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Sample records for prize tie oxidative

  1. Oxidation of graphene 'bow tie' nanofuses for permanent, write-once-read-many data storage devices.

    PubMed

    Pearson, A C; Jamieson, S; Linford, M R; Lunt, B M; Davis, R C

    2013-04-05

    We have fabricated nanoscale fuses from CVD graphene sheets with a 'bow tie' geometry for write-once-read-many data storage applications. The fuses are programmed using thermal oxidation driven by Joule heating. Fuses that were 250 nm wide with 2.5 μm between contact pads were programmed with average voltages and powers of 4.9 V and 2.1 mW, respectively. The required voltages and powers decrease with decreasing fuse sizes. Graphene shows extreme chemical and electronic stability; fuses require temperatures of about 400 °C for oxidation, indicating that they are excellent candidates for permanent data storage. To further demonstrate this stability, fuses were subjected to applied biases in excess of typical read voltages; stable currents were observed when a voltage of 10 V was applied to the devices in the off state and 1 V in the on state for 90 h each.

  2. Physiology and Mechanism of Phototrophic Fe(II) Oxidation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Y.; Newman, D.

    2007-12-01

    Phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria use electrons from ferrous iron [Fe(II)] and energy from light to drive reductive CO2 fixation. This metabolism is thought to be ancient in origin, and plays an important role in environmental iron cycling. It has been implicated in the deposition of Banded Iron Formations, a class of ancient sedimentary iron deposits. Consistent with this hypothesis, we discovered that hydrogen gas, a thermodynamically favorable electron donor to Fe(II), in an Archean atmosphere would not have inhibited phototrophic Fe(II) oxidation. To understand this physiology and the connection to BIF formation at the molecular level, the mechanisms of phototrophic Fe(II) oxidation were examined in a model organism Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1. Increased expression of a putative decaheme c-type cytochrome, encoded by pioA, was observed when cells were grown under Fe(II)-oxidizing conditions. Two genes located immediately downstream of pioA in the same operon, pioB and pioC, encode a putative outer membrane beta-barrel protein and a putative high potential iron-sulfur protein, respectively. Deletion studies demonstrated that all three genes are involved in phototrophic Fe(II) oxidation. This study provides our first insight into the molecular mechanisms of this metabolism, which will be further characterized by in vitro biochemical studies.

  3. Challenges & Prizes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Prize competitions are open innovation tools championed by the America COMPETES ACT that EPA and other federal agencies use to attract fresh thinkers and creative problem solvers from across the country and the world.

  4. Prize Recipients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-09-01

    The John Bardeen Prize is awarded for theoretical work that has provided significant insights on the nature of superconductivity and has led to verifiable predictions. It is sponsored by the Dresdner Bank.

  5. Tongue tie

    MedlinePlus

    ... this band is overly short and thick. The exact cause of tongue tie is not known. Your ... must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  6. Metabolic flexibility of the Fe(II)-oxidizing phototropic strain Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE1 and its potential role in microbial iron cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, C.; Oswald, K.; Melton, E. D.; Kappler, A.

    2012-04-01

    The biogeochemical conversion of iron(II) and iron(III) is widespread in many aquatic and terrestrial environments. In the anoxic regime of soils and sediments the conversion and alternation of the iron redox state is predominantly run by microorganisms that are thought to gain life-sustaining energy by the oxidation and/or reduction of ferrous/ferric components. The spatial arrangement of microbial iron(II) oxidation and iron(III) reduction is largely controlled by the availability of the required electron acceptor and electron donor, as well as the essential source of energy (i.e. light or chemical energy). The physico-chemical patterns of many microbial environments undergo dynamic variations (i.e. diurnal and seasonal changes) as a function of natural external forces (i.e. seasonality, storm events, algae blooms) which strongly affects the local budget of organic carbon and nutrients, as well as the day light penetration. Such fluctuations force microorganisms either to follow the flow of substrate or to switch their metabolism to alternative electron acceptors and/or donors. Different photoferrotrophic bacteria have been shown to be able to grow either on organic (heterotrophic) or inorganic (autotrophic) substrates while exploiting light as their energy source. Within the frame of this study the preference for organic substrates (lactate and acetate) and/or ferrous iron (in simultaneous presence) for photo(ferro)trophic growth of Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE1 has been investigated in detail. Rates of iron oxidation, acetate/lactate consumption and growth have been followed over time as a function of different lactate to acetate to iron(II) ratios. Additional experiments have been designed to evaluate the potential of Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE1 to contribute to the redox cycling of iron. TIE1 has been grown in a batch set-up in which the iron(III)-reducing strain Shewanella oneidensis MR1 has been incubated at different ferrihydrite concentrations in

  7. Effect of dietary crude protein modification on ammonia and nitrous oxide concentration on a tie-stall dairy barn floor.

    PubMed

    Arriaga, H; Salcedo, G; Martínez-Suller, L; Calsamiglia, S; Merino, P

    2010-07-01

    Dietary crude protein (CP) reduction is considered a useful strategy to minimize cow N excretion and NH(3) and N(2)O emissions. The aim of the current work was to relate dietary CP modification to whole-animal N balance and subsequent NH(3) and N(2)O concentrations on a tie-stall barn floor. The effect of temperature on NH(3) and N(2)O concentration was also studied. Three Holstein mid to late lactating cows were confined in separate tie-stalls and randomly assigned to 3 diets with varying CP content [low CP (LCP): 14.1%; moderate CP (MCP): 15.9%; high CP (HCP): 16.9%]. Increasing N intake (from 438.6 to 522.8 g of N/d) improved milk yield (from 22.1 to 24.2 kg/d). However, N use efficiency tended to decrease with increasing dietary CP, as shown by milk N use efficiency (from 23.9 to 22.6%), milk urea N (from 15.4 to 18.7 mg/dL), and excreted N per milk yield unit (from 14.7 to 16.4 g of N/kg of milk). Because of higher N excretion, NH(3) concentration on the dairy barn floor increased (LCP: 7.1mg of NH(3)/m(3); MCP: 10.4 mg of NH(3)/m(3); HCP: 10.8 mg of NH(3)/m(3)). In contrast, N(2)O concentration did not respond to dietary manipulation (mean 1.1mg of N(2)O/m(3)). Temperature, which ranged between 12.6 and 18.0 degrees C, did not affect NH(3) and N(2)O concentrations at the stall level. However, when fecal and urinary samples were incubated at 4, 19, and 29 degrees C in the laboratory, ammonia concentration increased for all diets, especially for the MCP and HCP diets, as the temperature increased. In contrast, N2O concentration was negatively related to increasing temperature. In conclusion, data from the current trial demonstrate that lowering dietary CP minimizes NH(3) concentration on dairy stall floors although temperature controls the rate of NH(3) volatilization. On the other hand, N(2)O concentration is not affected by dietary treatments on tie-stall floors.

  8. EPA Challenges & Prizes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is a government leader in tapping the power of contributions from the public to help solve difficult problems that affect the environment and public health. Prize competitions allow federal agencies to pay only for successful solutions.

  9. Citations Prize 2010 Citations Prize 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2010-12-01

    Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winning co-authors each receive a certificate. Photograph of the 2010 Citations Prize winners The winning authors Fernando Rannou (left), George Alexandrakis (holding the Rotblat Medal) and Arion Chatziioannou (right). The winner of the 2010 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2005-2009) is Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study Authors: George Alexandrakis, Fernando R Rannou and Arion F Chatziioannou Reference: George Alexandrakis et al 2005 Phys. Med. Biol. 50 4225-41 Discussion of the significance of the winning paper can be found on medicalphysicsweb (medicalphysicsweb.org/cws/article/research/44334). Our congratulations go to the winning authors. Steve Webb Editor-in-Chief Simon Harris Publisher

  10. Citations Prize 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Simon; Ruffle, Jon

    2014-06-01

    Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat, a Nobel Prize winner who also was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winner of the 2013 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous five years (2008-2012) is Figure. Figure. Four of the prize winning authors. From left to right: Thomas Istel (Philips), Jens-Peter Schlomka (with medal, MorphoDetection), Ewald Roessl (Philips), and Gerhard Martens (Philips). Title: Experimental feasibility of multi-energy photon-counting K-edge imaging in pre-clinical computed tomography Authors: Jens Peter Schlomka1, Ewald Roessl1, Ralf Dorscheid2, Stefan Dill2, Gerhard Martens1, Thomas Istel1, Christian Bäumer3, Christoph Herrmann3, Roger Steadman3, Günter Zeitler3, Amir Livne4 and Roland Proksa1 Institutions: 1 Philips Research Europe, Sector Medical Imaging Systems, Hamburg, Germany 2 Philips Research Europe, Engineering & Technology, Aachen, Germany 3 Philips Research Europe, Sector Medical Imaging Systems, Aachen, Germany 4 Philips Healthcare, Global Research and Advanced Development, Haifa, Israel Reference: Schlomka et al 2008 Phys. Med. Biol. 53 4031-47 This paper becomes the first to win both this citations prize and also the PMB best paper prize (The Roberts Prize), which it won for the year 2008. Discussion of the significance of the winning paper can be found in this medicalphysicsweb article from the time of the Roberts Prize win (http://medicalphysicsweb.org/cws/article/research/39907). The author's enthusiasm for their prototype spectral CT system has certainly been reflected in the large number of citations the paper subsequently has

  11. Citations Prize 2011 Citations Prize 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2011-12-01

    Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winning co-authors each receive a certificate. Susan Hagness (left) receiving the Rotblat Medal from Robert Jeraj of PMB's Editorial Board (right) on behalf of Mariya Lazebnik. The winner of the 2011 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2006-2010) is A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal, benign and malignant breast tissues obtained from cancer surgeries Authors: Mariya Lazebnik, Dijana Popovic, Leah McCartney, Cynthia B Watkins, Mary J Lindstrom, Josephine Harter, Sarah Sewall, Travis Ogilvie, Anthony Magliocco, Tara M Breslin, Walley Temple, Daphne Mew, John H Booske, Michal Okoniewski and Susan C Hagness Reference: Mariya Lazebnik et al 2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 6093-115 Discussion of the significance of the winning paper can be found on medicalphysicsweb (medicalphysicsweb.org/cws/article/research/47814). Our congratulations go to the winning authors. Steve Webb Editor-in-Chief Simon Harris Publisher

  12. Citations Prize 2012 Citations Prize 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-01-01

    Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The authors of the winning paper. The authors of the winning paper. The winner of the 2012 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2007-2011) is Image reconstruction in circular cone-beam computed tomography by constrained, total-variation minimization Authors: Emil Y Sidky and Xiaochuan Pan Reference: Emil Y Sidky and Xiaochuan Pan 2008 Phys. Med. Biol. 53 4777-807 Discussion of the significance of the winning paper can be found on medicalphysicsweb (medicalphysicsweb.org/cws/article/research/51868). Our congratulations go to the winning authors. Simon Cherry Editor-in-Chief Jon Ruffle Publisher

  13. The 2010 Broad Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A new data analysis, based on data collected as part of The Broad Prize process, provides insights into which large urban school districts in the United States are doing the best job of educating traditionally disadvantaged groups: African-American, Hispanics, and low-income students. Since 2002, The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation has awarded The…

  14. Citations Prize 2009 Citations Prize 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2009-12-01

    Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winning co-authors each receive a certificate. Photograph of the 2009 Citations Prize winners Some of the winning authors with their certificates, and Christian Morel with the Rotblat Medal, at the award ceremony in Orsay, near Paris. From left to right are Corinne Groiselle, Lydia Maigne, David Brasse, Irène Buvat, Dimitris Visvikis, Giovanni Santin, Uwe Pietrzyk, Pierre-François Honore, Christian Morel, Sébastien Jan and Arion Chatziioannou. The winner of the 2009 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2004-2008) is GATE: a simulation toolkit for PET and SPECT Authors: S Jan, G Santin, D Strul, S Staelens, K Assié, D Autret, S Avner, R Barbier, M Bardiès, P M Bloomfield, D Brasse, V Breton, P Bruyndonckx, I Buvat, A F Chatziioannou, Y Choi, Y H Chung, C Comtat, D Donnarieix, L Ferrer, S J Glick, C J Groiselle, D Guez, P-F Honore, S Kerhoas-Cavata, A S Kirov, V Kohli, M Koole, M Krieguer, D J van der Laan, F Lamare, G Largeron, C Lartizien, D Lazaro, M C Maas, L Maigne, F Mayet, F Melot, C Merheb, E Pennacchio, J Perez, U Pietrzyk, F R Rannou, M Rey, D R Schaart, C R Schmidtlein, L~Simon, T Y Song, J-M Vieira, D Visvikis, R Van de Walle, E Wieörs and C Morel Reference: S Jan et al 2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 4543-61 Since its publication in 2004 this article has received over 200 citations. This extremely high figure is a testament to the great influence and usefulness of the work to the nuclear medicine community. More discussion of the winning paper can be found on

  15. Tongue-Tie (Ankyloglossia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in some individuals. When Is Tongue-tie a Problem That Needs Treatment? In Infants Feeding – A new baby with a too tight frenulum can have trouble sucking and may have poor weight gain. Such feeding ...

  16. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Educational - Medicine Prize Related The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to people and ... this page MLA style: "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine – Educational". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media ...

  17. Nobel prizes: contributions to cardiology.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg

    2015-08-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize's history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male.

  18. Nobel Prizes: Contributions to Cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize’s history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male. PMID:25945466

  19. Tree-Ties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresczyk, Rick

    Created to help students understand how plants were used for food, for medicine, and for arts and crafts among the Ojibwe (Chippewa) Indians, the game Tree-Ties combines earth and social sciences within a specific culture. The game requires mutual respect, understanding, and agreement to succeed. Sounding like the word "treaties", the…

  20. In Brief: Trieste Prize nominations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-12-01

    Nominations for the 2008 Trieste Science Prize in Earth, space, ocean, and atmospheric sciences and in engineering sciences are being accepted through 31 January 2008. The prize has been established to give international recognition and visibility to outstanding scientific achievements made by scientists from developing countries. Candidates must be nationals of developing countries, and the prizes will only be awarded to individuals for scientific research of outstanding international merit carried out at institutions in developing countries. The prizes, each of which carries a US$50,000 monetary award, are administered by the Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS) and funded by Illycaffè in collaboration with the Trieste (Italy) Town Council and the Trieste International Foundation for Scientific Progress and Freedom. For more information, contact the TWAS Secretariat at prizes@twas.org.

  1. The Tie retraction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Geerling, Gerd; Neppert, Birte; Hemmant, Bridget

    2012-12-01

    Tissue retraction is implicated in the pathogenesis of various ophthalmic disorders. Here we describe the clinical characteristics, epidemiology and pathophysiology of a form of retraction syndrome which - to the best of our knowledge - has not been reported in the ophthalmic literature so far. We have termed this condition - consisting of a slowly progressive pseudovertical shortening of tie length due to a horizontal extension of girth length - the "Tie retraction syndrome" (TRS). Other pathognomonic features include an increased tie tip to belt buckle distance and a prolapse of the subumbilical fat pad (SUFP). The syndrome has a clear male to female preponderance and shows an increasing incidence with age and income before tax. Based on a newly proposed grading scheme we discuss and illustrate the diagnosis as well as the medical and surgical management options of this abundant, but often undiagnosed condition. The authors have no explanation for the apparent lack of awareness for this widely preponderant syndrome and its severe cosmetically disfiguring potential. We thus would like to invite all fellow colleagues with expertise in the field to comment or present their views.

  2. Heroes in endocrinology: Nobel Prizes.

    PubMed

    de Herder, Wouter W

    2014-09-01

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was first awarded in 1901. Since then, the Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine, Chemistry and Physics have been awarded to at least 33 distinguished researchers who were directly or indirectly involved in research into the field of endocrinology. This paper reflects on the life histories, careers and achievements of 11 of them: Frederick G Banting, Roger Guillemin, Philip S Hench, Bernardo A Houssay, Edward C Kendall, E Theodor Kocher, John J R Macleod, Tadeus Reichstein, Andrew V Schally, Earl W Sutherland, Jr and Rosalyn Yalow. All were eminent scientists, distinguished lecturers and winners of many prizes and awards.

  3. Optics pioneers scoop Nobel prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Three physicists who carried out pioneering work in former industrial research labs have picked up this year's Nobel Prize for Physics. One half of the SEK 10m prize has been awarded to Charles Kao, 75, for his work at the UK-based Standard Telephones and Cables (STC) on the transmission of light in optical fibres, which underpinned the telecommunications revolution. The other half of the prize is shared between Willard Boyle, 85, and George Smith, 79, of Bell Laboratories in New Jersey, US, for inventing the charge-coupled device (CCD) - an imaging semiconductor circuit that forms the basis of most digital cameras.

  4. Heroes in endocrinology: Nobel Prizes

    PubMed Central

    de Herder, Wouter W

    2014-01-01

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was first awarded in 1901. Since then, the Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine, Chemistry and Physics have been awarded to at least 33 distinguished researchers who were directly or indirectly involved in research into the field of endocrinology. This paper reflects on the life histories, careers and achievements of 11 of them: Frederick G Banting, Roger Guillemin, Philip S Hench, Bernardo A Houssay, Edward C Kendall, E Theodor Kocher, John J R Macleod, Tadeus Reichstein, Andrew V Schally, Earl W Sutherland, Jr and Rosalyn Yalow. All were eminent scientists, distinguished lecturers and winners of many prizes and awards. PMID:25055817

  5. Europlanet Prize for Public Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouchet, Thierry

    2016-10-01

    The Europlanet Prize for Public Engagement with Planetary Science is awarded annually. Through the Prize, Europlanet aims to recognise achievements in engaging European citizens with planetary science and to raise the profile of outreach within the scientific community. It is awarded to individuals or groups who have developed innovative practices in planetary science communication and whose efforts have significantly contributed to a wider public engagement with planetary science.

  6. Haagen-Smit Prize 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-01-01

    The Executive Editors and the Publisher of Atmospheric Environment take great pleasure in announcing the 2015 ''Haagen-Smit Prize", designed to recognize outstanding papers published in Atmospheric Environment. The Prize is named in honor of Prof. Arie Jan Haagen-Smit, a pioneer in the field of air pollution and one of the first editors of the International Journal of Air Pollution, a predecessor to Atmospheric Environment.

  7. Haagen-Smit Prize 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-02-01

    The Executive Editors and the Publisher of Atmospheric Environment take great pleasure in announcing the 2014 ''Haagen-Smit Prize", designed to recognize outstanding papers published in Atmospheric Environment. The Prize is named in honor of Prof. Arie Jan Haagen-Smit, a pioneer in the field of air pollution and one of the first editors of the International Journal of Air Pollution, a predecessor to Atmospheric Environment.

  8. Haagen-Smit Prize 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Hanwant

    2017-03-01

    The Executive Editors and the Publisher of Atmospheric Environment take great pleasure in announcing the 2016 "Haagen-Smit Prize", designed to recognize outstanding papers published in Atmospheric Environment. The Prize is named in honor of Prof. Arie Jan Haagen-Smit, a pioneer in the field of air pollution and one of the first editors of the International Journal of Air Pollution, a predecessor to Atmospheric Environment.

  9. Nobel Prize Winners in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, P.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    One of the greatest honours which can be bestowed upon any human being is the Nobel Prize. It is named after Alfred Nobel, a Swedish physicist who was particularly noted for his work on explosives. Nobel was born in 1833, and had a long and successful career, so that, when he died, on 10 December 1896, he left a large sum of money. This was to be put into a trust to establish an annual prize to t...

  10. Drum tie-down apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Morse, H.E.

    A drum tie-down apparatus for securing drum-like containers in an upright position to a floor or platform of a transportation vehicle having spaced apart cargo tie-down points. The apparatus comprises a pair of cylindrical, hollow tube segments horizontally oriented and engageable with a drum lid adjacent opposite rim edges, flexible strap segments for connecting upper and lower central portions of the tube segments together across the drum lid and a pair of elongated flexible tie-down segments, one extending horizontally through each of the tube segments, the ends thereof being attached to said spaced apart tie-down points such that end portions of the pair of tie-down segments extend downwardly and radially outwardly from the tube segments to the tie-down points.

  11. Drum tie-down apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Harvey E.

    1984-01-01

    A drum tie-down apparatus for securing drum-like containers in an upright position to a floor or platform of a transportation vehicle having spaced apart cargo tie-down points. The apparatus comprises a pair of cylindrical, hollow tube segments horizontally oriented and engageable with a drum lid adjacent opposite rim edges, flexible strap segments for connecting upper and lower central portions of the tube segments together across the drum lid and a pair of elongated flexible tie-down segments, one extending horizontally through each of the tube segments, the ends thereof being attached to said spaced apart tie-down points such that end portions of the pair of tie-down segments extend downwardly and radially outwardly from the tube segments to the tie-down points.

  12. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    PubMed Central

    Sliwinski, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats), but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm2 leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently abandon their leaf

  13. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    PubMed

    Sliwinski, Michelle; Sigmon, Elisha

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats), but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm(2) leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently abandon their leaf

  14. 1993 Gordon Bell Prize Winners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karp, Alan H.; Simon, Horst; Heller, Don; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Gordon Bell Prize recognizes significant achievements in the application of supercomputers to scientific and engineering problems. In 1993, finalists were named for work in three categories: (1) Performance, which recognizes those who solved a real problem in the quickest elapsed time. (2) Price/performance, which encourages the development of cost-effective supercomputing. (3) Compiler-generated speedup, which measures how well compiler writers are facilitating the programming of parallel processors. The winners were announced November 17 at the Supercomputing 93 conference in Portland, Oregon. Gordon Bell, an independent consultant in Los Altos, California, is sponsoring $2,000 in prizes each year for 10 years to promote practical parallel processing research. This is the sixth year of the prize, which Computer administers. Something unprecedented in Gordon Bell Prize competition occurred this year: A computer manufacturer was singled out for recognition. Nine entries reporting results obtained on the Cray C90 were received, seven of the submissions orchestrated by Cray Research. Although none of these entries showed sufficiently high performance to win outright, the judges were impressed by the breadth of applications that ran well on this machine, all nine running at more than a third of the peak performance of the machine.

  15. Landau's Nobel Prize in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, M.; Balatsky, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Work of Lev Landau had a profound impact on the physics in 20th century. Landau had created the paradigms that had framed the conversations on the outstanding problems in physics for decades. He had laid foundations for our understanding of quantum matter like superfluidity, superconductivity and the theory of Fermi liquid. Here we present some Nobel Archive data on the winning nomination that led to the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1962.

  16. Special issue: Culham Thesis Prize winners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    The Culham Thesis Prize is awarded annually to the nominee who has displayed an excellence in the execution of the scientific method as witnessed by the award of Doctor of Philosophy in Plasma Science from a UK or Irish university. The thesis content should exhibit significant new work and originality, clearly driven by the nominee, be well explained and demonstrate a good understanding of the subject. The prize is awarded at the Institute of Physics Plasma Physics Group Spring Conference and the prize winner gives an invited talk about their thesis work. The prize is sponsored by Culham Centre for Fusion Energy.

  17. Rethinking "posterior" tongue-tie.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela Sylvia

    2013-12-01

    Currently, many clinicians who help with breastfeeding problems are diagnosing "posterior" tongue-tie in infants and performing or referring for frenotomy. In this "Speaking Out" article, I argue that the diagnosis of "posterior" tongue-tie has successfully raised awareness of the importance of impaired tongue function in breastfeeding difficulty. However, the diagnosis of "posterior" tongue-tie also applies a reductionist, medicalized theoretical frame to the complex problem of impaired tongue function, risking unintended outcomes. Impaired tongue function arises out of multiple interacting and co-evolving factors, including the interplay between social behaviors concerning breastfeeding and mother-infant biology. Consideration of theoretical frames is vital if we are to build an evidence base through efficient use of the scarce resources available for clinical breastfeeding research and minimize unintended outcomes.

  18. Broad Prize: Do the Successes Spread?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    When the Broad Prize for Urban Education was created in 2002, billionaire philanthropist Eli Broad said he hoped the awards, in addition to rewarding high-performing school districts, would foster healthy competition; boost the prestige of urban education, long viewed as dysfunctional; and showcase best practices. Over the 10 years the prize has…

  19. Innovation Inducement Prizes: Connecting Research to Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besharov, Douglas J.; Williams, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Innovation inducement prizes have been used for centuries. In the United States, a recent federal policy change--the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010--clarified and simplified a path by which all federal agencies can offer innovation inducement prizes, thus intensifying interest in how government agencies can most effectively design…

  20. The Spontaneous Combustion of Railway Ties and Asphalt Shingles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, Geoffrey

    produced sulfur dioxide and many oxygenated species, which indicated that the asphalt was extensively oxidized. Calorimetry showed that self-heating was primarily oxidative -- the oxygen content of asphalt probably reduced its self-heating capacity. The railway tie wood was not extensively oxidized and it self-heated in a similar manner to "fresh" wood.

  1. 2014 WSEAT X-Prize

    SciTech Connect

    Bosiljevac, Thomas; Kramer, Sharlotte; Laing, John

    2014-10-01

    The 2014 WSEAT X-Prize is modeled as a double blind study to challenge the computational and material mechanics communities methodologies to develop better capabilities in modeling and experimentation to predict the failure in ductile metals. The challenge is presented as a distinct, yet relatively, simple geometry with all reported modeling predictions blind to each of the modeling teams. The experimental testing is validated by two independent test labs to confirm the experimentally observed behavior and results are unbiased and repeatable. The WSEAT X-Prize was issued to both external participants and internal participants as the Sandia Fracture Challenge 2 (SFC2) on May 30, 2014. A Challenge Supplemental Information Packet was sent to participants on August 13, 2014 to Prior years SFCs focused on the ability to predict failures under a quasi-static loading condition that focused on either a shear or tensile-dominated failure mode. This year’s challenge focuses on a geometry with a shear and/or tensile-dominated failure mode influenced by a moderate strain-rate ductile fracture in a metallic alloy.

  2. Do tongue ties affect breastfeeding?

    PubMed

    Griffiths, D Mervyn

    2004-11-01

    This study assessed indications for and safety and outcome of simple division of tongue tie without an anesthetic. There were 215 infants younger than 3 months (mean 0-19 days) who had major problems breastfeeding, despite professional support. Symptoms, tongue tie details, safety of division, and complications were recorded. Feeding was assessed by the mothers immediately, at 24 hours, and 3 months after division. Prior to division, 88% had difficulty latching, 77% of mothers experienced nipple trauma, and 72% had a continuous feeding cycle. During division, 18% slept throughout; 60% cried more after division (mean 0-15 seconds). There were no significant complications. Within 24 hours, 80% were feeding better. Overall, 64% breastfed for at least 3 months (UK national average is 30%). Initial assessment, diagnosis, and help, followed by division and subsequent support by a qualified lactation consultant, might ensure that even more mothers and infants benefit from breastfeeding.

  3. Familial ankyloglossia (tongue-tie).

    PubMed

    Klockars, Tuomas

    2007-08-01

    Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) is a congenital anomaly with a prevalence of 4-5% and characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenulum. For unknown reasons the abnormality seems to be more common in males. The pathogenesis of ankyloglossia is not known. The author reports a family with isolated ankyloglossia inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. The identification of the defective gene(s) causing ankyloglossia might reveal novel information on the craniofacial embryogenesis and its disorders.

  4. 7 CFR 7.12 - Tie votes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tie votes. 7.12 Section 7.12 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SELECTION AND FUNCTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION AND CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.12 Tie votes. (a) Tie votes in community committee elections held...

  5. Sheeley Receives 2009 Hale Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2009-05-01

    Neil Sheeley Jr., of the Space Science Division of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), has been awarded the 2009 George Ellery Hale Prize by the Solar Physics Division of the American Astronomical Society (AAS). The international award recognizes work in solar astronomy done over an extended period of time. Sheeley will receive the award in June at the AAS meeting in Pasadena, Calif. Sheeley is cited "for his continuing outstanding contributions to our understanding of the solar magnetic field, coronal holes, and coronal mass ejections. His wide-ranging observational and theoretical work has laid the foundation for much current research in solar and heliospheric physics, and continues to have important applications in space weather prediction."

  6. Science Underlying 2008 Nobel Prizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Bernadette A.

    2009-01-01

    JCE offers a wealth of materials for teaching and learning chemistry that you can explore online. In the list below, Bernadette Caldwell of the Editorial Staff suggests additional resources that are available through JCE for teaching the science behind some of the 2008 Nobel Prizes . Discovering and Applying the Chemistry of GFP The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP to three scientists: Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie, and Roger Y. Tsien. These scientists led the field in discovering and introducing a fluorescing protein from jellyfish into cells and genes under study, which allows researchers to witness biochemistry in action. Now tags are available that emit light in different colors, revealing myriad biological processes and their interactions simultaneously. Identifying HPV and HIV, HIV's Replication Cycle, and HIV Virus-Host Interactions The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to two scientists: Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier; and for his discovery of human papilloma viruses [HPV] causing cervical cancer to one scientist, Harald zur Hausen. Diseases caused by these infectious agents significantly affect global health. While isolating and studying the virus, researchers discovered HIV is an uncommon retrovirus that infects humans and relies on the host to make its viral DNA, infecting and killing the host's white blood cells, ultimately destroying the immune systems of infected humans. Related Resources at JCE Online The Journal has published articles relating to GFP specifically, and more generally to fluorescing compounds applied to biochemistry. The Journal has also published an article and a video on protease inhibition—a strategy to suppress HIV's biological processes. With the video clips, an accompanying guide

  7. Stellar students win fantastic prizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-05-01

    School students and teachers across Europe and around the world are discovering today who has won fantastic prizes in "Catch a Star", the international astronomical competition run by ESO and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). CAS2008 artwork ESO PR Photo 14/08 One of the winning artworks "We were extremely impressed by the high quality of the entries, and the number of participants was even higher than last year. We wish to congratulate everybody who took part," said Douglas Pierce-Price, Education Officer at ESO. "'Catch a Star' clearly shows astronomy's power to inspire and excite students of all ages," added Fernand Wagner, President of the EAAE. The top prize, of a week-long trip to Chile to visit the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) on Paranal, was won by students Roeland Heerema, Liesbeth Schenkels, and Gerben Van Ranst from the Instituut Spijker in Hoogstraten, Belgium, together with their teacher Ann Verstralen. With their "story of aged binary stars... Live and Let Die", they take us on a vivid tour of the amazing zoo of binary stars, and the life and death of stars like our Sun. The students show how state-of-the-art telescopes, particularly those at ESO's sites of La Silla and Paranal, help us understand these stars. They take as an illustrative example the binary star system V390 Velorum. In the last phases of its life, V390 Velorum will shed its outer shell of gas and dust, turning from a celestial chrysalis into a beautiful cosmic butterfly. The students also involved other pupils from their school, showing them how to test their eyesight by observing the binary star system of Alcor and Mizar. But perhaps the most important discovery they made is that, as they write in their report, "Astronomy lives! Discoveries are being made each day and there is still very much to be found and learned by astronomers!" The team will travel to Chile and visit the ESO VLT - the world's most advanced optical/infrared telescope. At Paranal, they

  8. Fishman Receives the Shaw Prize for Astronomy

    NASA Video Gallery

    In the video, Dr. Jerry Fishman discusses his career as a scientist, his lifelong interest in science and his recognition as the 2011 Shaw Prize Recipient for Astronomy. Fishman is being recognized...

  9. Nobel Prize 2014: Akasaki, Amano & Nakamura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, Joerg

    2014-11-01

    The 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded to Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura "for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources."

  10. Templeton Prize again goes to physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeandron, Michelle

    2008-04-01

    The Polish mathematical physicist and former priest Michael Heller has been awarded this year's Templeton Prize. Heller, whose more than 40-year-long career has encompassed research in theology, philosophy, mathematics and cosmology, intends to use the £820 000 prize to found an interuniversity institute in Poland to investigate questions in science, theology and philosophy. Dubbed the "Copernicus Centre", the institute will be affiliated to the Jagiellonian University and the Pontifical Academy of Theology in Cracow.

  11. Nuclear Fusion prize laudation Nuclear Fusion prize laudation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkart, W.

    2011-01-01

    Clean energy in abundance will be of critical importance to the pursuit of world peace and development. As part of the IAEA's activities to facilitate the dissemination of fusion related science and technology, the journal Nuclear Fusion is intended to contribute to the realization of such energy from fusion. In 2010, we celebrated the 50th anniversary of the IAEA journal. The excellence of research published in the journal is attested to by its high citation index. The IAEA recognizes excellence by means of an annual prize awarded to the authors of papers judged to have made the greatest impact. On the occasion of the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon, Republic of Korea at the welcome dinner hosted by the city of Daejeon, we celebrated the achievements of the 2009 and 2010 Nuclear Fusion prize winners. Steve Sabbagh, from the Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York is the winner of the 2009 award for his paper: 'Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas' [1]. This is a landmark paper which reports record parameters of beta in a large spherical torus plasma and presents a thorough investigation of the physics of resistive wall mode (RWM) instability. The paper makes a significant contribution to the critical topic of RWM stabilization. John Rice, from the Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge is the winner of the 2010 award for his paper: 'Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks' [2]. The 2010 award is for a seminal paper that analyzes results across a range of machines in order to develop a universal scaling that can be used to predict intrinsic rotation. This paper has already triggered a wealth of experimental and theoretical work. I congratulate both authors and their colleagues on these exceptional papers. W. Burkart Deputy Director General Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

  12. Changing Views on Intergenerational Ties

    PubMed Central

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Sechrist, Jori; Birditt, Kira

    2015-01-01

    Ties to parents or grown children may be the most important social relationships in an adult’s life. Research examining intergenerational relationships has focused on three broader topics: (a) the strength of emotional bonds, (b) exchanges of social support, and (c) the effects of the relationship on individual well-being. This review considers some of the major theoretical developments in the field including solidarity and intergenerational ambivalence theory as well as the newly developed multidimensional model of support. We also consider weaknesses in the research and theories to date and provide suggestions for future research. PMID:23037718

  13. Perspectives on tongue-tie.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Rosemary; Neiger, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    In light of the recent NCT petition to Health Minister Dr Dan Poulter MP to update guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of tongue-tied babies to avoid stress and difficulties feeding for babies and their families, discussion has been sparked amongst mothers, midwives, health visitors and breastfeeding counsellors as to how exactly services could be improved. Access to evidence-based, family-centred care is vital to address this potentially distressing condition. But are we too quick to jump in with a diagnosis that may ultimately be of no clinical significance? This articles presents two professional perspectives on the issue and highlights the pertinent research available.

  14. SEDIMENT TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATION (TIE) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sediment contamination in the United States has been amply documented and, in order to comply with the 1972 Clean Water Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency must address the issue of toxic sediments. Contaminated sediments from a number of freshwater and marine sites have demonstrated acute and/or chronic toxicity to a variety of test species, as well as adverse ecological effects such as population declines and changes in community structure. However, simply knowing that a sediment is toxic has limited use. This document provides guidance on the performance of sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE). TIE methods allow for the identification of toxic chemicals or chemical classes causing observed toxicity. The identification of pollutants responsible for toxicity of contaminated sediments has broad application in a number of EPA programs as the methods can be used within the total maximum daily load (TMDL) framework, to link sediment toxicity to specific dischargers, to design cost-effective remediation programs, and to identify environmentally protective options for dredged material disposal. In addition, the identification of specific problem contaminants in sediments could prove to be very useful to EPA programs involved in the development of water or sediment quality guidelines, and the registration of new products such as pesticides. Finally, knowledge of the causes of toxicity that influence ecological changes such as community struc

  15. The 6th FDR prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funakoshi, Mitsuaki

    2013-06-01

    From the 58 papers published in 2012 in Fluid Dynamics Research, the following paper has been selected for the sixth FDR prize: The finite-difference lattice Boltzmann method and its application in computational aero-acoustics by Michihisa Tsutahara (Professor Emeritus, Kobe University, Japan), published in volume 44 (August 2012) 045507. This is a review paper of the author's recent work on the finite-difference lattice Boltzmann method (FDLBM). In this paper, the author introduces a modified FDLBM and its application to aero-acoustics. To solve the discrete Bhatnager, Gross and Krook equation for simulating fluid flow, the FDLBM applies a stable finite-difference scheme on a curvilinear coordinate system, whereas the ordinary lattice Boltzmann method uses regular lattices. It is known that for the lattice Boltzmann methods, there is difficulty in simulating high Mach number compressible flows in principle. To alleviate this, the author proposed the modified FDLBM, expanding the flexibility of setting time increments. With this FDLBM, the author has shown that it is possible to simulate compressible flows efficiently around complex bluff bodies and with complex aero-acoustic behaviour. The author summarizes all those works, including studies only available in Japanese up to now, in this review paper. After discussing the details of the FDLBM proposed by the author, example results of simulating the Aeolian tone generated from a circular cylinder at the Mach number M = 0.7 are shown. Then, the scheme is expanded for moving bodies by combining with the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation. Using this moving mesh scheme, the author shows the simulation results of the very strong sound pressure generated by a high-speed train in a tunnel. For issues of sound propagation in compressible two-phase flows whose density ratio is high, the two-particle model is introduced. Also, techniques to reduce noise generation from the flow velocity and pressure at gas

  16. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  17. Next X-Prize: L1 Base with Linked Asteroid Mining as Prime Catalyst for Space Enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Ken R.

    2006-01-01

    We are at a cusp in our emergence as a space-faring race. Development of space resources offers unparalleled economic opportunities. Entrepreneurs with fortunes from the computer and internet revolutions are heavily investing in space. Their goal: to make space accessible to civilians at affordable prices, and build their next fortunes off-planet. The Ansari X-Prize showed that economic incentives can augment the pace and efficiency of this venture. Lunar and Martian missions are being touted as the top priorities by the US and other nations. However, serious and profitable expansion into space is best achieved by the establishment of an L1 base, its economic lifeblood based on processing asteroidal materials to provide the staples of all human space enterprise: oxygen, water, fuel and shielding. This paper outlines the components of an ``L1-prize'' modeled on the Ansari X-prize competition that led to the first private manned flight into space by Scaled Composites. The economic costs, crucial components and profit potential of a primary L1 base with asteroid mining technology intimately tied to it are detailed. The technical and economic benefits of the L1 location are contrasted to alternatives. The likely revenue sources are estimated, including contracting nations and industries; and orbital, lunar and Martian interplanetary enterprises. These are discussed as realistically and conservatively as possible in terms of the potential future profits for the winner of the prize.

  18. Stephen Hawking bags big new 3m physics prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2013-01-01

    A massive 3m in prize money has gone to the British cosmologist Stephen Hawking for his work on black holes, quantum gravity and the early universe. The award is one of two "special fundamental physics prizes" from the Fundamental Physics Prize Foundation, which was set up earlier this year by the Russian physicist-turned-entrepreneur Yuri Milner.

  19. [Neonatal tongue-tie: myths and science].

    PubMed

    Dollberg, Shaul; Botzer, Eyal

    2011-01-01

    Anatomical restraining of tongue movement (tongue-tie, ankyloglossia) has been known for centuries and the subject of dozens of articles. The heated debate persists on its clinical significance and indications for treatment. Most authorities in the field of infant feeding and Lactation agree that breastfeeding problems, such as nipple pain and latching difficulties, are common signs of clinicaLly significant tongue-tie and indications for performing a frenotomy, while the sole presence of a visible lingual frenulum is not. In contrast, the lack of a visible frenulum does not rule out the diagnosis of clinically significant tongue-tie since submucosal ties, also called "posterior tongue-tie", may interfere with efficient breastfeeding. Whether tongue-tie interferes with speech articulation to a significant extent is currently unknown. Theoretically, articulation of some consonants (e.g., /s/, /th/, /r/) would be affected by impeded tongue movement. These articulation problems are, however, Less common than tongue-tie itself, and children and adults characteristically use various compensatory techniques of mouth opening and tongue movements. When it is indicated, frenotomy is performed by lifting the tongue and snipping the frenulum with scissors. Complications of frenotomy are rare and consist mainly of self-limited minor bleeding. The significance of posterior tongue tie and the long-term effects of frenotomy performed during early infancy are unresolved issues.

  20. Tie strength distribution in scientific collaboration networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Qing; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2014-09-01

    Science is increasingly dominated by teams. Understanding patterns of scientific collaboration and their impacts on the productivity and evolution of disciplines is crucial to understand scientific processes. Electronic bibliography offers a unique opportunity to map and investigate the nature of scientific collaboration. Recent studies have demonstrated a counterintuitive organizational pattern of scientific collaboration networks: densely interconnected local clusters consist of weak ties, whereas strong ties play the role of connecting different clusters. This pattern contrasts itself from many other types of networks where strong ties form communities while weak ties connect different communities. Although there are many models for collaboration networks, no model reproduces this pattern. In this paper, we present an evolution model of collaboration networks, which reproduces many properties of real-world collaboration networks, including the organization of tie strengths, skewed degree and weight distribution, high clustering, and assortative mixing.

  1. Dielectric bow-tie nanocavity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qijing; Shu, Fang-Jie; Zou, Chang-Ling

    2013-12-15

    We propose a novel dielectric bow-tie (DBT) nanocavity consisting of two opposing tip-to-tip triangle semiconductor nanowires, whose end faces are coated by silver nanofilms. Based on the advantages of the dielectric slot and tip structures, and the high reflectivity of the silver mirror, light can be confined in this nanocavity with low loss. We demonstrate that at 4.5 K (300 K) around the resonance wavelength of 1550 nm, the mode excited in this nanocavity has a deep subwavelength mode volume of 2.8×10(-4) μm³ and a high quality factor of 4.9×10(4) (401.3), corresponding to an ultrahigh Purcell factor of 1.6×10(7) (1.36×10(5)). This DBT nanocavity may find applications for integrated nanophotonic circuits, such as high-efficiency single photon sources, thresholdless nanolasers, and strong coupling in cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments.

  2. District Learning Tied to Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Ledyard

    2009-01-01

    Winners and finalists for the annual Broad Prize for Urban Education have consistently outperformed peer districts serving similar student populations. What makes the difference? These districts consistently demonstrate a learning loop that influences the district's ability to learn, which ultimately influences student opportunities to learn.…

  3. NVVC/NHJ Durrer prizes 2014.

    PubMed

    Wall, E E van der; Umans, V A W M

    2015-06-01

    At the annual 2015 Spring Congress of the NVVC, the Durrer prizes were awarded to the authors of two of the best original/review articles published in the year 2014, one paper being more basically oriented and one paper being more clinically oriented. This has been an annual tradition since the year 2006.

  4. NVVC/NHJ Durrer prizes 2013.

    PubMed

    van der Wall, E E; Umans, V A W M

    2014-05-01

    At the annual Spring Congress of the NVVC, the Durrer prizes were awarded to the authors of two of the best original/review articles published in the year 2013, one paper being more basically oriented and one paper being more clinically oriented. This annual tradition has existed since the year 2006.

  5. NVVC/NHJ Durrer Prizes 2012.

    PubMed

    van der Wall, E E; Schalij, M J; Umans, V A W M

    2013-06-01

    At the annual Spring Congress of the NVVC the Durrer prizes were awarded to the authors of the best original/review articles published in the year 2012, one paper being more basically-oriented and one paper being more clinically-oriented. This annual tradition exists already since the year 2006.

  6. NVVC/NHJ Durrer prizes 2015.

    PubMed

    van der Wall, E E

    2016-05-01

    At the annual 2016 Spring Congress of the NVVC, the Durrer prizes were awarded to the authors of two of the best original articles published in the year 2015, one paper being more basically oriented and one paper being more clinically oriented. This annual tradition has existed since the year 2006.

  7. Quantum pioneers snap up 2013 Wolf prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2013-02-01

    The 2013 Wolf Prize in Physics has been awarded to Juan Ignacio Cirac of the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics in Munich, Germany, and Peter Zoller of the University of Innsbruck in Austria for "groundbreaking theoretical contributions to quantum-information processing, quantum optics and the physics of quantum gases".

  8. L Prize Drives Technology Innovation, Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-30

    Fact sheet that provides an overview of DOE's L Prize competition, which challenges industry to develop high-quality, high-efficiency SSL products to replace 60W incandescent and PAR38 halogen light bulbs, and highlights the competition's first 60W winner from Philips Lighting North America.

  9. How Einstein Got the Nobel Prize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pais, Abraham

    1982-01-01

    Discusses why the Nobel Committee for Physics waited so long before giving Einstein the Nobel Prize and why they did not award it for relativity, but for the photoelectric effect instead. Focuses on the judgments of leading scientists who made nominations as well as committee members' decisions. (Author/JN)

  10. HVDC ties east and west networks

    SciTech Connect

    McClendon, B.L.

