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Sample records for prize winner positron

  1. 1993 Gordon Bell Prize Winners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karp, Alan H.; Simon, Horst; Heller, Don; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Gordon Bell Prize recognizes significant achievements in the application of supercomputers to scientific and engineering problems. In 1993, finalists were named for work in three categories: (1) Performance, which recognizes those who solved a real problem in the quickest elapsed time. (2) Price/performance, which encourages the development of cost-effective supercomputing. (3) Compiler-generated speedup, which measures how well compiler writers are facilitating the programming of parallel processors. The winners were announced November 17 at the Supercomputing 93 conference in Portland, Oregon. Gordon Bell, an independent consultant in Los Altos, California, is sponsoring $2,000 in prizes each year for 10 years to promote practical parallel processing research. This is the sixth year of the prize, which Computer administers. Something unprecedented in Gordon Bell Prize competition occurred this year: A computer manufacturer was singled out for recognition. Nine entries reporting results obtained on the Cray C90 were received, seven of the submissions orchestrated by Cray Research. Although none of these entries showed sufficiently high performance to win outright, the judges were impressed by the breadth of applications that ran well on this machine, all nine running at more than a third of the peak performance of the machine.

  2. Special issue: Culham Thesis Prize winners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    The Culham Thesis Prize is awarded annually to the nominee who has displayed an excellence in the execution of the scientific method as witnessed by the award of Doctor of Philosophy in Plasma Science from a UK or Irish university. The thesis content should exhibit significant new work and originality, clearly driven by the nominee, be well explained and demonstrate a good understanding of the subject. The prize is awarded at the Institute of Physics Plasma Physics Group Spring Conference and the prize winner gives an invited talk about their thesis work. The prize is sponsored by Culham Centre for Fusion Energy.

  3. Nobel Prize Winners in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, P.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    One of the greatest honours which can be bestowed upon any human being is the Nobel Prize. It is named after Alfred Nobel, a Swedish physicist who was particularly noted for his work on explosives. Nobel was born in 1833, and had a long and successful career, so that, when he died, on 10 December 1896, he left a large sum of money. This was to be put into a trust to establish an annual prize to t...

  4. [Surgeons and Neurosurgeons as Nobel Prize Winners].

    PubMed

    Chrastina, Jan; Jančálek, Radim; Hrabovský, Dušan; Novák, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Since 1901 Nobel Prize is awarded for exceptional achievements in physics, chemistry, literature, peace, economy (since 1968) and medicine or physiology. The first aim of the paper is to provide an overview of surgeons - winners of Nobel Prize for medicine or physiology. Although the prominent neurosurgeons were frequently nominated as Nobel Prize candidates, surprisingly no neurosurgeon received this prestigious award so far despite that the results of their research transgressed the relatively narrow limits of neurosurgical speciality.The most prominent leaders in the field of neurosurgery, such as Victor Horsley, Otfrid Foerster, Walter Dandy and Harvey Cushing are discussed from the point of their nominations. The overview of the activity of the Portuguese neurologists and Nobel Prize Winter in 1949 Egas Moniz (occasionally erroneously reported as neurosurgeon) is also provided. Although his work on brain angiography has fundamentally changed the diagnostic possibilities in neurology and neurosurgery, he was eventually awarded Nobel Prize for the introduction of the currently outdated frontal lobotomy.The fact that none of the above mentioned prominent neurosurgeons has not been recognised by Nobel Prize, may be attributed to the fact that their extensive work cannot be captured in a short summary pinpointing its groundbreaking character.

  5. Grand Prize and Citation Winners: Ten School with Soaring Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning By Design, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design features of the grand prize winners of the 2002 "Learning by Design" contest--an addition to West Linn High School in West Linn, Oregon, and the renovation of Beaver Brook Academic Center/The Ethel Walker School in Simsbury, Connecticut. Also describes the designs of the eight citation winners. (EV)

  6. NASA and X PRIZE Announce Winners of Lunar Lander Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-05

    NASA and the X PRIZE Foundation announced the winners of the Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander Challenge at an awards ceremony at the Rayburn House Office Building, Thursday, Nov. 5, 2009 in Washington, DC. From left to right, George Nield, Associate Administrator of Commercial Space Transportation, FAA; Charles Bolden, NASA Administrator; Doug Comstock, Director, Innovative Partnerships Program, NASA; David Masten, CEO, Masten Space Systems; Phil Eaton, VP, Operations, Armadillo Aerospace; U.S. Rep. Ralph Hall (R-TX); Peter Diamandis, Chairman and CEO, X PRIZE Foundation and Mitch Waldman, VP, Advanced Programs & Technology, Northrop Grumman. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  7. Inaugural Climate Communications Prize winner announced

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Chris; Fine, Rana

    2011-10-01

    In recognition of Gavin Schmidt's exceptional work as a climate communicator, AGU has selected him as the recipient of its inaugural Climate Communications Prize. Schmidt is a climate scientist at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and cofounder of the RealClimate.org blog. RealClimate.org covers areas of science related to climate—from present-day measurements to paleoclimate proxies, from natural climate variation to anthropogenic change. Schmidt has also worked with photographers on a popular science book, on museum exhibits, and on online courses and has often appeared on TV and radio and in print.

  8. [Women in natural sciences--Nobel Prize winners].

    PubMed

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Lipozencić, Jasna; Kolcić, Ivana; Spoljar-Vrzina, Sanja; Polasek, Ozren

    2006-01-01

    Alfred Bernhard Nobel was the founder of the Nobel Foundation, which has been awarding world-known scientists since 1901, for their contribution to the welfare of mankind. The life and accomplishments of Alfred Bernhard Nobel are described as well as scientific achivements of 11 women, Nobel prize winners in the field of physics, chemistry, physiology and/or medicine. They are Marie Sklodowska Curie, Maria Goeppert Mayer, Irene Joliot-Curie, Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, Gerty Theresa Radnitz Cori, Rosalyn Sussman Yalow, Barbara McClintock, Rita Levi-Montalcini, Gertrude Elion, Christine Nusslein-Volhard and Linda B. Buck.

  9. Pat Thiel talks about Nobel Prize winner Dan Shechtman

    ScienceCinema

    Thiel, Pat

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory senior scientist and Iowa State University Distinguished Professor of Chemistry Pat Thiel talks about her friend and colleague Dan Shechtman who received the 2011 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

  10. Pat Thiel talks about Nobel Prize winner Dan Shechtman

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Ames Laboratory senior scientist and Iowa State University Distinguished Professor of Chemistry Pat Thiel talks about her friend and colleague Dan Shechtman who received the 2011 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

  11. Modular Curriculum: English, American Nobel Prize Winners in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, James A.

    This independent study module treats those Americans who have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. They include Sinclair Lewis, Eugene O'Neill, T. S. Eliot, William Faulkner, Ernest Hemingway, John Steinbeck, and Pearl Buck. Selections from the writings of these authors are included. Their works represent many literary genres and also…

  12. PEOPLE IN PHYSICS: Nobel prize winners in physics from 1901 to 1990: simple statistics for physics teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weijia; Fuller, Robert G.

    1998-05-01

    A demographic database for the 139 Nobel prize winners in physics from 1901 to 1990 has been created from a variety of sources. The results of our statistical study are discussed in the light of the implications for physics teaching.

  13. NASA and X PRIZE Announce Winners of Lunar Lander Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-05

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden gives opening remarks at an awards ceremony for the Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander Challenge at the Rayburn House Office Building on Nov. 5, 2009, in Washington, DC. NASA's Centennial Challenges program gave $1.65 million in prize money to a pair of aerospace companies that successfully simulated landing a spacecraft on the moon and lifting off again. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  14. Asteroid Named for Nobel Prize Winner Joins Historic Lineup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-15

    An asteroid discovered by NASA NEOWISE spacecraft has been given the formal designation 316201 Malala, in honor of Malala Yousafzai of Pakistan, who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 2014. The asteroid previous appellation was 2010 ML48. The International Astronomical Union (IAU) renamed the asteroid as the request of Amy Mainzer of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. Mainzer is the principal investigator of NASA's NEOWISE space telescope. The IAU is the sole worldwide organization recognized by astronomers everywhere to designate names for astronomical bodies. So far, Mainzer and the NEOWISE team have focused on pioneers in civil rights, science and the arts for the astronomical honor. Among the strong women of history who have already had NEOWISE-discovered asteroids named for them are civil rights activist Rosa Parks, conservationist Wangari Maathai, abolitionists Sojourner Truth and Harriet Tubman, and singer Aretha Franklin. Asteroid Malala is in the main belt between Mars and Jupiter and orbits the sun every five-and-a-half years. It is about two-and-a-half miles (four kilometers) in diameter, and its surface is very dark, the color of printer toner. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19362

  15. Peter Agre, 2003 Nobel Prize winner in chemistry.

    PubMed

    Knepper, Mark A; Nielsen, Soren

    2004-04-01

    Peter C. Agre, an American Society of Nephrology member, is the recipient of the 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discovery of the aquaporin water channels. The function of many cells requires that water move rapidly into and out of them. There was only indirect evidence that proteinaceous channels provide this vital activity until Agre and colleagues purified aquaporin-1 from human erythrocytes and reported its cDNA sequence. They proved that aquaporin-1 is a specific water channel by cRNA expression studies in Xenopus oocytes and by functional reconstitution of transport activity in liposomes after the incorporation of the purified protein. These findings sparked a veritable explosion of work that affects several long-standing areas of investigation such as the biophysics of water permeation across cell membranes, the structural biology of integral membrane proteins, the physiology of fluid transport in the kidney and other organs, and the pathophysiological basis of inherited and acquired disorders of water balance. Agre's discovery of the first water channel has spurred a revolution in animal and plant physiology and in medicine.

  16. More than Prize Lists: Head Teachers, Student Prize Winners, School Ceremonies and Educational Promotion in Colonial South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Marisa

    2007-01-01

    Australian educators now operate in environments that frequently stress marketing activities. This article highlights the ways that colonial school prize ceremonies were deliberately developed to promote teaching activities. These ceremonies were part of carefully considered strategies that helped to boost the status of entrepreneurial teachers…

  17. Following Zahka: Using Nobel Prize Winners' Speeches and Ideas to Teach Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Martin P.; Wilson, John K.; Becker, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Over 20 years ago, the late William Zahka (1990, 1998) outlined how the acceptance speeches of those who received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science could be used to teach undergraduates. This article updates and expands Zahka's work, identifying some of the issues discussed by recent Nobel Laureates, classifying their speeches by topic…

  18. 2004 Foster G. McGaw Prize. Winner: Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Gina

    2005-04-01

    Henry Ford Health System's commitment to community service took root with its founding in 1915 and has been embraced by leaders ever since. Wide-ranging efforts of school health programs offering grief support for children earned it the 2004 McGaw Prize.

  19. Following Zahka: Using Nobel Prize Winners' Speeches and Ideas to Teach Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Martin P.; Wilson, John K.; Becker, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Over 20 years ago, the late William Zahka (1990, 1998) outlined how the acceptance speeches of those who received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science could be used to teach undergraduates. This article updates and expands Zahka's work, identifying some of the issues discussed by recent Nobel Laureates, classifying their speeches by topic…

  20. Theodore William Richards: apostle of atomic weights and Nobel Prize winner in 1914.

    PubMed

    Herschbach, Dudley R

    2014-12-15

    In recognition of his exact determinations of the atomic weights of a large number of the chemical elements, T. W. Richards received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1914. His meticulous techniques resulted in "a degree of accuracy never before attained". This Essay follows Richards from his precocious youth to becoming a celebrated chemist and emphasizes his dedication to forseeing likely sources of error and how to avoid them.

  1. Nils Gustav Dalén, the Unknown Nobel Prize Winner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Hanging on the wall of my museum is a large "Map of Physics" published by the Central Scientific Company in 1938. On it is a list of the Nobel Prizes in physics, starting with Roentgen in 1901 and ending with Fermi in 1938. I can recognize every name except the one for 1912: Nils Gustav Dalén. Perhaps you have had the same experience when looking through the updated list.

  2. Radiation risk and nuclear medicine: An interview with a Nobel Prize winner

    SciTech Connect

    Yalow, R.S.

    1995-12-01

    In a speech given years ago at the Veterans Administration Medical Center, Bronx, NY, Rosalyn S. Yalow, 1977 Nobel Prize recipient for her invention of radioimmunoassay, made several salient points on the perception of fear or hazards from exposure to low-level radiation and low-level radioactive wastes. For the past three years, Yalow has been concerned with the general fear of radiation. In this interview, Newsline solicited Yalow`s views on public perceptions on radiation risk and what the nuclear medicine community can do to emphasize the fact that, if properly managed, the use of isotopes in medicine and other cases is not dangerous.

  3. Selman A. Waksman, winner of the 1952 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, H Boyd

    2014-01-01

    The history of the discovery and development of streptomycin is reviewed here from the personal standpoint of a member of Dr. Selman Waksman's antibiotic screening research team. The team approach of eight individuals illustrates how the gradual enhancement of the screening methodology was developed. I illustrate three study periods with key aspects in the development of streptomycin which led to a Nobel Prize being granted to Professor Waksman. One item not previously emphasized is the employment of a submerged culture technique for large-scale production of streptomycin, thus enabling rapid animal testing and human clinical trials with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Another is that purified streptomycin was shown by Dr. Waksman to be distinctly different from the substances called natural products, which are no longer patentable in the United States; therefore, streptomycin was found to be patentable. A third item not previously emphasized is his emphasis on the screening of actinomycetes, including the newly named Streptomyces genus. All of these factors contributed to the success of streptomycin in the treatment of tuberculosis. In combination, their successes led to Dr. Waksman's department becoming a new pharmacological research area, specializing in drug discovery. These unique accomplishments all burnish the prior rationales used by the Karolinska Institute in granting Dr. Waksman alone the 1952 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.

  4. [Ilya Ilich Metchnikov and Paul Ehrlich: 1908 Nobel Prize winners for their research on immunity].

    PubMed

    Lokaj, J; John, C

    2008-11-01

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1908 was awarded to Ilya I. Mechnikov and Paul Ehrlich for recognition of their work on immunity. Mechnikov have discovered phagocytes and phagocytosis as the basis of natural cellular immunity. His ,,phagocytic theory" is the principle of immunological concept "self and not self" as the prerequisition of physiological inflammation, and selfmaintaining of organism. Ehrlich developed the methods for standardization of antibody activity in immune sera, described neutralizing and complement-depending effect of antibodies and enunciated the ,"ide-chain" theory of the formation of antibodies. Their concept of the key-stone of immunity was different, but they expressed the basic paradigma of immunology: immunity imply the protection of identity and guarantee the integrity of organism. Both are the founders of immunology as the scientific discipline. Discoveries and conceptions of I. Mechnikov and P. Ehrlich exceedingly influenced development of immunology and are also applicable, instructive and suggestive in contemporary immunology and microbiology.

  5. Werner Forssmann - A Nobel Prize Winner and His Political Attitude before and after 1945.

    PubMed

    Packy, Lisa-Maria; Krischel, Matthis; Gross, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    In 1956, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded jointly to Werner Forssmann, André Frédéric Cournand and Dickinson W. Richards for their development of cardiac catheterization. Forssmann performed a self-experiment in 1929 by inserting a urethral catheter into his right ventricular cavity via his antecubital vein. Despite his popularity as one of the first German Nobel Laureates after 1945, little is known about Forssmann personally. This contribution aims to close this gap regarding the Nazi period and early post-war Germany. Primary historical sources from Forssmann's private archive were examined, evaluated and interpreted for the first time. Additionally, a comparative analysis based on further archival and secondary sources was performed. Werner Forssmann joined the Nazi Party, the Sturmabteilung (Stormtroopers, SA) and the Nationalsozialistischer Deutscher Ärztebund (Nazi Doctors' Association) in 1932, a year before Hitler's assumption of power. In his autobiography, Forssmann referred to the political situation in passing. However, he expressed his personal thoughts in private letters which he wrote as a medical officer during the war. After World War II, Forssmann underwent denazification and was banned from practicing medicine for 3 years. He did not seem to be averse to Hitler's politics and in some ways expressed his approval. However, correspondence from the 1960s with 2 Jewish colleagues reveals that Forssmann may have changed his attitude toward National Socialism later. Werner Forssmann's political attitudes during the Third Reich and in the post-war era can be characterized as early agreement that gradually changed to a more critical distance to Nazi ideology. In this respect, Forssmann appears to be quite a typical example of a larger proportion of German medical doctors during these eras. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Nobel prizes: contributions to cardiology.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg

    2015-08-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize's history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male.

  7. Nobel Prizes: Contributions to Cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize’s history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male. PMID:25945466

  8. PEYA Winners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The President's Environmental Youth Award is a recognition program for K-12 students who conduct an environmental stewardship and community service project. One winner or group is recognized from each of EPA's 10 regions.

  9. Citations Prize 2010 Citations Prize 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2010-12-01

    Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winning co-authors each receive a certificate. Photograph of the 2010 Citations Prize winners The winning authors Fernando Rannou (left), George Alexandrakis (holding the Rotblat Medal) and Arion Chatziioannou (right). The winner of the 2010 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2005-2009) is Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study Authors: George Alexandrakis, Fernando R Rannou and Arion F Chatziioannou Reference: George Alexandrakis et al 2005 Phys. Med. Biol. 50 4225-41 Discussion of the significance of the winning paper can be found on medicalphysicsweb (medicalphysicsweb.org/cws/article/research/44334). Our congratulations go to the winning authors. Steve Webb Editor-in-Chief Simon Harris Publisher

  10. Heroes in endocrinology: Nobel Prizes

    PubMed Central

    de Herder, Wouter W

    2014-01-01

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was first awarded in 1901. Since then, the Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine, Chemistry and Physics have been awarded to at least 33 distinguished researchers who were directly or indirectly involved in research into the field of endocrinology. This paper reflects on the life histories, careers and achievements of 11 of them: Frederick G Banting, Roger Guillemin, Philip S Hench, Bernardo A Houssay, Edward C Kendall, E Theodor Kocher, John J R Macleod, Tadeus Reichstein, Andrew V Schally, Earl W Sutherland, Jr and Rosalyn Yalow. All were eminent scientists, distinguished lecturers and winners of many prizes and awards. PMID:25055817

  11. Heroes in endocrinology: Nobel Prizes.

    PubMed

    de Herder, Wouter W

    2014-09-01

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was first awarded in 1901. Since then, the Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine, Chemistry and Physics have been awarded to at least 33 distinguished researchers who were directly or indirectly involved in research into the field of endocrinology. This paper reflects on the life histories, careers and achievements of 11 of them: Frederick G Banting, Roger Guillemin, Philip S Hench, Bernardo A Houssay, Edward C Kendall, E Theodor Kocher, John J R Macleod, Tadeus Reichstein, Andrew V Schally, Earl W Sutherland, Jr and Rosalyn Yalow. All were eminent scientists, distinguished lecturers and winners of many prizes and awards.

