rapide. Sa très bonne résistance mécanique à très courte échéance décroît ensuite après quelques années de service. Le but de notre étude est de relier ces observations à l'évolution des phases cristallines et ceci dans des conditions extérieures plus ou moins agressives. Le CA (aluminate de calcium CaOAl{2}O{3}) est le constituant principal du ciment fondu anhydre. A 20circC, la phase hydratée est le CAH{10} (CaO Al{2}O{3},10H{2}O). Cette phase métastable disparaît totalement à 60circC. Elle est remplacée par C{3}AH{6 }(3CaO, Al{2}O{3}, 6H{2}O) et Al(OH){3}. La transformation est très rapide. L'objectif de cette étude est d'observer par diffraction X l'évolution des phases hydratées du fondu alumineux soumis à des environnements agressifs : température élevée, atmosphère humide, solutions acides et solutions sulfatiques pour lesquelles ce ciment est couramment préconisé. Les observations au MEB mettent clairement en évidence l'évolution de la microstructure de la pâte cimentaire lors du changement de phase. Nous avons montré que cette transformation de phase observée à 60circC apparaît à des températures beaucoup plus basses (dès 20circC) liées à l'environnement. Ceci explique pourquoi certains pays ont proscrit l'utilisation d'un tel ciment, la durabilité n'étant pas correcte avec ce type de matériau.

  6. Jupiter System Observer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senske, Dave; Kwok, Johnny

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the proposed mission for the Jupiter System Observer. The presentation also includes overviews of the mission timeline, science goals, and spacecraftspecifications for the satellite.

  7. BAA Observers' Workshops: Observing the aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavine, D.

    2004-10-01

    Although auroral and upper-atmosphere research is carried out mainly in polar regions by professional scientists, it is still worthwhile for the amateur to observe this beautiful and sometimes spectacular phenomenon for its own sake. Occasionally, however, the BAA Aurora Section is called upon to supply information on displays to a variety of professional organisations, and so it has become important to receive reports, to log them in a standardised method and to maintain a continuous archive which can be consulted by interested persons. Through the kindness and foresight of the late Dr Michael Gadsden this has been done - all our auroral and noctilucent cloud data from the time of Director James Paton in the 1940s up to the present is preserved in the special Balfour Stewart Archive at the Library of Aberdeen University.

  8. [Temporal and spatial distribution of shorebirds (Charadriiformes) at San Ignacio Lagoon, Baja California Sur, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Luis Francisco; Carmona, Roberto

    2013-03-01

    Baja California Peninsula has several wetlands that represent important ecosystems for shorebirds. San Ignacio Lagoon is one of these sites, and supports 10% of the total abundance of shorebirds reported in this Peninsula. Since there is few information about this group in this area, we studied spatial and temporal changes in abundance and distribution of shorebirds in San Ignacio Lagoon. For this, we conducted twelve monthly censuses (October 2007-September 2008) on the entire internal perimeter of the lagoon, which we divided into four areas: two at the North and two at the South. We observed a seasonal pattern, with the lowest abundance in May (1 585 birds) and the highest in October (47 410). The most abundant species were Marbled Godwits (Limosa fedoa; 55% of the total records), Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri; 23%), and Willet (Tringa semipalmata; 10%). All three species were more abundant in autumn; for both, the Marbled Godwit and Willet, we observed their highest numbers in winter and spring, while the Western Sandpiper showed noticeable oscillations, reaching a maximum in early winter (December). In summer, Marbled Godwit and Willet were the only birds present but in lower numbers. Here present the first records of the Pacific Red Knot (Calidris canutus roselaari) in the area. Bird abundance and species richness were influenced seasonally by migration and spatially by sites in the lagoon. The greatest shorebird abundance was in the South area of the lagoon, probably because of better accessibility to food. Our results allowed the inclusion of San Ignacio Lagoon in the Western Hemisphere Shorebirds Reserve Network (WHSRN) as a site of international importance.

  9. Guest observer program OAO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyne, G. V.

    1972-01-01

    The OAO-A2 observations of two Be stars, 60 Cygnus and gamma Cassiopeia, were analyzed. It is shown that unpolarized radiation produced by continuous Balmer emission in the atmospheres of Be stars is significant in the explanation of the polarization observed below the Balmer discontinuity. Available multicolor polarimetry data was also analyzed with respect to interstellar polarization.

  10. Observe Your Shadow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovšek, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Observe Your Shadow was the title of an observational experiment that was, among others, conducted in the scope of the past year's (2014-2015) first Slovene science competition for elementary school pupils between the ages of 6 and 13. The main reason for establishing a new science competition was popularization of science and its experimental…

  11. Call for Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilcher, Frederick

    2017-04-01

    Observers who have made visual, photographic, or CCD measurements of positions of minor planets in calendar 2016 are encouraged to report them to this author on or before 2017 April 15. This will be the deadline for receipt of reports which can be included in the "General Report of Position Observations for 2016," to be published in MPB Vol. 44, No. 3.

  12. Crew Earth Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runco, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Crew Earth Observations (CEO) takes advantage of the crew in space to observe and photograph natural and human-made changes on Earth. The photographs record the Earth's surface changes over time, along with dynamic events such as storms, floods, fires and volcanic eruptions. These images provide researchers on Earth with key data to better understand the planet.

  13. Becoming a Scientific Observer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Greg MacDonald leaves no stone unturned as he places the complexity of second-plane observation into one coherent vision that includes the fundamentals of self-construction, the essential field of observation (freedom of work within the prepared environment), the role of the human tendencies, the construction of developmental facets, and the…

  14. The Concerned Observer Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabiger, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Describes a classroom experiment--the "concerned observer" experiment--for production students that dramatizes basic film language by relating it to several levels of human observation. Details the experiment's three levels, and concludes that film language mimics wide-ranging states of human emotion and ideological persuasion. (PRA)

  15. Observing Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Classroom observation is a crucial aspect of any system of teacher evaluation. No matter how skilled a teacher is in other aspects of teaching--such as careful planning, working well with colleagues, and communicating with parents--if classroom practice is deficient, that individual cannot be considered a good teacher. Classroom observations can…

  16. Observation Scheduling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve A.; Tran, Daniel Q.; Rabideau, Gregg R.; Schaffer, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Software has been designed to schedule remote sensing with the Earth Observing One spacecraft. The software attempts to satisfy as many observation requests as possible considering each against spacecraft operation constraints such as data volume, thermal, pointing maneuvers, and others. More complex constraints such as temperature are approximated to enable efficient reasoning while keeping the spacecraft within safe limits. Other constraints are checked using an external software library. For example, an attitude control library is used to determine the feasibility of maneuvering between pairs of observations. This innovation can deal with a wide range of spacecraft constraints and solve large scale scheduling problems like hundreds of observations and thousands of combinations of observation sequences.

  17. Visual observations over oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terry, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Important factors in locating, identifying, describing, and photographing ocean features from space are presented. On the basis of crew comments and other findings, the following recommendations can be made for Earth observations on Space Shuttle missions: (1) flyover exercises must include observations and photography of both temperate and tropical/subtropical waters; (2) sunglint must be included during some observations of ocean features; (3) imaging remote sensors should be used together with conventional photographic systems to document visual observations; (4) greater consideration must be given to scheduling earth observation targets likely to be obscured by clouds; and (5) an annotated photographic compilation of ocean features can be used as a training aid before the mission and as a reference book during space flight.

  18. PECVD de composes de silicium sur polymeres: Etude de la premiere phase du depot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennler, Gilles

    Since their first introduction in the early 90's, transparent barriers against oxygen and/or water vapor permeation through polymers, such as SiO 2, are the object of increasing interest in the food and pharmaceutical packaging industries, and more recently for the encapsulation of organic-based displays. It is now well known that these thin layers possess barrier properties only if they are thicker than a certain critical thickness, dc. For example, dc is around 12 nm in the case of SiO2 on KaptonRTM PI; below this value, the measured "Oxygen Transmission Rate" (OTR, in standard cm3/m2/day/bar) is roughly the same as that of the uncoated polymer. Until now, no detailed research has been carried out to explain this observation, but a hypothesis was proposed in the literature, based on island-like growth structure of the coating for d ≤ dc. According to this hypothesis, the surface energy of the polymeric substrates is so low that the Volmer-Weber (island-coalescence) growth mode occurs. We have aimed to verify this explanation, that is, to study the initial phase of silicon-compound (SiO2 and SiN) growth on four different polymeric substrates, namely polyimide (KaptonRTM PI), polycarbonate (LexanRTM PC), polypropylene (PP), and polyethyleneterephthalate (MylarRTM PET). Three different deposition methods were used, namely reactive evaporation of SiO, radio-frequency (RF) Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (RF PECVD), and Distributed Electron Cyclotron Resonance (DECR) PECVD. In this latter case, the substrates were placed in three different positions: (i) in the active glow zone, (ii) downstream, and (iii) downstream, but shielded from photon emission (e.g. VUV) from the plasma. Angle-Resolved X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS), Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), the latter performed after Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) by oxygen plasma, revealed that growth indeed occurs in a Volmer-Weber mode in the

  19. Influence de revetements bioactifs sur les cellules endotheliales: Vers des protheses vasculaires non thrombotiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadlallah, Hicham

    Developing vascular prostheses of small diameter to replace vessels closed by atherosclerosis remains a challenge because of the risk of thrombosis. Seeding of endothelial cells, which have antithrombogenic properties, is a promising solution, but we must create surfaces which promote their adhesion and retention to resist shear stresses created by the blood flow on the surface. This master's project aimed at investigating the effect of a plasma polymerized coating rich in primary amines (called LP), with or without elements of the extracellular matrix (Fibronectin (FN) or chondroitin sulphate (CS)) on the endothelial cells and hemocompatibility of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The adhesion, growth and retention of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) on PET and LP, in the presence and absence of FN or CS, have been studied. In addition, platelet adhesion on different surfaces was evaluated by a perfusion test with whole blood, platelets being previously labeled with rhodamine. Finally a double fluorescent labeling (using Cellview Maroon to mark the HUVECs and CD61 antibody for platelets) was developed to study the retention of endothelial cells, under blood flow and verify their non thrombogenic character. The results obtained show that both the LP coating and the adsorbed FN, strongly increase both the cellular adhesion and growth on PET; however they have no additional effect when the two are combined. They also augment cellular retention to surface, but this remains incomplete. Moreover we observed that the plasma coating (LP) greatly increases the thrombogenicity of the surface, with strong platelet adhesion and activation. This thrombogenicity is extremely reduced when endothelial cells cover the surface, but cell loss under the effect of shear produced by the perfusion creates significant areas of platelet adhesion. The grafting of CS on LP also permits good HUVECs adhesion, growth and retention under shear stress on HUVEC, with no difference

  20. Comportement en fatigue et influence de la temperature sur les proprietes en traction du PLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menard, Claire

    Current environmental issues reduce the use of materials obtained from fossil resources. The usual plastics therefore tend to be replaced by more green polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA), a bio-based and biodegradable polymer. Knowledge on the properties of this material is essential, especially in terms of fatigue strength and influence of temperature on tensile stiffness and strength. In this study, the PLA samples are submitted to monotonic tensile tests, according to ASTM D638-10, at various temperatures between room temperature (23°C) and the glass transition temperature of the material (55-60°C). The results show a decrease of 30% of the modulus of elasticity and 60% of the tensile strength between these two temperatures. This decrease is mainly due to a significant drop in the mechanical properties beyond 50°C. In addition, tensile fatigue tests were conducted at loads rate between 40 and 80% of tensile strength, at room temperature in order to plot the Wohler curve of PLA. The ruptured specimens were finally observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to analyze the failure mechanisms in fatigue of PLA.

  1. Mars Observer's costly solitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travis, John

    1993-09-01

    An evaluation is presented of the ramifications of the loss of contact with the Mars Observer spacecraft in August, 1993; the Observer constituted the first NASA mission to Mars in 17 years. It is noted that most, if not all of the scientists involved with the mission will have to find alternative employment within 6 months. The loss of the Observer will leave major questions concerning the geologic history of Mars, and its turbulent atmospheric circulation, unanswered. A detailed account of the discovery of the loss of communications, the unsuccessful steps taken to rectify the problem, and the financial losses incurred through the failure of the mission, are also given.

  2. Catalog of infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, D. Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The infrared astronomical data base and its principal data product, the catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO), comprise a machine readable library of infrared (1 microns to 1000 microns astronomical observations. To date, over 1300 journal articles and 10 major survey catalogs are included in this data base, which contains about 55,000 individual observations of about 10,000 different infrared sources. Of these, some 8,000 sources are identifiable with visible objects, and about 2,000 do not have known visible counterparts.

  3. The Observable Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Kim-Vy

    2009-10-01

    This is a tour of the universe as we have come to understand it through observations taken at many different wavelengths. Stunning images from the Hubble Space Telescope and surprising observations from other space telescopes like Spitzer and Chandra have given us a deeper understanding of the universe, both near and far. Equally important have been observations taken with ground-based observatories such as the Very Large Telescope in Chile. I will describe the most recent advances astronomers have made using these observatories and what we hope to learn in the near future.

  4. K-Ar ages confirm Pliocene age for oldest Neogene marine strata near Loreto, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, H.

    1987-05-01

    Beds of pumiceous tuff interbedded with mollusk-rich sedimentary rocks provide new age constraints on the timing of the late Neogene subsidence and marine transgression a few kilometers north of Loreto, Baja California Sur, Mexico. The lower part of the Neogene section consists of approximately 1500 m of early to middle Miocene nonmarine volcanic-derived sandstone, breccia, and porphyritic andesite and dacite lavas, called the Comondu Formation or Comondu Group by previous workers. The Miocene rocks are unconformably overlain by nearly 1000 m of predominantly marine sandstone, siltstone, conglomerate, coquina, and tuff of Pliocene age. This 1000-m section grades upward from unfossiliferous fanglomerate, sandstone, and pelitic red beds that are interpreted to be nonmarine into mollusk-rich marine strata; this sequence indicates that marine transgression occurred within the Pliocene section. Plagioclase and hornblende from three pumiceous tuff beds stratigraphically located near the base, middle, and top of the marine section yield K-Ar ages of 3.2, 1.9, and 1.8 Ma, respectively; these ages are similar to Pliocene ages indicated by reconnaissance studies of ostracods, diatoms, and foraminifers. The diatoms indicate open-ocean waters and the foraminifers indicate outer shelf depth. Ostracods, oysters, pectens, and other fossil bivalves seem to indicate a shallow-water embayment. Lateral distribution of nonmarine and marine facies suggests a paleoenvironment in which alluvial fans fed coarse debris into a series of coastal fan deltas. The Pliocene basin may have been a largely landlocked embayment similar to the modern Bahia Concepcion, located 70 km north of Loreto. Marine and volcanic rocks are assumed to be associated with the opening of the Gulf of California. If this assumption is correct, the beds near Loreto suggest that the opening occurred during the Pliocene.

  5. Seasonal diet composition of Fundulus lima (Cyprinodontiformes: Fundulidae) in two oasis systems of Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Acosta Zamorano, Dinora; Ruiz Campos, Gorgonio; Andreu Soler, Asunción; Reyes Valdez, Claudia Alejandra

    2011-12-01

    Fundulus lima inhabits river drainage systems and is threatened after the introduction of cichlids in the area. To support conservation programs, the spatial and temporal variation of the diet composition of this endangered killifish, was determined in two oasis systems of Baja California Sur, Mexico (San Ignacio and La Purisima river drainages), during rainy and dry seasons. F. lima was captured by using passive and active capture techniques. A total of 192 stomach contents of F. lima was analyzed. The contribution of each prey item in the diet composition was quantified by means of the indices of occurrence frequency (% OF), numerical (% N) and volume (% V) percentages. The relative importance of each prey item was determined according to the percentage of the Relative Importance Index (% RII). The similarity of the diet was calculated between hydrological basins (populations combined by basin), seasons (rainy versus dry months), sexes and size classes, by using Schoener's resource overlap index. We used two ecological indices to determine the type of feeding strategy exhibited by the fish: (1) niche breadth of Levins and (2) proportional similarity of Feisinger. Sand was the most abundant item in the stomach content of killifishes from both drainages (39% and 47%, respectively). Diet composition was similar for both drainages (74%) as well as among their respective size classes; however, it was different between sexes. In both drainages, F. lima predated mainly on diatom algae, dipterous and trichopteran larvae, and fish scales during the dry season; while it preferred dipterous larvae, filamentous algae and ostracods in the rainy season. A feeding strategy of opportunist type was exhibited by F. lima during the rainy season, changing to specialist type during the dry season. This information will be the basis for future investigations related to the conservation of this endangered species and its habitat.

  6. Intraspecific crossings of Undaria pinnatifida (Harv.) Sur.—A possible time-saving way of strain selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Shao-Jun; Hu, Xiao-Yan; Wu, Chao-Yuan; Hirosawa, A.; Ohno, M.

    1997-09-01

    Unicellular gametophytes of Undaria pinnatifida (Harv.) Sur. were isolated in Qingdao, P. R. China in April 1993 and in Tokushima, southern Japan in March 1995. Different intraspecific crossings by using unicellular male and female gametophytes were successfully undertaken in Sept. of 1995 in Qingdao. Sporophytes were transplanted to two different locations for open sea cultivation. One was at Zhanqiao (ZQ) Bay where the water current was slower than that of another location—Taipingjiao(TPJ). A total of 218 adult sporophytes were harvested on January 12 and 18 from TPJ and ZQ respectively. For eacn combination, 10 sporophytes were cultivated. Analysis of the morphological characteristics of adult sporophytes indicated that the longest length between two bases of the serration of pinnate blades (W2) is a morphological characteristic that can be transferred from the parent plant to the next generations regardless of environmental variations. There was evidence that W2 was apparently determined by sex-linked factors, i.e., by male parental gametophyte. Sporophytes from certain crossing combinations showed more vigorous growth than those from other crossing combinations. It is therefore possible to select gametophyte strains which can be used as parental gametophytes for the seedling production of sporophytes with more vigorous growth within shorter cultivation period. The morphology of hybrids from a Qingdao strain and a Tokushima cultivated strain resembled that of both parental plants in frond features (wrinkled or smooth) and W2. Sporophyll formation also varied with strains. The fact that adult sporophytes resulting from the same crossing combinations have identical morphological characteristics under the same environmental conditions indicates the possibility of a new way to select strains which are expected to be ideal for commerical production by purposely selecting, propagating, and seeding unicellular gametophytes for sporeling production through freeliving

  7. What's observable tonight?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Relf, G.

    2011-02-01

    The BAA Computing Section's website at http://britastro.org/computing provides a simple graphical display for any date, which shows a large number of objects and enables you to assemble a detailed observing list quickly and easily.

  8. Observing earth from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Skylab technology and observations of earth resources are discussed. Special attention was given to application of Skylab data to mapmaking, geology/geodesy, water resources, oceanography, meteorology, and geography/ecology.

  9. Mars Observer instrument complement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komro, Fred G.; Hujber, Frank N.

    1991-10-01

    The mechanical and electrical characteristics and the functional designs of the eight scientific instruments of the Mars Observer's instrument complex are described, and their respective principal investigators and sponsoring institutions are listed. These instruments include a gamma-ray spectrometer, a magnetometer/electron reflectometer, the Mars balloon relay, the Mars Observer camera, the Mars Observer laser altimeter, a pressure modulator infrared radiometer, a thermal emission spectrometer, and an ultrastable oscillator. With these instruments, the Mars Observer will be able to determine the elemental and mineralogical character of Martial surface material; to define globally the topography and the gravitational field; to establish the nature of the magnetic field; to determine the spatial and temporal distribution abundances, sources, and sinks of volatile material and dust over a seasonal cycle; and to explore the structure and circulation of Martian atmosphere.

  10. Nouvelles Limites sur la Detection Directe de la Matiere Sombre avec l'Experience PICASSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Marie-Cecile

    Astronomical and cosmological observations strongly suggest the presence of an exotic form of non-relativistic, non-baryonic matter that would represent 26% of the actual energy-matter content of the Universe. This so-called cold dark matter would be composed of Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMP). PICASSO (Project In CAnada to Search for Supersymmetric Objects) aims to detect directly one of the dark matter candidates proposed in the framework of supersymmetric extensions of the standard model : the neutralino. The experiment is installed in the SNOLAB underground laboratory at Sudbury (Ontario) and uses superheated C4F10 droplets detectors, a variant of bubble chamber technique. Phase transitions in the superheated liquids are triggered by 19F recoils caused by the elastic collision with neutralinos and create an acoustic signal which is recorded by piezoelectric sensors. This thesis presents recent progress in PICASSO leading to a substantially increased sensitivity in the search of neutralinos. New fabrication and purification procedures allowed a background reduction of about a factor 10 of the major detectors contamination caused by alpha emitters. Detailed studies allowed to localize these emitters in the detectors. In addition, data analysis efforts were able to improve substantially the discrimination between alpha particle induced events and those created by nuclear recoils. New analysis tools were also developed in order to discriminate between particle induced and non-particle induced events, such as electronic backgrounds and acoustic noise signals. An important new background suppression mechanism at higher temperatures led to the present improved sensitivity of PICASSO at low WIMP masses.

  11. Coastal dynamics off Cabo Pulmo, Baja California Sur, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trasviña-Castro, A.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, E.; Zaitsev, O. V.

    2013-05-01

    Cabo Pulmo is the one of the few coral reefs of the Mexican Pacific. It is located to the north of the Tropic of Cancer (at 23.5° N) and therefore formally in the subtropical region. It is part of the Gulf of California but its location near the tip of the Peninsula pose questions about the exchange of properties with the neighboring Pacific Ocean, some of which will be addressed here. It was declared National Park in 1995. Since then it became a no-take zone and a nature reserve for the preservation of the large variety of species found there. We report results based on meteorological and hydrographic observations as well as current measurements gathered between October 2010 and February 2012. These results include the presence of coastal currents forced by the tide, the wind and remote forcing. We believe the latter are associated, sometimes, to the mesoscale circulation of the entrance to the Gulf of California and, at other times, to coastal jets coming from the interior of the Gulf. We use displacement diagrams to discuss the trends of the residual circulation along the coast. During autumn, winter and even in spring the residual coastal flow is towards the Equator. This is attributed to the influence of the Northwesterly winds that blow over the Gulf of California in these months. It is in summer that the coastal residual circulation exhibits a poleward component being more intense during Southeasterly wind events. Finally, we present evidence of coastal exchange with the Pacific Ocean in the form of an intense jet. This coastal jet flows equatorward past Cabo Pulmo, continues towards the Pacific side of the Peninsula and generates offshore filaments when turning the cape.

  12. OSSE Observations of Blazars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    jet emission is produced by plasma that is ejected at relativistic speeds from an accreting supermassive black hole . The OSSE observations address...produced by Eddington-limited accretion onto a supermassive black hole . Denoting the observed photon ux by () [photons cm 2 s 11], where the...limit, then even larger black hole masses are implied. An upper limit to the mass is inferred from the emission size scale implied by the variability time

  13. Observing Photons in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Martin C. E.; Pauluhn, Anuschka; Timothy, J. Gethyn

    This first chapter of the book "Observing Photons in Space" serves to illustrate the rewards of observing photons in space, to state our aims, and to introduce the structure and the conventions used. The title of the book reflects the history of space astronomy: it started at the high-energy end of the electromagnetic spectrum, where the photon aspect of the radiation dominates. Nevertheless, both the wave and the photon aspects of this radiation will be considered extensively. In this first chapter we describe the arduous efforts that were needed before observations from pointed, stable platforms, lifted by rocket above the Earth"s atmosphere, became the matter of course they seem to be today. This exemplifies the direct link between technical effort -- including proper design, construction, testing and calibration -- and some of the early fundamental insights gained from space observations. We further report in some detail the pioneering work of the early space astronomers, who started with the study of γ- and X-rays as well as ultraviolet photons. We also show how efforts to observe from space platforms in the visible, infrared, sub-millimetre and microwave domains developed and led to today"s emphasis on observations at long wavelengths.

  14. FuzzObserver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Ayanna; Bayard, David

    2006-01-01

    Fuzzy Feature Observation Planner for Small Body Proximity Observations (FuzzObserver) is a developmental computer program, to be used along with other software, for autonomous planning of maneuvers of a spacecraft near an asteroid, comet, or other small astronomical body. Selection of terrain features and estimation of the position of the spacecraft relative to these features is an essential part of such planning. FuzzObserver contributes to the selection and estimation by generating recommendations for spacecraft trajectory adjustments to maintain the spacecraft's ability to observe sufficient terrain features for estimating position. The input to FuzzObserver consists of data from terrain images, including sets of data on features acquired during descent toward, or traversal of, a body of interest. The name of this program reflects its use of fuzzy logic to reason about the terrain features represented by the data and extract corresponding trajectory-adjustment rules. Linguistic fuzzy sets and conditional statements enable fuzzy systems to make decisions based on heuristic rule-based knowledge derived by engineering experts. A major advantage of using fuzzy logic is that it involves simple arithmetic calculations that can be performed rapidly enough to be useful for planning within the short times typically available for spacecraft maneuvers.

  15. Effets potentiels d’un modèle rationnel de prescription sur les dépenses nationales en santé

    PubMed Central

    Littman, Jordan; Halil, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Estimer les économies que pourrait engendrer la mise en œuvre d’un modèle rationnel de prescription pour des classes de médicaments équivalents sur les plans de l’efficacité, de la toxicité et de la commodité. Conception L’Institut canadien d’information sur la santé a fourni des renseignements sur les 10 principales classes de médicaments en fonction des dépenses annuelles qui leur sont attribuables. Ces classes ont été examinées en vue de leur inclusion potentielle dans l’étude selon qu’il était possible de comparer les médicaments à l’intérieur d’une même classe. Lorsqu’à la suite d’une recherche documentaire, une équivalence a été établie en fonction de l’efficacité, de la toxicité et de la commodité des médicaments, les données annuelles sur les prescriptions ont été recueillies à partir de la base de données du Système national d’information sur l’utilisation des médicaments prescrits. Les économies potentielles de coûts ont ensuite été calculées en comparant les parts de marché actuelles avec les parts potentielles futures de ce marché. Contexte Le Canada. Principaux paramètres à l’étude Les différences estimées dans les dépenses que produirait un modèle rationnel de prescription. Résultats Une équivalence a été établie sur les plans de l’efficacité, de la toxicité et de la commodité dans les classes de statines, d’inhibiteurs de la pompe à protons, d’inhibiteurs de l’enzyme de conversion de l’angiotensine et d’inhibiteurs sélectifs du recaptage de l’angiotensine. Les dépenses annuelles totales dans ces classes se situent à 856 millions $ dans les programmes publics de médicaments et à 1,97 milliard $ environ à l’échelle nationale. Grâce à des prescriptions rationnelles, on estime que les économies annuelles pourraient atteindre 222 millions $ pour les programmes publics et 521 millions $ à l’échelle nationale. Conclusion La

  16. Technique distribuee de gestion de la charge sur le reseau electrique et ring-tree: Un nouveau systeme de communication P2P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayoub, Simon

    Le reseau de distribution et de transport de l'electricite se modernise dans plusieurs pays dont le Canada. La nouvelle generation de ce reseau que l'on appelle smart grid, permet entre autre l'automatisation de la production, de la distribution et de la gestion de la charge chez les clients. D'un autre cote, des appareils domestiques intelligents munis d'une interface de communication pour des applications du smart grid commencent a apparaitre sur le marche. Ces appareils intelligents pourraient creer une communaute virtuelle pour optimiser leurs consommations d'une facon distribuee. La gestion distribuee de ces charges intelligentes necessite la communication entre un grand nombre d'equipements electriques. Ceci represente un defi important a relever surtout si on ne veut pas augmenter le cout de l'infrastructure et de la maintenance. Lors de cette these deux systemes distincts ont ete concus : un systeme de communication peer-to-peer, appele Ring-Tree, permettant la communication entre un nombre important de noeuds (jusqu'a de l'ordre de grandeur du million) tel que des appareils electriques communicants et une technique distribuee de gestion de la charge sur le reseau electrique. Le systeme de communication Ring-Tree inclut une nouvelle topologie reseau qui n'a jamais ete definie ou exploitee auparavant. Il inclut egalement des algorithmes pour la creation, l'exploitation et la maintenance de ce reseau. Il est suffisamment simple pour etre mis en oeuvre sur des controleurs associes aux dispositifs tels que des chauffe-eaux, chauffage a accumulation, bornes de recharges electriques, etc. Il n'utilise pas un serveur centralise (ou tres peu, seulement lorsqu'un noeud veut rejoindre le reseau). Il offre une solution distribuee qui peut etre mise en oeuvre sans deploiement d'une infrastructure autre que les controleurs sur les dispositifs vises. Finalement, un temps de reponse de quelques secondes pour atteindre 1'ensemble du reseau peut etre obtenu, ce qui est

  17. Mesures experimentales de l'impact des revetements hydrophobeset superhydrophobes sur la trainee et la portance d'un profil aerodynamique propre et glace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villeneuve, Eric

    Ce projet, realise a la demande du Laboratoire International des Materiaux Antigivre, a pour but de mesurer et definir experimentalement l'impact de revetements hydrophobes sur les coefficients de trainee et de portance d'un profil NACA 0012. Pour ce faire, la balance aerodynamique du LIMA devait tout d'abord etre amelioree afin d'offrir une sensibilite suffisante pour realiser le projet. Plusieurs ameliorations ont ete faites, comme le changement des cellules de charge, la diminution du nombre de cellules de charge, le changement du cadre de la balance, etc. Une fois ces ameliorations terminees, la reproductibilite, l'exactitude et la sensibilite ont ete valides afin de s'assurer de la fiabilite des resultats offerts par la balance. Pour les angles d'attaque etudies avec les revetements, soient -6° et 0°, la balance a une reproductibilite de +/-2,06% a 360 000 de nombre de Reynolds. Pour valider la sensibilite, des essais a -6° et 0° d'angle d'attaque et des nombres de Reynolds de 360 000 et 500 000 ont ete faits avec des papiers sables. Les resultats de ces essais ont permis de, tracer des courbes de tendances du coefficient de trainee du NACA 0012 en fonction de la rugosite de surface et d'etablir la valeur de la sensibilite de la balance a +/-8 mu m. Cinq revetements populaires ont ete choisis pour l'experimentation, soient le Wearlon, le Staclean, le Hirec, le Phasebreak ainsi que le Nusil. Les revetements sont soumis aux memes conditions experimentales que les papiers sables, et une rugosite equivalente est trouvee par extrapolation des resultats. Cependant, les rugosites equivalentes de surfaces different entre -6° et 0°. Les essais avec le Staclean et le Hirec donnent des coefficients de trainee equivalent a ceux avec l'aluminium, alors que le Wearlon, le Nusil et le Phasebreak donnent une augmentation du coefficient de trainee de 13%, 17% et 25% respectivement par rapport a l'aluminium. Pour les coefficients de portance, la balance ne detecte pas l

  18. Observations of Deep Flow along the Central California Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Curtis; Margolina, Tetyana; Rago, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    A number of programs have collected observations of deep currents and water properties over the continental shelf off Central California during the past three decades. Here we summarize the results of these measurements. The oldest data set included bimonthly observations off Point Sur (33° 20'N) from April 1988 to April 1991 using an acoustically tracked dropsonde and a NBIS Mk III CTD. The poleward flow observed above 1000 m was weaker at depth but generally dominated the flow pattern. Deep (˜1000 m) currents were also observed off California from August 1994 to September 2009 using current meters and RAFOS floats. Current meter data were collected at nine locations for time periods ranging from two months to 76 months. A total of 144 months of float data were collected. Analysis of current meter data included histograms, progressive vector diagrams, stick plots, kinetic energy and rotary spectra, stick plots, means and standard deviations. Float data were analyzed using trajectories and calculating means, standard deviations, and diffusivities. For current meter data, semidiurnal tidal energy dominated the kinetic energy spectrum, anticyclonic rotary motion exceeded cyclonic motion, kinetic energy was typically an order of magnitude greater than for diurnal frequencies, and kinetic energy decreased about an order of magnitude as depth increased by 1000 m. Mean speed for current meter (float) data was 6.1 (4.0) cm s-1 and alongshore variability exceeded across shore variability. Two floats were entrained in mesoscale eddies, one cyclonic and the other anticyclonic; the eddies moved westward at a speed of about one cm s-1. Seasonal variability along the continental slope was marked by late summer or early fall warming; eddy kinetic energy was minimum in February, 3 cm2 s-2.