    1984-05-01

    A back-to-back HVDC tie that connects the eastern and western electrical grids has been completed in Eddy County, NM by Southwestern Public Service Co. The design parameters for the project are discussed.

  11. Tongue tie: the evidence for frenotomy.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Alastair; Bowley, Douglas M

    2014-11-01

    Tongue tie or ankyloglossia is a congenital variation characterised by a short lingual frenulum which may result in restriction of tongue movement and thus impact on function. Tongue tie division (frenotomy) in affected infants with breastfeeding problems yields objective improvements in milk production and breastfeeding characteristics, including objective scoring measures, weight gain and reductions in maternal pain. For the majority of mothers, frenotomy appears to enhance maintenance of breastfeeding. Tongue tie division is a safe procedure with minimal complications. The commonest complication is minor bleeding. Recurrence leading to redivision occurs with rates of 0.003-13% reported; this appears to be more common with posterior than anterior ties. There are limited reports indicating that prophylactic frenotomy may promote subsequent speech development; however, evidence is currently insufficient to condone this practice and further good quality research into this area is warranted.

  12. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Carl M.; Scriven, Neil

    2008-10-01

    We are delighted to announce the launch of the Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize. There will be three prizes worth £250 each awarded annually for well written papers that make an outstanding contribution to the field. All articles published during the two years prior to the award, including Fast Track Communications, regular papers, topical reviews and special issue papers, can be considered for a prize. The papers will be judged in May each year using the criteria of novelty, achievement, impact and presentation. We would now like to welcome nominations for prizes to be awarded in 2009. Eligible articles must have been published in volume 40 (2007) or 41 (2008). Papers can be nominated by our Editorial Board members (who are exempt from the competition) or by readers of the journal. Please send an email to the journal editorial office (jphysa@iop.org) giving the publication details of the paper and stating (in no more than 1000 words) how it meets the criteria listed above. Authors cannot nominate their own papers. The closing date for nominations is 31 January 2009. The first set of awards will be announced following the 2009 Editorial Board meeting and winners will receive their prizes shortly thereafter. The winners' articles will be featured on the journal homepage and showcased in IOPSelect (http://www.iop.org/Select/). For further information please contact the editorial office (jphysa@iop.org). Carl M Bender Editor-in-Chief Neil Scriven Publisher

  13. Prizes for innovation of new medicines and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Love, James; Hubbard, Tim

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that prizes can help stimulate medical innovation, control costs and ensure greater access to new medicines and vaccines. The authors explore four increasingly ambitious prize options to reward medical innovation, each addressing flaws in the current patent system. The first option promotes innovation through a large prize fund linked to the impact on health outcomes; the second option rewards the sharing of knowledge, data, and technology with open source dividends; the third option awards prizes for interim benchmarks and discrete technical problems; and the final option removes the exclusive right to use patented inventions in upstream research in favor of prizes. The authors conclude that a system of prizes to reward drug development would break the link between R&D incentives and product prices, and that such a reform is needed to improve innovation and access to new medicines and vaccines.

  14. Arthroscopy Journal Prizes Are Major Decisions.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H; Brand, Jefferson C; Provencher, Matthew T; Rossi, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    According to the Harvard Business Review, the optimal number of people in a decision-making group is no more than 8. Thus, it is no surprise that 18 Arthroscopy journal associate editors had difficulty making a major decision. In the end, 18 editors did successfully select the 2015 winner of the Best Comparative Study Prize. All studies have limitations, but from a statistical standpoint, the editors believe that the conclusions of the winning study are likely correct.

  15. The Brain Prize 2014: complex human functions.

    PubMed

    Grigaityte, Kristina; Iacoboni, Marco

    2014-11-01

    Giacomo Rizzolatti, Stanislas Dehaene, and Trevor Robbins were recently awarded the 2014 Grete Lundbeck European Brain Research Prize for their 'pioneering research on higher brain mechanisms underpinning such complex human functions as literacy, numeracy, motivated behavior and social cognition, and for their effort to understand cognitive and behavioral disorders'. Why was their work highlighted? Is there anything that links together these seemingly disparate lines of research?

  16. 2015 Nuclear Fusion Prize acceptance speech

    SciTech Connect

    Goldston, R. J.

    2016-12-19

    This is the 2015 Nuclear Fusion Prize acceptance speech of R.J. Goldston: It is a great pleasure to receive the 2015 Nuclear Fusion award for my work developing a heuristic drift-based model for the power scrape-off width in tokamaks. I was particularly pleased to receive the award from IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano, whose thoughtful leadership has advanced the cause of nuclear non-proliferation mightily.

  17. Profit Regulation of Defense and Prizes for Innovation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    AD-A253 965 Profit Regulation of Defense Contractors and Prizes for Innovation William P. Rogerson ,TIC ELECTE S AUG 191992 AD Ubi doewment bas bn...0004. ULbrary of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Rogerson, William P. (William Paul), 1955- Profit regulation of defense contractors and prizes...Published 1992 by RAND 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138 R-3635-PA&E Profit Regulation of Defense Contractors and Prizes for

  18. First AGU Climate Communication Prize awarded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Christine

    2012-02-01

    Gavin Schmidt, a climate scientist at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and cofounder of the RealClimate blog (http://www.realclimate.org/), received the first AGU Climate Communication Prize at the honors ceremony. The prize recognizes excellence in climate communication as well as the promotion of scientific literacy, clarity of messaging, and efforts to foster respect and understanding for science-based values related to climate change. Sponsored by Nature's Own—a Boulder, Colo.-based company specializing in the sale of minerals, fossils, and decorative stone specimens—the prize comes with a $25,000 cash award. "AGU created this award to raise the visibility of climate change as a critical issue facing the world today, to demonstrate our support for scientists who commit themselves to the effective communication of climate change science, and to encourage more scientists to engage with the public and policy makers on how climate research can contribute to the sustainability of our planet," said AGU president Michael Mc Phaden. "That's why we are so pleased to recognize Gavin for his dedicated leadership and outstanding scientific achievements. We hope that his work will serve as an inspiration for others."

  19. Maria Goeppert Mayer and the Nobel Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Karen E.

    2013-04-01

    When Maria Goeppert Mayer was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1963, she was only the second woman to receive that award and there have been no additional female physics laureates since. Mayer was uniquely prepared to carry out her prize-winning work on the nuclear shell model. Furthermore, she worked with some of the most well-known figures in mid-twentieth century physics, and her award came at a time when American science was in ascendance. Why, then, is her name so little known beyond the physics community? There are several possible answers to this question, ranging from the personal (her modest reaction to public acclaim) and the scientific (the mathematically abstract nature of her prize-winning work), to the national (the nature of the issues commanding public attention in the 1960s). In this talk I will present an overview of the circumstances that enabled Mayer to make exceptional contributions to nuclear physics, and then examine some of the possible reasons why her exceptional status is not more widely known.

  20. Software With Strong Ties to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    TieFlow is a simple but powerful business process improvement solution. It can automate and simplify any generic or industry-specific work process, helping organizations to transform work inefficiencies and internal operations involving people, paper, and procedures into a streamlined, well-organized, electronicbased process. TieFlow increases business productivity by improving process cycle times. The software can expedite generic processes in the areas of product design and development, purchase orders, expense reports, benefits enrollment, budgeting, hiring, and sales. It can also shore up vertical market processes such as claims processing, loan application and processing, health care administration, contract management, and advertising agency traffic. The processes can be easily and rapidly captured in a graphical manner and enforced together with rules pertaining to assignments that need to be performed. Aside from boosting productivity, TieFlow also reduces organizational costs and errors. TieFlow was developed with Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) assistance from Johnson. The SBIR support entitles all Federal Government agencies to utilize the TieFlow software technology free of charge. Tietronix emphasizes that TieFlow is an outstanding workflow resource that could produce dramatic productivity and cost improvements for all agencies, just as it has done and continues to do for NASA. The Space Agency is currently using the software throughout several mission-critical offices, including the Mission Operations Directorate and the Flight Director s Office, for worldwide participation of authorized users in NASA processes. At the Flight Director s Office, TieFlow allows personnel to electronically submit and review changes to the flight rules carried out during missions.

  1. Tie1 controls angiopoietin function in vascular remodeling and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Korhonen, Emilia A.; Lampinen, Anita; Giri, Hemant; Kim, Minah; Allen, Breanna; D’Amico, Gabriela; Sipilä, Tuomas J.; Lohela, Marja; Vaheri, Antti; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Koh, Gou Young; McDonald, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    The angiopoietin/Tie (ANG/Tie) receptor system controls developmental and tumor angiogenesis, inflammatory vascular remodeling, and vessel leakage. ANG1 is a Tie2 agonist that promotes vascular stabilization in inflammation and sepsis, whereas ANG2 is a context-dependent Tie2 agonist or antagonist. A limited understanding of ANG signaling mechanisms and the orphan receptor Tie1 has hindered development of ANG/Tie-targeted therapeutics. Here, we determined that both ANG1 and ANG2 binding to Tie2 increases Tie1-Tie2 interactions in a β1 integrin–dependent manner and that Tie1 regulates ANG-induced Tie2 trafficking in endothelial cells. Endothelial Tie1 was essential for the agonist activity of ANG1 and autocrine ANG2. Deletion of endothelial Tie1 in mice reduced Tie2 phosphorylation and downstream Akt activation, increased FOXO1 nuclear localization and transcriptional activation, and prevented ANG1- and ANG2-induced capillary-to-venous remodeling. However, in acute endotoxemia, the Tie1 ectodomain that is responsible for interaction with Tie2 was rapidly cleaved, ANG1 agonist activity was decreased, and autocrine ANG2 agonist activity was lost, which led to suppression of Tie2 signaling. Tie1 cleavage also occurred in patients with hantavirus infection. These results support a model in which Tie1 directly interacts with Tie2 to promote ANG-induced vascular responses under noninflammatory conditions, whereas in inflammation, Tie1 cleavage contributes to loss of ANG2 agonist activity and vascular stability. PMID:27548530

  2. Chemistry in the News: 1998 Nobel Prizes in Chemistry and Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jennifer B.

    1999-01-01

    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has awarded the 1998 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Walter Kohn (University of California at Santa Barbara) for his development of the density-functional theory and to John A. Pople (Northwestern University at Evanston, Illinois) for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry. The Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute has awarded the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine jointly to Robert F. Fuchgott (State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn), Louis J. Ignarro (University of California at Los Angeles), and Ferid Murad (University of Texas Medical School at Houston) for identifying nitric oxide as a key biological signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system.

  3. Effect of reinforcement probability and prize size on cocaine and heroin abstinence in prize-based contingency management.

    PubMed

    Ghitza, Udi E; Epstein, David H; Schmittner, John; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Preston, Kenzie L

    2008-01-01

    Although treatment outcome in prize-based contingency management has been shown to depend on reinforcement schedule, the optimal schedule is still unknown. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial (Ghitza et al., 2007) to determine the effects of the probability of winning a prize (low vs. high) and the size of the prize won (small, large, or jumbo) on likelihood of abstinence until the next urine-collection day for heroin and cocaine users (N=116) in methadone maintenance. Higher probability of winning, but not the size of individual prizes, was associated with a greater percentage of cocaine-negative, but not opiate-negative, urines.

  4. TIE: an ability test of emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions.

  5. TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S.

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656

  6. Social ties and adolescent sleep disruption.

    PubMed

    Maume, David J

    2013-01-01

    Teens tend go to bed later, get less sleep, and report more daytime sleepiness. Medical research emphasizes biological determinants of teens' disrupted sleep (i.e., the timing of puberty and resultant drops in melatonin), rarely or inadequately considering youths' social ties as a determinant of sleep behaviors. Sociologists recognize how social ties affect health behaviors but have generally neglected sleep, especially among teens. Drawing on a sample of 974 teens from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, this study controls for developmental and social relational factors to predict changes in youths' sleep patterns between 12 and 15 years of age. In general, social relational factors outperform developmental factors in determining youths' sleep patterns, particularly pointing to the importance of parental, peer, and school ties in promoting healthy sleep behaviors. The implications of these findings for further research are briefly discussed.

  7. Nominations sought for the 2016 Haagen-Smit Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-09-01

    We, the editors and publishers of Atmospheric Environment invite our readers to nominate papers for the 2016 "Haagen-Smit Prize". The prize is named in honor of Prof. Arie Jan Haagen-Smit, a pioneer in the field of air pollution.

  8. 29 CFR 778.330 - Prizes or contest awards generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prizes or contest awards generally. 778.330 Section 778.330 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Special Problems Prizes As Bonuses § 778.330...

  9. 26 CFR 1.74-1 - Prizes and awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prizes and awards. 1.74-1 Section 1.74-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.74-1 Prizes and awards. (a) Inclusion in gross income. (1) Section...

  10. Nobel physics prize to Charpak for inventing particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarzschild, B.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the work of Georges Charpak of France leading to his receipt of the 1992 Nobel Prize in Physics. The Nobel Prize was awarded to Charpak [open quotes]for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber.[close quotes] Historical aspects of Charpak's life and research are given.

  11. EDITORIAL: Annual prizes for best papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-07-01

    2006 Roberts Prize The publishers of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB) in association with the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM) jointly award an annual prize for an article published in PMB during the previous year. The following ten articles, listed below in chronological order, were rated the best of 2006 based on the (two or three) referees' assessments: D W Mundy et al 2006 Radiation binary targeted therapy for HER-2 positive breast cancers: assumptions, theoretical assessment and future directions Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1377-91 Y Yang et al 2006 Investigation of optical coherence tomography as an imaging modality in tissue engineering Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1649-59 M Krämer and M Scholz 2006 Rapid calculation of biological effects in ion radiotherapy Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1959-70 P Crespo et al 2006 On the detector arrangement for in-beam PET for hadron therapy monitoring Phys. Med. Biol. 51 2143-63 R J Senden et al 2006 Polymer gel dosimeters with reduced toxicity: a preliminary investigation of the NMR and optical dose-response using different monomers Phys. Med. Biol. 51 3301-14 J Wang et al 2006 FDTD calculation of whole-body average SAR in adult and child models for frequencies from 30 MHz to 3 GHz Phys. Med. Biol. 51 4119-27 C A T Van den Berg et al 2006 The use of MR B+1 imaging for validation of FDTD electromagnetic simulations of human anatomies Phys. Med. Biol. 51 4735-46 S Qin and K W Ferrara 2006 Acoustic response of compliable microvessels containing ultrasound contrast agents Phys. Med. Biol. 51 5065-88 R Kramer et al 2006 Skeletal dosimetry in the MAX06 and the FAX06 phantoms for external exposure to photons based on vertebral 3D-microCT images Phys. Med. Biol. 51 6265-89 R Leiderman et al 2006 Coupling between elastic strain and interstitial fluid flow: ramifications for poroelastic imaging Phys. Med. Biol. 51 6291-313 An IPEM college of jurors then assessed and rated these papers in order to choose a winner. We have much

  12. EDITORIAL: Annual prizes for best papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    2005 Roberts Prize The publishers of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB) in association with the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM) jointly award an annual prize for an article published in PMB during the previous year. The following 14 articles, listed below in chronological order, were rated the best of 2005 based on the (two or three) referees' assessments: P Kundrát et al 2005 Probabilistic two-stage model of cell inactivation by ionizing particles Phys. Med. Biol. 50 1433-47 D Arora et al 2005 Direct thermal dose control of constrained focused ultrasound treatments: phantom and in vivo evaluation Phys. Med. Biol. 50 1919-35 J S Dysart et al 2005 Characterization of Photofrin photobleaching for singlet oxygen dose estimation during photodynamic therapy of MLL cells in vitro Phys. Med. Biol. 50 2597-616 M Defrise et al 2005 Fourier rebinning of time-of-flight PET data Phys. Med. Biol. 50 2749-63 Z Su et al 2005 Systematic investigation of the signal properties of polycrystalline HgI2 detectors under mammographic, radiographic, fluoroscopic and radiotherapy irradiation conditions Phys. Med. Biol. 50 2907-28 E Bräuer-Krisch et al 2005 New irradiation geometry for microbeam radiation therapy Phys. Med. Biol. 50 3103-11 H C Pyo et al 2005 Identification of current density distribution in electrically conducting subject with anisotropic conductivity distribution Phys. Med. Biol. 50 3183-96 R P Findlay et al 2005 Effects of posture on FDTD calculations of specific absorption rate in a voxel model of the human body Phys. Med. Biol. 50 3825-35 G Alexandrakis et al 2005 Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study Phys. Med. Biol. 50 4225-41 J Keshvari et al 2005 Comparison of radio frequency energy absorption in ear and eye region of children and adults at 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz Phys. Med. Biol. 50 4355-69 J Laufer et al 2005 In vitro measurements of absolute blood

  13. On the Human Aspect of Nobel Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, G.

    1990-10-01

    One night, Nico invited for dinner all his postdoc and graduate students, in a German restaurant close to Harvard Square. Just before we were to pay for our meal, he told us: "Tomorrow, we shall know the Nobel prize winner. Can you people make a guess on his name?" All my colleagues nominated great physicists. In my turn, I suggested naively (and perhaps nationalistically) the name of Alfred Kastler who had been my thesis adviser. "Come on," joked Nico, "I know a lot of physicists who would deserve it much better.."

  14. Developing Closer Ties with the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Gregor; Hoddinott, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The need for research administrators to understand and appreciate the pharmaceutical industry's research and development environment is discussed, using examples from Canada. The research administrator's role in the technology transfer process and implications for faculty are examined. Ways to build closer school-industry ties are discussed. (MSE)

  15. The Relative Importance of Social Ties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.; And Others

    Evidence concerning the contributions of social networks to the subjective well-being of older persons is inconsistent, reflecting the conceptual complexity of social networks and supports. In order to investigate the relative importance of different types of social ties and supports, the distinction between objective and subjective dimensions of…

  16. 23 CFR 635.111 - Tied bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... that by so doing more favorable bids may be received. To avoid discrimination against contractors... tied projects must contain separate bid prices for each project individually. Federal participation in... prices represented in the proposal by the individual contractor who would be the lowest responsive...

  17. Effect of Reinforcement Probability and Prize Size on Cocaine and Heroin Abstinence in Prize-Based Contingency Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghitza, Udi E.; Epstein, David H.; Schmittner, John; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2008-01-01

    Although treatment outcome in prize-based contingency management has been shown to depend on reinforcement schedule, the optimal schedule is still unknown. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial (Ghitza et al., 2007) to determine the effects of the probability of winning a prize (low vs. high) and…

  18. Society News: Welcome to Griffiths Bay; RAS Associate wins Shaw Prize; Postgraduate prize preparations; Council minutes on-line; Birthday Honours; Kavli Prize; New Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-08-01

    The late Donald Griffiths will be commemorated in the name of a bay on the Antarctic Peninsula. Prof. Reinhard Genzel, Associate of the Society since 1994, Darwin Lecturer in 2007, and Director of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics has been awarded the Shaw Prize in Astronomy for 2008. While postgrad students complete their PhD theses, supervisors should note the deadline for submissions to the annual Michael Penston and Keith Runcorn Prizes.

  19. Prize level and debt size: impact on gambling behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crewe-Brown, Courtney; Blaszczynski, Alex; Russell, Alex

    2014-09-01

    No studies to date have specifically determined the relationship between prize levels, debt size, and impulsivity on reported gambling behaviour on Electronic Gaming Machines (EGM). The present study reports the findings of a pilot study designed to investigate whether or not the likelihood of increasing the size of a bet was related to the level of prize offered and personal debt. The sample consisted of 171 first year psychology students (61 males and 120 females). Participants completed a series of gambling vignettes designed to elicit data on reported bet size according to different prize levels and debt sizes; the Eysenck Impulsivity Scale (Eysenck and Eysenck 1977); the Canadian Problem Gambling Index; and an author-constructed questionnaire eliciting data on demographic and gambling behaviours. Results indicated that as prize levels increase the odds (relative risk) of an individual placing a bet on an EGM and the amount of money reportedly bet tends to increase. A negative relationship between debt size and reported gambling behaviour moderated by prize level was found. No differences were found in the odds of placing a bet according to impulsivity. It was concluded that prize and debt sizes do influence propensities to gamble and level of bets. The findings have implications for restricting jackpot and general prize levels as a responsible gambling strategy designed to reduce motivations to gamble.

  20. The Road to Stockholm - Nobel Prizes, Science, and Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargittai, István

    2002-05-01

    The Nobel Prize is by far the highest recognition a scientist may receive and the only one with which the general public is familiar. Its prestige has reached improbable heights. At the same time a lot of myth surrounds the Nobel Prize, and this is compounded by the fact that people tend to view scientists with some bewilderment.This book introduces the process of selection of the laureates, discusses the ingredients for scientific discovery and for getting recognition. It reviews the decisive moments of scientific careers en route to the Nobel Prize, points to characteristic features of the laureates, the importance of mentors and venues in scientific careers and other components of success. It also covers some discoverers and discoveries for whom and for which the Nobel Prize never materialized.Whereas there is no general recipe for receiving the Nobel Prize, there are common features of successful scientific careers. The book reveals some information about the scientists' lives and careers that may guide other scientists in increasing their chances of becoming more effective and better recognized players--although it is not expected to help anyone to receive the Nobel Prize!For the general reader The Road to Stockholm reveals the human face of scientists and the human side of their endeavours. The Nobel Prize has served as inspiration for scientists and the general public for a hundred years: this book discusses its problems and celebrates its triumphs.

  1. Modeling Social Ties and Household Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Sara S.

    2013-01-01

    Underlying the aggregate phenomena of persistent problems such as urban sprawl and spatial socio-economic disparity is the individual choice of where to live. This study develops an agent-based model to simulate social and economic influences on neighborhood choice. With Danville, Illinois as an empirical context, a pattern-oriented approach is employed to examine the role of social ties in shaping intra-urban household mobility. In the model, household agents decide whether and where to relocate within the community based upon factors such as neighborhood attractiveness, affordability, and the density of a household's social network in the prospective block group. Social network and neighborhood choices are encoded with logit utility functions. The relative influence of factors affecting the formation of social ties in the simulated social network, such as geographic proximity, similarity of income, race, and presence of children, are adjusted using parameter variation to create alternative model settings. Simulated migration patterns resulting from different network and neighborhood choice coefficients are compared with observed migration patterns over a two-year period. Based upon 1000 simulation experiments, a regression of homeowner migration error (the difference between simulated and observed migration) relative to the parameter settings revealed components of social network choice such as income, race, and probability of local ties to be significant in matching observed migration patterns. A non-linear effect of simulated social networks on household mobility and thus migration error was exhibited in this study. PMID:25035520

  2. Inferring social ties from geographic coincidences

    PubMed Central

    Crandall, David J.; Backstrom, Lars; Cosley, Dan; Suri, Siddharth; Huttenlocher, Daniel; Kleinberg, Jon

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which social ties between people can be inferred from co-occurrence in time and space: Given that two people have been in approximately the same geographic locale at approximately the same time, on multiple occasions, how likely are they to know each other? Furthermore, how does this likelihood depend on the spatial and temporal proximity of the co-occurrences? Such issues arise in data originating in both online and offline domains as well as settings that capture interfaces between online and offline behavior. Here we develop a framework for quantifying the answers to such questions, and we apply this framework to publicly available data from a social media site, finding that even a very small number of co-occurrences can result in a high empirical likelihood of a social tie. We then present probabilistic models showing how such large probabilities can arise from a natural model of proximity and co-occurrence in the presence of social ties. In addition to providing a method for establishing some of the first quantifiable estimates of these measures, our findings have potential privacy implications, particularly for the ways in which social structures can be inferred from public online records that capture individuals’ physical locations over time. PMID:21148099

  3. Modeling Social Ties and Household Mobility.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Sara S

    2014-01-01

    Underlying the aggregate phenomena of persistent problems such as urban sprawl and spatial socio-economic disparity is the individual choice of where to live. This study develops an agent-based model to simulate social and economic influences on neighborhood choice. With Danville, Illinois as an empirical context, a pattern-oriented approach is employed to examine the role of social ties in shaping intra-urban household mobility. In the model, household agents decide whether and where to relocate within the community based upon factors such as neighborhood attractiveness, affordability, and the density of a household's social network in the prospective block group. Social network and neighborhood choices are encoded with logit utility functions. The relative influence of factors affecting the formation of social ties in the simulated social network, such as geographic proximity, similarity of income, race, and presence of children, are adjusted using parameter variation to create alternative model settings. Simulated migration patterns resulting from different network and neighborhood choice coefficients are compared with observed migration patterns over a two-year period. Based upon 1000 simulation experiments, a regression of homeowner migration error (the difference between simulated and observed migration) relative to the parameter settings revealed components of social network choice such as income, race, and probability of local ties to be significant in matching observed migration patterns. A non-linear effect of simulated social networks on household mobility and thus migration error was exhibited in this study.

  4. Tie2 Regulates Tumor Metastasis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Daisuke; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Nakashima, Dai; Miyamoto, Isao; Kimura, Yasushi; Saito, Tomoaki; Suzuki, Takane; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The endothelial-specific receptor, tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like loops and epidermal growth factor homology domains-2 (Tie2) is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and is ubiquitous in normal tissues; however, little is known about the mechanisms and roles of Tie2 in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). In the current study, we investigated the expression status of Tie2 in OSCCs by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry and the functional mechanisms of Tie2 using its overexpressed OSCC (oeTie2) cells and Tie2 blocking by its antibody. We found that Tie2 expression was down-regulated significantly (p < 0.05) in OSCCs compared with normal counterparts in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, oeTie2 cells showed higher cellular adhesion (p < 0.05) and lower cellular invasion (p < 0.05) compared with control cells; whereas there was similar cellular proliferation in both transfectants. Furthermore, cellular adhesion was inhibited and invasion was activated by Tie2 function-blocking antibody (p < 0.05), indicating that Tie2 directly regulates cellular adhesion and invasion. As expected, among the clinical variables analyzed, Tie2-positivity in patients with OSCC was correlated closely with negative lymph node metastasis. These results suggested for the first time that Tie2 plays an important role in tumor metastasis and may be a potential biomarker for OSCC metastasis. PMID:27053959

  5. Chord, Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Detail in Plan; Crossbracing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord, Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Detail in Plan; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail in Plan; Chord Joining Detail in Plan & Elevation; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar, & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail in Section; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar & Horizontal Brace Joint Detail - Narrows Bridge, Spanning Sugar Creek at Old County Road 280 East, Marshall, Parke County, IN

  6. Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    A grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. Operating costs of a PV power system are low compared to conventional power technologies. This method can displace the highest-cost electricity during times of peak demand in most climatic regions, and thus reduce grid loading. Net metering is often used, in which independent power producers such as PV power systems are connected to the utility grid via the customers main service panels and meters. When the PV power system is generating more power than required at that location, the excess power is provided to the utility grid. The customer pays the net of the power purchased when the on-site power demand is greater than the onsite power production, and the excess power is returned to the utility grid. Power generated by the PV system reduces utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical, with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics have been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy equal to the modern PV panels. The grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed, and this served to validate the basic principles developed, and the theoretical work that was performed. Grid-tied PV power systems are reliable, maintenance- free, long-life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community. Of particular value are the analytical tools and capabilities that have been successfully developed. Performance predictions can be made confidently for grid-tied PV systems of various scales. The work was done under the NASA Hybrid Power Management (HPM

  7. Pennies from heaven? Conceptions and earmarking of lottery prize money.

    PubMed

    Hedenus, Anna

    2014-06-01

    The source of money has been shown to be important for how money is spent. In addition, sudden wealth is often associated with social and psychological risks. This article investigates if conceptions of lottery prize money--as a special kind of money--imply restrictions on how it can be spent. Analysis of interviews with lottery winners shows that interviewees use earmarking of the prize money as a strategy for avoiding the pitfalls associated with a lottery win. Conceptions of lottery prize money as 'a lot' or as 'a little', as shared or personal, and as an opportunity or a risk, influences the ends for which it is earmarked: for self-serving spending, a 'normal' living standard, paying off loans, saving for designated purposes, or for economic security and independence. Clearly defining and earmarking lottery prize money thus helps lottery winners construe their sudden wealth, not as a risk, but as 'pennies from heaven.'

  8. Pat Thiel talks about Nobel Prize winner Dan Shechtman

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Ames Laboratory senior scientist and Iowa State University Distinguished Professor of Chemistry Pat Thiel talks about her friend and colleague Dan Shechtman who received the 2011 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

  9. Pat Thiel talks about Nobel Prize winner Dan Shechtman

    ScienceCinema

    Thiel, Pat

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory senior scientist and Iowa State University Distinguished Professor of Chemistry Pat Thiel talks about her friend and colleague Dan Shechtman who received the 2011 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

  10. Perspectives on the 2010 Nobel Prize in physics for graphene.

    PubMed

    Dresselhaus, Mildred S; Araujo, Paulo T

    2010-11-23

    The 2010 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov for their groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene. Some personal perspectives about this award are presented.

  11. 2016 ISCB Overton Prize awarded to Debora Marks

    PubMed Central

    Fogg, Christiana N.; Kovats, Diane E.

    2016-01-01

    The International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) recognizes the achievements of an early- to mid-career scientist with the Overton Prize each year. The Overton Prize was established to honor the untimely loss of Dr. G. Christian Overton, a respected computational biologist and founding ISCB Board member. Winners of the Overton Prize are independent investigators in the early to middle phases of their careers who are selected because of their significant contributions to computational biology through research, teaching, and service. 2016 will mark the fifteenth bestowment of the ISCB Overton Prize.  ISCB is pleased to confer this award the to Debora Marks, Assistant Professor of Systems Biology and director of the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Laboratory for Computational Biology at Harvard Medical School. PMID:27429747

  12. 2016 ISCB Overton Prize awarded to Debora Marks.

    PubMed

    Fogg, Christiana N; Kovats, Diane E

    2016-01-01

    The International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) recognizes the achievements of an early- to mid-career scientist with the Overton Prize each year. The Overton Prize was established to honor the untimely loss of Dr. G. Christian Overton, a respected computational biologist and founding ISCB Board member. Winners of the Overton Prize are independent investigators in the early to middle phases of their careers who are selected because of their significant contributions to computational biology through research, teaching, and service. 2016 will mark the fifteenth bestowment of the ISCB Overton Prize.  ISCB is pleased to confer this award the to Debora Marks, Assistant Professor of Systems Biology and director of the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Laboratory for Computational Biology at Harvard Medical School.

  13. Iranian PhD student wins human-rights prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Jon

    2013-11-01

    A physicist imprisoned in Iran while on a break from his PhD studies in the US has been awarded a human-rights prize. Omid Kokabee, who had been based at the University of Texas in Austin, has been given the Andrei Sakharov Prize from the American Physical Society (APS) for "his courage in refusing to use his physics knowledge to work on projects that he deemed harmful to humanity, in the face of extreme physical and psychological pressure".

  14. Innate immunity's path to the Nobel Prize 2011 and beyond.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Hermann

    2012-05-01

    The 2011 Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine to Ralph Steinmann, Jules Hoffmann, and Bruce Beutler recognized a paradigm shift in our understanding of innate immunity, and its impact on adaptive immunity. The Prize highlighted the initial discoveries of Toll's role in immunity in flies, Toll-like receptors in mammals, and the establishment of dendritic cells as the initiators of adaptive immunity. This historical Commentary focuses on the developments in our understanding of innate immunity.

  15. [Telomeres: a Nobel Prize at the beginning… of the end].

    PubMed

    Rajpar, Shanna; Guittat, Lionel; Mergny, Jean-Louis

    2011-10-01

    The 2009 Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine was awarded to Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider and Jack K. Szostak for their work on telomeres and telomerase. This prize acknowledges their pionneering discoveries on chromosomal extremities. Telomeres are the nucleoproteic complexes that may be found at the ends of linear chromosomes. They are essential for genomic stability and are involved in aging and tumorogenesis.

  16. Volatility, house edge and prize structure of gambling games.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nigel E

    2011-12-01

    This study used simulations to examine the effect of prize structure on the outcome volatility and the number of winners of various game configurations. The two most common prize structures found in gambling games are even money payoff games (bet $1; win $2) found on most table games and multilevel prizes structures found in gambling machine games. Simulations were set up to examine the effect of prize structure on the long-term outcomes of these games. Eight different prize structures were compared in terms of the number of winners and volatility. It was found that the standard table game and commercial gambling machines produced fairly high numbers of short term winners (1 h), but few long term winners (50 h). It was found that the typical even money game set up produced the lowest level of volatility. Of the multilevel prize structures examined, the three simulations based on commercial gambling machines were the least volatile. The results are examined in terms of the pragmatics of game design.

  17. "Microquasar" Discoveries Win Prize for Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The discovery of "microquasars" within our own Milky Way Galaxy has won two astronomers a prize from the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society. Felix Mirabel of the Center for Studies at Saclay, France, and Luis Rodriguez of the Institute of Astronomy at the National Autonomous University in Mexico City, were awarded the Bruno Rossi Prize at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Toronto, Ontario, today. The two researchers, who have collaborated for more than 15 years, used an orbiting X-Ray observatory and the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to discover the extremely energetic microquasars. Microquasars are thought to be binary-star systems with one of the stars either a superdense neutron star or a black hole. They emit X-rays and eject jets of subatomic particles at speeds approaching that of light. Though the neutron stars or black holes in microquasars are only a few times the mass of the sun, the phenomena associated with them, such as the jets, are similar to those seen in active galaxies and quasars, believed to be powered by the gravitational energy of black holes with millions of times the mass of the sun. As such, the microquasars provide much closer "laboratories" for study of these phenomena, which remain poorly understood. The Rossi Prize is awarded for "a significant contribution to high energy astrophysics, with particular emphasis on recent work," according to the High Energy Astrophysics Division. Mirabel and Rodriguez began the research that led to the microquasar discoveries in 1990. Using the French-Russian SIGMA- GRANAT X-Ray satellite, they discovered a microquasar near the Milky Way's center in 1992. With the VLA, they found radio emission from this object. In 1992, using the same satellite, they discovered a similar object, called GRS 1915+105. In 1994, that object experienced an outburst that made it bright enough at radio wavelengths to observe with the VLA

  18. Chandra Telescope Designer Wins 2002 Rossi Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    Leon Van Speybroeck of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts has been awarded the 2002 Bruno Rossi Prize of the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society. The Rossi Prize recognizes significant contributions in high-energy astrophysics. It is awarded annually in honor of the late Massachusetts Institute of Technology Professor Bruno Rossi, an authority on cosmic ray physics and a pioneer in the field of X-ray astronomy. The prize also includes an engraved certificate and a $1,500 award. Van Speybroeck, who led the effort to design and make the X-ray mirrors for NASA's premier X­ray observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, was recognized for a career of stellar achievements in designing precision X-ray optics. As Telescope Scientist for Chandra, he has worked for more than 20 years with a team that includes scientists and engineers from the Harvard-Smithsonian, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, TRW, Inc., Hughes-Danbury (now B.F. Goodrich Aerospace), Optical Coating Laboratories, Inc., and Eastman-Kodak on all aspects of the X-ray mirror assembly that is the heart of the observatory. "Leon is one of the master mirror designers of our time," said Harvey Tananbaum, director of the Chandra X-ray Center. "His contributions were crucial to the spectacular success of the Chandra mission." The Chandra mirrors are the most precise mirrors ever made, smooth with tolerances of a few atoms. If the state of Colorado had the same relative smoothness as the surface of the Chandra X-ray Observatory mirrors, Pike's Peak would be less than an inch tall. The smoothness and alignment of the Chandra's mirrors are enabling scientists to make new discoveries about black holes, neutron stars, and galactic explosions. "Many, many other people made essential contributions to the Chandra program, and hopefully some of them will receive proper recognition," said Van Speybroeck. "In the meantime, I am thoroughly enjoying

  19. Trans-local ties, local ties and psychological well-being among rural-to-urban migrants in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lei; Wen, Ming; Fan, Jessie X; Wang, Guixin

    2012-07-01

    During the past three decades, an estimated 200 million rural residents have moved to urban centers in China. They are "sojourners" in the cities and maintain close ties with their home communities, which we term trans-local ties. This paper examines the relationship between migrants' social ties and their mental health, and contrasts the trans-local ties with migrants' ties in the receiving communities, which are termed local ties. We expect that for the migrants, trans-local ties foster better mental health not only through providing emotional support but also through generating favorable social comparisons; whereas local ties may furnish important social support, but may also produce negative social comparisons. We use data collected in Shanghai to test our expectations. We compare the migrants to a sample of Shanghai natives to assess patterns of relationship between social ties and mental health that are unique to the migrants. We find that for the migrants, more numerous trans-local ties are associated with better mental health, whereas the number of local ties is not a significant predictor. This pattern is not observed among the Shanghai natives. Moreover, for migrants, trans-local ties foster a favorable evaluation of their status in Shanghai and buffer their perception of discrimination; in contrast, more numerous local ties tend to be associated with a more negative perception of social status. The findings highlight an often-overlooked pathway between social ties and health outcomes, namely, through influencing social comparison and perceived social status. This study also suggests that in addition to reducing institutional and personal discrimination, facilitating close bonds between the migrants and their home communities may be a productive way to foster their well-being, in the context of contemporary urban China.

  20. Coupling human mobility and social ties.

    PubMed

    Toole, Jameson L; Herrera-Yaqüe, Carlos; Schneider, Christian M; González, Marta C

    2015-04-06

    Studies using massive, passively collected data from communication technologies have revealed many ubiquitous aspects of social networks, helping us understand and model social media, information diffusion and organizational dynamics. More recently, these data have come tagged with geographical information, enabling studies of human mobility patterns and the science of cities. We combine these two pursuits and uncover reproducible mobility patterns among social contacts. First, we introduce measures of mobility similarity and predictability and measure them for populations of users in three large urban areas. We find individuals' visitations patterns are far more similar to and predictable by social contacts than strangers and that these measures are positively correlated with tie strength. Unsupervised clustering of hourly variations in mobility similarity identifies three categories of social ties and suggests geography is an important feature to contextualize social relationships. We find that the composition of a user's ego network in terms of the type of contacts they keep is correlated with mobility behaviour. Finally, we extend a popular mobility model to include movement choices based on social contacts and compare its ability to reproduce empirical measurements with two additional models of mobility.

  1. Migrant networks and international migration: testing weak ties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mao-Mei

    2013-08-01

    This article examines the role of migrant social networks in international migration and extends prior research by testing the strength of tie theory, decomposing networks by sources and resources, and disentangling network effects from complementary explanations. Nearly all previous empirical research has ignored friendship ties and has largely neglected extended-family ties. Using longitudinal data from the Migration between Africa and Europe project collected in Africa (Senegal) and Europe (France, Italy, and Spain), this article tests the robustness of network theory-and in particular, the role of weak ties-on first-time migration between Senegal and Europe. Discrete-time hazard model results confirm that weak ties are important and that network influences appear to be gendered, but they do not uphold the contention in previous literature that strong ties are more important than weak ties for male and female migration. Indeed, weak ties play an especially important role in male migration. In terms of network resources, having more resources as a result of strong ties appears to dampen overall migration, while having more resources as a result of weaker ties appears to stimulate male migration. Finally, the diversity of resources has varied effects for male and female migration.

  2. Analysis and physics of laparoscopic intracorporeal square-knot tying.

    PubMed

    Medina, Marelyn

    2005-01-01

    Square knots are often used in open surgery to approximate tissue borders or tie off tubular structures like vessels or ducts. Three common methods are used for surgical square-knot tying: one-hand tying, two-hand tying, and the instrument-tying technique. Two types of suture placements are studied in both the open and laparoscopic surgical fields. The first called equal length has suture segment ends placed at equal distances from the tying site. The second called unequal length has one suture end further away from the tying site than the other. Laparoscopic intracorporeal square-knot tying maneuvers are analyzed herein. Mechanical analysis of square-knot tying movements reveals that regardless of location or method used in construction, all square knots consist of 2 half-knots. For study purposes, these sets of movements are identified in laparoscopy as maneuver A and maneuver B. Further breakout of these maneuvers reveals that they consist of 5 motions. This study reveals that 16 different ways exist to place a square knot by means of the laparoscopic intracorporeal technique. It is likely that difficulty mastering this essential skill is not just the result of poor instrumentation, improper port placement, or the limitations of a 2-dimensional video image. It may also be attributed to mixing up the different square-knot tying techniques during random practice exercises. This is possible if the surgeon is ignorant of the technical variations present in what most people consider a simple task.

  3. Strong Ties, Weak Ties, and Human Capital: Latino Immigrant Employment outside the Enclave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Max J.; Parra, Pilar A.

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the role of social ties and human capital in the integration of Latino immigrants into the local economy. This analysis extends earlier research by focusing on more rural contexts with limited labor-market opportunities and less access to social resources provided by coethnics. We reconsider conclusions of previous studies by…

  4. Amount of earnings during prize contingency management treatment is associated with posttreatment abstinence outcomes.

    PubMed

    Petry, Nancy M; Roll, John M

    2011-12-01

    Contingency management (CM) treatments that provide patients with the opportunity to earn chances of winning prizes of varying magnitudes are becoming increasingly popular. In the CM literature, magnitude of reinforcement is linked with effect sizes, such that CM treatments that provide larger magnitude reinforcement are more efficacious than those that provide lower magnitude reinforcement. With prize CM, even when magnitudes of overall expected prize earnings are constant, some patients win more prizes than others. Thus, patients who win larger overall amounts of prizes during treatment may have better outcomes than those who win fewer prizes. This study evaluated the impact of overall amounts of prizes won on long-term abstinence outcomes. The dollar amount of prizes won during prize CM treatments was determined from 78 cocaine-abusing methadone-maintenance patients who were randomized to prize CM treatments in three clinical trials. Abstinence three months following the end of the CM intervention was the primary dependent variable. The dollar amount of prizes won during CM treatment was a significant predictor of submission of cocaine-negative urine samples and self-reports of cocaine abstinence at the follow-up evaluation, even after controlling for other variables associated with long-term abstinence, such as pretreatment urinalysis results and longest duration of abstinence achieved during treatment. These results suggest that magnitudes of earnings during prize CM may impact outcomes and call for further experimentation of parameters related to the efficacy of prize CM.

  5. Constitutive Association of Tie1 and Tie2 with Endothelial Integrins is Functionally Modulated by Angiopoietin-1 and Fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Annamarie C.; Shlamkovitch, Tomer; Papo, Niv; Barton, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Functional cross-talk between Tie2 and Integrin signaling pathways is essential to coordinate endothelial cell adhesion and migration in response to the extracellular matrix, yet the mechanisms behind this phenomenon are unclear. Here, we examine the possibility that receptor cross-talk is driven through uncharacterized Tie-integrin interactions on the endothelial surface. Using a live cell FRET-based proximity assay, we monitor Tie-integrin receptor recognition and demonstrate that both Tie1 and Tie2 readily associate with integrins α5ß1 and αVß3 through their respective ectodomains. Although not required, Tie2-integrin association is significantly enhanced in the presence of the extracellular component and integrin ligand fibronectin. In vitro binding assays with purified components reveal that Tie-integrin recognition is direct, and further demonstrate that the receptor binding domain of the Tie2 ligand Ang-1, but not the receptor binding domain of Ang-2, can independently associate with α5ß1 or αVß3. Finally, we reveal that cooperative Tie/integrin interactions selectively stimulate ERK/MAPK signaling in the presence of both Ang-1 and fibronectin, suggesting a molecular mechanism to sensitize Tie2 to extracellular matrix. We provide a mechanistic model highlighting the role of receptor localization and association in regulating distinct signaling cascades and in turn, the angiogenic switch. PMID:27695111

  6. Rigid and Flexible Pavement Aircraft Tie-Downs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    mechanisms designed to secure aircraft to the pavement surface. The objective of this project was to determine the pull-out capacity of existing tie...Anchoring systems, also referred to as tie-downs and mooring points, describe mechanisms designed to secure aircraft to the pavement surface...on anchoring systems specifically designed to physically secure the military airplane. Tie-down and mooring practices were intently examined after

  7. 27 CFR 6.72 - “Tie-in” sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false âTie-inâ sales. 6.72 Section 6.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.72 “Tie-in” sales. The act by an industry member of requiring that...

  8. 77 FR 56697 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The English Prize: The...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... for Exhibition Determinations: ``The English Prize: The Capture of the Westmorland, an Episode of the..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``The English Prize:...