  12. Citations Prize 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Simon; Ruffle, Jon

    2014-06-01

    Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat, a Nobel Prize winner who also was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winner of the 2013 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous five years (2008-2012) is Figure. Figure. Four of the prize winning authors. From left to right: Thomas Istel (Philips), Jens-Peter Schlomka (with medal, MorphoDetection), Ewald Roessl (Philips), and Gerhard Martens (Philips). Title: Experimental feasibility of multi-energy photon-counting K-edge imaging in pre-clinical computed tomography Authors: Jens Peter Schlomka1, Ewald Roessl1, Ralf Dorscheid2, Stefan Dill2, Gerhard Martens1, Thomas Istel1, Christian Bäumer3, Christoph Herrmann3, Roger Steadman3, Günter Zeitler3, Amir Livne4 and Roland Proksa1 Institutions: 1 Philips Research Europe, Sector Medical Imaging Systems, Hamburg, Germany 2 Philips Research Europe, Engineering & Technology, Aachen, Germany 3 Philips Research Europe, Sector Medical Imaging Systems, Aachen, Germany 4 Philips Healthcare, Global Research and Advanced Development, Haifa, Israel Reference: Schlomka et al 2008 Phys. Med. Biol. 53 4031-47 This paper becomes the first to win both this citations prize and also the PMB best paper prize (The Roberts Prize), which it won for the year 2008. Discussion of the significance of the winning paper can be found in this medicalphysicsweb article from the time of the Roberts Prize win (http://medicalphysicsweb.org/cws/article/research/39907). The author's enthusiasm for their prototype spectral CT system has certainly been reflected in the large number of citations the paper subsequently has

  13. And the Grand Prize Winner Is...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mary Ann

    1995-01-01

    Describes a ghost story writing contest developed by The St. Joseph County Public Library (South Bend, IN) and created to encourage students in grades three to eight to practice writing and to recognize talented writers. Sidebars present a contest timetable and a list of judging criteria for librarians interested in starting writing contests. (JMV)

  14. Winners love winning and losers love money.

    PubMed

    Kassam, Karim S; Morewedge, Carey K; Gilbert, Daniel T; Wilson, Timothy D

    2011-05-01

    Salience and satisfaction are important factors in determining the comparisons that people make. We hypothesized that people make salient comparisons first, and then make satisfying comparisons only if salient comparisons leave them unsatisfied. This hypothesis suggests an asymmetry between winning and losing. For winners, comparison with a salient alternative (i.e., losing) brings satisfaction. Therefore, winners should be sensitive only to the relative value of their outcomes. For losers, comparison with a salient alternative (i.e., winning) brings little satisfaction. Therefore, losers should be drawn to compare outcomes with additional standards, which should make them sensitive to both relative and absolute values of their outcomes. In Experiment 1, participants won one of two cash prizes on a scratch-off ticket. Winners were sensitive to the relative value of their prizes, whereas losers were sensitive to both the relative and the absolute values of their prizes. In Experiment 2, losers were sensitive to the absolute value of their prize only when they had sufficient cognitive resources to engage in effortful comparison.

  15. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Laureates Nobel Prizes and Laureates Physics Prize Chemistry Prize Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize ... Economic Sciences Quick Facts Nomination Nomination Physics Prize Chemistry Prize Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize ...

  16. 2017 ISCB Overton Prize: Christoph Bock

    PubMed Central

    Fogg, Christiana N.; Kovats, Diane E.; Berger, Bonnie

    2017-01-01

    The International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) each year recognizes the achievements of an early to mid-career scientist with the Overton Prize. This prize honors the untimely death of Dr. G. Christian Overton, an admired computational biologist and founding ISCB Board member. Winners of the Overton Prize are independent investigators who are in the early to middle phases of their careers and are selected because of their significant contributions to computational biology through research, teaching, and service. ISCB is pleased to recognize Dr. Christoph Bock, Principal Investigator at the CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna, Austria, as the 2017 winner of the Overton Prize. Bock will be presenting a keynote presentation at the 2017 International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology/European Conference on Computational Biology (ISMB/ECCB) in Prague, Czech Republic being held during July 21-25, 2017. PMID:28713546

  17. 2017 ISCB Overton Prize: Christoph Bock.

    PubMed

    Fogg, Christiana N; Kovats, Diane E; Berger, Bonnie

    2017-01-01

    The International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) each year recognizes the achievements of an early to mid-career scientist with the Overton Prize. This prize honors the untimely death of Dr. G. Christian Overton, an admired computational biologist and founding ISCB Board member. Winners of the Overton Prize are independent investigators who are in the early to middle phases of their careers and are selected because of their significant contributions to computational biology through research, teaching, and service. ISCB is pleased to recognize Dr. Christoph Bock, Principal Investigator at the CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna, Austria, as the 2017 winner of the Overton Prize. Bock will be presenting a keynote presentation at the 2017 International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology/European Conference on Computational Biology (ISMB/ECCB) in Prague, Czech Republic being held during July 21-25, 2017.

  18. Nobel prize awarded to pioneers in ozone research

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This article details the achievements of the three individuals who shared the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry - Paul Crutzen, Mario Molina, and F. Sherwood Rowland - for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly the chemical processes that deplete the ozone layer. Background information about the ozone layer is presented as well as highlights of the ozone research done by the prize winners.

  19. NASA Ames Hosts 2017 Breakthrough Prize

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-08

    NASA's Ames Research Center in Silicon Valley was the location of the 5th annual Breakthrough Prize ceremony, honoring scientific achievement. Researchers and engineers rubbed shoulders with Hollywood actors, Top-40 musicians, astronauts, sports heroes and Silicon Valley luminaries on the red carpet. Winners were honored with $3 million dollar prizes in the categories of physics, life sciences and mathematics with more than $25 million dollars awarded during the ceremony. The prizes were created by Sergey Brin, co-founder of Google and Anne Wojcicki, founder of 23 and Me; Mark Zuckerberg and Priscilla Chan of Facebook, and Yuri and Julia Milner.

  20. L Prize Drives Technology Innovation, Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-30

    Fact sheet that provides an overview of DOE's L Prize competition, which challenges industry to develop high-quality, high-efficiency SSL products to replace 60W incandescent and PAR38 halogen light bulbs, and highlights the competition's first 60W winner from Philips Lighting North America.

  1. Citations Prize 2012 Citations Prize 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-01-01

    Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The authors of the winning paper. The authors of the winning paper. The winner of the 2012 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2007-2011) is Image reconstruction in circular cone-beam computed tomography by constrained, total-variation minimization Authors: Emil Y Sidky and Xiaochuan Pan Reference: Emil Y Sidky and Xiaochuan Pan 2008 Phys. Med. Biol. 53 4777-807 Discussion of the significance of the winning paper can be found on medicalphysicsweb (medicalphysicsweb.org/cws/article/research/51868). Our congratulations go to the winning authors. Simon Cherry Editor-in-Chief Jon Ruffle Publisher

  2. Citations Prize 2011 Citations Prize 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2011-12-01

    Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winning co-authors each receive a certificate. Susan Hagness (left) receiving the Rotblat Medal from Robert Jeraj of PMB's Editorial Board (right) on behalf of Mariya Lazebnik. The winner of the 2011 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2006-2010) is A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal, benign and malignant breast tissues obtained from cancer surgeries Authors: Mariya Lazebnik, Dijana Popovic, Leah McCartney, Cynthia B Watkins, Mary J Lindstrom, Josephine Harter, Sarah Sewall, Travis Ogilvie, Anthony Magliocco, Tara M Breslin, Walley Temple, Daphne Mew, John H Booske, Michal Okoniewski and Susan C Hagness Reference: Mariya Lazebnik et al 2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 6093-115 Discussion of the significance of the winning paper can be found on medicalphysicsweb (medicalphysicsweb.org/cws/article/research/47814). Our congratulations go to the winning authors. Steve Webb Editor-in-Chief Simon Harris Publisher

  3. Is the Nobel Prize good for science?

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2013-12-01

    The Nobel Prize is arguably the best known and most prestigious award in science. Here we review the effect of the Nobel Prize and acknowledge that it has had many beneficial effects on science. However, ever since its inaugural year in 1901, the Nobel Prize has also been beset by controversy, mostly involving the selection of certain individuals and the exclusion of others. In this regard, the Nobel Prize epitomizes the winner-takes-all economics of credit allocation and distorts the history of science by personalizing discoveries that are truly made by groups of individuals. The limitation of the prize to only 3 individuals at a time when most scientific discovery is the result of collaborative and cooperative research is arguably the major cause of Nobel Prize controversies. A simple solution to this problem would be to eliminate the restriction on the number of individuals who could be awarded the prize, a measure that would recognize all who contribute, from students to senior investigators. There is precedent for such a change in the Nobel Peace Prize, which has often gone to organizations. Changing the Nobel Prize to more fairly allocate credit would reduce the potential for controversy and directly benefit the scientific enterprise by promoting cooperation and collaboration of scientists within a field to reduce the negative consequences of competition between individual scientists.

  4. Citations Prize 2009 Citations Prize 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2009-12-01

    Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winning co-authors each receive a certificate. Photograph of the 2009 Citations Prize winners Some of the winning authors with their certificates, and Christian Morel with the Rotblat Medal, at the award ceremony in Orsay, near Paris. From left to right are Corinne Groiselle, Lydia Maigne, David Brasse, Irène Buvat, Dimitris Visvikis, Giovanni Santin, Uwe Pietrzyk, Pierre-François Honore, Christian Morel, Sébastien Jan and Arion Chatziioannou. The winner of the 2009 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2004-2008) is GATE: a simulation toolkit for PET and SPECT Authors: S Jan, G Santin, D Strul, S Staelens, K Assié, D Autret, S Avner, R Barbier, M Bardiès, P M Bloomfield, D Brasse, V Breton, P Bruyndonckx, I Buvat, A F Chatziioannou, Y Choi, Y H Chung, C Comtat, D Donnarieix, L Ferrer, S J Glick, C J Groiselle, D Guez, P-F Honore, S Kerhoas-Cavata, A S Kirov, V Kohli, M Koole, M Krieguer, D J van der Laan, F Lamare, G Largeron, C Lartizien, D Lazaro, M C Maas, L Maigne, F Mayet, F Melot, C Merheb, E Pennacchio, J Perez, U Pietrzyk, F R Rannou, M Rey, D R Schaart, C R Schmidtlein, L~Simon, T Y Song, J-M Vieira, D Visvikis, R Van de Walle, E Wieörs and C Morel Reference: S Jan et al 2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 4543-61 Since its publication in 2004 this article has received over 200 citations. This extremely high figure is a testament to the great influence and usefulness of the work to the nuclear medicine community. More discussion of the winning paper can be found on

  5. Volatility, house edge and prize structure of gambling games.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nigel E

    2011-12-01

    This study used simulations to examine the effect of prize structure on the outcome volatility and the number of winners of various game configurations. The two most common prize structures found in gambling games are even money payoff games (bet $1; win $2) found on most table games and multilevel prizes structures found in gambling machine games. Simulations were set up to examine the effect of prize structure on the long-term outcomes of these games. Eight different prize structures were compared in terms of the number of winners and volatility. It was found that the standard table game and commercial gambling machines produced fairly high numbers of short term winners (1 h), but few long term winners (50 h). It was found that the typical even money game set up produced the lowest level of volatility. Of the multilevel prize structures examined, the three simulations based on commercial gambling machines were the least volatile. The results are examined in terms of the pragmatics of game design.

  6. Prize Recipients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-09-01

    The John Bardeen Prize is awarded for theoretical work that has provided significant insights on the nature of superconductivity and has led to verifiable predictions. It is sponsored by the Dresdner Bank.

  7. Challenges & Prizes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Prize competitions are open innovation tools championed by the America COMPETES ACT that EPA and other federal agencies use to attract fresh thinkers and creative problem solvers from across the country and the world.

  8. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize in Economic Sciences Quick Facts Nomination Nomination Physics Prize Chemistry ... Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize in Economic Sciences Nomination Archive Ceremonies Ceremonies Ceremony Archive Nobel ...

  9. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Carl M.; Scriven, Neil

    2008-10-01

    We are delighted to announce the launch of the Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize. There will be three prizes worth £250 each awarded annually for well written papers that make an outstanding contribution to the field. All articles published during the two years prior to the award, including Fast Track Communications, regular papers, topical reviews and special issue papers, can be considered for a prize. The papers will be judged in May each year using the criteria of novelty, achievement, impact and presentation. We would now like to welcome nominations for prizes to be awarded in 2009. Eligible articles must have been published in volume 40 (2007) or 41 (2008). Papers can be nominated by our Editorial Board members (who are exempt from the competition) or by readers of the journal. Please send an email to the journal editorial office (jphysa@iop.org) giving the publication details of the paper and stating (in no more than 1000 words) how it meets the criteria listed above. Authors cannot nominate their own papers. The closing date for nominations is 31 January 2009. The first set of awards will be announced following the 2009 Editorial Board meeting and winners will receive their prizes shortly thereafter. The winners' articles will be featured on the journal homepage and showcased in IOPSelect (http://www.iop.org/Select/). For further information please contact the editorial office (jphysa@iop.org). Carl M Bender Editor-in-Chief Neil Scriven Publisher

  10. What Is Community College Excellence? Lessons from the Aspen Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyner, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Over the past year, in a process to select the winner of the Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence, the Aspen Institute has convened national experts to define and determine how to measure "excellence," to identify community colleges with high levels of student success, and to help more community colleges understand what can be done to…

  11. Society News: RAS Fellows are honoured with awards; Patrick Moore Medal; Best theses win prizes; New Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-08-01

    Congratulations to several Fellows of the RAS who have received prestigious awards this year. Congratulations to the winners of the annual prizes for the best PhD theses in astronomy and geophysics, awarded by the RAS and sponsored by Wiley-Blackwell. Winners receive a cheque for £1000, runners-up £50.

  12. Subsequent dental research output of South African division of the IADR Colgate Prize entrants.

    PubMed

    Porter, Michelle I; McAlpine, Alistair J; Mkhaliphi, Diana S; Grossman, Elly S

    2005-11-01

    This study recorded the research output of all participants for the IADR (South African Division; SA) Colgate Prize for 1967-2004 to establish whether, in their later careers, prize winners had a greater research output than runners-up. Using a list of all entrants, each individual was classified as winner or runner-up and by gender, race, and research field of presentation. The publication output for each individual was obtained from PubMed. A Poisson regression set at P < 0.05 compared publication numbers between winners and runners-up. There were two groups of entrants: 101 participated once, and twenty-two participated twice or thrice. Winners had significantly more publications than runners-up, more so for the multiple entrants (winners 27.5+/-22.4; runners-up 16.5+/-25.5) than single entrants (winners 16.0+/-40.8; runners-up 12.0+/-27.7). The number of individuals participating in the Colgate Prize has declined, but representivity for race and gender is improving. This is the first study to establish that SA IADR Colgate Prize participants fulfil the long-term IADR ideal of research promotion among young investigators.

  13. In the Words of the Winners: The Newbery and Caldecott Medals, 2001-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALA Editions, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Winners of the most respected prizes in children's literature speak out in an exclusive collection of acceptance speeches, culled from the archives of the Association for Library Service to Children (ALSC) and "The Horn Book" magazine. Featuring authors and illustrators selected during the past 10 years, the book includes speeches by: (1) Neil…

  14. In the Words of the Winners: The Newbery and Caldecott Medals, 2001-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALA Editions, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Winners of the most respected prizes in children's literature speak out in an exclusive collection of acceptance speeches, culled from the archives of the Association for Library Service to Children (ALSC) and "The Horn Book" magazine. Featuring authors and illustrators selected during the past 10 years, the book includes speeches by: (1) Neil…

  15. These Projects are WINNERS!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Tricia

    1995-01-01

    Describes the winners of the Prentice Hall/National Middle School Association Teaching Team Awards (established to recognize exceptional interdisciplinary projects by middle school teaching teams). Students designed a new school, simulated a journey over the Oregon trail, conducted oral histories, and turned a local river into a learning…

  16. Top STS Winners Chosen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the first, second, and third place winners in the 47th annual Westinghouse Science Talent Search. Describes student research projects dealing with electromagnetic and gravitational fields, cryptosporidiosis (a chronic diarrhea), and genetic factors of a nitrogen-fixing bacterium. (TW)

  17. 1989 Architectural Exhibition Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Winners of the 1989 Architectural Exhibition sponsored annually by the ASBO International's School Facilities Research Committee include the Brevard Performing Arts Center (Melbourne, Florida), the Capital High School (Santa Fe, New Mexico), Gage Elementary School (Rochester, Minnesota), the Lakewood (Ohio) High School Natatorium, and three other…

  18. Top STS Winners Chosen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the first, second, and third place winners in the 47th annual Westinghouse Science Talent Search. Describes student research projects dealing with electromagnetic and gravitational fields, cryptosporidiosis (a chronic diarrhea), and genetic factors of a nitrogen-fixing bacterium. (TW)

  19. 1989 Architectural Exhibition Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Winners of the 1989 Architectural Exhibition sponsored annually by the ASBO International's School Facilities Research Committee include the Brevard Performing Arts Center (Melbourne, Florida), the Capital High School (Santa Fe, New Mexico), Gage Elementary School (Rochester, Minnesota), the Lakewood (Ohio) High School Natatorium, and three other…

  20. 2016 ISCB Overton Prize awarded to Debora Marks

    PubMed Central

    Fogg, Christiana N.; Kovats, Diane E.

    2016-01-01

    The International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) recognizes the achievements of an early- to mid-career scientist with the Overton Prize each year. The Overton Prize was established to honor the untimely loss of Dr. G. Christian Overton, a respected computational biologist and founding ISCB Board member. Winners of the Overton Prize are independent investigators in the early to middle phases of their careers who are selected because of their significant contributions to computational biology through research, teaching, and service. 2016 will mark the fifteenth bestowment of the ISCB Overton Prize.  ISCB is pleased to confer this award the to Debora Marks, Assistant Professor of Systems Biology and director of the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Laboratory for Computational Biology at Harvard Medical School. PMID:27429747

  1. 2016 ISCB Overton Prize awarded to Debora Marks.

    PubMed

    Fogg, Christiana N; Kovats, Diane E

    2016-01-01

    The International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) recognizes the achievements of an early- to mid-career scientist with the Overton Prize each year. The Overton Prize was established to honor the untimely loss of Dr. G. Christian Overton, a respected computational biologist and founding ISCB Board member. Winners of the Overton Prize are independent investigators in the early to middle phases of their careers who are selected because of their significant contributions to computational biology through research, teaching, and service. 2016 will mark the fifteenth bestowment of the ISCB Overton Prize.  ISCB is pleased to confer this award the to Debora Marks, Assistant Professor of Systems Biology and director of the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Laboratory for Computational Biology at Harvard Medical School.

  2. Nuclear Fusion prize laudation Nuclear Fusion prize laudation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkart, W.