  19. Recent observed climate change over the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsarmi, Said; Washington, Richard

    2011-06-01

    We have examined trends in temperature and precipitation parameters for the Arabian Peninsula (AP) during the last 2 to 3 decades. The data set has been carefully quality controlled and checked for homogeneity. Although of low density (21 stations) and relatively short time period, a clear picture of climate change in the region has emerged. The general pattern of the AP mean annual temperature trend is one of warming, with 14 of 21 stations show statistically significant warming at 0.05 level and most at 0.001 level and only one (Seeb) showing statistically significant cooling. The highest statistically significant mean annual warming trends are found in Oman (Sur = 1.03°C decade-1) and Emirates (Dubai = 0.81°C decade-1). The season of maximum warming in mean temperature is March to April. The highest monthly mean temperature trend in the AP occurs in Sur in May (1.47°C decade-1). There is a broad statistically significant increase in mean annual maximum temperature in AP in 12 out of 21 stations, with the highest trends in central and eastern/southeastern AP. Only SW AP and the Gulf of Oman do not show warming. The highest monthly maximum temperature trend in the AP occurs in Bahrain in March (2.27°C decade-1). The second highest significant warming trends are reported in Doha in February (1.54°C decade-1). For minimum temperature, 16 out of 21 stations show statistically significant warming trends, with the highest annual trends observed in the Emirates (Dubai = 1.24°C decade-1), northwest Oman (Sohar = 1.17°C decade-1) and Qatar (Doha = 1.13°C decade-1). The highest monthly minimum temperature warming rate occurred in October. Both Dubai and Kuwait reported the highest significant rate of 2.00°C decade-1. The general mean annual diurnal temperature range trend is negative in the AP, with six out of 21 stations show statistically significant negative trends while three stations show statistically significant positive trends. Trends in mean annual

  20. par-1, Atypical pkc, and PP2A/B55 sur-6 Are Implicated in the Regulation of Exocyst-Mediated Membrane Trafficking in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Jiu, Yaming; Hasygar, Kiran; Tang, Lois; Liu, Yanbo; Holmberg, Carina I.; Bürglin, Thomas R.; Hietakangas, Ville; Jäntti, Jussi

    2013-01-01

    The exocyst is a conserved protein complex that is involved in tethering secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane and regulating cell polarity. Despite a large body of work, little is known how exocyst function is controlled. To identify regulators for exocyst function, we performed a targeted RNA interference (RNAi) screen in Caenorhabditis elegans to uncover kinases and phosphatases that genetically interact with the exocyst. We identified seven kinase and seven phosphatase genes that display enhanced phenotypes when combined with hypomorphic alleles of exoc-7 (exo70), exoc-8 (exo84), or an exoc-7;exoc-8 double mutant. We show that in line with its reported role in exocytotic membrane trafficking, a defective exoc-8 caused accumulation of exocytotic soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins in both intestinal and neuronal cells in C. elegans. Down-regulation of the phosphatase protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) phosphatase regulatory subunit sur-6/B55 gene resulted in accumulation of exocytic SNARE proteins SNB-1 and SNAP-29 in wild-type and in exoc-8 mutant animals. In contrast, RNAi of the kinase par-1 caused reduced intracellular green fluorescent protein signal for the same proteins. Double RNAi experiments for par-1, pkc-3, and sur-6/B55 in C. elegans suggest a possible cooperation and involvement in postembryo lethality, developmental timing, as well as SNARE protein trafficking. Functional analysis of the homologous kinases and phosphatases in Drosophila median neurosecretory cells showed that atypical protein kinase C kinase and phosphatase PP2A regulate exocyst-dependent, insulin-like peptide secretion. Collectively, these results characterize kinases and phosphatases implicated in the regulation of exocyst function, and suggest the possibility for interplay between the par-1 and pkc-3 kinases and the PP2A phosphatase regulatory subunit sur-6 in this process. PMID:24192838

  1. Superposition tridimensionnelle (3-D) sur la base du crâne pour l’évaluation longitudinale des effets de la croissance et du traitement

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia H.S.; Styner, Martin; Proffit, William R.; Ngom, Traduit par Papa Ibrahima

    2010-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ – Pour évaluer les modifications liées à la croissance ou au traitement, il est nécessaire de superposer les céphalogrammes successifs sur une structure stable. En céphalométrie bidimensionnelle (2-D), la base du crâne est souvent utilisée pour les superpositions parce que les changements qu’elle subit après le développement cérébral sont mineurs. Toutefois, sur les céphalogrammes de profil et de face, les points de repère basicraniens sont peu fiables. Dans cet article, nous présentons une nouvelle méthode de superposition tridimensionnelle (3-D) basée sur un enregistrement entièrement automatisé des intensités de voxels, au niveau de la surface de la base du crâne. Le progiciel utilisé permet l’évaluation quantitative des modifications qui apparaissent dans le temps, grâce au calcul de la distance euclidienne entre les surfaces du modèle tridimensionnel. Il permet également l’appréciation visuelle de l’emplacement et de l’importance des modifications au niveau des maxillaires, grâce à une surimpression graphique. Les modifications sont visualisées par comparaison à des tables de correspondance de couleur. On peut ainsi réaliser une étude détaillée des modes d’adaptation chez les patients dont la croissance et/ou le traitement ont provoqué des modifications squelettiques cliniquement significatives. PMID:19954732

  2. Personalized numerical observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brankov, Jovan G.; Pretorius, P. Hendrik

    2010-02-01

    It is widely accepted that medical image quality should be assessed using task-based criteria, such as humanobserver (HO) performance in a lesion-detection (scoring) task. HO studies are time consuming and cost prohibitive to be used for image quality assessment during development of either reconstruction methods or imaging systems. Therefore, a numerical observer (NO), a HO surrogate, is highly desirable. In the past, we have proposed and successfully tested a NO based on a supervised-learning approach (namely a support vector machine) for cardiac gated SPECT image quality assessment. In the supervised-learning approach, the goal is to identify the relationship between measured image features and HO myocardium defect likelihood scores. Thus far we have treated multiple HO readers by simply averaging or pooling their respective scores. Due to observer variability, this may be suboptimal and less accurate. Therefore, in this work, we are setting our goal to predict individual observer scores independently in the hope to better capture some relevant lesion-detection mechanism of the human observers. This is even more important as there are many ways to get equivalent observer performance (measured by area under receiver operating curve), and simply predicting some joint (average or pooled) score alone is not likely to succeed.

  3. ALMA Observations of TNOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Bryan J.; Brown, Michael E.

    2016-10-01

    Some of the most fundamental properties of TNOs are still quite poorly constrained, including diameter and density. Observations at long thermal wavelengths, in the millimeter and submillimeter, hold promise for determining these quantities, at least for the largest of these bodies (and notably for those with companions). Knowing this information can then yield clues as to the formation mechanism of these bodies, allowing us to distinguish between pairwise accretion and other formation scenarios.We have used the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) to observe Orcus, Quaoar, Salacia, and 2002 UX25 at wavelengths of 1.3 and 0.8 mm, in order to constrain the sizes of these bodies. We have also used ALMA to make astrometric observations of the Eris-Dysnomia system, in an attempt to measure the wobble of Eris and hence accurately determine its density. Dysnomia should also be directly detectable in those data, separate from Eris (ALMA has sufficient resolution in the configuration in which the observations were made). Results from these observations will be presented and discussed.

  4. Heisenberg's observability principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Johanna

    2014-02-01

    Werner Heisenberg's 1925 paper 'Quantum-theoretical re-interpretation of kinematic and mechanical relations' marks the beginning of quantum mechanics. Heisenberg famously claims that the paper is based on the idea that the new quantum mechanics should be 'founded exclusively upon relationships between quantities which in principle are observable'. My paper is an attempt to understand this observability principle, and to see whether its employment is philosophically defensible. Against interpretations of 'observability' along empiricist or positivist lines I argue that such readings are philosophically unsatisfying. Moreover, a careful comparison of Heisenberg's reinterpretation of classical kinematics with Einstein's argument against absolute simultaneity reveals that the positivist reading does not fit with Heisenberg's strategy in the paper. Instead the appeal to observability should be understood as a specific criticism of the causal inefficacy of orbital electron motion in Bohr's atomic model. I conclude that the tacit philosophical principle behind Heisenberg's argument is not a positivistic connection between observability and meaning, but the idea that a theory should not contain causally idle wheels.

  5. ISO observations of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotto, E.; Barucci, M. A.; Crovisier, J.; Doressoundiram, A.; Encrenaz, Th.; Fulchignoni, M.; Knacke, R.; Lellouch, E.; Morris, P. W.; Müller, T. G.; Owen, T.

    1999-03-01

    Asteroids were observed by ISO with several instruments (PHT-P, PHT-S and SWS). The aim of these observations was to investigate the asteroid physical and compositional properties. Sixteen asteroids have been observed by PHT-P and PHT-S: with PHT-P we obtained the observations at filters 3.6, 10, 11.5, 25, and 60 μm for 10 asteroids and only at filters 3.6 and 10 μm for the other 6 objects. With PHT-S we obtained simultaneously the 2.5-5 and 5.8-11.6 μm spectral ranges. Four of these asteroids have been also observed with SWS between 5.3 and 45 μm. The first analysis of the obtained spectra has shown some features which suggest the presence of oxides (e.g. magnetite, hematite, etc.) among the surface materials of 10 Hygiea and 308 Polyxo, indicating aqueous alteration on the surfaces of these objects.

  6. The pioneer woman's view of migraine: Elizabeth Garrett Anderson's thesis "Sur la migraine".

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, M; Isler, H

    1999-01-01

    This is a presentation of a doctoral thesis of 1870. The author was English but the thesis and the examinations were in French. Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, usually referred to as E.G.A., was the first woman in Britain to obtain the title of M.D., but not the first in Europe. Nadeshda Prokofevna Suslova, a Russian, received her M.D. in 1867 in Zurich, the most liberal university at that time, soon to be flooded by female students from Russia. E.G.A. had been applying to the few possible European universities but she settled for Paris after the Empress Eugenie had decided that she should be accepted there. This meant that she could succeed without having to be a Paris resident, just by writing a thesis and passing a series of examinations presided over by Paul Broca. This was important as she was already conducting private and dispensary practice, and could not find a locum (she insisted on a woman). E.G.A. had suffered many setbacks, for being a woman, as such being unacceptable in dissection rooms and operating theatres, and generally in a professional career where women were unheard of. She was finally permitted to receive her medical diploma from the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries of London. She wrote about her thesis: "I have chosen Headache as its subject. I had to find a subject which could be well studied without post-mortem observations, of which I can have but very few in either private or dispensary practice; and I wished also to take a large subject, one that demanded some insight into the harmony that exists between the main physiological functions." Marcia Wilkinson (M.W.), who worked in the Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospital in London for 35 years, heard there of E.G.A.'s thesis on migraine and sent for it from Paris. In 1966 she translated it into English from the original French, being interested both in the subject and in the person of this resolute and lucid woman. When H. Isler found the French thesis in the British Library he intended to

  7. Prediction de la transition sur des configurations tridimensionnelles en regime transsonique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlois, Marc

    transition determined in windtunnel tests on infinite swept wings with ONERA D and AFVD 82 profiles and Bombardier business aircraft wings. The results obtained with the proposed automated stability analysis method have shown that it provides a qualitatively adequate representation of a transonic three-dimensional flow stability characteristics: dominant instability type, frequency of maximum amplification, amplification rate. Computation of the n factor was performed for the AS409 conical wing and two Bombardier business aircraft wings. For these cases, the automated method n factors are higher than those obtained by a complete eigenvalue calculation. This difference is probably largely due to the fact the model boundary layer used does not provide a completely appropriate representation of the crossflow velocity profiles. It is however within the range of variation of the n factor from one case to the other, when the full eigenvalue solution is used. Comparison of the calculated n factors and the experimentally observed location of transition on the Bombardier wings has revealed a spanwise variation of the critical n factor, with both the complete and automated calculation methods. To improve the prediction of transition, a relation between the n factor at transition and a local Reynolds number (varying along the span) is proposed.

  8. Etudes sur la gravitation: Theories alternatives en 2+1 et 3+1 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edery, Ariel

    to study a 2 + 1 dimensional model. However, in 2 + 1 dimensions, the analog to Einstein gravity is trivial. The space-time outside sources is flat and particles at rest do not interact. The odd dimensional space-time allows one to include a gravitational Chern-Simons term called a topological mass term because it gives mass to the graviton. In article three and four, we consider localized mass and spin sources in the full non-linear theory. We obtain solutions for both of Vuorio's sectors. In article 3 we demonstrate that delta function sources, while allowed in the linearized theory are not consistent with the full non-linear field equations. In article four, we consider how to embed point sources in Vuorio's cosmological sector and discuss the metric solution for the case when observers are near and far away from the source. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  9. Pharmacological evidence: a new therapeutic approach to the treatment of chronic heart failure through SUR2B/Kir6.1 channel in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shang; Long, Chao-liang; Chen, Jun; Cui, Wen-yu; Zhang, Yan-fang; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Hai

    2017-01-01

    Both iptakalim (Ipt) and natakalim (Nat) activate the SUR2B/Kir6.1 channel, an ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) subtype, with high selectivity. In this study we investigated the therapeutic effects of Ipt and Nat against isoproterenol-induced chronic heart failure (ISO-CHF) in rats, and demonstrated a new therapeutic approach to the treatment of CHF through activation of the SUR2B/Kir6.1 channel in endothelial cells. In ISO-CHF rats, oral administration of Nat (1, 3, 9 mg·kg−1·d−1) or Ipt (3 mg·kg−1·d−1) for 60 days significantly improved cardiac dysfunction, reversed cardiac remodeling, significantly attenuated the pathological increases in BNP levels, and improved endothelial dysfunction by adjusting the balance between endothelin and NO systems. The therapeutic effects of Nat were prevented by the selective KATP blocker glibenclamine (Gli, 50 mg·kg−1·d−1), confirming that these effects were mediated through activation of the SUR2B/Kir6.1 channel in endothelial cells. The molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of Nat were further addressed using proteomic methods. We identified 724 proteins in the plasma of ISO-CHF rats; 55 proteins were related to Nat. These differentially expressed proteins were mainly involved in single-organism processes and the regulation of biological quality relative to CHF, including proteasome (Psm) and ATP protein clusters. We screened out PRKAR2β, GAS6/eNOS/NO and NO/PKG/VASP pathways involved in the amelioration of CHF among the 24 enriched pathways. We further confirmed 6 protein candidates, including PRKAR2β, GAS6 and VASP, which were involved in the endothelial mechanisms, and ATP, TIMP3 and AGT, which contributed to its cardiovascular actions. This study demonstrates a new pharmacological approach to the treatment of CHF through activation of the SUR2B/Kir6.1 channel in endothelial cells, and that the eNOS/VASP pathways are involved in its signaling mechanisms. PMID:27890915

  10. Evaluation du niveau de connaissance des patients sur la gestion du traitement par les antis vitamines K dans le service de cardiologie de Ouagadougou

    PubMed Central

    Samadoulougou, André; Temoua Naibe, Dangwé; Mandi, Germain; Yameogo, Relwendé Aristide; Kabore, Elisé; Millogo, Georges; Yameogo, Nobila Valentin; Kologo, Jonas Koudougou; Thiam/Tall, Anna; Toguyeni, Boubacar Jean Yves; Zabsonre, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Les antivitamines K (AVK), traitement anticoagulant oral le plus largement prescrit, posent un réel problème de santé publique du fait de leur risque iatrogène. L'objectif de cette étude était de préciser le niveau de connaissance des patients sur la gestion de leur traitement par les AVK. Méthodes Il s'est agi d'une enquête transversale descriptive réalisée au CHU-Yalgado Ouédraogo, sur une période de 03 mois : du 1er mars au 31 mai 2012. Un questionnaire a été administré aux patients bénéficiant d'un traitement AVK depuis au moins un mois. Résultats Soixante-dix patients ont été inclus dans l'étude dont 30 hommes. L'âge moyen était de 49 ans ± 16 ans. Les cardiopathies et la maladie thromboembolique veineuse justifiant l'institution du traitement AVK étaient retrouvées respectivement dans 58,6% et 41,4% des cas. Le nom de l'AVK et la raison exacte du traitement étaient connus respectivement dans 91,4% et 67,1% des cas. Plus de la moitié des patients (68,6%) savaient que les AVK rendaient le sang plus fluide. Quarante-six patients (65,7%) citaient l'INR comme examen biologique de surveillance du traitement et seulement 28 patients (40%) connaissaient les valeurs cibles. La majorité des patients ne connaissait pas les risques encourus en cas de surdosage (72,8%) et de sous-dosage (71,4%). Une automédication par anti-inflammatoire non stéroïdien était signalée par 18 patients (25,7%). Les choux (74,3%) et la laitue (62,9%), aliments à consommer avec modération, étaient les plus cités. Conclusion Les connaissances des patients sur la gestion des AVK étaient fragmentaires et insuffisantes pour assurer la sécurité et l'efficacité du traitement. La création d'un programme d'éducation thérapeutique sur les AVK s'avère alors nécessaire. PMID:25870741

  11. Effets du vieillisement de la batterie Li-ion sur les performances d'un vehicule recreatif hybride branchable a trois roues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, Jonathan

    La prediction de l'evolution du vieillissement de la batterie lithium-ion est source d'un grand defi, dans les applications liees aux vehicules electriques et hybrides. Sa meconnaissance est un risque considerable compromettant la viabilite d'un tel systeme. Invoquant les couts substantiels de la densite d'energie, liee a la degradation considerable des performances de la batterie au cours de sa duree de vie, il devient important d'en tenir compte des le processus de conception. La dependance de la strategie de controle du vehicule aux parametres de la batterie justifie aussi la necessite d'une telle prediction. Il est connu que le vieillissement, sensible aux facteurs tels que le courant, la temperature et la profondeur de decharge, a un impact considerable sur la perte de capacite de la batterie ainsi que sur l'augmentation de la resistance interne. Le premier est directement lie a l'autonomie electrique du vehicule, alors que le second mene a une surchauffe de la batterie, a une augmentation des pertes en puissance qui se manifeste par une diminution de la tension de bus. A cet egard, implique dans la conception d'un vehicule recreatif hybride branchable a trois roues, le Centre de Technologies Avancees s'interesse a l'etude du vieillissement de la batterie Li-ion pour une telle application. Pour ce faire, au contraire de la plupart des estimations empiriques de la duree de vie, basees sur des profils de decharge a courant constant, un profil de courant plus approprie pour l'application donnee, base sur un cycle de vitesse representatif de la conduite d'une motocyclette, a ete utilise. Par le biais d'un simulateur complet du vehicule, le cycle de courant a ete extrait du cycle de vitesse. Ainsi, les travaux menes impliquent l'analyse experimentale de la decharge cyclique de quatre cellules LiFePO 4. Pendant plus de 1400 cycles, un banc d'essai complet a permis l'acquisition de la capacite, de la resistance interne, du courant, de la tension ainsi que de la

  12. Ultraviolet observations of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Code, A. D.; Houck, T. E.; Lillie, C. F.

    1972-01-01

    The first observations of a comet in the vacuum ultraviolet were obtained on January 14, 1970, when OAO-2 recorded the spectrum of the bright comet Tago-Sato-Kosaka (1969g). The observations revealed, among other things, the predicted extensive hydrogen Lyman alpha halo. OAO-2 continued to collect spectrophotometric measurements of this comet throughout January of that year; a photograph of the nucleus in Lyman alpha revealed finer scale structures. In February of 1970, the bright comet Bennet (1969i) became favorable for space observations. On the basis of the OAO discovery, OGO-V made several measurements of comet Bennet with low spatial resolution photometers. Comet Enke was detected by OGO in January of 1971 at a large heliocentric distance from its Lyman alpha emission.

  13. Visual observations from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garriott, O. K.

    1979-01-01

    Visual observations from space reveal a number of fascinating natural phenomena of interest to meteorologists and aeronomists, such as aurorae, airglow, aerosol layers, lightning, and atmospheric refraction effects. Other man-made radiation, including city lights and laser beacons, are also of considerable interest. Of course, the most widely used space observations are of the large-scale weather systems viewed each day by millions of people on their local television. From lower altitudes than the geostationary meteorological satellite orbits, obliques and overlapping stereo views are possible, allow height information to be obtained directly, often a key element in the use of the photographs for research purposes. However, this note will discuss only the less common observations mentioned at the beginning of this paragraph.

  14. Observed Barium Emission Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

  15. Observations to information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Observations provide the fundamental constraint on natural science interpretations. Earth science observations originate in many contexts, including in-situ field observations and monitoring, various modes of remote sensing and geophysics, sampling for ex-situ (laboratory) analysis, as well as numerical modelling and simulation which also provide estimates of parameter values. Most investigations require a combination of these, often sourced from multiple initiatives and archives, so data discovery and re-organization can be a significant project burden. The Observations and Measurements (O&M) information model was developed to provide a common vocabulary that can be applied to all these cases, and thus provide a basis for cross-initiative and cross-domain interoperability. O&M was designed in the context of the standards for geographic information from OGC and ISO. It provides a complementary viewpoint to the well-known feature (object oriented) and coverage (property field) views, but prioritizes the property determination process. Nevertheless, use of O&M implies the existence of well defined feature types. In disciplines such as geology and ecosystem sciences the primary complexity is in their model of the world, for which the description of each item requires access to diverse observation sets. On the other hand, geophysics and earth observations work with simpler underlying information items, but in larger quantities over multiple spatio-temporal dimensions, acquired using complex sensor systems. Multiple transformations between the three viewpoints are involved in the data flows in most investigations, from collection through analysis to information and story. The O&M model classifies observations: - from a provider viewpoint: in terms of the sensor or procedure involved; - from a consumer viewpoint: in terms of the property being reported, and the feature with which it is associated. These concerns carry different weights in different applications

  16. Observations of Umbral Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouppe van der Voort, L. H. M.; Krijger, J. M.

    2003-10-01

    We present observations of oscillations in the chromosphere of the umbra of sunspots. The observations were obtained with the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope (SVST) and the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on La Palma, comprising spectrograms and filtergrams in the Ca II H line. The sawtooth pattern in the spectroscopic time evolution of the Ca II H core is shown as well as evidence for a connection between umbral flashes and running penumbral waves from image sequences. Running waves, coherent over a large fraction of the penumbra, seem to be excited by flashes that occur close to the umbra-penumbral boundary. Comparing the intensity oscillations in the Ca II H line with TRACE observations in the 1600 Å passband, we find a phase difference of approximately 25 ° with 1600 Å leading the Ca II H intensity oscillation which we attribute to complex dynamical behaviour.

  17. First Observation with AIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Title, Alan

    On February 11, 2010 at about 10:23 EST the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Atlas 5 launched from the Kennedy Spacecraft Center in central Florida. As this abstract is being written SDO is circling the Earth in preparation for injection into its final geosynchronous orbit. The current schedule plans the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument doors will open in 37 days from launch. After a week of checking systems and initial calibration initial observations will begin. During this period several observing sequences will be tested to evaluate normal and various special sequences. At COSPAR initial observations and evaluation of initial sequences will be presented. Because AIA, HMI, and EVE have open data policies the SDO mission represents a huge step forward in the amount and quality of solar data available to the science community. Significant international effort has gone into developing tools for both visualizing and mining the SDO database. Both the data and the data mining tools will be demonstrated.

  18. Observe Your Shadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovšek, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Observe Your Shadow was the title of an observational experiment that was, among others, conducted in the scope of the past year's (2014-2015) first Slovene science competition for elementary school pupils between the ages of 6 and 13. The main reason for establishing a new science competition was popularization of science and its experimental methods, particularly among elementary school students. Elementary school teachers are not generally specialists in science, but rather have (and should have) extremely wide scopes of interests and competencies. By providing them with ideas and instructions for science experiments, we aim to enrich regular school lessons. In the first year alone, the competition took place in over half of Slovene elementary schools, with a total of 9000 participating students. In this paper we shall report about pupils' responses to tasks related to one of the experiments, namely, observation of their shadows on a sunny day.

  19. Observed climate change hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, M.; Palazzi, E.; Hardenberg, J.; Provenzale, A.

    2015-05-01

    We quantify climate change hotspots from observations, taking into account the differences in precipitation and temperature statistics (mean, variability, and extremes) between 1981-2010 and 1951-1980. Areas in the Amazon, the Sahel, tropical West Africa, Indonesia, and central eastern Asia emerge as primary observed hotspots. The main contributing factors are the global increase in mean temperatures, the intensification of extreme hot-season occurrence in low-latitude regions and the decrease of precipitation over central Africa. Temperature and precipitation variability have been substantially stable over the past decades, with only a few areas showing significant changes against the background climate variability. The regions identified from the observations are remarkably similar to those defined from projections of global climate models under a "business-as-usual" scenario, indicating that climate change hotspots are robust and persistent over time. These results provide a useful background to develop global policy decisions on adaptation and mitigation priorities over near-time horizons.

  20. Interagency Ocean Observing Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rome, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    Decades of focused investment in ocean observing and prediction have produced many examples of substantive societal and economic benefit resulting from improved knowledge of ocean and coastal waters and their behavior. Many complex and difficult questions about the ocean remain, including many that have implications for the lives and livelihoods of millions of Americans. The United States has embarked on a series of efforts to develop an ocean observing system capable of addressing broad societal needs. This system is known as the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (U.S. IOOS). The activities and members of the U.S. IOOS community are broad and complex. There are 18 Federal agencies involved in the U.S. IOOS program, as well as 11 U.S. IOOS Regional Associations that encompass efforts focused in U.S. coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and U.S. territories and their waters in the Pacific and the Caribbean. In addition, there are many Federal and academic scientists representing the U.S. Government in various United Nations-sponsored groups that plan and oversee global ocean observation programs. This diverse community is managed largely through cooperation rather than clear directive or budgetary authority, which has contributed to both the strong growth, and the integration weaknesses, of the U.S. IOOS program. The Interagency Ocean Observation Committee (IOOC) is a dynamic group of federal leaders required by Congress to implement procedural, technical, and scientific requirements to ensure full execution of U.S. IOOS. A major focus for the next decade of the IOOC is to help guide comprehensive processes that more fully integrate the requirements, technologies, data/product development and dissemination, testing and modeling efforts across the regional, national, and global sectors of the U.S. IOOS program. This poster/presentation will increase awareness of IOOC efforts to coordinate physical, chemical, and biological observations -- a complementary objective

  1. The SETI observational plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) Project's primary thrust is to search the microwave region of the spectrum for signals of extraterrestrial intelligent origin. The project will search a well defined volume of search parameter space using existing antennae and a sophisticated data acquisition and analysis system. Two major components are included, the target survey, which will observe at very high sensitivity all attractive stellar candidates within 75 light years of the Sun, and the sky survey, which will observe the entire celestial sphere at a lower sensitivity.