  9. BSE Rap: intergenerational ties to save lives.

    PubMed

    Ehmann, J L

    1993-09-01

    This article presents an innovative public-education strategy that was created to promote breast health awareness and early breast cancer detection among minority and low-income adolescent females. Given the importance of teaching breast self-examination (BSE), program development focused on creation of the BSE Rap, a lively music-video presentation. Increasing adolescents' knowledge and awareness of BSE is viewed as a springboard for disseminating information to their mothers and grandmothers. Funding was obtained for production of a video and a breast health diary, which are the program's key components. Marketing strategies included contacts with community organizations and healthcare professionals. Program evaluations reveal that the BSE Rap serves as a positive motivator for participants to discuss BSE and mammography with their mothers and grandmothers. The BSE Rap offers oncology nurses the opportunity to save lives using a unique and creative tool that focuses on intergenerational ties.

  10. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    We are delighted to announce the launch of the Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize. There will be three prizes worth £250 each awarded annually for well written papers that make an outstanding contribution to the field. All articles published during the two years prior to the award, including Fast Track Communications, regular papers, topical reviews and special issue papers, can be considered for a prize. The papers will be judged in late Spring each year using the criteria of novelty, achievement, impact and presentation. We would now like to welcome nominations for prizes to be awarded in 2009. Eligible articles must have been published in volume 39 (2007) or 40 (2008). Papers can be nominated by our Editorial Board members (who are exempt from the competition) or by readers of the journal. Please send an email to the journal editorial office (jphysa@iop.org) giving the publication details of the paper and stating (in no more than 1000 words) how it meets the criteria listed above. Authors cannot nominate their own papers. The closing date for nominations is 31 January 2009. The first set of awards will be announced following the 2009 Editorial Board meeting and winners will receive their prizes shortly thereafter. The winners' articles will be featured on the journal homepage and showcased in IOPSelect (http://www.iop.org/Select/). For further information please contact the editorial office (jphysa@iop.org). Carl M Bender Editor-in-Chief Neil Scriven Publisher

  11. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-10-01

    We are delighted to announce the launch of the Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize. There will be three prizes worth £250 each awarded annually for well written papers that make an outstanding contribution to the field. All articles published during the two years prior to the award, including Fast Track Communications, regular papers, topical reviews and special issue papers, can be considered for a prize. The papers will be judged in late Spring each year using the criteria of novelty, achievement, impact and presentation. We would now like to welcome nominations for prizes to be awarded in 2009. Eligible articles must have been published in volume 39 (2007) or 40 (2008). Papers can be nominated by our Editorial Board members (who are exempt from the competition) or by readers of the journal. Please send an email to the journal editorial office (jphysa@iop.org) giving the publication details of the paper and stating (in no more than 1000 words) how it meets the criteria listed above. Authors cannot nominate their own papers. The closing date for nominations is 31 January 2009. The first set of awards will be announced following the 2009 Editorial Board meeting and winners will receive their prizes shortly thereafter. The winners' articles will be featured on the journal homepage and showcased in IOPSelect (http://www.iop.org/Select/). For further information please contact the editorial office (jphysa@iop.org). Carl M Bender Editor-in-Chief Neil Scriven Publisher

  12. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-10-01

    We are delighted to announce the launch of the Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize. There will be three prizes worth £250 each awarded annually for well written papers that make an outstanding contribution to the field. All articles published during the two years prior to the award, including Fast Track Communications, regular papers, topical reviews and special issue papers, can be considered for a prize. The papers will be judged in May each year using the criteria of novelty, achievement, impact and presentation. We would now like to welcome nominations for prizes to be awarded in 2009. Eligible articles must have been published in volume 40 (2007) or 41 (2008). Papers can be nominated by our Editorial Board members (who are exempt from the competition) or by readers of the journal. Please send an email to the journal editorial office (jphysa@iop.org) giving the publication details of the paper and stating (in no more than 1000 words) how it meets the criteria listed above. Authors cannot nominate their own papers. The closing date for nominations is 31 January 2009. The first set of awards will be announced following the 2009 Editorial Board meeting and winners will receive their prizes shortly thereafter. The winners' articles will be featured on the journal homepage and showcased in IOPSelect (http://www.iop.org/Select/). For further information please contact the editorial office (jphysa@iop.org). Carl M Bender Editor-in-Chief Neil Scriven Publisher

  13. HED-TIE: A Wafer Scale Approach for Fabricating Hybrid Electronic Devices with Trench Isolated Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sreetama; Bülz, Daniel; Solonenko, Dmytro; Reuter, Danny; Deibel, Carsten; Hiller, Karla; Zahn, Dietrich; Salvan, Georgeta

    2017-03-15

    Organic-inorganic hybrid electronic devices (HEDs) offer opportunities for functionalities that are not easily obtainable with either organic or inorganic materials individually. In the strive for down-scaling the channel length in planar geometry HEDs the records were achieved with electron beam lithography or nanoimprint lithography. Their application on the wafer level is, however, cost intensive and time consuming. Here, we propose the trench isolated electrodes (TIE) technology as a fast, cost effective, wafer level approach for fabrication of planar HEDs with electrode gaps in the range of 100 nm. The TIE technology is inspired from the process flow which has been successfully implemented in the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and is based on standard photolithography and a series of isotropic and anisotropic etching steps and trench refilling with silicon oxide. We demonstrate that the formation of the organic channel can be realized by deposition from solution as well as by thermal evaporation of organic molecules. To underline one key feature of planar HED-TIEs, namely full accessibility of the active area of the devices by external stimuli such as light, TIPS-pentacene/Au HED-TIEs were successfully tested for possible application as hybrid photodetectors in the visible spectral range.

  14. Irish Team Wins SEA & SPACE Super Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-09-01

    A secondary school team from Ireland has won a trip to Europe's Spaceport in Kourou, French Guyana, and to ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Cerro Paranal, Chile. The trip is the Super-Prize for the Sea & Space Newspaper Competition , organised within the framework of the European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture. ESO PR Photo 33/98 ESO PR Photo 33/98 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 434 pix - 568k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 1627 pix - 6.7Mb] The presentation of prize certificates to the winning Irish team (right) in Lisbon, on August 31, 1998, by ESO, ESA and EAAE representatives. Stephen Kearney, Cian Wilson (both aged 16 years), Eamonn McKeogh (aged 17 years) together with their teacher, John Daly of Blackrock College in Dublin, prepared their newspaper, Infinitus , on marine and space themes, and came first in the national round of the competition. Together with other students from all over Europe, they were invited to present their winning newspaper to a jury consisting of representatives of the organisers, during a special programme of events at the Gulbenkian Planetarium and EXPO '98 in Lisbon, from 28-31 August, 1998. The Irish team scored highly in all categories of the judging, which included scientific content and originality and creativity of the articles. Their look at Irish contributions to sea and space research also proved popular in a ballot by fellow student competitors. This vote was also taken into account by the judges. The jury was very impressed by the high quality of the national entries and there were several close runners-up. The width and depth was amazing and the variety of ideas and formats presented by the sixteen teams was enormous. A poster competition was organised for younger students, aged 10 to 13 and winning entries at national level are on display at the Oceanophilia Pavilion at EXPO '98. The SEA & SPACE project is a joint initiative of the European Space Agency (ESA) , the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , and the

  15. Ecosystems Vulnerability Challenge and Prize Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. H.; Frame, M. T.; Ferriter, O.; Recker, J.

    2014-12-01

    Stimulating innovation and private sector entrepreneurship is an important way to advance the preparedness of communities, businesses and individuals for the impacts of climate change on certain aspects of ecosystems, such as: fire regimes; water availability; carbon sequestration; biodiversity conservation; weather-related hazards, and the spread of invasive species. The creation of tools is critical to help communities and natural resource managers better understand the impacts of climate change on ecosystems and the potential resulting implications for ecosystem services and conservation efforts. The Department of the Interior is leading an interagency effort to develop the Ecosystems Vulnerability theme as part of the President's Climate Action Plan. This effort will provide seamless access to relevant datasets that can help address such issues as: risk of wildfires to local communities and federal lands; water sensitivity to climate change; and understanding the role of ecosystems in a changing climate. This session will provide an overview of the proposed Ecosystem Vulnerability Challenge and Prize Competition, outlining the intended audience, scope, goals, and overall timeline. The session will provide an opportunity for participants to offer new ideas. Through the Challenge, access will be made available to critical datasets for software developers, engineers, scientists, students, and researchers to develop and submit applications addressing critical science issues facing our Nation today. Application submission criteria and guidelines will also be discussed. The Challenge will be open to all sectors and organizations (i.e. federal, non-federal, private sector, non-profits, and universities) within the United States. It is anticipated the Challenge will run from early January 2015 until spring of 2015.

  16. Randomized Trial of Prize-Based Reinforcement Density for Simultaneous Abstinence from Cocaine and Heroin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghitza, Udi E.; Epstein, David H.; Schmittner, John; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the effect of reinforcer density in prize-based abstinence reinforcement, heroin/cocaine users (N = 116) in methadone maintenance (100 mg/day) were randomly assigned to a noncontingent control group (NonC) or to 1 of 3 groups that earned prize draws for abstinence: manual drawing with standard prize density (MS) or computerized drawing…

  17. Evolution of Bow-Tie Architectures in Biology

    PubMed Central

    Friedlander, Tamar; Mayo, Avraham E.; Tlusty, Tsvi; Alon, Uri

    2015-01-01

    Bow-tie or hourglass structure is a common architectural feature found in many biological systems. A bow-tie in a multi-layered structure occurs when intermediate layers have much fewer components than the input and output layers. Examples include metabolism where a handful of building blocks mediate between multiple input nutrients and multiple output biomass components, and signaling networks where information from numerous receptor types passes through a small set of signaling pathways to regulate multiple output genes. Little is known, however, about how bow-tie architectures evolve. Here, we address the evolution of bow-tie architectures using simulations of multi-layered systems evolving to fulfill a given input-output goal. We find that bow-ties spontaneously evolve when the information in the evolutionary goal can be compressed. Mathematically speaking, bow-ties evolve when the rank of the input-output matrix describing the evolutionary goal is deficient. The maximal compression possible (the rank of the goal) determines the size of the narrowest part of the network—that is the bow-tie. A further requirement is that a process is active to reduce the number of links in the network, such as product-rule mutations, otherwise a non-bow-tie solution is found in the evolutionary simulations. This offers a mechanism to understand a common architectural principle of biological systems, and a way to quantitate the effective rank of the goals under which they evolved. PMID:25798588

  18. Tongue tie and breastfeeding: assessing and overcoming the difficulties.

    PubMed

    Breward, Sharon

    2006-09-01

    Tongue tie, a condition in which the tongue's mobility is restricted, may reduce the ability of babies to breastfeed successfully. In this age of mass artificial feeding, the management of this condition has been, until recently, overlooked. This article highlights the effects of tongue tie on breastfeeding and what health professionals should be doing to assess and manage any difficulties

  19. Fifteen-minute consultation: the infant with a tongue tie.

    PubMed

    Bowley, Douglas M; Arul, G Suren

    2014-08-01

    Tongue tie is an increasingly common cause for referral of infants to our general paediatric surgery service. In this article, we will explore the indications for tongue tie division in the newborn child, the practicalities of the procedure and the supporting evidence.

  20. Employees and Creativity: Social Ties and Access to Heterogeneous Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiung-En; Liu, Chih-Hsing Sam

    2015-01-01

    This study dealt with employee social ties, knowledge heterogeneity contacts, and the generation of creativity. Although prior studies demonstrated a relationship between network position and creativity, inadequate attention has been paid to network ties and heterogeneity knowledge contacts. This study considered the social interaction processes…

  1. Chord Panel Post, Vertical X Bracing & Horizontal Tie Joint ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord Panel Post, Vertical X Bracing & Horizontal Tie Joint Detail; Chord Joining Block & Spacer Block Detail; Cross Bracing Joint Detail; Chord Panel Post Diagonal & Horizontal Tie Joint Detail - Jackson Covered Bridge, Spanning Sugar Creek, CR 775N (Changed from Spanning Sugar Creek), Bloomingdale, Parke County, IN

  2. Characterizing Deletion Transformations across Dialects using a Sophisticated Tying Mechanism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-30

    suggest nrle candidates for further linguistic studies. Potential appli- cations include forensic phonetics, accent training, and dialect recognition...03-2011 Technical Paper MAR 2011 - APR 2011 Characterizing Deletion Transformations across Dialects using a Sophisticated Tying Mechanism FA8720-05...modeling deletion transformations between dialects . We empirically show that the proposed tying mechanism reduces deletion errors by 33% when compared to a

  3. Investigation of Ties and Adaptive Antenna Technology Compatibility.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    compatibil- ity of AA processing within the TIES are presented. Candidate im- plementation schemes are examined for the TIES-AA. ~ ir 14 T. TABLE OF...Navigational accuracy to better than 10 meters permits all weather weapon delivery by aircraft, cruise missles , etc. It is expected that important enemy

  4. Silicon-on-insulator field effect transistor with improved body ties for rad-hard applications

    DOEpatents

    Schwank, James R.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Draper, Bruce L.; Dodd, Paul E.

    2001-01-01

    A silicon-on-insulator (SOI) field-effect transistor (FET) and a method for making the same are disclosed. The SOI FET is characterized by a source which extends only partially (e.g. about half-way) through the active layer wherein the transistor is formed. Additionally, a minimal-area body tie contact is provided with a short-circuit electrical connection to the source for reducing floating body effects. The body tie contact improves the electrical characteristics of the transistor and also provides an improved single-event-upset (SEU) radiation hardness of the device for terrestrial and space applications. The SOI FET also provides an improvement in total-dose radiation hardness as compared to conventional SOI transistors fabricated without a specially prepared hardened buried oxide layer. Complementary n-channel and p-channel SOI FETs can be fabricated according to the present invention to form integrated circuits (ICs) for commercial and military applications.

  5. 78 FR 75545 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From the People's Republic of China... concrete steel rail tie wire (``PC tie wire'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') is being, or... prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties (``PC tie wire''). High carbon steel is defined as steel...

  6. Pat Thiel talks about attending the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Pat Thiel, Ames Laboratory senior scientist and Iowa State University Distinguished Professor of Chemistry, was invited to be a guest at the ceremony on December 10th, in Stockholm, Sweden, where Danny Shechtman, Ames Laboratory scientist, received the 2011 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Following her return to the Lab, Thiel shared some of her recollections of the momentous event.

  7. Training Quality: Before and after Winning the Deming Prize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magennis, Jo P.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the Quality Improvement Program developed by Florida Power and Light's Nuclear Training organization that was awarded the Deming Application Prize for quality control. Training quality, team activities, training's role in business planning, customer involvement and evaluation, and continuous improvement of training are discussed. (LRW)

  8. SunShot Catalyst Prize Competition Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2015-04-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Catalyst Energy Innovation Prize, an open innovation program launched in 2014 by the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. This program aims to catalyze the rapid creation and development of products and solutions that address near-term challenges in the U.S. solar energy marketplace.

  9. The Competition "First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorzkowski, W.; Surya, Y; Zuberek, R

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the history of the competition First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics organized by Poland, its development from a national workshop in 1991/92 to an international competition nowadays and its organization, as well as the results obtained by the participants. (Contains 1 table.)

  10. What to do to win a Nobel prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foundationeer, Second; chrischievious; Hasler, John; nvrao; dedalus22; Martin

    2014-11-01

    In reply to the infographic "Illustrating a century of Nobels" and a related physicsworld.com blog post "What type of physics should you do if you want to bag a Nobel prize?" (2 October, http://ow.ly/CmCzl, see also pp22-23).

  11. Modular Curriculum: English, American Nobel Prize Winners in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, James A.

    This independent study module treats those Americans who have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. They include Sinclair Lewis, Eugene O'Neill, T. S. Eliot, William Faulkner, Ernest Hemingway, John Steinbeck, and Pearl Buck. Selections from the writings of these authors are included. Their works represent many literary genres and also…

  12. Tight Focus on Instruction Wins Texas District Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2009-01-01

    It took a while for four-time finalist Aldine, Texas, to win the Broad Prize for Urban Education. But it took even longer to craft the system that ultimately put the district over the top. Educators in Aldine district have been working for more than a decade to refine their "managed instruction" system. Reviewers examined how the school…

  13. What Is Community College Excellence? Lessons from the Aspen Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyner, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Over the past year, in a process to select the winner of the Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence, the Aspen Institute has convened national experts to define and determine how to measure "excellence," to identify community colleges with high levels of student success, and to help more community colleges understand what can be done to…

  14. Defining Excellence: Lessons from the 2013 Aspen Prize Finalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspen Institute, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In many respects, one couldn't find a group of 10 schools more diverse than the finalists for the 2013 Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence. One community college serves 1,500 students, another 56,000. There are institutions devoted primarily--even solely--to technical degrees, and ones devoted mainly to preparing students for further…

  15. The 2013 Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlstein, Linda

    2013-01-01

    For millions of Americans, community colleges provide an essential pathway to well-paying jobs and continuing higher education. The Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence honors those institutions that strive for and achieve exceptional levels of success for all students, while they are in college and after they graduate. Community colleges…

  16. "Not Censorship but Selection": Censorship and/as Prizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    This essay calls for a fresh critical approach to the topic of censorship, suggesting that anticensorship efforts, while important and necessary, function much like literary prizing. The analysis draws especially on James English's recent study "The Economy of Prestige." There are two central arguments: first, that the librarian ethic of…

  17. Physics GRE Scores of Prize Postdoctoral Fellows in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, Emily M.; Bezanson, Rachel; Tremblay, Grant

    2017-01-01

    The Physics GRE has long been a required element of the graduate admissions process in many U.S. astronomy programs; however, its predictive power and utility as a means of selection "successful" applicants had not been quantitatively examined until recently. In the fall of 2015 we circulated a short questionnaire to 271 people who have held U.S. prize postdoctoral fellowships in astrophysics between 2010-2015, asking them to report their Physics GRE scores. The response rate was 64%, and the responding sample was unbiased with respect to the overall gender distribution of prize fellows. The responses revealed that the Physics GRE scores of prize fellows do not adhere to any minimum percentile score and show no statistically significant correlation with the number of first author papers published. As an example, a Physics GRE percentile cutoff of 60% would have eliminated 44% of 2010-2015 U.S. prize postdoctoral fellows, including 60% of the female fellows. From these data, we found no evidence that the Physics GRE could be used as an effective predictor of "success" either in or beyond graduate school. Following this work and last year's official recommendation from the AAS, several astronomy departments have recently decided to eliminate the Physics GRE as a requirement for graduate applicants.

  18. The Nobel Prize in Medicine for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Charles G.

    2004-01-01

    Nobel Prize in Medicine awarded in December 2003 to chemist Paul C. Lauterbur and physicist Peter Mansfield for the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a long overdue recognition of the huge impact MRI has had in medical diagnostics and research is mentioned. MRI was derived, and remains an extension of nuclear magnetic resonance…

  19. Pat Thiel talks about attending the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony

    ScienceCinema

    Thiel, Pat

    2016-07-12

    Pat Thiel, Ames Laboratory senior scientist and Iowa State University Distinguished Professor of Chemistry, was invited to be a guest at the ceremony on December 10th, in Stockholm, Sweden, where Danny Shechtman, Ames Laboratory scientist, received the 2011 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Following her return to the Lab, Thiel shared some of her recollections of the momentous event.

  20. Cracker Jacks: "Finding the Prize" inside Each Adolescent Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerbrock, Cheryl; DiCicco, Michael; Denmon, Jennifer M.; Parke, Erin; Mead, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight several practical classroom examples of asset-driven acts of reciprocal care and content-driven community builders and icebreakers that highlight ways to "find the prize" inside each student by fostering an adolescent-centered community of care that is committed to both relationships and…

  1. Grand Prize and Citation Winners: Ten School with Soaring Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning By Design, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design features of the grand prize winners of the 2002 "Learning by Design" contest--an addition to West Linn High School in West Linn, Oregon, and the renovation of Beaver Brook Academic Center/The Ethel Walker School in Simsbury, Connecticut. Also describes the designs of the eight citation winners. (EV)

  2. Whose Big Prize? A Response to Hall and Gunter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, John

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Hall and Gunter who accuse the author of trying to mount "a stout defence" of New Labour's reforms of the teaching profession. Hall and Gunter go further and accuse the author of "triumphalism" in his use of the title "Tony Blair's big prize". Their second and more…

  3. Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Prizes. Fact Sheets on Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish Inst., Stockholm.

    The life and personality of Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Prizes established by his will are discussed. Nobel was a 19th century Swedish industrialist who was fluent in six languages. He invented dynamite. At his death in 1896, his estate amounted to $9,200,000. His will stipulated that the income from his estate should be divided annually into five…

  4. Lightweight Wearable Power Energized by Pentagon’s Prize Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-27

    the Virgin Earth Challenge under which Richard Branson and Al Gore are offering a prize of $25 million to anyone who can demonstrate a commercially...asserts Dr. Richard T. Fingers, Chief of the Energy Power Thermal Division at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base

  5. How Robert A. Millikan Got the Physics Nobel Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panusch, Martin; Heering, Peter; Singh, Rajinder

    2010-01-01

    In 1923, R.A. Millikan was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect. Recently, historical research had a focus on Millikan's publication practice, as well as on the role of his assistant, Harvey Fletcher. Several studies have raised doubts on whether Millikan can…

  6. Reclaiming "Lost Prizes": An Interview with Ken McCluskey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bockern, Steve

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Dr. Ken McCluskey, Dean and Professor of Education at the University of Winnipeg. He is known internationally for his work in several areas including: (1) mentoring; (2) attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; (3) at-risk children and youth (where his "Lost Prizes" and related projects serve as…

  7. Prizes in Cereal Boxes: An Application of Probability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litwiller, Bonnie H.; Duncan, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents four cases of real-world probabilistic situations to promote more effective teaching of probability. Calculates the probability of obtaining six of six different prizes successively in six, seven, eight, and nine boxes of cereal, generalizes the problem to n boxes of cereal, and offers suggestions to extend the problem. (MDH)

  8. The Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE Education Program

    SciTech Connect

    Robyn Ready

    2011-12-31

    The Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE Education Program conducted education and outreach activities and used the competition's technical goals and vehicle demonstrations as a means of attracting students and the public to learn more about advanced vehicle technologies, energy efficiency, climate change, alternative fuels, and the science and math behind efficient vehicle development. The Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE Education Program comprised three integrated components that were designed to educate the general public and create a multi-tiered initiative to engage students and showcase the 21st century skills students will need to compete in our global economy: teamwork, creativity, strong literacy, math and science skills, and innovative thinking. The elements included an Online Experience, a National Student Contest, and in person education events and activites. The project leveraged online connections, strategic partnerships, in-classroom, and beyond-the-classroom initiatives, as well as mainstream media. This education program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) also funded the specification of vehicle telemetry and the full development and operation of an interactive online experience that allowed internet users to follow the Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE vehicles as they performed in real-time during the Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE competition events.

  9. Supporting Military Veteran Students: Early Lessons from Kohlberg Prize Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Melinda Mechur; Klempin, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Postsecondary education participation is critical for military-connected individuals as they transition back to civilian life. The Kisco Foundation's Kohlberg Prize, a competitive grant awarded in 2015 and 2016, is aimed at making community colleges more welcoming and better able to meet the needs of veteran students. This review details the early…

  10. Student Intern Lands Top Prize in National Science Competition | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Student intern Sam Pritt’s interest in improving geolocation led him to develop a project that won a top regional prize at the Siemens Competition in Math, Science, and Technology in November. Pritt was awarded a $3,000 college scholarship, and he competed in the national competition in early December.

  11. More than Prize Lists: Head Teachers, Student Prize Winners, School Ceremonies and Educational Promotion in Colonial South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Marisa

    2007-01-01

    Australian educators now operate in environments that frequently stress marketing activities. This article highlights the ways that colonial school prize ceremonies were deliberately developed to promote teaching activities. These ceremonies were part of carefully considered strategies that helped to boost the status of entrepreneurial teachers…

  12. Lord Rutherford of Nelson, his 1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, and why he didn't get a second prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarlskog, Cecilia

    2008-11-01

    'I have dealt with many different transformations with various periods of time, but the quickest that I have met was my own transformation in one moment from a physicist to a chemist.' Ernest Rutherford (Nobel Banquet, 1908) This article is about how Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) got the 1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry and why he did not get a second Prize for his subsequent outstanding discoveries in physics, specially the discovery of the atomic nucleus and the proton. Who were those who nominated him and who did he nominate for the Nobel Prizes? In order to put the Prize issue into its proper context, I will briefly describe Rutherford's whereabouts. Rutherford, an exceptionally gifted scientist who revolutionized chemistry and physics, was moulded in the finest classical tradition. What were his opinions on some scientific issues such as Einstein's photon, uncertainty relations and the future prospects for atomic energy? What would he have said about the 'Theory of Everything'? Extended version of an invited talk presented at the conference 'Neutrino 2008', Christchurch, NZ, 25-31 May 2008

  13. The 2007 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for surface chemistry: understanding nanoscale phenomena at surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bowker, Michael

    2007-11-01

    The 2007 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Gerhard Ertl for his seminal work in the area of surface science, particularly at the gas-solid interface. Although Ertl began his career at a time when the term "nanotechnology" was not yet known, his contributions to the field have paved the way for many future scientists in this area and led to a deeper understanding of catalysis and other surface-specific processes at the nanoscale. Here, we summarize the scientific developments that guided early progress in surface science, and we explore the major advancements in Ertl's career, including his work on adsorption and oxidation of small molecules on metal surfaces. Significant contributions of other key scientists to this rich area are also presented.

  14. Social network ties beyond nonredundancy: an experimental investigation of the effect of knowledge content and tie strength on creativity.

    PubMed

    Perry-Smith, Jill E

    2014-09-01

    Social network research emphasizes the access to nonredundant knowledge content that network ties provide. I suggest that some content is more beneficial than others and that tie strength may affect creativity for reasons other than the associated structure. That is, tie strength may affect how individuals process nonredundant knowledge. I investigate 2 types of knowledge content--information (i.e., facts or data) and frames (i.e., interpretations or impressions)--and explore whether tie strength influences their effect on creativity. Drawing on creativity theory, I employ an experimental design to provide greater theoretical clarity and to isolate causality. According to the results from 2 studies, distinct frames received from contacts facilitate creativity, but the effect of distinct information is more complex. When individuals receive distinct information from strong ties, it constrains creativity compared to distinct frames. Content from weak ties appears to facilitate creativity across all scenarios. The results of mediated moderation analysis indicate the effect of framing versus information for strong ties is driven by decision-making time, as an indicator of cognitive expansion.

  15. Differentiating weak ties and strong ties among external sources of influences for enterprise resource planning (ERP) adoption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, Benoit; Léger, Pierre-Majorique; Larocque, Denis

    2012-05-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems represent a major IT adoption decision. ERP adoption decisions, in the chemicals and allied products sectors, were examined between 1994 and 2005. Networks of strong ties and weak ties partners are investigated. Results show that neighbouring companies linked with strong ties can have an influence on organisations making such adoption decision. Past decisions made by major trading partners have a significant influence on the decision to adopt an ERP system for a given organisation. This reflects the complex nature of the knowledge required for such adoption.

  16. High Pain Tolerance Tied to 'Silent' Heart Attack Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... 162666.html High Pain Tolerance Tied to 'Silent' Heart Attack Risk Unusual symptoms include upper back or jaw ... be at increased risk of having a "silent" heart attack, a new study hints. Chest pain is one ...

  17. Smoking in Pregnancy Tied to Kidney Damage in Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162696.html Smoking in Pregnancy Tied to Kidney Damage in Kids ... and about 17 percent of those women continued smoking while pregnant, the study authors said. Children of ...

  18. 25. DETAIL OF TIE ROD REINFORCING BELOW WESTERNMOST MOVABLE STAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. DETAIL OF TIE ROD REINFORCING BELOW WESTERNMOST MOVABLE STAGE SECTION, LOWER LEVEL OF STAGE, LOOKING SOUTH. TAKEN FROM A POINT JUST SOUTH OF RAM IN IL-1007-24. - Auditorium Building, 430 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  19. DO TIE LABORATORY BASED ASSESSMENT METHODS REALLY PREDICT FIELD EFFECTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed for both porewaters and whole sediments. These relatively simple laboratory methods are designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question of whethe...

  20. Prolonged Antibiotic Use Tied to Precancerous Colon Growths

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164445.html Prolonged Antibiotic Use Tied to Precancerous Colon Growths Drugs that ... 2017 TUESDAY, April 4, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Taking antibiotics for an extended period in early to middle ...

  1. 12. VIEW OF RIGHT ABUTMENT TIE AT LEFT, CONCRETE PLACEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF RIGHT ABUTMENT TIE AT LEFT, CONCRETE PLACEMENT LINES AT CENTER, POWER PLANT NEARING COMPLETION, AND AGGREGATE OPERATION AT CENTER RIGHT December 16, 1926 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. Obesity in Pregnancy Tied to Cerebral Palsy Risk in Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163962.html Obesity in Pregnancy Tied to Cerebral Palsy Risk in Kids But study authors stress that ... chances that their baby could be born with cerebral palsy, a new study suggests. Researchers looked at information ...

  3. Study Ties Inflammation, Gut Bacteria to Type 1 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_163143.html Study Ties Inflammation, Gut Bacteria to Type 1 Diabetes However, it's not yet ... Italian study finds. Those changes include different gut bacteria and inflammation in the small intestine. The differences ...

  4. Angelina Jolie's Mastectomies Tied to Rise in Genetic Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Angelina Jolie's Mastectomies Tied to Rise in Genetic Testing But, researchers did not find a corresponding ... Human Services. More Health News on: Breast Cancer Genetic Testing Mastectomy Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health ...

  5. External linkage tie permits reduction in ducting system flange thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfleger, R. O.

    1966-01-01

    External linkage tie reduces flange thickness and increases seal efficiency in high pressure ducting and piping systems. The linkage transmits the pressure separating load to the tube wall behind the flange allowing the flange to support only the seal.

  6. Views of the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    View from the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception at the downtown Houston Hyatt Regency Hotel. Scene show NASA/JSC Director Aaron Cohen talking with NASA Administrator Richard H. Truly and his wife, Cody.

  7. More Evidence Ties Gum Health to Stroke Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... 163755.html More Evidence Ties Gum Health to Stroke Risk Study shows increasing risk of brain blockage ... as people with healthy gums to suffer a stroke, new research suggests. It's not the first study ...

  8. 18. Windlass capstan, looking aft. Windlass used for tying up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Windlass capstan, looking aft. Windlass used for tying up as well as raising and lowering boat on starboard side. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter BRAMBLE, Waterfront at Lincoln Avenue, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  9. Obstetric Complications Tied to Slightly Upped Risk for Autism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Obstetric Complications Tied to Slightly Upped Risk for Autism Study suggests link, but one expert stressed that most complicated pregnancies result in babies without autism To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  10. Chord, Horizontal Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Details; Crossbracing Center ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord, Horizontal Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Details; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Posts, Braces & Counterbrace Joint Detail - Brownsville Covered Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River (moved to Eagle Creek Park, Indianapolis), Brownsville, Union County, IN

  11. DO TIE LABORATORY BASED METHODS REALLY REFLECT FIELD CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed for both interstitial waters and whole sediments. These relatively simple laboratory methods are designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question ...

  12. Flute stabilization by a cold line-tied blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, D.; Wickham, M.; Rynn, N.

    1982-09-01

    The curvature-driven flute instability in an axisymmetric mirror was stabilized by an annular line-tied plasma blanket. A significant temperature difference was maintained between core and blanket. Theoretical calculations support the experimental observations.

  13. Quality versus quantity of social ties in experimental cooperative networks

    PubMed Central

    Shirado, Hirokazu; Fu, Feng; Fowler, James H.; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that allowing individuals to choose their partners can help to maintain cooperation in human social networks; this behaviour can supplement behavioural reciprocity, whereby humans are influenced to cooperate by peer pressure. However, it is unknown how the rate of forming and breaking social ties affects our capacity to cooperate. Here we use a series of online experiments involving 1,529 unique participants embedded in 90 experimental networks, to show that there is a ‘Goldilocks’ effect of network dynamism on cooperation. When the rate of change in social ties is too low, subjects choose to have many ties, even if they attach to defectors. When the rate is too high, cooperators cannot detach from defectors as much as defectors re-attach and, hence, subjects resort to behavioural reciprocity and switch their behaviour to defection. Optimal levels of cooperation are achieved at intermediate levels of change in social ties. PMID:24226079

  14. Common Virus May Have Ties to Type 1 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162969.html Common Virus May Have Ties to Type 1 Diabetes But ... least some cases of type 1 diabetes. The viruses are known as enteroviruses. These viruses cause a ...

  15. Cross-border Ties and Arab American Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-01-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N=896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties – attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans. PMID:26999416

  16. Cross-border ties and Arab American mental health.

    PubMed

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans.

  17. Feasibility of Producing Reconstituted Railroad Ties on a Commercial Scale.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    FRA), the Forest Products Laboratory, and the Potlatch Corporation was undertaken to determine the feasibility of manufacturing ties in a pilot...by the Potlatch Corporation. A cooperative of the total volume of the tlejk . -T. Face and core research effort, limited In scope to the fabrication...o4 11 materials were obtained by separating 0.040-inch-thick ties, was arranged between FPL and Potlatch to deter- by random width by 2-inch-long ring

  18. The Imagery Exchange (TIE): Open Source Imagery Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarcon, C.; Huang, T.; Thompson, C. K.; Roberts, J. T.; Hall, J. R.; Cechini, M.; Schmaltz, J. E.; McGann, J. M.; Boller, R. A.; Murphy, K. J.; Bingham, A. W.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA's Global Imagery Browse Service (GIBS) is the Earth Observation System (EOS) imagery solution for delivering global, full-resolution satellite imagery in a highly responsive manner. GIBS consists of two major subsystems, OnEarth and The Imagery Exchange (TIE). TIE is the GIBS horizontally scaled imagery workflow manager component, an Open Archival Information System (OAIS) responsible for orchestrating the acquisition, preparation, generation, and archiving of imagery to be served by OnEarth. TIE is an extension of the Data Management and Archive System (DMAS), a high performance data management system developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory by leveraging open source tools and frameworks, which includes Groovy/Grails, Restlet, Apache ZooKeeper, Apache Solr, and other open source solutions. This presentation focuses on the application of Open Source technologies in developing a horizontally scaled data system like DMAS and TIE. As part of our commitment in contributing back to the open source community, TIE is in the process of being open sourced. This presentation will also cover our current effort in getting TIE in to the hands of the community from which we benefited from.

  19. Tongue-tie in the newborn: what, when, who and how? Exploring tongue-tie division.

    PubMed

    Todd, David A

    2014-07-01

    The division of tongue-tie (TT) in babies with feeding problems has become a more accepted procedure in recent years (Bowley & Arul 2013). Although case series reports had described the benefits of division in problematic breastfeeding (Ballard, Auer & Khoury et al 2002; Notestine 1990), it was not until randomised controlled trials (RCTs) provided significant evidence of improvement that the procedure became more accepted (Berry, Griffiths & Westcott 2012; Buryk, Bloom & Shope 2011; Dollberg et al 2006; Emond et al 2014; Hogan, Westcott & Griffiths 2005). However there are still several areas of debate. These include: 1) what type of TT produces problems with feeding and thus what type of TT should be divided, 2) who should have the procedure, 3) when should the TT division be performed and 4) how should the TT be divided. In this review I will discuss these areas of debate and shed some light on this very common but often devastating congenital condition.

  20. The American Orthodontics BOS MOrth Cases Prize 2005.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Nadine

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes the orthodontic treatment of two cases that were successfully entered for the 2005 American Orthodontics MOrth Cases Prize. The first case is that of a patient presenting with a Class II division 2 malocclusion treated with upper and lower fixed appliances plus headgear. The second case demonstrates the use of a twin-block appliance, followed by fixed appliances to correct a moderate Class II division 1 malocclusion.

  1. 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, P. B.

    2015-01-01

    It is a great honor to receive the 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize, here at the 25th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. On behalf of everyone involved in this work, I would like to thank the IAEA, the Nuclear Fusion journal team, the IOP, and specifically Mitsuru Kikuchi, for their support of this important award. I would also like to acknowledge the many important contributions made by the other ten papers nominated for this prize. Our paper investigates the physics of the H-mode pedestal in tokamaks, specifically the development of a predictive understanding of the pedestal structure based on electromagnetic instabilities which constrain it, and the testing of the resulting theoretical model (EPED) against detailed observations on multiple devices. In addition to making pedestal predictions for existing devices, the paper also presents predictions for ITER, including methods for optimizing its pedestal height and fusion performance. What made this work possible, and indeed a pleasure to be involved with, was an extensive set of collaborations, including theory-experiment, multi-institutional, and international collaborations. Many of these collaborations have gone on for over a decade, and have been fostered in part by the ITPA Pedestal Group. The eight authors of this paper, from five institutions, all made important contributions. Rich Groebner, Tom Osborne and Tony Leonard carried out dedicated experiments and data analysis on the DIII-D tokamak, testing the EPED model over a very wide range of parameters. Jerry Hughes led dedicated experiments on Alcator C-Mod which tested the model at high magnetic field and pedestal pressure. Marc Beurskens carried out experiments and data analysis on the JET tokamak, testing the model at large scale. Xueqiao Xu conducted two-fluid studies of diamagnetic stabilization, which enabled a more accurate treatment of this important effect. Finally, Howard Wilson and I have been working together for many years to develop analytic formalism

  2. Kevin E. Trenberth Receives 2013 Climate Communication Prize: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    I am delighted to be recognized with this prize. I want to first thank AGU and the prize committee and, especially, Nature's Own for establishing this prize in a field that has become contentious and highly political. It did not used to be this way. Following the media frenzy with the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report, there was hope at the 2009 Conference of Parties meeting in Copenhagen that an international framework agreement on climate change might be achieved. It was not to be. Planned actions to address issues of climate change were undermined by huge funding of misinformation by vested interests. It was not helped by so-called "climategate" in which many emails illegally hacked from a computer server at the University of East Anglia in the United Kingdom were released, cherry picked, distorted, and misused by climate change deniers. Minor errors in the IPCC report were blown out of all proportion and ineffectively addressed. I was caught up in all this, and one of my many emails went viral: the "travesty" quote in which I bemoaned the inability to close the global energy balance associated with short-term climate variability but which was misinterpreted as saying there was no global warming. These examples highlight failures of communication.

  3. "Highly qualified loser"? Harvey Cushing and the Nobel Prize.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils; Schlich, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Neurosurgery, in particular surgery of the brain, was recognized as one of the most spectacular transgressions of the traditional limits of surgical work. With their audacious, technically demanding, laboratory-based, and highly promising new interventions, prominent neurosurgeons were primary candidates for the Nobel Prize. Accordingly, neurosurgical pioneers such as Victor Horsley and, in particular, Harvey Cushing continued to be nominated for the prize. However, only António Egas Moniz was eventually awarded the prestigious award in 1949 for the introduction of frontal lobotomy, an intervention that would no longer be prize-worthy from today's perspective. Horsley and Cushing, who were arguably the most important proponents of early neurosurgery, remained "highly qualified losers," as such cases have been called. This paper examines the nominations, reviews, and discussions kept in the Nobel Archives to understand the reasons for this remarkable choice. At a more general level, the authors use the example of neurosurgery to explore the mechanisms of scientific recognition and what could be called the enacting of excellence in science and medicine.

  4. Angiopoietin–Tie signalling in the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems

    PubMed Central

    Eklund, Lauri; Kangas, Jaakko; Saharinen, Pipsa

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cells that form the inner layer of blood and lymphatic vessels are important regulators of vascular functions and centrally involved in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. In addition to the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor pathway, the angiopoietin (Ang)–Tie system is a second endothelial cell specific ligand–receptor signalling system necessary for embryonic cardiovascular and lymphatic development. The Ang–Tie system also regulates postnatal angiogenesis, vessel remodelling, vascular permeability and inflammation to maintain vascular homoeostasis in adult physiology. This system is implicated in numerous diseases where the vasculature has an important contribution, such as cancer, sepsis, diabetes, atherosclerosis and ocular diseases. Furthermore, mutations in the TIE2 signalling pathway cause defects in vascular morphogenesis, resulting in venous malformations and primary congenital glaucoma. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of the Ang–Tie signalling system, including cross-talk with the vascular endothelial protein tyrosine phosphatase (VE-PTP) and the integrin cell adhesion receptors, focusing on the Ang–Tie system in vascular development and pathogenesis of vascular diseases. PMID:27941161

  5. Tie Tube Heat Transfer Modeling for Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rockets

    SciTech Connect

    Clough, Joshua A.; Starkey, Ryan P.; Lewis, Mark J.; Lavelle, Thomas M.

    2007-01-30

    Bimodal nuclear thermal rocket systems have been shown to reduce the weight and cost of space vehicles to Mars and beyond by utilizing the reactor for power generation in the relatively long duration between burns in an interplanetary trajectory. No information, however, is available regarding engine and reactor-level operation of such bimodal systems. The purpose of this project is to generate engine and reactor models with sufficient fidelity and flexibility to accurately study the component-level effects of operating a propulsion-designed reactor at power generation levels. Previous development of a 1-D reactor and tie tube model found that ignoring heat generation inside of the tie tube leads to under-prediction of the temperature change and over-prediction of pressure change across the tie tube. This paper will present the development and results of a tie tube model that has been extended to account for heat generation, specifically in the moderator layer. This model is based on a 1-D distribution of power in the fuel elements and tie tubes, as a precursor to an eventual neutron-driven reactor model.

  6. Bow-tie diagrams for risk management in anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Culwick, M D; Merry, A F; Clarke, D M; Taraporewalla, K J; Gibbs, N M

    2016-11-01

    Bow-tie analysis is a risk analysis and management tool that has been readily adopted into routine practice in many high reliability industries such as engineering, aviation and emergency services. However, it has received little exposure so far in healthcare. Nevertheless, its simplicity, versatility, and pictorial display may have benefits for the analysis of a range of healthcare risks, including complex and multiple risks and their interactions. Bow-tie diagrams are a combination of a fault tree and an event tree, which when combined take the shape of a bow tie. Central to bow-tie methodology is the concept of an undesired or 'Top Event', which occurs if a hazard progresses past all prevention controls. Top Events may also occasionally occur idiosyncratically. Irrespective of the cause of a Top Event, mitigation and recovery controls may influence the outcome. Hence the relationship of hazard to outcome can be viewed in one diagram along with possible causal sequences or accident trajectories. Potential uses for bow-tie diagrams in anaesthesia risk management include improved understanding of anaesthesia hazards and risks, pre-emptive identification of absent or inadequate hazard controls, investigation of clinical incidents, teaching anaesthesia risk management, and demonstrating risk management strategies to third parties when required.

  7. Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsai, Márton; Perra, Nicola; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2014-02-01

    In most social and information systems the activity of agents generates rapidly evolving time-varying networks. The temporal variation in networks' connectivity patterns and the ongoing dynamic processes are usually coupled in ways that still challenge our mathematical or computational modelling. Here we analyse a mobile call dataset and find a simple statistical law that characterize the temporal evolution of users' egocentric networks. We encode this observation in a reinforcement process defining a time-varying network model that exhibits the emergence of strong and weak ties. We study the effect of time-varying and heterogeneous interactions on the classic rumour spreading model in both synthetic, and real-world networks. We observe that strong ties severely inhibit information diffusion by confining the spreading process among agents with recurrent communication patterns. This provides the counterintuitive evidence that strong ties may have a negative role in the spreading of information across networks.

  8. Improving breastfeeding outcomes: the impact of tongue-tie.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Rosemary

    2012-06-01

    A tongue-tie (ankyloglossia) is defined as a lingual frenulum that is short, tight and restricts normal tongue movement. The tongue-tied newborn baby then has a mechanical difficulty attaching to his mum's breast and maintaining attachment to feed effectively. In the hands of skilled carers, this mechanical problem can be resolved by releasing the frenulum (frenulotomy) and the baby's access to his/her mother's breast milk be preserved. Published research on this subject has undergone justifiable criticism. Robust methodology was lacking in earlier studies. An overview of the course of researchers' response to critique is discussed. The care pathway in place in mid-Norfolk for mother and baby dyads where the baby's tongue-tie compromises efficient breastfeeding is outlined.