    2011-01-01

    Clean energy in abundance will be of critical importance to the pursuit of world peace and development. As part of the IAEA's activities to facilitate the dissemination of fusion related science and technology, the journal Nuclear Fusion is intended to contribute to the realization of such energy from fusion. In 2010, we celebrated the 50th anniversary of the IAEA journal. The excellence of research published in the journal is attested to by its high citation index. The IAEA recognizes excellence by means of an annual prize awarded to the authors of papers judged to have made the greatest impact. On the occasion of the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon, Republic of Korea at the welcome dinner hosted by the city of Daejeon, we celebrated the achievements of the 2009 and 2010 Nuclear Fusion prize winners. Steve Sabbagh, from the Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York is the winner of the 2009 award for his paper: 'Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas' [1]. This is a landmark paper which reports record parameters of beta in a large spherical torus plasma and presents a thorough investigation of the physics of resistive wall mode (RWM) instability. The paper makes a significant contribution to the critical topic of RWM stabilization. John Rice, from the Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge is the winner of the 2010 award for his paper: 'Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks' [2]. The 2010 award is for a seminal paper that analyzes results across a range of machines in order to develop a universal scaling that can be used to predict intrinsic rotation. This paper has already triggered a wealth of experimental and theoretical work. I congratulate both authors and their colleagues on these exceptional papers. W. Burkart Deputy Director General Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

  3. Metropolis Prize Winner: Numerical Hydrodynamics at Gravity's Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    East, William

    2015-04-01

    Einstein's theory of general relativity is currently our best understanding of how gravity works. However, there are a very limited number of analytically-known solutions to the set of coupled, non-linear PDEs that make up the field equations. This means numerical methods are essential to understanding many interesting strong-field phenomena like black hole formation or the generation of gravitational waves. There has been great progress in the field of numerical relativity, especially in the past decade, not only in terms of being able to accurately simulate the mergers of compact objects like black holes or neutron stars, but beyond. I will discuss some recent work developing computational methods for simulating hydrodynamics coupled to Einstein gravity, and applying them to new regimes and problems in high-energy astrophysics, gravitational-wave astronomy, and theoretical general relativity. This includes developing flexible and robust methods for solving the constraint part of the Einstein field equations in order to specify initial data for an evolution, as well as an algorithm for efficiently evolving the full non-linear evolution equations when the solution is dominated by a known background solution. I will emphasize how these computational tools allow us to push the domain of numerical relativity into more extreme regimes of gravity: exploring mergers of black holes and neutron stars with high orbital eccentricity; simulating the extreme-mass-ratios involved in the tidal disruption of a star by a black hole using full relativity; and studying ultrarelativistic collisions, where the gravitational pull of kinetic energy is strong enough to form a black hole.

  4. For Whom the Theories Toil. 1996 Reston Prize Winner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gaye Leigh

    1996-01-01

    Charts a step-by-step path from the pedagogical theories of teacher education to an effective and engaging method of classroom instruction using excerpts from Ernest Hemingway's "For Whom the Bell Tolls," as illustrative guideposts. Provides cogent, insightful, and productive ideas for improving classroom instruction. (MJP)

  5. Grand Prize Winner Profile: Manassas Park High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning By Design, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Profiles the award-winning Manassas Park High School design that took a small school with limited land space and created small-scale learning communities from it. Interior and exterior photos are included. (GR)

  6. For Whom the Theories Toil. 1996 Reston Prize Winner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gaye Leigh

    1996-01-01

    Charts a step-by-step path from the pedagogical theories of teacher education to an effective and engaging method of classroom instruction using excerpts from Ernest Hemingway's "For Whom the Bell Tolls," as illustrative guideposts. Provides cogent, insightful, and productive ideas for improving classroom instruction. (MJP)

  7. Nobel Prize winners for literature as palliative for scientific English.

    PubMed

    Sri Kantha, Sachi

    2003-02-01

    Plagiarism causes a serious concern in scientific literature. I distinguish two types of plagiarism. What is routinely highlighted and discussed is the reprehensible type of stealing another author's ideas and words. This type I categorize as "heterotrophic" plagiarism. A more prevalent and less-discussed type of plagiarism is the verbatim use of same sentences repetitively by authors in their publications. This I categorize as "autotrophic" plagiarism. Though harmless per se, autotrophic plagiarism is equally taxing on the readers. The occurrence of autotrophic plagiarism is mainly caused by the lack of proficiency in the current lingua franca of science, ie, English. The writings of 22 Nobel literature laureates who wrote in English, especially their travelogues, essays, and letters to the press can be used for benefit of improving one's own vocabulary and writing skills and style. I suggest the writings of three literati--Bernard Shaw, Bertrand Russell, and Ernest Hemingway--as palliatives for autotrophic plagiarism in scientific publishing.

  8. Arthroscopy Journal Prizes Are Major Decisions.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H; Brand, Jefferson C; Provencher, Matthew T; Rossi, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    According to the Harvard Business Review, the optimal number of people in a decision-making group is no more than 8. Thus, it is no surprise that 18 Arthroscopy journal associate editors had difficulty making a major decision. In the end, 18 editors did successfully select the 2015 winner of the Best Comparative Study Prize. All studies have limitations, but from a statistical standpoint, the editors believe that the conclusions of the winning study are likely correct. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. On the Human Aspect of Nobel Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, G.

    1990-10-01

    One night, Nico invited for dinner all his postdoc and graduate students, in a German restaurant close to Harvard Square. Just before we were to pay for our meal, he told us: "Tomorrow, we shall know the Nobel prize winner. Can you people make a guess on his name?" All my colleagues nominated great physicists. In my turn, I suggested naively (and perhaps nationalistically) the name of Alfred Kastler who had been my thesis adviser. "Come on," joked Nico, "I know a lot of physicists who would deserve it much better.."

  10. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    We are delighted to announce the launch of the Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize. There will be three prizes worth £250 each awarded annually for well written papers that make an outstanding contribution to the field. All articles published during the two years prior to the award, including Fast Track Communications, regular papers, topical reviews and special issue papers, can be considered for a prize. The papers will be judged in late Spring each year using the criteria of novelty, achievement, impact and presentation. We would now like to welcome nominations for prizes to be awarded in 2009. Eligible articles must have been published in volume 39 (2007) or 40 (2008). Papers can be nominated by our Editorial Board members (who are exempt from the competition) or by readers of the journal. Please send an email to the journal editorial office (jphysa@iop.org) giving the publication details of the paper and stating (in no more than 1000 words) how it meets the criteria listed above. Authors cannot nominate their own papers. The closing date for nominations is 31 January 2009. The first set of awards will be announced following the 2009 Editorial Board meeting and winners will receive their prizes shortly thereafter. The winners' articles will be featured on the journal homepage and showcased in IOPSelect (http://www.iop.org/Select/). For further information please contact the editorial office (jphysa@iop.org). Carl M Bender Editor-in-Chief Neil Scriven Publisher

  11. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-10-01

    We are delighted to announce the launch of the Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize. There will be three prizes worth £250 each awarded annually for well written papers that make an outstanding contribution to the field. All articles published during the two years prior to the award, including Fast Track Communications, regular papers, topical reviews and special issue papers, can be considered for a prize. The papers will be judged in late Spring each year using the criteria of novelty, achievement, impact and presentation. We would now like to welcome nominations for prizes to be awarded in 2009. Eligible articles must have been published in volume 39 (2007) or 40 (2008). Papers can be nominated by our Editorial Board members (who are exempt from the competition) or by readers of the journal. Please send an email to the journal editorial office (jphysa@iop.org) giving the publication details of the paper and stating (in no more than 1000 words) how it meets the criteria listed above. Authors cannot nominate their own papers. The closing date for nominations is 31 January 2009. The first set of awards will be announced following the 2009 Editorial Board meeting and winners will receive their prizes shortly thereafter. The winners' articles will be featured on the journal homepage and showcased in IOPSelect (http://www.iop.org/Select/). For further information please contact the editorial office (jphysa@iop.org). Carl M Bender Editor-in-Chief Neil Scriven Publisher

  12. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-10-01

    We are delighted to announce the launch of the Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize. There will be three prizes worth £250 each awarded annually for well written papers that make an outstanding contribution to the field. All articles published during the two years prior to the award, including Fast Track Communications, regular papers, topical reviews and special issue papers, can be considered for a prize. The papers will be judged in May each year using the criteria of novelty, achievement, impact and presentation. We would now like to welcome nominations for prizes to be awarded in 2009. Eligible articles must have been published in volume 40 (2007) or 41 (2008). Papers can be nominated by our Editorial Board members (who are exempt from the competition) or by readers of the journal. Please send an email to the journal editorial office (jphysa@iop.org) giving the publication details of the paper and stating (in no more than 1000 words) how it meets the criteria listed above. Authors cannot nominate their own papers. The closing date for nominations is 31 January 2009. The first set of awards will be announced following the 2009 Editorial Board meeting and winners will receive their prizes shortly thereafter. The winners' articles will be featured on the journal homepage and showcased in IOPSelect (http://www.iop.org/Select/). For further information please contact the editorial office (jphysa@iop.org). Carl M Bender Editor-in-Chief Neil Scriven Publisher

  13. NASA SAVE Award Winner

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-09

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Financial Manager and White House 2011 SAVE award winner Matthew Ritsko is seen during a television interview at NASA Headquarters shortly after meeting with President Obama at the White House on Monday, Jan. 9, 2011, in Washington. The Presidential Securing Americans' Value and Efficiency (SAVE) program gives front-line federal workers the chance to submit their ideas on how their agencies can save money and work more efficiently. Matthew's proposal calls for NASA to create a "lending library" where specialized space tools and hardware purchased by one NASA organization will be made available to other NASA programs and projects. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Pennies from heaven? Conceptions and earmarking of lottery prize money.

    PubMed

    Hedenus, Anna

    2014-06-01

    The source of money has been shown to be important for how money is spent. In addition, sudden wealth is often associated with social and psychological risks. This article investigates if conceptions of lottery prize money--as a special kind of money--imply restrictions on how it can be spent. Analysis of interviews with lottery winners shows that interviewees use earmarking of the prize money as a strategy for avoiding the pitfalls associated with a lottery win. Conceptions of lottery prize money as 'a lot' or as 'a little', as shared or personal, and as an opportunity or a risk, influences the ends for which it is earmarked: for self-serving spending, a 'normal' living standard, paying off loans, saving for designated purposes, or for economic security and independence. Clearly defining and earmarking lottery prize money thus helps lottery winners construe their sudden wealth, not as a risk, but as 'pennies from heaven.' © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  15. Detroit's Henry Ford Health System awarded Foster G. McGaw Prize.

    PubMed

    Rees, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, is named winner of the prestigious Foster G. McGaw Prize for excellence in community service. The organization received 100,000 dollars from the sponsors, the American Hospital Association, The Baxter International Foundation and the Cardinal Health Foundation.

  16. In Sciences, the Reflected Prestige of the Nobel Prize Extends Far Beyond Anything Its Creator Imagined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Kim

    1987-01-01

    As the ultimate symbol of excellence, the Nobel Prize has had a tremendous effect on scholars, institutions, and national pride. Topics discussed include: recruitment and fund raising, salaries and other perks, "raids" from other institutions, students seeking out winners, publication declines, etc. (MLW)

  17. Stellar students win fantastic prizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-05-01

    will meet astronomers and be present during a night of observations. Learning that they won, the team was enthusiastic: "We are very pleased to hear this fantastic news and are looking forward to the trip!" Another winner was Marta Kotarba, with her teacher Grzegorz Sęk, from the school IV Liceum Ogólnokształcące im. Tadeusza Kościuszki, Poland. Her prize is a trip to the Hispano-German Astronomical Observatory of Calar Alto in Almeria, Spain, kindly donated by the Spanish Council for Scientific Research. Marta's project "Galaxy Zoo and I" tells how she joined the website "Galaxy Zoo" to study galaxies and help astronomical researchers understand the structure of the Universe. Galaxy Zoo volunteers classify galaxies into different types, such as spiral or elliptical - a task much more easily done by humans than computers. Marta explains that the project "is like an adventure to me. Galaxy Zoo gives me abilities to enlarge my knowledge about the Universe and to gain new skills." Her winning entry also shows how anyone can get involved in the world of real astronomical research, simply by using the Internet. A third winner, of a trip to Königsleiten Observatory in Austria, is Andreia Nascimento with her teacher Leonor Cabral, from Escola Secundária da Cidadela in Portugal. Her project, on "Hunting for Open Star Clusters" near young stars, used data from the robotic Faulkes Telescope in Hawaii, which is used for research-based science education. "Catch a Star" also includes an artwork competition, for which students created artwork with an astronomical theme. This competition, through which students can get involved with astronomy even outside of science classes, has become increasingly popular, with over one thousand entries this year from around the world. Not only were prizes awarded by public votes in a web gallery, but special prizes were awarded by Garry Harwood, a Fellow and life member of the International Association of Astronomy Artists. Harwood said: "It

  18. IT Summit 2010 - Award Winners

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA CIO Linda Cureton announces this year’s IT Summit award winners. These awards recognize achievement in six key areas for contributions that have aided in NASA achieving mission goals and objec...

  19. Physicist bags Templeton prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-04-01

    A French theoretical physicist and philosopher of science who did his PhD with Louis de Broglie has won this year's £1m Templeton Prize, which is awarded for "progress toward research or discoveries about spiritual realities". Bernard d'Espagnat, 87, won the prize for his work on the philosophical implications of quantum mechanics by laying the theoretical groundwork for experimentally testing the violation of "Bell inequalities". He is the seventh physicist in the last 10 years to win the prize, which was set up in 1972 by the late philanthropist Sir John Templeton.

  20. EPA Announces Nutrient Recycling Challenge Winners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the winners of Phase I of the Nutrient Recycling Challenge-a competition to develop affordable technologies to recycle nutrients from livestock manure. The winners received

  1. Positron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hulett, L.D. Jr.; Xu, J.

    1995-02-01

    The negative work function property that some materials have for positrons make possible the development of positron reemission microscopy (PRM). Because of the low energies with which the positrons are emitted, some unique applications, such as the imaging of defects, can be made. The history of the concept of PRM, and its present state of development will be reviewed. The potential of positron microprobe techniques will be discussed also.

  2. EPA Challenges & Prizes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is a government leader in tapping the power of contributions from the public to help solve difficult problems that affect the environment and public health. Prize competitions allow federal agencies to pay only for successful solutions.

  3. MIT Clean Energy Prize: Final Technical Report May 12, 2010 - May 11, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Chris; Campbell, Georgina; Salony, Jason; Aulet, Bill

    2011-08-09

    The MIT Clean Energy Prize (MIT CEP) is a venture creation and innovation competition to encourage innovation in the energy space, specifically with regard to clean energy. The Competition invited student teams from any US university to submit student-led ventures that demonstrate a high potential of successfully making clean energy more affordable, with a positive impact on the environment. By focusing on student ventures, the MIT CEP aims to educate the next generation of clean energy entrepreneurs. Teams receive valuable mentoring and hard deadlines that complement the cash prize to accelerate development of ventures. The competition is a year-long educational process that culminates in the selection of five category finalists and a Grand Prize winner and the distribution of cash prizes to each of those teams. Each entry was submitted in one of five clean energy categories: Renewables, Clean Non-Renewables, Energy Efficiency, Transportation, and Deployment.

  4. The 6th FDR prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funakoshi, Mitsuaki

    2013-06-01

    -liquid interfaces are shown. Finally, the scattering of sound waves by water droplets is discussed. In thick fog, the sound coming from a distance becomes faint due to the sound-scattering effects of micro water droplets. The author gives an example of successfully solving such an issue by the FDLBM. It is highly admirable that the author developed the new FDLBM for aero-acoustic issues and has summarized it with sub-schemes to overcome several difficulties of engineering aeroacoustics in this review. It will certainly contribute to further development of fluid dynamics through computational aero-acoustics. Consequently, this paper was selected as the winner of the sixth FDR prize.

  5. Breast Cancer Startup Challenge winners

    Cancer.gov

    Ten winners of a world-wide competition to bring emerging breast cancer research technologies to market faster were announced today by the Avon Foundation for Women, in partnership with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI). Avon is providing

  6. Newbery Winners Reflect Societal Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Jennifer A.

    1986-01-01

    Social trends of the last 35 years are traced through an examination of Newbery Medal winners from 1951 to 1985. Idealism and realism in children's literature, the sex of the main characters, and the effects of changes in the publishing industry on children's books are discussed. (EM)

  7. Mortality and immortality: the Nobel Prize as an experiment into the effect of status upon longevity.

    PubMed

    Rablen, Matthew D; Oswald, Andrew J

    2008-12-01

    It has been known for centuries that the rich and famous have longer lives than the poor and ordinary. Causality, however, remains trenchantly debated. The ideal experiment would be one in which extra status could somehow be dropped upon a sub-sample of individuals while those in a control group of comparable individuals received none. This paper attempts to formulate a test in that spirit. It collects 19th-century birth data on science Nobel Prize winners. Correcting for potential biases, we estimate that winning the Prize, compared to merely being nominated, is associated with between 1 and 2 years of extra longevity.

  8. The Hermann Weyl Prize - Laudatio for Guilio Chiribella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Olmo, M. A.

    2011-03-01

    The Hermann Weyl Prize was created in 2000 by the Standing Committee of the International Group Theory Colloquium. The purpose of the Weyl Prize is to provide recognition for young scientists (younger than 35) who have performed original work of significant scientific quality in the area of understanding physics through symmetries. The Hermann Weyl Prize consists of a certificate citing the accomplishments of the recipient, prize money of $500 and an allowance towards the attendance of the bi-annual International Group Theory Colloquium at which the award is presented. The previous winners of the award were: Edward Frenkel (2002), Nikita A Nekrasov (2004), Boyko Bakalov (2006) and Mohammad M Sheikh-Jabbari (2008). The Selection Committee of the Weyl Prize 2010 consisted of S T Ali (Concordia University), E Corrigan (Durham Univeristy), P Kulish (St Petersburg Mathematical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences), R Mosseri (CNRS Paris) and M A del Olmo (University of Valladolid, chairman). This committee has made the following announcement: The Weyl Prize for the year 2010 was awarded to Dr Giulio Chiribella, in recognition of his pioneering work on the application of group theoretical methods in Quantum Information Theory. In particular, for providing a general solution to the problem of optimal estimation of symmertry transformations based on the notion of quantum entanglement between representation and multiplicity spaces, for the derivation of optimal protocols for the alignment of quantum reference frames, for the characterization of extreme quantum measurements in finite dimensions, for the proof of equivalence between asymptotic cloning and state estimation and for the proof of the optimality of measure-and-reprepare for quantum learning of unitary transformations. The Laudatio of Guilio Chiribella, delivered by M A del Olmo, is included in the PDF.