  2. Observations of interstellar zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.; York, D.

    1981-01-01

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of interstellar zinc toward 10 stars are examined. It is found that zinc is at most only slightly depleted in the interstellar medium; its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. The local interstellar medium has abundances that apparently are homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc, and this result is important for understanding the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood. The intrinsic errors in detecting weak interstellar lines are analyzed and suggestions are made as to how this error limit may be lowered to 5 mA per target observation.

  3. Radio Observations of Meteors.

    PubMed

    Millman, P M

    1954-08-27

    To summarize, we find that the radio technique of meteor observation enables us to extend the systematic recording of meteor rates down to the 9th or 10th magnitude; to determine satisfactory heights and velocities on a scale previously impossible; to calculate the orbits of meteor showers and individual meteors, in particular those that appear only in the daytime; and to study wind drift and fine structure in the ionosphere. The radio observations have quite definitely indicated that down to the 9th magnitude, corresponding to particles approximately 1 mm in diameter, meteors are members of the solar system and do not come from interstellar space.

  4. The Mars observer camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, M. C.; Danielson, G. E.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Masursky, H.; Veverka, J.; Soulanille, T.; Ravine, M.

    1987-01-01

    A camera designed to operate under the extreme constraints of the Mars Observer Mission was selected by NASA in April, 1986. Contingent upon final confirmation in mid-November, the Mars Observer Camera (MOC) will begin acquiring images of the surface and atmosphere of Mars in September-October 1991. The MOC incorporates both a wide angle system for low resolution global monitoring and intermediate resolution regional targeting, and a narrow angle system for high resolution selective surveys. Camera electronics provide control of image clocking and on-board, internal editing and buffering to match whatever spacecraft data system capabilities are allocated to the experiment. The objectives of the MOC experiment follow.

  5. Observational astrochemistry - Recent results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, W. M.

    More than 80 molecular species have now been observed in the dense interstellar clouds where stars and planets form or in the envelopes expelled by evolved stars. Elemental constituents of these compounds include all of the biogenic elements, H, C, N, O, S and P. In addition, Si is found in several molecules, and a series of metal halides have recently been detected in the outflowing envelope of a nearby carbon star. Knowledge of the chemical reservoirs for the major volatile elements and a comparison between observed molecular abundances and theoretical models are both discussed.

  6. Observations from Sarmizegetusa Sanctuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosu, M.

    2000 years ago, Sarmizegetusa Regia was the capital of ancient Dacia (today: Romania). It is known that the Dacian high priests used the Sanctuary of Sarmizegetusa not only for religious ceremonies, but also for astronomical observations. After having completed geodesic measurements, we analyzed the architecture of the sanctuary with its main points, directions and circles. We discuss here what kind of astronomical observations could have been made with the scientific knowledge of that time. The final section of this work is dedicated to the remarkable resemblance between Sarmizegztusa and Stonehenge.

  7. Syndrome de West: à propos d'une observation

    PubMed Central

    Bugeme, Marcellin; Nawej, Pascal; Mukuku, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Nous rapportons une observation d'un nourrisson de 7 mois présentant des spasmes infantiles et une microcéphalie. Elle était née à terme, en position de siège et avait présenté une asphyxie intrapartum (dépression néonatale) ayant conduit à une encéphalopathie néonatale modérée. Le diagnostic de Syndrome de West était confirmé à l’électroencéphalographie qui avait montré un tracé hypsarythmique. L'enfant avait été mise sous un traitement fait de Vigabatrine et son évolution était marquée par une régression des crises non seulement par rapport à l'intensité, mais aussi par rapport à la fréquence et à la durée. Sur le plan psychomoteur, nous avons noté un retard de développement. PMID:26523193

  8. Influence du traitement ionisant par rayonnement γ sur le pouvoir antioxydant de fractions polyphénoliques issues de substances d'origine végétale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuyck, S.; Connaulte, J.; Lesgards, G.; Prost, M.; Raffi, J.

    1998-04-01

    Ionizing radiation of vegetables is a cleaning up and preservation physical treatment which consists in submitting them to γ radiation, X radiation or electrons beam. This study deals with the influence of γ radiation on antioxidative effect of vegetables polyphenolic parts. In that purpose, we use a simple biological test based on erythrocytes haemolysis. Le traitement ionisant des produits végétaux est un procédé physique d'assainissement et de conservation qui consiste à les soumettre à l'action de rayonnements γ, de rayons X ou de faisceaux d'électrons. Ce travail porte sur l'étude de l'influence des rayonnements γ sur le pouvoir antioxydant de fractions polyphénoliques issues de substances d'origine végétale. Pour cela, un test biologique basé sur l'hémolyse d'érythrocytes est utilisé.

  9. Student Observational Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindvall, C. M.; And Others

    Lindvall's observation system has been designed to assess elementary school students' behaviors in an Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) project. It measures the self-directiveness of the student by determining how pupils use their classroom time when they are not actively being guided by a teacher. The system focuses on student behaviors,…

  10. Classroom Observation Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmer, Edmund T.

    Nine scales were developed to measure a series of classroom behavior variables derived from a factor analytic study of five observation systems. The scales are multipoint check lists which are behaviorally referenced by different amounts and types of classroom behaviors. The scales measure such aspects of classroom behavior as teacher-initiated…

  11. Observing Community Residences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Steven J.; Bogdan, Robert

    The document offers guidelines effectively monitoring the quality of care provided in community residences serving people with disabilities. An initial section offers suggestions on observation and evaluation procedures. The remainder of the document lists possible questions to be asked in 19 areas: location, building and yard, relations with the…

  12. On Observing the Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Rain, sun, snow, sleet, wind... the weather affects everyone in some way every day, and observing weather is a terrific activity to attune children to the natural world. It is also a great way for children to practice skills in gathering and recording information and to learn how to use simple tools in a standardized fashion. What better way to…

  13. Methods Evolved by Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Montessori's idea of the child's nature and the teacher's perceptiveness begins with amazing simplicity, and when she speaks of "methods evolved," she is unveiling a methodological system for observation. She begins with the early childhood explosion into writing, which is a familiar child phenomenon that Montessori has written about…

  14. Shipboard Weather Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmaccio, Richard J.

    1983-01-01

    Details of how observers on a moving ship can furnish an accurate report of wind velocity are provided. A method employing vector addition and some trigonometry is covered. Wind velocity is initially indicated through an anemometer and a wind vane. Ships are urged to radio weather data. (MP)

  15. Why Unsharp Observables?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, Claudio; Heinonen, Teiko; Toigo, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    We discuss why projection valued measures are not sufficient in the description of position and momentum of a one dimensional particle. A satisfactory solution is offered using positive operator measures. We also argue why the relevant positive operator measures, but not all, may be called unsharp observables.

  16. Climate Observations from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    The latest Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Status Report on global climate observations, delivered to the UNFCCC COP21 in November 2016, showed how satellite data are critical for observations relating to climate. Of the 50 Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) identified by GCOS as necessary for understanding climate change, about half are derived only from satellite data while half of the remainder have a significant input from satellites. Hence data from Earth observing satellite systems are now a fundamental requirement for understanding the climate system and for managing the consequences of climate change. Following the Paris Agreement of COP21 this need is only greater. Not only will satellites have to continue to provide data for modelling and predicting climate change but also for a much wider range of actions relating to climate. These include better information on loss and damage, resilience, improved adaptation to change, and on mitigation including information on greenhouse gas emissions. In addition there is an emerging need for indicators of the risks associated with future climate change which need to be better quantified, allowing policy makers both to understand what decisions need to be taken, and to see the consequences of their actions. The presentation will set out some of the ways in which satellite data are important in all aspects of understanding, managing and predicting climate change and how they may be used to support future decisions by those responsible for policy related to managing climate change and its consequences.

  17. COMPTEL solar flare observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. M.; Aarts, H.; Bennett, K.; Debrunner, H.; Devries, C.; Denherder, J. W.; Eymann, G.; Forrest, D. J.; Diehl, R.; Hermsen, W.

    1992-01-01

    COMPTEL as part of a solar target of opportunity campaign observed the sun during the period of high solar activity from 7-15 Jun. 1991. Major flares were observed on 9 and 11 Jun. Although both flares were large GOES events (greater than or = X10), they were not extraordinary in terms of gamma-ray emission. Only the decay phase of the 15 Jun. flare was observed by COMPTEL. We report the preliminary analysis of data from these flares, including the first spectroscopic measurement of solar flare neutrons. The deuterium formation line at 2.223 MeV was present in both events and for at least the 9 Jun. event, was comparable to the flux in the nuclear line region of 4-8 MeV, consistent with Solar-Maximum Mission (SSM) Observations. A clear neutron signal was present in the flare of 9 Jun. with the spectrum extending up to 80 MeV and consistent in time with the emission of gamma-rays, confirming the utility of COMPTEL in measuring the solar neutron flux at low energies. The neutron flux below 100 MeV appears to be lower than that of the 3 Jun. 1982 flare by more than an order of magnitude. The neutron signal of the 11 Jun. event is under study. Severe dead time effects resulting from the intense thermal x-rays require significant corrections to the measured flux which increase the magnitude of the associated systematic uncertainties.

  18. Jupiter System Observer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senske, Dave; Prockter, Louise

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the scientific philosophy that is guiding the planning behind the Jupiter System Observer (JSO). The JSO would be a long-term platform for studying Jupiter and the complete Jovian system. The goal is to advance the understanding of the fundamental processes of planetary systems, their formation and evolution.

  19. Observing Changes in Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Ava F.; Dukes, Lenell V.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an overview of a long-term unit centering on observations of biological change. Explains the purpose, procedures, and activities of long-term projects as: watching a plot of land; seeing how a baby grows, and witnessing kitten birth and growth. Suggests additional activities which address the concept of continuity. (ML)

  20. Observability of quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1985-12-01

    Even if stable hadrons with fractional charge do not exist, most of the criteria of observability used for ordinary elementary particles apply in principle to quarks as well. This is especially true in a simplified world containing only hadrons made of top quarks and gluons. In the real world containing light quarks, essential complications do occur, but most of the conclusions survive.

  1. Observations of classical cepheids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pel, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    The observations of classical Cepheids are reviewed. The main progress that has been made is summarized and some of the problems yet to be solved are discussed. The problems include color excesses, calibration of color, duplicity, ultraviolet colors, temperature-color relations, mass discrepancies, and radius determination.

  2. Observer, Process, and Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Noa

    1996-01-01

    The structure of art as a symbol system is composed of three dimensions: observer, process, and product. Each dimension is described, discussed, and its application to art therapy illustrated through the case study of a 12-year-old boy suffering from a progressive neurological disorder. (LSR)

  3. Speech of italian ambassador

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    L'ambassadeur italien (nom?)fait un discours sur l'aspect de la recherche au Cern, une organisation internationale qui a comme but la connaissance dans sa forme la plus pure et libre d'un intérêt planétaire. Il remet un prix au DG C.Rubbia qui lui remercie en français

  4. Renaud Paulian et le programme du CNRS sur les hautes montagnes à Madagascar: étage vs domaine

    PubMed Central

    Guillaumet, Jean-Louis; Betsch, Jean-Marie; Callmander, Martin W.

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Le programme intitulé « Étude des écosystémes montagnards dans la région malgache» (RCP 225/CNRS; responsable: Recteur Renaud Paulian) avait pour ambition de dégager leurs caractères généraux, l'origine des éléments constitutifs et de tester la validité d'un Domaine malgache des Hautes Montagnes proposé par Humbert dès 1951. De 1970 à 1973, trois campagnes (Andringitra; Chaînes anosyennes et Ankaratra; Itremo, Ibity et Marojejy) ont permis une caractérisation écologique des milieux particuliers ainsi que des analyses de systématique sur certains taxa connus pour leur intérêt biogéographique. La succession altitudinale des formations végétales, définies par des critères physionomiques et structuraux, est précisée par massif. Le dernier étage caractérisé par le fourré éricoïde et ses groupements associés ne correspond pas à l'Étage des Hautes Montagnes de l'Est africain. Des groupes de la faune (invertébrés hexapodes: Collemboles et Dermaptères) indiquent une disjonction entre les massifs du Nord (Tsaratanana, Marojejy), ceux du Centre et du Sud; des éléments de la flore (Pandanaceae, Araliaceae, Asteraceae) sont en cours d'analyse dans le même sens. Le Domaine des Hautes montagnes à Madagascar est une réalité écologique mais ne peut être défini floristiquement; chaque massif montagneux est une entité phytogéographique d'étages de végétation interdépendants inclus dans les différents Sous-Domaines du Centre. Les groupes peu mobiles de la faune indiquent globalement une dépendance trophique et bioclimatique (effet tampon du climat intraforestier) vis-à-vis des étages de végétation, mais peuvent réagir à des microclimats locaux par des décalages à leurs limites. PMID:21731422

  5. Conceptualization of groundwater flow of a coastal arid aquifer using isotopic and chemical tools: La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamez-Melendez, Carol; Hernández-Antonio, Arturo; Mahlknecht, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater from the La Paz coastal aquifer in Baja California Sur, Mexico, is the main source of drinking water for the local population. Due to its proximity to the coast, sea water intrusion is the main factor of salinization of groundwater. Other geochemical processes also affect the quality of the aquifer threating its vulnerability. Forty-seven samples were analyzed for ion chemistry and isotopes. A hierarchical cluster analysis was performed for a better interpretation resulting in three main groups and proved for geographical correspondence. Deuterium and d18O ranged from -82 to -52.1 and from -11.6 to -7 permil, respectively, showing that the main recharge originates in the Sierra el Novillo, flowing toward SE-NW direction and in accordance to deuterium excess (d) high evaporation effects (d>10‰) are mostly in the middle portion of the study area and in El Centenario due to high kinetic isotope fractioning related to elevated temperatures. Hydrogeochemistry analyses demonstrated salinization mainly due to sea water intrusion and in second instance due water-rock interaction, where enrichment of Na+ (ranges from 35.7 to 1089 mg/L-1) was present in some samples probably due to weathering of silicates and/or cation exchange in soils with Ca2+ (27.7 to 658 mg/L-1) at clay-surfaces. High concentrations of NO3-2 (ranges from 1.4 to 48.8 mg/L-1), Cl- (ranges from 54.4 to 2960 mg/L-1) and Na+ show that anthropogenic input is mainly coming from an agricultural area (El Centenario-Chametla) where heavy groundwater extractions are made for irrigational purposes, lowering the groundwater table up to 10 m and consequently promoting upconing and salinity concentrations (NaCl). Carbon-13 and radiocarbon ranged from -12.3 to -9.1‰ and from 29.5 to 100.4 pmC, respectively. Distribution of ages (up to ~5000 years) indicates two flow trends (E-W and SE-NW).

  6. Sedimentologic Assessment of a Makran Tsunami Depsoit in Sur Lagoon Using High- Resolution Particle Size Distributions (PSDs) and Cluster Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, E. G.; Donato, S. V.; Boyce, J. I.; Pilarczyk, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    The Makran subduction zone, which conveys the Arabian plate beneath Eurasia, has a poorly understood potential to generate tsunamis that would strike Oman, Iran, Pakistan, and India. The 1945 Makran earthquake (M 8.1), which resulted from a rupture 100-150 km long, caused a tsunami that reached heights of 5-15 m and killed an estimated 3,000 people on the coast of what is now Pakistan. The possibility of a full- length Makran rupture, approx. 750 km long, remains untested. The arid coastlines of the northern Arabian Sea (including parts of Oman, Iran, Pakistan and India) have had little attention regarding paleo-tsunami research. They lack the main environments where tsumani deposits have been found on temperate shores: tidal marshes, peatlands, and coastal lakes. Instead they offer sandy lagoons and salt flats where tsunami-laid sand sheets can be removed by wind, confused with the deposits of wadi sheet floods, and obliterated by burrowing crabs. Recent research has shown that a shell bed in Oman, likely from the 1945 tsunami (Sur Lagoon - Donato et al., 2008), contained distinctive molluscan assemblages and taphonomy, showing promise as a tsunami indicator for these arid settings. However, the large size of the molluscs is problematic in cores with small sample sizes, as the taphonomic data might not be representative enough to determine a tsunami origin without the use of additional proxies. Further characterization of the shell bed in Oman utilized high-resolution (cm scale) PSDs and Q-mode cluster analysis to identify the tsunami bed in cores (n=8). Results showed that the shell bed was more poorly sorted, and heterogeneous than the background lagoonal sediments. The tsunami bed thickness correlated generally with the thickness of the shell-bed, however cluster analysis of the particle size distributions (PSDs) extended the unit several centimeters above or below the shell-bed in some cores. The use of the full PSD (94 size classes) better characterized the

  7. L'effet de p53 sur la radiosensibilité des cellules humaines normales et cancéreuses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, J. B.; Li, C. Y.; Nagasawa, H.; Huang, H.

    1998-04-01

    The radiosensitivity of normal human fibroblasts in p53 dependent and associated with the loss of cells from the cycling population as the result of an irreversible G1 arrest; cells lacking normal p53 function show no arrest and are more radioresistant. Under conditions in which the repair potentially lethal radiation damage is facilitated, the fraction of cells arrested in G1 is reduced and survival is enhanced. The response of human tumor cells differs significantly. The radiation-induced G1 arrest is minimal or absent in p53+ tumor cells, and loss of normal p53 function has no consistent effect on their radiosensitivity. These results suggest that p53 status may not be a useful predictive marker for the response of human solid tumors to radiation therapy. La radiosensibilité des fibroblastes diploïdes humains est liée à l'expression de p53, et à la perte de cellules en cycle résultant d'un arrêt irréversible en phase G1 ; dans les cellules n'ayant pas une fonction p53 normale, on ne constate aucun arrêt, et elles sont plus radio-résistantes. Dans des conditions favorables à la réparation de lésions potentiellement léthales dues à l'irradiation, la proportion de cellules bloquées en phase G1 baisse, et les chances de survie sont accrues. Bien différente est la réaction des cellules cancéreuses humaines. Le blocage par irradiation en phase G1 est minime ou inexistant dans les cellules cancéreuses p53^+, et la perte de la fonction normale p53 n'a pas d'effet constant sur leur radiosensibilité. Ces résultats laissent penser que l'expression de p53 n'est pas un indice fiable permettant de prévoir la réaction des tumeurs solides à la radiothérapie.

  8. Mise à jour sur le nouveau vaccin 9-valent pour la prévention du virus du papillome humain

    PubMed Central

    Yang, David Yi; Bracken, Keyna

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Informer les médecins de famille quant à l’efficacité, à l’innocuité, aux effets sur la santé publique et à la rentabilité du vaccin 9-valent contre le virus du papillome humain (VPH). Qualité des données Des articles pertinents publiés dans PubMed jusqu’en mai 2015 ont été examinés et analysés. La plupart des données citées sont de niveau I (essais randomisés et contrôlés et méta-analyses) ou de niveau II (études transversales, cas-témoins et épidémiologiques). Des rapports et recommandations du gouvernement sont aussi cités en référence. Message principal Le vaccin 9-valent contre le VPH, qui offre une protection contre les types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 et 58 du VPH, est sûr et efficace et réduira encore plus l’incidence des infections à VPH, de même que les cas de cancer lié au VPH. Il peut également protéger indirectement les personnes non immunisées par l’entremise du phénomène d’immunité collective. Un programme d’immunisation efficace peut prévenir la plupart des cancers du col de l’utérus. Les analyses montrent que la rentabilité du vaccin 9-valent chez les femmes est comparable à celle du vaccin quadrivalent original contre le VPH (qui protège contre les types 6, 11, 16 et 18 du VPH) en usage à l’heure actuelle. Toutefois, il faut investiguer plus en profondeur l’utilité d’immuniser les garçons avec le vaccin 9-valent contre le VPH. Conclusion en plus d’être sûr, le vaccin 9-valent protège mieux contre le VPH que le vaccin quadrivalent. Une analyse coûtefficacité en favorise l’emploi, du moins chez les adolescentes. Ainsi, les médecins devraient recommander le vaccin 9-valent à leurs patients plutôt que le vaccin quadrivalent contre le VPH.

  9. 33 CFR 100.720 - Annual Suncoast Offshore Grand Prix; Gulf of Mexico, Sarasota, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the racecourse. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (4) Big Sarasota Pass will be closed.... (5) Entry into the regulated area shall be in accordance with this regulation. Spectator craft...

  10. 76 FR 29642 - Special Local Regulations; Miami Super Boat Grand Prix, Miami Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ..., Miami Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing special local regulations on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of ] Miami Beach, Florida... Beach. The special local regulations will establish the following two areas: A race area, where...

  11. 78 FR 28164 - Special Local Regulation; Aguada Offshore Grand Prix, Bahia de Aguadilla; Aguada, PR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... entering, transiting through, anchoring in, or remaining within; (2) a buffer zone around the race areas, where all persons and vessels, except those persons and vessels enforcing the buffer zone, or authorized... 16, to: (1) Enter, transit through, anchor in, or remain within the race area or the buffer zone;...

  12. 78 FR 22811 - Special Local Regulations; Mayaguez Grand Prix, Mayaguez Bay; Mayaguez, PR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... remaining within; (2) a buffer zone around the race areas, where all persons and vessels, except those persons and vessels enforcing the buffer zone, are prohibited from entering, transiting through, anchoring... through, anchoring in, or remaining within; (2) a buffer zone around the race areas, where all persons...

  13. 33 CFR 100.720 - Annual Suncoast Offshore Grand Prix; Gulf of Mexico, Sarasota, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the racecourse. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (4) Big Sarasota Pass will be closed... datum: NAD 1983. (b) Special local regulations. (1) No anchoring will be permitted seaward of...

  14. 33 CFR 100.717 - Annual Fort Myers Beach Offshore Grand Prix; Fort Myers, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...°58.30′ W). All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (b) Special local regulations. (1) No vessel... coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (3) All vessel traffic, not involved with the Fort Myers Beach... clear of the racecourse. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (4) All vessel traffic,...

  15. 33 CFR 100.717 - Annual Fort Myers Beach Offshore Grand Prix; Fort Myers, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...°58.30′ W). All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (b) Special local regulations. (1) No vessel... coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (3) All vessel traffic, not involved with the Fort Myers Beach... clear of the racecourse. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (4) All vessel traffic,...

  16. 33 CFR 100.717 - Annual Fort Myers Beach Offshore Grand Prix; Fort Myers, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...°58.30′ W). All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (b) Special local regulations. (1) No vessel... coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (3) All vessel traffic, not involved with the Fort Myers Beach... clear of the racecourse. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (4) All vessel traffic,...

  17. 33 CFR 100.720 - Annual Suncoast Offshore Grand Prix; Gulf of Mexico, Sarasota, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the racecourse. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (4) Big Sarasota Pass will be closed... datum: NAD 1983. (b) Special local regulations. (1) No anchoring will be permitted seaward of...

  18. 33 CFR 100.717 - Annual Fort Myers Beach Offshore Grand Prix; Fort Myers, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...°58.30′ W). All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (b) Special local regulations. (1) No vessel... coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (3) All vessel traffic, not involved with the Fort Myers Beach... clear of the racecourse. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (4) All vessel traffic,...

  19. 33 CFR 100.720 - Annual Suncoast Offshore Grand Prix; Gulf of Mexico, Sarasota, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the racecourse. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (4) Big Sarasota Pass will be closed... datum: NAD 1983. (b) Special local regulations. (1) No anchoring will be permitted seaward of...

  20. 33 CFR 100.720 - Annual Suncoast Offshore Grand Prix; Gulf of Mexico, Sarasota, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the racecourse. All coordinates referenced use datum: NAD 83. (4) Big Sarasota Pass will be closed... datum: NAD 1983. (b) Special local regulations. (1) No anchoring will be permitted seaward of...

  1. The MedidaPrix Award: An Agent for Changing Higher Education e-Learning Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, Peter; Bauer, Reinhard

    With the possibilities of virtual or blended learning environments, remarkable opportunities for new forms of learning have emerged. Responding effectively to this transformation process, we need to capture, honor, and disseminate high quality e-Learning materials and initiate a new sharing mentality.

  2. 77 FR 37808 - Special Local Regulation; East Tawas Offshore Gran Prix, Tawas Bay; East Tawas, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... Port. The Captain of the Port can be reached via VHF channel 16. Before the activation of the zone, we.... 11. Energy Effects This action is not a ``significant energy action'' under Executive Order 13211, Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use....

  3. 33 CFR 100.106 - Freeport Grand Prix, Long Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) miles south of Long Beach and three and one quarter (31/4) miles north of the northern boundary of...) Southeast Corner. southwest of Jones Inlet Approch Buoy (R “2”; Light List Number 685) at coordinates 40-31-45 North; 073-36-19 West. (3) Southwest Corner. east of East Rockaway Approach Buoy (R “4”;...

  4. 78 FR 34568 - Special Local Regulation; Heritage Coast Offshore Grand Prix, Tawas Bay; East Tawas, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... regulation is necessary to ensure the safety of spectators, vessels, and participants. This special local.... List of Subjects in 33 CFR Part 100 Marine safety, Navigation (water), Reporting and record keeping... necessary and intended to ensure safety of life on the navigable waters immediately prior to, during,...

  5. Gamma Ray Bursts - Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

    2010-01-01

    We are in an exciting period of discovery for gamma-ray bursts. The Swift observatory is detecting 100 bursts per year, providing arcsecond localizations and sensitive observations of the prompt and afterglow emission. The Fermi observatory is observing 250 bursts per year with its medium-energy GRB instrument and about 10 bursts per year with its high-energy LAT instrument. In addition, rapid-response telescopes on the ground are providing new capabilities to study optical emission during the prompt phase and spectral signatures of the host galaxies. The combined data set is enabling great advances in our understanding of GRBs including afterglow physics, short burst origin, and high energy emission.

  6. Observation of WZ production.

    PubMed

    Abulencia, A; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Budroni, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carillo, S; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenaro, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Cyr, D; DaRonco, S; Datta, M; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; D'Onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdeckerc, G; Dell'Orso, M; Delli Paoli, F; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; DiTuro, P; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McCarthy, K; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ranjan, N; Rappoccio, S; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Saltzberg, D; Sánchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojma, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vallecorsa, S; Vanguri, R; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, J; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2007-04-20

    We report the first observation of the associated production of a W boson and a Z boson. This result is based on 1.1 fb;-1 of integrated luminosity from pp collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. We observe 16 WZ candidates passing our event selection with an expected background of 2.7+/-0.4 events. A fit to the missing transverse energy distribution indicates an excess of events compared to the background expectation corresponding to a significance equivalent to 6 standard deviations. The measured cross section is sigma(pp-->WZ)=5.0(-1.6)(+1.8) pb, consistent with the standard model expectation.

  7. Awareness as observational heterarchy

    PubMed Central

    Sonoda, Kohei; Kodama, Kentaro; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

    2013-01-01

    Libet et al. (1983) revealed that brain activity precedes conscious intention. For convenience in this study, we divide brain activity into two parts: a conscious field (CF) and an unconscious field (UF). Most studies have assumed a comparator mechanism or an illusion of CF and discuss the difference of prediction and postdiction. We propose that problems to be discussed here are a twisted sense of agency between CF and UF, and another definitions of prediction and postdiction in a mediation process for the twist. This study specifically examines the definitions throughout an observational heterarchy model based on internal measurement. The nature of agency must be emergence that involves observational heterarchy. Consequently, awareness involves processes having duality in the sense that it is always open to the world (postdiction) and that it also maintains self robustly (prediction). PMID:24101912

  8. Saturn Ring Observer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spilker, T. R.

    2001-01-01

    Answering fundamental questions about ring particle characteristics, and individual and group behavior, appears to require close-proximity (a few km) observations. Saturn's magnificent example of a ring system offers a full range of particle sizes, densities, and behaviors for study, so it is a natural choice for such detailed investigation. Missions implementing these observations require post-approach Delta(V) of approximately 10 km/s or more, so past mission concepts called upon Nuclear Electric Propulsion. The concept described here reduces the propulsive Delta(V) requirement to as little as 3.5 km/s, difficult but not impossible for high-performance chemical propulsion systems. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. IRAS observations of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. G.; Matson, D. L.; Veeder, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    The moderate spatial resolution and high sensitivity of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), which surveyed the celestial sphere during 1983 at wavelengths of 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns, were particularly well suited to detecting extended thermal emission from cometary dust. Sources with infrared color temperatures characteristic of solar system bodies, and at the ephemerides position of known comets were selected for analysis by the IRAS Asteroid Data Analysis System (ADAS). The data base is now available for use by researchers. This paper describes the development of the data base, details its entries, and presents a statistical analysis of its contents. The IRAS survey contains multiple observations of many periodic comets. A brief description and analysis is given of the observed infrared and derived physical properties for several comets of special interest.

  10. Observations of interstellar zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, D. G.; Jura, M.

    1982-01-01

    IUE observations toward 10 stars have shown that zinc is not depleted in the interstellar medium by more than a factor of two, suggesting that its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. A result pertinent to the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood is that the local interstellar medium has abundances that appear to be homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc.

  11. Other groundbased observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Ground-based solar observational programs are discussed. The Birmingham (U.K.) solar oscillation network (BiSON) program, the Crimean (Ukraine) low degree program, the Stanford (California) low degree program, the Tenerife (Spain) group program, the South Pole program, the Mount Wilson (California) program, the international research on the interior of the sun (IRIS) network program, the high-l helioseismometer instrument, the ground luminosity oscillations imager (LOI) program, and the Taiwanese oscillation network (TON) program, are outlined.