  9. Structure and tie strengths in mobile communication networks.

    PubMed

    Onnela, J-P; Saramäki, J; Hyvönen, J; Szabó, G; Lazer, D; Kaski, K; Kertész, J; Barabási, A-L

    2007-05-01

    Electronic databases, from phone to e-mails logs, currently provide detailed records of human communication patterns, offering novel avenues to map and explore the structure of social and communication networks. Here we examine the communication patterns of millions of mobile phone users, allowing us to simultaneously study the local and the global structure of a society-wide communication network. We observe a coupling between interaction strengths and the network's local structure, with the counterintuitive consequence that social networks are robust to the removal of the strong ties but fall apart after a phase transition if the weak ties are removed. We show that this coupling significantly slows the diffusion process, resulting in dynamic trapping of information in communities and find that, when it comes to information diffusion, weak and strong ties are both simultaneously ineffective.

  10. A quick subsea tie-in on a gas line

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    A 10-in. gas pipe line, runs from the Barbara A Adriatic Sea platform to land facilities at Falconara. Under plans to tie in a 10-in. lateral line from the Clara W platform, project managers wanted a cost-effective system with several specific features, including reliable seals and the ability to pig. The tie-in, using a flanged spool piece, was to be in about 240 ft of water. For this connection, they selected equipment and services using Camforge flanges. The Camforge system uses a hydraulic packer in a special tool to forge an inner tubular to an outer flanged sleeve. The resulting connection consists of a series of forged, metal-to-metal seals. Details on the forged in place tie-in are provided.

  11. Tongue-tie and breastfeeding: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Janet; Miles, Sandra C; Fulbrook, Paul

    2011-03-01

    In Australia, initial exclusive breastfeeding rates are 80%, reducing to 14% at 6 months. One factor that contributes to early breastfeeding cessation is infant tongue-tie, a congenital abnormality occurring in 2.8-10.7% of infants, in which a thickened, tightened or shortened frenulum is present. Tongue-tie is linked to breastfeeding difficulties, speech and dental problems. It may prevent the baby from taking enough breast tissue into its mouth to form a teat and the mother may experience painful, bleeding nipples and frequent feeding with poor infant weight gain; these problems may contribute to early breastfeeding cessation. This review of research literature analyses the evidence regarding tongue-tie to determine if appropriate intervention can reduce its impact on breastfeeding cessation, concluding that, for most infants, frenotomy offers the best chance of improved and continued breastfeeding. Furthermore, studies have demonstrated that the procedure does not lead to complications for the infant or mother.

  12. Stability and failure analysis of steering tie-rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, GongFeng; Zhang, YiLiang; Xu, XueDong; Ding, DaWei

    2008-11-01

    A new car in operation of only 8,000 km, because of malfunction, resulting in lost control and rammed into the edge of the road, and then the basic vehicle scrapped. According to the investigation of the site, it was found that the tie-rod of the car had been broken. For the subjective analysis of the accident and identifying the true causes of rupture of the tierod, a series of studies, from the angle of theory to experiment on the bended broken tie-rod, were conducted. The mechanical model was established; the stability of the defective tie-rod was simulated based on ANSYS software. Meanwhile, the process of the accident was simulated considering the effect of destabilization of different vehicle speed and direction of the impact. Simultaneously, macro graphic test, chemical composition analysis, microstructure analysis and SEM analysis of the fracture were implemented. The results showed that: 1) the toughness of the tie-rod is at a normal level, but there is some previous flaws. One quarter of the fracture surface has been cracked before the accident. However, there is no relationship between the flaw and this incident. The direct cause is the dynamic instability leading to the large deformation of impact loading. 2) The declining safety factor of the tie-rod greatly due to the previous flaws; the result of numerical simulation shows that previous flaw is the vital factor of structure instability, on the basis of the comparison of critical loads of the accident tie-rod and normal. The critical load can decrease by 51.3% when the initial defect increases 19.54% on the cross-sectional area, which meets the Theory of Koiter.

  13. Automatic Tie Pointer for In-Situ Pointing Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert G/

    2011-01-01

    The MARSAUTOTIE program generates tie points for use with the Mars pointing correction software "In-Situ Pointing Correction and Rover Microlocalization," (NPO-46696) Soft ware Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 9 (September 2010), page 18, in a completely automated manner, with no operator intervention. It takes the place of MARSTIE, although MARSTIE can be used to interactively edit the tie points afterwards. These tie points are used to create a mosaic whose seams (boundaries of input images) have been geometrically corrected to reduce or eliminate errors and mis-registrations. The methods used to find appropriate tie points for use in creating a mosaic are unique, having been designed to work in concert with the "MARSNAV" program to be most effective in reducing or eliminating geometric seams in a mosaic. The program takes the input images and finds overlaps according to the nominal pointing. It then finds the most interesting areas using a scene activity metric. Points with higher scene activity are more likely to correlate successfully in the next step. It then uses correlation techniques to find matching points in the overlapped image. Finally, it performs a series of steps to reduce the number of tie points to a manageable level. These steps incorporate a number of heuristics that have been devised using experience gathered by tie pointing mosaics manually during MER operations. The software makes use of the PIG library as described in "Planetary Image Geometry Library" (NPO-46658), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 12 (December 2010), page 30, so it is multi-mission, applicable without change to any in-situ mission supported by PIG. The MARSAUTOTIE algorithm is automated, so it requires no user intervention. Although at the time of this reporting it has not been done, this program should be suitable for integration into a fully automated mosaic production pipeline.

  14. Software For Tie-Point Registration Of SAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric; Dubois, Pascale; Okonek, Sharon; Van Zyl, Jacob; Burnette, Fred; Borgeaud, Maurice

    1995-01-01

    SAR-REG software package registers synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) image data to common reference frame based on manual tie-pointing. Image data can be in binary, integer, floating-point, or AIRSAR compressed format. For example, with map of soil characteristics, vegetation map, digital elevation map, or SPOT multispectral image, as long as user can generate binary image to be used by tie-pointing routine and data are available in one of the previously mentioned formats. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  15. 77 FR 58114 - SunShot Prize: Race to the Rooftop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... installation cost of rooftop solar energy systems. DATES: Registration opened on September 12, 2012, and will... about the SunShot Prize: Race to the Rooftop competition rules at eere.energy.gov/solar/sunshot/prize.html . Teams that wish to enter the competition can register at...

  16. The History of Molecular Structure Determination Viewed through the Nobel Prizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William P.; Palenik, Gus J.; Suh, Il-Hwan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of complex molecular structures. Emphasizes their individual significance through examination of the Nobel Prizes of the 20th century. Highlights prizes awarded to Conrad Rontgen, Francis H.C. Crick, James D. Watson, Maurice H.F. Wilkins, and others. (SOE)

  17. 45 CFR 73.735-505 - Acceptance of awards and prizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance of awards and prizes. 73.735-505 Section 73.735-505 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Gifts, Entertainment, and Favors § 73.735-505 Acceptance of awards and prizes. (a) Employees may accept awards, including cash...

  18. Collecting Poetry for the Academic Library: An Evaluation of Poetry Prizes as Selection Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golomb, Liorah

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the usefulness of poetry book prizes as a selection tool by evaluating their fairness, meaningfulness, and reliability as an indication of quality. The results of two surveys, one collecting data on poetry book prizes and the other asking librarians about their collecting practices, suggest that selecting on the basis of prizes…

  19. Vouchers Versus Prizes: Contingency Management Treatment of Substance Abusers in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Marx, Jacqueline; Austin, Mark; Tardif, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) interventions usually use vouchers as reinforcers, but a new technique awards chances of winning prizes. This study compares these approaches. In community treatment centers, 142 cocaine- or heroin-dependent outpatients were randomly assigned to standard treatment (ST), ST with vouchers, or ST with prizes for 12 weeks.…

  20. [Women in natural sciences--Nobel Prize winners].

    PubMed

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Lipozencić, Jasna; Kolcić, Ivana; Spoljar-Vrzina, Sanja; Polasek, Ozren

    2006-01-01

    Alfred Bernhard Nobel was the founder of the Nobel Foundation, which has been awarding world-known scientists since 1901, for their contribution to the welfare of mankind. The life and accomplishments of Alfred Bernhard Nobel are described as well as scientific achivements of 11 women, Nobel prize winners in the field of physics, chemistry, physiology and/or medicine. They are Marie Sklodowska Curie, Maria Goeppert Mayer, Irene Joliot-Curie, Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, Gerty Theresa Radnitz Cori, Rosalyn Sussman Yalow, Barbara McClintock, Rita Levi-Montalcini, Gertrude Elion, Christine Nusslein-Volhard and Linda B. Buck.

  1. Role of Tie-Points Distribution in Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, S.; Kaufman, I.; Raizman, Y.

    2016-03-01

    Automatic image matching algorithms, and especially feature-based methods, profoundly changed our understanding and requirements of tie points. The number of tie points has increased by orders of magnitude, yet the notions of accuracy and reliability of tie points remain equally important. The spatial distribution of tie points is less predictable, and is subject only to limited control. Feature-based methods also highlighted a conceptual division of the matching process into two separate stages - feature extraction and feature matching. In this paper we discuss whether spatial distribution requirements, such as Von Gruber positions, are still relevant to modern matching methods. We argue that forcing such patterns might no longer be required in the feature extraction stage. However, we claim spatial distribution is important in the feature matching stage. We will focus on terrains that are notorious for difficult matching, such as water bodies, with real data obtained by users of VisionMap's A3 Edge camera and LightSpeed photogrammetric suite.

  2. Religion and Ties Between Adult Children and Their Parents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined whether religious adults (measured by the frequency of attendance at religious services) report more extensive ties with their parents. Method. Using data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 9,002), a series of bivariate and multivariate regression models were tested. Several dimensions of adult children’s relationships with their parents were considered including relationship quality, frequency of contact, providing care to parents, and providing other assistance. Results. Adult children who attended religious services more frequently were significantly more likely to provide assistance to parents, and they reported higher quality relationships and more frequent contact with both their fathers and mothers. Results were similar for sons and daughters, and for younger and older adult children. Discussion. A better understanding of what motivates and fosters strong ties between adult children and their parents is vitally important given the “graying” of America and the consequences of such ties for the health and well-being of both generations. Religion is only one of many factors associated with adult children’s ties to parents, and this association is generally modest, but it is an important factor that should be given greater attention in future research. PMID:23908411

  3. Application of Bow-tie methodology to improve patient safety.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Zhaleh; Ravaghi, Hamid; Abbasi, Mohsen; Delgoshaei, Bahram; Esfandiari, Somayeh

    2016-05-09

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to apply Bow-tie methodology, a proactive risk assessment technique based on systemic approach, for prospective analysis of the risks threatening patient safety in intensive care unit (ICU). Design/methodology/approach - Bow-tie methodology was used to manage clinical risks threatening patient safety by a multidisciplinary team in the ICU. The Bow-tie analysis was conducted on incidents related to high-alert medications, ventilator associated pneumonia, catheter-related blood stream infection, urinary tract infection, and unwanted extubation. Findings - In total, 48 potential adverse events were analysed. The causal factors were identified and classified into relevant categories. The number and effectiveness of existing preventive and protective barriers were examined for each potential adverse event. The adverse events were evaluated according to the risk criteria and a set of interventions were proposed with the aim of improving the existing barriers or implementing new barriers. A number of recommendations were implemented in the ICU, while considering their feasibility. Originality/value - The application of Bow-tie methodology led to practical recommendations to eliminate or control the hazards identified. It also contributed to better understanding of hazard prevention and protection required for safe operations in clinical settings.

  4. Preventing Cauliflower Ear with a Modified Tie-Through Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimeff, Robert J.; Hough, David O.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a quick, simple tie-through suture technique (in which a collodion packing is secured to the auricle with two buttons) for preventing cauliflower ear following external ear trauma in wrestlers and boxers. The technique ensures constant compression; multiple treatments for fluid reaccumulation are rarely necessary. (SM)

  5. Explaining Teen Childbearing and Cohabitation: Community Embeddedness and Primary Ties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houseknecht, Sharon K.; Lewis, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    This investigation examines whether access to social capital reduces the chance that teens will cohabit or have a nonmaritally conceived birth. Using data from a nationally representative panel study of eighth-grade girls and their parents, we hypothesize that girls who have (and whose families have) dense community ties as well as greater access…

  6. Teaching Tongue-Tied Students: Ankyloglossia in the Instrumental Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dovel, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Ankyloglossia is a significant medical condition that has not been adequately addressed in music education literature. While practically every instructor will have students who struggle with ankyloglossia, many teachers are entirely unaware of this condition's various symptoms and treatments. Ankyloglossia, more commonly known as tongue-tie, is a…

  7. Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie): a diagnostic and treatment quandary.

    PubMed

    Kotlow, L A

    1999-04-01

    The tongue is an important oral structure that affects speech, the position of teeth, periodontal tissue, nutrition, swallowing, nursing, and certain social activities. Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) limits the range of motion of the tongue, impairing its ability to fulfill its functions. In this article, diagnostic criteria needed to evaluate and treat ankyloglossia are suggested, and a method for classifying ankyloglossia is proposed.

  8. 4. Photocopy of photograph, JANE MOSELEY (VESSEL 53) TIED UP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph, JANE MOSELEY (VESSEL 53) TIED UP AT DOCK IN UNKNOWN LOCATION. Date and photographer unknown. (Original in Mariners Museum, Newport News, Virginia, negative #625) - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 53, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  9. Views of the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Views of the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception at the downtown Houston Hyatt Regency Hotel. Views include former JSC Directors Robert Gilruth and Christopher C. Kraft Jr. reminiscing with keynote speaker Walter Cronkite (39934); Apollo astronauts Tom Stafford (left) and Neil Armstrong (right) talk with former Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov (center) at the gala (39935).

  10. 59. Downstream view of Waddell Dam showing buttress ties, crane, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Downstream view of Waddell Dam showing buttress ties, crane, housing over penstock outlet (left) and storage building (right). Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-06-01

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems.

  12. 12 CFR 225.7 - Exceptions to tying restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exceptions to tying restrictions. 225.7 Section 225.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations General...

  13. 12 CFR 225.7 - Exceptions to tying restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exceptions to tying restrictions. 225.7 Section 225.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations General...

  14. 12 CFR 225.7 - Exceptions to tying restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exceptions to tying restrictions. 225.7 Section 225.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations General...

  15. 12 CFR 225.7 - Exceptions to tying restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exceptions to tying restrictions. 225.7 Section 225.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations...

  16. 12 CFR 225.7 - Exceptions to tying restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exceptions to tying restrictions. 225.7 Section 225.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations...

  17. Children's Books in Review: Books on Strengthening Family Ties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfield, Evelyn T.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews children's books that emphasize the strengthening of family ties. Characters in the books realize the importance and influence of family relationships as they struggle with sibling rivalry, self-discovery, peer relationships, a search for heritage, adoption, and death. (SM)

  18. Building Ties: A Mental Health and Aging Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Sally C.; Maynard, Charles L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Building Ties Project, a program that provides comprehensive assistance to local interagency planning committees addressing mental health service needs of older adults, including training program development materials and consultation. Notes that in two years, project activities in 23 counties increased services, improved interagency…

  19. Jeffrey T. Kiehl Receives 2012 Climate Communication Prize: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiehl, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    I thank James Hurrell for his gracious citation of my work on communicating climate science to the public. I am deeply moved by his summary of my work over these past years. It clearly reflects how passionately I feel about this work and how important communication is for our field. I thank the Prize Committee for their recognition of my work and Nature's Own for supporting this important AGU prize. As climate scientists, I feel we have a duty to convey our research to the public in meaningful ways. This is especially true given that much of our scientific research is supported by tax-paying citizens. I also believe there is a moral imperative to communicate our research to the world. Our understanding of the significant climatic changes occurring now and those that will occur in the future places a great burden on all of us as scientists. We cannot hold onto our science like some protected treasure but must convey both the facts and the serious implications of our science to more than just our peers.

  20. APS presents prizes in fluid dynamics and plasma physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This article reviews the presentation of the American Physical Society awards in fluid dynamics and plasma physics. The recipient of the plasma physics James Clerk Maxwell Prize was John M. Green for contributions to the theory of magnetohydrodynamics equilibria and ideal and resistive instabilities, for discovering the inverse scattering transform leading to soliton solutions of many nonlinear partial differential equations and for inventing the residue method of determining the transition to global chaos. The excellence in Plasma Physics Research Award was presented to Nathaniel A. Fisch for theoretical investigations of noninductive current generation in toroidally confined plasma. Wim Pieter Leemans received the Simon Ramo Award for experimental and simulational contributions to laser-plasma physics. William R. Sears was given the 1992 Fuid Dynamics Prize for contributions to the study of steady and unsteady aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, magnetoaerodynamics,and wind tunnel design. William C. Reynolds received the Otto Laporte Award for experimental, theoretical, and computational work in turbulence modeling and control and leadership in direct numerical simulation and large eddy simulation.

  1. [Weizsäcker, Bethe and the Nobel Prize].

    PubMed

    Schaaf, Michael

    2014-01-01

    For his work on nuclear physics Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker was twice nominated for the Nobel Prize in physics. Bethe had worked on the energy production in stars at about the same time as Weizsäcker but independently from him. The Nobel Committee valued the structural depth of BETHE'S work more than Weizsäcker's temporal priority because Bethe had described the nuclear reactions quantitatively and had shown a much deeper understanding of the nuclear processes in the centre of stars whereas Weizsäcker had worked more qualitatively. There are no reasons to believe that political resentments towards Weizsäcker played any significant role in awarding of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1967 only to Bethe. The lives and works of Weizsäcker and Bethe show some remarkable parallels, ranging from calculating the binding energy in nuclei to the energy production in sun-like and massive stars to peace- and disarmament initiatives.

  2. Leon Van Speybroeck Wins Astrophysics Bruno Rossi Prize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Leon Van Speybroeck of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge Massachusetts was awarded the 2002 Bruno Rossi Prize of the High-Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomy Society. The Rossi Prize is an arnual recognition of significant contributions in high-energy astrophysics in honor of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's late Professor Bruno Rossi, an authority on cosmic ray physics and a pioneer in the field of x-ray astronomy. Van Speybroeck, who led the effort to design and make the x-ray mirrors for NASA's premier Chandra X-Ray Observatory, was recognized for a career of stellar achievements in designing precision x-ray optics. As Telescope Scientist for Chandra, he has worked for more than 20 years with a team that includes scientists and engineers from the Harvard-Smithsonian, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, TRW, Inc., Huhes-Danbury (now B.F. Goodrich Aerospace), Optical Coating Laboratories, Inc., and Eastman-Kodak on all aspects of the x-ray mirror assembly that is the heart of the observatory.

  3. [Opinions of the participants of 'Quit and Win' competition concerning prizes motivating to refrain from smoking].

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Alina; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Rzeźnicki, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Big antinicotine campaigns both in Poland and worldwide, are finished with a competition with prizes of different value. Psychologists say that a prize significantly motivates a person to certain kinds of behaviour. During educational activities carried out in the time of campaign, it is recommended to use techniques of psychological interaction that would release motives most beneficial to health. The aim of the work was to recognize frequency of being influenced mostly by the possibility of winning a prize before making a decision about quitting smoking and joining the competition, and learning the opinions of prize laureates concerning efficiency of 'Quit and Win' competitions. Empirical material comes from two sources. The first one is the selected fragments of a survey study carried out at Social and Preventive Medicine Department among 1700 participants of 'Quit and Win' competition that finished the 2nd International Antinicotine Campaign in Poland. The correctly filled survey was sent by 1285 people, that is 75.6%. The second source is a fragment of a survey study carried out in 2003 among 54 laureates of 'Quit and Win' competition in Poland. The completed survey was sent by majority of the laureates, that is 34 people (f = 0.63). Possibility of winning a prize as the most important reason for taking up the attempt to stop smoking and joining the competition was pointed to by 56 respondents (4.4%), whereas the remaining people chose other reasons as the most important ones. In the group of 34 respondents who were the laureates of competitions, majority, that is 22 people (f = 0.65) claimed the competition with prizes as a very effective method of reducing smoking. Half of the surveyed (17 people) claimed the possibility of winning a few prizes of high value would be more motivating than winning one of many prizes of smaller value. As the least attractive, prize gifts were pointed to. A prize in the form of a trip or holiday was considered very popular, as

  4. Molecular approaches to understanding neural network plasticity and memory: the Kavli Prize Inaugural Symposium on Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Sander, M; Bergersen, L H; Storm-Mathisen, J

    2009-11-10

    The Kavli Prizes were awarded for the first time in Oslo, Norway on September 9, 2008 to seven of the world's most prominent scientists in astrophysics, nanoscience and neuroscience. The astrophysics prize was awarded jointly to Maarten Schmidt, of the California Institute of Technology, USA, and Donald Lynden-Bell, of Cambridge University, UK; the nanoscience prize was awarded jointly to Louis E. Brus, of Columbia University, USA, and Sumio Iijima, of Meijo University, Japan; and the neuroscience prize was awarded jointly to Pasko Rakic, of the Yale University School of Medicine, USA, Thomas Jessell, of Columbia University, USA, and Sten Grillner, of the Karolinska Institute, Sweden. The Kavli Prize is a joint venture of the Kavli Foundation, the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, and the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research. The Kavli Prize Inaugural Symposium on Neuroscience was held at the University of Oslo on 8 September, 2008, organized by L.H. Bergersen, E. Moser M.-B. Moser, and J. Storm-Mathisen. At this Symposium, seven leading neuroscientists described their groundbreaking work, which encompasses some of the most important recent advances in the field of neuroscience, from molecule to synapse to network to behavior. The Symposium was a fitting tribute to Fred Kavli's vision of neuroscience as an outstanding area of progress, and to the achievements of the winners of the first Kavli Prize in Neuroscience. The main points of the Symposium presentations are summarized below.

  5. Neighbourhood social ties: how much do residential, physical and virtual mobility matter?

    PubMed

    Knies, Gundi

    2013-09-01

    Following up on the prediction by classical sociological theorists that neighbours will become irrelevant as societies become more mobile, this research examines the strength of people's social ties with neighbours and the associations thereof with residential, physical and virtual mobility using longitudinal data for Germany. Unlike previous studies, the research considers the three forms of mobility simultaneously and contrasts its effects on social ties with neighbours to those with family. The results show that residential and physical mobility are negatively associated with social ties to neighbours and positively with ties to family. Virtual mobility does not weaken social ties with neighbours but ties with family. The positive association between mobility and social ties with family may not be strong enough to ascertain that people maintain as close social ties to others in the future as it does not outweigh the negative association with visiting neighbours.

  6. Linkage of genomic biomarkers to whole organism endpoints in a Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic organisms are exposed to many toxic chemicals and interpreting the cause and effect relationships between occurrence and impairment is difficult. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) provides a systematic approach for identifying responsible toxicants. TIE relies on ...

  7. The Growing Complexity of Sino-Indian Ties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    populous nations on the earth , China and India, are on their way to becoming economic power- houses and are shedding their reticence in asserting their...the East, in what has been called the Asian Century. The two most populous nations on the earth , China and India, are on their way to becoming...Initial Encounters. As two ancient civilizations, India and China have had cultural and trade ties since at least the first cen- tury. The famous Silk

  8. Simulation of Local Tie Accuracy on VLBI Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallio, Ulla; Poutanen, Markku

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new mathematical model to compute the centering parameters of a VLBI antenna. These include the coordinates of the reference point, axis offset, orientation, and non-perpendicularity of the axes. Using the model we simulated how precisely parameters can be computed in different cases. Based on the simulation we can give some recommendations and practices to control the accuracy and reliability of the local ties at the VLBI sites.

  9. Familial ankyloglossia (tongue-tie): a case report.

    PubMed

    Morowati, Saeid; Yasini, Mobin; Ranjbar, Reza; Peivandi, Ali Asghar; Ghadami, Mohsen

    2010-01-01

    Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) is a congenital anomaly with a prevalence of 4-5% and characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenulum. For unknown reasons the abnormality seems to be more common in males. The pathogenesis of ankyloglossia is not known. The authors report a family with isolated ankyloglossia inherited as an autosomal dominant or recessive trait. The identification of the defective gene(s) in these patients might reveal novel information on the pathogenesis of this disorder.

  10. Prizes to solve problems in and beyond medicine, big and small: it can work.

    PubMed

    Erren, Thomas C

    2007-01-01

    This article complements Dr. Charlton's follow-up of David Horrobin's suggestion in Nature two decades ago to offer sizeable prizes for practical approaches to either eliminate a problem in medicine or reduce the cost of its solution. Examples from the 20th and 21st centuries illustrate that prizes--small and big--have generated sustained and successful attacks on defined problems in biology, physics and, lately, mathematics. Provided that glittering prizes are offered and awarded with care, they can lead to effective problem-solving in medicine and related biomedical sciences as well.

  11. Status homophily, sexual identity, and lesbian social ties.

    PubMed

    Logan, Laura S

    2013-01-01

    The literature on friendship and social networks finds that individuals form social ties with people who are like them--a much studied concept called homophily. However, few studies have explicitly examined sexual identity as a point of homophily. Scholars from multiple disciplines have long argued that sexuality influences the organization of our social worlds, yet most studies of friendship and social networks under-examine or overlook the influence of sexual identity. This study addresses that gap by looking at status homophily among lesbian social ties to examine the influence of sexual identity, as well as gender, race, class, and family, on their personal networks. Using survey data from 544 U.S. lesbian respondents, the findings make visible some of the factors and forces that shape social ties for lesbians. The results point to the importance of sexuality as an organizing element of social life, and suggest that studies that examine social networks or friendships more often make sexual identity, gender, and intersecting social locations a central focus.

  12. PHD2 regulates arteriogenic macrophages through TIE2 signalling

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Alexander; Veschini, Lorenzo; Takeda, Yukiji; Costa, Sandra; Delamarre, Estelle; Squadrito, Mario Leonardo; Henze, Anne-Theres; Wenes, Mathias; Serneels, Jens; Pucci, Ferdinando; Roncal, Carmen; Anisimov, Andrey; Alitalo, Kari; De Palma, Michele; Mazzone, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Occlusion of the main arterial route redirects blood flow to the collateral circulation. We previously reported that macrophages genetically modified to express low levels of prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2) display an arteriogenic phenotype, which promotes the formation of collateral vessels and protects the skeletal muscle from ischaemic necrosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that femoral artery occlusion induces a switch in macrophage phenotype through angiopoietin-1 (ANG1)-mediated Phd2 repression. ANG blockade by a soluble trap prevented the downregulation of Phd2 expression in macrophages and their phenotypic switch, thus inhibiting collateral growth. ANG1-dependent Phd2 repression initiated a feed-forward loop mediated by the induction of the ANG receptor TIE2 in macrophages. Gene silencing and cell depletion strategies demonstrate that TIE2 induction in macrophages is required to promote their proarteriogenic functions, enabling collateral vessel formation following arterial obstruction. These results indicate an indispensable role for TIE2 in sustaining in situ programming of macrophages to a proarteriogenic, M2-like phenotype, suggesting possible new venues for the treatment of ischaemic disorders. PMID:23616286

  13. It's the recipient that counts: spending money on strong social ties leads to greater happiness than spending on weak social ties.

    PubMed

    Aknin, Lara B; Sandstrom, Gillian M; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Norton, Michael I

    2011-02-10

    Previous research has shown that spending money on others (prosocial spending) increases happiness. But, do the happiness gains depend on who the money is spent on? Sociologists have distinguished between strong ties with close friends and family and weak ties--relationships characterized by less frequent contact, lower emotional intensity, and limited intimacy. We randomly assigned participants to reflect on a time when they spent money on either a strong social tie or a weak social tie. Participants reported higher levels of positive affect after recalling a time they spent on a strong tie versus a weak tie. The level of intimacy in the relationship was more important than the type of relationship; there was no significant difference in positive affect after recalling spending money on a family member instead of a friend. These results add to the growing literature examining the factors that moderate the link between prosocial behaviour and happiness.

  14. Ties that Blind: Perpetuation of Racial Comfort and Discomfort at a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Douglas B.; Hyle, Adrienne E.; Jordan, Kitty V.

    2009-01-01

    Interviews with 17 African American students and 19 White students were employed to examine interracial relations at a predominantly White community college campus. Seen through the lens of Granovetter's strength of ties theory, the interview findings revealed that strong intraracial ties and the absence of weak interracial ties inhibited…

  15. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main...

  16. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main...

  17. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main...

  18. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main...

  19. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main...

  20. 77 FR 21620 - Notice of the Buy America Waiver Request for Vossloh 101-LV Concrete Ties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Notice of the Buy America Waiver Request for Vossloh 101-LV Concrete Ties... requirements for the purchase of Vossloh 101-LV concrete ties, which contain certain components not... consist of the installation of Vossloh 101-LV concrete ties. FRA has received this request from the...

  1. 30 CFR 77.704-10 - Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tying into energized high-voltage surface... AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.704-10 Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits. If the work of forming an additional circuit by tying into an energized high-voltage surface line...

  2. 30 CFR 75.705-10 - Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tying into energized high-voltage surface....705-10 Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits. If the work of forming an additional circuit by tying into an energized high-voltage surface line is performed from the ground, any...

  3. Who Can You Turn to? Tie Activation within Core Business Discussion Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renzulli, Linda A.; Aldrich, Howard

    2005-01-01

    We examine the connection between personal network characteristics and the activation of ties for access to resources during routine times. We focus on factors affecting business owners' use of their core network ties to obtain legal, loan, financial and expert advice. Owners rely more on core business ties when their core networks contain a high…

  4. Steep subthreshold slope characteristics of body tied to gate NMOSFET in partially depleted SOI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Lei; Hu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Zhangli; Xin, Haiwei; Zhang, Zhengxuan; Zou, Shichang

    2017-04-01

    A new body tied to gate (BTG) n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor (NMOSFET) with a diode in partially depleted SOI (PD SOI) is proposed and investigated. We first compare the transfer and output characteristics between the regular and BTG NMOSFETs with grounded body and floating body. The steep subthreshold slope (<6 mV/dec) and low OFF current (∼0.01 pA/μm) of the BTG NMOSFET with floating body are observed at VD = 3.3 V. Mechanisms of the floating body effect (FBE) and the diode are analyzed to explain the outstanding performance. The hysteresis characteristics of BTG NMOSFETs are also presented in comparison to regular ones. Finally, the steep subthreshold characteristics of the BTG NMOSFET with floating body at low drain voltage are studied for ultralow power application.

  5. 78 FR 75544 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico: Preliminary.... SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (``Department'') preliminarily determines that prestressed concrete... prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties (``PC tie wire''). High carbon steel is defined as steel...

  6. From Tomato King to World Food Prize laureate.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Philip E

    2014-01-01

    This autobiographical article describes my early years, education, and career at Purdue University. Helping form and expand the Department of Food Science at Purdue was exciting and gratifying, and working with students in the classroom and on research projects was rewarding and kept me feeling young. My research on bulk aseptic processing allowed me to help solve problems relevant to the tomato industry, but I learned later that it had much broader relevance. I certainly never expected the impact and visibility of the work to result in my being awarded the World Food Prize. Being the first food scientist to win this award has enabled me to focus increased attention on the need to reduce food losses.

  7. How Citation Boosts Promote Scientific Paradigm Shifts and Nobel Prizes

    PubMed Central

    Mazloumian, Amin; Eom, Young-Ho; Helbing, Dirk; Lozano, Sergi; Fortunato, Santo

    2011-01-01

    Nobel Prizes are commonly seen to be among the most prestigious achievements of our times. Based on mining several million citations, we quantitatively analyze the processes driving paradigm shifts in science. We find that groundbreaking discoveries of Nobel Prize Laureates and other famous scientists are not only acknowledged by many citations of their landmark papers. Surprisingly, they also boost the citation rates of their previous publications. Given that innovations must outcompete the rich-gets-richer effect for scientific citations, it turns out that they can make their way only through citation cascades. A quantitative analysis reveals how and why they happen. Science appears to behave like a self-organized critical system, in which citation cascades of all sizes occur, from continuous scientific progress all the way up to scientific revolutions, which change the way we see our world. Measuring the “boosting effect” of landmark papers, our analysis reveals how new ideas and new players can make their way and finally triumph in a world dominated by established paradigms. The underlying “boost factor” is also useful to discover scientific breakthroughs and talents much earlier than through classical citation analysis, which by now has become a widespread method to measure scientific excellence, influencing scientific careers and the distribution of research funds. Our findings reveal patterns of collective social behavior, which are also interesting from an attention economics perspective. Understanding the origin of scientific authority may therefore ultimately help to explain how social influence comes about and why the value of goods depends so strongly on the attention they attract. PMID:21573229

  8. [From apprenticeship to Nobel Prize: Henri Moissan's fabulous destiny].

    PubMed

    Lafont, O

    2008-01-01

    Born in Paris on September 28, 1852, son of an eastern railways' employee and of a dressmaker, Henri Moissan's secondary schooling in Meaux did not allow him to get access to the sesame diploma "baccalauréat" (GCE). In 1869, he did obtain a special certificate of secondary schooling so that he could become an apprentice in watch making. That could have been the end of the story, but dreadful event for France appeared to have beneficial effects for Moissan. Under the threat of the Prussian army, Moissan's family took refuge near Paris. This gave the young Henri the opportunity to register as a student for the second-class pharmacy diploma, which did not need, at the time, the GCE. Moissan became then a trainee in pharmacy in 1871. Meanwhile, he followed the special schooling of "Ecole de chimie" founded by E. Frémy, and then joined the laboratory of Dehérain at the Museum, where he worked in plant physiology. He finally obtained the famous "baccalauréat" (GCE) and could register as a student in first-class pharmacy. He became a pharmacist as well as a doctor in sciences. In 1883, Moissan was named professor at the school of pharmacy in Paris. In 1886, he isolated fluorine by electrolysis of fluorhydric acid, in the presence of potassium fluoride, at a low temperature. He then studied diamond synthesis and gave a start to high temperature chemistry, designing his famous furnace. These findings and many others allowed Moissan to rise to membership in many learned academies around the world. Crowning achievement, Moissan won the Nobel Prize in 1906. A man of culture, collector of autographs and paintings, he died in 1907. Nothing of that would have been possible if there had not been a second-class pharmacist diploma. The history of Henri Moissan is one of a rise from apprenticeship to the Nobel Prize.

  9. How citation boosts promote scientific paradigm shifts and nobel prizes.

    PubMed

    Mazloumian, Amin; Eom, Young-Ho; Helbing, Dirk; Lozano, Sergi; Fortunato, Santo

    2011-05-04

    Nobel Prizes are commonly seen to be among the most prestigious achievements of our times. Based on mining several million citations, we quantitatively analyze the processes driving paradigm shifts in science. We find that groundbreaking discoveries of Nobel Prize Laureates and other famous scientists are not only acknowledged by many citations of their landmark papers. Surprisingly, they also boost the citation rates of their previous publications. Given that innovations must outcompete the rich-gets-richer effect for scientific citations, it turns out that they can make their way only through citation cascades. A quantitative analysis reveals how and why they happen. Science appears to behave like a self-organized critical system, in which citation cascades of all sizes occur, from continuous scientific progress all the way up to scientific revolutions, which change the way we see our world. Measuring the "boosting effect" of landmark papers, our analysis reveals how new ideas and new players can make their way and finally triumph in a world dominated by established paradigms. The underlying "boost factor" is also useful to discover scientific breakthroughs and talents much earlier than through classical citation analysis, which by now has become a widespread method to measure scientific excellence, influencing scientific careers and the distribution of research funds. Our findings reveal patterns of collective social behavior, which are also interesting from an attention economics perspective. Understanding the origin of scientific authority may therefore ultimately help to explain how social influence comes about and why the value of goods depends so strongly on the attention they attract.

  10. TIES for Dummies 3rd Edition (Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection) Basic how to's to implement the TIES method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, Michelle R.

    2002-01-01

    The TIES method is a forecasting environment whereby the decision-maker has the ability to easily assess and trade-off the impact of various technologies without sophisticated and time-consuming mathematical formulations. TIES provides a methodical approach where technically feasible alternatives can be identified with accuracy and speed to reduce design cycle time, and subsequently, life cycle costs, and was achieved through the use of various probabilistic methods, such as Response Surface Methodology and Monte Carlo Simulations. Furthermore, structured and systematic techniques are utilized from other fields to identify possible concepts and evaluation criteria by which comparisons can be made. This objective is achieved by employing the use of Morphological Matrices and Multi-Attribute Decision Making techniques. Through the execution of each step, a family of design alternatives for a given set of customer requirements can be identified and assessed subjectively or objectively. This methodology allows for more information (knowledge) to be brought into the earlier phases of the design process and will have direct implications on the affordability of the system. The increased knowledge allows for optimum allocation of company resources and quantitative justification for program decisions. Finally, the TIES method provided novel results and quantitative justification to facilitate decision making in the early stages of design so as to produce affordable and quality products.

  11. Opposing actions of angiopoietin-2 on Tie2 signaling and FOXO1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minah; Allen, Breanna; Korhonen, Emilia A.; Nitschké, Maximilian; Baluk, Peter; Alitalo, Kari; Daly, Christopher; Thurston, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Angiopoietin-2 (ANG2) regulates blood vessel remodeling in many pathological conditions through differential effects on Tie2 signaling. While ANG2 competes with ANG1 to inhibit Tie2, it can paradoxically also promote Tie2 phosphorylation (p-Tie2). A related paradox is that both inactivation and overactivation of Tie2 can result in vascular remodeling. Here, we reconciled these opposing actions of ANG2 by manipulating conditions that govern its actions in the vasculature. ANG2 drove vascular remodeling during Mycoplasma pulmonis infection by acting as a Tie2 antagonist, which led to p-Tie2 suppression, forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) activation, increased ANG2 expression, and vessel leakiness. These changes were exaggerated by anti-Tie2 antibody, inhibition of PI3K signaling, or ANG2 overexpression and were reduced by anti-ANG2 antibody or exogenous ANG1. In contrast, under pathogen-free conditions, ANG2 drove vascular remodeling by acting as an agonist, promoting high p-Tie2, low FOXO1 activation, and no leakage. Tie1 activation was strong under pathogen-free conditions, but infection or TNF-α led to Tie1 inactivation by ectodomain cleavage and promoted the Tie2 antagonist action of ANG2. Together, these data indicate that ANG2 activation of Tie2 supports stable enlargement of normal nonleaky vessels, but reduction of Tie1 in inflammation leads to ANG2 antagonism of Tie2 and initiates a positive feedback loop wherein FOXO1-driven ANG2 expression promotes vascular remodeling and leakage. PMID:27548529

  12. "Often a Bridesmaid, Never a Bride": Frank Grimes and the Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marler, Charles H.

    1985-01-01

    Argues that Grimes, editor of the "Abilene Reporter-News" for more than 40 years, was denied the Pulitzer because of the manuevering of Arthur Krock, a powerful figure on the Pulitzer Prize Advisory Board. (FL)

  13. [On the Awarding of the First Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine to Emil von Behring].

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils; Enke, Ulrike

    2015-12-01

    In his will of 1895, the Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel laid the foundation for prizes in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace to those who had "conferred the greatest benefit on mankind" during the last year. The Nobel Prize is today widely considered as the most prestigious international symbol of scientific excellence, but it still is an exciting research question how it gained such prestige. Drawing on files from the Emil von Behring Archive in Marburg, Germany, and the Archive of the Nobel Assembly for Physiology or Medicine in Stockholm this essay aims at shedding light on why the first Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1901 was awarded the German immunologist Emil von Behring, and how this decision was viewed at that time. This study is part of a research project that explores mechanisms leading to scientific recognition by using the example of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.

  14. MIT Clean Energy Prize: Final Technical Report May 12, 2010 - May 11, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Chris; Campbell, Georgina; Salony, Jason; Aulet, Bill

    2011-08-09

    The MIT Clean Energy Prize (MIT CEP) is a venture creation and innovation competition to encourage innovation in the energy space, specifically with regard to clean energy. The Competition invited student teams from any US university to submit student-led ventures that demonstrate a high potential of successfully making clean energy more affordable, with a positive impact on the environment. By focusing on student ventures, the MIT CEP aims to educate the next generation of clean energy entrepreneurs. Teams receive valuable mentoring and hard deadlines that complement the cash prize to accelerate development of ventures. The competition is a year-long educational process that culminates in the selection of five category finalists and a Grand Prize winner and the distribution of cash prizes to each of those teams. Each entry was submitted in one of five clean energy categories: Renewables, Clean Non-Renewables, Energy Efficiency, Transportation, and Deployment.

  15. Nobel Prize for Physical Therapy? Rise, Fall, and Revival of Medico-Mechanical Institutes.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils; Ottosson, Anders

    2015-08-01

    This historical vignette explores the considerations of the Nobel Prize Committee for Physiology or Medicine by vetting the Nobel Prize chances of Dr Gustaf Zander (1835-1920). His way to stardom started 150 years ago when he began mechanizing the passive and active movements that physical therapists manually used to treat diseases. A glance at his machines shows that they parallel surprisingly well what can be found in modern fitness studios. By combining files from the Nobel Prize Archive and sources from the first physical therapists, this vignette pieces together why Zander was considered one of the best candidates for the Nobel Prize in 1916. By providing this glimpse of history, questions about the origin of physical therapy concepts and the profession of the physical therapist are raised.

  16. The Nobel Prize in the Physics Class: Science, History, and Glamour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshach, Haim

    2009-10-01

    This paper introduces a novel strategy for teaching physics: using the Nobel Physics Prize as an organizational theme for high school or even first year university physics, bringing together history, social contexts of science, and central themes in modern physics. The idea underlying the strategy is that the glamour and glitter of the Nobel Prize story may attract and motivate high school students to open-up to scientific topics and thus be spurred to pursue science. The two major arguments for the method are that if presented in story form Nobel Prizes naturally incorporate the philosophical and historical aspects of science and therefore enable teaching about science as well as teaching science itself; and that such instruction implements case-based teaching principles, which is how humans naturally think, learn, and remember. Finally, the paper presents the storycase of the Nobel Prize Einstein received for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect as a concrete illustration of classroom implementation.

  17. Multiscale modeling of nerve agent hydrolysis mechanisms: a tale of two Nobel Prizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Martin J.; Wymore, Troy W.

    2014-10-01

    The 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems, whereas the 2013 Peace Prize was given to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons for their efforts to eliminate chemical warfare agents. This review relates the two by introducing the field of multiscale modeling and highlighting its application to the study of the biological mechanisms by which selected chemical weapon agents exert their effects at an atomic level.

  18. From Stealing Fire to Cellular Reprogramming: A Scientific History Leading to the 2012 Nobel Prize

    PubMed Central

    Lensch, M. William; Mummery, Christine L.

    2013-01-01

    Cellular reprogramming was recently “crowned” with the award of the Nobel Prize to two of its groundbreaking researchers, Sir John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka. The recent link between reprogramming and stem cells makes this appear almost a new field of research, but its historical roots have actually spanned more than a century. Here, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012 is placed in its historical context. PMID:24052937

  19. From stealing fire to cellular reprogramming: a scientific history leading to the 2012 Nobel Prize.

    PubMed

    Lensch, M William; Mummery, Christine L

    2013-06-04

    Cellular reprogramming was recently "crowned" with the award of the Nobel Prize to two of its groundbreaking researchers, Sir John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka. The recent link between reprogramming and stem cells makes this appear almost a new field of research, but its historical roots have actually spanned more than a century. Here, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012 is placed in its historical context.

  20. Rapamycin improves TIE2-mutated venous malformation in murine model and human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Boscolo, Elisa; Limaye, Nisha; Huang, Lan; Kang, Kyu-Tae; Soblet, Julie; Uebelhoer, Melanie; Mendola, Antonella; Natynki, Marjut; Seront, Emmanuel; Dupont, Sophie; Hammer, Jennifer; Legrand, Catherine; Brugnara, Carlo; Eklund, Lauri; Vikkula, Miikka; Bischoff, Joyce; Boon, Laurence M.