  9. Wins, winning and winners: the commercial advertising of lottery gambling.

    PubMed

    McMullan, John L; Miller, Delthia

    2009-09-01

    This study analyzed a sample of 920 lottery ads that were placed or played in Atlantic Canada from January 2005 to December 2006. A content analysis, involving quantitative and qualitative techniques, was conducted to examine the design features, exposure profiles and focal messages of these ads and to explore the connections between lottery advertising and consumer culture. We found that there was an "ethos of winning" in these commercials that provided the embedded words, signs, myths, and symbols surrounding lottery gambling and conveyed a powerful imagery of plentitude and certitude in a world of potential loss where there was little reference to the actual odds of winning. The tangible and emotional qualities in the ads were especially inviting to young people creating a positive orientation to wins, winning and winners, and lottery products that, in turn, reinforced this form of gambling as part of youthful consumption practices. We concluded that enticing people with the prospects of huge jackpots, attractive consumer goods and easy wins, showcasing top prize winners, and providing dubious depictions that winning is life-changing was narrow and misleading and exploited some of the factors associated with at-risk gambling.

  10. Molecular approaches to understanding neural network plasticity and memory: the Kavli Prize Inaugural Symposium on Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Sander, M; Bergersen, L H; Storm-Mathisen, J

    2009-11-10

    The Kavli Prizes were awarded for the first time in Oslo, Norway on September 9, 2008 to seven of the world's most prominent scientists in astrophysics, nanoscience and neuroscience. The astrophysics prize was awarded jointly to Maarten Schmidt, of the California Institute of Technology, USA, and Donald Lynden-Bell, of Cambridge University, UK; the nanoscience prize was awarded jointly to Louis E. Brus, of Columbia University, USA, and Sumio Iijima, of Meijo University, Japan; and the neuroscience prize was awarded jointly to Pasko Rakic, of the Yale University School of Medicine, USA, Thomas Jessell, of Columbia University, USA, and Sten Grillner, of the Karolinska Institute, Sweden. The Kavli Prize is a joint venture of the Kavli Foundation, the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, and the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research. The Kavli Prize Inaugural Symposium on Neuroscience was held at the University of Oslo on 8 September, 2008, organized by L.H. Bergersen, E. Moser M.-B. Moser, and J. Storm-Mathisen. At this Symposium, seven leading neuroscientists described their groundbreaking work, which encompasses some of the most important recent advances in the field of neuroscience, from molecule to synapse to network to behavior. The Symposium was a fitting tribute to Fred Kavli's vision of neuroscience as an outstanding area of progress, and to the achievements of the winners of the first Kavli Prize in Neuroscience. The main points of the Symposium presentations are summarized below.

  11. The 2010 Broad Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A new data analysis, based on data collected as part of The Broad Prize process, provides insights into which large urban school districts in the United States are doing the best job of educating traditionally disadvantaged groups: African-American, Hispanics, and low-income students. Since 2002, The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation has awarded The…

  12. EDITORIAL: Annual prizes for best papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    oxygen saturation using pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy: accuracy and resolution Phys. Med. Biol. 50 4409-28 Z Cao et al 2005 Optimal number of pinholes in multi-pinhole SPECT for mouse brain imaging---a simulation study Phys. Med. Biol. 50 4609-24 R Dharmakumar et al 2005 A novel microbubble construct for intracardiac or intravascular MR manometry: a theoretical study Phys. Med. Biol. 50 4745-62 R Chopra et al 2005 Method for MRI-guided conformal thermal therapy of prostate with planar transurethral ultrasound heating applicators Phys. Med. Biol. 50 4957-75 The IPEM Publications Committee then assessed and rated these papers in order to choose a winner. We have much pleasure in advising readers that the 2005 Roberts Prize is awarded to: J S Dysart and M S Patterson 2005 Characterization of Photofrin photobleaching for singlet oxygen dose estimation during photodynamic therapy of MLL cells in vitro Phys. Med. Biol. 50 2597-616 2006 Prize for the Highest Cited Paper The annual prize for the most highly cited paper is awarded by the journal publishers to the article published in PMB that has received the most citations1 in the previous 5 years (in this case for the period 2001 to 2005 inclusive). We have much pleasure in advising readers that the 2006 prize is awarded to: P J Keall, V R Kini, S S Vedam and R Mohan 2001 Motion adaptive x-ray therapy: a feasibility study Phys. Med. Biol. 46 1-10 Simon Harris, Publisher Steve Webb, Editor-in-Chief 1 Figures taken from Thomson/ISI

  13. EDITORIAL: Annual prizes for best papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-07-01

    2006 Roberts Prize The publishers of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB) in association with the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM) jointly award an annual prize for an article published in PMB during the previous year. The following ten articles, listed below in chronological order, were rated the best of 2006 based on the (two or three) referees' assessments: D W Mundy et al 2006 Radiation binary targeted therapy for HER-2 positive breast cancers: assumptions, theoretical assessment and future directions Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1377-91 Y Yang et al 2006 Investigation of optical coherence tomography as an imaging modality in tissue engineering Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1649-59 M Krämer and M Scholz 2006 Rapid calculation of biological effects in ion radiotherapy Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1959-70 P Crespo et al 2006 On the detector arrangement for in-beam PET for hadron therapy monitoring Phys. Med. Biol. 51 2143-63 R J Senden et al 2006 Polymer gel dosimeters with reduced toxicity: a preliminary investigation of the NMR and optical dose-response using different monomers Phys. Med. Biol. 51 3301-14 J Wang et al 2006 FDTD calculation of whole-body average SAR in adult and child models for frequencies from 30 MHz to 3 GHz Phys. Med. Biol. 51 4119-27 C A T Van den Berg et al 2006 The use of MR B+1 imaging for validation of FDTD electromagnetic simulations of human anatomies Phys. Med. Biol. 51 4735-46 S Qin and K W Ferrara 2006 Acoustic response of compliable microvessels containing ultrasound contrast agents Phys. Med. Biol. 51 5065-88 R Kramer et al 2006 Skeletal dosimetry in the MAX06 and the FAX06 phantoms for external exposure to photons based on vertebral 3D-microCT images Phys. Med. Biol. 51 6265-89 R Leiderman et al 2006 Coupling between elastic strain and interstitial fluid flow: ramifications for poroelastic imaging Phys. Med. Biol. 51 6291-313 An IPEM college of jurors then assessed and rated these papers in order to choose a winner. We have much

  14. Positron Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drachman, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    I will give a review of the history of low-energy positron physics, experimental and theoretical, concentrating on the type of work pioneered by John Humberston and the positronics group at University College. This subject became a legitimate subfield of atomic physics under the enthusiastic direction of the late Sir Harrie Massey, and it attracted a diverse following throughout the world. At first purely theoretical, the subject has now expanded to include high brightness beams of low-energy positrons, positronium beams, and, lately, experiments involving anti-hydrogen atoms. The theory requires a certain type of persistence in its practitioners, as well as an eagerness to try new mathematical and numerical techniques. I will conclude with a short summary of some of the most interesting recent advances.

  15. Positron Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drachman, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    I will give a review of the history of low-energy positron physics, experimental and theoretical, concentrating on the type of work pioneered by John Humberston and the positronics group at University College. This subject became a legitimate subfield of atomic physics under the enthusiastic direction of the late Sir Harrie Massey, and it attracted a diverse following throughout the world. At first purely theoretical, the subject has now expanded to include high brightness beams of low-energy positrons, positronium beams, and, lately, experiments involving anti-hydrogen atoms. The theory requires a certain type of persistence in its practitioners, as well as an eagerness to try new mathematical and numerical techniques. I will conclude with a short summary of some of the most interesting recent advances.

  16. In Brief: Trieste Prize nominations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-12-01

    Nominations for the 2008 Trieste Science Prize in Earth, space, ocean, and atmospheric sciences and in engineering sciences are being accepted through 31 January 2008. The prize has been established to give international recognition and visibility to outstanding scientific achievements made by scientists from developing countries. Candidates must be nationals of developing countries, and the prizes will only be awarded to individuals for scientific research of outstanding international merit carried out at institutions in developing countries. The prizes, each of which carries a US$50,000 monetary award, are administered by the Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS) and funded by Illycaffè in collaboration with the Trieste (Italy) Town Council and the Trieste International Foundation for Scientific Progress and Freedom. For more information, contact the TWAS Secretariat at prizes@twas.org.

  17. Why do winners keep winning? Androgen mediation of winner but not loser effects in cichlid fish

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Rui F.; Silva, Ana; Canário, Adelino V.M.

    2009-01-01

    Animal conflicts are influenced by social experience such that a previous winning experience increases the probability of winning the next agonistic interaction, whereas a previous losing experience has the opposite effect. Since androgens respond to social interactions, increasing in winners and decreasing in losers, we hypothesized that socially induced transient changes in androgen levels could be a causal mediator of winner/loser effects. To test this hypothesis, we staged fights between dyads of size-matched males of the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). After the first contest, winners were treated with the anti-androgen cyproterone acetate and losers were supplemented with 11-ketotestosterone. Two hours after the end of the first fight, two contests were staged simultaneously between the winner of the first fight and a naive male and between the loser of first fight and another naive male. The majority (88%) of control winners also won the second interaction, whereas the majority of control losers (87%) lost their second fight, thus confirming the presence of winner/loser effects in this species. As predicted, the success of anti-androgen-treated winners in the second fight decreased significantly to chance levels (44%), but the success of androgenized losers (19%) did not show a significant increase. In summary, the treatment with anti-androgen blocks the winner effect, whereas androgen administration fails to reverse the loser effect, suggesting an involvement of androgens on the winner but not on the loser effect. PMID:19324741

  18. Why do winners keep winning? Androgen mediation of winner but not loser effects in cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rui F; Silva, Ana; Canário, Adelino V M

    2009-06-22

    Animal conflicts are influenced by social experience such that a previous winning experience increases the probability of winning the next agonistic interaction, whereas a previous losing experience has the opposite effect. Since androgens respond to social interactions, increasing in winners and decreasing in losers, we hypothesized that socially induced transient changes in androgen levels could be a causal mediator of winner/loser effects. To test this hypothesis, we staged fights between dyads of size-matched males of the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). After the first contest, winners were treated with the anti-androgen cyproterone acetate and losers were supplemented with 11-ketotestosterone. Two hours after the end of the first fight, two contests were staged simultaneously between the winner of the first fight and a naive male and between the loser of first fight and another naive male. The majority (88%) of control winners also won the second interaction, whereas the majority of control losers (87%) lost their second fight, thus confirming the presence of winner/loser effects in this species. As predicted, the success of anti-androgen-treated winners in the second fight decreased significantly to chance levels (44%), but the success of androgenized losers (19%) did not show a significant increase. In summary, the treatment with anti-androgen blocks the winner effect, whereas androgen administration fails to reverse the loser effect, suggesting an involvement of androgens on the winner but not on the loser effect.

  19. The Nobel Prize laureate - father of anaphylaxis Charles-Robert Richet (1850-1935) and his anticancerous serum.

    PubMed

    Androutsos, G; Karamanou, M; Stamboulis, E; Liappas, I; Lykouras, E; Papadimitriou, G N

    2011-01-01

    Professor of physiology Charles-Robert Richet, winner of the Nobel Prize in 1913, is best known for his work on anaphylaxis. However, with his collaborator Jules Héricourt studied the effects of antibody treatment and made the very first attempts to fight cancer with serotherapy. Being versatile, Richet contributed in neurology, psychology and was also a poet, playwrighter, pacifist and pioneer in aviation.

  20. Science Talent Search: Top 40 Winners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Briefly discusses the 36th annual Science Talent Search, in which high school students conducted independent research to compete for college scholarships. Lists the 40 winners, their states of residence, and their high schools. (MLH)

  1. Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award winners 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The 1989 Malcolm Baldrige award winners - Milliken and Company; and Xerox Business Products and Services are highlighted in this video. Their strategies for producing quality products are discussed, along with their applications and importance in today's competitive workplace.

  2. Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award winners 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The 1989 Malcolm Baldrige award winners - Milliken and Company; and Xerox Business Products and Services are highlighted in this video. Their strategies for producing quality products are discussed, along with their applications and importance in today's competitive workplace.

  3. 281578main_ysc_winners_HI

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-07

    Young Scientist Challenge YSC was held at Goddard on October 5-6, 2008 sponsored by 3M. It gave students the opportunity to demonstrate their scientific and engineering skills by participating in live demonstrations. Top 3 winners

  4. EDITORIAL: The FDR Prize The FDR Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funakoshi, Mitsuaki

    2011-08-01

    From the 56 papers published in 2010 in Fluid Dynamics Research the following paper has been selected for the fourth FDR prize: 'Baroclinic multipole formation from heton interaction' by M A Sokolovskiy and X J Carton, published in volume 42 (August 2010) 045501. Coherent vortices are a universal feature of fluids at moderate and large Reynolds number, and have particular relevance to the quasi-two-dimensional flows used to model phenomena in the atmosphere and ocean. The structure and interaction of such vortices have proved a fascinating area for the researchers of fluid dynamics, including thoreticians, observers and experimentalists, together with related problems of how they mix fluids and how they transport scalars such as temperature and salinity. In this paper 'hetons' are considered; they are vortices of dipolar structures in a multilayer rotating fluid, carry thermal anomalies, and are relevant to transport in flows such as the Gulf Stream. The paper is a comprehensive study of the structure, invariants and interactions of two opposite-signed hetons in a two-layer fluid for several initial configurations and for several values of the Rossby radius of deformation, using models based on point vortex dynamics and contour dynamics of finite-area vortex regions. Different types of coupling and interactions are isolated and discussed. Depending on the initial configuration and the value of the radius of deformation, the time evolutions toward horizonal dipoles, vertically tilted dipoles, L-shaped dipoles, and Z-shaped tripoles are observed in the case of finite-area vortices. Using point vortex dynamics a rigorous analysis based on trilinear coordinates is performed, and the appearance of similar structures is shown analytically, except for the L-shaped dipoles. The contribution of this paper to the important problem of heton interaction is both profound and substantial. The study will be of great interest to a wide variety of readers and is likely to inspire

  5. Optics pioneers scoop Nobel prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Three physicists who carried out pioneering work in former industrial research labs have picked up this year's Nobel Prize for Physics. One half of the SEK 10m prize has been awarded to Charles Kao, 75, for his work at the UK-based Standard Telephones and Cables (STC) on the transmission of light in optical fibres, which underpinned the telecommunications revolution. The other half of the prize is shared between Willard Boyle, 85, and George Smith, 79, of Bell Laboratories in New Jersey, US, for inventing the charge-coupled device (CCD) - an imaging semiconductor circuit that forms the basis of most digital cameras.

  6. High School Teachers Win ACS Prizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Editorial Staff, Jce

    2009-07-01

    William E. Snyder is the 2009 winner of the ACS Division of Chemical Education Central Region Award for Excellence in High School Teaching; Sally Mitchell is the winner of the 2009 James Bryant Conant Award in High School Chemistry Teaching.

  7. Becoming a winner but staying the same: identities and consumption of lottery winners.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how large lottery winnings are experienced and used by the winners. The study draws on a survey of 420 Swedish winners, which is analyzed against the background of previous research from the USA and Europe. The analyses show that winners are cautious about realizing any dreams of becoming someone else somewhere else. This result contradicts theories suggesting that identities are being liquefied by the commercially driven consumer culture in affluent Western societies. In contrast, the article concludes that winners generally try to stay much the same, but on a somewhat higher level of consumption. The critical situation that large winnings produce is generally met by an attempt to hold on to one's identity and social relations. In addition, the article shows that lump sum winners tend to save and invest large parts of their winnings, compared with winners of monthly installments who are more likely to spend on leisure and consumption. These results indicate that “wild” lump sums make winners “tame” their winnings more firmly, whereas “domesticated” monthly instalments can be spent more thoughtlessly without changing identity or becoming an unfortunate winner.

  8. Europlanet Prize for Public Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouchet, Thierry

    2016-10-01

    The Europlanet Prize for Public Engagement with Planetary Science is awarded annually. Through the Prize, Europlanet aims to recognise achievements in engaging European citizens with planetary science and to raise the profile of outreach within the scientific community. It is awarded to individuals or groups who have developed innovative practices in planetary science communication and whose efforts have significantly contributed to a wider public engagement with planetary science.

  9. Haagen-Smit Prize 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-01-01

    The Executive Editors and the Publisher of Atmospheric Environment take great pleasure in announcing the 2015 ''Haagen-Smit Prize", designed to recognize outstanding papers published in Atmospheric Environment. The Prize is named in honor of Prof. Arie Jan Haagen-Smit, a pioneer in the field of air pollution and one of the first editors of the International Journal of Air Pollution, a predecessor to Atmospheric Environment.

  10. Haagen-Smit Prize 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Hanwant

    2017-03-01

    The Executive Editors and the Publisher of Atmospheric Environment take great pleasure in announcing the 2016 "Haagen-Smit Prize", designed to recognize outstanding papers published in Atmospheric Environment. The Prize is named in honor of Prof. Arie Jan Haagen-Smit, a pioneer in the field of air pollution and one of the first editors of the International Journal of Air Pollution, a predecessor to Atmospheric Environment.

  11. Haagen-Smit Prize 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-02-01

    The Executive Editors and the Publisher of Atmospheric Environment take great pleasure in announcing the 2014 ''Haagen-Smit Prize", designed to recognize outstanding papers published in Atmospheric Environment. The Prize is named in honor of Prof. Arie Jan Haagen-Smit, a pioneer in the field of air pollution and one of the first editors of the International Journal of Air Pollution, a predecessor to Atmospheric Environment.

  12. The 3K Blackbody Radiation, 'Stored' & 'Frozen' Light, 'Viscous Optical Molasses' as Effects of the Electron Positron Lattice (EPOLA) Structure of Our "Vacuum" Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simhony, Menahem

    2002-05-01

    In the EPOLA model of space [1] the mysterious 3K blackbody radiation of the sky is due to random thermal vibrations of the electrons and positrons, bound in the epola. They also cause the zero-point motion of helium atoms, a Brownian Motion analog. The temperature T of our epola region is therefore 3K. In space regions with more hot stars, more nuclear activity, T is higher and they may create the mystery of gray matter. Epola regions below 3K are observed as mysterious dark matter. The gray and dark matter regions are considered to constitute 90 percent of the mass of the universe. The 1997 Nobel Prize winners' "Optical Molasses" at micro-K T's are also explained by the epola model, as well as the 'stored', 'frozen' light effects, observed in 1999-2001. References: 1. M.Simhony, Invitation to the Natural Physics of Matter, Space, and Radiation, World Scientific, 1994 (292 pp), ISBN 981-02-1649-1. See the website: www.word1.co.il/physics .

  13. Winners of student essay contest receive awards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    George Meguiar (left) presents a scholarship award to Kyla Davis Horn, of Cocoa Beach, one of the winners of an essay contest related to the 30th Anniversary of Apollo 11. Meguiar and George English (second from right) head the Apollo 11 Commemoration Association who sponsored the contest in conjunction with Florida Today newspaper. The other scholarship winner is Kyle Rukaczewski, of Satellite Beach (far right). A third winner, Jason Gagnon, of Viera, was unable to attend. The presentation was made at the Apollo/Saturn V Center during an anniversary banquet that honored all the people who made the Apollo Program possible. Special guests included former Apollo astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Gene Cernan and Walt Cunningham, who shared their experiences with the audience.