  12. Southern hemisphere observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.

  13. The Spatial Standard Observer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Ahumada, Albert J, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial standard observer is a computational model that provides a measure of the visibility of a target in a uniform background image or of the visual discriminability of two images. Standard observers have long been used in science and industry to quantify the discriminability of colors. Color standard observers address the spectral characteristics of visual stimuli, while the spatial standard observer (SSO), as its name indicates, addresses spatial characteristics. The SSO is based on a model of human vision. The SSO was developed in a process that included evaluation of a number of earlier mathematical models that address optical, physiological, and psychophysical aspects of spatial characteristics of human visual perception. Elements of the prior models are incorporated into the SSO, which is formulated as a compromise between accuracy and simplicity. The SSO operates on a digitized monochrome still image or on a pair of such images. The SSO consists of three submodels that operate sequentially on the input image(s): 1. A contrast model, which converts an input monochrome image to a luminance contrast image, wherein luminance values are expressed as excursions from, and normalized to, a mean; 2. A contrast-sensitivity-filter model that includes an oblique-effect filter (which accounts for the decline in contrast sensitivity at oblique viewing angles); and 3. A spatial summation model, in which responses are spatially pooled by raising each pixel to the power beta, adding the results, and raising the sum to the 1/b power. In this model, b=2.9 was found to be a suitable value. The net effect of the SSO is to compute a numerical measure of the perceptual strength of the single image, or of the visible difference (denoted the perceptual distance) between two images. The unit of a measure used in the SSO is the just noticeable difference (JND), which is a standard measure of perceptual discriminability. A target that is just visible has a measure of 1 JND.

  14. Observing a failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Leonard

    1994-06-01

    Mars Observer was being sent to 'rewrite the book on Mars.' That was the claim of one NASA scientist as the interplanetary robot sat atop a Titan 3 booster that roared skyward from a Cape Canaveral launch pad. On August 21, 1993, only three days before entering Mars orbit, America's first mission to Mars in 17 years fell silent. This article reviews possible causes of this failure.

  15. In situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehhalt, D. H.

    1980-03-01

    To illustrate capabilities and problems of in situ observations, examples of recent measurements are presented which have a bearing on the chlorofluoromethane-ozone problem. These include: (1) resonance fluorescence for the measurement of Cl and ClO, (2) grab and cryogenic collection of whole air samples for the measurement of CFCl3 and CF2Cl2, (3) impregnated filters for acid chloride, and (4) matrix isolation for HO2 and NO2.

  16. Observations of Surfzone Albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnett, G.; Feddersen, F.

    2014-12-01

    The surfzone environment (where waves break) contains several unique and previously unconsidered processes that affect the heat budget. Entering short-wave radiation is a dominant term in both shelf and surfzone heat budgets. In contrast to the shelf, however, depth limited wave breaking in the surfzone generates spray, whitewater and suspended sediments, elevating the surface albedo (ratio of reflected to incident short-wave radiation). Elevated albedo reduces the level of solar short-wave radiation entering the water, potentially resulting in less heating. Additionally, surfzone water quality is often impacted by fecal bacteria contamination. As bacteria mortality is related to short-wave solar radiation, elevated surfzone albedo could reduce pathogen mortality, impacting human health. Albedo in the open ocean has been frequently studied and parameterizations often consider solar zenith angle, wind speed and ocean chlorophyll concentration, producing albedo values typically near 0.06. However, surfzone albedo observations have been extremely sparse, yet show depth limited wave breaking may increase the albedo by nearly a factor of 10 up to 0.5. Here, we present findings from a field study at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography pier to observe the affect of waves on surfzone albedo. Concurrent measurements were taken with a four-way radiometer (to measure both downwelling and upwelling short-wave and long wave radiation) mounted above the surfzone. A co-located GoPro camera was used to relate visual aspects of the surfzone to measured reflectance, and wave height and period were observed with a bottom mounted pressure sensor in 5 m water depth just outside the surfzone. Wind speed and direction were observed on the pier 10 m above the water surface. Here, we will examine the surfzone albedo dependence on surfzone parameters, such as wave height.

  17. Satellite observations of ethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, W.; Payne, V.; Kulawik, S. S.; Bowman, K. W.

    2015-12-01

    Ethylene (C2H4) is a trace gas commonly associated with boreal fire plumes and the petrochemical industry. It has a short lifetime (~1-2 days) in the troposphere due to its reaction with OH. Chemical destruction of ethylene in the atmosphere leads to the production of ozone precursors such as carbon monoxide (CO) and formaldehyde. The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer aboard the Aura satellite that measures thermal infrared radiances with high spectral resolution. Trace gas products retrieved routinely from TES spectra include O3, CO, H2O, HDO, CH4, NH3, HCOOH, CH3OH, with OCS and PAN to be included in the next data release. The TES spectra also includes a wealth of untapped information about other trace gasses including ethylene. Ethylene was first observed in TES spectra by Alvarado et al. (2011), though it has yet to be developed into an operational product. Our study focuses on the detection and initial quantitative estimates of ethylene in TES special observations taken in support of the 2008 ARCTAS mission. Initial observations of HCN in the spectra may provide a way to distinguish between fire plume and petrochemical derived ethylene. Results indicate a correlation between ethylene and CO in fresh fire plumes but not in older plumes, consistent with the gas's short lifetime. The approach adopted here to detect ethylene in the TES 2008 ARCTAS special observations can easily be expanded to larger datasets, including those from other thermal infrared sounders as well as to other trace gases.

  18. Enhanced ocean observational capability

    SciTech Connect

    Volpe, A M; Esser, B K

    2000-01-10

    Coastal oceans are vital to world health and sustenance. Technology that enables new observations has always been the driver of discovery in ocean sciences. In this context, we describe the first at sea deployment and operation of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS) for continuous measurement of trace elements in seawater. The purpose of these experiments was to demonstrate that an ICPMS could be operated in a corrosive and high vibration environment with no degradation in performance. Significant advances occurred this past year due to ship time provided by Scripps Institution of Oceanography (UCSD), as well as that funded through this project. Evaluation at sea involved performance testing and characterization of several real-time seawater analysis modes. We show that mass spectrometers can rapidly, precisely and accurately determine ultratrace metal concentrations in seawater, thus allowing high-resolution mapping of large areas of surface seawater. This analytical capability represents a significant advance toward real-time observation and understanding of water mass chemistry in dynamic coastal environments. In addition, a joint LLNL-SIO workshop was convened to define and design new technologies for ocean observation. Finally, collaborative efforts were initiated with atmospheric scientists at LLNL to identify realistic coastal ocean and river simulation models to support real-time analysis and modeling of hazardous material releases in coastal waterways.

  19. The Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, Lisa Robock

    1992-01-01

    The restructuring of the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS), designed to provide comprehensive long term observations from space of changes occurring on the Earth from natural and human causes in order to have a sound scientific basis for policy decisions on protection of the future, is reported. In response to several factors, the original program approved in the fiscal year 1991 budget was restructured and somewhat reduced in scope. The resulting program uses three different sized launch vehicles to put six different spacecraft in orbit in the first phase, followed by two replacement launches for each of five of the six satellites to maintain a long term observing capability to meet the needs of global climate change research and other science objectives. The EOS system, including the space observatories, the data and information system, and the interdisciplinary global change research effort, are approved and proceeding. Elements of EOS are already in place, such as the research investigations and initial data system capabilities. The flights of precursor satellite and Shuttle missions, the ongoing data analysis, and the evolutionary enhancements to the integrated Earth science data management capabilities are all important building blocks to the full EOS program.

  20. NICER observation of magnetars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Arzoumanian, Zaven

    2016-04-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER) is a NASA Explorer Misson of Opportunity as an attached payload aboard the International Space Station (ISS), launch in August 2016. The NICER is planned to study the interior composition and structure within neutron stars via high precise measurement of their stellar mass and radius, also to investigate dynamic and energetic behaviors of their activities. This mission will enable pulsar rotation-resolved spectroscopy in the 0.2--12 keV energy band with large collection area (about twice of the XMM-Newton observatory for soft X-ray timing), precise time-tagging resolution (~200 nsec, 25 times better than RXTE), and high sensitivity (about 2e-14 erg/s/cm2 in the 0.5--10 keV, 5-sigma for 10 ksec exposure). As one of prime goals of the mission, we will describe the science planning of the NICER magnetar observations. The NICER is expected to provide monitoring of fainter magnetar sources which cannot be performed by Swift due to its little collective area. Deep observations of quiescent magnetars and high-B radio pulsars can be also performed with the NICER to study their spectral similarity as a key to investigate the connection between these two sub-classes. Finally, ToO programs are suitable to follow-up the magnate outburst relaxation down to much fainter flux level. We will introduce the NICER strategy of the magnetar observation.

  1. Un essai contrôlé randomisé: effet du port de chaussures à talons hauts sur le squelette appendiculaire inferieur

    PubMed Central

    Koussihouèdé, Fifamè Eudia Nadège; Falola, Jean-Marie; Fousseni, El-Mansour Barres

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Véritable attribut de la féminité, le port de chaussures à talons est devenu une exigence professionnelle dans certaines structures des pays en développement comme le Bénin. L'objectif de ce travail est de déterminer les effets spécifiques du port de chaussures à talons hauts sur le squelette appendiculaire inférieur. Méthodes Des examens radiographiques de face et de profil de la cheville et du genou ont été effectués sur 122 femmes volontaires, âgées en moyenne de 25,09 ± 1,34 ans et ayant les genu varum qui ont participé à cette étude. Résultats Les résultats ont indiqué une augmentation significative de l’écart inter malléolaire, de l’écart inter condylien, de l'angle antérieur du pied et de l'angle fémoro-patellaire. Une diminution significative de l'angle postérieur du pied a été constatée. Conclusion Le port de chaussures à talons hauts est l'une des causes de la gonarthrose, des troubles des articulations de la cheville et du pied. PMID:26113922

  2. Etude de l'influence de la temperature et de l'humidite sur les proprietes mecaniques en traction des fibres de chanvre et de coco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho Thi, Thu Nga

    L'objectif de cette etude fut d'etablir l'effet de l'humidite et de la temperature sur la resistance en traction et le module elastique des fibres de chanvre et de coco. Deux etudes ont ete realisees afin d'atteindre cet objectif. La premiere vise l'absorption de l'humidite dans ces fibres en exposition dans l'air (de 0%RH a 80%RH) ainsi que l'absorption de l'eau dans ces fibres immergees dans l'eau aux differentes temperatures. La deuxieme consiste a mesurer la resistance en traction et le module elastique de ces fibres sous differentes conditions d'humidite et de temperature. En basant sur les resultats experimentaux obtenus, les methodes semi empiriques et de reseaux de neurones ont ete utilisees pour but de predire les proprietes en traction (resistance et module d'elasticite) des fibres de chanvre et de coco sous l'influence de l'humidite et de la temperature.

  3. Mesure des stades de developpement du sapin baumier (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) par teledetection des maxima locaux sur images a tres haute resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Alain

    L'objectif principal de cette these est d'identifier les parametres cles pour lier le developpement morphologique de la cime du sapin baumier (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) aux patrons de reflectance qu'elle genere sur une image aerienne a haute resolution. La quantite et la distribution spatiale des aiguilles dans le sapin dependent de la structure des branches. Un mecanisme de ramification particulier (la reiteration) ressort comme le parametre cle pour lier l'augmentation de la biomasse foliaire et la forme de la branche. Les reiterats forment des agglomerats de feuillage qui engendrent des inegalites dans les patrons de reflectance de la cime. La reflectance est plus elevee ou il y a une forte concentration de reiterats (maximum local). On demontre que le developpement du sapin baumier se mesure au moyen de l'analyse des maxima locaux de la cime sur une image. La biomasse de l'arbre se mesure par la teledetection et l'analyse des patrons de reflectance de la cime, c'est-a-dire la mesure du niveau de reiteration par le decompte des maxima locaux de la cime. Cette etude demontre qu'il est possible de proceder a l'inventaire du volume de bois d'un peuplement par la teledetection de l'architecture des arbres.

  4. Que nous apprennent les petits frères et sœurs sur les signes précoces d’autisme?1

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Sally J.

    2010-01-01

    L’objectif de cette revue est de présenter une synthèse des réponses que l’on peut actuellement apporter à la question de savoir quelles sont les premières caractéristiques comportementales qui prédisent le développement de l’autisme. L’article se centre sur 5 points : la présence de Troubles du Spectre Autistique (TSA) dans des groupes de frères et sœurs puînés d’enfants déjà diagnostiqués, les patterns et caractéristiques du développement moteur, les patterns et caractéristiques du développement social et émotionnel, les patterns et caractéristiques de la communication intentionnelle verbale et non verbale, et les patterns qui marquent le début de comportements pathognomoniques de TSA. La discussion porte sur les aspects inattendus des résultats et les pistes de recherche nouvelles qu’ils peuvent engendrer. PMID:20890377

  5. C. elegans EOR-1/PLZF and EOR-2 positively regulate Ras and Wnt signaling and function redundantly with LIN-25 and the SUR-2 Mediator component.

    PubMed

    Howard, Robyn M; Sundaram, Meera V

    2002-07-15

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, Ras/ERK and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathways cooperate to induce P12 and vulval cell fates in a Hox-dependent manner. Here we describe eor-1 and eor-2, two new positively acting nuclear components of the Ras and Wnt pathways. eor-1 and eor-2 act downstream or in parallel to ERK and function redundantly with the Mediator complex gene sur-2 and the functionally related gene lin-25, such that removal of both eor-1/eor-2 and sur-2/lin-25 mimics the removal of a main Ras pathway component. Furthermore, the eor-1 and eor-2 mutant backgrounds reveal an essential role for the Elk1-related gene lin-1. eor-1 and eor-2 also act downstream or in parallel to pry-1 Axin and therefore act at the convergence of the Ras and Wnt pathways. eor-1 encodes the ortholog of human PLZF, a BTB/zinc-finger transcription factor that is fused to RARalpha in acute promyelocytic leukemia. eor-2 encodes a novel protein. EOR-1/PLZF and EOR-2 appear to function closely together and cooperate with Hox genes to promote the expression of Ras- and Wnt-responsive genes. Further studies of eor-1 and eor-2 may provide insight into the roles of PLZF in normal development and leukemogenesis.

  6. Tensions entre rationalité technique et intérêts politiques : l’exemple de la mise en œuvre de la Loi sur les agences de développement de réseaux locaux de services de santé et de services sociaux au Québec

    PubMed Central

    Contandriopoulos, D.; Hudon, Raymond; Martin, Elisabeth; Thompson, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Sommaire L’objet de cet article est constitué par les processus décisionnels entourant la mise en œuvre de la Loi sur les agences de développement de réseaux locaux de services de santé et de services sociaux (Loi 25). Nous entendons mettre en lumière les stratégies des groupes ou institutions de diverses natures qui ont fait valoir leurs préférences et ont tenté, avec un succès inégal, d’influencer les décisions relatives à cette réforme majeure de la structure du système de santé québécois. Au plan théorique, nous nous appuyons principalement sur les modèles d’analyse du lobbying qui, depuis les travaux fondateurs de Milbrath (1960, 1963), présentent cette pratique comme un processus fondamental d’échange d’information. Selon les données colligées dans les retranscriptions d’entrevues, les stratégies observées correspondent effectivement aux caractéristiques constitutives du lobbying et, dans quelques situations, à celles du patronage. La combinaison de ces divers éléments révèle que la mise en œuvre de la Loi 25 s’avère être avant tout un processus proprement politique. Ainsi, furent relégués au second plan les arguments techniques qui composaient initialement les objectifs de la Loi. PMID:23509412

  7. ROSAT observation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.

    1995-01-01

    In this annual progress report (November 1, 1993 to October 31, 1994), the geminga pulsar was observed by the ROSAT PSPC for 37,000 s in September 1993, in order to make a more detailed study than was previously possible of the pulse profile and two-component spectrum, and to do phase-resolved spectroscopy. This exposure was 2.5 times longer than the original discovery observation. In addition, a shorter 4,000 s exposure was made in October 1992, simultaneously with a GRO observation of Geminga, in order to verify the absolute phasing of the X-ray and gamma-ray peaks. We verified that the spectrum can be described as the sum of two black bodies, whose temperatures are 6 x 10(exp 5) K and 3 - 4 x 10(exp 6) K, with the latter covering 3 x 10(exp -5) the area of the former. The pulse profiles indicate that the intensity of the two emitting regions peak is approximately 90 deg out of phase in rotation, but that the temperatures are otherwise independent of phase. An improved estimate of the distance can be made from the cooler (larger) blackbody component, yielding d = 440 +/- 120 pc. Another program of this report was to obtain PSPC spectra of an important class of Seyfert galaxies which have narrow lines and stron permitted Fe II emission. Sometines called I Zw 1 objects, or narrow-line Seyfert 1s, they are crucial to our understanding of Seyfert classification and models of Seyfert unification. We observed four new objects and, in addition, obtained data on 17 more from the ROSAT archive. A third program combined PSPC and HRI observations of selected Seyfert galaxies which have unusual and variable spectra. The purpose was to disentangle diffuse X-ray emission from the nuclear source, in order to properly interpret the soft X-ray spectral shapes in terms of partial covering and/or warm-absorber models. The targets of the program are NGC 3516, NGC 3227, and NGC 7314. So far, we have only performed a dtailed analysis on NGC 3516. The fourth program of this report is

  8. Developpement et validation d'un outil base sur l'acoustique geometrique pour le diagnostic du bruit de nacelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minard, Benoit

    De nos jours, la problématique du bruit généré par les avions est devenue un point de développement important dans le domaine de l'aéronautique. C'est ainsi que de nombreuses études sont faites dans le domaine et une première approche consiste à modéliser de façon numérique ce bruit de manière à réduire de façon conséquente les coûts lors de la conception. C'est dans ce contexte qu'un motoriste a demandé à l'université de Sherbrooke, et plus particulièrement au groupe d'acoustique de l'Université de Sherbrooke (GAUS), de développer un outil de calcul de la propagation des ondes acoustiques dans les nacelles mais aussi pour l'étude des effets d'installation. Cet outil de prédiction leur permet de réaliser des études afin d'optimiser les traitements acoustiques (« liners »), la géométrie de ces nacelles pour des études portant sur l'intérieur de la nacelle et des études de positionnement des moteurs et de design pour les effets d'installation. L'objectif de ce projet de maîtrise était donc de poursuivre le travail réalisé par [gousset, 2011] sur l'utilisation d'une méthode de lancer de rayons pour l'étude des effets d'installation des moteurs d'avion. L'amélioration du code, sa rapidité, sa fiabilité et sa généralité étaient les objectifs principaux. Le code peut être utilisé avec des traitements acoustiques de surfaces («liners») et peut prendre en compte le phénomène de la diffraction par les arêtes et enfin peut être utilisé pour réaliser des études dans des environnements complexes tels que les nacelles d'avion. Le code développé fonctionne en 3D et procéde en 3 étapes : (1) Calcul des faisceaux initiaux (division d'une sphère, demi-sphère, maillage des surfaces de la géométrie) (2) Propagation des faisceaux dans l'environnement d'étude : calcul de toutes les caractéristiques des rayons convergents (amplitude, phase, nombre de réflexions, ...) (3) Reconstruction du champ de pression en un ou

  9. Family Violence Among Older Adult Patients Consulting in Primary Care Clinics: Results From the ESA (Enquête sur la santé des aînés) Services Study on Mental Health and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Préville, Michel; Mechakra-Tahiri, Samia Djemaa; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Mathieu, Véronique; Quesnel, Louise; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Berbiche, Djamal

    2014-01-01

    Objective To document the reliability and construct validity of the Family Violence Scale (FVS) in the older adult population aged 65 years and older. Method: Data came from a cross-sectional survey, the Enquête sur la santé des aînés et l’utilisation des services de santé (ESA Services Study), conducted in 2011–2013 using a probabilistic sample of older adults waiting for medical services in primary care clinics (n = 1765). Family violence was defined as a latent variable, coming from a spouse and from children. Results: A model with 2 indicators of violence; that is, psychological and financial violence, and physical violence, adequately fitted the observed data. The reliability of the FVS was 0.95. According to our results, 16% of older adults reported experiencing some form of family violence in the past 12 months of their interview, and 3% reported a high level of family violence (FVS > 0.36). Our results showed that the victim’s sex was not associated with the degree of violence (β = 0.02). However, the victim’s age was associated with family violence (β = −0.12). Older adults, aged 75 years and older, reported less violence than those aged between 65 and 74 years. Conclusion: Our results lead us to conclude that family violence against older adults is common and warrants greater public health and political attention. General practitioners could play an active role in the detection of violence among older adults. PMID:25161067

  10. Distributed Observer Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conroy, Michael; Mazzone, Rebecca; Little, William; Elfrey, Priscilla; Mann, David; Mabie, Kevin; Cuddy, Thomas; Loundermon, Mario; Spiker, Stephen; McArthur, Frank; Srey, Tate; Bonilla, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The Distributed Observer network (DON) is a NASA-collaborative environment that leverages game technology to bring three-dimensional simulations to conventional desktop and laptop computers in order to allow teams of engineers working on design and operations, either individually or in groups, to view and collaborate on 3D representations of data generated by authoritative tools such as Delmia Envision, Pro/Engineer, or Maya. The DON takes models and telemetry from these sources and, using commercial game engine technology, displays the simulation results in a 3D visual environment. DON has been designed to enhance accessibility and user ability to observe and analyze visual simulations in real time. A variety of NASA mission segment simulations [Synergistic Engineering Environment (SEE) data, NASA Enterprise Visualization Analysis (NEVA) ground processing simulations, the DSS simulation for lunar operations, and the Johnson Space Center (JSC) TRICK tool for guidance, navigation, and control analysis] were experimented with. Desired functionalities, [i.e. Tivo-like functions, the capability to communicate textually or via Voice-over-Internet Protocol (VoIP) among team members, and the ability to write and save notes to be accessed later] were targeted. The resulting DON application was slated for early 2008 release to support simulation use for the Constellation Program and its teams. Those using the DON connect through a client that runs on their PC or Mac. This enables them to observe and analyze the simulation data as their schedule allows, and to review it as frequently as desired. DON team members can move freely within the virtual world. Preset camera points can be established, enabling team members to jump to specific views. This improves opportunities for shared analysis of options, design reviews, tests, operations, training, and evaluations, and improves prospects for verification of requirements, issues, and approaches among dispersed teams.

  11. Observations of minor planets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Observations made at the following stations are published: Bucharest, Catania, Caussols, Cent. Astron. Yebes, Cerro Tololo Interam. Obs., Chirorin, Crimean Astrophys. Obs. (52nd Report), Eur. South. Obs., Falkensee, Geisei, Goethe Link Obs., Göttingen, Haute Provence, Hemingford Abbots, JCPM Oi Stn., Kambah (near Canberra), Kitt Peak, Klet', Le Creusot, Lick Obs., Lincoln Lab., Lowell Obs., Lowell Obs. Anderson Mesa Stn., Madonnna di Dossobuono, Mt. John Obs., Mt. Palomar, Oak Ridge Obs., Purple Mountain Obs., Quonochontaug Stn. (Rhode Island), Reintal, S. Vittore (Bologna), Seewalchen, Siding Spring, Skalnaté Pleso, Spec. Astrophys. Obs., Steward Obs., Sydney, Tautenburg, Telford, Tokyo Obs. Kiso Stn., Turku, Zimmerwald.

  12. Electric Utility Observers' Forum

    SciTech Connect

    Smartt, L.E.

    1982-05-13

    This second Observers' Forum of Public Utilities Fortnightly includes invited comments from 19 key legislators, utility consultants, and recognized figures in service industries on any subject to which the contributor wished to direct the attention of the industry leadership and which has a public-interest aspect. Participants were free to point to what they think the industry is doing, either right or wrong, and to areas where the industry might improve its performance. There is no single overriding message, but there is a prevalent mood that the electric-utility industry may have turned a corner despite some remaining problems.

  13. Television observations of Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avanesov, G. A.; Bonev, B. I.; Boicheva, V.; Kempe, F.; Bazilevskii, A. T.; Duxbury, T.

    1989-01-01

    In February and March 1989 the Phobos 2 spacecraft took 37 television images of Phobos from a distance of 190-1100 km. The data are being used to update the three-dimensional model of Phobos, to provide improved determinations of its density and orbital dynamics, and to study its surface color, composition, and texture. Preliminary findings are presented here which include different integrated photometric behavior in visible and near-infrared bands, observation of a region immediately west of Stickney which is relatively free of large grooves, the prevalence of bright rims on grooves and younger craters, and low bulk density.

  14. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, S.; Pauwels, K.; Rizzolatti, G.; Orban, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors “stimulus type” (action, static control, and dynamic control), “stereopsis” (present, absent) and “viewpoint” (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. PMID:27252350

  15. Observations of glitches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza, Cristobal

    2016-07-01

    Glitches are sudden spin ups observed in the otherwise smooth rotation of pulsars. These rare and rather small events are thought to be caused by an erratic relationship between a loosely coupled internal superfluid and the crust of the neutron star. They are known to be one of the very few phenomena which allow us to study the interior of pulsars. The largest events are followed by a period of relaxation, lasting from month to years, in which the rotation evolves back to the pre-glitch state. These recoveries might represent the response of internal superfluid components to the sudden change in rotation at the glitch. Therefore, the study and comprehension of glitches and their recoveries provide ways to refine our understanding of superfluid physics in the extreme and unique conditions present inside neutron stars. In this talk I will summarise the current observational status of glitch research. This will include not only the detection of new glitches but also the analysis of our detection capabilities and the design of monitoring campaigns that could deliver a wider range of detections. I will also present ongoing research on the glitch size distribution of particular sources and some recent results regarding the long-term effects that glitch recoveries pose on pulsar spin evolution.

  16. Kitt Peak Observes Comet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Kitt Peak National Observatory's 2.1-meter telescope observed comet Tempel 1 on April 11, 2005, when the comet was near its closest approach to the Earth. A pinkish dust jet is visible to the southwest, with the broader neutral gas coma surrounding it. North is up, East is to the left, and the field of view is about 80,000 km (50,000 miles) wide. The Sun was almost directly behind the observer at this time. The red, green and blue bars in the background are stars that moved between the individual images.

    This pseudo-color picture was created by combining three black and white images obtained with different filters. The images were obtained with the HB Narrowband Comet Filters, using CN (3870 A - shown in blue), C2 (5140 A - shown in green) and RC (7128 A - shown in red). The CN and C2 filters capture different gas species (along with the underlying dust) while the RC filter captures just the dust.

  17. Ulysses: UVCS Coordinated Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.; Corti, G.; Simnett, G.; Noci, G.; Romoli, M.; Kohl, J.; Goldstein, B.

    1998-01-01

    We present results from coordinated observations in which instruments on Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and Ulysses were used to measure the density and flow speed of plasma at the Sun and to again measure the same properties of essentially the same plasma in the solar wind. Plasma was sampled by Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) at 3.5 and 4.5 solar radii and by Ulysses/SWOOPS at 5 AU. Data were acquired during a nearly 2 week period in May-June 1997 at a latitude of 9-10 degrees north of the equator, on the east limb and, hence, in the streamer belt and the source location of slow wind. Density and outflow speed are compared, in order to check for preservation of the near Sun characteristics in the interplanetary medium. By chance, Ulysses was at the very northern edge of the visible streamer belt. Nevertheless, no evidence of fast wind, or mixing with fast wind coming from the northern polar coronal hole, was evident at Ulysses. The morphology of the streamer belt was similar at the beginning and end of the observation period, but was markedly different during the middle of the period. A corresponding change in density (but not flow speed) was noted at Ulysses.

  18. GLOBAL OBSERVATIONS FROM PHOBOS.

    SciTech Connect

    BAKER,M.D.; FOR THE PHOBOS COLLABORATION

    2002-07-18

    Particle production in Au+Au collisions has been measured in the PHOBOS experiment at RHIC for a range of collision energies. Three empirical observations have emerged from this dataset which require theoretical examination. First, there is clear evidence of limiting fragmentation. Namely, particle production in central Au + Au collisions, when expressed as dN/d{eta}{prime} ({eta}{prime} {triple_bond} {eta} - y{sub beam}), becomes energy independent at high energy for a broad region of {eta}{prime} around {eta}{prime} = 0. This energy-independent region grows with energy, allowing only a limited region (if any) of longitudinal boost-invariance. Second, there is a striking similarity between particle production in e{sup +}e{sup -} and Au + Au collisions (scaled by the number of participating nucleon pairs). Both the total number of produced particles and the longitudinal distribution of produced particles are approximately the same in e{sup +}e{sup -} and in scaled Au + Au. This observation was not predicted and has not been explained. Finally, particle production has been found to scale approximately with the number of participating nucleon pairs for > 65. This scaling occurs both for the total multiplicity and for high p{sub T} particles (3 < p{sub T} < 4.5 GeV/c).

  19. Copernicus Earth observation programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žlebir, Silvo

    European Earth observation program Copernicus is an EU-wide programme that integrates satellite data, in-situ data and modeling to provide user-focused information services to support policymakers, researchers, businesses and citizens. Land monitoring service and Emergency service are fully operational already, Atmosphere monitoring service and Marine environment monitoring service are preoperational and will become fully operational in the following year, while Climate change service and Security service are in an earlier development phase. New series of a number of dedicated satellite missions will be launched in the following years, operated by the European Space Agency and EUMETSAT, starting with Sentinel 1A satellite early this year. Ground based, air-borne and sea-borne in-situ data are provided by different international networks and organizations, EU member states networks etc. European Union is devoting a particular attention to secure a sustainable long-term operational provision of the services. Copernicus is also stated as a European Union’s most important contribution to Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The status and the recent development of the Copernicus programme will be presented, together with its future perspective. As Copernicus services have already demonstrated their usability and effectiveness, some interesting cases of their deployment will be presented. Copernicus free and open data policy, supported by a recently adopted EU legislative act, will also be presented.