    2015-01-01

    Venous malformations (VMs) are composed of ectatic veins with scarce smooth muscle cell coverage. Activating mutations in the endothelial cell tyrosine kinase receptor TIE2 are a common cause of these lesions. VMs cause deformity, pain, and local intravascular coagulopathy, and they expand with time. Targeted pharmacological therapies are not available for this condition. Here, we generated a model of VMs by injecting HUVECs expressing the most frequent VM-causing TIE2 mutation, TIE2-L914F, into immune-deficient mice. TIE2-L914F–expressing HUVECs formed VMs with ectatic blood-filled channels that enlarged over time. We tested both rapamycin and a TIE2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TIE2-TKI) for their effects on murine VM expansion and for their ability to inhibit mutant TIE2 signaling. Rapamycin prevented VM growth, while TIE2-TKI had no effect. In cultured TIE2-L914F–expressing HUVECs, rapamycin effectively reduced mutant TIE2-induced AKT signaling and, though TIE2-TKI did target the WT receptor, it only weakly suppressed mutant-induced AKT signaling. In a prospective clinical pilot study, we analyzed the effects of rapamycin in 6 patients with difficult–to-treat venous anomalies. Rapamycin reduced pain, bleeding, lesion size, functional and esthetic impairment, and intravascular coagulopathy. This study provides a VM model that allows evaluation of potential therapeutic strategies and demonstrates that rapamycin provides clinical improvement in patients with venous malformation. PMID:26258417

  1. When a misperception favors a tragedy: Carlos Chagas and the Nobel Prize of 1921.

    PubMed

    Bestetti, Reinaldo B; Couto, Lucélio B; Cardinalli-Neto, Augusto

    2013-11-20

    Carlos Chagas, the discoverer of Chagas' disease was nominated to the Nobel Prize in 1921, but none did win the prize in that year. As a leader of a young scientist team, he discovered all aspects of the new disease from 1909 to 1920. It is still obscure why he did not win the Nobel Prize in 1921. Chagas was discarded by Gunnar Hedrèn on April 16, 1921. Hedrèn should have made a written report about the details of his evaluation to the Nobel Committee. However, such a document has not been found in the Nobel Committee Archives. No evidence of detractions made by Brazilian scientists on Chagas was found. Since Chagas nomination was consistent with the Nobel Committee requirements, as seen in the presentation letter by until now unknown Cypriano de Freitas, it become clear that Chagas did not win the Nobel Prize exclusively because the Nobel Committee did not perceive the importance of his discovery. Thus, it would be fair a posthumous Nobel Prize of 1921 to Carlos Chagas. A diploma of the Nobel Prize, as precedent with Dogmack in 1947, would recognize the merit of the scientist who made the most complete medical discovery of all times.

  2. SIS quasiparticle mixers with bow-tie antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xizhi; Richards, P. L.; Lloyd, F. L.

    1988-02-01

    Planar lithographed W-band SIS mixers with bow-tie antennas and several different RF coupling structures have been designed. Single junctions with inductive microstrips and five-junction arrays with parallel wire inductors showed good coupling over bandwiths of about 5 and 25 percent, respectively. Good agreement is obtained between design calculations based on a simple equivalent circuit and measurements of the frequency dependence of the mixer gain. No systematic difference was noted in the performance of Pb-In-Au/Pb-Bi junctions and Nb/Pb-In-Au junctions with similar capacitance and resistance.

  3. Urban characteristics attributable to density-driven tie formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wei; Ghoshal, Gourab; Krumme, Coco; Cebrian, Manuel; Pentland, Alex

    2013-06-01

    Motivated by empirical evidence on the interplay between geography, population density and societal interaction, we propose a generative process for the evolution of social structure in cities. Our analytical and simulation results predict both super-linear scaling of social-tie density and information contagion as a function of the population. Here we demonstrate that our model provides a robust and accurate fit for the dependency of city characteristics with city-size, ranging from individual-level dyadic interactions (number of acquaintances, volume of communication) to population level variables (contagious disease rates, patenting activity, economic productivity and crime) without the need to appeal to heterogeneity, modularity, specialization or hierarchy.

  4. Another Nobel Prize linked to synchrotron radiation work

    SciTech Connect

    Hasnain, S.

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry went to Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Tsien 'for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP'. This year's Nobel Prize in Chemistry rewards the initial discovery of GFP and a series of important developments which have led to its use as a tagging tool in bioscience. By using DNA technology, researchers can now connect GFP to other interesting, but otherwise invisible, proteins. This glowing marker allows the movements, positions and interactions of the tagged proteins to be monitored. Osamu Shimomura was the first to isolate GFP from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, found off the west coast of North America, and discovered the protein's green glow [Shimomura et al. (1962). J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 59, 223-240]. Martin Chalfie demonstrated the value of GFP as a luminous genetic tag. In one of his first experiments he coloured six individual cells in the transparent roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans with the aid of GFP. He had obtained the GFP gene (gfp) clone from Prasher [Prasher et al. (1992). Gene, 111, 229-233] and expressed it in E. coli. The GFP protein displayed a bright green fluorescence in this heterologous organism, suggesting that it could indeed serve as a versatile genetic marker in virtually all organisms. Chalfie transformed C. elegans with gfp under the control of a promoter regulating the expression of {beta}-tubulin, abundant in six touch receptor neurons in C. elegans. The organism subsequently expressed GFP from distinct positions in its body and at distinct times in its development [Chalfie et al. (1994). Science, 263, 802-805]. Roger Tsien contributed to the general understanding of how GFP glows by determining the formation of the GFP chromophore, a chemical group that absorbs and emits light. Tsien is best known for extending the colour palette of GFP beyond green, allowing researchers to follow several different biological processes at the same time. According to background

  5. FETTU Wins International Year of Astronomy 2009 Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-02-01

    The "From Earth to the Universe" (FETTU) project -- a worldwide series of exhibitions featuring striking astronomical imagery -- has won the first Mani Bhaumik prize for excellence in astronomy education and public outreach. This award was given for the best of the tens of thousands of activities conducted during the International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009. NASA was a major sponsor of the project, which was led by the Chandra X-ray Center, that placed these images into public parks, metro stations, libraries, and other non-traditional locations around the world. The exhibit showcases some of the best astronomical images taken from telescopes both on the ground and in space, representing the wide variety of wavelengths and objects observed. While FETTU has been a worldwide effort, a NASA grant provided the primary funding for the FETTU exhibits in the US. NASA funds also supplied the project's infrastructure as well as educational and other materials that helped the FETTU international efforts to thrive. "We are truly thrilled to see how many people FETTU has reached both in the US and around the world," said Hashima Hasan, NASA's Single Point of Contact for IYA2009. "It's an investment we feel has been well spent." In the US, FETTU has been placed on semi-permanent display at Chicago's O'Hare and Atlanta's Hartsfield airports. In addition, a traveling version of the exhibit has visited over a dozen US cities such as Washington, DC, Anchorage, AK, Memphis, TN, and New York City. Three tactile and Braille versions of the FETTU exhibit were also made possible by the NASA funds, each of which has traveled to multiple locations around the country. "It's been so rewarding to see how people - many of whom had never seen these images - have embraced the wonders of astronomy through these exhibits," said Kimberly Kowal Arcand, co-chair of the FETTU project at the Chandra X-ray Center, which is located at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Mass. "The

  6. The effect of line-tying on tearing modes

    SciTech Connect

    Delzanno, Gian Luca; Finn, John M.

    2008-03-15

    Cylindrical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) constant-{psi} or nonconstant-{psi} tearing modes that are linearly unstable with periodic axial boundary conditions are studied in a line-tied cylinder. Examples of these two respective classes of modes, with m=1 and m=2 (m being the azimuthal mode number), are studied. With a suitable MHD equilibrium, the former modes are marginally stable in ideal MHD for periodic axial boundary conditions, and occur as fast tearing modes (resistive kinks) in the presence of resistivity {eta}. The latter modes are stable in ideal MHD for periodic axial boundary conditions, and with resistivity occur as constant-{psi} tearing modes, unstable in a range of parameters. In both cases, the results for the line-tied modes show the expected tearing scaling with {eta} for very long plasmas, but the scaling becomes {gamma}{proportional_to}{eta} for smaller cylinder lengths L. These results are consistent with the following interpretation: For L{yields}{infinity}, the modes have a tearing width characteristic of tearing, leading to characteristic tearing mode growth. As L decreases, the modes develop a geometric width, which increases as L decreases; the {gamma}{proportional_to}{eta} scaling occurs when L is small enough that the geometric width exceeds the tearing width.

  7. Progress in remotely controlled hyperbaric pipeline tie-ins

    SciTech Connect

    Hutt, G.; Pachniuk, I.

    1993-12-31

    In recent years experience has been gained in the use of remotely installed and controlled equipment for hyperbaric pipeline tie-in operations. This has involved both the in-water construction tasks such as pipe alignment, preparation and habitat installation and tasks within the dry habitat. Central to these developments has been the introduction of mechanized orbital welding which was first used operationally in 1986. Since that date, the authors` Company has performed some 60 production tie-ins welds ranging in diameter from 8 inches to 40 inches and depths to 220 msw. The existing mechanized systems are all operated remotely but require divers assistance during the initial set-up in the habitat and to perform routine task during the course of welding such as measuring pipe fit-up, changing electrodes, servicing the wire feed and supervising the weldhead umbilicals. Progress towards fully diverless operations has been made by the development of a variety of sub-systems to carry out these routine tasks. Similarly, there has been a progressive introduction of ROV assisted tasks into construction projects often run in parallel with diving work with the objective of improving efficiency. The intention of this paper is to describe a number of the developments which will ultimately provide the basis for fully diverless hyperbaric welding.

  8. [Commentary on the Nobel Prize that has been granted in Medicine-Physiology, Chemistry and Physics to noteable investigators].

    PubMed

    Zárate, Arturo; Apolinar, Leticia Manuel; Saucedo, Renata; Basurto, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize was established by Alfred Nobel in 1901 to award people who have made outstanding achievements in physics, chemistry and medicine. So far, from 852 laureates, 45 have been female. Marie Curie was the first woman to receive the Nobel Prize in 1903 for physics and eight years later also for chemistry It is remarkable that her daughter Irene and her husband also received the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1935. Other two married couples, Cori and Moser, have also been awarded the Nobel Prize. The present commentary attempts to show the female participation in the progress of scientific activities.

  9. Nobel Prize Literature; A Selection of the Works of Forty-Four Nobel Prize Winning Authors in the Library of Dutchess Community College, with Biographical and Critical Sketches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Terry E., Comp.

    This bibliography is a compilation of works by 44 Nobel Prize winning authors presently available at the Dutchess Community College library. Each entry describes the piece of literature for which the author received an award, provides a brief sketch of the writer, includes a commentary on the themes of major works, and lists the writer's works. An…

  10. EDITORIAL: Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2009 Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2010-07-01

    The publishers of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB), IOP Publishing, in association with the journal owners, the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM), jointly award an annual prize for the best paper published in PMB during the previous year. The procedure for deciding the winner has been made as thorough as possible, to try to ensure that an outstanding paper wins the prize. We started off with a shortlist of the 10 research papers published in 2009 which were rated the best based on the referees' quality assessments. Following the submission of a short 'case for winning' document by each of the shortlisted authors, an IPEM college of jurors of the status of FIPEM assessed and rated these 10 papers in order to choose a winner, which was then endorsed by the Editorial Board. We have a clear, and very worthy, winner this year. We have much pleasure in advising readers that the 2009 Roberts Prize is awarded to E Z Zhang et al from University College London for their paper on photoacoustic tomography. In vivo high resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy E Z Zhang, J G Laufer, R B Pedley and P C Beard 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 1035-46 Our congratulations go to these authors. Of course all of the shortlisted papers were of great merit, and the full top-10 is listed below (in alphabetical order). Steve Webb Editor-in-Chief Simon Harris Publisher References Cheng Y-C N , Neelavalli J and Haacke E M 2009 Limitations of calculating field distributions and magnetic susceptibilities in MRI using a Fourier based method Phys. Med. Biol. 54 1169-89 Cho S, Ahn S, Li Q and Leahy R M 2009 Exact and approximate Fourier rebinning of PET data from time-of-flight to non time-of-flight 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 467-84 Davidson S R H, Weersink R A, Haider M A, Gertner M R, Bogaards A, Giewercer D, Scherz A, Sherar M D, Elhilali M, Chin J L, Trachtenberg J and Wilson B C 2009 Treatment planning and dose analysis for interstitial

  11. EDITORIAL: Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2010 Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2011-08-01

    The publishers of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB), IOP Publishing, in association with the journal owners, the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM), jointly award an annual prize for the best paper published in PMB during the previous year. The procedure for deciding the winner has been made as thorough as possible, to try to ensure that an outstanding paper wins the prize. We started off with a shortlist of the 10 research papers published in 2010 which were rated the best based on the referees' quality assessments. Following the submission of a short 'case for winning' document by each of the shortlisted authors, an IPEM college of jurors of the status of FIPEM assessed and rated these 10 papers in order to choose a winner, which was then endorsed by the Editorial Board. We have much pleasure in advising readers that the Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2010 is awarded to M M Paulides et al from Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, for their paper on hyperthermia treatment: The clinical feasibility of deep hyperthermia treatment in the head and neck: new challenges for positioning and temperature measurement M M Paulides, J F Bakker, M Linthorst, J van der Zee, Z Rijnen, E Neufeld, P M T Pattynama, P P Jansen, P C Levendag and G C van Rhoon 2010 Phys. Med. Biol. 55 2465 Our congratulations go to these authors. Of course all of the shortlisted papers were of great merit, and the full top-10 is listed below (in alphabetical order). Steve Webb Editor-in-Chief Simon Harris Publisher References Alonzo-Proulx O, Packard N, Boone J M, Al-Mayah A, Brock K K, Shen S Z and Yaffe M J 2010 Validation of a method for measuring the volumetric breast density from digital mammograms Phys. Med. Biol. 55 3027 Bian J, Siewerdsen J H, Han X, Sidky E Y, Prince J L, Pelizzari C A and Pan X 2010 Evaluation of sparse-view reconstruction from flat-panel-detector cone-beam CT Phys. Med. Biol. 55 6575 Brun M-A, Formanek F, Yasuda A, Sekine M, Ando N

  12. 78 FR 29325 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, the People's Republic of China, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, the People's Republic...'') petitions concerning imports of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire (``PC tie wire'') from Mexico, the... Antidumping Duty Petitions on Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire from the PRC, Mexico, and...

  13. 78 FR 75547 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Thailand: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Thailand: Preliminary... concrete steel rail tire wire (``PC tie wire'') from Thailand is not being, or likely to be, sold in the... prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties (``PC tie wire''). High carbon steel is defined as steel...

  14. The design and application of a Transportable Inference Engine (TIE1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A Transportable Inference Engine (TIE1) system has been developed by the author as part of the Interactive Experimenter Planning System (IEPS) task which is involved with developing expert systems in support of the Spacecraft Control Programs Branch at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Unlike traditional inference engines, TIE1 is written in the C programming language. In the TIE1 system, knowledge is represented by a hierarchical network of objects which have rule frames. The TIE1 search algorithm uses a set of strategies, including backward chaining, to obtain the values of goals. The application of TIE1 to a spacecraft scheduling problem is described. This application involves the development of a strategies interpreter which uses TIE1 to do constraint checking.

  15. Performance and Characterization of Shear Ties for Use in Insulated Precast Concrete Sandwich Wall Panels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    AFRL-RX-TY-TP-2010-0082 PERFORMANCE AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SHEAR TIES FOR USE IN INSULATED PRECAST CONCRETE SANDWICH WALL PANELS...of Shear Ties for Use in Insulated Precast Concrete Sandwich Wall Panels (PREPRINT) FA8903-08-D-8768-0002 0909999F GOVT F0 QF101000 #Naito, Clay...PERFORMANCE AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SHEAR TIES FOR USE IN 1 INSULATED PRECAST CONCRETE SANDWICH WALL PANELS 2 Clay Naito1, John Hoemann2, Mark Beacraft3

  16. Prize-based Contingency Management for the Treatment of Substance Abusers: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Benishek, L. A.; Dugosh, K. L.; Kirby, K. C.; Matejkowski, J.; Clements, N. T.; Seymour, B. L.; Festinger, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To review randomized controlled trials to assess efficacy of a prize-based contingency management procedure in reducing substance use (where a drug-free breath or urine sample provides a chance of winning a prize). Methods A meta-analysis was conducted on articles published from January 2000 to February 2013 to determine the effect size of studies comparing prize-based contingency management to a treatment-as-usual control condition (k=19 studies). Parallel analyses evaluated the efficacy of both short- (k=9 studies) and long-term outcomes (k=6 studies) of prize-based contingency management . Results The average end-of-treatment effect size (Cohen's d) was .46 [95% CI=0.37,0.54). This effect size decreased at the short-term (≤ 3-month) post-intervention follow-up to .33 (95% CI=0.12,0.54) and at the 6-month follow-up time point there was no detectable effect (d=-.09 (95% CI=−0.28,0.10)). Conclusion Adding prize-based contingency management to behavioral support for substance use disorders can increase short-term abstinence but the effect does not appear to persist to 6 months. PMID:24750232

  17. Radio-planetary from tie from Phobos-2 VLBI data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, C. E.; Iijima, B. A.; Kroger, P. M.; Folkner, W. M.; Edwards, C. D.

    1994-01-01

    In an ongoing effort to improve the knowledge of the relative orientation (the 'frame tie') of the planetary ephemeris reference frame used in deep navigation and a second reference frame that is defined by the coordinates of a set of extragalactic radio sources, VLBI observations of the Soviet Phobos-2 spacecraft and nearby (in angle) radio sources were obtained at two epochs in 1989, shortly after the spacecraft entered orbit about Mars. The frame tie is an important systematic error source affecting both interplanetary navigation and the process of improving the theory of the Earth's orientation. The data from a single Phobos-2 VLBI session measure one component of the direction vector from Earth to Mars in the frame of the extragalactic radio sources (the 'radio frame'). The radio frame has been shown to be stable and internally consistent with an accuracy of 5 nrad. The planetary ephemeris reference frame has an internal consistency of approximately 15 nrad. The planetary and radio source reference frames were aligned prior to 1989 and measurements of occulations of the radio source 3C273 by the Moon. The Phobos-2 VLBI measurements provide improvement in the accuracy of two of the three angles describing a general rotation between the planetary and radio reference frames. A complete set of measurements is not available because data acquisition was terminated prematurely by loss of spacecraft. The analysis of the two Phobos-2 VLBI data sets indicates that, in the directions of the two rotation components determined by these data, the JPL planetary ephemeris DE200 is aligned with the radio frame as adopted by the International Earth Rotation Service within an accuracy of 20-40 nrad, depending on direction. The limiting errors in the solutions for these offsets are spacecraft trajectory (20 nrad), instrumental biases (19 nrad), and dependence of quasar coordinates on observing frequency (24 nrad).

  18. Cooperation prevails when individuals adjust their social ties.

    PubMed

    Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M; Lenaerts, Tom

    2006-10-20

    Conventional evolutionary game theory predicts that natural selection favours the selfish and strong even though cooperative interactions thrive at all levels of organization in living systems. Recent investigations demonstrated that a limiting factor for the evolution of cooperative interactions is the way in which they are organized, cooperators becoming evolutionarily competitive whenever individuals are constrained to interact with few others along the edges of networks with low average connectivity. Despite this insight, the conundrum of cooperation remains since recent empirical data shows that real networks exhibit typically high average connectivity and associated single-to-broad-scale heterogeneity. Here, a computational model is constructed in which individuals are able to self-organize both their strategy and their social ties throughout evolution, based exclusively on their self-interest. We show that the entangled evolution of individual strategy and network structure constitutes a key mechanism for the sustainability of cooperation in social networks. For a given average connectivity of the population, there is a critical value for the ratio W between the time scales associated with the evolution of strategy and of structure above which cooperators wipe out defectors. Moreover, the emerging social networks exhibit an overall heterogeneity that accounts very well for the diversity of patterns recently found in acquired data on social networks. Finally, heterogeneity is found to become maximal when W reaches its critical value. These results show that simple topological dynamics reflecting the individual capacity for self-organization of social ties can produce realistic networks of high average connectivity with associated single-to-broad-scale heterogeneity. On the other hand, they show that cooperation cannot evolve as a result of "social viscosity" alone in heterogeneous networks with high average connectivity, requiring the additional mechanism of

  19. Cooperation Prevails When Individuals Adjust Their Social Ties

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M; Lenaerts, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Conventional evolutionary game theory predicts that natural selection favours the selfish and strong even though cooperative interactions thrive at all levels of organization in living systems. Recent investigations demonstrated that a limiting factor for the evolution of cooperative interactions is the way in which they are organized, cooperators becoming evolutionarily competitive whenever individuals are constrained to interact with few others along the edges of networks with low average connectivity. Despite this insight, the conundrum of cooperation remains since recent empirical data shows that real networks exhibit typically high average connectivity and associated single-to-broad–scale heterogeneity. Here, a computational model is constructed in which individuals are able to self-organize both their strategy and their social ties throughout evolution, based exclusively on their self-interest. We show that the entangled evolution of individual strategy and network structure constitutes a key mechanism for the sustainability of cooperation in social networks. For a given average connectivity of the population, there is a critical value for the ratio W between the time scales associated with the evolution of strategy and of structure above which cooperators wipe out defectors. Moreover, the emerging social networks exhibit an overall heterogeneity that accounts very well for the diversity of patterns recently found in acquired data on social networks. Finally, heterogeneity is found to become maximal when W reaches its critical value. These results show that simple topological dynamics reflecting the individual capacity for self-organization of social ties can produce realistic networks of high average connectivity with associated single-to-broad–scale heterogeneity. On the other hand, they show that cooperation cannot evolve as a result of “social viscosity” alone in heterogeneous networks with high average connectivity, requiring the additional

  20. Ambivalent versus Problematic Social Ties: Implications for Psychological Health, Functional Health, and Interpersonal Coping

    PubMed Central

    Rook, Karen S.; Luong, Gloria; Sorkin, Dara H.; Newsom, Jason T.; Krause, Neal

    2013-01-01

    Older adults often seek to manage their social networks to foster positive interactions, but they nonetheless sometimes experience negative interactions that detract from their health and well-being. Negative interactions may occur with ambivalent social partners (i.e., partners involved in both positive and negative exchanges) or exclusively problematic social partners (i.e., partners involved negative exchanges only), but conflicting views exist in the literature regarding which type of social partner is likely to be more detrimental to older adults’ physical and emotional health. This study examined the implications of the two kinds of network members for physical and psychological health and interpersonal coping responses in a representative sample of 916 older adults. Within this elderly sample, older age was associated with fewer ambivalent kin ties and fewer exclusively problematic kin ties. Analyses revealed that ambivalent social ties were more strongly related to functional health limitations than were exclusively problematic social ties, whereas problematic ties were more consistently related to psychological health than were ambivalent ties. Furthermore, negative exchanges that occurred with exclusively problematic social ties, as compared to those that occurred with ambivalent social ties, were associated with more avoidant and fewer conciliatory coping responses, stronger and longer-lasting negative emotions, and lower perceived coping effectiveness. A comprehensive understanding of the significance of social network ties in older adults’ lives may benefit not only from attention to sources of social support but also from efforts to distinguish between different sources of conflict and disappointment. PMID:22775360

  1. Temperature Profile in Fuel and Tie-Tubes for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vishal Patel

    2015-02-01

    A finite element method to calculate temperature profiles in heterogeneous geometries of tie-tube moderated LEU nuclear thermal propulsion systems and HEU designs with tie-tubes is developed and implemented in MATLAB. This new method is compared to previous methods to demonstrate shortcomings in those methods. Typical methods to analyze peak fuel centerline temperature in hexagonal geometries rely on spatial homogenization to derive an analytical expression. These methods are not applicable to cores with tie-tube elements because conduction to tie-tubes cannot be accurately modeled with the homogenized models. The fuel centerline temperature directly impacts safety and performance so it must be predicted carefully. The temperature profile in tie-tubes is also important when high temperatures are expected in the fuel because conduction to the tie-tubes may cause melting in tie-tubes, which may set maximum allowable performance. Estimations of maximum tie-tube temperature can be found from equivalent tube methods, however this method tends to be approximate and overly conservative. A finite element model of heat conduction on a unit cell can model spatial dependence and non-linear conductivity for fuel and tie-tube systems allowing for higher design fidelity of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion.

  2. Activity Report: "Escola de Cultura de Pau", the Laureate of the First Evens Prize for Peace Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delvou, Marjolein

    2011-01-01

    On March 18th 2011 an independent jury of experts convened in Antwerp, Belgium, to select the laureate of the first Evens Prize for Peace Education from a shortlist of eleven organizations from all over Europe. After a long day of intense discussions, the jury agreed unanimously to award the prize to the "Escola de Cultura de Pau"…

  3. Randomized Trial Comparing Two Treatment Strategies Using Prize-Based Reinforcement of Abstinence in Cocaine and Opiate Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Kenzie L.; Ghitza, Udi E.; Schmittner, John P.; Schroeder, Jennifer R.; Epstein, David H.

    2008-01-01

    We compared two strategies of prize-based contingency management (CM) in methadone-maintained outpatients. Urine was tested thrice weekly for 5 weeks pre-CM, 12 weeks CM, and 8 weeks post-CM. Participants were randomly assigned to a cocaine contingency (four prize draws for each cocaine-negative urine, N = 29) or an opiate-cocaine contingency (one…

  4. Bonner Prize: The Elastic Form Factors of the Nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdrisat, Charles F.

    2017-01-01

    A series of experiments initiated in 1998 at the then new Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator, or CEBAF in Newport News Virginia, resulted in unexpected results, changing significantly our understanding of the structure of the proton. These experiments used a relatively new technique to obtain the ratio of the two form factors of the proton, namely polarization. An intense beam of highly polarized electrons with energy up to 6 GeV was made to interact elastically with un-polarized protons in a hydrogen target. The polarization of the recoiling protons, with energies up to 5 GeV, was measured from a second interaction in a polarimeter consisting of blocs of graphite or CH2 and tracking wire chambers. The scattered electrons were detected in an electromagnetic lead-glass calorimeter, to select elastically scattered events. After a short introduction describing the path which brought me from the University of Geneva to the College of William and Mary in 1966, I will introduce the subject of elastic electron scattering, describe some of the apparatus required for such experiments, and show the results which were unexpected at the time. These results demonstrated unequivocally that the two form factors required to describe elastic ep scattering, electric GE and magnetic GM in the Born approximation, had a drastically different dependence upon the four-momentum squared q2 = q2 -ω2 with q the momentum, and ω the energy transferred in the reaction. The finding, in flagrant disagreement with the data available at the time, which had been obtained dominantly from cross section measurements of the type first used by Nobel Prize R. Hofstadter 60 years ago, have led to a reexamination of the information provided by form factors on the structure of the nucleon, in particular its quark-gluon content. The conclusion will then be a brief outline of several theoretical considerations to put the results in a proper perspective.

  5. Small Prizes Improve Food Selection in a School Cafeteria Without Increasing Waste.

    PubMed

    Hudgens, Michelle E; Barnes, Allison S; Lockhart, Mary Kate; Ellsworth, Samantha C; Beckford, Monna; Siegel, Robert M

    2017-02-01

    We recently demonstrated that small prizes given for a "Power Plate" (plain fat-free milk, entrée, fruit and vegetable) can be used in an elementary school cafeteria to increase healthful food selection by over 300%. The purpose of this study was to measure changes in food waste when the Power Plate (PP) program is implemented. The PP intervention was conducted at an inner-city elementary school. Emoticons were placed next to the preferred foods and children were given a small prize if they selected the PP. Data were obtained by observation and cash register receipts. The trays of 111 students before the intervention and 96 after were examined for content and waste. PP selection increased from 2% to 73% ( P < .001). There was no significant change in waste. We conclude that small prizes as an incentive for better food selection does not lead to an increase food waste.

  6. Stress Testing of the Philips 60W Replacement Lamp L Prize Entry

    SciTech Connect

    Poplawski, Michael E.; Ledbetter, Marc R.; Smith, Mark

    2012-04-24

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy, worked with Intertek to develop a procedure for stress testing medium screw-base light sources. This procedure, composed of alternating stress cycles and performance evaluation, was used to qualitatively compare and contrast the durability and reliability of the Philips 60W replacement lamp L Prize entry with market-proven compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) with comparable light output and functionality. The stress cycles applied simultaneous combinations of electrical, thermal, vibration, and humidity stresses of increasing magnitude. Performance evaluations measured relative illuminance, x chromaticity and y chromaticity shifts after each stress cycle. The Philips L Prize entry lamps appear to be appreciably more durable than the incumbent energy-efficient technology, as represented by the evaluated CFLs, and with respect to the applied stresses. Through the course of testing, all 15 CFL samples permanently ceased to function as a result of the applied stresses, while only 1 Philips L Prize entry lamp exhibited a failure, the nature of which was minor, non-destructive, and a consequence of a known (and resolved) subcontractor issue. Given that current CFL technology appears to be moderately mature and no Philips L Prize entry failures could be produced within the stress envelope causing 100 percent failure of the benchmark CFLs, it seems that, in this particular implementation, light-emitting diode (LED) technology would be much more durable in the field than current CFL technology. However, the Philips L Prize entry lamps used for testing were carefully designed and built for the competition, while the benchmark CFLs were mass produced for retail sale—a distinction that should be taken into consideration. Further reliability testing on final production samples would be necessary to judge the extent to which the results of this analysis apply to production versions

  7. The 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine: a spatial model for cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Neil

    2014-12-17

    Understanding how the cognitive functions of the brain arise from its basic physiological components has been an enticing final frontier in science for thousands of years. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014 was awarded one half to John O'Keefe, the other half jointly to May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser "for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain." This prize recognizes both a paradigm shift in the study of cognitive neuroscience, and some of the amazing insights that have followed from it concerning how the world is represented within the brain.

  8. Mega-prizes in medicine: big cash awards may stimulate useful and rapid therapeutic innovation.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    Following Horrobin's suggestion of 1986, I argue that offering very large prizes (tens of millions of US dollars, or more) for solving specific therapeutic problems, would be an excellent strategy for promoting the rapid development of effective new treatments. The two mainstream ways of paying for medical research are funding the process with grants or funding the outcome via patent protection. When grants are used to fund the process of research the result tends to be 'pure' science, guided by intrinsic scientific objectives. Practical results, such as useful therapeutic advances, are a by-product. Patent-seeking research, by contrast, is more focused on technology than science. It seeks practical results; and aims to pay for itself (and make a profit) in the long term by generating a patentable product or procedure. Prize-seeking research is subject to different incentives and applicable to different situations than either process-funded or patent-seeking research. Prize seeking researchers have a strong incentive to solve the specified problem as rapidly as possible, but the problem may be solved using old ideas that are scientifically mundane or unpatentable technologies and methods. Prizes therefore seem to generate solutions which are incremental extensions, new applications or novel combinations of already-existing technologies. The main use of mega-prizes in medicine would be to accelerate therapeutic progress in stagnant fields of research and to address urgent problems. For example, medical charities focused on specific diseases should consider accumulating their resources until they can offer a mega-prize for solving a clinical problem of special concern to their patients. Prize money should be big enough to pay for the research and development, the evaluation of the new treatment in a clinical trial, and with a large profit left-over to compensate for the intrinsic risk of competing. Sufficiently large amounts of money, and the prestige and publicity

  9. Mortality and immortality: the Nobel Prize as an experiment into the effect of status upon longevity.

    PubMed

    Rablen, Matthew D; Oswald, Andrew J

    2008-12-01

    It has been known for centuries that the rich and famous have longer lives than the poor and ordinary. Causality, however, remains trenchantly debated. The ideal experiment would be one in which extra status could somehow be dropped upon a sub-sample of individuals while those in a control group of comparable individuals received none. This paper attempts to formulate a test in that spirit. It collects 19th-century birth data on science Nobel Prize winners. Correcting for potential biases, we estimate that winning the Prize, compared to merely being nominated, is associated with between 1 and 2 years of extra longevity.

  10. The 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine: A Spatial Model for Cognitive Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how the cognitive functions of the brain arise from its basic physiological components has been an enticing final frontier in science for thousands of years. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014 was awarded one half to John O’Keefe, the other half jointly to May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser “for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain.” This prize recognizes both a paradigm shift in the study of cognitive neuroscience, and some of the amazing insights that have followed from it concerning how the world is represented within the brain. PMID:25521374

  11. 33 CFR 401.49 - Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. 401.49 Section 401.49 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.49 Dropping anchor or tying to canal...

  12. 33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-up walls. (a) Upon arrival at a lock, a vessel awaiting instructions to advance shall moor at the tie-up wall, close up to the designated limit or approach sign or to the ship preceding it, whichever is... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mooring at tie-up walls....

  13. 33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-up walls. (a) Upon arrival at a lock, a vessel awaiting instructions to advance shall moor at the tie-up wall, close up to the designated limit or approach sign or to the ship preceding it, whichever is... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mooring at tie-up walls....

  14. 33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-up walls. (a) Upon arrival at a lock, a vessel awaiting instructions to advance shall moor at the tie-up wall, close up to the designated limit or approach sign or to the ship preceding it, whichever is... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mooring at tie-up walls....

  15. 33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-up walls. (a) Upon arrival at a lock, a vessel awaiting instructions to advance shall moor at the tie-up wall, close up to the designated limit or approach sign or to the ship preceding it, whichever is... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mooring at tie-up walls....

  16. Dissemination Package for Transition into Electronics (TIE) Project, October 1979-June 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evergreen Valley Coll., San Jose, CA.

    This dissemination package consists of a variety of advertising materials, forms, questionnaires, tests, and handouts developed as a part of the Transition into Electronics (TIE) Project. (The TIE Project was a project that developed, implemented, and evaluated a model designed to encourage persons to pursue education and training leading to…

  17. Finite element analyses of continuous filament ties for masonry applications: final report for the Arquin Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Armando Quinones, Sr.; Bibeau, Tiffany A.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2006-06-01

    Finite-element analyses were performed to simulate the response of a hypothetical masonry shear wall with and without continuous filament ties to various lateral loads. The loads represented three different scenarios: (1) 100 mph wind, (2) explosive attack, and (3) an earthquake. In addition, a static loading analysis and cost comparison were performed to evaluate optimal materials and designs for the spacers affixed to the filaments. Results showed that polypropylene, ABS, and polyethylene (high density) were suitable materials for the spacers based on performance and cost, and the short T-spacer design was optimal based on its performance and functionality. Results of the shear-wall loading simulations revealed that simulated walls with the continuous filament ties yielded factors of safety that were at least ten times greater than those without the ties. In the explosive attack simulation (100 psi), the simulated wall without the ties failed (minimum factor of safety was less than one), but the simulated wall with the ties yielded a minimum factor of safety greater than one. Simulations of the walls subject to lateral loads caused by 100 mph winds (0.2 psi) and seismic events with a peak ground acceleration of 1 ''g'' (0.66 psi) yielded no failures with or without the ties. Simulations of wall displacement during the seismic scenarios showed that the wall with the ties resulted in a maximum displacement that was 20% less than the wall without the ties.

  18. Effects of a Group Intervention on the Career Network Ties of Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokisaari, Markku; Vuori, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    The authors evaluated how a group-based career intervention affected career network ties among Finnish adolescents as they made educational choices and prepared for their transition to secondary education. They examined the career-related network ties of 868 students during their last year in comprehensive school (junior high school) in a…

  19. 78 FR 25303 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Institution of... materially retarded, by reason of imports from prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from China,...

  20. 78 FR 37236 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Determinations On the... injured by reason of imports from China, Mexico, and Thailand of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire... materially injured or threatened with material injury by reason of LTFV imports of prestressed concrete...

  1. Difficult intubation in an infant with Pierre Robin syndrome and concomitant tongue tie.

    PubMed

    Jones, S E; Derrick, G M

    1998-01-01

    Intubation and airway difficulties may be assumed in infants with Pierre Robin syndrome. We report a case of a six month old cleft palate repair who also had a tongue tie which compounded the problem. He was eventually intubated using the two anaesthetist technique. The contribution of the tongue tie is assessed.

  2. The effect of a tongue-tie in horses with dorsal displacement of the soft palate.

    PubMed

    Franklin, S H; Naylor, J R J; Lane, J G

    2002-09-01

    Tongue-ties are frequently used in an attempt to prevent dorsal displacement of the soft palate (DDSP). The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a tongue-tie in horses clinically affected with the disorder. Videoendoscopic recordings and measurements of respiratory airflow were made simultaneously during high intensity treadmill exercise in 6 Thoroughbred racehorses with confirmed DDSP, with and without a tongue-tie. DDSP was confirmed in all 6 horses without the tongue-tie but occurred in only 4 horses with the tongue-tie in place. In one horse the palate displaced only on slowing down after intense exercise and in the other horse DDSP did not occur although palatal instability remained. The presence of the tongue-tie did not result in any significant alteration in run-time to fatigue or in any of the respiratory variables measured. The results suggest that the use of a tongue-tie may prevent DDSP in individual horses although it is not effective in the majority, consistent with the widely accepted anecdotal reports of success rates for its use. Where DDSP was not prevented, application of a tongue-tie did not improve ventilation.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A TOXICITY INDENTIFICATION EVALUATION (TIE) PROCEDURE FOR CHARACTERIZING METAL TOXICITY IN MARINE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multi-Agency effort is underway to develop whole sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) methods. Whole sediment TIE methods will be critical tools for characterizing toxicity at hazardous waste sites (e.g., Superfund sites) and in the conduct of environmental risk as...

  4. Social Identity, Social Ties and Social Capital: A Study in Gaming Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Hao

    2012-01-01

    This work will focus on how different social relationships, namely shared identity and personal tie, will impact cooperative behavior, a form of social capital. I designed and conducted an economic game study to show that shared identity and personal ties work differently on cooperation among people and resource flow in social groups. Many factors…

  5. 10 CFR 71.45 - Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages. 71.45... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.45 Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages. (a) Any..., or must be designed with strength equivalent to that required for lifting attachments. (b)...

  6. 10 CFR 71.45 - Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages. 71.45... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.45 Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages. (a) Any..., or must be designed with strength equivalent to that required for lifting attachments. (b)...

  7. 10 CFR 71.45 - Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages. 71.45... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.45 Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages. (a) Any..., or must be designed with strength equivalent to that required for lifting attachments. (b)...

  8. Weak Ties and Self-Regulation in Job Search: The Effects of Goal Orientation on Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatala, John-Paul; Yamkovenko, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the relationship between the self-regulatory variable of goal orientation and the extent to which job seekers reach out to and use weak ties in their job search. Weak ties, as defined by Granovettor, are connections to densely knit networks outside the individual's direct contacts who could…

  9. Targeting VE-PTP activates TIE2 and stabilizes the ocular vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jikui; Frye, Maike; Lee, Bonnie L.; Reinardy, Jessica L.; McClung, Joseph M.; Ding, Kun; Kojima, Masashi; Xia, Huiming; Seidel, Christopher; Silva, Raquel Lima e; Dong, Aling; Hackett, Sean F.; Wang, Jiangxia; Howard, Brian W.; Vestweber, Dietmar; Kontos, Christopher D.; Peters, Kevin G.; Campochiaro, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Retinal and choroidal neovascularization (NV) and vascular leakage contribute to visual impairment in several common ocular diseases. The angiopoietin/TIE2 (ANG/TIE2) pathway maintains vascular integrity, and negative regulators of this pathway are potential therapeutic targets for these diseases. Here, we demonstrated that vascular endothelial-protein tyrosine phosphatase (VE-PTP), which negatively regulates TIE2 activation, is upregulated in hypoxic vascular endothelial cells, particularly in retinal NV. Intraocular injection of an anti–VE-PTP antibody previously shown to activate TIE2 suppressed ocular NV. Furthermore, a small-molecule inhibitor of VE-PTP catalytic activity (AKB-9778) activated TIE2, enhanced ANG1-induced TIE2 activation, and stimulated phosphorylation of signaling molecules in the TIE2 pathway, including AKT, eNOS, and ERK. In mouse models of neovascular age-related macular degeneration, AKB-9778 induced phosphorylation of TIE2 and strongly suppressed NV. Ischemia-induced retinal NV, which is relevant to diabetic retinopathy, was accentuated by the induction of ANG2 but inhibited by AKB-9778, even in the presence of high levels of ANG2. AKB-9778 also blocked VEGF-induced leakage from dermal and retinal vessels and prevented exudative retinal detachments in double-transgenic mice with high expression of VEGF in photoreceptors. These data support targeting VE-PTP to stabilize retinal and choroidal blood vessels and suggest that this strategy has potential for patients with a wide variety of retinal and choroidal vascular diseases PMID:25180601

  10. The use of nylon cable ties to repair rib fractures in neonatal foals.

    PubMed

    Downs, Chris; Rodgerson, Dwayne

    2011-03-01

    Commercially available nylon cable ties were used as a method of internal fixation for displaced rib fractures in 8 equine neonates. The procedure was effective, well-tolerated, rapid, and inexpensive. The use of nylon cable ties as internal fixation for displaced rib fractures in foals is an effective surgical procedure.

  11. The emotional responses of browsing Facebook: Happiness, envy, and the role of tie strength

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ruoyun; Utz, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    On Facebook, users are exposed to posts from both strong and weak ties. Even though several studies have examined the emotional consequences of using Facebook, less attention has been paid to the role of tie strength. This paper aims to explore the emotional outcomes of reading a post on Facebook and examine the role of tie strength in predicting happiness and envy. Two studies – one correlational, based on a sample of 207 American participants and the other experimental, based on a sample of 194 German participants – were conducted in 2014. In Study 2, envy was further distinguished into benign and malicious envy. Based on a multi-method approach, the results showed that positive emotions are more prevalent than negative emotions while browsing Facebook. Moreover, tie strength is positively associated with the feeling of happiness and benign envy, whereas malicious envy is independent of tie strength after reading a (positive) post on Facebook. PMID:26877584

  12. Social support and social interaction ties on internet addiction: integrating online and offline contexts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Edward Shih-Tse; Wang, Michael Chih-Hung

    2013-11-01

    This study explores the relationship between social support and social interaction ties on Internet addiction by integrating both online and offline social encounters. A total of 1,642 members of online social communities participated in this research, for which structural equation modeling was used for analysis. The findings show that social support is positively associated with social interaction ties in both online and offline contexts. In addition, online social support and online social interaction ties are positively associated with Internet addiction, whereas offline social support and social interaction ties on Internet addiction are negatively associated. This finding has important implications not only for understanding the cause of Internet addiction but also for understanding the diminishing Internet addiction due to social support and social interaction ties.

  13. The emotional responses of browsing Facebook: Happiness, envy, and the role of tie strength.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ruoyun; Utz, Sonja

    2015-11-01

    On Facebook, users are exposed to posts from both strong and weak ties. Even though several studies have examined the emotional consequences of using Facebook, less attention has been paid to the role of tie strength. This paper aims to explore the emotional outcomes of reading a post on Facebook and examine the role of tie strength in predicting happiness and envy. Two studies - one correlational, based on a sample of 207 American participants and the other experimental, based on a sample of 194 German participants - were conducted in 2014. In Study 2, envy was further distinguished into benign and malicious envy. Based on a multi-method approach, the results showed that positive emotions are more prevalent than negative emotions while browsing Facebook. Moreover, tie strength is positively associated with the feeling of happiness and benign envy, whereas malicious envy is independent of tie strength after reading a (positive) post on Facebook.

  14. Tying dark matter to baryons with self-interactions.

    PubMed

    Kaplinghat, Manoj; Keeley, Ryan E; Linden, Tim; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2014-07-11

    Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) models have been proposed to solve the small-scale issues with the collisionless cold dark matter paradigm. We derive equilibrium solutions in these SIDM models for the dark matter halo density profile including the gravitational potential of both baryons and dark matter. Self-interactions drive dark matter to be isothermal and this ties the core sizes and shapes of dark matter halos to the spatial distribution of the stars, a radical departure from previous expectations and from cold dark matter predictions. Compared to predictions of SIDM-only simulations, the core sizes are smaller and the core densities are higher, with the largest effects in baryon-dominated galaxies. As an example, we find a core size around 0.3 kpc for dark matter in the Milky Way, more than an order of magnitude smaller than the core size from SIDM-only simulations, which has important implications for indirect searches of SIDM candidates.

  15. Gene control of tyrosine kinase TIE2 and vascular manifestations of infections

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Chandra C.; David, Sascha; Zhang, Ruyang; Berghelli, Anthony; Milam, Katelyn; Higgins, Sarah J.; Hunter, Jon; Mukherjee, Aditi; Wei, Yongyue; Tran, Mei; Suber, Freeman; Kobzik, Lester; Kain, Kevin C.; Lu, Shulin; Santel, Ansgar; Yano, Kiichiro; Guha, Prajna; Dumont, Daniel J.; Christiani, David C.; Parikh, Samir M.