  14. Winners of student essay contest receive awards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    George Meguiar (left) presents a scholarship award to Kyla Davis Horn, of Cocoa Beach, one of the winners of an essay contest related to the 30th Anniversary of Apollo 11. Meguiar and George English (second from right) head the Apollo 11 Commemoration Association who sponsored the contest in conjunction with Florida Today newspaper. The other scholarship winner is Kyle Rukaczewski, of Satellite Beach (far right). A third winner, Jason Gagnon, of Viera, was unable to attend. The presentation was made at the Apollo/Saturn V Center during an anniversary banquet that honored all the people who made the Apollo Program possible. Special guests included former Apollo astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Gene Cernan and Walt Cunningham, who shared their experiences with the audience.

  15. Youyou Tu: significance of winning the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenxiu

    2016-01-01

    Youyou Tu, a female scientist at the China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Beijing, is the first Chinese winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Based on the study of recipes which had been used for thousands of years to treat fever, Tu’s group discovered that the plant artemesia annua, sweet wormwood, showed substantial inhibition of rodent malaria parasites. Her achievement and experience have inspired other researchers and emphasized the development of traditional Chinese medicine. Her award has led to a heated discussion about scientific research investment, fair treatment of research staff, and intellectual property right (IPR) protection in China. PMID:26885485

  16. Youyou Tu: significance of winning the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenxiu; Liu, Yue

    2016-02-01

    Youyou Tu, a female scientist at the China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Beijing, is the first Chinese winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Based on the study of recipes which had been used for thousands of years to treat fever, Tu's group discovered that the plant artemesia annua, sweet wormwood, showed substantial inhibition of rodent malaria parasites. Her achievement and experience have inspired other researchers and emphasized the development of traditional Chinese medicine. Her award has led to a heated discussion about scientific research investment, fair treatment of research staff, and intellectual property right (IPR) protection in China.

  17. The mantle of the heavens: Reflections on the 2014 Nobel Prize for medicine or physiology.

    PubMed

    Morris, Richard G M

    2015-06-01

    The award of the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology in 2014 for the discovery of place and grid cells was both a personal award to three great scientists and also a mark of the maturity of systems neuroscience as a discipline. This article offers both personal and scientific reflections on these discoveries, detailing both how getting to know all three winners had an impact on my life and the research questions that we shared in common work together. It ends with brief reflections on three important outstanding questions.

  18. 2012 Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest Winners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers (J3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the winners of the 2012 Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest. They are Naim Owens from Washington, DC, and Colissa Menke from Warrensburg, Missouri. The 2012 essay topic is "How do you feel CTE prepares individuals, including yourself, for a future career?"

  19. 2012 Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest Winners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers (J3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the winners of the 2012 Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest. They are Naim Owens from Washington, DC, and Colissa Menke from Warrensburg, Missouri. The 2012 essay topic is "How do you feel CTE prepares individuals, including yourself, for a future career?"

  20. 77 FR 64851 - Announcement Date Postponed for the Grand Prize Winner Announcement for the America COMPETES...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Reauthorization Act of 2011: Project REACH Homelessness Mobile App Contest AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs... App Contest, authorized under section 105 of the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2011. Project...

  1. Creativity in Early and Established Career: Insights into Multi-Level Drivers from Nobel Prize Winners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eubanks, Dawn L.; Palanski, Michael E.; Swart, Juani; Hammond, Michelle M.; Oguntebi, Joy

    2016-01-01

    The freedom to try new things plays a vital role for employees engaging in creative endeavors. This freedom can be influenced by one's relationship with her supervisor, relationship with her team, and various work pressures. One of the first steps to reaching creative output is to have a playful attitude toward work where there is encouragement…

  2. Creativity in Early and Established Career: Insights into Multi-Level Drivers from Nobel Prize Winners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eubanks, Dawn L.; Palanski, Michael E.; Swart, Juani; Hammond, Michelle M.; Oguntebi, Joy

    2016-01-01

    The freedom to try new things plays a vital role for employees engaging in creative endeavors. This freedom can be influenced by one's relationship with her supervisor, relationship with her team, and various work pressures. One of the first steps to reaching creative output is to have a playful attitude toward work where there is encouragement…

  3. ISSLS Prize Winner: Vibration Really Does Disrupt the Disc: A Microanatomical Investigation.

    PubMed

    Wade, Kelly R; Schollum, Meredith L; Robertson, Peter A; Thambyah, Ashvin; Broom, Neil D

    2016-08-01

    Microstructural investigation of vibration-induced disruption of the flexed lumbar disc. The aim of the study was to explore micro-level structural damage in motion segments subjected to vibration at subcritical peak loads. Epidemiological evidence suggests that cumulative whole body vibration may damage the disc and thus play an important role in low back pain. In vitro investigations have produced herniations via cyclic loading (and cyclic with added vibrations as an exacerbating exposure), but offered only limited microstructural analysis. Twenty-nine healthy mature ovine lumbar motion segments flexed 7° and subjected to vibration loading (1300 ± 500 N) in a sinusoidal waveform at 5 Hz to simulate moderately severe physiologic exposure. Discs were tested either in the range of 20,000 to 48,000 cycles (medium dose) or 70,000 to 120,000 cycles (high dose). Damaged discs were analyzed microstructurally. There was no large drop in displacement over the duration of both vibration doses indicating an absence of catastrophic failure in all tests. The tested discs experienced internal damage that included delamination and disruption to the inner and mid-annular layers as well as diffuse tracking of nucleus material, and involved both the posterior and anterior regions. Less frequent tearing between the inner disc and endplate was also observed. Annular distortions also progressed into a more severe form of damage, which included intralamellar tearing and buckling and obvious strain distortion around the bridging elements within the annular wall. Vibration loading causes delamination and disruption of the inner and mid-annular layers and limited diffuse tracking of nucleus material. These subtle levels of disruption could play a significant role in initiating the degenerative cascade via micro-level disruption leading to cell death and altered nutrient pathways. 5.

  4. 2006 Foster G. McGaw Prize winner: memorial healthcare system, Hollywood, Fla.

    PubMed

    Thrall, Terese Hudson

    2007-04-01

    Memorial Healthcare System in Hollywood, Fla., is receiving well-deserved national recognition for its myriad community benefit programs, from public housing improvements to prenatal care for uninsured mothers-to-be.

  5. James P. Allison received the 2014 Szent-Györgi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jie; Scully, Peter; Ba, Sujuan

    2014-01-01

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)—a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting innovative cancer research on the global scale that aims to cure cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher whose original discoveries have expanded our understanding of cancer and resulted in notable advances in cancer prevention, diagnosis, or treatment. The prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the history and mission of the Szent-Györgyi Prize, its role in promoting discovery-oriented cancer research, and the pioneering work led by the 2014 prize winner, Dr. James Allison. Dr. Allison's work in the area of cancer immunotherapy led to the successful development of immune checkpoint therapy, and the first drug approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. PMID:25189714

  6. Positron Interactions with Atoms and Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, Anand K.

    2012-01-01

    Dirac, in 1928, combining the ideas of quantum mechanics and the ideas of relativity invented the well-known relativistic wave equation. In his formulation, he predicted an antiparticle of the electron of spin n-bar/2. He thought that this particle must be a proton. Dirac published his interpretation in a paper 'A theory of electrons and protons.' It was shown later by the mathematician Hermann Weyl that the Dirac theory was completely symmetric between negative and positive particles and the positive particle must have the same mass as that of the electron. In his J. Robert Oppenheimer Memorial Prize Acceptance Speech, Dirac notes that 'Blackett was really the first person to obtain hard evidence for the existence of a positron but he was afraid to publish it. He wanted confirmation, he was really over cautious.' Positron, produced by the collision of cosmic rays in a cloud chamber, was detected experimentally by Anderson in 1932. His paper was published in Physical Review in 1933. The concept of the positron and its detection were the important discoveries of the 20th century. I have tried to discuss various processes involving interactions of positrons with atoms and ions. This includes scattering, bound states and resonances. It has not been possible to include the enormous work which has been carried out during the last 40 or 50 years in theory and measurements.

  7. The First Printz Award Designations: Winners All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmitt, Jean Pollard

    2001-01-01

    Explains a major new book award, the Michael L. Printz Award honoring the best young adult book. Discusses the first prize-winning book: "Monster" by Walter Dean Myers, and three honor books. Discusses how these books are unusual and outstanding examples of young adult literature--structurally sophisticated with memorable characters who deal with…

  8. Blue Ribbon Web Sites Contest Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southworth, Samuel A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a collection of prize-winning Web sites created by K-8 teachers nationwide. Some of the unique features of the Web sites include an online student-written newspaper; a sing-along section; a chronicle of the past 3 years of classes to see how the classes have evolved; and student art and writing projects. (SM)

  9. Blue Ribbon Web Sites Contest Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southworth, Samuel A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a collection of prize-winning Web sites created by K-8 teachers nationwide. Some of the unique features of the Web sites include an online student-written newspaper; a sing-along section; a chronicle of the past 3 years of classes to see how the classes have evolved; and student art and writing projects. (SM)

  10. The First Printz Award Designations: Winners All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmitt, Jean Pollard

    2001-01-01

    Explains a major new book award, the Michael L. Printz Award honoring the best young adult book. Discusses the first prize-winning book: "Monster" by Walter Dean Myers, and three honor books. Discusses how these books are unusual and outstanding examples of young adult literature--structurally sophisticated with memorable characters who deal with…

  11. Mrs. Chandrasekhar poses with contest winners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mrs. Lalitha Chandrasekhar (left), wife of the late Indian- American Nobel Laureate Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, poses with a model of the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the winners of the contest to rename the telescope in the TRW Media Hospitality Tent at the NASA Press Site at KSC. The winners of the contest are Jatila van der Veen (center), academic coordinator and lecturer, Physics Dept., University of Santa Barbara, Calif., and Tyrel Johnson (right), high school student, Laclede, Idaho. The name 'Chandra,' a shortened version of Chandrasekhar's name which he preferred among friends and colleagues, was chosen to honor the Nobel Laureate. 'Chandra' also means 'Moon' or 'luminous' in Sanskrit. The observatory is scheduled to be launched aboard Columbia on Space Shuttle mission STS-93.

  12. Winners of student essay contest receive awards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At the Apollo/Saturn V Center, George Meguiar (center left) and George English (center right) present scholarships to two students who entered an essay contest in conjunction with the 30th Anniversary of Apollo 11. The winners shown are Kyla Davis Horn, of Cocoa Beach, and Kyle Rukaczewski, of Satellite Beach. A third winner, Jason Gagnon, of Viera, was unable to attend. Meguiar and English head the Apollo 11 Commemoration Association which sponsored the contest in conjunction with Florida Today newspaper. The presentation was made at the Apollo/Saturn V Center during an anniversary banquet that honored all the people who made the Apollo Program possible. Special guests included former Apollo astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Gene Cernan and Walt Cunningham, who shared their experiences with the audience.

  13. Mrs. Chandrasekhar poses with contest winners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mrs. Lalitha Chandrasekhar (left), wife of the late Indian- American Nobel Laureate Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, poses with a model of the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the winners of the contest to rename the telescope in the TRW Media Hospitality Tent at the NASA Press Site at KSC. The winners of the contest are Jatila van der Veen (center), academic coordinator and lecturer, Physics Dept., University of Santa Barbara, Calif., and Tyrel Johnson (right), high school student, Laclede, Idaho. The name 'Chandra,' a shortened version of Chandrasekhar's name which he preferred among friends and colleagues, was chosen to honor the Nobel Laureate. 'Chandra' also means 'Moon' or 'luminous' in Sanskrit. The observatory is scheduled to be launched aboard Columbia on Space Shuttle mission STS-93.

  14. Winners of student essay contest receive awards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At the Apollo/Saturn V Center, George Meguiar (center left) and George English (center right) present scholarships to two students who entered an essay contest in conjunction with the 30th Anniversary of Apollo 11. The winners shown are Kyla Davis Horn, of Cocoa Beach, and Kyle Rukaczewski, of Satellite Beach. A third winner, Jason Gagnon, of Viera, was unable to attend. Meguiar and English head the Apollo 11 Commemoration Association which sponsored the contest in conjunction with Florida Today newspaper. The presentation was made at the Apollo/Saturn V Center during an anniversary banquet that honored all the people who made the Apollo Program possible. Special guests included former Apollo astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Gene Cernan and Walt Cunningham, who shared their experiences with the audience.

  15. Thoughts on Teaching: And the Winner Is...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starnes, Bobby Ann

    2005-01-01

    What does it mean that Oscar-winner Hilary Swank's growing up in a trailer park is a big deal, that the author's son's education taught him his "broken home" puts him at risk, and that her niece used derogatory terms that could just as easily have been applied to her as to her enemy? The author thinks it says something about people's…

  16. EDITORIAL: Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2009 Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2010-07-01

    The publishers of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB), IOP Publishing, in association with the journal owners, the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM), jointly award an annual prize for the best paper published in PMB during the previous year. The procedure for deciding the winner has been made as thorough as possible, to try to ensure that an outstanding paper wins the prize. We started off with a shortlist of the 10 research papers published in 2009 which were rated the best based on the referees' quality assessments. Following the submission of a short 'case for winning' document by each of the shortlisted authors, an IPEM college of jurors of the status of FIPEM assessed and rated these 10 papers in order to choose a winner, which was then endorsed by the Editorial Board. We have a clear, and very worthy, winner this year. We have much pleasure in advising readers that the 2009 Roberts Prize is awarded to E Z Zhang et al from University College London for their paper on photoacoustic tomography. In vivo high resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy E Z Zhang, J G Laufer, R B Pedley and P C Beard 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 1035-46 Our congratulations go to these authors. Of course all of the shortlisted papers were of great merit, and the full top-10 is listed below (in alphabetical order). Steve Webb Editor-in-Chief Simon Harris Publisher References Cheng Y-C N , Neelavalli J and Haacke E M 2009 Limitations of calculating field distributions and magnetic susceptibilities in MRI using a Fourier based method Phys. Med. Biol. 54 1169-89 Cho S, Ahn S, Li Q and Leahy R M 2009 Exact and approximate Fourier rebinning of PET data from time-of-flight to non time-of-flight 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 467-84 Davidson S R H, Weersink R A, Haider M A, Gertner M R, Bogaards A, Giewercer D, Scherz A, Sherar M D, Elhilali M, Chin J L, Trachtenberg J and Wilson B C 2009 Treatment planning and dose analysis for interstitial

  17. [Gene studies and nobel prize].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun-Ming; Xiao, Bing-Xiu

    2005-01-01

    Gene is a DNA sequence which can be expressed and produces gene products (protein or RNA). By 2003, there are 51 Nobel Prize owners related to gene studies. Among them, 44 persons are in physiology or medicine (account for 24.72% of total 178), 7 persons are in chemistry (account for 5.69% of total 123). The paper reviews them in following 6 aspects: Drosophlie melanogaster is a good material for gene study; the double helix model of DNA structure provides a hard foundation in gene study; the studies on gene regulation illuminate many functions of gene; genetic central dogma researches created 11 Noble Prize laureates; gene engineering technologies make possible to modify and use genes; and the thorough studies of gene characteristic made us easier to understand many life phenomena.

  18. Landau's Nobel Prize in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, M.; Balatsky, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Work of Lev Landau had a profound impact on the physics in 20th century. Landau had created the paradigms that had framed the conversations on the outstanding problems in physics for decades. He had laid foundations for our understanding of quantum matter like superfluidity, superconductivity and the theory of Fermi liquid. Here we present some Nobel Archive data on the winning nomination that led to the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1962.

  19. Autophagy Captures the Nobel Prize.

    PubMed

    Tooze, Sharon A; Dikic, Ivan

    2016-12-01

    This year's Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to Yoshinori Ohsumi for the discovery of the molecular principles governing autophagy, an intracellular degradation pathway routed via lysosomes or vacuoles. It is a story of a simple yet insightful yeast genetic screen that revealed the inner circuitry of one of the most powerful quality-control pathways in cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A prize for membrane magic.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Suzanne R

    2013-12-05

    The 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to James Rothman, Randy Schekman, and Thomas Südhof "for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells". I present a personal view of the membrane trafficking field, highlighting the contributions of these three Nobel laureates in a historical context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Frederick W. Alt received the 2015 Szent-Györgi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    Scully, Peter; Zhao, Jie; Ba, Sujuan

    2016-02-03

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)--a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting scientific research and public education relating to the prevention, early diagnosis, better treatments, and ultimately, a cure for cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher, nominated by colleagues or peers, who has contributed outstanding, significant research to the fight against cancer, and whose accomplishments have helped improve treatment options for cancer patients. The Prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the pioneering work led by the 2015 Prize winner, Dr. Frederick Alt. Dr. Alt's work in the area of cancer genetics over four decades has helped to shape the very roots of modern cancer research. His work continues to profoundly impact the approaches that doctors around the globe use to diagnose and treat cancer. In particular, his seminal discoveries of gene amplification and his pioneering work on molecular mechanisms of DNA damage repair have helped to usher in the era of genetically targeted therapy and personalized medicine.

  2. Next X-Prize: L1 Base with Linked Asteroid Mining as Prime Catalyst for Space Enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Ken R.

    2006-01-01

    We are at a cusp in our emergence as a space-faring race. Development of space resources offers unparalleled economic opportunities. Entrepreneurs with fortunes from the computer and internet revolutions are heavily investing in space. Their goal: to make space accessible to civilians at affordable prices, and build their next fortunes off-planet. The Ansari X-Prize showed that economic incentives can augment the pace and efficiency of this venture. Lunar and Martian missions are being touted as the top priorities by the US and other nations. However, serious and profitable expansion into space is best achieved by the establishment of an L1 base, its economic lifeblood based on processing asteroidal materials to provide the staples of all human space enterprise: oxygen, water, fuel and shielding. This paper outlines the components of an ``L1-prize'' modeled on the Ansari X-prize competition that led to the first private manned flight into space by Scaled Composites. The economic costs, crucial components and profit potential of a primary L1 base with asteroid mining technology intimately tied to it are detailed. The technical and economic benefits of the L1 location are contrasted to alternatives. The likely revenue sources are estimated, including contracting nations and industries; and orbital, lunar and Martian interplanetary enterprises. These are discussed as realistically and conservatively as possible in terms of the potential future profits for the winner of the prize.

  3. Bernard Lerer: recipient of the 2014 inaugural Werner Kalow Responsible Innovation Prize in Global Omics and Personalized Medicine (Pacific Rim Association for Clinical Pharmacogenetics).