  20. Commercial Earth Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP) at Stennis Space Center, Applied Analysis, Inc. developed a new tool for analyzing remotely sensed data. The Applied Analysis Spectral Analytical Process (AASAP) detects or classifies objects smaller than a pixel and removes the background. This significantly enhances the discrimination among surface features in imagery. ERDAS, Inc. offers the system as a modular addition to its ERDAS IMAGINE software package for remote sensing applications. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant. Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP), Ocean and Coastal Environmental Sensing (OCENS) developed SeaStation for marine users. SeaStation is a low-cost, portable, shipboard satellite groundstation integrated with vessel catch and product monitoring software. Linked to the Global Positioning System, SeaStation provides real time relationships between vessel position and data such as sea surface temperature, weather conditions and ice edge location. This allows the user to increase fishing productivity and improve vessel safety. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant.

  1. The ANTARES observation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogliotti, Ana I.; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Muller-Karger, Frank; Hu, Chuanmin; Murch, Brock; Taylor, Charles; Yuras, Gabriel; Kampel, Milton; Lutz, Vivian; Gaeta, Salvador; Gagliardini, Domingo A.; Garcia, Carlos A. E.; Klein, Eduardo; Helbling, Walter; Varela, Ramon; Barbieri, Elena; Negri, Ruben; Frouin, Robert; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Platt, Trevor

    2005-08-01

    The ANTARES network seeks to understand the variability of the coastal environment on a continental scale and the local, regional, and global factors and processes that effect this change. The focus are coastal zones of South America and the Caribbean Sea. The initial approach includes developing time series of in situ and satellite-based environmental observations in coastal and oceanic regions. The network is constituted by experts that seek to exchange ideas, develop an infrastructure for mutual logistical and knowledge support, and link in situ time series of observations located around the Americas with real-time and historical satellite-derived time series of relevant products. A major objective is to generate information that will be distributed publicly and openly in the service of coastal ocean research, resource management, science-based policy making and education in the Americas. As a first stage, the network has linked oceanographic time series located in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Venezuela. The group has also developed an online tool to examine satellite data collected with sensors such as NASA's MODIS. Specifically, continental-scale high-resolution (1 km) maps of chlorophyll and of sea surface temperature are generated and served daily over the web according to specifications of users within the ANTARES network. Other satellite-derived variables will be added as support for the network is solidified. ANTARES serves data and offers simple analysis tools that anyone can use with the ultimate goal of improving coastal assessments, management and policies.

  2. Exoplanet observations with GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallé, Enric

    2015-12-01

    Our group is presently conducting an observational campaign, using the 10-meter Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), to obtain the transmission spectrum of several exoplanets during a transit event. The GTC instrument OSIRIS is used in its long-slit spectroscopic mode, covering the spectral range of 520-1040 nm, and observations are taken using a set of custom-built slits of various, broad, widths. We integrate the stellar flux of both stars in different wavelength regions producing several light curves and fit transit models in order to obtain the star-to-planet radius ratio Rp/Rs across wavelength. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Bayesian approach is used for the transit fitting. We will show that with our instrumental setup, OSIRIS has been able to reach precisions down to 250 ppm (WASP-48b, V=11.06 mag) for each color light curve 10 nm wide, in a single transit. And accuracies of the order of 500ppm can be obtained for objects with V=16. Central transit timing accuracies have been measured down to 6 seconds.Here, we will present refined planet parameters, the detection of planet color signatures, and the transmission spectra of a set of know and unpublished transiting exoplanets. We will also discuss the capabilities and limitations of GTC with current and future instrumentation, and the role of GTC as tool for the follow up of faint exoplanet targets.

  3. AAVSO Solar Observers Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, R.

    2013-06-01

    (Abstract only) For visual solar observers there has been no biological change in the "detector" (human eye) - at century scales (eye + visual cortex) does not change much over time. Our capacity to "integrate" seeing distortions is not just simple averaging! The visual cortex plays an essential role, and until recently only the SDO-HMI (Solar Dynamics Observatory, Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager) has had the capacity to detect the smallest sunspots, called pores. Prior to this the eye was superior to photography and CCD. Imaged data are not directly comparable or substitutable to counts by eye, as the effects of sensor/optical resolution and seeing will have a different influence on the resulting sunspot counts for images when compared to the human eye. Also contributing to the complex task of counting sunspots is differentiating between a sunspot (which is usually defined as having a darker center (umbra) and lighter outer ring (penumbra)) and a pore, made even more complex by the conflicting definitions of the word "pore" in the solar context: "pore" can mean a small spot without penumbra or "pore" can mean a random intergranular blemish that is not a true sunspot. The overall agreement is that the smallest spot size is near 2,000 km or ~3 arc sec, (Loughhead, R. E. and Bray, R. J. 1961, Australian J. Phys., 14, 347). Sunspot size is dictated by granulation dynamics rather than spot size (cancellation of convective motion), and by the lifetime of the pore, which averages from 10 to 30 minutes. There is no specific aperture required for AAVSO observers contributing sunspot observations. However, the detection of the smallest spots is influenced by the resolution of the telescope. Two factors to consider are the theoretical optical resolution (unobstructed aperture), Rayleigh criterion: theta = 138 / D(mm), and Dawes criterion: theta = 116 / D(mm) (http://www.telescope-optics.net/telescope_resolution.htm). However, seeing is variable with time; daytime range will

  4. Observations of Distant Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, Megan

    2004-01-01

    The is the proceedings and papers supported by the LTSA grant: Homer, D. J.\\& Donahue, M. 2003, in "The Emergence of Cosmic Structure": 13'h Astrophysics Conference Proceedings, Vol. 666,3 1 1-3 14, (AIP). Baumgartner, W. H., Loewenstein, M., Horner, D. J., Mushotzky, R. F. 2003, HEAD- AAS, 35.3503. Homer, D. J. , Donahue, M., Voit G. M. 2003, HEAD-AAS, 35.1309. Nowak, M. A., Smith, B., Donahue, M., Stocke, J. 2003, HEAD-AAS, 35.1316. Scott, D., Borys, C., Chapman, S. C., Donahue, M., Fahlman, G. G., Halpem, M. Newbury, P. 2002, AAS, 128.01. Jones, L. R. et al. 2002, A new era in cosmology, ASP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 283, p. 223 Donahue, M., Daly, R. A., Homer, D. J. 2003, ApJ, 584, 643, Constraints on the Cluster Environments and Hotspot magnetic field strengths for radio sources 3280 and 3254. Donahue, M., et al. 2003, ApJ, 598, 190. The mass, baryonic fraction, and x-ray temperature of the luminous, high-redshift cluster of galaxies MS045 1.6-0305 Perlman, E. S. et al. 2002, ApJS, 140, 256. Smith, B. J., Nowak, M., Donahue, M., Stocke, J. 2003, AJ, 126, 1763. Chandra Observations of the Interacting NGC44 10 Group of Galaxies. Postman, M., Lauer, T. R., Oegerle, W., Donahue, M. 2002, ApJ, 579, 93. The KPNO/deep-range cluster survey I. The catalog and space density of intermediate-redshift clusters. Molnar, S. M., Hughes, J. P., Donahue, M., Joy, M. 2002, ApJ, 573, L91, Chandra Observations of Unresolved X-Ray Sources around Two Clusters of Galaxies. Donahue, M., Mack, J., 2002 NewAR, 46, 155, HST NIcmos and WFPC2 observations of molecular hydrogen and dust around cooling flows. Koekemoer, A. M. et al. 2002 NewAR, 46, 149, Interactions between the A2597 central radio source and dense gas host galaxy. Donahue, M. et al. 2002 ApJ, 569,689, Distant cluster hunting II.

  5. Observations of cometary nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A'Hearn, M. F.

    Attempts to observe cometary nuclei and to determine fundamental physical parameters relevant to the relationship between comets and asteroids are reviewed. It has been found that cometary nuclei, at least of periodic comets, are bigger and blacker than generally thought as recently as five years ago. Geometric albedos may be typically three percent and typical radii are probably of order 5 km. Nuclei of periodic comets are probably highly prolate unless they are both oblate and rotating about one of the major axes. P/Halley images provide convincing evidence of the existence of mantles discussed in many models. Numerous pieces of evidence suggest a connection between cometary nuclei and A-A asteroids of types D and C.

  6. Algorithms + Observations = VStar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benn, D.

    2012-05-01

    VStar is a multi-platform, free, open source application for visualizing and analyzing time-series data. It is primarily intended for use with variable star observations, permitting light curves and phase plots to be created, viewed in tabular form, and filtered. Period search and model creation are supported. Wavelet-based time-frequency analysis permits change in period over time to be investigated. Data can be loaded from the AAVSO International Database or files of various formats. vstar's feature set can be expanded via plug-ins, for example, to read Kepler mission data. This article explores vstar's beginnings from a conversation with Arne Henden in 2008 to its development since 2009 in the context of the AAVSO's Citizen Sky Project. Science examples are provided and anticipated future directions are outlined.

  7. Mars Observer mission design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beerer, Joseph G.; Horvat, Glen M.; Roncoli, Ralph B.

    1989-01-01

    The spacecraft for the Mars Observer mission is described, and an interplanetary trajectory design maximizing the spacecraft dry mass delivered into its mapping orbit is presented, along with an orbit insertion strategy minimizing spacecraft propulsive requirements. Emphasis is placed on the mapping orbit designed to meet the science requirements for a low-altitude near-circular near-polar orbit which is sun-synchronous with the dayside equatorial crossing at 2 PM local mean solar time. Additional requirements on the design are that the mapping orbit have a repeating groundtrack of no more than 7 sols and comply with the NASA Planetary Protection requirements. It is planned to operate the spacecraft and instruments in a repetitive fashion to minimize mission operation complexity and cost.

  8. Spatial Standard Observer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to devices and methods for the measurement and/or for the specification of the perceptual intensity of a visual image, or the perceptual distance between a pair of images. Grayscale test and reference images are processed to produce test and reference luminance images. A luminance filter function is convolved with the reference luminance image to produce a local mean luminance reference image. Test and reference contrast images are produced from the local mean luminance reference image and the test and reference luminance images respectively, followed by application of a contrast sensitivity filter. The resulting images are combined according to mathematical prescriptions to produce a Just Noticeable Difference, JND value, indicative of a Spatial Standard Observer, SSO. Some embodiments include masking functions, window functions, special treatment for images lying on or near borders and pre-processing of test images.

  9. RXTE observations of AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, R. E.; Heindl, W. A.; Blanco, P. R.; Gruber, D. E.; Marsden, D. C.; Pelling, M. R.; Jahoda, K.; Madejski, G.; Swank, J. H.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Gierlinski, M.; Hink, P. L.

    1997-01-01

    The Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observed three active galaxies during its in-orbit verification phase: NGC 4151; NGC 4945, and MCG 8-11-11. All three were detected from 2 keV to more than 100 keV by a combination of the proportional counter array (PCA) and the high energy X-ray timing experiment (HEXTE). The PCA contains five, xenon/methane, multilayer, multiwire, gas proportional counters covering the 2 to 60 keV range, while HEXTE is an array of eight NaI/CsI phoswich scintillation counters covering the 15 to 250 keV range. The three active galaxies represent the classes of Seyfert 1, Seyfert 2 and intermediate Seyfert galaxies. The results of the fitting of various models containing partial covering fractions, Compton reflection components and high energy spectral breaks are discussed.

  10. Spatial Standard Observer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrw B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to devices and methods for the measurement and/or for the specification of the perceptual intensity of a visual image. or the perceptual distance between a pair of images. Grayscale test and reference images are processed to produce test and reference luminance images. A luminance filter function is convolved with the reference luminance image to produce a local mean luminance reference image . Test and reference contrast images are produced from the local mean luminance reference image and the test and reference luminance images respectively, followed by application of a contrast sensitivity filter. The resulting images are combined according to mathematical prescriptions to produce a Just Noticeable Difference, JND value, indicative of a Spatial Standard Observer. SSO. Some embodiments include masking functions. window functions. special treatment for images lying on or near border and pre-processing of test images.

  11. Infrared observations of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanner, Martha S.

    1991-01-01

    Selected comets are observed in the near infrared (1 to 2.2 micron) and thermal infrared (3.5 to 20 micron) with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and other telescopes as appropriate, in order to characterize the physical properties of the dust grains; their composition, size distribution, emissivity, and albedo. Systematic variations in these properties among comets are looked for, in order to understand the heterogeneity of comet nuclei. Spectrophotometry of the 10 micron silicate emission feature is particularly emphasized. The rate of dust production from the nucleus and its temporal variability are also determined. Knowledge of the dust environment is essential to S/C design and mission planning for NASA's CRAF mission.

  12. Observing Black Hole Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2015-08-01

    Black hole spin is important in both the fundamental physics and astrophysics realms. In fundamental terms, many extensions and alternatives to General Relativity (GR) reveal themselves through effects related to (or at least of the same order as) spin. Astrophysically, spin is a fossil record of how black holes have grown and may, in addition, be an important source of energy (e.g., powering relativistic jets from black hole systems). I shall review recent progress on observational studies of black hole spin, especially those made in the X-ray waveband. We now have multiple techniques that can be applied in our search for black hole spin; I shall discuss the concordance (or, sometimes, lack thereof) between these techniques. Finally, I shall discuss what we can expect in the next few years with the launch of new X-ray instrumentation as well as the deployment of the Event Horizon Telescope.

  13. Skylab Earth Observation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This concept illustrates Skylab Earth observation studies, an Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP). EREP was designed to explore the use of the widest possible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum for Earth resource investigations with sensors that recorded data in the visible, infrared, and microwave spectral regions. Resources subject to this study included a capability of mapping Earth resources and land uses, crop and forestry cover, health of vegetation, types of soil, water storage in snow pack, surface or near-surface mineral deposits, sea surface temperature, and the location of likely feeding areas for fish, etc. A significant feature of EREP was the ability of man to operate the sensors in a laboratory fashion.

  14. Transverse gravity versus observations

    SciTech Connect

    Álvarez, Enrique; Faedo, Antón F.; López-Villarejo, J.J. E-mail: anton.fernandez@uam.es

    2009-07-01

    Theories of gravity invariant under those diffeomorphisms generated by transverse vectors, ∂{sub μ}ξ{sup μ} = 0 are considered. Such theories are dubbed transverse, and differ from General Relativity in that the determinant of the metric, g, is a transverse scalar. We comment on diverse ways in which these models can be constrained using a variety of observations. Generically, an additional scalar degree of freedom mediates the interaction, so the usual constraints on scalar-tensor theories have to be imposed. If the purely gravitational part is Einstein-Hilbert but the matter action is transverse, the models predict that the three a priori different concepts of mass (gravitational active and gravitational passive as well as inertial) are not equivalent anymore. These transverse deviations from General Relativity are therefore tightly constrained, actually correlated with existing bounds on violations of the equivalence principle, local violations of Newton's third law and/or violation of Local Position Invariance.

  15. Quadrature, Interpolation and Observability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Lucille McDaniel

    1997-01-01

    Methods of interpolation and quadrature have been used for over 300 years. Improvements in the techniques have been made by many, most notably by Gauss, whose technique applied to polynomials is referred to as Gaussian Quadrature. Stieltjes extended Gauss's method to certain non-polynomial functions as early as 1884. Conditions that guarantee the existence of quadrature formulas for certain collections of functions were studied by Tchebycheff, and his work was extended by others. Today, a class of functions which satisfies these conditions is called a Tchebycheff System. This thesis contains the definition of a Tchebycheff System, along with the theorems, proofs, and definitions necessary to guarantee the existence of quadrature formulas for such systems. Solutions of discretely observable linear control systems are of particular interest, and observability with respect to a given output function is defined. The output function is written as a linear combination of a collection of orthonormal functions. Orthonormal functions are defined, and their properties are discussed. The technique for evaluating the coefficients in the output function involves evaluating the definite integral of functions which can be shown to form a Tchebycheff system. Therefore, quadrature formulas for these integrals exist, and in many cases are known. The technique given is useful in cases where the method of direct calculation is unstable. The condition number of a matrix is defined and shown to be an indication of the the degree to which perturbations in data affect the accuracy of the solution. In special cases, the number of data points required for direct calculation is the same as the number required by the method presented in this thesis. But the method is shown to require more data points in other cases. A lower bound for the number of data points required is given.

  16. Effets de la taille des grains sur les propriétés diélectriques du relaxateur ferroélectrique Pb(Mg{1/3}Nb{2/3})O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papet, P.

    1994-07-01

    The role of particle and grain size on the dielectric behavior of the perovskite relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Mg{1/3}Nb{2/3})O3 (PMN) were investigated. Ultra-fine powders of PMN were prepared using a reactive calcination process. Reactive calcination, the process by which morphological changes take place upon reaction of the component powders, produced particle agglomerates less than 0.5 μm. Through milling, these structures were readily broken down to nanometric sizes. Sintering, assisted by hot uniaxial pressing, below the temperature of liquid formation of 835 ^{circ}C, allowed the fabrication of highly dense materials with a grain size less than 0.3 μm. The dielectric and related properties were determined for samples having grain sizes in the range of 0.3 μm to 6 μm. Characteristic of relaxors, frequency dependence (K and loss), and point of T_{max} were found to be related to grain and/or particle size and secondarily to the processing conditions. An intrincis-microdomain perturbation concept was proposed to interpret observed scaling effects of the relaxor dielectric behavior in contrast to normally accepted extrinsic grain boundary models. Nous avons étudié les effets de la taille des grains sur les propriétés diélectriques des relaxateurs ferroélectriques Pb(Mg{1/3}Nb{2/3})O3 (PMN). La synthèse de poudres très réactives de PMN a été réalisée par un procédé de calcination réactive. Ce procédé, grâce à des changements morphologiques lors de la réaction des différents composants, permet d'obtenir des particules dont la taille est inférieure à 0,5 μm. Par broyage, ces structures sont facilement désagrégées en des particules de tailles nanométriques. L'utilisation du frittage sous charge uniaxiale en dessous de la température de formation de la phase liquide de 835 ^{circ}C nous a permis de fabriquer des matériaux denses avec une taille de grains inférieure à 0,3 μm. Les propriétés diélectriques ont été déterminées pour

  17. Little Ice Age versus Present Day: Comparison of Temperature, Precipitation and Seasonality in Speleothem Records from the Han-sur-Lesse Cave, Belgium.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vansteenberge, S.; Van Opdenbosch, J.; Van Rampelbergh, M.; Verheyden, S.; Keppens, E.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Claeys, P. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Proserpine stalagmite is a 2 m large, tabular-shaped speleothem located in the Han-sur-Lesse cave in Belgium. The speleothem formed over the last 1000 years and is still growing. High-accuracy U/Th datings have indicated exceptionally high growth-rates of up to 2 mm per year. This, together with a well expressed annual layering, makes the Proserpine stalagmite an ideal candidate for high-resolution paleoclimate reconstructions of the last millennium. Previous work, including over 10 years of cave monitoring, has already learned us how short-term, i.e. decadal to seasonal, climate variations are incorporated within speleothem calcite from the Han-sur-Lesse cave system. It has been shown that δ18O and δ13C stable isotopes and trace element proxies of recently formed calcite reflect seasonal variations in temperature and precipitation of the near-cave environment (Verheyden et al, 2008; Van Rampelbergh et al., 2014). Now, this knowledge was used to infer local climate parameters further back in time to the period of +/- 1620-1630 CE, corresponding to one of the cold peaks within the Little Ice Age. Speleothem calcite was sampled at sub-annual resolution, with approximately 11 samples per year, for stable isotope analysis. LA-ICP-MS and µXRF analyses resulted in time series of trace elements. Preliminary results indicate a well expressed seasonal signal in δ13C and trace element composition but a multi-annual to decadal trend in δ18O. This combined proxy study eventually enables comparison of the expression of seasonality and longer term climate variations between a Little Ice Age cold peak and Present Day. References: Verheyden, S. et al., 2008, Monitoring climatological, hydrological and geochemical parameters in the Père Noël cave (Belgium): implication for the interpretation of speleothem isotopic and geochemical time-series. International Journal of Speleology, 37(3), 221-234. Van Rampelbergh, M. et al., 2014, Seasonal variations recorded in cave

  18. Greenland Sea observations

    SciTech Connect

    Gudmandsen, P.; Mortensen, H.B.; Pedersen, L.T.; Skriver, H.; Minnett, P.

    1992-12-31

    ERS-1 SAR data have been acquired over the Greenland Sea and Fram Strait during two periods, the Ice Phase of three-day repeat cycle from January to March 1992 and a one-month period in the 35-day repeat cycle from 16 July to 15 August 1992. Most data became available by way of the Broadband Data Dissemination System, i.e. with a spatial resolution of about 100 m. With these data various algorithms have been tested to derive sea ice parameters such as ice extent, ice concentration and ice displacement. In the latter period data were collected to support the activities of a research vessel in the area mainly related to the large polynyas that form east and north of Greenland. The formation of polynyas could clearly be outlined but also other phenomena were observed related to the influence of wind streets and gravity waves associated with the atmospheric boundary layer. The data will have to be studied further including full-resolution data to substantiate the conclusions arrived at.

  19. Mars Observer camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, M. C.; Danielson, G. E.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Masursky, H.; Veverka, J.; Ravine, M. A.; Soulanille, T. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Mars Observer camera (MOC) is a three-component system (one narrow-angle and two wide-angle cameras) designed to take high spatial resolution pictures of the surface of Mars and to obtain lower spatial resolution, synoptic coverage of the planet's surface and atmosphere. The cameras are based on the 'push broom' technique; that is, they do not take 'frames' but rather build pictures, one line at a time, as the spacecraft moves around the planet in its orbit. MOC is primarily a telescope for taking extremely high resolution pictures of selected locations on Mars. Using the narrow-angle camera, areas ranging from 2.8 km x 2.8 km to 2.8 km x 25.2 km (depending on available internal digital buffer memory) can be photographed at about 1.4 m/pixel. Additionally, lower-resolution pictures (to a lowest resolution of about 11 m/pixel) can be acquired by pixel averaging; these images can be much longer, ranging up to 2.8 x 500 km at 11 m/pixel. High-resolution data will be used to study sediments and sedimentary processes, polar processes and deposits, volcanism, and other geologic/geomorphic processes.

  20. Destiny's Earth Observation Window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-110 mission commander, looks through the Earth observation window in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 Truss, weighing in at 27,000 pounds, was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the STS-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  1. Multisensor Fire Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boquist, C.

    2004-01-01

    This DVD includes animations of multisensor fire observations from the following satellite sources: Landsat, GOES, TOMS, Terra, QuikSCAT, and TRMM. Some of the animations are included in multiple versions of a short video presentation on the DVD which focuses on the Hayman, Rodeo-Chediski, and Biscuit fires during the 2002 North American fire season. In one version of the presentation, MODIS, TRMM, GOES, and QuikSCAT data are incorporated into the animations of these wildfires. These data products provided rain, wind, cloud, and aerosol data on the fires, and monitored the smoke and destruction created by them. Another presentation on the DVD consists of a panel discussion, in which experts from academia, NASA, and the U.S. Forest Service answer questions on the role of NASA in fighting forest fires, the role of the Terra satellite and its instruments, including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), in fire fighting decision making, and the role of fire in the Earth's climate. The third section of the DVD features several animations of fires over the years 2001-2003, including animations of global and North American fires, and specific fires from 2003 in California, Washington, Montana, and Arizona.

  2. Distributed Observer Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA s advanced visual simulations are essential for analyses associated with life cycle planning, design, training, testing, operations, and evaluation. Kennedy Space Center, in particular, uses simulations for ground services and space exploration planning in an effort to reduce risk and costs while improving safety and performance. However, it has been difficult to circulate and share the results of simulation tools among the field centers, and distance and travel expenses have made timely collaboration even harder. In response, NASA joined with Valador Inc. to develop the Distributed Observer Network (DON), a collaborative environment that leverages game technology to bring 3-D simulations to conventional desktop and laptop computers. DON enables teams of engineers working on design and operations to view and collaborate on 3-D representations of data generated by authoritative tools. DON takes models and telemetry from these sources and, using commercial game engine technology, displays the simulation results in a 3-D visual environment. Multiple widely dispersed users, working individually or in groups, can view and analyze simulation results on desktop and laptop computers in real time.

  3. [Pierre Janet observes history].

    PubMed

    Fischer-Homberger, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Janet, philosopher and physician, Freud's junior by three years, not only described traumatic dissociation and pathogenic subconscious ideas; he outlined a comprehensive system of psychology. Still, he considered his concepts to be mere linguistic tools, designed to grasp mental phenomena as precisely as possible. His prime interest was in observations - his own and those of others, whether his contemporaries at home and abroad or predecessors of all kinds. Janet never regarded himself as a historian, but his works as well as his way of thinking are most interesting from a historiographical point of view. His three-volume Médications psychologiques of 1919 contains a wealth of material about the history of psychotherapy. Furthermore, he dealt with his sources in a critical and historically reflexive manner. The later Janet considered any explanation and theory to be "inventions", more or less useful and basically open to change. By working with the notion of "narration", he described scientific statements as narratives, different from lies, fairy-tales or novels only in their claim to be verifiable. Every narration, however, is placed in a social context: narrators always wish to evoke a particular image of the real in their audience. Thus Janet established the link between scientific edifices and individual motivation, an unsettling link in terms of the history of science and certainly alien, if not positively abhorrent to Freud.

  4. Caracterisation, modelisation et validation du transfert radiatif d'atmospheres non standard; impact sur les corrections atmospheriques d'images de teledetection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zidane, Shems

    This study is based on data acquired with an airborne multi-altitude sensor on July 2004 during a nonstandard atmospheric event in the region of Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec. By non-standard atmospheric event we mean an aerosol atmosphere that does not obey the typical monotonic, scale height variation employed in virtually all atmospheric correction codes. The surfaces imaged during this field campaign included a diverse variety of targets : agricultural land, water bodies, urban areas and forests. The multi-altitude approach employed in this campaign allowed us to better understand the altitude dependent influence of the atmosphere over the array of ground targets and thus to better characterize the perturbation induced by a non-standard (smoke) plume. The transformation of the apparent radiance at 3 different altitudes into apparent reflectance and the insertion of the plume optics into an atmospheric correction model permitted an atmospheric correction of the apparent reflectance at the two higher altitudes. The results showed consistency with the apparent validation reflectances derived from the lowest altitude radiances. This approach effectively confirmed the accuracy of our non-standard atmospheric correction approach. This test was particularly relevant at the highest altitude of 3.17 km : the apparent reflectances at this altitude were above most of the plume and therefore represented a good test of our ability to adequately correct for the influence of the perturbation. Standard atmospheric disturbances are obviously taken into account in most atmospheric correction models, but these are based on monotonically decreasing aerosol variations with increasing altitude. When the atmospheric radiation is affected by a plume or a local, non-standard pollution event, one must adapt the existing models to the radiative transfer constraints of the local perturbation and to the reality of the measurable parameters available for ingestion into the model. The

  5. Effet de la concentration du cuivre ou de l'argent sur les propriétés des agrégats de rhodium déposés sur silice amorphe dans l'hydrogénation du 1,3 butadiène

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksibi, Z.; Ghorbel1, A.; Bellamy, B.

    1999-02-01

    Some samples with rhodium, rhodium-copper and rhodium-silver deposited on amorphous silica by vapor deposition of the metallic phase under high-vacuum (P < 5.10-7 Pa) have been prepared. The effect of rhodium cluster size and copper or silver addition on catalytic properties of rhodium in the 1,3 butadiène hydrogenation was studied. Results show that the reaction is sensitive to the size of rhodium aggregates and that there is an important difference between the effect of copper and silver on the rhodium properties. Indeed copper forms an alloy with rhodium and provokes a poison effect on the activity of the noble metal, whereas silver exhibits a mask effect on the rhodium particles without forming alloy with it. Des échantillons mono-métalliques au rhodium et bimétalliques rhodium-cuivre et rhodium-argent déposés sur une silice amorphe par vapodéposition d'une phase métallique dans des conditions ultra-vide (P < 5.10-7 Pa) ont été préparés. L'effet de la taille des agrégats de rhodium ainsi que celui de l'addition du cuivre ou de l'argent sur les propriétés catalytiques du rhodium dans l'hydrogénation du 1,3 butadiène ont été étudiés. Les résultats montrent que la réaction étudiée est sensible à la taille des agrégats de rhodium et nous notons une différence importante entre l'effet du cuivre et de l'argent sur les propriétés du rhodium. En effet le cuivre forme un alliage avec le rhodium et provoque un effet poison d?où une modification de l'activité du métal noble, alors que l'argent exerce un effet de masque sur les particules de rhodium sans toutefois former d'alliage avec ce dernier.

  6. CCD Camera Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchheim, Bob; Argyle, R. W.

    One night late in 1918, astronomer William Milburn, observing the region of Cassiopeia from Reverend T.H.E.C. Espin's observatory in Tow Law (England), discovered a hitherto unrecorded double star (Wright 1993). He reported it to Rev. Espin, who measured the pair using his 24-in. reflector: the fainter star was 6.0 arcsec from the primary, at position angle 162.4 ^{circ } (i.e. the fainter star was south-by-southeast from the primary) (Espin 1919). Some time later, it was recognized that the astrograph of the Vatican Observatory had taken an image of the same star-field a dozen years earlier, in late 1906. At that earlier epoch, the fainter star had been separated from the brighter one by only 4.8 arcsec, at position angle 186.2 ^{circ } (i.e. almost due south). Were these stars a binary pair, or were they just two unrelated stars sailing past each other? Some additional measurements might have begun to answer this question. If the secondary star was following a curved path, that would be a clue of orbital motion; if it followed a straight-line path, that would be a clue that these are just two stars passing in the night. Unfortunately, nobody took the trouble to re-examine this pair for almost a century, until the 2MASS astrometric/photometric survey recorded it in late 1998. After almost another decade, this amateur astronomer took some CCD images of the field in 2007, and added another data point on the star's trajectory, as shown in Fig. 15.1.