    2016-01-01

    Ligands of the endothelial-enriched tunica interna endothelial cell kinase 2 (Tie2) are markedly imbalanced in severe infections associated with vascular leakage, yet regulation of the receptor itself has been understudied in this context. Here, we show that TIE2 gene expression may constitute a novel vascular barrier control mechanism in diverse infections. Tie2 expression declined rapidly in wide-ranging models of leak-associated infections, including anthrax, influenza, malaria, and sepsis. Forced Tie2 suppression sufficed to attenuate barrier function and sensitize endothelium to permeability mediators. Rapid reduction of pulmonary Tie2 in otherwise healthy animals attenuated downstream kinase signaling to the barrier effector vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin and induced vascular leakage. Compared with wild-type littermates, mice possessing one allele of Tie2 suffered more severe vascular leakage and higher mortality in two different sepsis models. Common genetic variants that influence TIE2 expression were then sought in the HapMap3 cohort. Remarkably, each of the three strongest predicted cis-acting SNPs in HapMap3 was also associated with the risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in an intensive care unit cohort of 1,614 subjects. The haplotype associated with the highest TIE2 expression conferred a 28% reduction in the risk of ARDS independent of other major clinical variables, including disease severity. In contrast, the most common haplotype was associated with both the lowest TIE2 expression and 31% higher ARDS risk. Together, the results implicate common genetic variation at the TIE2 locus as a determinant of vascular leak-related clinical outcomes from common infections, suggesting new tools to identify individuals at unusual risk for deleterious complications of infection. PMID:26884170

  16. Both host plant and ecosystem engineer identity influence leaf-tie impacts on the arthropod community of Quercus.

    PubMed

    Wang, H George; Marquis, Robert J; Baer, Christina S

    2012-10-01

    Many insect herbivores build shelters on plants, which are then colonized by other arthropod species. To understand the impacts of such ecosystem engineering on associated species, the contributions of ecosystem engineer and host-plant identities must be understood. We investigated these contingencies at the patch scale using two species of leaf-tying caterpillars, which vary in size and tie construction mode, on eight species of oak (Quercus) trees, which vary in leaf size and leaf chemistry. We created three types of artificial leaf ties by clipping together pairs of adjacent leaves using metal hair clips. We left the first type of leaf tie empty while adding individuals of the leaf-tying caterpillars of either Pseudotelphusa quercinigracella or Psilocorsis cryptolechiella to the other two. We also created a control treatment of untied leaves by affixing clips to single leaves. Leaf ties increased occupancy in the early season and arthropod alpha diversity throughout the experiment, on average fourfold. Furthermore, the presence of leaf ties increased arthropod species density on average three times and abundance 10-35 times, depending on the plant species. The mean phenolic content of the leaves of each oak species was positively correlated with the leaf-tie effect on abundance and negatively correlated with the leaf-tie effect on species diversity. Species diversity, but not abundance, was affected by the identity of the tie-maker. Arthropod species composition differed between untied leaves and artificial leaf ties, and between ties made by the two leaf-tier species. Our results demonstrate that the presence of leaf ties adds to habitat diversity within the oak-herbivore system, not only by creating a new kind of microhabitat (the leaf tie) within trees, but also by exacerbating differences among the eight oak species in apparent habitat quality. The identity of the leaf-tying caterpillar adds to this heterogeneity by creating leaf ties of different size, thus

  17. 77 FR 36272 - SunShot Prize: America's Most Affordable Rooftop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... Affordable Rooftop rules at eere.energy.gov/solar/sunshot/prize.html . DATES: DOE will accept comments... ``America's Most Affordable Rooftop'' in the Subject line Mail: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Solar....S. Department of Energy, Solar Program, 1000 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585....

  18. Languages for Learning: Granting All Students Access to New Skills. Fishman Prize Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Steven; Zunkiewicz, Kelly; Strait, Laura; Towne, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A single great teacher can change a life by introducing a new language, helping you master a new skill or opening a door you never knew was there. That's why every year, TNTP awards the Fishman Prize for Superlative Classroom Practice: to celebrate a select cohort of public school teachers who demonstrate exceptionally effective teaching with…

  19. John Bardeen: The Only Person to Win Two Nobel Prizes in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoddeson, L.

    2011-01-01

    John Bardeen worked on the theory of solids throughout his physics career, winning two Nobel Prizes: the first in 1956 for the invention of the transistor with Walter Brattain and William Shockley; and the second in 1972 for the development with Leon Cooper and J Robert Schrieffer of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity.…

  20. Following Zahka: Using Nobel Prize Winners' Speeches and Ideas to Teach Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Martin P.; Wilson, John K.; Becker, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Over 20 years ago, the late William Zahka (1990, 1998) outlined how the acceptance speeches of those who received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science could be used to teach undergraduates. This article updates and expands Zahka's work, identifying some of the issues discussed by recent Nobel Laureates, classifying their speeches by topic…

  1. Small prizes increased healthful school lunch selection in a Midwestern school district.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Robert; Lockhart, Mary Kate; Barnes, Allison S; Hiller, Elizabeth; Kipp, Roger; Robison, Debora L; Ellsworth, Samantha C; Hudgens, Michelle E

    2016-04-01

    As obesity has become a pressing health issue for American children, greater attention has been focused on how schools can be used to improve how students eat. Previously, we piloted the use of small prizes in an elementary school cafeteria to improve healthful food selection. We hoped to increase healthful food selection in all the elementary schools of a small school district participating in the United States Department of Agriculture Lunch Program by offering prizes to children who selected a Power Plate (PP), which consisted of an entrée with whole grains, a fruit, a vegetable, and plain low-fat milk. In this study, the PP program was introduced to 3 schools sequentially over an academic year. During the kickoff week, green, smiley-faced emoticons were placed by preferred foods, and children were given a prize daily if they chose a PP on that day. After the first week, students were given a sticker or temporary tattoo 2 days a week if they selected a PP. Combining data from the 3 schools in the program, students increased PP selection from 4.5% at baseline to 49.4% (p < 0.0001) during an intervention period of 2.5 school weeks. The school with the longest intervention period, 6 months, showed a PP selection increase of from 3.9% to 26.4% (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, giving small prizes as rewards dramatically improves short-term healthful food selection in elementary school children.

  2. Charting the Course: Four Years of the Thomas W. Payzant School on the Move Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Entremont, Chad; Norton, Jill; Bennett, Michael; Piazza, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Since 2006, the Thomas W. Payzant School on the Move (SOM) Prize has been awarded annually to a Boston public school that has made significant progress in improving student achievement. This case study identifies the structures and strategies that best serve students in prizewinning schools, provides a profile of each of the four winning schools…

  3. Children's spontaneous emotional expressions while receiving (un)wanted prizes in the presence of peers.

    PubMed

    Visser, Mandy; Krahmer, Emiel; Swerts, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Although current emotion theories emphasize the importance of contextual factors for emotional expressive behavior, developmental studies that examine such factors are currently thin on the ground. In this research, we studied the course of emotional expressions of 8- and 11-year-old children after winning a (large) first prize or a (substantially smaller) consolation prize, while playing a game competing against the computer or a physically co-present peer. We analyzed their emotional reactions by conducting two perception tests in which participants rated children's level of happiness. Results showed that co-presence positively affected children's happiness only when receiving the first prize. Moreover, for children who were in the presence of a peer, we found that eye contact affected children's expressions of happiness, but that the effect was different for different age groups: 8-year-old children were negatively affected, and 11-year-old children positively. Overall, we can conclude that as children grow older and their social awareness increases, the presence of a peer affects their non-verbal expressions, regardless of their appreciation of their prize.

  4. The Crafoord Prize 1985 in Astronomy to Professor Lyman Spitzer Jr.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahm, G.

    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has awarded the Crafoord Prize 1985 of 135000 US$ to Professor Lyman Spitzer Jr., Princeton, U.S.A., for his "Fundamental pioneering studies of practically every aspect of the interstellar medium, culminating in the results obtained using the Copernicus satellite".

  5. Eyes on the Prize: Teaching Complex Historical Content to Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersten, Russell; Baker, Scott K.; Smith-Johnson, Joyce; Dimino, Joseph; Peterson, Anne

    2006-01-01

    This study compared two approaches for teaching a history unit on the Civil Rights Movement (1954-1965) to middle school students with learning disabilities (LD) in general education settings. The curriculum was designed to make the content challenging, but accessible. The major text was the documentary, Eyes on the Prize (DeVinney, 1991).…

  6. Superintendent Leadership: A Phenomenological Study of Texas Superintendents from Broad Prize Eligible School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Jose H.

    2014-01-01

    The identification of leadership qualities and reform strategies implemented to increase student achievement in urban school districts is vital to closing the achievement gap. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to identify a leadership profile of the Broad Prize superintendent and reform strategies used to leverage systemic change that…

  7. The Nobel Prize in the Physics Class: Science, History, and Glamour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshach, Haim

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel strategy for teaching physics: using the Nobel Physics Prize as an organizational theme for high school or even first year university physics, bringing together history, social contexts of science, and central themes in modern physics. The idea underlying the strategy is that the glamour and glitter of the Nobel Prize…

  8. Quality in Higher Education: Lessons Learned from the Baldrige Award, Deming Prize, and ISO 9000 Registration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izadi, Mahyar; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Compares the Baldrige Award, Deming Prize, and ISO 9000 registration in terms of purpose, focus, eligibility, time frame, information sharing, number of recipients, and assessment. Suggests that vocational-technical programs in higher education could be improved using the criteria for these awards. (SK)

  9. Creative Problem Solving with Marginalized Populations: Reclaiming Lost Prizes through In-the-Trenches Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCluskey, Ken W.; Baker, Philip A.; McCluskey, Andrea L. A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes several initiatives in which Creative Problem Solving, in combination with career exploration and mentoring, has been used successfully to identify and develop the talents of "at-risk" populations. During the past decade, the Lost Prizes project helped turn around the lives of talented but troubled high-school…

  10. Prize reinforcement contingency management for treating cocaine users: how low can we go, and with whom?

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Tedford, Jacqueline; Austin, Mark; Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.

    2013-01-01

    Aims This study evaluated the efficacy of a low-cost, prize reinforcement contingency management (CM) intervention for reducing cocaine use. Setting Community-based treatment centers. Participants and design Cocaine-abusing out-patients (n = 120) were assigned randomly to one of three 12-week conditions: standard treatment, standard treatment plus CM with an expected maximum of $80 of reinforcement or standard treatment plus CM with an expected maximum of $240 of reinforcement. Intervention In the CM conditions, patients earned the opportunity to win prizes for submitting negative urine samples and completing goal-related activities. Measurements Drug use was measured at intake and throughout a 3-month treatment period. Findings Patients in the $240 CM condition achieved more abstinence than patients in the standard condition. Patients who initiated treatment with positive urinalysis results were most responsive to the CM intervention, with the $240 CM condition engendering the best effects in this subgroup. In contrast, patients who initiated treatment with negative urinalysis results generally remained abstinent during treatment, regardless of treatment assignment. On average, patients in the two CM conditions earned $36 and $68 in prizes. Conclusions This study suggests that prize reinforcement CM may be suitable for community-based settings, and beneficial effects may be magnitude-dependent in more severe patients. PMID:14982548

  11. Introducing Taiwanese undergraduate students to the nature of science through Nobel Prize stories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshach, Haim; Hwang, Fu-Kwun; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2013-06-01

    Although there is a broad agreement among scientists and science educators that students should not only learn science, but also acquire some sense of its nature, it has been reported that undergraduate students possess an inadequate grasp of the nature of science (NOS). The study presented here examined the potential and effectiveness of Nobel Prize stories as a vehicle for teaching NOS. For this purpose, a 36-hour course, “Albert Einstein’s Nobel Prize and the Nature of Science,” was developed and conducted in Taiwan Normal University. Ten undergraduate physics students participated in the course. Analysis of the Views of Nature of Science questionnaires completed by the students before and after the course, as well as the students’ own presentations of Nobel Prize stories (with an emphasis on how NOS characteristics are reflected in the story), showed that the students who participated in the course enriched their views concerning all aspects of NOS. The paper concludes with some suggestions for applying the novel idea of using Nobel Prize stories in physics classrooms.

  12. Randomized Trial of Contingent Prizes versus Vouchers in Cocaine-Using Methadone Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Hanson, Tressa; Sierra, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) interventions frequently utilize vouchers as reinforcers, but a prize-based system is also efficacious. This study compared these approaches. Seventy-four cocaine-dependent methadone outpatients were randomly assigned to standard treatment (ST), ST plus a maximum of $585 in contingent vouchers, or ST plus an expected…

  13. 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry: Development of the Olefin Metathesis Method in Organic Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Charles P.

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis". The discoveries of the laureates provided a chemical reaction used daily in the chemical industry for the efficient and more environmentally friendly production of important pharmaceuticals, fuels, synthetic fibers, and many other…

  14. A Century of Chemical Dynamics Traced through the Nobel Prizes. 1981: Fukui and Hoffmann

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Houten, J.

    2002-06-01

    The 1981 Nobel Prize was awarded to Kenichi Fukui and Roald Hoffmann "for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions." Those theories, which have come to be known as "frontier orbital theory" and the "Woodward-Hoffmann rules" respectively, remain important tools for predicting the course of organic reactions and they are frequently taught in courses in mechanistic organic chemistry.

  15. Dannie Heineman Prize for Mathematical Physics Lecture: Understanding Nonequilibrium via Rare Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jona-Lasinio, Giovanni

    2012-02-01

    Irreversible processes are a hot subject in statistical mechanics. During the last decade through the effort of several people, including the recipient of the prize and his collaborators, a progress in understanding stationary nonequilibrium states has been achieved. The key has been the study of rare fluctuations. The talk will review some basic ideas, results and perspectives.

  16. Prizing Children's Science Information Books: The Text, Reading and the Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Joy; Jarman, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The Royal Society Young People's Book Prize is awarded annually in the United Kingdom for the best science information book, and the winning book is chosen by panels of young people. This article discusses the findings of a study of the responses to the books and to their judging experience of young people who participated on panels in the 2011…

  17. In Sciences, the Reflected Prestige of the Nobel Prize Extends Far Beyond Anything Its Creator Imagined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Kim

    1987-01-01

    As the ultimate symbol of excellence, the Nobel Prize has had a tremendous effect on scholars, institutions, and national pride. Topics discussed include: recruitment and fund raising, salaries and other perks, "raids" from other institutions, students seeking out winners, publication declines, etc. (MLW)

  18. Angiopoietin receptor Tie2 is required for vein specification and maintenance via regulating COUP-TFII

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Man; Li, Taotao; Shen, Bin; Cao, Xudong; Zhong, Haoyu; Zhang, Luqing; Zhou, Fei; Ma, Wenjuan; Jiang, Haijuan; Xie, Pancheng; Liu, Zhengzheng; Dong, Ningzheng; Xu, Ying; Zhao, Yun; Xu, Guoqiang; Lu, Peirong; Luo, Jincai; Wu, Qingyu; Alitalo, Kari; Koh, Gou Young; Adams, Ralf H; He, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying the vein development remain largely unknown. Tie2 signaling mediates endothelial cell (EC) survival and vascular maturation and its activating mutations are linked to venous malformations. Here we show that vein formation are disrupted in mouse skin and mesentery when Tie2 signals are diminished by targeted deletion of Tek either ubiquitously or specifically in embryonic ECs. Postnatal Tie2 attenuation resulted in the degeneration of newly formed veins followed by the formation of haemangioma-like vascular tufts in retina and venous tortuosity. Mechanistically, Tie2 insufficiency compromised venous EC identity, as indicated by a significant decrease of COUP-TFII protein level, a key regulator in venogenesis. Consistently, angiopoietin-1 stimulation increased COUP-TFII in cultured ECs, while Tie2 knockdown or blockade of Tie2 downstream PI3K/Akt pathway reduced COUP-TFII which could be reverted by the proteasome inhibition. Together, our results imply that Tie2 is essential for venous specification and maintenance via Akt mediated stabilization of COUP-TFII. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21032.001 PMID:28005008

  19. Epithin/PRSS14 proteolytically regulates angiopoietin receptor Tie2 during transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chungho; Lee, Hyo Seon; Lee, Deokjae; Lee, Sang Don; Cho, Eun-Gyung; Yang, Soo Jung; Kim, Sang Bum; Park, Dongeun; Kim, Moon Gyo

    2011-01-27

    Epithin/PRSS14, a type II transmembrane serine protease, is involved in normal epithelial development and tumor progression. Here we report, as an interacting substrate of epithin, a receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2 that is well known for important roles in the vessel stability. Epithin interacts with and degrades the Tie2 extracellular portion that contains the ligand-binding domain. Epithin is located in the neighbor of Tie2-expressing vessels in normal tissue. Furthermore, epithin can cleave and degrade Tie2 not only in the same cell but also from neighboring cells nearby, resulting in the degradation of the Tie2 ectodomain. The remaining Tie2 fragment was highly phosphorylated and was able to recruit a downstream effector, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Knocking down epithin expression using short hairpin RNA in thymoma cell severely impaired the migration through endothelial cells that show the actin rearrangement during the process. The diminution of epithin protein expression in 4T1 breast cancer cells caused the significant decrease in the number of transendothelial migrating cells in vitro as well as in those of metastasizing tumor nodules in vivo, Therefore, we propose that epithin, which regulates endothelial Tie2 functions, plays a critical role in the fine tuning of transendothelial migration for normal and cancer cells.

  20. How the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was shared between Golgi and Cajal.

    PubMed

    Grant, Gunnar

    2007-10-01

    In 1906 the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was shared between Camillo Golgi and Ramón y Cajal in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system. Golgi's most impressive contribution was his method, described in 1873. This was applied in studies of the cerebellum, the olfactory bulb, hippocampus and the spinal cord. These studies together with his earlier work were included in his Opera Omnia, published in 1903. His method was highly praised by Cajal. His adherence to the reticular theory was opposed by Cajal, however, who had spelled out the neuron theory already in the late 1800s. Cajal's extraordinary contributions to the structure of the nervous system, based largely on the Golgi method and Ehrlich's methylene blue stain, were published in his Textura del Sistema Nerviosa de Hombre y de los Vertebrados, three volumes published from 1897 to 1904. Documents from the Nobel Archives reveal that Kölliker, Retzius and Fürst were the ones who proposed Golgi and Cajal for a shared prize. Golgi was nominated by Hertwig, as well. Cajal was proposed by Ziehen and Holmgren, and also by Retzius, as an alternative to a shared prize. Holmgren, who was commissioned to write the report to the Nobel Committee, found Cajal far superior to Golgi. Sundberg, asked for another evaluation, was more positive to Golgi's contributions than Holmgren. Gadelius supported Holmgren's views. The final vote gave a majority for a shared prize. The prize ceremony and the lectures were described in detail in Cajal's autobiography.

  1. Gestalt switches in Poincaré's prize paper: An inspiration for, but not an instance of, chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuchowski, Lena Christine

    2014-08-01

    I analyse in detail the construction of asymptotic surfaces in Sections 16-19 of Poincaré (1890), also known as the prize paper. There are two prime reasons for doing so. Firstly, this part of the prize paper contains an interesting argumentative strategy, which I call Poincaré's gestalt switch. Secondly, it has been claimed that the prize paper contains one of the first descriptions of chaotic motion. I will argue that the latter claim is false, although both the gestalt switches and the graphical representation which Poincaré (1890) chose for the asymptotic surfaces might well have provided the inspiration for later works in chaos theory.

  2. Recovery From Radiation-induced Bone Marrow Damage by HSP25 Through Tie2 Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hae-June; Kwon, Hee-Chung; Chung, Hee-Yong; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Whole-body radiation therapy can cause severe injury to the hematopoietic system, and therefore it is necessary to identify a novel strategy for overcoming this injury. Methods and Materials: Mice were irradiated with 4.5 Gy after heat shock protein 25 (HSP25) gene transfer using an adenoviral vector. Then, peripheral blood cell counts, histopathological analysis, and Western blotting on bone marrow (BM) cells were performed. The interaction of HSP25 with Tie2 was investigated with mouse OP9 and human BM-derived mesenchymal stem cells to determine the mechanism of HSP25 in the hematopoietic system. Results: HSP25 transfer increased BM regeneration and reduced apoptosis following whole-body exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). The decrease in Tie2 protein expression that followed irradiation of the BM was blocked by HSP25 transfer, and Tie2-positive cells were more abundant among the BM cells of HSP25-transferred mice, even after IR exposure. Following systemic RNA interference of Tie2 before IR, HSP25-mediated radioprotective effects were partially blocked in both mice and cell line systems. Stability of Tie2 was increased by HSP25, a response mediated by the interaction of HSP25 with Tie2. IR-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Tie2 was augmented by HSP25 overexpression; downstream events in the Tie2 signaling pathway, including phosphorylation of AKT and EKR1/2, were also activated. Conclusions: HSP25 protects against radiation-induced BM damage by interacting with and stabilizing Tie2. This may be a novel strategy for HSP25-mediated radioprotection in BM.

  3. EDITORIAL: Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2011 Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Simon; Ruffle, Jon

    2012-08-01

    The publishers of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB), IOP Publishing, in association with the journal owners, the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM), jointly award an annual prize for the best paper published in PMB during the previous year. The procedure for deciding the winner is a two-stage process. First, a shortlist of contenders is drawn up based on those papers that had the best referees' quality assessments, with a further quality check and endorsement by the Editorial Board. The papers on the shortlist are then reviewed by a specially convened IPEM committee consisting of members with fellow status. This committee reads the shortlisted papers and selects the winner. We have much pleasure in advising readers that the Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2011 is awarded to Matthew Hough et al from the University of Florida, the Francis Marion University and the National Cancer Institute, USA for their paper on a comprehensive electron dosimetry model of skeletal tissues in the adult male: An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference adult male—internal electron sources 2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 2309 Matthew Hough1, Perry Johnson1, Didier Rajon2, Derek Jokisch3, Choonsik Lee4 and Wesley Bolch1,5 1Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA 2Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA 3Department of Physics and Astronomy, Francis Marion University, Florence, SC, USA 4Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Bone marrow is one of the more radiosensitive tissues in the human body and is housed within a complex structure of bone. This paper describes a comprehensive model of energy deposition by internal electron or beta particle emitters for the ICRP reference adult male based upon ex vivo CT and microCT images of

  4. EDITORIAL: Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2012 Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Simon; Ruffle, Jon

    2013-08-01

    The publishers of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB), IOP Publishing, in association with the journal owners, the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM), jointly award the Roberts prize for the best paper published in PMB during the previous year. The procedure for deciding the winner is a two-stage process. First, a shortlist of contenders is drawn up based on those papers that had the best referees' quality assessments, with a further quality check and endorsement by the Editorial Board. The papers on the shortlist are then reviewed by a specially convened IPEM committee consisting of members with fellow status. This committee reads the shortlisted papers and selects the winner. We have much pleasure in advising readers that the Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2012 is awarded to Michel Defrise, Ahmadreza Rezaei and Johan Nuyts from the Vrije Universiteit Brussels and the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium for their breakthrough paper that describes how the information needed for attenuation correction in PET imaging can be extracted, to within a constant, from time-of-flight emission data: Time-of-flight PET data determine the attenuation sinogram up to a constant 2012 Phys. Med. Biol. 57 885 Michel Defrise1, Ahmadreza Rezaei2 and Johan Nuyts2 1Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, B-1090 Brussels, Belgium 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium This paper represents an important and timely contribution to the literature as time-of-flight PET scanners are now offered by several manufacturers. In hybrid PET/CT scanners, the PET attenuation correction, necessary for quantitative reconstruction of the tracer distribution, can be derived directly from the CT data. Sometimes, however, the PET and CT scans may be poorly aligned due to patient motion and other approaches are needed. In addition, hybrid PET/MRI scanners also, have been developed recently, and in

  5. Tongue-tie assessment: clinical aspects and a new diode laser technique for its management.

    PubMed

    Crippa, R; Paglia, M; Ferrante, F; Ottonello, A; Angiero, F

    2016-09-01

    BACKGROUND Often breastfeeding problems experienced by mothers and their babies may be attributed to the abnormal attachment of the infant's tongue (ankyloglossia) and/or maxillary lip-tie. Proper breastfeeding depends upon an infant's ability to correctly latch onto its mother's breast. If born with oral soft tissue abnormalities such as tongue-tie or lip-tie, it may be almost impossible for the infant to breastfeed. During the oral evaluation of an infant presenting with breastfeeding problems, one factor that is often overlooked and undiagnosed - and thus untreated - is the attachment of the upper lip to the maxillary gingival tissue.

  6. Experimental investigation of line-tying effects on the spheromak tilt mode

    SciTech Connect

    Wysocki, F.J.

    1986-02-01

    A variety of passive stabilization techniques compatible with S-1 inductive spheromak formation has been evaluated for effectiveness against the MHD tilting instability. A line-tying stabilization effect has been previously identified theoretically. In the present work, the effects have been experimentally identified and investigated. The perturbed current patterns within passive stabilizing structures have been measured, and line-tying currents have been identified. The simple ring model of tilting has been expanded to include line-tying, and has provided estimates for growth rates which agree well with the measured values. 51 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Diverless tie-in tool gets first test on deepwater line

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D.

    1997-03-24

    A diverless, deepwater tie-in and repair tool has been developed and successfully tested on the Norwegian Sea`s Haltenpipe project. Den Norske stats oljeselskap AS (Statoil) and Hydratight Ltd., Wolverhampton, U.K., have disclosed details of the technique and installation. Statoil funded development by Hydra-tight of its Morgrip mechanical connector as a diverless pipeline tie-in and repair system for use in water too deep for existing technologies. The paper discusses welding restrictions underwater, metal-to-metal sealing, the Haltenpipe tie-in, and further development plans.

  8. X-Ray Spectroscopy, The Ellen Richards Prize, and Nuclear Proliferation: The Inspiring Life of Katherine Chamberlain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geramita, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    In 1924, Katherine Chamberlain became the first woman to receive a doctorate in physics from the University of Michigan. As one of the first women in the world to earn a doctorate in physics, Katherine reached a level prominence in the scientific community that few women had achieved. As a scientist, Katherine studied the outer energy levels of various elements using x-ray spectroscopy at the University of Michigan. In her thesis, she showed the potential for x-rays to reduce highly oxidized compounds and in 1925 won the Ellen Richards Prize for the world's best scientific paper by a woman. As an educator, she taught an introduction to photography course for thirty-five years in the hopes of creating new ways to inspire a love for physics in her students. As a community leader, she worked with The United World Federalists and The Michigan Memorial Phoenix Project to find peaceful uses for nuclear energy. Looking at these aspects of Chamberlain's life offers a unique perspective on the physics community of the 1920's, physics education, and the nuclear panic that followed WWII.

  9. 78 FR 57619 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the... antidumping duty investigations of imports of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of China. See Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico,...

  10. 29 GHz directly modulated 980 nm vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers with bow-tie shape transverse coupled cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalir, Hamed; Koyama, Fumio

    2013-08-01

    A concept for the bandwidth enhancement of directly modulated vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) using a transverse-coupled-cavity (TCC) scheme is proposed, which enables us to tailor the modulation-transfer function. A bow-tie shaped oxide aperture forms the transverse-coupled cavity resulting in optical feedback to boost the modulation speed. While the bandwidth of conventional VCSELs is 9-10 GHz, the 3 dB-bandwidth of the TCC VCSEL is increased by a factor of 3 far beyond the relaxation-oscillation frequency. The maximum bandwidth is currently limited by the photo-detector used in the experiment. Clear 36 Gbps eye opening was attained with an extinction ratio of 4 dB.

  11. Society News: PhD theses could win prizes; Last chance for IYA2009 grants; New Fellows; RAS Fellows win prizes; Need a job? Need staff? RAS Library Saturdays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-08-01

    Fellows who are PhD student supervisors should be on the lookout for exceptionally good work from research students submitting their theses this year, for nomination for the RAS Michael Penston Astronomy Prize and the RAS Keith Runcorn Prize. The RAS is offering one last chance to apply for grants towards International Year of Astronomy activities, but you'll have to apply soon. The Society sends congratulations to Fellows of the RAS who have recently received prestigious awards for their work.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION AND ISOLATION OF ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN WHOLE SEDIMENT TOXICITY INDENTIFICATION EVALUATIONS (TIES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of whole sediment toxicity identification and evaluation (TIEs) methods has been under way for approximately four years. These methods are necessary to define cause and effect relationships in toxic sediments during ecological risk assessments, remediation and disposa...

  13. BAYESIAN INFERENCE OF HIDDEN GAMMA WEAR PROCESS MODEL FOR SURVIVAL DATA WITH TIES

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Arijit; Chi, Zhiyi; Chen, Ming-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Survival data often contain tied event times. Inference without careful treatment of the ties can lead to biased estimates. This paper develops the Bayesian analysis of a stochastic wear process model to fit survival data that might have a large number of ties. Under a general wear process model, we derive the likelihood of parameters. When the wear process is a Gamma process, the likelihood has a semi-closed form that allows posterior sampling to be carried out for the parameters, hence achieving model selection using Bayesian deviance information criterion. An innovative simulation algorithm via direct forward sampling and Gibbs sampling is developed to sample event times that may have ties in the presence of arbitrary covariates; this provides a tool to assess the precision of inference. An extensive simulation study is reported and a data set is used to further illustrate the proposed methodology. PMID:26576105

  14. Early Family Ties and Marital Stability Over 16 Years: The Context of Race and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Orbuch, Terri L.; Bauermeister, José A.; Brown, Edna; McKinley, Brandyn-Dior

    2016-01-01

    Spouses’ emotional ties to family early in marriage are linked to marital outcomes, but little is known about how these ties affect marital stability and whether these effects vary by race and gender. The present study examines the links between emotional ties to family of origin and in-laws in the first year of marriage and marital stability over the first 16 years of marriage. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study following Black American (n=199) and White American (n=174) married couples. Analyses revealed that perceptions of closeness to in-laws early in marriage were associated with odds of divorce over time, but the results varied by race and gender. Findings are discussed in terms of couples’ ties to family early in marriage and the role that in-law bonds play for marital stability. We also offer insights for practitioners who provide premarital and marital education and counseling services to couples. PMID:27594724

  15. Iron Framing Axonometric, Stringer, IBeam, Channel, Composite TieBeam, and Small ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Iron Framing Axonometric, Stringer, I-Beam, Channel, Composite Tie-Beam, and Small and Large Phoenix Columns - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. Fiber Optic Tamper Indicating Enclosure (TIE); A Case Study in Authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Benz, Jacob M.; Tanner, Jennifer E.; Westman, Matthew P.

    2015-07-15

    A robust fiber optic-based tamper-indicating enclosure (TIE) has been developed by PNNL through funding by the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Nuclear Verification over the past few years. The objective of this work is to allow monitors to have confidence in both the authenticity and integrity of the TIE and the monitoring equipment inside, throughout the time it may be located at a host facility. Incorporating authentication features into the design were the focus of fiscal year 2014 development efforts. Throughout the development process, modifications have been made to the physical TIE design based on lessons learned via exercises and expert elicitation. The end result is a robust and passive TIE which can be utilized to protect monitoring party equipment left in a host facility.

  17. BAYESIAN INFERENCE OF HIDDEN GAMMA WEAR PROCESS MODEL FOR SURVIVAL DATA WITH TIES.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Arijit; Chi, Zhiyi; Chen, Ming-Hui

    2015-10-01

    Survival data often contain tied event times. Inference without careful treatment of the ties can lead to biased estimates. This paper develops the Bayesian analysis of a stochastic wear process model to fit survival data that might have a large number of ties. Under a general wear process model, we derive the likelihood of parameters. When the wear process is a Gamma process, the likelihood has a semi-closed form that allows posterior sampling to be carried out for the parameters, hence achieving model selection using Bayesian deviance information criterion. An innovative simulation algorithm via direct forward sampling and Gibbs sampling is developed to sample event times that may have ties in the presence of arbitrary covariates; this provides a tool to assess the precision of inference. An extensive simulation study is reported and a data set is used to further illustrate the proposed methodology.

  18. Poor Diet Tied to Half of U.S. Deaths from Heart Disease, Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Poor Diet Tied to Half of U.S. Deaths From Heart Disease, Diabetes Study explores which foods ... 7, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly half of all deaths from heart disease, stroke and diabetes in the ...

  19. Study Ties Some Migraines to Artery Tears in Neck, Raising Stroke Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163927.html Study Ties Some Migraines to Artery Tears in Neck, Raising Stroke Risk ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Some younger adults who suffer migraines may be at risk for tears in their ...

  20. Common Post-Op Ear Drops Tied to Eardrum Perforations in Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_164372.html Common Post-Op Ear Drops Tied to Eardrum Perforations in Kids Rate ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Children who suffer through multiple ear infections are often candidates for ear tube surgery. ...

  1. Comparison of Methods for Evaluating Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Tie-Tube Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.

    2008-01-21

    One of the fundamental structural components in a nuclear thermal rocket design is the tie tube. Proper cooling and flow modeling is important both for the structural integrity of the reactor core and for proper design of downstream components that operate on the hydrogen exiting the tie tube. Two models have been developed. The first is a spreadsheet-based tool designed for sizing tie-tube components, considering mechanical stress and strain limits, deposited moderator power, thermal expansion along the flow path, and conduction from adjacent fuel blocks. The second is a three-dimensional SINDA/FLUINT model used as a benchmark, containing a complete finite-element fuel block and a 1/6th tie-tube model. This paper discusses the performance of both models, as well as the advantages and limitations of each.

  2. Obesity in Youth Tied to Higher Odds for Liver Cancer in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164210.html Obesity in Youth Tied to Higher Odds for Liver ... risk, a new study warns. Efforts to reduce obesity, "should be implemented from an early age to ...

  3. A Century of Chemical Dynamics Traced through the Nobel Prizes. 1986: Dudley Herschbach, Yuan Lee, and John Polanyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Houten, J.

    2002-08-01

    The 1986 Nobel Prize was awarded to Dudley Herschbach, Yuan Lee, and John Polanyi for their work extending chemical dynamics to the level of individual atoms and molecules, using molecular beam and infrared chemiluminescence experiments.

  4. Nobel Prizes in Physics and Chemistry 2014: Celebrating the International Year of Light 2015, commemorating the Old Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu

    2015-01-01

    2015 is the International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies (IYL), while the physics and chemistry Nobel Prizes 2014 are both about light. The work leading to the two prizes share the same basic theoretical foundation: when an electron jumps from a higher energy level to a lower energy level, the energy difference is transformed into a photon. This basic way of light generation is a key part of the Old Quantum Theory. Interestingly, the date of announcing the 2014 Nobel Prize for physics coincided with the birthdays of Niels Bohr and, especially, of Planck's blackbody radiation formula. In connection with the two 2014 Nobel Prizes, we recall the development of the Old Quantum Theory by Planck, Einstein and Bohr.

  5. PEOPLE IN PHYSICS: Nobel prize winners in physics from 1901 to 1990: simple statistics for physics teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weijia; Fuller, Robert G.

    1998-05-01

    A demographic database for the 139 Nobel prize winners in physics from 1901 to 1990 has been created from a variety of sources. The results of our statistical study are discussed in the light of the implications for physics teaching.

  6. Use of oxidation reduction potentials in TIE procedures for confirmation of metal toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, D.E.; Wendling, J.M.; Grothe, D.R.; Moser, M.

    1995-12-31

    In support of its ``Policy for the Development of Water Quality-based Toxics Control,`` EPA has developed procedures for isolating and identifying he causes of aquatic toxicity in complex waste mixtures. Chelation procedures using EDTA and sodium thiosulfate are recommended by EPA. While useful to determine whether aquatic toxicity in a water is caused by metals, these tests do not allow for unambiguous identification of toxicity from metal ions. An additional possible method of testing for metal toxicity was investigated, utilizing zero valent metal treatment agents. Metals having high (positive) redox potentials are said to be more noble. These ions can be reduced to the zero valent state and removed from water by metals that are more electronegative. The metal used as a treatment agent must be essentially non-toxic to aquatic test species. Magnesium, iron, and manganese were investigated as zero valent treatment agents. Tests were performed on solutions containing ions of cadmium, copper, nickel, zinc, mercury, cobalt, arsenic, and chrome at 400 ppb in 15% Perrier water or well water prior to treatment. Metals (2--4g) were placed into 0.5 or 1 L of test solutions and shaken for 1 hour. The bulk metal was removed from solution. The solution was aerated for 10 minutes, filtered to remove additional precipitates and pH adjusted to 7.3 with HCl before toxicity testing. ICP-MS and ICP-AES analyses were conducted on aliquots of treated and untreated waters. Magnesium effectively removed all test ions. High concentrations of dissolved magnesium in treated solutions may have interfered with the toxicity tests. Iron metal was effective in removing a number of the metal cations tested, but toxicity was not noticeably reduced. Manganese was not as effective as magnesium in removing all test ions but gave promising test results. Toxicity was markedly decreased after manganese treatment.

  7. High-Accuracy Large-Vocabulary Speech Recognition Using Mixture Tying and Consistency Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Hidden Markov Models for Speech Recognition," Proc. ICASSP-87. 21. S. J. Young, "The General Use of Tying in Phoneme -Based HMM Speech Recognizers," Proc. ICASSP, pp. 1-569 - 1- 572, March 1992. 318 ...HIGH-ACCURACY LARGE-VOCABULARY SPEECH RECOGNITION USING MIXTURE TYING AND CONSISTENCY MODELING Vassilios Digalakis and Hy Murveit SRI In ternat...T Improved acoustic modeling can significantly decrease the error rate in large-vocabulary speech recognition. Our approach to the problem is

  8. Stimulating Innovation and Accelerating the Development of Complex and Slowly Maturing Technologies Through Advanced Technology Prize Competitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-15

    between Paris and New York. It took eight years before Charles Lindbergh , a relatively unknown American airmail pilot, climbed into the cockpit of the...Spirit of St. Louis and flew solo for 30 hours to win the prize on June 16, 1927. Lindbergh beat several already famous pilots who attempted to win and...demonstrate their performance and eventually win the prize. Charles Lindberg finally won this competition in 1927. The same is true for the original

  9. Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and the Nobel Prize in Physics for 1913: The Highest Honor for the Lowest Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reif-Acherman, Simón

    2013-12-01

    One century ago this year the Dutch experimental physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1853-1926) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work in low-temperature physics, in particular for his production of liquid helium. I trace the route to his Nobel Prize within the context of his and his colleagues' research in his laboratory at the University of Leiden, and in light of his nominators and the nominations he received in the five years 1909-1913.

  10. Current singularities in line-tied three-dimensional magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, I. J. D.; Pontin, D. I. E-mail: dpontin@maths.dundee.ac.uk

    2014-06-20

    This paper considers the current distributions that derive from finite amplitude perturbations of line-tied magnetic fields comprising hyperbolic field structures. The initial equilibrium on which we principally focus is a planar magnetic X-point threaded by a uniform axial field. This field is line-tied on all surfaces but subject to three-dimensional (3D) disturbances that alter the initial topology. Results of ideal relaxation simulations are presented which illustrate how intense current structures form that can be related, through the influence of line-tying, to the quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) of the initial configuration. It is demonstrated that the location within the QSL that attracts the current, and its scaling properties, are strongly dependent on the relative dimensions of the QSL with respect to the line-tied boundaries. These results are contrasted with the behavior of a line-tied 3D field containing an isolated null point. In this case, it is found that the dominant current always forms at the null, but that the collapse is inhibited when the null is closer to a line-tied boundary.

  11. Current Singularities in Line-tied Three-dimensional Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, I. J. D.; Pontin, D. I.

    2014-06-01

    This paper considers the current distributions that derive from finite amplitude perturbations of line-tied magnetic fields comprising hyperbolic field structures. The initial equilibrium on which we principally focus is a planar magnetic X-point threaded by a uniform axial field. This field is line-tied on all surfaces but subject to three-dimensional (3D) disturbances that alter the initial topology. Results of ideal relaxation simulations are presented which illustrate how intense current structures form that can be related, through the influence of line-tying, to the quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) of the initial configuration. It is demonstrated that the location within the QSL that attracts the current, and its scaling properties, are strongly dependent on the relative dimensions of the QSL with respect to the line-tied boundaries. These results are contrasted with the behavior of a line-tied 3D field containing an isolated null point. In this case, it is found that the dominant current always forms at the null, but that the collapse is inhibited when the null is closer to a line-tied boundary.

  12. Nondestructive characterization of tie-rods by means of dynamic testing, added masses and genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentilini, C.; Marzani, A.; Mazzotti, M.

    2013-01-01

    The structural characterization of tie-rods is crucial for the safety assessments of historical buildings. The main parameters that characterize the behavior of tie-rods are the tensile force, the modulus of elasticity of the material and the rotational stiffness at both restraints. Several static, static-dynamic and pure dynamic nondestructive methods have been proposed in the last decades to identify such parameters. However, none of them is able to characterize all the four mentioned parameters. To fill this gap, in this work a procedure based on dynamic testing, added masses and genetic algorithms (GA) is proposed. The identification is driven by GA where the objective function is a metric of the discrepancy between the experimentally determined (by dynamic impact testing) and the numerically computed (by a fast and reliable finite element formulation) frequencies of vibration of some modified systems obtained from the tie-rod by adding a concentrated mass in specific positions. It is shown by a comprehensive numerical testing campaign in which several cases spanning from short, low-stressed, and almost hinged tie-rods to long, high-tensioned, and nearly clamped tie-rods, that the proposed strategy is reliable in the identification of the four unknowns. Finally, the procedure has been applied to characterize a metallic tie-rod located in Palazzo Paleotti, Bologna (Italy).

  13. Classification and Tie2 mutations in spinal and soft tissue vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mei; Jiang, Renbing; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Lisha; Wang, Hua; Li, Wenting; Li, Yiqun; Du, Xiang; Bai, Jingping

    2015-10-15

    Vascular anomalies included hemangiomas and vascular malformations (VMs). VMs are mediated by mutations in the endothelial cell-specific receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2 (TEK),which is essential for angiogenesis and vascular stabilization. We identified five types of Tie2 mutations in 80 patients with soft tissue or spinal VMs by PCR including the previously detected missense mutations 2690A>G (Y897C), 2740C>T (L914F), 2743C>T (R915C), and two nonsense mutations 2763G>A, 2688C>T, we identified Tie2 mutation in primary spinal VMs for the first time. Tie2 mutations were found to be absent in 33 patients with hemangiomas and DNA samples of VMs. In addition, we showed that Tie2 mRNA expression in spinal VMs was similar to soft tissue VMs, but obviously lower than infant hemangiomas (P<0.01). This study provides new insights into spinal VMs, the association of Tie2 and vascular anomalies needs to be further discussed.

  14. The relationship between twin language, twins' close ties, and social competence.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Chisato; Mikami, Hiroshi; Nishihara, Reiko; Maeda, Chiho; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the relationship between twin language, twins' close ties, and social competence in a prospective longitudinal study. We hypothesized that twins whose tie is close would be more likely to develop a twin language, and these twins would be less likely to develop social competence. In addition, we hypothesize that some environmental factors, such as having an older sibling, preschool attendance, zygosity, and sex are also related to twin language, twins' close ties, and social competence. At baseline in 1999 a mailed questionnaire survey was conducted, and a follow-up questionnaire was distributed in 2004 among 958 mothers. As a result, 516 respondents returned the questionnaire (53.9%). In this study, we used 261 twin pairs aged from 6 to 12 years (school-age children) for analysis, excluding those with missing values. In the present study, we found that zygosity and sex were associated with twins' close ties. Having an older sibling and preschool attendance did not affect the twins' close tie, twin language, or social competence. One of the most important findings was that social competence was not affected directly by twins' close tie, but was affected when a twin language was found.

  15. Quantifying the impact of weak, strong, and super ties in scientific careers

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Alexander Michael

    2015-01-01

    Scientists are frequently faced with the important decision to start or terminate a creative partnership. This process can be influenced by strategic motivations, as early career researchers are pursuers, whereas senior researchers are typically attractors, of new collaborative opportunities. Focusing on the longitudinal aspects of scientific collaboration, we analyzed 473 collaboration profiles using an egocentric perspective that accounts for researcher-specific characteristics and provides insight into a range of topics, from career achievement and sustainability to team dynamics and efficiency. From more than 166,000 collaboration records, we quantify the frequency distributions of collaboration duration and tie strength, showing that collaboration networks are dominated by weak ties characterized by high turnover rates. We use analytic extreme value thresholds to identify a new class of indispensable super ties, the strongest of which commonly exhibit >50% publication overlap with the central scientist. The prevalence of super ties suggests that they arise from career strategies based upon cost, risk, and reward sharing and complementary skill matching. We then use a combination of descriptive and panel regression methods to compare the subset of publications coauthored with a super tie to the subset without one, controlling for pertinent features such as career age, prestige, team size, and prior group experience. We find that super ties contribute to above-average productivity and a 17% citation increase per publication, thus identifying these partnerships—the analog of life partners—as a major factor in science career development. PMID:26261301

  16. Autocrine and paracrine angiopoietin 1/Tie-2 signaling promotes muscle satellite cell self-renewal.

    PubMed

    Abou-Khalil, Rana; Le Grand, Fabien; Pallafacchina, Giorgia; Valable, Samuel; Authier, François-Jérôme; Rudnicki, Michael A; Gherardi, Romain K; Germain, Stéphane; Chretien, Fabrice; Sotiropoulos, Athanassia; Lafuste, Peggy; Montarras, Didier; Chazaud, Bénédicte

    2009-09-04

    Mechanisms governing muscle satellite cell withdrawal from cell cycle to enter into quiescence remain poorly understood. We studied the role of angiopoietin 1 (Ang1) and its receptor Tie-2 in the regulation of myogenic precursor cell (mpc) fate. In human and mouse, Tie-2 was preferentially expressed by quiescent satellite cells in vivo and reserve cells (RCs) in vitro. Ang1/Tie-2 signaling, through ERK1/2 pathway, decreased mpc proliferation and differentiation, increased the number of cells in G0, increased expression of RC-associated markers (p130, Pax7, Myf-5, M-cadherin), and downregulated expression of differentiation-associated markers. Silencing Tie-2 had opposite effects. Cells located in the satellite cell neighborhood (smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts) upregulated RC-associated markers by secreting Ang1 in vitro. In vivo, Tie-2 blockade and Ang1 overexpression increased the number of cycling and quiescent satellite cells, respectively. We propose that Ang1/Tie-2 signaling regulates mpc self-renewal by controlling the return to quiescence of a subset of satellite cells.