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Vural; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Aynacıoğlu, Sükrü; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Dandara, Collet; Dove, Edward S; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Geraci, Christy Jo; Hafen, Ernst; Kesim, Belgin Eroğlu; Kolker, Eugene; Lee, Edmund J D; Llerena, Adrian; Nacak, Muradiye; Shimoda, Kazutaka; Someya, Toshiyuki; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Tomlinson, Brian; Vayena, Effy; Warnich, Louise; Yaşar, Umit

    2014-04-01

    This article announces the recipient of the 2014 inaugural Werner Kalow Responsible Innovation Prize in Global Omics and Personalized Medicine by the Pacific Rim Association for Clinical Pharmacogenetics (PRACP): Bernard Lerer, professor of psychiatry and director of the Biological Psychiatry Laboratory, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel. The Werner Kalow Responsible Innovation Prize is given to an exceptional interdisciplinary scholar who has made highly innovative and enduring contributions to global omics science and personalized medicine, with both vertical and horizontal (transdisciplinary) impacts. The prize is established in memory of a beloved colleague, mentor, and friend, the late Professor Werner Kalow, who cultivated the idea and practice of pharmacogenetics in modern therapeutics commencing in the 1950s. PRACP, the prize's sponsor, is one of the longest standing learned societies in the Asia-Pacific region, and was founded by Kalow and colleagues more than two decades ago in the then-emerging field of pharmacogenetics. In announcing this inaugural prize and its winner, we seek to highlight the works of prize winner, Professor Lerer. Additionally, we contextualize the significance of the prize by recalling the life and works of Professor Kalow and providing a brief socio-technical history of the rise of pharmacogenetics and personalized medicine as a veritable form of 21(st) century scientific practice. The article also fills a void in previous social science analyses of pharmacogenetics, by bringing to the fore the works of Kalow from 1995 to 2008, when he presciently noted the rise of yet another field of postgenomics inquiry--pharmacoepigenetics--that railed against genetic determinism and underscored the temporal and spatial plasticity of genetic components of drug response, with invention of the repeated drug administration (RDA) method that estimates the dynamic heritabilities of drug response. The prize goes a long way

  4. CIP's Eighth Annual Educational Software Contest: The Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Denis

    1997-01-01

    Announces the winners of an annual software contest for innovative software in physics education. Winning entries include an application to help students visualize the origin of energy bands in a solid, a package on the radioastronomy of pulsars, and a school-level science simulation program. Also includes student winners, honorable mentions,…

  5. Meet the 2008 Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest Winners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers (J3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the winners of the 2008 Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest and their winning essays. The winners are Spencer Terry of Tulsa, Oklahoma (secondary), and Carrie Snyder-Renfro of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (postsecondary). The topic for secondary students is "How would you communicate the impact and importance of CTE related to your…

  6. Occupational Aspirations of State FFA Contest and Award Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Blannie E.; Doerfert, David L.

    1989-01-01

    A study explored the occupational aspirations of 300 (of 503) students with high levels of participation in Future Farmers of America's (FFA) Computers in Agriculture (CIA), Proficiency Award (PA), and Prepared and Extemporaneous Speaking (PES) contests. CIA and PES winners aspired to professional occupations more than PA winners. PES winners…

  7. 40 CFR 105.11 - Who selects the award winners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Who selects the award winners? 105.11 Section 105.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Selection Criteria § 105.11 Who selects the award winners? After...

  8. 40 CFR 105.16 - How are award winners publicized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How are award winners publicized? 105.16 Section 105.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.16 How are award winners...

  9. 40 CFR 105.15 - How are award winners recognized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How are award winners recognized? 105.15 Section 105.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.15 How are award winners...

  10. 40 CFR 105.14 - How are award winners notified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How are award winners notified? 105.14 Section 105.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.14 How are award winners notified? EPA...

  11. 40 CFR 105.11 - Who selects the award winners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Who selects the award winners? 105.11 Section 105.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Selection Criteria § 105.11 Who selects the award winners? After...

  12. 40 CFR 105.15 - How are award winners recognized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are award winners recognized? 105.15 Section 105.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.15 How are award winners...

  13. 40 CFR 105.15 - How are award winners recognized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How are award winners recognized? 105.15 Section 105.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.15 How are award winners...

  14. 40 CFR 105.11 - Who selects the award winners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who selects the award winners? 105.11 Section 105.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Selection Criteria § 105.11 Who selects the award winners? After...

  15. 40 CFR 105.16 - How are award winners publicized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true How are award winners publicized? 105.16 Section 105.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.16 How are award winners...

  16. 40 CFR 105.14 - How are award winners notified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How are award winners notified? 105.14 Section 105.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.14 How are award winners notified? EPA...

  17. 40 CFR 105.15 - How are award winners recognized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How are award winners recognized? 105.15 Section 105.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.15 How are award winners...

  18. 40 CFR 105.11 - Who selects the award winners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Who selects the award winners? 105.11 Section 105.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Selection Criteria § 105.11 Who selects the award winners? After...

  19. 40 CFR 105.11 - Who selects the award winners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Who selects the award winners? 105.11 Section 105.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Selection Criteria § 105.11 Who selects the award winners? After...

  20. 40 CFR 105.16 - How are award winners publicized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How are award winners publicized? 105.16 Section 105.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.16 How are award winners...

  1. 40 CFR 105.14 - How are award winners notified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are award winners notified? 105.14 Section 105.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.14 How are award winners notified? EPA...

  2. 40 CFR 105.14 - How are award winners notified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How are award winners notified? 105.14 Section 105.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.14 How are award winners notified? EPA...

  3. 40 CFR 105.16 - How are award winners publicized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How are award winners publicized? 105.16 Section 105.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.16 How are award winners...

  4. 40 CFR 105.14 - How are award winners notified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true How are award winners notified? 105.14 Section 105.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.14 How are award winners notified? EPA...

  5. 40 CFR 105.15 - How are award winners recognized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true How are award winners recognized? 105.15 Section 105.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.15 How are award winners...

  6. 40 CFR 105.16 - How are award winners publicized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are award winners publicized? 105.16 Section 105.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.16 How are award winners...

  7. Meet the 2008 Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest Winners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers (J3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the winners of the 2008 Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest and their winning essays. The winners are Spencer Terry of Tulsa, Oklahoma (secondary), and Carrie Snyder-Renfro of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (postsecondary). The topic for secondary students is "How would you communicate the impact and importance of CTE related to your…

  8. Innovation Inducement Prizes: Connecting Research to Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besharov, Douglas J.; Williams, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Innovation inducement prizes have been used for centuries. In the United States, a recent federal policy change--the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010--clarified and simplified a path by which all federal agencies can offer innovation inducement prizes, thus intensifying interest in how government agencies can most effectively design…

  9. Synthesis and the Nobel Prize in Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeman, Jeffrey I.

    2017-10-01

    The question often arises as to who may have deserved a Nobel Prize but was not awarded one. Rarely is this discussion extended to who should have received more than one Nobel Prize, but in the field of organic synthesis there are some compelling candidates.

  10. Broad Prize: Do the Successes Spread?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    When the Broad Prize for Urban Education was created in 2002, billionaire philanthropist Eli Broad said he hoped the awards, in addition to rewarding high-performing school districts, would foster healthy competition; boost the prestige of urban education, long viewed as dysfunctional; and showcase best practices. Over the 10 years the prize has…

  11. Innovation Inducement Prizes: Connecting Research to Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besharov, Douglas J.; Williams, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Innovation inducement prizes have been used for centuries. In the United States, a recent federal policy change--the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010--clarified and simplified a path by which all federal agencies can offer innovation inducement prizes, thus intensifying interest in how government agencies can most effectively design…

  12. BOS MOrth cases prize 2011.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jigar Vipinchandra

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the orthodontic treatment of two cases awarded the prize by the British Orthodontic Society for best treated cases submitted for the Membership in Orthodontics. The first case reports on the treatment of a class III malocclusion with increased vertical lower anterior facial proportions and dentoalveolar compensation that was treated with orthodontic camouflage. The second case reports on the treatment of a class II division II malocclusion with reduced vertical lower anterior facial proportions and an overbite complete to the palate, which was treated with orthodontic camouflage.

  13. EDITORIAL: Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2010 Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2011-08-01

    The publishers of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB), IOP Publishing, in association with the journal owners, the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM), jointly award an annual prize for the best paper published in PMB during the previous year. The procedure for deciding the winner has been made as thorough as possible, to try to ensure that an outstanding paper wins the prize. We started off with a shortlist of the 10 research papers published in 2010 which were rated the best based on the referees' quality assessments. Following the submission of a short 'case for winning' document by each of the shortlisted authors, an IPEM college of jurors of the status of FIPEM assessed and rated these 10 papers in order to choose a winner, which was then endorsed by the Editorial Board. We have much pleasure in advising readers that the Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2010 is awarded to M M Paulides et al from Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, for their paper on hyperthermia treatment: The clinical feasibility of deep hyperthermia treatment in the head and neck: new challenges for positioning and temperature measurement M M Paulides, J F Bakker, M Linthorst, J van der Zee, Z Rijnen, E Neufeld, P M T Pattynama, P P Jansen, P C Levendag and G C van Rhoon 2010 Phys. Med. Biol. 55 2465 Our congratulations go to these authors. Of course all of the shortlisted papers were of great merit, and the full top-10 is listed below (in alphabetical order). Steve Webb Editor-in-Chief Simon Harris Publisher References Alonzo-Proulx O, Packard N, Boone J M, Al-Mayah A, Brock K K, Shen S Z and Yaffe M J 2010 Validation of a method for measuring the volumetric breast density from digital mammograms Phys. Med. Biol. 55 3027 Bian J, Siewerdsen J H, Han X, Sidky E Y, Prince J L, Pelizzari C A and Pan X 2010 Evaluation of sparse-view reconstruction from flat-panel-detector cone-beam CT Phys. Med. Biol. 55 6575 Brun M-A, Formanek F, Yasuda A, Sekine M, Ando N

  14. 2014 WSEAT X-Prize

    SciTech Connect

    Bosiljevac, Thomas; Kramer, Sharlotte; Laing, John

    2014-10-01

    The 2014 WSEAT X-Prize is modeled as a double blind study to challenge the computational and material mechanics communities methodologies to develop better capabilities in modeling and experimentation to predict the failure in ductile metals. The challenge is presented as a distinct, yet relatively, simple geometry with all reported modeling predictions blind to each of the modeling teams. The experimental testing is validated by two independent test labs to confirm the experimentally observed behavior and results are unbiased and repeatable. The WSEAT X-Prize was issued to both external participants and internal participants as the Sandia Fracture Challenge 2 (SFC2) on May 30, 2014. A Challenge Supplemental Information Packet was sent to participants on August 13, 2014 to Prior years SFCs focused on the ability to predict failures under a quasi-static loading condition that focused on either a shear or tensile-dominated failure mode. This year’s challenge focuses on a geometry with a shear and/or tensile-dominated failure mode influenced by a moderate strain-rate ductile fracture in a metallic alloy.

  15. Positron-rubidium scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceachran, R. P.; Horbatsch, M.; Stauffer, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    A 5-state close-coupling calculation (5s-5p-4d-6s-6p) was carried out for positron-Rb scattering in the energy range 3.7 to 28.0 eV. In contrast to the results of similar close-coupling calculations for positron-Na and positron-K scattering the (effective) total integrated cross section has an energy dependence which is contrary to recent experimental measurements.

  16. [Karl Sudhoff and the Nobel Prize].

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on files in the Nobel Prize archive for Physiology or Medicine in Solna, Sweden, this paper illuminates the Nobel Prize nominations for and by Karl Sudhoff from 1918 to 1923. He was nominated by Max Cloetta and Max Neuburger, and Sudhoff himself put forward Julius Hirschberg, Erwin Payr and Georg Sticker. Even though none of the proposals led to a prize, the nomination letters offer insights in the relationships between leading historians of medicine in the immediate post-war years. The study is part of a project exploring the construction and enactment of scientific excellence.

  17. Positrons in surface physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugenschmidt, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    Within the last decade powerful methods have been developed to study surfaces using bright low-energy positron beams. These novel analysis tools exploit the unique properties of positron interaction with surfaces, which comprise the absence of exchange interaction, repulsive crystal potential and positron trapping in delocalized surface states at low energies. By applying reflection high-energy positron diffraction (RHEPD) one can benefit from the phenomenon of total reflection below a critical angle that is not present in electron surface diffraction. Therefore, RHEPD allows the determination of the atom positions of (reconstructed) surfaces with outstanding accuracy. The main advantages of positron annihilation induced Auger-electron spectroscopy (PAES) are the missing secondary electron background in the energy region of Auger-transitions and its topmost layer sensitivity for elemental analysis. In order to enable the investigation of the electron polarization at surfaces low-energy spin-polarized positrons are used to probe the outermost electrons of the surface. Furthermore, in fundamental research the preparation of well defined surfaces tailored for the production of bound leptonic systems plays an outstanding role. In this report, it is envisaged to cover both the fundamental aspects of positron surface interaction and the present status of surface studies using modern positron beam techniques.

  18. Science Underlying 2008 Nobel Prizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Bernadette A.

    2009-01-01

    JCE offers a wealth of materials for teaching and learning chemistry that you can explore online. In the list below, Bernadette Caldwell of the Editorial Staff suggests additional resources that are available through JCE for teaching the science behind some of the 2008 Nobel Prizes . Discovering and Applying the Chemistry of GFP The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP to three scientists: Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie, and Roger Y. Tsien. These scientists led the field in discovering and introducing a fluorescing protein from jellyfish into cells and genes under study, which allows researchers to witness biochemistry in action. Now tags are available that emit light in different colors, revealing myriad biological processes and their interactions simultaneously. Identifying HPV and HIV, HIV's Replication Cycle, and HIV Virus-Host Interactions The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to two scientists: Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier; and for his discovery of human papilloma viruses [HPV] causing cervical cancer to one scientist, Harald zur Hausen. Diseases caused by these infectious agents significantly affect global health. While isolating and studying the virus, researchers discovered HIV is an uncommon retrovirus that infects humans and relies on the host to make its viral DNA, infecting and killing the host's white blood cells, ultimately destroying the immune systems of infected humans. Related Resources at JCE Online The Journal has published articles relating to GFP specifically, and more generally to fluorescing compounds applied to biochemistry. The Journal has also published an article and a video on protease inhibition—a strategy to suppress HIV's biological processes. With the video clips, an accompanying guide

  19. Perspectives on 2014 Nobel Prize.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Howard

    2015-06-01

    In celebration of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, this issue of Hippocampus includes a collection of commentaries from a broad range of perspectives on the significance of position coding neurons in the hippocampal region. From the perspective of this student of hippocampal physiology, it is argued that place cells and grid cells reflect the outcome of experiments that strongly select the information available and correspondingly observe singular "trigger features" of these neurons. Notably, however, in more naturalistic situations where multiple dimensions of information are available, hippocampal neurons have mixed selectivity wherein population-firing patterns reflect the organization of many features of experience. Thus, while discoveries on position coding were major breakthroughs in penetrating the hippocampal code, future studies exploring more complex behaviors hold the promise of revealing the full contribution of the hippocampal region to cognition and memory.

  20. Sheeley Receives 2009 Hale Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2009-05-01

    Neil Sheeley Jr., of the Space Science Division of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), has been awarded the 2009 George Ellery Hale Prize by the Solar Physics Division of the American Astronomical Society (AAS). The international award recognizes work in solar astronomy done over an extended period of time. Sheeley will receive the award in June at the AAS meeting in Pasadena, Calif. Sheeley is cited "for his continuing outstanding contributions to our understanding of the solar magnetic field, coronal holes, and coronal mass ejections. His wide-ranging observational and theoretical work has laid the foundation for much current research in solar and heliospheric physics, and continues to have important applications in space weather prediction."

  1. Fullerene discoverers win nobel prize

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.

    1996-10-16

    Two Rice University (Houston) chemists, Robert F. Curl and Richard E. Smalley, and a scientist at the University of Sussex (Brighton, U.K.), Harold W. Kroto, have won the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the joint discovery of buckminsterfullerenes - soccer ball-shaped carbon molecules. The novel form of carbon, which was initially synthesized by the scientists in 1985 as C{sub 60} and C{sub 70} has led to the development of {open_quotes}an entirely new branch of chemistry... with consequences in such diverse areas as astrochemistry, superconductivity, and material chemistry/physics,{close_quotes} according to the Swedish Academy of Sciences (Stockholm). For chemists, the structure is {open_quotes}uniquely beautiful and satisfying,{close_quotes} the academy says.

  2. Positrons for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Ecklund, S.

    1987-11-01

    The requirements of a positron source for a linear collider are briefly reviewed, followed by methods of positron production and production of photons by electromagnetic cascade showers. Cross sections for the electromagnetic cascade shower processes of positron-electron pair production and Compton scattering are compared. A program used for Monte Carlo analysis of electromagnetic cascades is briefly discussed, and positron distributions obtained from several runs of the program are discussed. Photons from synchrotron radiation and from channeling are also mentioned briefly, as well as positron collection, transverse focusing techniques, and longitudinal capture. Computer ray tracing is then briefly discussed, followed by space-charge effects and thermal heating and stress due to showers. (LEW)

  3. Interview With the 2002 Caldecott Medal Winner, David Wiesner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses David Wiesner, the 2002 Caldecott Medal Winner, and includes excerpts of an interview with him. Notes that Wiesner's books appeal to the imagination and often use art elements such as scale. Details the winning book, "The Three Pigs." (PM)

  4. A Follow-up on the USAMO Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Nura D.

    1985-01-01

    Provides information about 79 winners of United States of America Mathematics Olympiad (USAMO). Data about family background, career plans, performance in the Putnam competition, changes in careers, undergraduate and graduate degrees, and about females are included. (JN)

  5. Who Should Pick the Winners of Climate Change?

    PubMed

    Webster, Michael S; Colton, Madhavi A; Darling, Emily S; Armstrong, Jonathan; Pinsky, Malin L; Knowlton, Nancy; Schindler, Daniel E

    2017-03-01

    Many conservation strategies identify a narrow subset of genotypes, species, or geographic locations that are predicted to be favored under different scenarios of future climate change. However, a focus on predicted winners, which might not prove to be correct, risks undervaluing the balance of biological diversity from which climate-change winners could otherwise emerge. Drawing on ecology, evolutionary biology, and portfolio theory, we propose a conservation approach designed to promote adaptation that is less dependent on uncertain predictions about the identity of winners and losers. By designing actions to facilitate numerous opportunities for selection across biological and environmental conditions, we can allow nature to pick the winners and increase the probability that ecosystems continue to provide services to humans and other species.

  6. Interview With the 2002 Caldecott Medal Winner, David Wiesner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses David Wiesner, the 2002 Caldecott Medal Winner, and includes excerpts of an interview with him. Notes that Wiesner's books appeal to the imagination and often use art elements such as scale. Details the winning book, "The Three Pigs." (PM)

  7. 2016 Federal Green Challenge Award Winners in the Northeast Region

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016 Federal Green Challenge Award Winners in EPA's Region 2 (Northeast) are: Veterans Affairs Caribbean Healthcare Facility System (VACHS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, and General Services Administration (GSA) Region 2.