  7. Amplification de l'effet Goos-Hänchen à la réflexion totale sur une couche diélectrique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillon, F.; Gilles, H.; Girard, S.; Laroche, M.; Kaiser, R.; Gazibegovic, A.

    2006-10-01

    Le décalage Goos-Hänchen que subit un faisceau lumineux à la réflexion totale présente des effets de résonance lors de la réflexion du faisceau sur une couche diélectrique. Ils ont été mis en évidence expérimentalement en utilisant un dispositif combinant un basculement de la polarisation et une détection sensible en position. Les résultats expérimentaux sont comparés aux résultats théoriques obtenus à partir de modèles adaptés au cas d'une couche guidante.

  8. Maps showing estimated sediment yield from coastal landslides and active slope distribution along the Big Sur coast, Monterey and San Luis Obispo Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Green, Krystal R.; Dallas, Kate

    2004-01-01

    The 1982-83 and 1997-98 El Ni?os brought very high precipitation to California?s central coast; this precipitation resulted in raised groundwater levels, coastal flooding, and destabilized slopes throughout the region. Large landslides in the coastal mountains of Big Sur in Monterey and San Luis Obispo Counties blocked sections of California State Route 1, closing the road for months at a time. Large landslides such as these occur frequently in the winter months along the Big Sur coast due to the steep topography and weak bedrock. A large landslide in 1983 resulted in the closure of Highway 1 for over a year to repair the road and stabilize the slope. Resulting work from the 1983 landslide cost over $7 million and generated 30 million cubic yards of debris from landslide removal and excavations to re-establish the highway along the Big Sur coast. Before establishment of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS) in 1992, typical road opening measures involved disposal of some landslide material and excess material generated from slope stabilization onto the seaward side of the highway. It is likely that some or most of this disposed material, either directly or indirectly through subsequent erosion, was eventually transported downslope into the ocean. In addition to the landslides that initiate above the road, natural slope failures sometimes occur on the steep slopes below the road and thus deliver material to the base of the coastal mountains where it is eroded and dispersed by waves and nearshore currents. Any coastal-slope landslide, generated through natural or anthropogenic processes, can result in sediment entering the nearshore zone. The waters offshore of the Big Sur coast are part of the MBNMS. Since it was established in 1992, landslide-disposal practices came under question for two reasons. The U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 15, Section 922.132 prohibits discharging or depositing, from beyond the boundary of the Sanctuary, any material

  9. Effet de la dose d'irradiation sur la fraction tocophérolique d'huiles végétales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaouch, A.; El Fartah, S.; Pouliquen-Sonaglia, I.; Lesgards, G.; Raffi, J.; Trihi, M.

    1999-01-01

    Tocopherols, minor components of vegetable oils, are very important due to their high antioxydant power; we studied separation and quantification of tocopherol fraction with regard to the irradiation dose, using liquid chromatography combined with electrochemical detection. Dans les huiles végétales, les tocophérols sont des constituants mineurs très importants grâce à leur pouvoir antioxydant très élevé. Notre travail s'est porté sur la séparation et la quantification de la fraction tocophérolique et son évolution en fonction des différentes doses d'ionisation par la technique C.L.H.P. / détection électrochimique.

  10. Perspective sur les ruptures d’approvisionnement de médicaments en établissement de santé de 2006 à 2010

    PubMed Central

    Bussières, Jean-François; Chiveri, Andrei; Lebel, Denis

    2011-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte: Si les ruptures d’approvisionnement de médicaments font partie de la réalité de la pratique pharmaceutique depuis plusieurs décennies, elles deviennent une préoccupation quotidienne pour les pharmaciens dans les années 2000 et dépassent les frontières de la littérature pharmaceutique. Objectif: L’objectif principal de cette étude était de quantifier le nombre de médicaments en rupture de stock par année et la durée de ces interruptions. L’objectif secondaire visait à décrire le nombre de médicaments en rupture de stock par fabricant et par classe thérapeutique. Méthode: Cette étude descriptive et rétrospective des ruptures d’approvisionnement en médicaments a porté sur l’ensemble des médicaments à contrat pour les hôpitaux des régions administratives de Montréal, de Laval et de l’Estrie, au Québec. Le nombre de ruptures de stocks, le nombre de jours de rupture de stock et leur durée moyenne par année ont été calculés par fabricant et par classe thérapeutique. De plus, la proportion de produits en rupture de stock et la proportion de jours de rupture de stocks ont été déterminées par classe thérapeutique. Les données ont été analysées à l’aide de statistiques descriptives (c.-à-d. somme, moyenne, écart-type, médiane, intervalle). Résultats: Entre le 1er janvier 2006 et le 31 août 2010 (une période de 56 mois), 2400 ruptures de stocks ont été dénombrées pour un total de 258 105 jours de rupture de stocks (durée moyenne de 108 jours, écart-type de 130 jours et intervalle de 5 à 1623 jours). Un total de 70 fabricants étaient impliqués dans la survenue de toutes les ruptures d’approvisionnement de médicaments relevées durant cette période. Cinquante pour cent (50 %) des ruptures de stocks et des jours de rupture de stocks provenaient de quatre fabricants. Les interruptions étudiées touchaient la majorité des classes thérapeutiques de médicaments disponibles sur le

  11. Électropolymérisation de l'aniline en milieu neutre : application au dépôt de polyaniline sur acier doux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camalet, J. L.; Lacroix, J. C.; Aeiyach, S.; Lacaze, P. C.

    1998-06-01

    The use of perchlorate ions allowed to carry out the aniline electropolymerization on Pt and mild steel in neutral aqueous medium and yield conducting, homogenoeus and adhering polyaniline films. Their structure, studied by IR, SEC and MS-MALDI, was characterized by a low degree of polymerization (DP ≈ 9) and a linear structure with chain coupling in 1,4 position of aniline rings. L'utilisation de l'ion perchlorate permet de réaliser l'électropolymé risation de l'aniline sur électrode de Pt et d'acier doux en milieu aqueux neutre (pH = 7). Des films conducteurs, homogènes et adhérents aux substrats sont obtenus. L'analyse par IR, CES et MS-MALDI, révèle un faible degré de polymérisation (DP ≈ 9) et des couplages essentiellement 1-4 des noyaux aromatiques.

  12. Gold pickings and PIXE analysis. More about the Bronze age gold found in the cave of Han-sur-Lesse (Namur, Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warmenbol, Eugène

    2004-11-01

    Gold remains a rare material during the whole Bronze Age. It is a metal that circulates amongst the elites exclusively. The exchange of gold artefacts over very long distances is fundamental in the build-up of socio-political relations. Fifty artefacts found during subaquatic excavations in the river Lesse in the cave of Han-sur-Lesse have been submitted to quantitative elemental analysis using PIXE, a method never used before on archaeological material found in Belgium. The results show that there are clearly three groups of artefacts. The first one (discs, "baskets", pearls) proves of local manufacture, as also suggested by the discovery of two ingots. The second one (gilded rings) could have been locally made too, but is a lot less homogeneous. The third one (filigreed and granulated beads or pin's heads) must be imported and most probably originates in the Mediterranean.

  13. [Length, body weight and sex of the golden Coryphaena hippurus (Perciformes: Coryphaenidae), of the littoral of Sinaloa, Nayarit and Baja California Sur, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Madrid, J V; Beltrán-Pimienta, R

    2001-01-01

    Dolphin fish population data were recorded from landings in Sinaloa, Nayarit and Baja Califonia Sur, Mexico, in 1997. Of 3,211 organisms, only 2,812 produced complete biometric data. The maximal length and weight were 192 cm and 30 kg. The three sampling sites and the climatic periods also were associated with different size (P < 0.05). The covariate analysis of weight and length relationships indicated significative differences (P < 0.05) for total data and by sex. Condition factor was higher throughout the study period in Mazatlán, and the variation was higher, in the spring. The sexual ratio was in Mazatlán constant, while there were more males in Nayarit in the fall and the spring and in Los Cabos in the spring. There may be population differences, between the central mexican Pacific Coast and the Peninsula of Baja data.

  14. Two new hemoglobin variants: Hb Brem-sur-Mer [beta9(A6)Ser-->Tyr] and Hb Passy [alpha81(F2)Ser-->Pro (alpha2)].

    PubMed

    Lacan, Philippe; Moreau, Mathieu; Becchi, Michel; Zanella-Cleon, Isabelle; Aubry, Martine; Louis, Jean-Jacques; Couprie, Nicole; Francina, Alain

    2005-01-01

    Two new hemoglobin (Hb) variants: Hb Brem-sur-Mer [codon 9 (TCT-->TAT); beta9(A6)Ser-->Tyr] on the first exon of the beta-globin gene and Hb Passy [codon 81 (TCC-->CCC); alpha81(F2)Ser-->Pro (alpha2)] on the second exon of the alpha2-globin gene, are described. The two variants were characterized by DNA sequencing and mass spectrometry (MS). Hematological abnormalities: microcytosis and hypochromia were found only in the carrier of Hb Passy. In the absence of an association with an alpha-thalassemic deletion or mutation, the mutation 81(F2)Pro could induce a possible alpha-thalassemia (thal).

  15. Variation du coefficient de collage de l'argent et de l'or durant leur condensation sur film de MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desrousseaux, G.; Carlan, A.; Jiang, Z.

    1993-10-01

    The incidence rate dependence of the sticking coefficient during the growth of gold (or silver) condensate on MgO film is experimentally investigated for a substrate kept at room temperature. This MgO substrate is deposited on quartz monitor by evaporation under UHV from a Knudsen cell. Then, from another cell, the flux of metal atoms impinges on the MgO film which covers the quartz. Under this flux of incident metal atoms, the changes (respectively θ and f) of the temperature and of the frequency of the quartz oscillator are then simultaneously recorded. Both continuous measurements enable us to calculate, at different times t, the sticking coefficient η (t) defined as the ration between the condensed metal rate q and the incident rate R. We use the results to plot η versus t and examine the slope of η-rise until the time t at which η (t) reaches unity. The progression of η (t) reaches unity. The progression of η (t) from zero to unity during the metal deposition is explained by assuming that the nucleation on preferred sites with capture of adatoms at the edge of stable germs is the prevailing condensation mechanism at the initial stage of the condensation. Our experimental results could be fitted better by assuming an exponential growth of the site occupation than an increase of the number density n_s(t) with (Rt)^{1/3}. On étudie expérimentalement la dépendance que peut présenter, par rapport au flux métallique incident, la progression vers l'unité du coefficient de collage. Pour cela, on suit cette progression pour l'or et l'argent condensés sur film de MgO à température proche de l'ambiante. Le substrat de MgO est déposé sur un quartz de pesée par évaporation sous ultra-vide à partir d'une cellule de Knudsen. Une autre cellule est utilsée pour déposer l'un de ces métaux sur le film de MgO couvrant le quartz. Les variations θ et f de la température et de la fréquence d'oscillations du quartz de pesée sous le flux d'atomes incidents

  16. Lunar phase and catch success of the striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax) in sport fishing at Los Cabos, Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ponce-Díaz, G; Ortega-García, S; Hernández-Vázquez, S

    2003-06-01

    The influence of the lunar phases on the catch-per-unit effort (CPUE) of the striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax) captured by the Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico sport-fishing fleet from October 1987 to June 1989 was analyzed. The information is from 3,377 fishing trips by 13 vessels that represent about 10% of the fleet. The analysis of the CPUE showed a maximum in January 1988 and a minimum in February 1989. Taking into account the knowledge of the factors that had influence on the fishing success is important in the resource management. No significant difference during the full moon compared with results during other lunar phases was found.

  17. Information non précise sur la taille du pénis en République Démocratique du Congo: à propos de 21 sources

    PubMed Central

    Mulenga, Philippe Cilundika; Kazadi, Alex Bukasa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction La taille du pénis constitue une préoccupation de beaucoup des gens actuellement et certains ne sont pas satisfaits de la dimension de leur pénis comme le montre l’étude de Tiggemann en 2008. Il existe relativement peu d'études sur le pénis en érection. Cela peut refléter les tabous culturels des chercheurs ou des médecins en interaction avec les hommes qui sont dans un état d’excitation sexuelle. Toutes fois, il est important pour les personnes qui annoncent des détails sur la taille du pénis d’annoncer d’abord les repères de la mesure du pénis puis ensuite donner les chiffres que proposent les chercheurs. Méthodes Notre enquête de type descriptif transversale s’est effectuée dans les deux grandes villes de la République Démocratique du Congo à savoir la ville de Kinshasa et la ville de Lubumbashi, pendant une période de deux ans soit de Mai 2014 à Mai 2016. Au total, 21 sources d’information ont constitué notre échantillon dont 8 à Kinshasa et 13 à Lubumbashi et nous avons trouvé cela suffisant car les sujets à caractère sexuel sont souvent rares chez nous. Les paramètres étudiés étaient: la nature de la source, la précision de la technique de la mesure, la présence de référence bibliographique, la longueur annoncée du pénis. Résultats La majorité des sources d’information sont faites des émissions de radio et de télévision (23,8%), ceci pourra s’expliquer par le fait que dans notre milieu il y a de plus en plus des chaines de radio et télévision et surtout dans les grandes villes. Concernant la précision de la technique de la mesure du pénis lors du partage du message sur la taille du pénis, l’étude nous montre que la majorité des sources d’information ne signale pas cela lorsqu’elles annoncent la taille du pénis au public soit 85,7%. Plusieurs sources ne déclarent pas les références bibliographiques (57,1%). Lorsqu’on regarde même les chiffres de la taille du p

  18. Modern Observational Techniques for Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C. (Editor); Greenberg, J. M. (Editor); Donn, B. (Editor); Rahe, J. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Techniques are discussed in the following areas: astrometry, photometry, infrared observations, radio observations, spectroscopy, imaging of coma and tail, image processing of observation. The determination of the chemical composition and physical structure of comets is highlighted.

  19. [Community structure and association of waterbirds with spatial heterogeneity in the Bahia Magdalena-Almejas wetland complex, Baja California Sur, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Zárate-Ovando, Bulmara; Palacios, Eduardo; Reyes-Bonilla, Héctor

    2008-03-01

    Community structure and association of waterbirds with spatial heterogeneity in the Bahia Magdalena-Almejas wetland complex, Baja California Sur, Mexico. To test the hypothesis that spatial heterogeneity determines waterbird diversity in a coastal wetland, we compared waterbird density, diversity, and species composition among various habitats and landscapes units in Bahia Magdalena-Almejas, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Based on diversity patterns and bird distribution, we assessed the effect of coastal development on the waterbird community structure. To gather information on habitat features and waterbird populations we conducted waterbird censuses in 329 habitat segments along the internal coastline of the study area, from February 2002 to February 2003. We performed non-parametric analyses to test the null hypothesis of no diference on waterbird density, and diversity among landscape units and seasons. The species composition was evaluated using ordination techniques. Waterbird density was higher in winter and autumn in the three lagoons of the study area, particularly in the insular coast, sandy beach and dunes; it was higher in the few segments of antropic sustrate. Diversity was significantly higher in mangrove habitat along the peninsular coast, and in mangrove-dunes association on the insular coast. Although modification of coastal natural habitat and boat transit disturbance had no influence on waterbird density or diversity, the highest richness of waterbirds occurred in well preserved areas. Species composition analysis showed differences between Santo Domingo Channel and Magdalena Bay. Pelagic and mangrove habitat had a species composition difference higher than those associations in other habitats. Such differences in species assemblages by habitat and landscape units suggest that communities are structured according to the range of available natural resources in structurally complex habitats, and that dominant piscivorous waterbird species were

  20. Nonlinear Observers for Gyro Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Julie; Sanner, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    Nonlinear observers for gyro calibration are presented. The first observer estimates a constant gyro bias. The second observer estimates scale factor errors. The third observer estimates the gyro alignment for three orthogonal gyros. The convergence properties of all three observers are discussed. Additionally, all three observers are coupled with a nonlinear control algorithm. The stability of each of the resulting closed loop systems is analyzed. Simulated test results are presented for each system.

  1. Io Volcano Observer (IVO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, A. S.; Keszthelyi, L.; Spencer, J.; Thomas, N.; Johnson, T.; Christensen, P.; Wurz, P.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Shinohara, C.; Girard, T.

    2009-04-01

    In early FY2008, NASA solicited study concepts for Discovery/Scout-class missions that would be enabled by use of 2 Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generators (ASRGs). We proposed an Io Volcano Observer (IVO) study concept, because the ASRGs enable pointing flexibility and a high data rate from a low-cost mission in Jupiter orbit. Io presents a rich array of inter-connected orbital, geophysical, atmospheric, and plasma phenomena and is the only place in the Solar System (including Earth) where we can watch very large-scale silicate volcanic processes in action. Io is the best place to study tidal heating, which greatly expands the habitable zones of planetary systems. The coupled orbital-tidal evolution of Io and Europa is key to understanding the histories of both worlds. IVO utilizes an elliptical orbit inclined > 45° to Jupiter's orbital plane with repeated fast flybys of Io. Io will have nearly constant illumination at each flyby, which facilitates monitoring of changes over time. The view of Io on approach and departure will be nearly polar, enabling unique measurement and monitoring of polar heat flow (key to tidal heating models), equatorial plumes, and magnetospheric interactions. We expect to collect and return 20 Gbits per flyby via 34-m DSN stations, >1000 times the Io data return of Galileo. The minimal payload we considered included (1) a narrow-angle camera, (2) a thermal mapper, (3) an ion and neutral mass spectrometer, and (4) a pair of fluxgate magnetometers. The camera will acquire global km-scale monitoring and sampling down to 10 m/pixel or better. One key objective is to acquire nearly simultaneous (<0.1 s) multispectral measurements to determine the peak lava temperatures, which in turn constrains the temperature and rheology of Io's mantle and whether or not the heat flow is in equilibrium with tidal heating. The thermal mapper will be similar to THEMIS on Mars Odyssey, but with bandpasses designed to monitor volcanic activity, measure heat

  2. Earth observing scanning polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Travis, Larry

    1993-01-01

    Climate forcing by tropospheric aerosols is receiving increased attention because of the realization that the climate effects may be large, while our knowledge of global aerosol characteristics and temporal changes is very poor. Tropospheric aerosols cause a direct radiative forcing due simply to their scattering and absorption of solar radiation, as well as an indirect effect as cloud condensation nuclei which can modify the shortwave reflectivity of clouds. Sulfate aerosols tend to increase planetary albedo through both the direct and indirect effects; a cooling due to anthropogenic sulfate aerosols has been estimated of order 1 W/sq m, noting that this is similar in magnitude to the present anthropogenic greenhouse gas warming. Other aerosols, including those from biomass burning and wind-blown desert dust are also of potential climatic importance. At present, the only global monitoring of tropospheric aerosols is a NOAA operational product, aerosol optical thickness, obtained using channel-1 (0.58-0.68 mu m) radiances from the AVHRR. With this single channel radiance data, one must use an approach which is based on the inferred excess of reflected radiance owing to scattering by the aerosols over that expected from theoretical calculations. This approach is suited only for situations where the surface has a low albedo that is well known a priori. Thus, the NOAA operational product is restricted to coverage over the ocean at AVHRR scan angles well away from sun glint, and aerosol changes are subject to confusion with changes caused by either optically thin or subpixel clouds. Because optically thin aerosols have only a small effect on the radiance, accurate measurements for optical thickness less than 0.1 (which is a typical background level) are precluded. Moreover, some of the largest and most important aerosol changes are expected over land. The Earth Observing Scanning Polarimeter (EOSP) instrument, based upon design heritage and analysis techniques

  3. The Dependability of Classroom Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiatt, Diana Buell; Keesling, J. Ward

    A generalizability study of timed observations was conducted in 25 primary grade classes to observe teachers' use of time--for instruction, evaluation of instruction, and classroom management--according to the hour and day observed. Observational methods used by on-site researchers included videotape, checklists, running documentaries, frequency…

  4. Supervisor Use of Observation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medley, Donald M.

    This paper discusses the supervisory use of one observational system -- Observation Schedule and Record, Form 5V (OScAR 5V). OScAR 5V refers to a series of observation schedules to develop techniques for obtaining an objective, quantitative record of observed classroom behavior that could be scored on dimensions of teacher behavior. Under this…

  5. The quantum physics of observers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, B. I.

    2002-08-01

    The observer is herein studied as an aspect of laboratory physics. It is generally accepted that our status as observers is mediated by our material aspects: our body and brain. But, observers are typically equated with classical coordinate systems. An alternative, modelling the observer as a quantum entity, is considered. The corresponding transformations between two quantum observers affect the computed wavefunctions of other quantum entities in a physically meaningful manner.

  6. Workshop on Mars Telescopic Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J. F., III (Editor); Moersch, J. E. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop, held August 14-15, 1995, at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, was organized and planned with two primary goals in mind: The first goal was to facilitate discussions among and between amateur and professional observers and to create a workshop environment fostering collaborations and comparisons within the Mars observing community. The second goal was to explore the role of continuing telescopic observations of Mars in the upcoming era of increased spacecraft exploration. The 24 papers presented at the workshop described the current NASA plans for Mars exploration over the next decade, current and recent Mars research being performed by professional astronomers, and current and past Mars observations being performed by amateur observers and observing associations. The workshop was divided into short topical sessions concentrating on programmatic overviews, groundbased support of upcoming spacecraft experiments, atmospheric observations, surface observations, modeling and numerical studies, and contributions from amateur astronomers.

  7. Peer Observation of Teaching: Perceptions of the Observer and the Observed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohut, Gary F.; Burnap, Charles; Yon, Maria G.

    2007-01-01

    While peer observation of teaching is regarded as an important part of a faculty member's promotion and tenure portfolio, little has been reported on its usefulness. Results from this study indicate that both observers and observees value the peer observation process, are neutral about the adequacy of observer training, use a variety of…

  8. Radio observations of solar eclipse.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuying; Fu, Qijun

    1998-09-01

    For radio astronomy, a solar eclipse provides an opportunity for making solar radio observations with high one-dimension spatial resolution. The radio observation of a solar eclipse has played an important role in solar radio physics. Some important factors for radio observation of a solar eclipse are introduced and analysed. Solar eclipse radio observation has also played an important role in the progress of solar radio atronomy in China. The solar eclipses of 1958, 1968, 1980 and 1987, which were observed in China, are introduced, and the main results of these observations are briefly shown.

  9. Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Wilson, Lynn; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Srivastava, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique sur la prescription d’opioïdes à des populations particulières en se fondant sur les recommandations faites dans les lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale en insistant plus précisément sur les études de l’efficacité et de la sécurité des opioïdes dans des populations particulières. Message principal Les médecins de famille peuvent atténuer les risques de surdose, de sédation, d’usage abusif et de dépendance grâce à des stratégies adaptées à l’âge et à l’état de santé des patients. Dans le cas de patients à risque de dépendance, on devrait réserver les opioïdes aux douleurs nociceptives ou neuropathiques bien définies qui n’ont pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. Il faut procéder lentement au titrage des opioïdes, avec des dispensations fréquentes et une étroite surveillance pour dépister tout signe d’usage abusif. Une dépendance aux opioïdes suspectée est prise en charge au moyen d’une thérapie structurée aux opioïdes, d’un traitement à la méthadone ou à la buprénorphine ou encore d’un traitement fondé sur l’abstinence. Les patients souffrant de troubles de l’humeur ou d’anxiété ont tendance à avoir une réponse analgésique atténuée aux opioïdes, sont à risque plus élevé d’usage abusif et prennent souvent des sédatifs qui interagissent défavorablement avec les opioïdes. Il faut prendre des précautions semblables à celles utilisées avec d’autres patients à risque élevé. Il faut faire un sevrage progressif si la douleur du patient demeure sévère même avec un essai adéquat de thérapie aux opioïdes. Chez les personnes âgées, la s

  10. Effet de la température sur la réflectivité du silicium oxydé : détermination expérimentale de la sensibilité relative ; application à la mesure sans contact de la température à la surface d'un thyristor GTO en commutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abid, Ridha; Miserey, Francis; Mezroua, Fatima-Zohra

    1996-02-01

    Temperature effect on the absolute reflectivity of oxidized is experimentally studied in the spectral range 300 nm <λ< 500 nm. R(λ) spectra are measured for 25 ^{circ}C observed near direct interband transition: E1=3.4 eV. In this case, the relative sensitivity R^{-1}(dR/dT) reaches the maximum value (2.4±0.4)×10^{-4} K^{-1} which is about two times higher than in the case of bare silicon. This result is used to make a temperature contactless measurement, by a technique based on reflectometry, along the gate-cathode junction on the upper face of a 1,200 volts gate turn-off thyristor operating at 400 Hz in the switching mode. The size of the optical probe is 20 micrometers, and the smallest variation that can be detected is 10 ^{circ}C. The measurements show a noticeable variation of heating coefficient dT/dE according to the probe's position, dissipated energy E at turn-off being constant (1 mJ sur la réflectivité absolue R du silicium et du silicium oxydé est étudié expérimentalement dans le domaine spectral 300 nm <λ< 500 nm. Les spectres R(λ) sont relevés pour 25 ^{circ}C observées au voisinage de la transition directe interbande : E1=3,4 eV. Dans ce cas, la sensibilité relative R^{-1}(dR/{}T) atteint la valeur maximum (2,4±0,4)×10^{-4} K^{-1} qui est environ deux fois plus élevée que dans le cas du silicium nu. Ce résultat est mis à profit pour réaliser des mesures sans contact de la température, par réflectomètrie, le long de la jonction gâchette-cathode sur la face supérieure d'un thyristor GTO fonctionnant en commutation à 400 Hz. Le diamètre de la

  11. A Primer on Observational Measurement.

    PubMed

    Girard, Jeffrey M; Cohn, Jeffrey F

    2016-08-01

    Observational measurement plays an integral role in a variety of scientific endeavors within biology, psychology, sociology, education, medicine, and marketing. The current article provides an interdisciplinary primer on observational measurement; in particular, it highlights recent advances in observational methodology and the challenges that accompany such growth. First, we detail the various types of instrument that can be used to standardize measurements across observers. Second, we argue for the importance of validity in observational measurement and provide several approaches to validation based on contemporary validity theory. Third, we outline the challenges currently faced by observational researchers pertaining to measurement drift, observer reactivity, reliability analysis, and time/expense. Fourth, we describe recent advances in computer-assisted measurement, fully automated measurement, and statistical data analysis. Finally, we identify several key directions for future observational research to explore.

  12. New observations from Carr House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-06-01

    June's transit of Venus prompted Kevin Kilburn and Clive Elphick to re-examine the presumed location of Jeremiah Horrocks's observations in 1639, and conclude that he did not observe the transit from there after all.

  13. Observations of FK Comae stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, B. W.

    1981-01-01

    Observations on the FK Comae stars are described. FK Com, UZ Lib and HD 199178 are compared and related as a group of stars. The crucial observational tests of the proposed evolutionary status of these stars are noted.

  14. Deep RGS Observations of Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R.; Mushotzky, R.; Loewenstein, M.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Reflection Grating Spectrometers (RGS) observations of clusters. It includes charts detailing the resolution difference between the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) and the RGS and a partial review of existing observations, in graphic format, and as a table. Other sources show up in the ROSAT observations. The presentation reviews possible results that could be achieved in the event that 300 ks of time were allocated for the observations of clusters.

  15. Impact of HIV-1 genetic diversity on plasma HIV-1 RNA Quantification: usefulness of the Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA second-generation long terminal repeat-based real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction test.

    PubMed

    Rouet, François; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Nerrienet, Eric; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Burgard, Marianne; Peeters, Martine; Damond, Florence; Ekouevi, Didier Koumavi; Msellati, Philippe; Ferradini, Laurent; Rukobo, Sandra; Maréchal, Valérie; Schvachsa, Nilda; Wakrim, Lahcen; Rafalimanana, Christian; Rakotoambinina, Benjamin; Viard, Jean-Paul; Seigneurin, Jean-Marie; Rouzioux, Christine

    2007-08-01

    The high genetic diversity of HIV-1 has a major impact on the quantification of plasma HIV-1 RNA, representing an increasingly difficult challenge. A total of 898 plasma specimens positive for HIV-1 RNA by commercial assays (Amplicor v1.5; Roche Diagnostic Systems, Alameda, CA or Versant v3.0; Bayer Diagnostics, Emeryville, CA) were tested using the Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA second-generation (G2) real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test: 518 samples containing HIV-1 of known subtype, including 88 from 2 subtype panels and 430 harboring B (n = 266) and non-B (n = 164) group M HIV-1 subtypes from patients followed up in 2002 through 2005 at Necker Hospital (Paris, France), and 380 samples from 10 different countries (Argentina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, France, Ivory Coast, Madagascar, Morocco, Thailand, and Zimbabwe). HIV-1 RNA values obtained by G2 real-time PCR were highly correlated with those obtained by the Amplicor v1.5 for B and non-B subtypes (R = 0.892 and 0.892, respectively) and for samples from diverse countries (R = 0.867 and 0.893 for real-time PCR vs. Amplicor v1.5 and real-time PCR vs. Versant v3.0, respectively). Approximately 30% of specimens harboring non-B subtypes were underquantified by at least -0.51 log10 in Amplicor v1.5 versus 5% underquantified in G2 real-time PCR. Discrepant results were also obtained with subtype B samples (14% underquantified by Amplicor v1.5 vs. 7% by G2 real-time PCR). Similar percentages were observed when comparing results obtained with the G2 real-time PCR assay with those obtained using the Versant assay. Addressing HIV-1 diversity, continual monitoring of HIV-1 RNA assays, together with molecular epidemiology studies, is required to improve the accuracy of all HIV RNA assays.