  17. Standard magnitude prize reinforcers can be as efficacious as larger magnitude reinforcers in cocaine-dependent methadone patients

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Barry, Danielle; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Contingency management (CM) reduces cocaine use in methadone patients, but only about 50% of patients respond to CM interventions. This study evaluated whether increasing magnitudes of reinforcement will improve outcomes. Methods Cocaine-dependent methadone patients (N = 240) were randomized to one of four 12-week treatment conditions: usual care (UC), UC plus “standard” prize CM in which average expected prize earnings were about $300, UC plus high magnitude prize CM in which average expected prize earnings were about $900, or UC plus voucher CM with an expected maximum of about $900 in vouchers. Results All three CM conditions yielded significant reductions in cocaine use relative to UC, with effect sizes (d) ranging from 0.38 to 0.59. No differences were noted between CM conditions, with at least 55% of patients in each CM condition achieving one week or more of cocaine abstinence versus 35% in UC. During the 12 weeks after the intervention ended, CM increased time until relapse relative to UC, but the effects of CM were no longer significant at a 12-month follow-up. Conclusions Providing the standard magnitude of $300 in prizes was as effective as larger magnitude CM in cocaine-dependent methadone patients in this study. Given its strong evidence base and relatively low costs, standard magnitude prize CM should be considered for adoption in methadone clinics to encourage cocaine abstinence, but new methods need to be developed to sustain abstinence. PMID:25198284

  18. Nitric oxide: a challenge to chiropractic

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Lon

    2000-01-01

    The 1998 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine recognized the biological significance of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is derived from the amino acid arginine. It is intimately involved with circulatory vessel dilation where, for example, it protects against heart attacks, and is the basis for new medications such as Sildenafil (Viagra). Nitric oxide acts as a neurotransmitter and can modulate many neurological reactions. The immune system uses nitric oxide to destroy pathogens by interfering with key enzymes. Nitric oxide is responsible for both osteoclastic and osteoblastic responses in bone and is a key player in the degenerative aspects of arthritis. The process of apoptosis employs nitric oxide in the orderly removal of unneeded cells. There is clear evidence that major signaling and control mechanisms exist in the body apart from the nervous system. Chiropractic is thus faced with the challenge of how to incorporate this new knowledge which conflicts with traditional chiropractic concepts.

  19. From the Big Bang to the Nobel Prize and the JWST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2007-01-01

    I will describe the history of the universe, from the Big Bang to 2013, when the JWST is to be launched to look back towards our beginnings. I will discuss how the COBE results led to the Nobel Prize, how the COBE results have been confirmed and extended, and their implications for future observations. The James Webb Space Telescope will be used to examine every part of our history from the first stars and galaxies to the formation of individual stars and planets and the delivery of life-supporting materials to the Earth. I will describe the plans for the JWST and how observers may use it. With luck, the JWST may produce a Nobel Prize for some discovery we can only guess today.

  20. Promoting public health research in BRICS through a multinational public health prize fund.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes the establishment of a prize fund to incentivise public health research within the BRICS association, which comprises the five major emerging world economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. This would stimulate cooperative healthcare research within the group and, on the proviso that the benefits of the research are made freely available within the association, would be rewarding for researchers. The results of the research stimulated by the prize would provide beneficial new healthcare technologies, targeting the most vulnerable and needy groups. The proposed fund is consistent with current international patent law and would not only avoid some of the problems associated with the "Health Impact Fund", but also create a new model for healthcare research.

  1. Prize reinforcement contingency management for cocaine dependence: integration with group therapy in a methadone clinic.

    PubMed

    Petry, Nancy M; Martin, Bonnie; Simcic, Francis

    2005-04-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated a low-cost contingency management (CM) procedure for reducing cocaine use and enhancing group therapy attendance in 77 cocaine-dependent methadone patients. Patients were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of standard treatment or standard treatment with CM, in which patients earned the opportunity to win prizes ranging from $1 to $100 for submitting cocainenegative samples and attending therapy. Patients in the CM condition submitted more cocaine-negative samples and attended more groups than patients in standard treatment. The best predictor of cocaine abstinence at follow-up was duration of abstinence during treatment. On average, patients in the CM condition earned $117 in prizes. Data from this study suggest that some aspects of reinforcement can be implemented in group therapy in community-based clinics.

  2. The discovery of artemisinin and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xin-zhuan; Miller, Louis H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Professor Youyou Tu for her key contributions to the discovery of artemisinin. Artemisinin has saved millions of lives and represents one of the significant contributions of China to global health. Many scientists were involved in the previously unknown 523 Project, and the Nobel Prize given to a single person has not been without controversy. Here we summarized some key events in the 523 Project and present our views on the Award to help the public better understand the rationale of the Nobel committee’s decision, the significance of the discovery, and current issues related to artimisinin in treating malaria. PMID:26481135

  3. Nanoscopy—imaging life at the nanoscale: a Nobel Prize achievement with a bright future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blom, Hans; Bates, Mark

    2015-10-01

    A grand scientific prize was awarded last year to three pioneering scientists, for their discovery and development of molecular ‘ON-OFF’ switching which, when combined with optical imaging, can be used to see the previously invisible with light microscopy. The Royal Swedish Academy of Science announced on October 8th their decision and explained that this achievement—rooted in physics and applied in biology and medicine—was awarded with the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for controlling fluorescent molecules to create images of specimens smaller than anything previously observed with light. The story of how this noble switch in optical microscopy was achieved and how it was engineered to visualize life at the nanoscale is highlighted in this invited comment.

  4. Preliminary efficacy of prize-based contingency management to increase activity levels in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Washington, Wendy Donlin; Banna, Kelly M; Gibson, Amanda L

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 30% of Americans meet the criteria for obesity. Effective, low-cost interventions to increase physical activity are needed to prevent and treat obesity. In this study, 11 healthy adults wore Fitbit accelerometers for 3 weeks. During the initial baseline, subjects earned prize draws for wearing the Fitbit. During intervention, percentile schedules were used to calculate individual prize-draw criteria. The final week was a return to baseline. Four subjects increased step counts as a result of the intervention. A bout analysis of interresponse times revealed that subjects increased overall step counts by increasing daily minutes active and within-bout response rates and decreasing pauses between bouts of activity. Strategies to improve effectiveness are suggested, such as modification of reinforcement probability and amount and identification of the function of periods of inactivity.

  5. Supernovae, Dark Energy and the Accelerating Universe: How DOE Helped to Win (yet another) Nobel Prize

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, Saul

    2012-01-13

    The Department of Energy (DOE) hosted an event Friday, January 13, with 2011 Physics Nobel Laureate Saul Perlmutter. Dr. Perlmutter, a physicist at the Department’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and a professor of physics at the University of California at Berkeley, won the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics “for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae.” DOE’s Office of Science has supported Dr. Perlmutter’s research at Berkeley Lab since 1983. After the introduction from Secretary of Energy Steven Chu, Dr. Perlmutter delivered a presentation entitled "Supernovae, Dark Energy and the Accelerating Universe: How DOE Helped to Win (yet another) Nobel Prize." [Copied with editing from DOE Media Advisory issued January 10th, found at http://energy.gov/articles/energy-department-host-event-2011-physics-nobel-laureate-saul-perlmutter

  6. Fermi Prize: J. Robert Oppenheimer Named to Receive Annual AEC Award.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, J R

    1963-04-12

    The White House announced last week that J. Robert Oppenheimer would be the recipient of the Atomic Energy Commission's 1963 Fermi prize. The prize, which is accompanied by a $50,000 award, is given for "especially meritorious contribution to the development, use or control of atomic energy," and, as such, is strictly a recognition of scientific merit. This fact cannot be overstated. Nevertheless, because of the bitter and emotional controversy that surrounded the removal of Oppenheimer's security clearance in 1954, the Oppenheimer case has come to symbolize the dark hour to which nonconformity and scientific integrity were subjected in the McCarthy era. Oppenheimer's selection for the award is thus widely regarded as an effort by the scientific community and the Kennedy administration to right a long-standing wrong. The following account is an appreciation of Oppenheimer, written especially for Science by his colleague, Hans Bethe, of Cornell University.

  7. Supernovae, Dark Energy and the Accelerating Universe: How DOE Helped to Win (yet another) Nobel Prize

    ScienceCinema

    Perlmutter, Saul

    2016-07-12

    The Department of Energy (DOE) hosted an event Friday, January 13, with 2011 Physics Nobel Laureate Saul Perlmutter. Dr. Perlmutter, a physicist at the Department’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and a professor of physics at the University of California at Berkeley, won the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics “for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae.” DOE’s Office of Science has supported Dr. Perlmutter’s research at Berkeley Lab since 1983. After the introduction from Secretary of Energy Steven Chu, Dr. Perlmutter delivered a presentation entitled "Supernovae, Dark Energy and the Accelerating Universe: How DOE Helped to Win (yet another) Nobel Prize." [Copied with editing from DOE Media Advisory issued January 10th, found at http://energy.gov/articles/energy-department-host-event-2011-physics-nobel-laureate-saul-perlmutter

  8. Current applications of graphene oxide in nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Si-Ying; An, Seong Soo A; Hulme, John

    2015-01-01

    Graphene has attracted the attention of the entire scientific community due to its unique mechanical and electrochemical, electronic, biomaterial, and chemical properties. The water-soluble derivative of graphene, graphene oxide, is highly prized and continues to be intensely investigated by scientists around the world. This review seeks to provide an overview of the currents applications of graphene oxide in nanomedicine, focusing on delivery systems, tissue engineering, cancer therapies, imaging, and cytotoxicity, together with a short discussion on the difficulties and the trends for future research regarding this amazing material. PMID:26345988

  9. The Journal of Pathology 2008 Jeremy Jass Prize for Research Excellence in Pathology.

    PubMed

    Hall, Peter A; Poulsom, Richard; Coates, Philip J; Du, Ming-Qing; Hogendoorn, Pancras Cw; Jones, Louise J; Ladanyi, Marc; Murray, Graeme I; Niedobitek, Gerald

    2009-12-01

    The first Jass Prize for Research Excellence has been awarded to a group from Hannover in Germany. These authors discovered the epigenetic inactivation of microRNA gene hsa-mir-9-1 in human breast cancer and characterized its biological and clinical relevance. This frequent epigenetic silencing was found to occur early in the development of breast cancer, and illustrates another mechanism by which tumour development is influenced by genes that operate without expression as proteins.

  10. A Century of Chemical Dynamics Traced through the Nobel Prizes. 1983: Henry Taube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Houten, J.

    2002-07-01

    The 1983 Nobel Prize was awarded to Henry Taube for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes. Taube's work represents a watershed in the development of the mechanistic chemistry of inorganic transition metal complexes. His studies of those reactions is a central feature in courses in mechanistic inorganic chemistry, and his description of inner-sphere and outer-sphere electron transfer mechanisms remain as the textbook examples.

  11. Nils Gustav Dalén, the Unknown Nobel Prize Winner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Hanging on the wall of my museum is a large "Map of Physics" published by the Central Scientific Company in 1938. On it is a list of the Nobel Prizes in physics, starting with Roentgen in 1901 and ending with Fermi in 1938. I can recognize every name except the one for 1912: Nils Gustav Dalén. Perhaps you have had the same experience when looking through the updated list.

  12. Let there be light--with gallium nitride: the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics.

    PubMed

    Von Dollen, Paul; Pimputkar, Siddha; Speck, James S

    2014-12-15

    Significant gains in energy savings now underway can be traced to a single invention--the blue light-emitting diode. GaN-based blue LED technology not only resulted in efficient white light sources, but continues to enable a host of applications and scientific inquiries. The researchers primarily responsible for the development of the blue LED were awarded the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics.

  13. The History of Molecular Structure Determination Viewed through the Nobel Prizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, William P.; Palenik, Gus J.; Suh, Il-Hwan

    2003-07-01

    For the past 100 years, with only a few exceptions during war times, Nobel Prizes have been awarded annually to men and women who have made exceptionally important discoveries in science. In thirteen of those years, prizes were awarded to individuals whose contributions helped explain the molecular world of matter through interactions of waves or particles with atoms. From William C. Röntgen, who received the very first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901 for his work with X-rays, to von Laue and the father-and-son Bragg team in the second decade of the century, who used X-rays to understand atomic arrangements, much progress had been made revealing secrets at the molecular level of matter. In the 1930s Debye, Davisson, and Thomson revealed further information using, among other techniques, diffraction of electrons by matter. In the 1960s Crick, Watson, Wilkins, Perutz, Kendrew, and Hodgkin received Nobel Prizes for revealing structures of significantly more complex molecules including the DNA double helix, myoglobin, hemoglobin, and vitamin B12. In the 1970s and 1980s Lipscomb would be recognized for organizing our picture of boron hydrides, Klug would use electron diffraction to determine structures of important nucleic acid protein complexes, Hauptman and Karle would bring us a powerful new way to solve structures, and Deisenhofer, Huber, and Michel would determine the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction center. Finally, in 1994 Brockhouse and Shull were recognized for their work with neutrons. Crystallography has been used to answer increasingly complex questions in the past, and will certainly remain an important tool in the future.

  14. John Bardeen: the only person to win two Nobel Prizes in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoddeson, L.

    2011-11-01

    John Bardeen worked on the theory of solids throughout his physics career, winning two Nobel Prizes: the first in 1956 for the invention of the transistor with Walter Brattain and William Shockley; and the second in 1972 for the development with Leon Cooper and J Robert Schrieffer of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity. The transistor made possible the information revolution; the BCS theory helped lay the microscopic foundation for the modern theory of condensed matter physics.

  15. 2017 INFORMS PRIZE. The Nomination of The United States Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-08

    presented in a separate document. It is included here for reference; please see the Supplemental Material document for the full content . 2 0 17 I N F... integrated O.R. throughout its structure. The Air Force maintains a career field of military analysts, ranging from lieutenants to colonels, and...the 2017 INFORMS Prize 12,000 Awarded Grants >200 Academic insitutions >200 Academic insitutions RAND developed software and programming languages

  16. Theodore William Richards: apostle of atomic weights and Nobel Prize winner in 1914.

    PubMed

    Herschbach, Dudley R

    2014-12-15

    In recognition of his exact determinations of the atomic weights of a large number of the chemical elements, T. W. Richards received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1914. His meticulous techniques resulted in "a degree of accuracy never before attained". This Essay follows Richards from his precocious youth to becoming a celebrated chemist and emphasizes his dedication to forseeing likely sources of error and how to avoid them.

  17. New Space Weather and Nonlinear Waves and Processes Prize announced for 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    At the 2011 Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif., AGU announced the creation of a new award: the Space Weather and Nonlinear Waves and Processes Prize. The prize, which is being made possible by a generous contribution from longtime AGU members and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, scientists Bruce Tsurutani and Olga Verkhoglyadova, will recognize an AGU member scientist and will come with a $10,000 award. Tsurutani has served as a researcher with JPL since 1972 and is currently a senior research scientist. He was also the president of AGU's Space Physics and Aeronomy section from 1990 to 1992 and is a recipient of AGU's John Adam Fleming Medal, given “for original research and technical leadership in geomagnetism, atmospheric electricity, aeronomy, space physics, and related sciences.” Verkhoglyadova served as a professor of space physics in the Department of Astrophysics and Space Physics at Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, in the Ukraine, prior to coming to the United States. Their leadership and dedication to AGU and to their field are apparent in their passion for this prize.

  18. Dissecting slander and crying for justice: Carlos Chagas and the Nobel Prize of 1921.

    PubMed

    Bestetti, Reinaldo B; Cardinalli-Neto, Augusto

    2013-10-03

    Chagas disease was discovered by Carlos Chagas in 1909. Chagas worked at Oswaldo Cruz Institute, where the bases of experimental medicine were settled in Brazil, and that had no connection with the Faculty of Medicine of Rio de Janeiro. Chagas had several enemies at Oswaldo Cruz Institute mainly because of his election to Head of Service in 1910, and for the position of Oswaldo Cruz Directorship in 1917. Furthermore, Chagas gained enemies at Faculty of Medicine of Rio de Janeiro, which did not like to see the economical political autonomy of Oswaldo Cruz Institute. This allowed the Institute not only to perform top experimental research, but also to take the leadership of research in the country. Chagas was nominated to the Nobel Prize of 1921 in December, 1920. None was awarded the Nobel Prize in that year. He seems to have been evaluated by the Noble Committee of Karolinska Institute from March to May of 1921. At that time, his enemies were denying his discovery of Trypanosoma cruzi, a key point in Chagas' nomination by Karolinska Institute, and giving no epidemiological importance for the disease. By the same way, the obligation of small pox vaccination was tarnishing his public image. Having taken into account the epidemiologic importance of Chagas disease, the strong historical mistake in the process of Chagas evaluation, and the inequity behind all these facts, we insist on a posthumous Nobel Prize for the man who made the most complete medical-scientist discovery of all time.

  19. Tie2 Expressing Monocytes in the Spleen of Patients with Primary Myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Campanelli, Rita; Fois, Gabriela; Catarsi, Paolo; Poletto, Valentina; Villani, Laura; Erba, Benedetta Gaia; Maddaluno, Luigi; Jemos, Basilio; Salmoiraghi, Silvia; Guglielmelli, Paola; Abbonante, Vittorio; Di Buduo, Christian Andrea; Balduini, Alessandra; Iurlo, Alessandra; Barosi, Giovanni; Rosti, Vittorio; Massa, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a Philadelphia-negative (Ph−) myeloproliferative disorder, showing abnormal CD34+ progenitor cell trafficking, splenomegaly, marrow fibrosis leading to extensive extramedullary haematopoiesis, and abnormal neoangiogenesis in either the bone marrow or the spleen. Monocytes expressing the angiopoietin-2 receptor (Tie2) have been shown to support abnormal angiogenic processes in solid tumors through a paracrine action that takes place in proximity to the vessels. In this study we investigated the frequency of Tie2 expressing monocytes in the spleen tissue samples of patients with PMF, and healthy subjects (CTRLs), and evaluated their possible role in favouring spleen angiogenesis. We show by confocal microscopy that in the spleen tissue of patients with PMF, but not of CTRLs, the most of the CD14+ cells are Tie2+ and are close to vessels; by flow cytometry, we found that Tie2 expressing monocytes were Tie2+CD14lowCD16brightCDL62−CCR2− (TEMs) and their frequency was higher (p = 0.008) in spleen tissue-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs) of patients with PMF than in spleen tissue-derived MNCs from CTRLs undergoing splenectomy for abdominal trauma. By in vitro angiogenesis assay we evidenced that conditioned medium of immunomagnetically selected spleen tissue derived CD14+ cells of patients with PMF induced a denser tube like net than that of CTRLs; in addition, CD14+Tie2+ cells sorted from spleen tissue derived single cell suspension of patients with PMF show a higher expression of genes involved in angiogenesis than that found in CTRLs. Our results document the enrichment of Tie2+ monocytes expressing angiogenic genes in the spleen of patients with PMF, suggesting a role for these cells in starting/maintaining the pathological angiogenesis in this organ. PMID:27281335

  20. Financial ties and concordance between results and conclusions in meta-analyses: retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine whether financial ties to one drug company are associated with favourable results or conclusions in meta-analyses on antihypertensive drugs. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Meta-analyses published up to December 2004 that were not duplicates and evaluated the effects of antihypertensive drugs compared with any comparator on clinical end points in adults. Financial ties were categorised as one drug company compared with all others. Main outcome measures The main outcomes were the results and conclusions of meta-analyses, with both outcomes separately categorised as being favourable or not favourable towards the study drug. We also collected data on characteristics of meta-analyses that the literature suggested might be associated with favourable results or conclusions. Results 124 meta-analyses were included in the study, 49 (40%) of which had financial ties to one drug company. On univariate logistic regression analyses, meta-analyses of better methodological quality were more likely to have favourable results (odds ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.27). Although financial ties to one drug company were not associated with favourable results, such ties constituted the only characteristic significantly associated with favourable conclusions (4.09, 1.30 to 12.83). When controlling for other characteristics of meta-analyses in multiple logistic regression analyses, meta-analyses that had financial ties to one drug company remained more likely to report favourable conclusions (5.11, 1.54 to 16.92). Conclusion Meta-analyses on antihypertensive drugs and with financial ties to one drug company are not associated with favourable results but are associated with favourable conclusions. PMID:18024482

  1. A field study investigating the effects of a rebar-tying machine on trunk flexion, tool usability and productivity.

    PubMed

    Vi, Peter

    2006-11-15

    A field study with a before-and-after experimental design was conducted to evaluate the potential reduction in the risk of musculoskeletal injuries to rodworkers when using an automatic rebar-tying machine. Eleven rodworkers participated in this experiment. All dependent variables (trunk posture, rebar-tying time and responses to a usability questionnaire) were first measured before introducing the rebar-tying machine and then after 3 months of usage all dependent variables were measured again. The results of the study indicated that working with a rebar-tying machine significantly reduced the magnitude, frequency and duration of exposure to awkward trunk posture. Tying time was reduced when participants used the machine. The usability questionnaire indicated that most participants preferred to use the rebar-tying machine for ground-level rebar construction. The field study also revealed that the rebar-tying machine is not limited to the reinforcing trade. The machine can be used for other purposes, such as tying electrical conduit and attaching radiant heat tube to steel mesh. Based on trunk posture exposure, rebar-tying time, usability and transferability, it is concluded that the rebar-tying machine can be an effective tool to reduce the frequency and duration of severe trunk flexion, improve usability and increase productivity among concrete reinforcement workers.

  2. Results of Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE`S) conducted on the A-01 outfall and its contributory waste streams, July 1996--February 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1997-03-01

    Toxicity tests were conducted at nine locations during the summer of 1996. The results indicated that A-01B, A-01C, A-03, A-04, A-05 and A-01 were toxic to the test species, Ceriodaphnia dubia, while A-01A, A-06, and WE-01 were not toxic. Beginning in August 1996, Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE`s) were initiated on all toxic outfalls in order to identify the toxicants responsible for the observed toxicity. A complete TIE was performed on A-01 because it is the regulatory compliance point for all of the combined waste streams that were tested. Only the portions of a TIE that are related to metal and chlorine toxicity were performed on the remaining locations because existing data indicated that metals and chlorine were present in potentially toxic quantities at these locations, and there was no evidence that other toxicants would be expected to be present in toxic amounts. The results of the TIE`s indicate that metals are responsible for most of the toxicity at all of the outfalls that were toxic and that chlorine contributed to the toxicity at two of the outfalls. Specifically, the toxicity at A-01B, A-01C, and A-01 was due to copper; the toxicity at A-03 was due to primarily to copper, although zinc also contributed to the toxicity; the toxicity at A-04 was due primarily to copper, with residual chlorine and zinc contributing to the toxicity; and the toxicity at A-05 was due primarily to copper, with residual chlorine contributing to the toxicity. A-03 was the most toxic outfall, with 100% mortality occurring at concentrations as low as 12.5% effluent. A-03 was found to have concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc that exceeded EPA water quality criteria by approximately two orders of magnitude. The metal concentrations at A-01 and WE-01, which is located approximately 0.5 miles downstream from A-01 were similar. However, A-01 was toxic, while WE-01 was not.

  3. Nobel Prize In Physics Awarded To Astronomer For NASA-Funded Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-10-01

    Riccardo Giacconi, the "father of X-ray astronomy," has received the Nobel Prize in physics for "pioneering contributions to astrophysics," which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources. Giaconni, president of the Associated Universities Inc., in Washington, and Research Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, discovered the first X-ray stars and the X-ray background in the 1960s and conceived of and led the implementation of the Uhuru and High Energy Astronomy Observatory-2 (HEAO-2) X-ray observatories in the 1970s. With funding from NASA, he also detected sources of X-rays that most astronomers now consider to contain black holes. Giacconi said that receiving the award confirms the importance of X-ray astronomy. "I think I'm one of the first to get the Nobel prize for work with NASA, so that's good for NASA and I think it's also good for the field," he said. "It's also nice for all the other people who've worked in this field. I recognize that I was never alone. I'm happy for me personally, I'm happy for my family, and I'm happy for the field and for NASA," Giacconi added. In 1976, Giacconi along with Harvey Tananbaum of the Harvard- Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass., submitted a proposal letter to NASA to initiate the study and design of a large X-ray telescope. In 1977 work began on the program, which was then known as the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility and in 1998 renamed the Chandra X-ray Observatory. "Partnerships with universities and scientists are essential in our quest to answer the fundamental questions of the universe," said Dr. Ed Weiler, NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science, Headquarters, Washington. "Dr. Giacconi's achievements are a brilliant example of this synergy among NASA, universities and their community of scientists and students," he said. Giacconi is Principal Investigator for the ultradeep survey with Chandra - the "Chandra Deep Field South" - that has

  4. Why there should be more science Nobel prizes and laureates - And why proportionate credit should be awarded to institutions.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    The four science Nobel prizes (physics, chemistry, medicine/physiology and economics) have performed extremely well as a method of recognizing the highest level of achievement. The prizes exist primarily to honour individuals but also have a very important function in science generally. In particular, the institutions and nations which have educated, nurtured or supported many Nobel laureates can be identified as elite in world science. However, the limited range of subjects and a maximum of 12 laureates per year mean that many major scientific achievements remain un-recognized; and relatively few universities can gather sufficient Nobel-credits to enable a precise estimate of their different levels of quality. I advocate that the Nobel committee should expand the number of Nobel laureates and Prize categories as a service to world science. (1) There is a large surplus of high quality prize candidates deserving of recognition. (2) There has been a vast expansion of research with a proliferation of major sub-disciplines in the existing categories. (3) Especially, the massive growth of the bio-medical sciences has created a shortage of Nobel recognition in this area. (4) Whole new fields of major science have emerged. I therefore suggest that the maximum of three laureates per year should always be awarded in the categories of physics, chemistry and economics, even when these prizes are for diverse and un-related achievements; that the number of laureates in the 'biology' category of physiology or medicine should be increased to six or preferably nine per year; and that two new Prize categories should be introduced to recognize achievements in mathematics and computing science. Together, these measures could increase the science laureates from a maximum of 12 to a minimum of 24, and increase the range of scientific coverage. In future, the Nobel committee should also officially allocate proportionate credit to institutions for each laureate, and a historical task

  5. Community Detection in Signed Networks: the Role of Negative ties in Different Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmailian, Pouya; Jalili, Mahdi

    2015-09-01

    Extracting community structure of complex network systems has many applications from engineering to biology and social sciences. There exist many algorithms to discover community structure of networks. However, it has been significantly under-explored for networks with positive and negative links as compared to unsigned ones. Trying to fill this gap, we measured the quality of partitions by introducing a Map Equation for signed networks. It is based on the assumption that negative relations weaken positive flow from a node towards a community, and thus, external (internal) negative ties increase the probability of staying inside (escaping from) a community. We further extended the Constant Potts Model, providing a map spectrum for signed networks. Accordingly, a partition is selected through balancing between abridgment and expatiation of a signed network. Most importantly, multi-scale spectrum of signed networks revealed how informative are negative ties in different scales, and quantified the topological placement of negative ties between dense positive ones. Moreover, an inconsistency was found in the signed Modularity: as the number of negative ties increases, the density of positive ties is neglected more. These results shed lights on the community structure of signed networks.

  6. Vibration Testing of Electrical Cables to Quantify Loads at Tie-Down Locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutson, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    The standard method for defining static equivalent structural load factors for components is based on Mile s equation. Unless test data is available, 5% critical damping is assumed for all components when calculating loads. Application of this method to electrical cable tie-down hardware often results in high loads, which often exceed the capability of typical tie-down options such as cable ties and P-clamps. Random vibration testing of electrical cables was used to better understand the factors that influence component loads: natural frequency, damping, and mass participation. An initial round of vibration testing successfully identified variables of interest, checked out the test fixture and instrumentation, and provided justification for removing some conservatism in the standard method. Additional testing is planned that will include a larger range of cable sizes for the most significant contributors to load as variables to further refine loads at cable tie-down points. Completed testing has provided justification to reduce loads at cable tie-downs by 45% with additional refinement based on measured cable natural frequencies.

  7. Variable Somatic TIE2 Mutations in Half of Sporadic Venous Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Soblet, J.; Limaye, N.; Uebelhoer, M.; Boon, L.M.; Vikkula, M.

    2013-01-01

    Venous malformations (VMs) are the most frequent vascular malformations referred to specialized vascular anomaly centers. A rare (1-2%) familial form, termed cutaneomucosal venous malformation (VMCM), is caused by gain-of-function mutations in TIE2. More recently, sporadic VMs, characterized by the presence of large unifocal lesions, were shown to be caused by somatic mutations in TIE2. These include a frequent L914F change, and a series of double mutations in cis. All of which cause ligand-independent receptor hyperphosphorylation in vitro. Here, we expanded our study to assess the range of mutations that cause sporadic VM. To test for somatic changes, we screened the entire coding region of TIE2 in cDNA from resected VMs by direct sequencing. We detected TIE2 mutations in 17/30 (56.7%) of the samples. In addition to previously detected mutations, we identified 7 novel somatic intracellular TIE2 mutations in sporadic VMs, including 3 that cause premature protein truncation. PMID:23801934

  8. Functional interaction of vascular endothelial-protein-tyrosine phosphatase with the angiopoietin receptor Tie-2.

    PubMed

    Fachinger, G; Deutsch, U; Risau, W

    1999-10-21

    During development of the vertebrate vascular system essential signals are transduced via protein-tyrosine phosphorylation. Null-mutations of receptor-tyrosine kinase (RTK) genes expressed in endothelial cells (ECs) display early lethal vascular phenotypes. We aimed to identify endothelial protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), which should have similar importance in EC-biology. A murine receptor-type PTP was identified by a degenerated PCR cloning approach from endothelial cells (VE-PTP). By in situ hybridization this phosphatase was found to be specifically expressed in vascular ECs throughout mouse development. In experiments using GST-fusion proteins, as well as in transient transfections, trapping mutants of VE-PTP co-precipitated with the Angiopoietin receptor Tie-2, but not with the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2/Flk-1). In addition, VE-PTP dephosphorylates Tie-2 but not VEGFR-2. We conclude that VE-PTP is a Tie-2 specific phosphatase expressed in ECs, and VE-PTP phosphatase activity serves to specifically modulate Angiopoietin/Tie-2 function. Based on its potential role as a regulator of blood vessel morphogenesis and maintainance, VE-PTP is a candidate gene for inherited vascular malformations similar to the Tie-2 gene.

  9. Transnational, Social, and Neighborhood Ties and Smoking Among Latino Immigrants: Does Gender Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Alcántara, Carmela; Molina, Kristine M.; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined whether transnational ties, social ties, and neighborhood ties were independently associated with current smoking status among Latino immigrants. We also tested interactions to determine whether these associations were moderated by gender. Methods We conducted a series of weighted logistic regression analyses (i.e., economic remittances, number of return visits, friend support, family support, and neighborhood cohesion) using the Latino immigrant subsample (n|=|1629) of the National Latino and Asian American Study in 2002 and 2003. Results The number of past-year return visits to the country-of-origin was positively associated with current smoker status. Gender moderated the association between economic remittances, friend support, and smoking. Remittance behavior had a protective association with smoking, and this association was particularly pronounced for Latino immigrant women. Friendship support lowered the odds of smoking among men, but not women. Conclusions Our results underscore the growing importance of transnational networks for understanding Latino immigrant health and the gendered patterns of the associations between social ties, transnational ties, and health risk behaviors. PMID:25121808

  10. Platelet-rich plasma extract prevents pulmonary edema through angiopoietin-Tie2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Mammoto, Tadanori; Jiang, Amanda; Jiang, Elisabeth; Mammoto, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Increased vascular permeability contributes to life-threatening pathological conditions, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome. Current treatments for sepsis-induced pulmonary edema rely on low-tidal volume mechanical ventilation, fluid management, and pharmacological use of a single angiogenic or chemical factor with antipermeability activity. However, it is becoming clear that a combination of multiple angiogenic/chemical factors rather than a single factor is required for maintaining stable and functional blood vessels. We have demonstrated that mouse platelet-rich plasma (PRP) extract contains abundant angiopoietin (Ang) 1 and multiple other factors (e.g., platelet-derived growth factor), which potentially stabilize vascular integrity. Here, we show that PRP extract increases tyrosine phosphorylation levels of Tunica internal endothelial cell kinase (Tie2) and attenuates disruption of cell-cell junctional integrity induced by inflammatory cytokine in cultured human microvascular endothelial cells. Systemic injection of PRP extract also increases Tie2 phosphorylation in mouse lung and prevents endotoxin-induced pulmonary edema and the consequent decreases in lung compliance and exercise intolerance resulting from endotoxin challenge. Soluble Tie2 receptor, which inhibits Ang-Tie2 signaling, suppresses the ability of PRP extract to inhibit pulmonary edema in mouse lung. These results suggest that PRP extract prevents endotoxin-induced pulmonary edema mainly through Ang-Tie2 signaling, and PRP extract could be a potential therapeutic strategy for sepsis-induced pulmonary edema and various lung diseases caused by abnormal vascular permeability.

  11. The development of marine Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures using the unicellular alga Nitzschia closterium.

    PubMed

    Hogan, A C; Stauber, J L; Pablo, F; Adams, M S; Lim, R P

    2005-05-01

    Unicellular algae are highly sensitive to a wide range of toxicants and have been used extensively in ecotoxicological testing. This, along with their ability to grow in very small test volumes over short test durations, make them ideal test organisms for use in Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIEs). Despite this, microalgae have not previously been used in marine TIE studies. In this study, the marine diatom Nitzschia closterium was shown to be a highly suitable test organism after modification of the standard test protocol to reduce test volumes to 6 mL and test duration to 48 h. The alga was tolerant to the chemicals used in phase I of the standard USEPA TIE protocol, and physical TIE manipulations had no effect on algal growth. The cation exchange procedure, however, inhibited algal growth, while the anion exchange procedure stimulated growth, making these two procedures unsuitable for use with this species. Of the buffers trialed for the graduated pH procedure, 0.01 M PIPES buffer was found to be suitable for buffering at pH 7 because it maintained the required pH over the duration of the test and did not affect the growth or sensitivity of the algae to one reference toxicant (copper). A trial TIE on a secondary-treated sewage effluent for discharge into coastal waters showed that the developed protocols could successfully be used to identify ammonia as the major toxicant in the effluent.

  12. The social ties that bind: social anxiety and academic achievement across the university years.

    PubMed

    Brook, Christina A; Willoughby, Teena

    2015-05-01

    Given that engagement and integration in university/college are considered key to successful academic achievement, the identifying features of social anxiety, including fear of negative evaluation and distress and avoidance of new or all social situations, may be particularly disadvantageous in the social and evaluative contexts that are integral to university/college life. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the direct effects of social anxiety on academic achievement, as well as investigate an indirect mechanism through which social anxiety might impact on academic achievement, namely, the formation of new social ties in university. The participants were 942 (71.7 % female; M = 19 years at Time 1) students enrolled in a mid-sized university in Southern Ontario, Canada. Students completed annual assessments of social anxiety, social ties, and academic achievement for three consecutive years. The results from an autoregressive cross-lag path analysis indicated that social anxiety had a significant and negative direct relationship with academic achievement. Moreover, the negative indirect effect of social anxiety on academic achievement through social ties was significant, as was the opposing direction of effects (i.e., the indirect effect of academic achievement on social anxiety through social ties). These findings highlight the critical role that social ties appear to play in successful academic outcomes and in alleviating the effects of social anxiety during university/college.

  13. Quasi-Separatrix Layers and Line-tied Reconnection in Collisionless Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billey, Zachary; Zweibel, Ellen; Finn, John; Daughton, William

    2015-11-01

    Many plasmas undergoing magnetic reconnection have boundaries that have constant magnetic flux on the dynamical timescales of the system, such as coronal loops and planetary magnetospheres. Systems where the boundary magnetic flux is constant are called line-tied systems. We conduct collisionless fully 3D particle-in-cell simulations in slab geometry to study how line-tying changes the dynamics relative non-tied systems. We confirm Quasi-Separatrix Layers (QSLs) as a model for predicting potential reconnection sites in 3D systems. Based on this theory, we use line-integrated diagnostics to investigate the collisionless physics relating to the parallel electric field. Here we find non-gyrotopic terms in the pressure tensor are important at the center of the reconnection layer. We investigate the effect of varying the length of the line-tied plasma on the growth rate and reconnection process and compare oblique modes with equivalent periodic systems. We discuss the extension into collisionless regimes of the geometric width vs tearing width theory, developed to explain line-tied suppression of tearing in MHD reconnection. Work supported by the NSF and U.S. DoE through CMSO.

  14. The effect of plasma flow on line-tied magnetohydrodynamic modes

    SciTech Connect

    Arcudi, Francesco; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Finn, John M.

    2010-06-15

    The linear stability of a linear pinch to kink modes with line-tying boundary conditions and equilibrium axial flow is studied. Numerical results in visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamics show that for long plasmas, in which the line-tying stabilization effect is weak, plasma flow is stabilizing. For shorter plasmas, near the length at which line-tying stabilizes the mode for zero flow, the flow can be destabilizing. A simple model using reduced ideal magnetohydrodynamics with a step-function current density and an even simpler one-dimensional sound wave model with equilibrium flow elucidate these effects. It is concluded that: (1) The stabilization in long plasmas is due to convective stabilization; (2) the destabilization for short plasmas can be explained using a picture involving the coupling of two stable waves, one propagating in the forward direction and one in the backward direction; and (3) strong magnetic shear suppresses the flow destabilization for short plasmas.

  15. The role of resistivity on line-tied kink modes in cylindrical geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Delzanno, G. L.; Evstatiev, E. G.; Finn, J. M.

    2007-07-15

    An investigation of the effect of resistivity on linear line-tied kink modes is presented in cylindrical geometry. A region near marginal stability, where the line-tied system is stable in ideal magnetohydrodynamics but unstable with resistivity, is shown. In this region, the growth rate is found to be proportional to resistivity. There is no signature of the tearing-like scaling, which occurs in the corresponding system with periodic boundary conditions, or of the formation of boundary layers near the end plates. Instead, the resistive scaling is due to global resistivity, leading to imperfect line-tying. This feature is common to equilibrium pitch profiles that increase or decrease monotonically with radius and is not influenced by viscosity.

  16. Influence of social ties to environmentalists on public climate change perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tindall, D. B.; Piggot, Georgia

    2015-06-01

    An emerging body of research proposes that climate change concern is shaped by one's social ties and cultural milieu. This work aligns with findings in the well-established field of social network analysis, whereby individuals are understood as being embedded in social networks, and network position can be used to predict attitudes. Here we examine whether having ties to environmental movement organization members is correlated with climate change attitudes amongst the general public. We use data from a nationwide survey of the Canadian public to demonstrate that having social ties to environmental organization members increases the likelihood that an individual member of the public has a plan to deal with climate change. These findings reinforce the value of focusing on social context when examining climate change attitudes, and highlight the role that environmental organization members play in mobilizing climate change responses.

  17. Relief of Residual Stress in Streamline Tie Rods by Heat Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollard, R E; Reinhart, Fred M

    1941-01-01

    About two-thirds of the residual stress in cold-worked SAE 1050 steel tie rods was relieved by heating 30 minutes at 600 degrees Fahrenheit. Cold-worked austenitic stainless-steel tie rods could be heated at temperatures up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit without lowering the important physical properties. The corrosion resistance, in laboratory corrosion test, of straight 18:8 and titanium-treated 18:8 materials appeared to be impaired after heating at temperatures above 800 degrees or 900 degrees fahrenheit. Columbium-treated and molybdenum-treated 18:8 steel exhibited improved stability over a wide range of temperatures. Tie rods of either material could be heated 30 minutes with safety at any temperature up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit. At this temperature most of the residual stress would be relieved.

  18. Troll Phase I pipelines: Tie-ins to the subsea tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Hove, F.; Kuhlmann, H.

    1995-12-31

    Subsea approaches to the Norwegian coast are characterized by very rugged topography. Landfall of offshore pipelines therefore often require dedicated subsea tunnel and pipeline tie in concepts. To land the 36 inch and 40 inch offshore pipelines associated with the Troll Phase 1 development, a 4 km long landfall tunnel was constructed terminating at a water depth of 165 m with vertical shaft connections to the seabed. This paper describes the design of the Troll Phase 1 tie-ins of offshore to tunnel pipeline sections. These comprise two main elements, i.e. 180 Te tie-in spools -- which are installed between the offshore pipelines and the piercing shafts -- and prefabricated 450 Te riser bundles -- which are installed into the vertical tunnel piercing shafts.

  19. A Community of Strangers: The Dis-Embedding of Social Ties

    PubMed Central

    Parigi, Paolo; State, Bogdan; Dakhlallah, Diana; Corten, Rense; Cook, Karen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore two contrasting perspectives on individuals' participation in associations. On the one hand, some have considered participation the byproduct of pre-existing friendship ties — the more friends one already has in the association, the more likely he or she is to participate. On the other hand, some have considered participation to be driven by the association's capacity to form new identities — the more new friends one meets in the association, the more likely he or she is to participate. We use detailed temporal data from an online association to adjudicate between these two mechanisms and explore their interplay. Our results show a significant impact of new friendship ties on participation, compared to a negligible impact of pre-existing friends, defined here as ties to other members formed outside of the organization's context. We relate this finding to the sociological literature on participation and we explore its implications in the discussion. PMID:23861761

  20. Affect networks: a structural analysis of the relationship between work ties and job-related affect.

    PubMed

    Totterdell, Peter; Wall, Toby; Holman, David; Diamond, Holly; Epitropaki, Olga

    2004-10-01

    The relationship between organizational networks and employees' affect was examined in 2 organizations. In Study 1, social network analysis of work ties and job-related affect for 259 employees showed that affect converged within work interaction groups. Similarity of affect between employees depended on the presence of work ties and structural equivalence. Affect was also related to the size and density of employees' work networks. Study 2 used a 10-week diary study of 31 employees to examine a merger of 2 organizational divisions and found that negative changes in employees' affect were related to having fewer cross-divisional ties and to experiencing greater reductions in network density. The findings suggest that affect permeates through and is shaped by organizational networks.

  1. The Technology Information Environment with Industry (TIE-In): A mechanism for accessing laboratory solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, J.A.; Machin, G.D.; Marek, E.L.

    1994-12-31

    The Technology Information Environment with Industry (TIE-In) is a system that helps users obtain laboratory-developed technical solutions without requiring that they duplicate the technical resources (in people, hardware and software) at the national laboratories. TIE-In is based on providing users with controlled access to distributed laboratory resources that are packaged in intelligent user interfaces. These interfaces help users obtain technical solutions without requiring that the user have specialized technical and computer expertise. As a designated DOE Technology Deployment Center/User Facility, industry users can access a broad range of laboratory-developed technologies on a cost-recovery basis. TIE-In will also be used to share laboratory resources with partners in US industry that help the DOE meet future manufacturing needs for the stewardship of our nation`s nuclear weapons stockpile.