  8. 2016 Federal Green Challenge Award Winners in the Southeast Region

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016 FGC award winners in the Southeast are: the Department of Human Services’ U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Southeast Regional Office and Department of Energy’s East Tennessee Technology Park.

  9. Scientists share nobel prize for "nanoscopy".

    PubMed

    2014-12-01

    Three scientists were awarded the 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their contributions to developing super-resolved fluorescence microscopy, which allows biologists to study cells on a nanometer scale.

  10. Nobel Prize 2014: Akasaki, Amano & Nakamura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, Joerg

    2014-11-01

    The 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded to Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura "for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources."

  11. Fishman Receives the Shaw Prize for Astronomy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    In the video, Dr. Jerry Fishman discusses his career as a scientist, his lifelong interest in science and his recognition as the 2011 Shaw Prize Recipient for Astronomy. Fishman is being recognized...

  12. Templeton Prize again goes to physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeandron, Michelle

    2008-04-01

    The Polish mathematical physicist and former priest Michael Heller has been awarded this year's Templeton Prize. Heller, whose more than 40-year-long career has encompassed research in theology, philosophy, mathematics and cosmology, intends to use the £820 000 prize to found an interuniversity institute in Poland to investigate questions in science, theology and philosophy. Dubbed the "Copernicus Centre", the institute will be affiliated to the Jagiellonian University and the Pontifical Academy of Theology in Cracow.

  13. Neocognitron trained with winner-kill-loser rule.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kunihiko

    2010-09-01

    The neocognitron, which was proposed by Fukushima (1980), is a hierarchical multi-layered neural network capable of robust visual pattern recognition. It acquires the ability to recognize patterns through learning. This paper proposes a new rule for competitive learning, named winner-kill-loser, and apply it to the neocognitron. The winner-kill-loser rule resembles the winner-take-all rule. Every time when a training stimulus is presented, non-silent cells compete with each other. The winner, however, not only takes all, but also kills losers. In other words, the winner learns the training stimulus, and losers are removed from the network. If all cells are silent, a new cell is generated and it learns the training stimulus. Thus feature-extracting cells gradually come to distribute uniformly in the feature space. The use of winner-kill-loser rule is not limited to the neocognitron. It is useful for various types of competitive learning, in general. This paper also proposes several improvements made on the neocognitron: such as, disinhibition to the inhibitory surround in the connections to C-cells (or complex cells) from S-cells (or simple cells); and square root shaped saturation in the input-to-output characteristics of C-cells. As a result of these improvements, the recognition rate of the neocognitron has been largely increased.

  14. Which are the best nations and institutions for revolutionary science 1987-2006? Analysis using a combined metric of Nobel prizes, Fields medals, Lasker awards and Turing awards (NFLT metric).

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    I have previously suggested that Nobel prizes can be used as a scientometric measurement of 'revolutionary science'; and that for this purpose it would be better if more Nobel prizes were awarded, especially in three new subjects of mathematics, medicine and computing science which have become major sciences over recent decades. In the following analysis of the last 20 years from 1987 to 2006, I use three prestigious prizes in mathematics (Fields medal), medicine (Lasker award for Clinical Medical Research) and computing science (A.M. Turing award) which are plausible surrogates for Nobel prizes. The combined Nobel-Fields-Lasker-Turing (NFLT) metric is strongly dominated by the USA. However the distribution implies that revolutionary science may be somewhat more broadly distributed than the pure Nobel metric suggests. The UK and France seem to be significant nations in some types of revolutionary science (although the UK has declined substantially as a centre of revolutionary science); and Germany, Switzerland, Japan, Russia, Denmark and Norway also feature. The top world institutions for revolutionary science according to NFLT are MIT, Stanford and Princeton - all in the USA - and the USA has 19 institutions with at least three prize-winners. Second is France, with three institutions having three or more winners; the UK and Norway have one each. The NFLT metric confirms previous observations that many public universities in the Western USA have now become a major focus of revolutionary science; and that Harvard has declined from its previous status as the top world centre of revolutionary science to about seventh-place. This analysis confirms the potential value of increasing the number of Nobel prizes as a means of identifying and monitoring centres of excellence in revolutionary science.

  15. The matilda effect in science: awards and prizes in the US, 1990s and 2000s.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Anne E; Pincus, Stephanie; Koster, Janet Bandows; Leboy, Phoebe S

    2012-04-01

    Science is stratified, with an unequal distribution of research facilities and rewards among scientists. Awards and prizes, which are critical for shaping scientific career trajectories, play a role in this stratification when they differentially enhance the status of scientists who already have large reputations: the 'Matthew Effect'. Contrary to the Mertonian norm of universalism--the expectation that the personal attributes of scientists do not affect evaluations of their scientific claims and contributions--in practice, a great deal of evidence suggests that the scientific efforts and achievements of women do not receive the same recognition as do those of men: the 'Matilda Effect'. Awards in science, technology, engineering and medical (STEM) fields are not immune to these biases. We outline the research on gender bias in evaluations of research and analyze data from 13 STEM disciplinary societies. While women's receipt of professional awards and prizes has increased in the past two decades, men continue to win a higher proportion of awards for scholarly research than expected based on their representation in the nomination pool. The results support the powerful twin influences of implicit bias and committee chairs as contributing factors. The analysis sheds light on the relationship of external social factors to women's science careers and helps to explain why women are severely underrepresented as winners of science awards. The ghettoization of women's accomplishments into a category of 'women-only' awards also is discussed.

  16. The 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry: a large-scale prize for achievements on the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Choquet, Daniel

    2014-12-17

    The 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry awarded to Eric Betzig, Stefan W. Hell, and William E. Moerner "for the development of superresolved fluorescence microscopy" can be seen as a combined prize for single-molecule detection and superresolution imaging. Neurons, arguably the most morphologically complex cell type, are the subject of choice for this application, now generically called "nanoscopy."

  17. Positron diffusion in Si

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, B.; Lynn, K.G.; Vehanen, A.; Schultz, P.J.

    1985-06-01

    Positron diffusion in Si(100) and Si(111) has been studied using a variable energy positron beam. The positron diffusion coefficient is found to be D/sub +/ = 2.7 +- 0.3 cm/sup 2//sec using a Makhov-type positron implantation profile, which is demonstrated to fit the data more reliably than the more commonly applied exponential profile. The diffusion related parameter, E/sub 0/, which results from the exponential profile, is found to be 4.2 +- 0.2 keV, significantly longer than previously reported values. A drastic reduction in E/sub 0/ is found after annealing the sample at 1300 K, showing that previously reported low values of E/sub 0/ are probably associated with the thermal history of the sample.

  18. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  19. 1998 federal energy and water management award winners

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-28

    Energy is a luxury that no one can afford to waste, and many Federal Government agencies are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of using energy wisely. Thoughtful use of energy resources is important, not only to meet agency goals, but because energy efficiency helps improve air quality. Sound facility management offers huge savings that affect the agency`s bottom line, the environment, and workplace quality. In these fiscally-modest times, pursuing sound energy management programs can present additional challenges for energy and facility managers. The correct path to take is not always the easiest. Hard work, innovation, and vision are characteristic of those who pursue energy efficiency. That is why the Department of energy, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is proud to salute the winners of the 1998 Federal Energy and Water Management Award. The 1998 winners represent the kind of 21st century thinking that will help achieve widespread Federal energy efficiency. In one year, the winners, through a combination of public and private partnerships, saved more than $222 million and 10.5 trillion Btu by actively identifying and implementing energy efficiency, water conservation, and renewable energy projects. Through their dedication, hard work, ingenuity, and success, the award winners have also inspired others to increase their own efforts to save energy and water and to more aggressively pursue the use of renewable energy sources. The Federal Energy and Water Management Awards recognize the winners` contributions and ability to inspire others to take action.

  20. Stephen Hawking bags big new 3m physics prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2013-01-01

    A massive 3m in prize money has gone to the British cosmologist Stephen Hawking for his work on black holes, quantum gravity and the early universe. The award is one of two "special fundamental physics prizes" from the Fundamental Physics Prize Foundation, which was set up earlier this year by the Russian physicist-turned-entrepreneur Yuri Milner.

  1. 'Winner-take-all' competition among real and illusory words.

    PubMed

    Niedeggen, Michael; Heil, Martin; Harris, Catherine L

    2006-04-03

    'Winner-take-all' networks are an important theoretical construct in visual neuroscience. An implication of winner-take-all networks is that a stimulus that wins the competition for selection receives maximal activation and will be consciously perceived, even when selection was incorrect. In this study, competition was induced between physically presented ('real') and self-constructed ('illusory') words. Semantic activation was probed by recording event-related potential responses to a downstream target word. The results showed that only words reported by participants triggered a spread of activation in the semantic system, whereas non-reported words failed to prime the target. Both effects were independent of whether the potential primes were 'real' or 'illusory'. Our findings indicate that neural 'winner-take-all' networks extend to the processing of lexical units.

  2. [Space coding: a Nobel prize diary].

    PubMed

    Rondi-Reig, Laure

    2015-02-01

    The Nobel Prize in Medecine or Physiology for 2014 has been awarded to three neuroscientists: John O'Keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser for "their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain". This rewards innovative ideas which led to the development of intracerebral recording techniques in freely moving animals, thus providing links between behavior and physiology. This prize highlights how neural activity sustains our ability to localize ourselves and move around in the environment. This research provides key insights on how the brain drives behavior.

  3. MacArthur Foundation Prize Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Four of the 19 persons selected as prize fellows by the John D. and Catherine MacArthur Foundation specialize in the earth, ocean, or space sciences. The four are John P. Holdren, Robert W. Kates, Paul G. Richards, and Joseph H. Taylor.The awards, ranging from $24,000 to $60,000 annually for 5 years, are unrestricted; the recipients may pursue any field of endeavor and are not required to publish a paper or to meet similar requirements. The exact amount of the award is dependent on the recipient's age; older prize fellows receive larger awards than do younger ones.

  4. Alternative positron-target design for electron-positron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Donahue, R.J. ); Nelson, W.R. )

    1991-04-01

    Current electron-positron linear colliders are limited in luminosity by the number of positrons which can be generated from targets presently used. This paper examines the possibility of using an alternate wire-target geometry for the production of positrons via an electron-induced electromagnetic cascade shower. 39 refs., 38 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Roy Porter Student Essay Prize WinnerPsychiatry Limited: Hyperactivity and the Evolution of American Psychiatry, 1957–1980

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Summary Hyperactivity is the most commonly diagnosed childhood psychiatric disorder in north America. Most physicians believe that the disorder is a neurological dysfunction which is best treated with stimulants, such as ritalin. Accounts of the history of hyperactivity written by physicians, psychologists and even historians suggest that the disorder was always conceived as such. This paper argues that, on the contrary, the notion that hyperactivity was a neurological condition only emerged after vigorous debate during the 1960s between three competing fields within American psychiatry: specifically psychoanalysis, social psychiatry and biological psychiatry. Biological psychiatry won the debate, not because its approach to hyperactivity was more scientifically valid, but rather because its explanations and methods fit the prevailing social context more readily than that of its rivals. American psychiatry's refusal to draw pluralistic conclusions about hyperactivity undermined the development of a deeper understanding of the disorder. The history of hyperactivity provides an ideal lens through which to view the evolution of psychiatry from a field dominated by Freudian psychoanalysis to one rooted in the neurosciences.

  6. ISSLS Prize Winner: A Detailed Examination of the Elastic Network Leads to a New Understanding of Annulus Fibrosus Organization.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Schollum, Meredith L; Wade, Kelly R; Broom, Neil D; Urban, Jill P G

    2015-08-01

    Investigation of the elastic network in disc annulus and its function. To investigate the involvement of the elastic network in the structural interconnectivity of the annulus and to examine its possible mechanical role. The lamellae of the disc are now known to consist of bundles of collagen fibers organized into compartments. There is strong interconnectivity between adjacent compartments and between adjacent lamellae, possibly aided by a translamellar bridging network, containing blood vessels. An elastic network exists across the disc annulus and is particularly dense between the lamellae, and forms crossing bridges within the lamellae. Blocks of annulus taken from bovine caudal discs were studied in either their unloaded or radially stretched state then fixed and sectioned, and their structure analyzed optically using immunohistology. An elastic network enclosed the collagen compartments, connecting the compartments with each other and with the elastic network of adjacent lamellae, formed an integrated network across the annulus, linking it together. Stretching experiments demonstrated the mechanical interconnectivities of the elastic fibers and the collagen compartments. The annulus can be viewed as a modular structure organized into compartments of collagen bundles enclosed by an elastic sheath. The elastic network of these sheaths is interconnected mechanically across the entire annulus. This organization is also seen in the modular structure of tendon and muscle. The results provide a new understanding annulus structure and its interconnectivity, and contribute to fundamental structural information relevant to disc tissue engineering and mechanical modeling. N/A.

  7. ISSLS Prize Winner: Consensus on the Clinical Diagnosis of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: Results of an International Delphi Study.

    PubMed

    Tomkins-Lane, Christy; Melloh, Markus; Lurie, Jon; Smuck, Matt; Battié, Michele C; Freeman, Brian; Samartzis, Dino; Hu, Richard; Barz, Thomas; Stuber, Kent; Schneider, Michael; Haig, Andrew; Schizas, Constantin; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Mannion, Anne F; Staub, Lukas; Comer, Christine; Macedo, Luciana; Ahn, Sang-Ho; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Sandella, Danielle

    2016-08-01

    Delphi. The aim of this study was to obtain an expert consensus on which history factors are most important in the clinical diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). LSS is a poorly defined clinical syndrome. Criteria for defining LSS are needed and should be informed by the experience of expert clinicians. Phase 1 (Delphi Items): 20 members of the International Taskforce on the Diagnosis and Management of LSS confirmed a list of 14 history items. An online survey was developed that permits specialists to express the logical order in which they consider the items, and the level of certainty ascertained from the questions. Phase 2 (Delphi Study) Round 1: Survey distributed to members of the International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine. Round 2: Meeting of 9 members of Taskforce where consensus was reached on a final list of 10 items. Round 3: Final survey was distributed internationally. Phase 3: Final Taskforce consensus meeting. A total of 279 clinicians from 29 different countries, with a mean of 19 (±SD: 12) years in practice participated. The six top items were "leg or buttock pain while walking," "flex forward to relieve symptoms," "feel relief when using a shopping cart or bicycle," "motor or sensory disturbance while walking," "normal and symmetric foot pulses," "lower extremity weakness," and "low back pain." Significant change in certainty ceased after six questions at 80% (P < .05). This is the first study to reach an international consensus on the clinical diagnosis of LSS, and suggests that within six questions clinicians are 80% certain of diagnosis. We propose a consensus-based set of "seven history items" that can act as a pragmatic criterion for defining LSS in both clinical and research settings, which in the long term may lead to more cost-effective treatment, improved health care utilization, and enhanced patient outcomes. 2.

  8. Positron sources for Linear Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Gai Wei; Liu Wanming

    2009-09-02

    Positron beams have many applications and there are many different concepts for positron sources. In this paper, only positron source techniques for linear colliders are covered. In order to achieve high luminosity, a linear collider positron source should have a high beam current, high beam energy, small emittance and, for some applications, a high degree of beam polarization. There are several different schemes presently being developed around the globe. Both the differences between these schemes and their common technical challenges are discussed.

  9. How Einstein Got the Nobel Prize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pais, Abraham

    1982-01-01

    Discusses why the Nobel Committee for Physics waited so long before giving Einstein the Nobel Prize and why they did not award it for relativity, but for the photoelectric effect instead. Focuses on the judgments of leading scientists who made nominations as well as committee members' decisions. (Author/JN)

  10. Therapeutic Pneumothorax and the Nobel Prize.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils; Polianski, Igor J

    2015-08-01

    At the turn of the 20th century, the epidemic proportions of tuberculosis puzzled great parts the scientific community. Thus it is not surprising that well-known scholars who worked on particularly promising solutions to fight the disease were nominated for the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, perhaps the most prestigious benchmark of scientific excellence. The authors have gathered files on the Italian phtisiologist Carlo Forlanini (1847 to 1918) at the Nobel Prize archive for Physiology or Medicine in Solna, Sweden. Drawing on these files and contemporary publications, the authors discuss the origin of artificial pneumothorax for treating pulmonary tuberculosis, show how it became an international gold standard operation, and trace why the Nobel committee finally chose not to award Forlanini. Twenty Nobel Prize nominations for Forlanini were submitted from 1912 to 1919 exclusively by Italian scholars. In 1913 and 1914, Forlanini was on the shortlist of the Nobel Committee and thus one of the prime candidates for the prestigious prize. Important aspects of the rise, fall, and revival of the artificial pneumothorax from 1815 to 2015 are highlighted along with its benefits and risks.

  11. How Einstein Got the Nobel Prize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pais, Abraham

    1982-01-01

    Discusses why the Nobel Committee for Physics waited so long before giving Einstein the Nobel Prize and why they did not award it for relativity, but for the photoelectric effect instead. Focuses on the judgments of leading scientists who made nominations as well as committee members' decisions. (Author/JN)

  12. NVVC/NHJ Durrer prizes 2014.

    PubMed

    Wall, E E van der; Umans, V A W M

    2015-06-01

    At the annual 2015 Spring Congress of the NVVC, the Durrer prizes were awarded to the authors of two of the best original/review articles published in the year 2014, one paper being more basically oriented and one paper being more clinically oriented. This has been an annual tradition since the year 2006.

  13. NVVC/NHJ Durrer prizes 2013.

    PubMed

    van der Wall, E E; Umans, V A W M

    2014-05-01

    At the annual Spring Congress of the NVVC, the Durrer prizes were awarded to the authors of two of the best original/review articles published in the year 2013, one paper being more basically oriented and one paper being more clinically oriented. This annual tradition has existed since the year 2006.

  14. NVVC/NHJ Durrer Prizes 2012.

    PubMed

    van der Wall, E E; Schalij, M J; Umans, V A W M

    2013-06-01

    At the annual Spring Congress of the NVVC the Durrer prizes were awarded to the authors of the best original/review articles published in the year 2012, one paper being more basically-oriented and one paper being more clinically-oriented. This annual tradition exists already since the year 2006.

  15. NVVC/NHJ Durrer prizes 2015.

    PubMed

    van der Wall, E E

    2016-05-01

    At the annual 2016 Spring Congress of the NVVC, the Durrer prizes were awarded to the authors of two of the best original articles published in the year 2015, one paper being more basically oriented and one paper being more clinically oriented. This annual tradition has existed since the year 2006.

  16. Quantum pioneers snap up 2013 Wolf prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2013-02-01

    The 2013 Wolf Prize in Physics has been awarded to Juan Ignacio Cirac of the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics in Munich, Germany, and Peter Zoller of the University of Innsbruck in Austria for "groundbreaking theoretical contributions to quantum-information processing, quantum optics and the physics of quantum gases".