  16. A 500-year seasonally resolved δ18O and δ13C, layer thickness and calcite aspect record from a speleothem deposited in the Han-sur-Lesse cave, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Rampelbergh, M.; Verheyden, S.; Allan, M.; Quinif, Y.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, L. R.; Keppens, E.; Claeys, P.

    2015-06-01

    Speleothem δ18O and δ13C signals enable climate reconstructions at high resolution. However, scarce decadal and seasonally resolved speleothem records are often difficult to interpret in terms of climate due to the multitude of factors that affect the proxy signals. In this paper, a fast-growing (up to 2 mm yr-1) seasonally laminated speleothem from the Han-sur-Lesse cave (Belgium) is analyzed for its δ18O and δ13C values, layer thickness and changes in calcite aspect. The studied record covers the period between AD 2001 and 1479 as indicated by layer counting and confirmed by 20 U / Th ages. The Proserpine proxies are seasonally biased and document drier (and colder) winters on multidecadal scales. Higher δ13C signals reflect increased prior calcite precipitation (PCP) and lower soil activity during drier (and colder) winters. Thinner layers and darker calcite relate to slower growth and exist during drier (and colder) winter periods. Exceptionally dry (and cold) winter periods occur from 1565 to 1610, at 1730, from 1770 to 1800, from 1810 to 1860, and from 1880 to 1895 and correspond to exceptionally cold periods in historical and instrumental records as well as European winter temperature reconstructions. More relative climate variations, during which the four measured proxies vary independently and display lower amplitude variations, occur between 1479 and 1565, between 1610 and 1730, and between 1730 and 1770. The winters during the first and last periods are interpreted as relatively wetter (and warmer) and correspond to warmer periods in historical data and in winter temperature reconstructions in Europe. The winters in the period between 1610 and 1730 are interpreted as relatively drier (and cooler) and correspond to generally colder conditions in Europe. Interpretation of the seasonal variations in δ18O and δ13C signals differs from that on a decadal and multidecadal scale. Seasonal δ18O variations reflect cave air temperature variations and

  17. Etude de l'impact de la valorisation energetique de pneus hors d'usage, dans une cimenterie, sur les emissions gazeuses par modelisation de la dispersion atmospherique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredin, Nathalie

    La génération incéssante de déchets nécessite le développement de nouvelles technologies, telle que la valorisation énergétique, pour en disposer. Une filière appropriée pour valoriser énergétiquement les déchets est le procédé cimentier. L'industrie du ciment est une des grandes consommatrices d'énergie. La température nécessaire à la préparation du ciment se situe aux environs de 1450°C pour faire réagir la matière première (cru) qui est sous forme poudreuse et constituée principalement de roches calcaires, argileuses, schisteuses,... Les gaz de combustion ont un long temps de résidence dans les fours. De plus, le mode de fonctionnement des fours est responsable d'un effet de lessivage des gaz acides par le cru alcalin. Ces propriétés font du procédé cimentier un bon candidat pour la valorisation énergétique des déchets. Les déchets interessants pour les cimenteries sont, entre autres, les huiles usées, les solvants usés et les pneus usés qui ont un pouvoir calorifique équivalent à celui du charbon. Les rejets à l'atmosphère des cimenteries sont principalement des émissions gazeuses. Ainsi, l'impact de la valorisation de pneus usés sur les émissions gazeuses de la cimenterie Saint-Laurent de Joliette a été étudié, à l'aide de l'outil qu'est la modélisation de la dispersion atmosphérique. Le modèle utilisé ISC-ST2, Industrial Source Complex-Short Term, est de type gaussien. L'analyse des concentrations maximales horaires et moyennes sur différentes périodes de temps (1 heure, 8 heures, ..., 1 an) des émissions gazeuses dans l'air ambiant montre que celles-ci sont en deçà des normes émises par le gouvernement québécois et par la Communauté Urbaine de Montréal. L'étude de la distribution géographique des polluants, d'après les concentrations annuelles, dans un rayon de 5 km autour de la cimenterie montre que le fait d'utiliser des pneus comme combustible de substitution n'a qu'un faible impact sur la

  18. Quatrième conférence consensuelle sur le diagnostic et le traitement de la démence

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Ainsley; Patterson, Christopher; Lee, Linda; Vedel, Isabelle; Bergman, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Revoir les stratégies diagnostiques de la maladie d’Alzheimer, actualiser les recommandations concernant le traitement des symptômes de démence et proposer une approche thérapeutique à la démence d’apparition précoce et d’évolution rapide. Composition du comité Des spécialistes et des délégués de diverses régions du Canada et représentant diverses disciplines pertinentes ont discuté et se sont mis d’accord sur les révisions à apporter aux lignes directrices de 2006. Méthodologie On a eu recours au système GRADE (grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation) pour évaluer le consensus concernant les recommandations, lequel était défini comme suit : lorsque 80 % ou plus des participants ont voté en faveur de la recommandation. La cote des données probantes est rapportée lorsque cela est possible. Rapport important pour les médecins de famille, malgré les progrès effectués dans les domaines des biomarqueurs liquidiens et de la neuro-imagerie, le diagnostic de démence au Canada demeure fondamentalement clinique. De nouveaux critères cliniques essentiels de diagnostic de la maladie d’Alzheimer en reconnaissent dorénavant les formes moins fréquentes et non amnestiques. La démence précoce, une affection rare, mais importante, devrait inciter les médecins à aiguiller les patients vers un spécialiste ayant accès à des conseillers en génétique. La démence d’évolution rapide, mal définie dans la littérature, faciliterait le dépistage de cette affection rare, mais importante. Les inhibiteurs de la cholinestérase sont maintenant indiqués pour le traitement d’affections autres que la maladie d’Alzheimer. Des lignes directrices concernant l’arrêt du traitement, lesquelles n’existaient pas auparavant, sont également apparues. De nouvelles données probantes sur le recours à la mémantine, aux antidépresseurs et à d’autres agents psychotropes dans le traitement de la

  19. Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Wilson, Lynn; Srivastava, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique des lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse, produites par le National Opioid Use Guideline Group. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale sur l’efficacité et l’innocuité des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse et ont rédigé une série de recommandations. Un panel de 49 cliniciens experts de toutes les régions du Canada ont passé en revue l’ébauche et ont atteint un consensus sur 24 recommandations. Message principal Il est recommandé de faire un dépistage du risque de dépendance avant de prescrire des opioïdes. On recommande des opioïdes faibles (codéine et tramadol) pour une douleur de légère à modérée qui n’a pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. On peut essayer l’oxycodone, l’hydromorphone et la morphine chez les patients qui n’ont pas eu de soulagement avec des opioïdes plus faibles. Une faible dose initiale et une lente hausse du titrage sont recommandées, ainsi qu’une étroite surveillance du patient qu’on a d’abord renseigné. Les médecins doivent surveiller l’apparition de complications comme l’apnée du sommeil. La dose optimale est celle qui améliore le fonctionnement ou atténue les cotes d’évaluation de la douleur d’au moins 30 %. Pour la grande majorité des patients, la dose optimale sera bien en deçà de l’équivalent de 200 mg de morphine par jour. On recommande le sevrage progressif pour les patients qui n’ont pas répondu à un essai d’opioïdes adéquat. Conclusion Les opioïdes jouent un rôle important dans la prise en charge de la douleur chronique non cancéreuse, mais il faut en prescrire avec prudence pour limiter les dommages potentiels. Les nouvelles lignes directrices

  20. Movement Processes as Observable Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Wilma M.

    The operations for achieving skill in motor performance are perceiving, patterning, adapting, refining, varying, improvising, and composing. These operations are readily observable in physical education classes. An observation record containing the seven catagories was used to classify teacher feedback to students. The teachers observed were…

  1. Observability in dynamic evolutionary models.

    PubMed

    López, I; Gámez, M; Carreño, R

    2004-02-01

    In the paper observability problems are considered in basic dynamic evolutionary models for sexual and asexual populations. Observability means that from the (partial) knowledge of certain phenotypic characteristics the whole evolutionary process can be uniquely recovered. Sufficient conditions are given to guarantee observability for both sexual and asexual populations near an evolutionarily stable state.

  2. Peer Observation: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einwaechter, Nelson Frederick, Jr.

    This thesis describes a peer observation program implemented among American and Japanese teachers in the English Department of Hiroshima College of Foreign Languages, a two-year vocational college in Hiroshima, Japan. Each participant functioned as both an observer and observee, while pre- and post-observation meetings were held between the…

  3. Doppler observations of solar rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, P. H.

    1980-01-01

    Daily observations of the photospheric equatorial rotation rate using the Doppler effect mode at the Sanford Solar Observatory are presented. These observations show no variations in the rotation rate that exceed the observational error of about one percent. The average rotation rate is indistinguishable from that of sunspots and large scale magnetic field structures.

  4. Doppler observations of solar rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, P. H.; Wilcox, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Daily observations of the photospheric equatorial rotation rate using the Doppler effect are made at the Stanford Solar Observatory. These observations show no variations in the rotation rate that exceed the observational error of about 1%. The average rotation rate is indistinguishable from that of sunspots and large-scale magnetic field structures.

  5. Classroom Observation Criteria and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard O.

    Classroom observation is an integral part of teacher preparation. The observer must enter the classroom with a frame-of-reference: knowledge of the teacher's goals and objectives, awareness of the climate of the classroom, and knowledge of the discipline. Observation forms to objectively record classroom interaction, assess the learning climate,…

  6. General characteristics of the diet of Trachinotus paitensis (Teleostei: Carangidae) from San Ignacio Lagoon, Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cruz Escalona, V H; Abitia Cárdenas, L A

    2004-03-01

    The food habits of Trachinotus paitensis, in San Ignacio Lagoon B.C.S., Mexico, were investigated. We observed that T. paitensis is carnivorous, feeding mainly on benthic invertebrates (the gastropods Anachis spp., Bittium spp., and the crustacean larvae). We concluded that T. paitensis is an opportunist predator that impacts mainly on epibenthic invertebrates.

  7. L’érysipèle sur cicatrice post opératoire en traumatologie: à propos d'un cas et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Abid, Hatim; El Idrissi, Mohamed; Shimi, Mohamed; El Ibrahimi, Abdelhalim; El Mrini, Abdelmajid; Amraoui, Nissrine; Mernissi, Fatima Zohra

    2015-01-01

    L’érysipèle sur cicatrice post opératoire est une entité rare, décrite principalement chez des patients présentant les facteurs de risque classiques de la maladie au niveau des sites de veinectomie pour pontage coronarien. En traumatologie orthopédie, nous n'avons que les 3 cas rapportés dans le travail de Dhrif survenus au décours d'une implantation prothétique chez des malades à risque. Nous présentons à travers cet article, le cas d'un érysipèle post opératoire sur une cicatrice d'ostéosynthèse d'une fracture fermée du pilon tibial, ayant la particularité du terrain et des circonstances de survenues, pour enfin conclure aux principes de la prévention primaire à adopter. PMID:26401204

  8. [L'effet et l'influence de l'espoir et de la surmédiatisation sur la prise de décision en matière de technologies de la santé].

    PubMed

    Simpson, Christy

    2015-09-01

    La prise de décision en matière de technologies de la santé est complexe. L'effet potentiel de l'espoir et de la surmédiatisation est peu exploré. Le présent article traite de la commercialisation de l'espoir et de l'influence de sa surmédiatisation sur la prise de décision. Puisque les leaders en santé jouent un rôle essentiel dans la prise de ce type de décisions, l'auteure traite également des possibilités et des suggestions liées à la structure des processus de décision afin de jeter un regard critique sur la « surmédiatisation de l'espoir ».

  9. Polymorphisme de l'apolipoprotéine E dans la population du nord du Maroc: fréquence et influence sur les paramètres lipidiques

    PubMed Central

    Benyahya, Fatiha; Barakat, Amina; Ghailani, Naima; Bennani, Mohcine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail est de déterminer les fréquences alléliques et génotypiques des sites polymorphes situés dans le gène de l'apolipoprotéine E (apo E) ainsi que leur impact sur les paramètres cliniques et lipidiques dans un échantillon de la population du nord du Maroc cliniquement diagnostiqué ADH. Méthodes Le génotype de l'apo E a été analysé par séquençage direct chez 46 patients cliniquement diagnostiqués ADH selon les critères standards. Résultats Les fréquences des allèles epsilon 3, epsilon 2 et epsilon 4 ont été respectivement 78.3%, 2.2% et 19.6%. La fréquence de l'allèle epsilon 4 est très élevée chez la population du nord du Maroc en comparaison avec les populations des autres régions marocaines. Elle est similaire à celle rapportée dans les pays de l'Europe du nord. Les taux du cholestérol total, du cholestérol LDL ainsi que la présence des xanthomes et les maladies cardiovasculaires ne différent pas entre les génotypes de l'apoE. En revanche, les résultats ont montré une influence de l'allèle epsilon4 sur le taux des triglycérides chez les sujets obèses. Conclusion Le génotype de l'apoE ne peut expliquer le phénotype clinique et biochimique présenté par des patients du Nord du Maroc cliniquement diagnostiqués ADH. PMID:24396563

  10. Structure and geomorphology of the "big bend" in the Hosgri-San Gregorio fault system, offshore of Big Sur, central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, S. Y.; Watt, J. T.; Hartwell, S. R.; Kluesner, J. W.; Dartnell, P.

    2015-12-01

    The right-lateral Hosgri-San Gregorio fault system extends mainly offshore for about 400 km along the central California coast and is a major structure in the distributed transform margin of western North America. We recently mapped a poorly known 64-km-long section of the Hosgri fault offshore Big Sur between Ragged Point and Pfieffer Point using high-resolution bathymetry, tightly spaced single-channel seismic-reflection and coincident marine magnetic profiles, and reprocessed industry multichannel seismic-reflection data. Regionally, this part of the Hosgri-San Gregorio fault system has a markedly more westerly trend (by 10° to 15°) than parts farther north and south, and thus represents a transpressional "big bend." Through this "big bend," the fault zone is never more than 6 km from the shoreline and is a primary control on the dramatic coastal geomorphology that includes high coastal cliffs, a narrow (2- to 8-km-wide) continental shelf, a sharp shelfbreak, and a steep (as much as 17°) continental slope incised by submarine canyons and gullies. Depth-converted industry seismic data suggest that the Hosgri fault dips steeply to the northeast and forms the eastern boundary of the asymmetric (deeper to the east) Sur Basin. Structural relief on Franciscan basement across the Hosgri fault is about 2.8 km. Locally, we recognize five discrete "sections" of the Hosgri fault based on fault trend, shallow structure (e.g., disruption of young sediments), seafloor geomorphology, and coincidence with high-amplitude magnetic anomalies sourced by ultramafic rocks in the Franciscan Complex. From south to north, section lengths and trends are as follows: (1) 17 km, 312°; (2) 10 km, 322°; (3)13 km, 317°; (4) 3 km, 329°; (5) 21 km, 318°. Through these sections, the Hosgri surface trace includes several right steps that vary from a few hundred meters to about 1 km wide, none wide enough to provide a barrier to continuous earthquake rupture.

  11. Les fractures luxations du cotyle: prise en charge et pronostic à long terme; étude rétrospective portant sur 40 cas

    PubMed Central

    Chagou, Aniss; Hmouri, Ismail; Rhanim, Abdelkarim; Lahlou, Abdou; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Les fractures luxations du cotyle sont le plus souvent dues à des traumatismes de haute énergie. Elles constituent une urgence thérapeutique, l'association de la luxation à une fracture du cotyle fait apparaître la question du choix thérapeutique entre traitement orthopédique et traitement médical. L'objectif de l’étude est de mettre le point sur l'aspect thérapeutique dans ces lésions mais aussi leurs pronostics à long terme. Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective portant sur 40 cas colligés au service d'orthopédie du centre hospitalier universitaire de Rabat. Nous avons évalué les résultats de notre prise en charge mais aussi le pronostic à court et à long terme. Dans notre série, vingt cinq patients ont bénéficié d'un traitement orthopédique alors que les quinze restants ont été opérés, la voie d'abord la plus utilisée est la voie postérieure. Les résultats fonctionnels ont été évalués, après un recul de 3 à 8 ans, selon la cotation de Merle d'Aubigné. Nous avons obtenu 90% de résultats satisfaisants. La comparaison de nos résultats à ceux de la littérature montre que le résultat des traitements orthopédiques et chirurgicaux dépend essentiellement du type de fracture. Le pronostic à long terme reste imprévisible. La survenue des complications tardives telle que la nécrose céphalique et de l'arthrose reste toujours imprévisible, ce qui impose un suivi régulier et prolongé des patients. PMID:25722763

  12. Suivi prospectif sur 5 ans des tentatives de suicide en population clinique dans la région de Fès, Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Aarab, Chadya; Elghazouani, Fatima; Aalouane, Rachid; Rammouz, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Au Maroc, les tentatives de suicide (TS) demeurent un sujet mal évalué à cause de considérations socioculturelles et l'absence d'approche longitudinale. L'objectif principal était d’évaluer le devenir des suicidants après 5ans au centre universitaire psychiatrique de Fès, les objectifs secondaires étaient l'estimation de la prévalence des TS, préciser les étiologies les plus fréquentes, et établir une corrélation entre les paramètres sociodémographiques, cliniques et évolutifs. Etude prospective à visée transversale et longitudinale, incluant les suicidants vus à l'hôpital psychiatrique de Fès, avec un suivi longitudinal sur 5ans. L’évaluation a été faite par un hétéro-questionnaire et le Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) cherchant le trouble psychiatrique sous jacent. On a recruté 105 patients suicidants, 62% des femmes, l’âge moyen est de 29,23ans. La prévalence des tentatives de suicide est de 3% sur l'ensemble des consultants à l’établissement. Les troubles de l'humeur, psychotiques et de personnalité ont occupé respectivement 37,6%, 27,7%, et 25,7% des cas. La récidive suicidaire a été notée chez 54% des patients, était significativement corrélée à la vie solitaire (P: 0,039) et à la présence d'antécédents familiaux de TS (P: 0,046). L'utilisation de moyens violents était significativement fréquente chez les patients psychotiques. Après 5ans, 32 patients ont répondu à notre appel. Le taux de récidive était de 15%. On a noté trois cas de décès dont deux suicides confirmés. Les résultats confirment les données de la littérature scientifique avec certaines particularités cliniques et évolutives. PMID:25478042

  13. Troubles de la ménopause: enquête sur les connaissances, attitudes et pratiques du personnel des structures sanitaires de Dakar

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Abdoul Aziz; Faye-Diémé, Marie Edouard; Guèye, Mamour; Sandjon, Tatiana Gisèle; Mbaye, Magatte; Moreau, Jean Charles; Diouf, Alassane

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Evaluer le niveau de connaissance du personnel de santé des structures sanitaires de la région de Dakar, l'attitude et les pratiques face aux troubles de la ménopause. Méthodes Enquête prospective auprès de 135 prestataires avec un questionnaire anonyme divisé en quatre rubriques: les caractéristiques socioprofessionnelles, les connaissances générales sur la ménopause, l'attitude et la pratique du prestataire par rapport à la ménopause troublée. Résultats Les prestataires de santé inclus dans l’étude étaient répartis comme suit: 11 gynécologues, 37 médecins en spécialisation gynécologique, 34 médecins généralistes et 53 sages-femmes d’état. L’âge moyen était de 35 ans. Le sexe féminin représentait 64% du groupe. Vingt et un pourcent des prestataires exerçaient depuis plus de 10 ans. De manière globale, les connaissances générales sur la ménopause étaient satisfaisantes du moment où la majeure partie des prestataires était en mesure de poser le diagnostic et de prévoir les conséquences du déficit hormonal. La majorité des prestataires (62%) était favorable au traitement de la ménopause troublée. Cependant, nous notons une certaine insuffisance dans le traitement de la ménopause, aussi bien dans le cadre de la thérapie hormonale que dans l'utilisation des moyens alternatifs. Conclusion Le nombre de femmes ménopausées augmente progressivement, et il convient de réunir toutes les stratégies de mise à niveau afin de faire face au défit de l'amélioration de la qualité de vie de cette catégorie de la population. PMID:25489362

  14. Etiologies et pronostic des occlusions intestinales aigues mécaniques à l’Hôpital National de Zinder: étude transversale sur 171 patients

    PubMed Central

    Adamou, Harissou; Magagi, Ibrahim Amadou; Habou, Oumarou; Magagi, Amadou; Maazou, Halidou; Adamou, Mansour; Harouna, Yacouba

    2016-01-01

    L’occlusion intestinale aigue (OIA) mécanique, représente l’une des pathologies les plus fréquentes en chirurgie digestive d’urgence. L’objectif de cette étude était de décrire les aspects étiologiques et pronostiques des occlusions intestinales aigues mécaniques à l’Hôpital National de Zinder (HNZ), Niger. Il s’agissait d’une étude transversale sur 24 mois (Janvier 2013 à Décembre 2014) ayant inclus tous les patients opérés pour OIA. Les occlusions intestinales mécaniques représentaient 24,50% (n=171) des urgences chirurgicales digestives (n=622). L’âge médian était à 25 ans (extrêmes: 1 jour et 95 ans). Le sexe ratio était à 3,5 en faveur des hommes. Les enfants représentaient 38,60% (n=66). Le siège de l’obstacle était sur le grêle dans 60,82% (n=104), colique dans 21,63%(n=37) et mixte dans 17,54% (n=30). Le mécanisme par strangulation constituait 88,89% (n=152) dont les hernies étranglées avec 49,70% (n=85) et les invaginations intestinales aigues avec 19,88% (n=34) des patients. Les malformations ano-rectales et les tumeurs constituaient les principales étiologies par obstruction avec respectivement 7,02% (n=12) et 3,51% (n=6). Une résection intestinale était faite dans 52 cas (30,41%). Les complications septiques prédominaient (n=39/53), dont la suppuration pariétale (n=23). Le séjour moyen était de 7,82 jours. La mortalité globale était 11,70% (n=20). Celle-ci était corrélée statistiquement à la nécrose intestinale (p=0,01) et au retard d’admission (p=0,04). Les étiologies des OIA sont multiples et dominées par les hernies étranglées. La morbi-mortalité élevée qu’elles entrainent pourrait être évitée par la prise en charge précoce avant l’installation d’une nécrose intestinale. PMID:27800103

  15. State observer for synchronous motors

    DOEpatents

    Lang, Jeffrey H.

    1994-03-22

    A state observer driven by measurements of phase voltages and currents for estimating the angular orientation of a rotor of a synchronous motor such as a variable reluctance motor (VRM). Phase voltages and currents are detected and serve as inputs to a state observer. The state observer includes a mathematical model of the electromechanical operation of the synchronous motor. The characteristics of the state observer are selected so that the observer estimates converge to the actual rotor angular orientation and velocity, winding phase flux linkages or currents.

  16. OSSE observations of NGC 4151

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maisack, M.; Johnson, W. N.; Kinzer, R. L.; Strickman, M. S.; Kurfess, J. D.; Cameron, R. A.; Jung, G. V.; Grabelsky, D. A.; Purcell, W. R.; Ulmer, M. P.

    1993-01-01

    Observations of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 with the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory are presented. A continuum spectrum is observed, which steepens exponentially with an e-folding energy of 39 +/- 2 keV over the 65-300 keV range. Source intensity variability of approximately 25 percent was seen during the observations, and no significant change in the spectral shape was detected. Simple pair models cannot explain the observed spectrum of NGC 4151, and repeated observations are required to determine whether this spectral shape is common or is even the dominant spectral state in this class of active galactic nuclei.

  17. astroplan: Observation Planning for Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Brett

    2016-03-01

    Astroplan is an observation planning package for astronomers. It is an astropy-affiliated package which began as a Google Summer of Code project. Astroplan facilitates convenient calculation of common observational quantities, like target altitudes and azimuths, airmasses, and rise/set times. Astroplan also computes when targets are observable given various extensible observing constraints, for example: within a range of airmasses or altitudes, or at a given separation from the Moon. Astroplan is taught in the undergraduate programming for astronomy class, and enables observational Pre- MAP projects at the University of Washington. In the near future, we plan to implement scheduling capabilities in astroplan on top of the constraints framework.

  18. Nonlinear Observers for Gyro Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Julie; Sanner, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    High precision estimation and control algorithms, to achieve unprecedented levels of pointing accuracy, will be required to support future formation flying missions such as interferometry missions. Achieving high pointing accuracy requires precise knowledge of the spacecraft rotation rate. Typically, the rotation rate is measured by a gyro. The measured rates can be corrupted by errors in alignment and scale factor, gyro biases, and noise. In this work, we present nonlinear observers for gyro calibration. Nonlinear observers are superior to extended or pseudo-linear Kalman filter type approaches for large errors and global stability. Three nonlinear gyro calibration observers are developed. The first observer estimates a constant gyro bias. The second observer estimates scale factor errors. The third observer estimates the gyro alignment for three orthogonal gyros. The convergence properties of all three observers are discussed. Additionally, all three observers are coupled with a nonlinear control algorithm. The stability of each of the resulting closed loop systems is analyzed. The observers are then combined, and the gyro calibration parameters are estimated simultaneously. The stability of the combined observers is addressed, as well as the stability of the resulting closed loop systems. Simulated test results are presented for each scenario. Finally, the nonlinear observers are compared to a pseudo-linear Kalman filter.

  19. Effects of Integrated Hearing Protection Headsets on the Quality of Radio Communications (Effets des Casques D’ecoute Munis d’un Dispositif Integre de Protection de L’Ouie sur la Qualite des Communications Radio)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    pour la défense Canada – Toronto; Julliet 2009. Contexte: Divers types de bruit viennent souvent altérer la communication entre les soldats sur le...réglementaire pour les soldats débarqués des Forces canadiennes. Le PRR a été évalué avec un casque d’écoute réglementaire (une seule coupelle à

  20. The structure of robust observers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharyya, S. P.

    1975-01-01

    Conventional observers for linear time-invariant systems are shown to be structurally inadequate from a sensitivity standpoint. It is proved that if a linear dynamic system is to provide observer action despite arbitrary small perturbations in a specified subset of its parameters, it must: (1) be a closed loop system, be driven by the observer error, (2) possess redundancy, the observer must be generating, implicitly or explicitly, at least one linear combination of states that is already contained in the measurements, and (3) contain a perturbation-free model of the portion of the system observable from the external input to the observer. The procedure for design of robust observers possessing the above structural features is established and discussed.

  1. Neural mechanisms of observational learning

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Christopher J.; Tobler, Philippe N.; Baddeley, Michelle; Schultz, Wolfram

    2010-01-01

    Individuals can learn by interacting with the environment and experiencing a difference between predicted and obtained outcomes (prediction error). However, many species also learn by observing the actions and outcomes of others. In contrast to individual learning, observational learning cannot be based on directly experienced outcome prediction errors. Accordingly, the behavioral and neural mechanisms of learning through observation remain elusive. Here we propose that human observational learning can be explained by two previously uncharacterized forms of prediction error, observational action prediction errors (the actual minus the predicted choice of others) and observational outcome prediction errors (the actual minus predicted outcome received by others). In a functional MRI experiment, we found that brain activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex respectively corresponded to these two distinct observational learning signals. PMID:20660717

  2. Second Meeting of the French CEIP (Centres d'Évaluation et d'Information sur la Pharmacodépendance). Part I: How to Evaluate and Prevent the Abuse and Dependence on Hypnotic/Anxiolytic Drugs?

    PubMed

    Micallef-Roll, Joëlle; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse

    2009-01-01

    Les deuxièmes journées de Pharmacodépendances organisées par le réseau français des CEIP Addictovigilance (Centres d'Évaluation et d'Information sur la Pharmacodépendance) se sont tenues lors du congrès annuel de la Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique en 2008. Elles avaient pour thème l'abus et la pharmacodépendance des anxiolytiques et hypnotiques en combinant plusieurs approches pharmacoépidémiologiques, épidémiologiques et thérapeutiques. Les données présentées en première partie ont synthétisé l'apport des outils pharmacoépidémiologiques développés par les CEIP et ont souligné les différences en terme d'abus et de dépendance au sein de cette classe des anxiolytiques et hypnotiques. La deuxième partie a porté sur les caractéristiques de cette consommation a sein de la population âgée et a souligné le peu d'informations disponibles sur les facteurs associés à ce comportement, son dépistage, son évaluation, son diagnostic et son traitement.

  3. Dependency Ordering of Atomic Observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cīrulis, Jānis

    2015-12-01

    The notion of atomic observable was introduced by S.Gudder for effect test spaces in 1997. In this paper an observable is a σ-homomorphism from the Borel algebra on a line to some logic. Roughly, an observable on a logic is atomic, if it is completely determined by its restriction to one-element subsets of its point spectrum. In particular, every discrete observable is atomic. We study some elementary properties of such observables, and discuss a possible notion of functional dependency between them. Algebraically, a dependency is a certain preorder relation on the set of all atomic observables, which induces an order relation on the set of all maximal orthogonal subsets of the logic. Several properties, as well as characteristics in terms of the underlying logic, of these relations are stated.