  2. Relationships between authorship contributions and authors' industry financial ties among oncology clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Rose, Susannah L; Krzyzanowska, Monika K; Joffe, Steven

    2010-03-10

    PURPOSE To test the hypothesis that authors who play key scientific roles in oncology clinical trials, and who therefore have increased influence over the design, analysis, interpretation or reporting of trials, are more likely than those who do not play such roles to have financial ties to industry. METHODS Data were abstracted from all trials (n = 235) of drugs or biologic agents published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology between January 1, 2006 and June 30, 2007. Article-level data included sponsorship, age group (adult v pediatric), phase, single versus multicenter, country (United States v other), and number of authors. Author-level data (n = 2,927) included financial ties (eg, employment, consulting) and performance of key scientific roles (ie, conception/design, analysis/interpretation, or manuscript writing). Associations between performance of key roles and financial ties, adjusting for article-level covariates, were examined using generalized linear mixed models. Results One thousand eight hundred eighty-one authors (64%) reported performing at least one key role, and 842 authors (29%) reported at least one financial tie. Authors who reported performing a key role were more likely than other authors to report financial ties to industry (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.3; 99% CI, 3.0 to 6.0; P < .0001). The association was stronger among trials with, compared with those without, industry funding (OR, 5.0 [99% CI, 3.4 to 7.5] v OR, 2.5 [99% CI, 1.3 to 4.8]), but was present regardless of sponsorship. CONCLUSION Authors who perform key roles in the conception and design, analysis, and interpretation, or reporting of oncology clinical trials are more likely than authors who do not perform such roles to have financial ties to industry.

  3. Early diagenetic degradation products of bacteriohopanepolyols produced by Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain TIE-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eickhoff, Merle; Birgel, Daniel; Talbot, Helen M.; Peckmann, Jörn; Kappler, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The anoxygenic purple non-sulphur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain TIE-1 has emerged as an excellent model organism to study hopanoid biosynthesis and function. It produces several C30 hopanoids, tetrahymanol, as well as various bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs). In addition, TIE-1 is capable of methylating various hopanoids and the non-hopanoid pentacyclic terpenoid tetrahymanol at C-2, which is rare among hopanoid producers. Here, the lipid inventory of TIE-1 under anoxic photoautotrophic growth conditions using either H2 or Fe(II) as electron donor was studied. Adenosylhopane, aminotriol and bacteriohopanetetrol (BHT) were abundant when TIE-1 was grown on H2, but aminotriol and BHT were only found in traces when grown with Fe(II). Only during growth on Fe(II), BHT was found with and without C-2 methylation (25% of both BHT homologues), whereas the other BHPs were not C-2 methylated independent of growth mode. In C30 hopanoids and tetrahymanol, C-2 methylated compounds accounted for as much as 59% of the respective C-2 methylated/non-methylated homologues during growth with Fe(II), but only up to 24% during growth with H2. This observation reveals that C-2 methylated hopanoids may have a specific function in TIE-1 and are preferably synthesized in response to elevated Fe(II) concentrations. Further, we exposed the bacterial cells of strain TIE-1 to elevated temperatures and pressure aiming to produce early degradation products of bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs). While so far, only few BHPs such as 32,35-anhydrobacteriohopanetetrol (anhydroBHT) have been identified as early diagenetic degradation products, in our experiments bacteriohopanetetrol (BHT) and possibly adenosylhopane were degraded to various anhydroBHT isomers, and new N-containing degradation products were discovered and tentatively assigned as anhydroaminotriols.

  4. James P. Allison received the 2014 Szent-Györgi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jie; Scully, Peter; Ba, Sujuan

    2014-01-01

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)—a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting innovative cancer research on the global scale that aims to cure cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher whose original discoveries have expanded our understanding of cancer and resulted in notable advances in cancer prevention, diagnosis, or treatment. The prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the history and mission of the Szent-Györgyi Prize, its role in promoting discovery-oriented cancer research, and the pioneering work led by the 2014 prize winner, Dr. James Allison. Dr. Allison's work in the area of cancer immunotherapy led to the successful development of immune checkpoint therapy, and the first drug approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. PMID:25189714

  5. Discovery of Novel Benzimidazoles as Potent Inhibitors of TIE-2 and VEGFR-2 Tyrosine Kinase Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Masaichi; Nishigaki, Naohiko; Washio, Yoshiaki; Kano, Kazuya; Harris, Philip A.; Sato, Hideyuki; Mori, Ichiro; West, Rob I.; Shibahara, Megumi; Toyoda, Hiroko; Wang, Liping; Nolte, Robert T.; Veal, James M.; Cheung, Mui

    2008-09-12

    We herein disclose a novel chemical series of benzimidazole-ureas as inhibitors of VEGFR-2 and TIE-2 kinase receptors, both of which are implicated in angiogenesis. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies elucidated a critical role for the N1 nitrogen of both the benzimidazole (segment E) and urea (segment B) moieties. The SAR results were also supported by the X-ray crystallographic elucidation of the role of the N1 nitrogen and the urea moiety when the benzimidazole-urea compounds were bound to the VEGFR-2 enzyme. The left side phenyl ring (segment A) occupies the backpocket where a 3-hydrophobic substituent was favored for TIE-2 activity.

  6. Clinical inquiries. When should you treat tongue-tie in a newborn?

    PubMed

    Cho, Anthony; Kelsberg, Gary; Safranek, Sarah

    2010-12-01

    Consider treatment when the infant is having difficulty breastfeeding. Infants with mild to moderate tongue-tie, or ankyloglossia, are likely to breastfeed successfully and usually require no treatment (strength of recommendation [SOR]: B, a prospective controlled trial and a case-control study). However, mothers of infants with any degree of tongue-tie who have difficulty with breastfeeding despite lactation support report immediate improvement after frenotomy is performed on the baby. Complications from the procedure are minimal (SOR: B, a small randomized controlled trial [ RCT] and multiple uncontrolled cohort studies and case series).

  7. Equation-of-State Based Tie-Simplex Parameterization for Multiphase Thermal-Compositional Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iranshahr, A.; Voskov, D.; Tchelepi, H. A.

    2011-12-01

    Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes usually involve complex phase behaviors between the injected fluid (e.g., steam, hydrocarbon, CO2, sour) and the in-situ rock-fluid system. Several fundamental questions remain regarding equation-of-state computations for mixtures than can form three, or more, phases at equilibrium. In addition, numerical and computational issues related to proper coupling of the thermodynamic phase-behavior with multiphase flow multi-component transport must be resolved in order to model the behaviors of large-scale EOR processes accurately and efficiently. We describe a general negative-flash method for multi-component, thermal systems that can form three, or more, fluid phases. We prove that the new method is convergent to the unique solution. Based on our multiphase negative-flash technique, we have developed an adaptive tie-simplex parameterization framework for thermal-compositional simulation. We also prove that the tie-simplexes change continuously as a function of pressure, temperature, and composition. The continuity of the parameterized compositional space allows for interpolation in pressure and temperature using a limited number of tie-simplexes. We show that the tie-simplex framework constrains thermodynamic computations, and converges to the global minimum of the Gibbs free energy. The extended negative-flash approach accounts rigorously for tie-simplex degeneration (critical behavior) across phase boundaries. We study the behaviors of thermal-compositional reservoir displacement processes across a wide range of fluid mixtures, pressures, and temperatures. The focus is on the complex behaviors of the tie-triangles and tie-lines associated with three-phase, thermal steam-injection problems in heterogeneous formations. The algorithms that capture the complex combinations of the appearance and disappearance of multiple phases are described in detail. This tie-simplex based parameterization framework is integrated with a general

  8. Effects of the Al content on pore structures of porous TieAl alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jaing, Y; He, Y H; Xu, N P; Zou, J; Huang, B; Lui, C T

    2008-01-01

    Porous TieAl alloys with different nominal compositions were fabricated through a reactive synthesis of Ti and Al elemental powders. It has been found that the pore parameters vary with the Al contents, indicating that the nature of the pores can be manipulated through changing the Al contents. In addition, detailed structural characterizations showed that the fabricated porous TieAl alloys can have three crystalline phases (i.e., a2-Ti3Al, g-TiAl, and TiAl3) when using different compositions. The fundamental reasons behind these phenomena have been explored.

  9. Youyou Tu: significance of winning the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenxiu

    2016-01-01

    Youyou Tu, a female scientist at the China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Beijing, is the first Chinese winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Based on the study of recipes which had been used for thousands of years to treat fever, Tu’s group discovered that the plant artemesia annua, sweet wormwood, showed substantial inhibition of rodent malaria parasites. Her achievement and experience have inspired other researchers and emphasized the development of traditional Chinese medicine. Her award has led to a heated discussion about scientific research investment, fair treatment of research staff, and intellectual property right (IPR) protection in China. PMID:26885485

  10. Youyou Tu: significance of winning the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenxiu; Liu, Yue

    2016-02-01

    Youyou Tu, a female scientist at the China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Beijing, is the first Chinese winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Based on the study of recipes which had been used for thousands of years to treat fever, Tu's group discovered that the plant artemesia annua, sweet wormwood, showed substantial inhibition of rodent malaria parasites. Her achievement and experience have inspired other researchers and emphasized the development of traditional Chinese medicine. Her award has led to a heated discussion about scientific research investment, fair treatment of research staff, and intellectual property right (IPR) protection in China.

  11. Radiation risk and nuclear medicine: An interview with a Nobel Prize winner

    SciTech Connect

    Yalow, R.S.

    1995-12-01

    In a speech given years ago at the Veterans Administration Medical Center, Bronx, NY, Rosalyn S. Yalow, 1977 Nobel Prize recipient for her invention of radioimmunoassay, made several salient points on the perception of fear or hazards from exposure to low-level radiation and low-level radioactive wastes. For the past three years, Yalow has been concerned with the general fear of radiation. In this interview, Newsline solicited Yalow`s views on public perceptions on radiation risk and what the nuclear medicine community can do to emphasize the fact that, if properly managed, the use of isotopes in medicine and other cases is not dangerous.

  12. The mantle of the heavens: Reflections on the 2014 Nobel Prize for medicine or physiology.

    PubMed

    Morris, Richard G M

    2015-06-01

    The award of the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology in 2014 for the discovery of place and grid cells was both a personal award to three great scientists and also a mark of the maturity of systems neuroscience as a discipline. This article offers both personal and scientific reflections on these discoveries, detailing both how getting to know all three winners had an impact on my life and the research questions that we shared in common work together. It ends with brief reflections on three important outstanding questions.

  13. The exponential growth of autophagy-related research: from the humble yeast to the Nobel Prize.

    PubMed

    Mizushima, Noboru

    2017-03-01

    Autophagy was discovered more than half a century ago. In the early days, autophagy was studied mostly through the use of biochemical methods and electron microscopy. In the 1990s, yeast genetics was introduced to this field and brought about an exponential expansion. The 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was eventually awarded to the scientist who spearheaded the rapid development of the field: Yoshinori Ohsumi. Here, I describe in a Nutshell how the autophagy machinery was discovered and how the autophagy research field has grown following the breakthroughs from yeast studies.

  14. Lumen Maintenance Testing of the Philips 60-Watt Replacement Lamp L Prize Entry

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Kelly L.; Hafen, Ryan P.; Hathaway, John E.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes testing conducted to evaluate the Philips' L Prize award winning 60-watt LED replacement product's ability to meet the lifetime/lumen maintenance requirement of the competition, which was: "having 70 percent of the lumen value under subparagraph (A) [producing a luminous flux greater than 900 lumens] exceeding 25,000 hours under typical conditions expected in residential use." A custom test apparatus was designed and constructed for this testing and a statistical approach was developed for use in evaluating the test results. This will be the only publicly available, third-party data set of long-term LED product operation.

  15. The Beatles, the Nobel Prize, and CT scanning of the chest.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Lawrence R

    2010-01-01

    From its first test scan on a mouse, in 1967, to current medical practice, the CT scanner has become a core imaging tool in thoracic diagnosis. Initially financed by money from Beatles' record sales, the first patient scan was performed in 1971. Only 8 years later, a Nobel Prize in Physics and Medicine was awarded to Hounsfield and Cormack for their discovery. This article traces the history of CT scanner development and how each technical advance expanded chest diagnostic frontiers. Chest imaging now accounts for 30% of all CT scanning.

  16. Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Development of the Olefin Metathesis Method in Organic Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Charles P.

    2006-02-01

    The 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Yves Chauvin of the Institut Français du Pétrole, Robert H. Grubbs of CalTech, and Richard R. Schrock of MIT "for development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis". The discoveries of the laureates provided a chemical reaction now used daily in the chemical industry for the efficient and more environmentally friendly production of important pharmaceuticals, fuels, synthetic fibers, and many other products. This article tells the story of how olefin metathesis became a truly useful synthetic transformation and a triumph for mechanistic chemistry, and illustrates the importance of fundamental research. See JCE Featured Molecules .

  17. Social Tie Characteristics and Psychiatric Rehabilitation Outcomes among Adults with Serious Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chronister, Julie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social support has achieved national attention as a key component of the mental health recovery paradigm for persons with serious mental illness (SMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of variance accounted for by four social tie characteristics (social network orientation, emotional support, tangible support, and negative…

  18. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Fang; Xu, Kaili; Yao, Xiwen; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie) analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN). Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures. PMID:27463975

  19. From Gut Knowing: Every Silver Cloud Has a Black Lining. Actor Reflections on "Ties That Bind."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmes, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Makes sense of the performance of Steve Taylor's play, "Ties That Bind," from the perspective of the actors, 14 faculty members, and doctoral students from various universities in the United States by using the interpretive lens of Erving Goffman's Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. (SG)

  20. Mexican American Protest, Ethnic Resiliency and Social Capital: The Mobilization Benefits of Cross-Cutting Ties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santoro, Wayne A.; Velez,, Maria B.; Keogh, Stacy M.

    2012-01-01

    Using terms like free spaces and havens, conventional wisdom views social ties by subordinate groups to dominant group members as hindering protest participation. In contrast, we draw on ethnic resiliency and social capital perspectives and argue that there are mobilization benefits to having dominant group members as friends. We offer a unique…

  1. Pulmonary vascular inflammation: effect of TLR signalling on angiopoietin/TIE regulation.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Tobias; Dornbusch, Kathrin; Baumgarten, Georg; Hoeft, Andreas; Frede, Stilla; Klaschik, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Increased pulmonary vascular resistance is a critical complication in sepsis. Toll-like receptor (TLR) as well as angiopoietin (ANG) signalling both contribute to the emergence of pulmonary arterial hypertension. We hypothesized that TLR stimulation by bacterial ligands directly affects expression and secretion of ligands and receptors of the angiopoietin/TIE axis. Microvascular endothelial (HPMEC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC) of pulmonary origin were incubated with thrombin and with ligands for TLR2, -4, -5, and -9. Expression and secretion of ANG1, -2, TIE2 and IL-8 were determined using quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA. TLR stimulation had no impact either on the expression of ANG2 and TIE2 in HPMEC or on that of ANG1 in SMC. However, overall levels of both released ANG1 and -2 were halved upon stimulation with the TLR9 ligand CpG, and ANG2 release was significantly enhanced by TLR4 activation when initially provoked by sequentially performed stimulation. Furthermore, enhanced ANG2 activity increased endothelial permeability, as demonstrated in an in vitro transwell assay. We conclude that sole TLR stimulation by bacterial ligands plays no significant role for altered expression and secretion of ANG1, -2 and TIE2 in human pulmonary vascular cells. The interplay between various stimuli is required to induce imbalances between ANG1 and -2.

  2. Exploring relationship between human mobility and social ties: Physical distance is not dead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Bo; Liao, Binbing; Yuan, Ning; Wang, Wenjun

    2015-06-01

    Partly due to the difficulty of the access to a worldwide dataset that simultaneously captures the location history and social networks, our understanding of the relationship between human mobility and the social ties has been limited. However, this topic is essential for a deeper study from human dynamics and social networks aspects. In this paper, we examine the location history data and social networks data of 712 email users and 399 offline events users from a map-editing based social network website. Based on these data, we expand all our experiment both from individual aspect and community aspect. We find that the physical distance is still the most influential factor to social ties among the nine representative human mobility features extracted from our GPS trajectory dataset, although Internet revolution has made long-distance communication dramatically faster, easier and cheaper than ever before, and in turn, partly expand the physical scope of social networks. Furthermore, we find that to a certain extent, the proximity of South-North direction is more influential than East-West direction to social ties. To the our best of our knowledge, this difference between South-North and East-West is the first time to be raised and quantitatively supported by a large dataset. We believe our findings on the interplay of human mobility and social ties offer a new perspective to this field of study.

  3. Tongue-Tied: The Lives of Multilingual Children in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Ana, Otto

    2004-01-01

    Tongue-Tied is an anthology that gives voice to millions of people who, on a daily basis, are denied the opportunity to speak in their own language. First-person accounts by Amy Tan, Sherman Alexie, Bell Hooks, Richard Rodriguez, Maxine Hong Kingston, and many other authors open windows into the lives of linguistic minority students and their…

  4. 10 CFR 71.45 - Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., or must be designed with strength equivalent to that required for lifting attachments. (b) Tie-down... component of 2 times the weight of the package with its contents, a horizontal component along the direction in which the vehicle travels of 10 times the weight of the package with its contents, and...

  5. Social Support and Social Network Ties among the Homeless in a Downtown Atlanta Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitzes, Donald C.; Crimmins, Timothy J.; Yarbrough, Johanna; Parker, Josie

    2011-01-01

    This study applies a typology of social support with 3 categories of social networks to investigate social ties and their benefits for homeless people. Data were derived from a 2-year long series of participant observations of homeless or precariously housed people who came regularly to a downtown Atlanta public park. The findings are as follows:…

  6. TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages regulate revascularization of the ischemic limb

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ashish S; Smith, Alberto; Nucera, Silvia; Biziato, Daniela; Saha, Prakash; Attia, Rizwan Q; Humphries, Julia; Mattock, Katherine; Grover, Steven P; Lyons, Oliver T; Guidotti, Luca G; Siow, Richard; Ivetic, Aleksandar; Egginton, Stuart; Waltham, Matthew; Naldini, Luigi; De Palma, Michele; Modarai, Bijan

    2013-01-01

    A third of patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) will eventually require limb amputation. Therapeutic neovascularization using unselected mononuclear cells to salvage ischemic limbs has produced modest results. The TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEMs) are a myeloid cell subset known to be highly angiogenic in tumours. This study aimed to examine the kinetics of TEMs in patients with CLI and whether these cells promote neovascularization of the ischemic limb. Here we show that there are 10-fold more circulating TEMs in CLI patients, and removal of ischemia reduces their numbers to normal levels. TEM numbers in ischemic muscle are two-fold greater than normoxic muscle from the same patient. TEMs from patients with CLI display greater proangiogenic activity than TIE2-negative monocytes in vitro. Using a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia, lentiviral-based Tie2 knockdown in TEMs impaired recovery from ischemia, whereas delivery of mouse macrophages overexpressing TIE2, or human TEMs isolated from CLI patients, rescued limb ischemia. These data suggest that enhancing TEM recruitment to the ischemic muscle may have the potential to improve limb neovascularization in CLI patients. PMID:23653322

  7. Bow-tie antennas on a dielectric half-space - Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, Richard C.; Mcphedran, Ross C.; Popovic, Zorana; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.; Tong, Peter P.

    1987-01-01

    A new formulation is discussed for the rigous calculation of the radiation pattern of a bow-tie antenna of finite length and infinitesimal thickness, placed on a lossless dielectric substrate. The analysis is based on a representation of the current density on the metal surface of the antenna as a sum of an imposed (quasistatic) term and a set of current modes with unknown amplitudes. Free-space fields that are expressed in terms of continuous spectra of symmetrized plane waves are matched to the current modes using the method of moments. The resulting set of equations are solved for the unknown current amplitudes. The calculations show that for increasing bow length the antenna impedance spirals rapidly to a value predicted by transmission line theory. The theory also shows that the E-plane pattern of a two-wavelength, 60-deg bow-tie antenna is dominated by low-loss current modes propagating at the dielectric wavenumber. As the bow tie narrows, the loss of the modes increases, and the dominant wavenumber tends to the quasi-static value. Pattern measurements made at 94 GHz are shown to agree well with theoretical predictions. Measurements for a long-wire antenna, a linear array of bow-tie elements, and a log-periodic antenna are also presented.

  8. Sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies at marine sites suspected of ordnance contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, R.S.; Nipper, M.; Biedenbach, J.M.; Hooten, R.L.; Miller, K.; Saepoff, S.

    2001-01-01

    A sediment quality assessment survey and subsequent toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) study was conducted at several sites in Puget Sound, Washington. The sites were previously suspected of contamination with ordnance compounds. The initial survey employed sea urchin porewater toxicity tests to locate the most toxic stations. Sediments from the most toxic stations were selected for comprehensive chemical analyses. Based on the combined information from the toxicity and chemical data, three adjacent stations in Ostrich Bay were selected for the TIE study. The results of the phase I TIE suggested that organics and metals were primarily responsible for the observed toxicity in the sea urchin fertilization test. In addition to these contaminants, ammonia was also contributing to the toxicity for the sea urchin embryological development test. The phase II TIE study isolated the majority of the toxicity in the fraction containing nonpolar organics with high log Kow, but chemical analyses failed to identify a compound present at a concentration high enough to be responsible for the observed toxicity. The data suggest that some organic or organometallic contaminant(s) that were not included in the comprehensive suite of chemical analyses caused the observed toxicological responses.

  9. Education and the Japan-America Tie in the Mid-'70s. Occasional Papers, No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on International Educational Exchange, New York, NY.

    Presented at a seminar on Resources for Educational Exchange with Japan, this paper emphasizes the closeness of the ties between Japan and the United States and the importance of the educational and cultural dimensions of the relationship. An historical treatment of the relationship between the two countries since 1872 points out the rapid change…

  10. Place of Origin, Types of Ties, and Support Networks in Mexico-U.S. Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores-Yeffal, Nadia Y.; Aysa-Lastra, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies explored how urban or rural place of origin influences the source of social capital. There remains a need to consider how the place of origin affects the type of ties--family, friends, or "paisanos" (countrymen)--with those who provide support to migrants. We use data from the Mexican Migration Project (MMP128) and…

  11. Which Peers Matter: How Social Ties Affect Peer-Group Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poldin, Oleg; Valeeva, Diliara; Yudkevich, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We study how the achievements of university students are influenced by the characteristics and achievements of peers in individuals' social networks. Defining peer group in terms of friendship and study partner ties enables us to apply a network regression model and thereby disentangle the influence of peers' performance from that of peers'…

  12. Analysis and computation of a least-squares method for consistent mesh tying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, David; Bochev, Pavel

    2008-08-01

    In the finite element method, a standard approach to mesh tying is to apply Lagrange multipliers. If the interface is curved, however, discretization generally leads to adjoining surfaces that do not coincide spatially. Straightforward Lagrange multiplier methods lead to discrete formulations failing a first-order patch test [T.A. Laursen, M.W. Heinstein, Consistent mesh-tying methods for topologically distinct discretized surfaces in non-linear solid mechanics, Internat. J. Numer. Methods Eng. 57 (2003) 1197-1242]. This paper presents a theoretical and computational study of a least-squares method for mesh tying [P. Bochev, D.M. Day, A least-squares method for consistent mesh tying, Internat. J. Numer. Anal. Modeling 4 (2007) 342-352], applied to the partial differential equation -[backward difference]2[phi]+[alpha][phi]=f. We prove optimal convergence rates for domains represented as overlapping subdomains and show that the least-squares method passes a patch test of the order of the finite element space by construction. To apply the method to subdomain configurations with gaps and overlaps we use interface perturbations to eliminate the gaps. Theoretical error estimates are illustrated by numerical experiments.

  13. Newspaper Readership and Community Ties; Precision Journalism: Coming of Age. ANPA News Research Report No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert L.; Ismach, Arnold H.

    The first of two articles in this report offers a survey of how community ties lead to various psychological needs that are the motivation for newspaper reading. It identifies three distinct audience segments: the traditional audience, with permanent bonds to the community, whose need for information, guidance, and community surveillance leads to…

  14. Tying the Yellow Ribbon: How School Psychologists and Educators Can Support Military Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anweiler, Justin

    2008-01-01

    Tying a yellow ribbon around the tree in one's front yard or placing a magnet on one's car is more than just a show of support. It is a promise to American military around the world that one is ready and able to support them in their time of need just as they have supported the country. Educators, including school psychologists, are especially…

  15. TOXICITY REDUCTION AND TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATIONS (TIE) FOR EFFLUENTS, AMBIENT WATERS AND OTHER AQUEOUS MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication is the result of a workshop and it is intended for publication through the SETAC Special Publication Series based on the proceedings from the SETAC sponsored workshop that was titles "Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) Forum: What Works, What Doesn't, ...

  16. 10 CFR 71.45 - Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 71.45 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.45 Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages. (a) Any... must be capable of withstanding, without generating stress in any material of the package in excess...

  17. The Role of Offspring and In-Laws in Grandparents' Ties to Their Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingerman, Karen L.

    2004-01-01

    Prior research has considered the influence of the middle generation on ties between grandparents and grandchildren but has not differentiated between gender of parent and kinship to grandparent (e.g., daughter vs. daughter-in-law and son vs. son-in-law). Eighty-six grandparents provided information about the qualities of their relationships with…

  18. Remediation System Evaluation, GCL Tie and Treating Superfund Site, Sidney, New York

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The GCL Tie and Treating Superfund Site is located along the outskirts of Sidney in Delaware County, New York. The site is a former wood treating facility that was operated between the early 1950s and 1988 when the property was abandoned by the owners.

  19. Children in Residential Group Care with No Family Ties: Facing Existential Aloneness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvir, Orly; Weiner, Anita; Kupermintz, Hagai

    2012-01-01

    The issue of children living in residential group care in Israel completely without family ties is studied in order to explore the feelings of staff and uncover possible characteristics of these children. Data were collected through focus groups, questionnaires, and life stories of children who left group care at 18 years of age. Results reveal…

  20. Language of the People Forever: Bay Mills Spins Thread Tying Ojibwa Communities Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    Why would anyone want to spend thousands of hours away from home and pay hundreds of dollars in tuition to acquire one of the world's most difficult languages? For Anishinaabe people, that is an easy question to answer. The Ojibwe language is the thread that ties communities together and unites all Anishinaabe as one people sharing a common…

  1. Weak ties: Subtle role of information diffusion in online social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jichang; Wu, Junjie; Xu, Ke

    2010-07-01

    As a social media, online social networks play a vital role in the social information diffusion. However, due to its unique complexity, the mechanism of the diffusion in online social networks is different from the ones in other types of networks and remains unclear to us. Meanwhile, few works have been done to reveal the coupled dynamics of both the structure and the diffusion of online social networks. To this end, in this paper, we propose a model to investigate how the structure is coupled with the diffusion in online social networks from the view of weak ties. Through numerical experiments on large-scale online social networks, we find that in contrast to some previous research results, selecting weak ties preferentially to republish cannot make the information diffuse quickly, while random selection can achieve this goal. However, when we remove the weak ties gradually, the coverage of the information will drop sharply even in the case of random selection. We also give a reasonable explanation for this by extra analysis and experiments. Finally, we conclude that weak ties play a subtle role in the information diffusion in online social networks. On one hand, they act as bridges to connect isolated local communities together and break through the local trapping of the information. On the other hand, selecting them as preferential paths to republish cannot help the information spread further in the network. As a result, weak ties might be of use in the control of the virus spread and the private information diffusion in real-world applications.

  2. Development and Testing of a Prototype Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed and tested a prototype 2 kW DC grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system at the Center. The PV system has generated in excess of 6700 kWh since operation commenced in July 2006. The PV system is providing power to the GRC grid for use by all. Operation of the prototype PV system has been completely trouble free. A grid-tied PV power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provide valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Based upon the success of the prototype PV system, additional PV power system expansion at GRC is under consideration. The prototype grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed which served to validate the basic principles described, and the theoretical work that was performed. The report concludes that grid-tied photovoltaic power systems are reliable, maintenance free, long life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community.

  3. Social stress, locality of social ties and mental well-being: the case of rural migrant adolescents in urban China.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Nicole W T

    2014-05-01

    By comparing rural migrant and urban native adolescents in Guangzhou, the largest city in south China, this study investigated the relationships between social stress, social ties that link migrants to their host cities (local ties) and to their rural home communities (trans-local ties), and the migrants׳ mental well-being. Non-migration social stress was more strongly related to poor psychological health than to weak self-efficacy in both migrant and urban native adolescents. This pattern also applied to the effect of migration-specific assimilation stress on psychological health and self-efficacy in migrants. Social ties directly enhanced these two well-being outcomes in both samples, with the effects of trans-local and local ties proving equally potent among migrants. Trans-local ties were somewhat more useful for migrants in moderating the effects of non-migration social stress and assimilation stress, whereas the stress moderation function of social ties was less pronounced in urban natives. These findings extend the migration, network and social stress literature by identifying how local and trans-local ties protect mental health and mitigate stress in migrants.

  4. What’s Causing Toxicity in Sediments? Results of Twenty Years of Toxicity Identification and Evaluations (TIEs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIEs) methods have been used for twenty years to identify the causes of toxicity in sediments around the world. We summarized and categorized results of more than 80 peer-reviewed TIE studies into non-ionic organic, cationic, ammo...

  5. The effect of line-tying on the radiative MHD stability of coronal plasmas with radial pressure profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, C.-H.

    1984-01-01

    The role of photospheric line-tying, i.e., solar coronal loop structures, was investigated in terms of the effect on radiative modes and the influence that different radial pressure profiles exert on the effects of line-tying on radiative MHD stability. Energy is assumed dissipated by heat conduction and radiation and zero- and first-order solutions are obtained for the radiative time scales. Line-tying is a magnetic tension in the zero-order MHD mode and produces stability. Heat conduction occurs along bent field lines in first-order MHD modes when plasmas cross the field lines. Irradiated cool-core loops can experience MHD instabilities in the cylinder center, while line-tying can stabilize the plasma in the surrounding hot medium. Line-tying also adds stability to magnetosonic and condensation modes.

  6. Special Issue on "Neutrino Oscillations: Celebrating the Nobel Prize in Physics 2015" in Nuclear Physics B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlsson, Tommy

    2016-07-01

    In 2015, the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded jointly to Takaaki Kajita from the Super-Kamiokande Collaboration and Arthur B. McDonald from the SNO Collaboration ;for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass;. Furthermore, the Daya Bay, K2K and T2K, KamLAND, SNO, and Super-Kamiokande Collaborations shared the Fundamental Physics Breakthrough Prize the same year. In order to celebrate this successful and fruitful year for neutrino oscillations, the editors and the publisher of Nuclear Physics B decided to publish a Special Issue on neutrino oscillations. We invited prominent scientists in the area of neutrino physics that relates to neutrino oscillations to write contributions for this Special Issue, which was open to both original research articles as well as review articles. The authors of this Special Issue consist of e.g. the two Nobel Laureates, International Participants of the Nobel Symposium 129 on Neutrino Physics at Haga Slott in Enköping, Sweden (August 19-24, 2004), selected active researchers, and members from large experimental collaborations with major results in the last ten years. In total, this Special Issue consists of 28 contributions. Please note that the cover of this Special Issue contains a figure from each of the 26 contributions that have figures included.

  7. A Hyperspectral Imager for the Google Lunar X-Prize Open Source FREDnet Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branly, Rolando

    2010-05-01

    A Hyper-Spectral Imager (HSI) instrument has been designed for a lunar mission sponsored as part of the Google Lunar X-prize endeavor. The HSI instrument is contributed to team FREDnet's Open-Source mission development. The imager provivides hyper-spectral image cubes using the techniques developed by Sellar. The image cubes are comprised of 1024 X 1024 spatial-spectral planes obtained by a pushbroom configuration of an instrument with no moving parts. The HSI has been designed with NASA/CalPoly Cubesat standard. A smaller no moving parts monolthic instrument is planned for a project required lunar pico-rover. Lunar X-prize Missions are expected to launch prior to the end of 2014 using new commercial rocket vehicles. This lunar endeavor carries with significant undergraduate research involvement. References: Branly R., Howard E.S., An Experiment Carrier Demonstrator Project with Hyperspectral Imaging for VTVL Vehicles, LPI Cont. No.1534 p.6 Sellar et al., Techniques for Achieving High Throughput with a Pushbrrom Imaging Spectrometer, SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4480 pp.32-39

  8. Expressing gambling-related cognitive biases in motor behaviour: rolling dice to win prizes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Matthew S M; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta; Rogers, Robert D

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive perspectives on gambling propose that biased thinking plays a significant role in sustaining gambling participation and, in vulnerable individuals, gambling problems. One prominent set of cognitive biases include illusions of control involving beliefs that it is possible to influence random gaming events. Sociologists have reported that (some) gamblers believe that it is possible to throw dice in different ways to achieve gaming outcomes (e.g., 'dice-setting' in craps). However, experimental demonstrations of these phenomena are lacking. Here, we asked regular gamblers to roll a computer-simulated, but fair, 6 sided die for monetary prizes. Gamblers allowed the die to roll for longer when attempting to win higher value bets, and when attempting to hit high winning numbers. This behaviour was exaggerated in gamblers motivated to keep gambling following the experience of almost-winning in gambling games. These results suggest that gambling cognitive biases find expression in the motor behaviour of rolling dice for monetary prizes, possibly reflecting embodied substrates.

  9. The matilda effect in science: awards and prizes in the US, 1990s and 2000s.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Anne E; Pincus, Stephanie; Koster, Janet Bandows; Leboy, Phoebe S

    2012-04-01

    Science is stratified, with an unequal distribution of research facilities and rewards among scientists. Awards and prizes, which are critical for shaping scientific career trajectories, play a role in this stratification when they differentially enhance the status of scientists who already have large reputations: the 'Matthew Effect'. Contrary to the Mertonian norm of universalism--the expectation that the personal attributes of scientists do not affect evaluations of their scientific claims and contributions--in practice, a great deal of evidence suggests that the scientific efforts and achievements of women do not receive the same recognition as do those of men: the 'Matilda Effect'. Awards in science, technology, engineering and medical (STEM) fields are not immune to these biases. We outline the research on gender bias in evaluations of research and analyze data from 13 STEM disciplinary societies. While women's receipt of professional awards and prizes has increased in the past two decades, men continue to win a higher proportion of awards for scholarly research than expected based on their representation in the nomination pool. The results support the powerful twin influences of implicit bias and committee chairs as contributing factors. The analysis sheds light on the relationship of external social factors to women's science careers and helps to explain why women are severely underrepresented as winners of science awards. The ghettoization of women's accomplishments into a category of 'women-only' awards also is discussed.

  10. "The developmental and functional logic of neuronal circuits": commentary on the Kavli Prize in Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Glover, J C

    2009-11-10

    The first Kavli Prize in Neuroscience recognizes a confluence of career achievements that together provide a fundamental understanding of how brain and spinal cord circuits are assembled during development and function in the adult. The members of the Kavli Neuroscience Prize Committee have decided to reward three scientists (Sten Grillner, Thomas Jessell, and Pasko Rakic) jointly "for discoveries on the developmental and functional logic of neuronal circuits". Pasko Rakic performed groundbreaking studies of the developing cerebral cortex, including the discovery of how radial glia guide the neuronal migration that establishes cortical layers and for the radial unit hypothesis and its implications for cortical connectivity and evolution. Thomas Jessell discovered molecular principles governing the specification and patterning of different neuron types and the development of their synaptic interconnection into sensorimotor circuits. Sten Grillner elucidated principles of network organization in the vertebrate locomotor central pattern generator, along with its command systems and sensory and higher order control. The discoveries of Rakic, Jessell and Grillner provide a framework for how neurons obtain their identities and ultimate locations, establish appropriate connections with each other, and how the resultant neuronal networks operate. Their work has significantly advanced our understanding of brain development and function and created new opportunities for the treatment of neurological disorders. Each has pioneered an important area of neuroscience research and left a legacy of exceptional scientific achievement, insight, communication, mentoring and leadership.

  11. Selman A. Waksman, winner of the 1952 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, H Boyd

    2014-01-01

    The history of the discovery and development of streptomycin is reviewed here from the personal standpoint of a member of Dr. Selman Waksman's antibiotic screening research team. The team approach of eight individuals illustrates how the gradual enhancement of the screening methodology was developed. I illustrate three study periods with key aspects in the development of streptomycin which led to a Nobel Prize being granted to Professor Waksman. One item not previously emphasized is the employment of a submerged culture technique for large-scale production of streptomycin, thus enabling rapid animal testing and human clinical trials with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Another is that purified streptomycin was shown by Dr. Waksman to be distinctly different from the substances called natural products, which are no longer patentable in the United States; therefore, streptomycin was found to be patentable. A third item not previously emphasized is his emphasis on the screening of actinomycetes, including the newly named Streptomyces genus. All of these factors contributed to the success of streptomycin in the treatment of tuberculosis. In combination, their successes led to Dr. Waksman's department becoming a new pharmacological research area, specializing in drug discovery. These unique accomplishments all burnish the prior rationales used by the Karolinska Institute in granting Dr. Waksman alone the 1952 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.

  12. Global TIE Observatories: Real Time Observational Astronomy Through a Robotic Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, G.; Mayo, L. A.

    2001-12-01

    activities. Hundreds of schools in the US, Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have participated in the TIE program, remotely controlling the 24-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory from their classrooms. In recent years, several (approximately 20 to date) other telescopes have been, or are in the process of being, outfitted for remote use as TIE affiliates. Global TIE integrates these telescopes seamlessly into one virtual observatory and provides the services required to operate this facility, including a scheduling service, tools for data manipulation, an online proposal review environment, an online "Virtual TIE Student Ap J" for publication of results, and access to related educational materials provided by the TIE community. This presentation describes the Global TIE Observatory data and organizational systems and details the technology, partnerships, operational capabilities, science applications, and learning opportunities that this powerful virtual observatory network will provide.

  13. Contextualizing nativity status, social ties, and ethnic enclaves: Implications for understanding immigrant and Latino health paradoxes

    PubMed Central

    Viruell-Fuentes, Edna A.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.; Williams, David R.; House, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Researchers have posited that one potential explanation for the better-than-expected health outcomes observed among some Latino immigrants, vis-à-vis their U.S.-born counterparts, may be the strength of their social ties and social support among immigrants. Methods We examined the association between nativity status and social ties using data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study’s Latino subsample, which includes Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and other Latinos. First, we used Ordinary Least Squares [OLS] regression methods to model the effect of nativity status on five outcomes: informal social integration; social network diversity; network size; instrumental support; and informational support. Using multilevel mixed effects regression models, we estimated the association between Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition on our outcomes, and whether these relationships varied by nativity status. Lastly, we examined the relationship between social ties and immigrants’ length of time in the United States. Results After controlling for individual-level characteristics, immigrant Latinos had significantly lower levels of social ties than their U.S.-born counterparts for all our outcomes, except for informational support. Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition was positively associated with being socially integrated and having larger and more diverse social networks. The associations between two of our outcomes (informal social integration and network size) and living in a neighborhood with greater concentrations of Latinos and immigrants were stronger for U.S.-born Latinos than for immigrant Latinos. U.S.-born Latinos maintained a significant socialties advantage compared to immigrants—regardless of length of time in the United States—for informal social integration, network diversity, and network size. Conclusion At the individual level, our findings challenge the assumption that Latino immigrants would have larger networks and/or higher

  14. Local effects of redundant terrestrial and GPS-based tie vectors in ITRF-like combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbondanza, Claudio; Altamimi, Zuheir; Sarti, Pierguido; Negusini, Monia; Vittuari, Luca

    2009-11-01

    Tie vectors (TVs) between co-located space geodetic instruments are essential for combining terrestrial reference frames (TRFs) realised using different techniques. They provide relative positioning between instrumental reference points (RPs) which are part of a global geodetic network such as the international terrestrial reference frame (ITRF). This paper gathers the set of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI)-global positioning system (GPS) local ties performed at the observatory of Medicina (Northern Italy) during the years 2001-2006 and discusses some important aspects related to the usage of co-location ties in the combinations of TRFs. Two measurement approaches of local survey are considered here: a GPS-based approach and a classical approach based on terrestrial observations (i.e. angles, distances and height differences). The behaviour of terrestrial local ties, which routinely join combinations of space geodetic solutions, is compared to that of GPS-based local ties. In particular, we have performed and analysed different combinations of satellite laser ranging (SLR), VLBI and GPS long term solutions in order to (i) evaluate the local effects of the insertion of the series of TVs computed at Medicina, (ii) investigate the consistency of GPS-based TVs with respect to space geodetic solutions, (iii) discuss the effects of an imprecise alignment of TVs from a local to a global reference frame. Results of ITRF-like combinations show that terrestrial TVs originate the smallest residuals in all the three components. In most cases, GPS-based TVs fit space geodetic solutions very well, especially in the horizontal components (N, E). On the contrary, the estimation of the VLBI RP Up component through GPS technique appears to be awkward, since the corresponding post fit residuals are considerably larger. Besides, combination tests including multi-temporal TVs display local effects of residual redistribution, when compared to those solutions where Medicina TVs

  15. News and Views: ALMA examines Centaurus A; WMAP team wins Gruber Prize; EUCLID moves closer to launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-08-01

    Charles Bennett (right) and the team behind the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe received the 2012 Gruber Prize, in recognition of the precision of their results that have turned an “appealing scenario into precise science”. ESA's dark energy and dark matter mission, EUCLID, has received approval from the Science Programme Committee to move into the full contruction phase, ahead of launch in 2020.

  16. Society News: RAS Fellows are honoured with awards; Patrick Moore Medal; Best theses win prizes; New Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-08-01

    Congratulations to several Fellows of the RAS who have received prestigious awards this year. Congratulations to the winners of the annual prizes for the best PhD theses in astronomy and geophysics, awarded by the RAS and sponsored by Wiley-Blackwell. Winners receive a cheque for £1000, runners-up £50.

  17. A Valentine's Day bouquet for Temperature readers: pleasing with prizes, searching for the right words, and keeping things mysterious.

    PubMed

    Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2015-01-01

    This editorial tells its readers that the journal Temperature awards its first prizes for best papers to Boris Kingma and Assaf Yacobi. It also discusses the use of several thermoregulation-related terms and expressions, including "cold temperature," "thermoneutral temperature," and "warm-sensitive" and offers, arguably, better alternatives. The editorial also contains a new puzzle: how can color affect temperature perception?

  18. Children’s spontaneous emotional expressions while receiving (un)wanted prizes in the presence of peers

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Mandy; Krahmer, Emiel; Swerts, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Although current emotion theories emphasize the importance of contextual factors for emotional expressive behavior, developmental studies that examine such factors are currently thin on the ground. In this research, we studied the course of emotional expressions of 8- and 11-year-old children after winning a (large) first prize or a (substantially smaller) consolation prize, while playing a game competing against the computer or a physically co-present peer. We analyzed their emotional reactions by conducting two perception tests in which participants rated children’s level of happiness. Results showed that co-presence positively affected children’s happiness only when receiving the first prize. Moreover, for children who were in the presence of a peer, we found that eye contact affected children’s expressions of happiness, but that the effect was different for different age groups: 8-year-old children were negatively affected, and 11-year-old children positively. Overall, we can conclude that as children grow older and their social awareness increases, the presence of a peer affects their non-verbal expressions, regardless of their appreciation of their prize. PMID:26441776

  19. Unlocking Student Effort: How Five Irreplaceable Teachers Engage, Challenge and Inspire Students to Excellence. Fishman Prize Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Shira; Henderson, Whitney; Irish, Jamie; Lyons, Katie; Ross, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Founded by TNTP, the Fishman Prize for Superlative Classroom Practice is an annual award for the nation's best teachers in high-poverty public schools. The goal is to shine a spotlight on great teaching and amplify the voices of some of the nation's best educators so that others can gain insight into their remarkable classrooms. No more than five…

  20. Frederick W. Alt received the 2015 Szent-Györgi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    Scully, Peter; Zhao, Jie; Ba, Sujuan

    2016-02-03

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)--a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting scientific research and public education relating to the prevention, early diagnosis, better treatments, and ultimately, a cure for cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher, nominated by colleagues or peers, who has contributed outstanding, significant research to the fight against cancer, and whose accomplishments have helped improve treatment options for cancer patients. The Prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the pioneering work led by the 2015 Prize winner, Dr. Frederick Alt. Dr. Alt's work in the area of cancer genetics over four decades has helped to shape the very roots of modern cancer research. His work continues to profoundly impact the approaches that doctors around the globe use to diagnose and treat cancer. In particular, his seminal discoveries of gene amplification and his pioneering work on molecular mechanisms of DNA damage repair have helped to usher in the era of genetically targeted therapy and personalized medicine.