  4. Observing ENSO then and now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The 1982-83 El Nino was the largest on record when it occurred. However, it was neither predicted nor even detected until nearly at it's peak. The inability to effectively observe or forecast evolving climatic conditions in the tropical Pacific motivated a community wide effort to develop an extensive ocean observing system capable of reporting data in real-time across the basin. That observing system was implemented over the ten year period (1985-94) of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program and has continued to evolve with the introduction new observing system components, improved measurement technologies, and wider data access through the internet. Data from this observing system have fundamentally advanced ENSO research, enabled skillful seasonal prediction, and provided a rich source of information for studies of climate variability and change. This presentation will review some of the successes of the past 30 years as well as highlight challenges in sustaining future ocean observations for climate.

  5. NS&T Management Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Gianotto, David

    2014-09-01

    The INL Management Observation Program (MOP) is designed to improve managers and supervisors understanding of work being performed by employees and the barriers impacting their success. The MOP also increases workers understanding of managements’ expectations as they relate to safety, security, quality, and work performance. Management observations (observations) are designed to improve the relationship and trust between employees and managers through increased engagement and interactions between managers and researchers in the field. As part of continuous improvement, NS&T management took initiative to focus on the participation and quality of observations in FY 14. This quarterly report is intended to (a) summarize the participation and quality of management’s observations, (b) assess observations for commonalities or trends related to facility or process barriers impacting research, and (c) provide feedback and make recommendations for improvements NS&T’s MOP.

  6. Observing with the Armillary Astrolabe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlodarczyk, J.

    1987-08-01

    The author investigates the merits and limitations of the armillary astrolabe, which served for direct observations of the ecliptic longitudes and latitudes of the heavenly bodies from Antiquity to the end of the sixteenth century. Observations made with a modern replica of the instrument are compared with historical astrolabic observations as reported by Ptolemy in the Almagest and with measurements made in 1503-4 by Bernard Walther in Nuremberg.

  7. Sequential measurements of conjugate observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, Claudio; Heinosaari, Teiko; Toigo, Alessandro

    2011-07-01

    We present a unified treatment of sequential measurements of two conjugate observables. Our approach is to derive a mathematical structure theorem for all the relevant covariant instruments. As a consequence of this result, we show that every Weyl-Heisenberg covariant observable can be implemented as a sequential measurement of two conjugate observables. This method is applicable both in finite- and infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces, therefore covering sequential spin component measurements as well as position-momentum sequential measurements.

  8. Observations of Novae From ROAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, F.-J.

    2014-12-01

    The author discusses observations of galactic novae and some extragalactic supernovae from his remote observatory ROAD (Remote Observatory Atacama Desert) he commenced in August 2011 with Nova Lupi 2011 (PR Lup). The observed novae are mainly chosen according to AAVSO Alert Notices and AAVSO Special Notices as published on their website. Examples of dense observations of different novae are presented. The focus goes to the different behaviors of their light curves. It also demonstrates the capability of the remote observatory ROAD.

  9. Application d'une technique de modelisation aerodynamique conceptuelle sur la simulation d'un pilote automatique a commande optimale pour un avion d'affaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollender-Moreau, Olivier

    Ce document présente, dans le cadre d'un contexte conceptuel, une méthode d'enchaînement servant à faire le lien entre les différentes étapes qui permettent de réaliser la simulation d'un aéronef à partir de ses données géométriques et de ses propriétés massiques. En utilisant le cas de l'avion d'affaires Hawker 800XP de la compagnie Hawker Beechcraft, on démontre, via des données, un processus de traitement par lots et une plate-forme de simulation, comment (1) modéliser la géométrie d'un aéronef en plusieurs surfaces, (2) calculer les forces aérodynamiques selon une technique connue sous le nom de Vortex Lattice Method, (3) construire un modèle de vol servant à la simulation des aéronefs pour leur enveloppe de vol en ajoutant des fonctions supplémentaires, (4) construire un modèle de turbosoufflante simplifié, (5) développer un algorithme d'équilibre (trim) du mouvement longitudinal, (6) développer des algorithmes de contrôle à commande moderne, (7) développer certaines fonctions d'un système de pilotage automatique, et (8) rassembler le tout sous une même plate-forme de simulation. Afin de supporter ce travail, une application publique Matlab, connue sous le nom de Tornado, est utilisée conjointement avec d'autres fonctions pour la conception du modèle de vol aérodynamique. D'ailleurs, il sera démontré que le modèle de vol, quoiqu'il soit quand même crédible, ne concorde pas tout à fait avec les données de référence. Par contre, puisque le modèle des moteurs fonctionne bien, que l'algorithme d'équilibrage du mouvement longitudinal fonctionne bien et que les pôles des systèmes dynamiques concordent avec la littérature, les tests dynamiques effectués au sein de la plate-forme de simulation permettent d'obtenir des résultats fonctionnels et crédibles. D'ailleurs, deux systèmes d'augmentation de la stabilité basés sur la méthode de contrôle moderne LQR et couvrant l

  10. Fiabilité des structures mécaniques adaptatives: effet de la panne des actionneurs ou des capteurs sur la stabilité

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, H.; Charon, W.; Kouta, R.

    2002-12-01

    Ces dernières décennies, des activités significatives dans le monde étaient dirigées autour du contrôle actif. Le but de ces recherches était essentiellement d'améliorer les performances, la fiabilité et la sécurité des systèmes. Notamment dans le cas des structures soumises à des vibrations aléatoires. D'importants travaux ont été consacré à l'utilisation des “matériaux intelligents” comme capteurs et actionneurs. Cette article propose l'analyse de la fiabilité des systèmes mécaniques en étudiant les pannes des actionneurs ou des capteurs. L'effet de ces pannes sur la stabilité et la performance du système y est démontré. Les méthodologies de conception y sont rappelées. Des exemples numériques sont fournis à travers le contrôle d'un panneau sous chargement dynamique pour illustrer la méthode proposée.

  11. Novel human ABCC9/SUR2 brain-expressed transcripts and an eQTL relevant to hippocampal sclerosis of aging

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Peter T.; Wang, Wang-Xia; Wilfred, Bernard R.; Wei, Angela; Dimayuga, James; Huang, Qingwei; Ighodaro, Eseosa; Artiushin, Sergey; Fardo, David W.

    2015-01-01

    ABCC9 genetic polymorphisms are associated with increased risk for various human diseases including hippocampal sclerosis of aging. The main goals of this study were 1 > to detect the ABCC9 variants and define the specific 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) for each variant in human brain, and 2 > to determine whether a polymorphism (rs704180) associated with risk for hippocampal sclerosis of aging pathology is also associated with variation in ABCC9 transcript expression and/or splicing. Rapid amplification of ABCC9 cDNA ends (3′RACE) provided evidence of novel 3′ UTR portions of ABCC9 in human brain. In silico and experimental studies were performed focusing on the single nucleotide polymorphism, rs704180. Analyses from multiple databases, focusing on rs704180 only, indicated that this risk allele is a local expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL). Analyses of RNA from human brains showed increased ABCC9 transcript levels in individuals with the risk genotype, corresponding with enrichment for a shorter 3′ UTR which may be more stable than variants with the longer 3′ UTR. MicroRNA transfection experiments yielded results compatible with the hypothesis that miR-30c causes down-regulation of SUR2 transcripts with the longer 3′ UTR. Thus we report evidence of complex ABCC9 genetic regulation in brain, which may be of direct relevance to human disease. PMID:26115089

  12. Fine scale daily movements and habitat use of East Pacific green turtles at a shallow coastal lagoon in Baja California Sur, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senko, Jesse; Koch, Volker; Megill, William M.; Carthy, Raymond R.; Templeton, R.obert P.; Nichols, Wallace J.

    2010-01-01

    Green turtles spend most of their lives in coastal foraging areas where they face multiple anthropogenic impacts. Therefore, understanding their spatial use in this environment is a priority for conservation efforts. We studied the fine scale daily movements and habitat use of East Pacific green turtles (Chelonia mydas) at Laguna San Ignacio, a shallow coastal lagoon in Baja California Sur, Mexico where sea turtles are subject to high levels of gillnet bycatch and directed hunting. Six turtles ranging from 44.6 to 83.5 cm in straight carapace length were tracked for short deployments (1 to 6 d) with GPS-VHF telemetry. Turtles were active throughout diurnal, nocturnal, and crepuscular periods. Although they moved greater total distances during daytime, their speed of travel and net displacement remained consistent throughout 24-h periods. A positive selection for areas of seagrass and moderate water depth (5 to 10 m) was determined using Ivlev's electivity index, with neutral selection for shallow water (< 5 m) and avoidance of deep water (> 10 m). Turtles exhibited two distinct behavioral movement patterns: circular movements with high fidelity to the capture–release location and meandering movements with low fidelity to the capture–release location. Our results indicate that green turtles were active throughout the diel cycle while traveling large distances and traversing multiple habitats over short temporal scales.

  13. A probable case of gigantism/acromegaly in skeletal remains from the Jewish necropolis of "Ronda Sur" (Lucena, Córdoba, Spain; VIII-XII centuries CE).

    PubMed

    Viciano, Joan; De Luca, Stefano; López-Lázaro, Sandra; Botella, Daniel; Diéguez-Ramírez, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary gigantism is a rare endocrine disorder caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone during growing period. Individuals with this disorder have an enormous growth in height and associated degenerative changes. The continued hypersecretion of growth hormone during adulthood leads to acromegaly, a condition related to the disproportionate bone growth of the skull, hands and feet. The skeletal remains studied belong to a young adult male from the Jewish necropolis of "Ronda Sur" in Lucena (Córdoba, Spain, VIII-XII centuries CE). The individual shows a very large and thick neurocranium, pronounced supraorbital ridges, an extremely prominent occipital protuberance, and an extremely large and massive mandible. Additional pathologies include enlargement of the vertebral bodies with degenerative changes, thickened ribs, and a slight increased length of the diaphysis with an increased cortical bone thickness of lower limbs. Comparative metric analysis of the mandible with other individuals from the same population and a contemporary Mediterranean population shows a trend toward acromegalic morphology. This case is an important contribution in paleopathological literature because it is a rare condition that has not been widely documented in ancient skeletal remains.

  14. Consequences experimentales des effets des fluctuations du vide sur la fluorescence parametrique et la generation du second harmonique en milieu confine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robichaud, Luc

    Les fluctuations du vide, qui consistent en l'apparition momentanee de particules, ce qui est permit par le principe d'incertitude de Heisenberg, joue un role primordial dans les processus photoniques, en particulier les processus non-lineaires. Par la manipulation de ces fluctuations du vide a l'aide de confinement optique, on retrouve deux phenomenes particuliers : l'intensification de la fluorescence parametrique (Walker, 2008) et l'inhibition de la generation du second harmonique (Collette, 2013). Dans ce travail, on presente les resultats dans le cas classique ; c'est-a-dire sans fluctuations du vide et confinement. Par la suite, on presente les effets des fluctuations du vide et du confinement, ce qui mene aux deux effets mentionnes. Dans le cas de la fluorescence parametrique, le bruit quantique sur le champ interne et externe est calcule, le role du desaccord de phase dans le modele est expose et une generalisation tridimensionnelle est etudiee afin de generaliser la conception du modele d'un cas unidimensionnel a un cas tridimensionnel planaire. Dans le cas de la generation du second harmonique, les difficultes d'un modele purement tridimensionnel sont exposees et ensuite le cas limite planaire est etudie.

  15. Biomagnification of mercury and its antagonistic interaction with selenium in yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares in the trophic web of Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ordiano-Flores, Alfredo; Rosíles-Martínez, Rene; Galván-Magaña, Felipe

    2012-12-01

    Mercury and selenium concentrations were determined in muscle of 37 yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) captured aboard of Mexican purse-seiners boats off western coast of Baja California Sur, between Punta Eugenia and Cabo Falso, from October to December 2006. Also, its prey (mainly, jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas and pelagic red crab Pleuroncodes planipes) were analyzed from the stomach contents. All the mercury values obtained were lower that mercury content recommended by standard legal limits for seafood adopted by Mexican norms (typically 0.5-1.0μg g(-1)). Mercury concentrations vary between 0.06 and 0.51μg g(-1) in yellowfin tuna, and from 0.01 to 0.20μg g(-1) in its prey, suggesting that mercury can accumulate in prey tissues and that of their predator. Biomagnification factors (BMF) between predator-prey associations were calculated. The BMFs were >1, indicating that mercury biomagnifies along the food web of yellowfin tuna. In all species studied there was a molar excess of selenium over mercury. The rank order of mean selenium/mercury molar ratios was for pufferfish (42.62)> diamond squid (15.09)>yellowfin tuna (10.29)>pelagic red crab (10.05)>panama lightfish (9.54)> jumbo squid (8.91). The selenium health benefit value (Se-HBV) was calculated to have an improved understanding of the health benefits and risk of fish consumption.

  16. Potential toxicity of resuspended particulate matter and sediments: Environmental samples from the Bay of Banyuls-sur-Mer and Thermaikos Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotou, E.; Gremare, A.; Charles, F.; Hatzianestis, I.; Sklivagou, E.

    2005-12-01

    This contribution attempts to determine whether, and to what degree, environmental samples of resuspended particulate matter and sediments exert a toxicological impact. Further, an attempt is made also to screen the toxic level of potentially hazardous sites, based upon established sediment toxicity criteria. Therefore, a rapid, cost-effective and highly sensitive biotest (bioluminescence assay, based upon marine bacteria) has been applied on: biological fluid extracts; bottom sediments; and sediment trap samples. Samples were taken either from the Bay of Banyuls-sur-Mer (northwestern Mediterranean, France) or Thermaikos Gulf (northeastern Mediterranean, Greece). Biological fluid extracts and sediment trap samples corresponded to periods of resuspension events, or preceding and following such events. The results have revealed that the sampling strategy and biotest implemented in this study might be a useful tool for screening the toxicity of resuspended matter and sediments. Resuspension events appear to be able to exert an influence on the chemical forms of the micro-pollutants; thus on their bioavailability and toxicity. Nevertheless, based upon chemical analysis combined with the bioassay, the toxic level of the sediment samples could be determined, with the level at potentially hazardous sites being characterised.

  17. Rapport sur l'état du patrimoine astronomique dans les observatoires français de la fin du XIXè siècle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damm, E.; Pécontal, E.

    2012-12-01

    Suite au colloque sur la sauvegarde du patrimoine astronomique organisé par le MAEE et la SAF, sous l'égide de l'UNESCO, qui a conduit à l'adoption de la Déclaration de Paris, les directeurs d'observatoires institutionnels qui étaient absents du colloque ont ressenti le besoin de discuter de ces conclusions prises en leur nom. L'initiative d'organiser une réunion des directeurs des Observatoires des Sciences de l'Univers (OSU) à ce sujet le 30 janvier 2012 a été prise par François Vernotte, directeur de l'Observatoire de Besançon. Le présent compte-rendu de visite résulte d'une initiative spontanée d'Emmanuel Pécontal, astronome responsable du Patrimoine à l'observatoire de Lyon, et d'Evelyne Damm, membre de la Commission Nationale de classement des Monuments Historiques (CNMH) et élue à la communauté d'agglomération des Portes de l'Essonne oû est sis l'observatoire de Camille Flammarion.

  18. Neurocysticercose révélée par une épilepsie réfractaire: à propos d'une observation

    PubMed Central

    Bugeme, Marcellin; Mukuku, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Nous rapportons une observation de neurocysticercose parenchymateuse chez un homme de 38 ans, consommant régulièrement la viande de porc, qui a présenté une épilepsie réfractaire. Le diagnostic de NCC était basé sur la présence de lésions kystiques montrant le scolex sur les images du scanner cérébrale, la présence de signes cliniques évocateurs de NCC (épilepsie faite des crises convulsives focales évoluant vers des crises bilatérales), la réponse clinique au traitement à l'albendazole et le fait que notre patient vit dans une zone reconnue endémique à la cysticercose. Après un traitement fait d'albendazole et de prednisolone, l’évolution est marquée par la disparition complète des crises épileptiques. PMID:26090052

  19. Satellite signatures in SLR observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, G. M.

    1993-01-01

    We examine the evidence for the detection of satellite-dependent signatures in the laser range observations obtained by the UK single-photon Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) System models of the expected observation distributions from Ajisai and Lageos are developed from the published satellite spread functions and from the characteristics of the SLR System and compared with the observations. The effects of varying return strengths are discussed using the models and by experimental observations of Ajisai, during which a range of return levels from single to multiple photons is achieved. The implications of these results for system-dependent center for mass corrections are discussed.

  20. Mauna Kea Observatory infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferies, J. T.

    1974-01-01

    Galactic and solar system infrared observations are reported using a broad variety of radiometric and spectroscopic instrumentation. Infrared programs and papers published during this period are listed.

  1. Magnetopause structure from satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnerup, B. U. O.

    1979-01-01

    Observations on magnetopause structure are reported. Major topics covered include: classical reconnection, transport mechanisms, magnetospheric boundary layers, tearing modes, and Jupiter's magnetopause.

  2. Observations of Solar Radio Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paige, Giorla

    2011-05-01

    A low frequency radio telescope has been recently been constructed on the campus of the The College of New Jersey (TCNJ) and has begun conducting observations at 20MHz as part of NASA'a Radio Jove program. This instrument is capable of observations of solar radio emission including strong prompt radio emission associated with solar burst events. We will discuss solar observations conducted with this instrument as well as an effort to conduct coincident observations with the Eight-meter-wavelength Transient Array (ETA) and the Long Wavelength Array (LWA).

  3. Observational Signatures of Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection is often referred to as the primary source of energy release during solar flares. Directly observing reconnection occurring in the solar atmosphere, however, is not trivial considering that the scale size of the diffusion region is magnitudes smaller than the observational capabilities of current instrumentation, and coronal magnetic field measurements are not currently sufficient to capture the process. Therefore, predicting and studying observationally feasible signatures of the precursors and consequences of reconnection is necessary for guiding and verifying the simulations that dominate our understanding. I will present a set of such observations, particularly in connection with long-duration solar events, and compare them with recent simulations and theoretical predictions.

  4. Water vapour tomography using GPS phase observations: Results from the ESCOMPTE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, T.; Gradinarsky, L.; Elgered, G.

    2007-10-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) tomography is a technique for estimating the 3-D structure of the atmospheric water vapour using data from a dense local network of GPS receivers. Several current methods utilize estimates of slant wet delays between the GPS satellites and the receivers on the ground, which are difficult to obtain with millimetre accuracy from the GPS observations. We present results of applying a new tomographic method to GPS data from the Expériance sur site pour contraindre les modèles de pollution atmosphérique et de transport d'emissions (ESCOMPTE) experiment in southern France. This method does not rely on any slant wet delay estimates, instead it uses the GPS phase observations directly. We show that the estimated wet refractivity profiles estimated by this method is on the same accuracy level or better compared to other tomographic methods. The results are in agreement with earlier simulations, for example the profile information is limited above 4 km.

  5. Zooplankton communities fluctuations from 1995 to 2005 in the Bay of Villefranche-sur-Mer (Northern Ligurian Sea, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandromme, P.; Stemmann, L.; Berline, L.; Gasparini, S.; Mousseau, L.; Prejger, F.; Passafiume, O.; Guarini, J.-M.; Gorsky, G.

    2010-12-01

    An integrated analysis of the pelagic ecosystems of the Ligurian Sea is performed combining time series of different zooplankton groups (small and large copepods, chaetognaths, appendicularians, pteropods, thaliaceans, decapods larvae, other crustaceans, other gelatinous and other zooplankton), chlorophyll-a and nutrients, seawater salinity, temperature and density and local weather at the Point B coastal station (Northern Ligurian Sea). From January 1995 to December 2005, a shift in most variables occurred ca. 2000. From 1995 to 2000 winters were wet and mild resulting in lower winter sea surface density. These years showed lower than average nutrients and zooplankton concentrations while phytoplankton biomass was higher. After 2000, winters were colder and dryer resulting in higher sea surface density. Nutrients and zooplankton showed higher concentrations while phytoplankton was lower than average. The ca. 2000 shift was observed for most zooplankton groups with a one year delay for certain groups. The observed patterns suggest that the pelagic ecosystem trophic state is mostly set by the winter forcing on the convection that upwells nutrients to the surface sustaining the spring bloom. However, low phytoplankton concentrations in higher nitrate and zooplankton conditions during the well mixed years suggest that phytoplankton is controlled by grazers. The proposed mechanisms of convection regimes hold for most of the time series, but specific years with contradicting patterns needed to be explained by other factors. The limitation of phytoplankton growth by the light availability in spring/summer was then proposed as a secondary driving force that can moderate or even reverse the winter forcing. Finally, the eleven years of observation did not reveal a clear link with the North Atlantic Oscillation, suggesting a more complex dynamics linking large scale climate to Ligurian Sea ecosystems or that the length of the plankton monitoring is not yet sufficient to

  6. Mise à jour sur la prévention et le dépistage selon l’âge à l’intention des médecins de soins primaires canadiens

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Tawnya; Bouchard, Manon; Mavriplis, Cleo

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Faire la synthèse des meilleures lignes directrices fondées sur des données probantes concernant la prévention et le dépistage chez les adultes canadiens selon l’âge. Qualité des données Les recommandations du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs représentent la source principale des renseignements et sont complétées par les recommandations pertinentes du Preventive Services Task Force des États-Unis lorsque celles du Groupe d’étude canadien étaient inaccessibles ou désuètes. Les guides de pratique des principales organisations nationales axées spécifiquement sur une maladie ou une spécialité ont aussi fait l’objet d’une révision pour prendre en compte les données factuelles les plus récentes. Message principal Les interventions de dépistage recommandées selon l’âge et le sexe sont présentées dans un tableau de synthèse où est mise en évidence la qualité des données à l’appui de ces recommandations. Un exemple de modèle à suivre dans les dossiers médicaux électroniques ou sur papier est aussi proposé. Conclusion Qu’il s’agisse d’une visite consacrée à la prévention ou d’une occasion saisie autrement de faire du counseling et du dépistage de prévention chez leurs patients, les médecins de soins primaires peuvent se servir de cette synthèse des recommandations fondées sur des données probantes pour maximiser leur efficience et prévenir d’importantes omissions ou des dépistages inutiles.

  7. Sur le ternaire Tl sbnd Ge sbnd Te: Etude structurale de la phase Tl 2GeTe 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toure, Abdoulaye Abba; Kra, Gabrielle; Eholie, Rose; Olivier-Fourcade, Josette; Jumas, Jean-Claude; Maurin, Maurice

    1990-02-01

    Tl 2GeTe 5 is orthorhombic, space group Cmmm, with cell dimensions a = 11.657 (5), b = 11.657 (5), c = 14.917 (5), AandZ = 8. The crystal structure was determined by means of direct methods based on three-dimensional X-ray data. Atomic parameters were refined by a least-squares method to a final R value of 0.077 (507 observed reflexions). The structure can be described in terms of layers parallel to the [001] plane and characterized by (Ge 2Te 6) 4- anions and Te 4 clusters.

  8. Information Theoretic Criteria for Observation-to-Observation Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, I.; Roscoe, C.; Wilkins, M.; Schumacher, P.

    2014-09-01

    There are three types of data association problems. The first is the observation-to-track association (OTTA) problem, where given an observation with some known measurement statistics and a set of existing candidate (uncertain) resident space object (RSO) tracks the analyst seeks to associate each observation with a unique track (or none). The second association problem is where we have multiple tracks at different time instances and wish to determine whether any of the tracks belong to the same RSO. This is the track-to-track association (TTTA) problem. The final association problem is where we are given a set observations at different time instances and wish to determine which of these observations were generated by the same RSO. This is the observation-to-observation association (OTOA) problem. The focus of our paper is the OTOA problem. In this paper, we tackle the OTOA problem by using an appropriate initial orbit determination (IOD) method as well as criteria from information theory. The two main criteria we use in this paper are mutual information and information divergence. We demonstrate how these two criteria can beused within an unscented transform framework as well as with a particle-based approach. The information theoretic solutions described in this paper can be adjusted to address the other (OTTA and TTTA) association problems, which will be the focus of future research. We will demonstrate the main result in simulation.

  9. New particle observations in SELEX

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Soon Yung; /Carnegie Mellon U.

    2004-12-01

    Particle observations in data from SELEX, the charm hadro-production experiment (E781) at Fermilab are reviewed. These include observations of the doubly charmed baryon {Xi}{sub cc}{sup +}(3520) and the charmed strange meson D{sub sJ}{sup +}(2632).

  10. Gamma-ray burst observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atteia, J.-L.

    1993-01-01

    The most important observational characteristics of gamma-ray bursts are reviewed, with emphasis on X-ray and gamma-ray data. The observations are used to derive some basic properties of the sources. The sources are found to be isotropically distributed; the burster population is limited in space, and the edge of the distribution is visible.

  11. The Differentiated Classroom Observation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassady, Jerrell C.; Neumeister, Kristie L. Speirs; Adams, Cheryll M.; Cross, Tracy L.; Dixon, Felicia A.; Pierce, Rebecca L.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a new classroom observation scale that was developed to examine the differential learning activities and experiences of gifted children educated in regular classroom settings. The Differentiated Classroom Observation Scale (DCOS) is presented in total, with clarification of the coding practices and strategies. Although the…

  12. Science Shorts: Observation versus Inference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leager, Craig R.

    2008-01-01

    When you observe something, how do you know for sure what you are seeing, feeling, smelling, or hearing? Asking students to think critically about their encounters with the natural world will help to strengthen their understanding and application of the science-process skills of observation and inference. In the following lesson, students make…

  13. The observing ego as voyeur.

    PubMed

    Josephs, Lawrence

    2003-08-01

    A resistance to self-observation and self-reflection is discussed in which there is a perversion of the observing ego. The observing ego has been unconsciously recruited in the service of enacting an unconscious fantasy: the fantasy of being an excited observer of a primal scene who is punished for making forbidden observations. This voyeuristic observing ego is pathologically enmeshed in a love triangle with the patient's seductive superego (i.e. identification with the desired but unfaithful parent) and with the patient's punitive superego (i.e. identification with the rivalrous parent). This unconscious scenario is played out in the clinical situation as the patient unreflectively cycles through phases of denial (i.e. self-seduction) and moral masochism (i.e. self-betrayal). A case study illustrates how humor may be employed to free the observing ego from being enthralled by a perverse superego. Humor may unconsciously enable a rebellious attitude toward the omnipotent sadism of a perversely oppressive superego and thus enable the observing ego to break free from its pathological enmeshment.

  14. Observing Teaching. SEDA Paper 79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sally, Ed.; And Others

    This publication offers practical support to those in British higher education implementing the Observation of Teaching governmental directives. It provides discussion of key issues as well as a range of materials on how to carry out teaching observation including 23 checklists. The materials are grouped in four main areas: general issues, self…

  15. Commutative POVMs and Fuzzy Observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, S. Twareque; Carmeli, Claudio; Heinosaari, Teiko; Toigo, Alessandro

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we review some properties of fuzzy observables, mainly as realized by commutative positive operator valued measures. In this context we discuss two representation theorems for commutative positive operator valued measures in terms of projection valued measures and describe, in some detail, the general notion of fuzzification. We also make some related observations on joint measurements.

  16. Photoelectric observations of lunar occultations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fekel, F. C.; Montemayor, T. J.; Barnes, T. G., III; Moffett, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    Photoelectric observations of 13 lunar occultation disappearances during a March 1979 Hyades passage are reported. Three double stars (SAO 93925 = Fin 342 = 70 Tau, SAO 93961 = ADS 3248, and SAO 95419 = Kui 24) and one possible double (SAO 93950 = 75 Tau) were detected. A brief description is given of the Purdue University pulse-counting photometer as modified for occultation observations.

  17. Mars Observer remote science operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Peter B.; Erickson, Kerry D.; Brooks, Robert N.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives and the background of the Mars Observer mission are briefly reviewed with emphasis on the remote science operations portion of the mission. In particular, the discussion covers observational planning and instrument sequences, data retrieval, instrument health monitoring, and science analysis. Attention is also given to workstation technology utilization, science team, project data base, common data formats, and security.

  18. Improving Instruction through Teacher Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protheroe, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    Describes classroom observation techniques focusing on what the students are learning rather than how the teacher is teaching. Highlights research on effective teaching; provides examples of programs to teach principals effective classroom observation and teacher-evaluation techniques; emphasizes link between teacher evaluation and professional…

  19. Tuberculome myocardique: localisation inhabituelle de la tuberculoseà propos d'une nouvelle observation avec une revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Lambatten, Dalal; Hammi, Sanaa; Rhofir, Yasmina; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2016-01-01

    Nous rapportons l'observation d'un patient de 50 ans présentant une masse tumorale du ventricule gauche évoluant dans un contexte d'altération de l’état général et de fièvre. Cette masse a été objectivée par l’échocardiographie réalisée pour l'exploration d'une cardiomégalie radiologique. L'aspect en imagerie par résonance magnétique était évocateur d'un tuberculome intra myocardique. A travers notre observation, nous proposons une revue de la littérature sur cette localisation inhabituelle de la tuberculose. PMID:27583096

  20. A novel extended state observer.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shaofeng; Wang, Weihong; Liu, Xiaodong; Chen, Zengqiang; Wang, Sen

    2015-09-01

    A novel extended state observer, which feeds back the output estimation error via both nonlinear and switching terms, is put forward for the first time in this paper. No longer neglecting the lumped uncertainty׳s first time derivative, the problem of disturbance observer design is transformed into the problem of state observer design in the presence of external disturbance. The switching term of the output estimation error is employed to counteract the adverse effect of external disturbance. The newly developed extended state observer provides an attractive solution to the issue of high precision motion control system. Both numerical simulation and experimentation on a speed turntable with temperature box are implemented to verify the performance of the proposed newly developed extended state observer.