  17. Positron excitation of neon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parcell, L. A.; Mceachran, R. P.; Stauffer, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    The differential and total cross section for the excitation of the 3s1P10 and 3p1P1 states of neon by positron impact were calculated using a distorted-wave approximation. The results agree well with experimental conclusions.

  18. Positron implantation in solids

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, V.J.; Lynn, K.G.; Welch, D.O.

    1993-12-31

    The Monte Carlo technique for modeling positron prior to annihilation and electron implantation in semi-infinite metals is described. Particle implantation is modelled as a multistep process, a series of collisions with the atoms of the host material. In elastic collisions with neutral atoms there is no transfer of energy. The particle loses energy by several different channels, excitation of the electron gas, ionization of the ion cores, or, at low energies, by phonon excitation. These competing scattering mechanisms have been incorporated into the Monte Carlo framework and several different models are being used. Brief descriptions of these Monte Carlo schemes, as well as an analytic model for positron implantation are included. Results of the Monte Carlo simulations are presented and compared with expermental data. Problems associated with modeling positron implantation are discuss and the need for more expermental data on energy-loss in different materials is stressed. Positron implantation in multilayers of different metals is briefly described and extensions of this work to include a study of multilayers and heterostructures is suggested.

  19. The Japanese Positron Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, S.; Sunaga, H.; Kaneko, H.; Takizawa, H.; Kawasuso, A.; Yotsumoto, K.; Tanaka, R.

    1999-06-01

    The Positron Factory has been planned at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The factory is expected to produce linac-based monoenergetic positron beams having world-highest intensities of more than 1010e+/sec, which will be applied for R&D of materials science, biotechnology and basic physics & chemistry. In this article, results of the design studies are demonstrated for the following essential components of the facilities: 1) Conceptual design of a high-power electron linac with 100 MeV in beam energy and 100 kW in averaged beam power, 2) Performance tests of the RF window in the high-power klystron and of the electron beam window, 3) Development of a self-driven rotating electron-to-positron converter and the performance tests, 4) Proposal of multi-channel beam generation system for monoenergetic positrons, with a series of moderator assemblies based on a newly developed Monte Carlo simulation and the demonstrative experiment, 5) Proposal of highly efficient moderator structures, 6) Conceptual design of a local shield to suppress the surrounding radiation and activation levels.

  20. 2000 Newbery Medal Winner: A Conversation with Christopher Paul Curtis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nancy J.; Giorgis, Cyndi

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with 2000 Newbery Medal winner Christopher Paul Curtis. Reveals the author's journey as a reader and a writer, offers glimpses into the humor and upbeat attitude of Bud (the main character in Curtis' s award-winning book "Bud, Not Buddy"), and gives a peek into what readers can expect next from this award-winning…

  1. ``Life in the Universe'' Winners on La Silla and Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacher, A.

    2002-03-01

    “Please fasten you seat-belts, we are descending to Santiago de Chile!” On board of the airplane are the winners of the “Life in the Universe” contest, Mihaly Kristof, Katalin Lovei, Adam Orban, Andras Sik and Tamas Simon. All are excited and for one it is the first flight in his life. What a chance!

  2. Global Power Play--Competition Winners Light Up the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This year's "Tech Directions" Inventors Competition asked students to come up with ways to provide electricity to remote villages that traditional electrical utilities have not yet reached. This article presents the results of the judging by inventor/electrical engineer Harry T. Roman. The winners are: (1) First Place--Scott Hulver,…

  3. Steven MacCall: Winner of LJ's 2010 Teaching Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article profiles Steven L. MacCall, winner of "Library Journal's" 2010 Teaching Award. An associate professor at the School of Library and Information Studies (SLIS) at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, MacCall was nominated by Kathie Popadin, known as "Kpop" to the members of her cohort in the online MLIS program at SLIS. Sixteen of…

  4. Global Power Play--Competition Winners Light Up the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This year's "Tech Directions" Inventors Competition asked students to come up with ways to provide electricity to remote villages that traditional electrical utilities have not yet reached. This article presents the results of the judging by inventor/electrical engineer Harry T. Roman. The winners are: (1) First Place--Scott Hulver,…

  5. Superhydrophobic coating (2008 R&D 100 winner)

    ScienceCinema

    Jeff Brinker

    2016-07-12

    A transparent coating that is not just impermeable to water, but actually makes it bounce off a surface to help prevent corrosion, protect electronic and antiquities, or provide a new, more efficient surface to collect pure water. 2008 R&D 100 winner (SAND2008-2215W)

  6. An Interview with Toni Watt, 2004 Award Winner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Toni Austin Watt, the winner of the 2004 James Bryant Conant Award in High School Chemistry Teaching says that she was always an average student and had to invest more time in improving her skills and getting experiences, thus she is exhilarated that her efforts have received such acclaim and is honored that people thought her efforts were…

  7. Stay a Winner: A Model for Drop Out Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burden, Ann S.

    This document describes "Stay a Winner," a program designed to reduce the dropout rate at North Pitt High School in Bethel, North Carolina by providing a focused, more meaningful curriculum; improved instructional processes; use of multimedia technology; and an emphasis on multicultural diversity. It is noted that funding for the program…

  8. Steven MacCall: Winner of LJ's 2010 Teaching Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article profiles Steven L. MacCall, winner of "Library Journal's" 2010 Teaching Award. An associate professor at the School of Library and Information Studies (SLIS) at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, MacCall was nominated by Kathie Popadin, known as "Kpop" to the members of her cohort in the online MLIS program at SLIS. Sixteen of…

  9. Superhydrophobic coating (2008 R&D 100 winner)

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Brinker

    2008-07-28

    A transparent coating that is not just impermeable to water, but actually makes it bounce off a surface to help prevent corrosion, protect electronic and antiquities, or provide a new, more efficient surface to collect pure water. 2008 R&D 100 winner (SAND2008-2215W)

  10. 2000 Newbery Medal Winner: A Conversation with Christopher Paul Curtis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nancy J.; Giorgis, Cyndi

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with 2000 Newbery Medal winner Christopher Paul Curtis. Reveals the author's journey as a reader and a writer, offers glimpses into the humor and upbeat attitude of Bud (the main character in Curtis' s award-winning book "Bud, Not Buddy"), and gives a peek into what readers can expect next from this award-winning…

  11. 2000 Caldecott Medal Winner: A Conversation with Simms Taback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Simms Taback, winner of the 2000 Caldecott Award for his children's book illustrations. Discusses Taback's career as a graphic artist and children's book illustrator. Discusses intricate details and clever nuances in "Joseph Had a Little Overcoat," a warm and humorous tale proving that you can always make…

  12. In the Hunger Games, the Winner Takes Everything.

    PubMed

    Püschel, Franziska; Muñoz-Pinedo, Cristina

    2017-10-01

    Entosis is an atypical form of cell death that occurs when a cell engulfs and kills another cell. A recent article by Overholtzer and colleagues indicates that glucose deprivation promotes entosis. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in the loser cells triggers their engulfment and elimination by winner cells, which endure starvation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. NASA and ISS Winner of 2009 Collier Trophy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-12

    Lori Garver, Deputy Administrator of NASA, speaks at the Annual Collier Dinner on Thursday, May 13, 2010 in Arlington, VA. NASA and the International Space Station team is the winner of the 2009 Robert J. Collier Trophy. The Collier Trophy is awarded annually for the greatest achievement in aeronautics or astronautics in America. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  14. NASA and ISS Winner of 2009 Collier Trophy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-12

    Lori Garver, left, Deputy Administrator of NASA, speaks at the Annual Collier Dinner on Thursday, May 13, 2010 in Arlington, VA. NASA and the International Space Station team is the winner of the 2009 Robert J. Collier Trophy. The Collier Trophy is awarded annually for the greatest achievement in aeronautics or astronautics in America. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  15. Interview With the 2002 Newbery Medal Winner, Linda Sue Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nancy J.; Giorgis, Cyndi

    2003-01-01

    Discusses Linda Sue Park, the 2002 Newbery Medal winner, and includes excerpts of an interview with her. Notes that her diverse writing career began at an early age. Discusses writing Korean "historicals" and researching her other books. Identifies mentors as an important characteristic of both her life and work. (PM)

  16. An Interview with Toni Watt, 2004 Award Winner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Toni Austin Watt, the winner of the 2004 James Bryant Conant Award in High School Chemistry Teaching says that she was always an average student and had to invest more time in improving her skills and getting experiences, thus she is exhilarated that her efforts have received such acclaim and is honored that people thought her efforts were…

  17. Chapter Innovators Guide, 2001: Models of Innovation Award Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National FFA Organization, Indianapolis, IN.

    This document presents the activities that received Future Farmers of America's (FFA's) Model of Innovation awards in 2001. The booklet begins with an overview of the FFA National Chapter Award program and a list of the 2001 Models of Innovation Winners. The next three sections profile award-winning activities in the following areas of the three…

  18. Chapter Innovators Guide, 2000: Models of Innovation Award Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National FFA Organization, Indianapolis, IN.

    This guide presents the Future Farmers of America (FFA) 2000 Model of Innovation award winners' projects. Chapters demonstrated abilities to identify goals and objectives, create a workable plan of action, attain and evaluate results, and identify items learned and ways to improve. Chapter 1 discusses the FFA National Chapter Award program that…

  19. Nobel Prizes and the emerging virus concept.

    PubMed

    Norrby, Erling

    2008-01-01

    The existence of infectious agents smaller than bacteria was demonstrated already during the 1890s. After this discovery it took more than 50 years before a resilient definition of viruses could be given. There were separate developments of knowledge concerning plant viruses, bacterial viruses and animal viruses. In the mid-1930s, Wendell Stanley at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research at Princeton described the purification and crystallization of tobacco mosaic virus. The finding of an "infectious protein" led to him receiving a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1946. In studies initiated at the end of the 1930s, bacteriophages were used as a model for replicating genes. They led to important insights into the unique characteristics of virus-cell interactions. However, an understanding of the chemical nature of animal virus particles and their mode of replication was slow in coming. Not until the early 1950s did tissue culture techniques become available, which allowed studies also of an extended number of animal viruses. This article discusses the emergence of concepts which eventually allowed a description of viruses. The unique real-time analyses of the state of knowledge provided by the Nobel Prize archives were used in the investigation. These archives remain secret for 50 years. Besides all of the underlying documents of the Prize to Stanley, comprehensive investigations made in the mid 1950s of Seymour E. Cohen, Max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey and Salvador D. Luria (the latter three received a Prize in Medicine in 1969) and of André Lwoff (he shared a Prize in Medicine with Francois Jacob and Jaques Monod in 1965) were reviewed. The final phase of the evolution of our understanding of the virus concept closely paralleled the eventual insight into the chemical nature of the genetic material. Understanding the principle nature of barriers to the development of new concepts is of timeless value for fostering and facilitating new discoveries in science.

  20. First Calderón Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundell, William; Somersalo, Erkki

    2008-07-01

    The Inverse Problems International Association (IPIA) awarded the first Calderón Prize to Matti Lassas for his outstanding contributions to the field of inverse problems, especially in geometric inverse problems. The Calderón Prize is given to a researcher under the age of 40 who has made distinguished contributions to the field of inverse problems broadly defined. The first Calderón Prize Committee consisted of Professors Adrian Nachman, Lassi Päivärinta, William Rundell (chair), and Michael Vogelius. William Rundell For the Calderón Prize Committee Prize ceremony The ceremony awarding the Calderón Prize. Matti Lassas is on the left. He and William Rundell are on the right. Photos by P Stefanov. Brief Biography of Matti Lassas Matti Lassas was born in 1969 in Helsinki, Finland, and studied at the University of Helsinki. He finished his Master's studies in 1992 in three years and earned his PhD in 1996. His PhD thesis, written under the supervision of Professor Erkki Somersalo was entitled `Non-selfadjoint inverse spectral problems and their applications to random bodies'. Already in his thesis, Matti demonstrated a remarkable command of different fields of mathematics, bringing together the spectral theory of operators, geometry of Riemannian surfaces, Maxwell's equations and stochastic analysis. He has continued to develop all of these branches in the framework of inverse problems, the most remarkable results perhaps being in the field of differential geometry and inverse problems. Matti has always been a very generous researcher, sharing his ideas with his numerous collaborators. He has authored over sixty scientific articles, among which a monograph on inverse boundary spectral problems with Alexander Kachalov and Yaroslav Kurylev and over forty articles in peer reviewed journals of the highest standards. To get an idea of the wide range of Matti's interests, it is enough to say that he also has three US patents on medical imaging applications. Matti is

  1. Cardiac positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Geltman, E.M.

    1985-12-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a new technique for noninvasively assessing myocardial metabolism and perfusion. It has provided new insight into the dynamics of myocardial fatty acid and glucose metabolism in normal subjects, patients with ischemic heart disease and those with cardiomyopathies, documenting regionally depressed fatty acid metabolism during myocardial ischemia and infarction and spatial heterogeneity of fatty acid metabolism in patients with cardiomyopathy. Regional myocardial perfusion has been studied with PET using water, ammonia and rubidium labeled with positron emitters, permitting the noninvasive detection of hypoperfused zones at rest and during vasodilator stress. With these techniques the relationship between perfusion and the metabolism of a variety of substrates has been studied. The great strides that have been made in developing faster high-resolution instruments and producing new labeled intermediates indicate the promise of this technique for facilitating an increase in the understanding of regional metabolism and blood flow under normal and pathophysiologic conditions. 16 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  2. CMA Announces the 1996 Responsible Care Catalyst Awards Winners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-06-01

    Eighteen exceptional teachers of science, chemical technology, chemistry, and chemical engineering have been selected to receive a Responsible Care Chemical Manufacturers Association's 1996 Catalyst Award. The Responsible Care Catalyst Awards Program honors individuals who have the ability to inspire students toward careers in chemistry and science-related fields through their excellent teaching ability in and out of the classroom. The program also seeks to draw public attention to the importance of quality chemistry and science teaching at the undergraduate level. Since the award was established in 1957, 502 teachers of science, chemistry, and chemical engineering have been honored. Winners are selected from a wide range of nominations submitted by colleagues, friends, and administrators. All pre-high school, high school, two and four-year college, or university teachers in the United States and Canada are eligible. Each award winner will be presented with a medal and citation. National award winners receive 5,000; regional award winners receive 2,500. National Winners. Martin N. Ackermann, Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH Kenneth R. Jolls, Iowa State University, Ames, IA Suzanne Zobrist Kelly, Warren H. Meeker Elementary School, Ames, IA John V. Kenkel, Southeast Community College, Lincoln, NE George C. Lisensky, Beloit College, Beloit, WI James M. McBride, Yale University, New Haven, CT Marie C. Sherman, Ursuline Academy, St. Louis, MO Dwight D. Sieggreen, Cooke Middle School, Northville, MI Regional Winners Two-Year College. East-Georgianna Whipple-VanPatter, Central Community College, Hastings, NE West-David N. Barkan, Northwest College, Powell, WY High School. East-John Hnatow, Jr., Emmaus High School, Northampton, PA South-Carole Bennett, Gaither High School, Tampa, FL Midwest-Kenneth J. Spengler, Palatine High School, Palatine, IL West-Ruth Rand, Albuquerque, Albuquerque, NM Middle School. East-Thomas P. Kelly, Grandville Public Schools, Grandville, NH

  3. Generation of monoenergetic positrons

    SciTech Connect

    Hulett, L.D. Jr.; Dale, J.M.; Miller, P.D. Jr.; Moak, C.D.; Pendyala, S.; Triftshaeuser, W.; Howell, R.H.; Alvarez, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Many experiments have been performed in the generation and application of monoenergetic positron beams using annealed tungsten moderators and fast sources of /sup 58/Co, /sup 22/Na, /sup 11/C, and LINAC bremstrahlung. This paper will compare the degrees of success from our various approaches. Moderators made from both single crystal and polycrystal tungsten have been tried. Efforts to grow thin films of tungsten to be used as transmission moderators and brightness enhancement devices are in progress.

  4. A new prize system for drug innovation.

    PubMed

    Gandjour, Afschin; Chernyak, Nadja

    2011-10-01

    We propose a new prize (reward) system for drug innovation which pays a price based on the value of health benefits accrued over time. Willingness to pay for a unit of health benefit is determined based on the cost-effectiveness ratio of palliative/nursing care. We solve the problem of limited information on the value of health benefits by mathematically relating reward size to the uncertainty of information including information on potential drug overuse. The proposed prize system offers optimal incentives to invest in research and development because it rewards the innovator for the social value of drug innovation. The proposal is envisaged as a non-voluntary alternative to the current patent system and reduces excessive marketing of innovators and generic drug producers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bernard Lerer: Recipient of the 2014 Inaugural Werner Kalow Responsible Innovation Prize in Global Omics and Personalized Medicine (Pacific Rim Association for Clinical Pharmacogenetics)

    PubMed Central

    Aynacıoğlu, Şükrü; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Dandara, Collet; Dove, Edward S.; Ferguson, Lynnette R.; Geraci, Christy Jo; Hafen, Ernst; Kesim, Belgin Eroğlu; Kolker, Eugene; Lee, Edmund J.D.; LLerena, Adrian; Nacak, Muradiye; Shimoda, Kazutaka; Someya, Toshiyuki; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Tomlinson, Brian; Vayena, Effy; Warnich, Louise; Yaşar, Ümit

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article announces the recipient of the 2014 inaugural Werner Kalow Responsible Innovation Prize in Global Omics and Personalized Medicine by the Pacific Rim Association for Clinical Pharmacogenetics (PRACP): Bernard Lerer, professor of psychiatry and director of the Biological Psychiatry Laboratory, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel. The Werner Kalow Responsible Innovation Prize is given to an exceptional interdisciplinary scholar who has made highly innovative and enduring contributions to global omics science and personalized medicine, with both vertical and horizontal (transdisciplinary) impacts. The prize is established in memory of a beloved colleague, mentor, and friend, the late Professor Werner Kalow, who cultivated the idea and practice of pharmacogenetics in modern therapeutics commencing in the 1950s. PRACP, the prize's sponsor, is one of the longest standing learned societies in the Asia-Pacific region, and was founded by Kalow and colleagues more than two decades ago in the then-emerging field of pharmacogenetics. In announcing this inaugural prize and its winner, we seek to highlight the works of prize winner, Professor Lerer. Additionally, we contextualize the significance of the prize by recalling the life and works of Professor Kalow and providing a brief socio-technical history of the rise of pharmacogenetics and personalized medicine as a veritable form of 21st century scientific practice. The article also fills a void in previous social science analyses of pharmacogenetics, by bringing to the fore the works of Kalow from 1995 to 2008, when he presciently noted the rise of yet another field of postgenomics inquiry—pharmacoepigenetics—that railed against genetic determinism and underscored the temporal and spatial plasticity of genetic components of drug response, with invention of the repeated drug administration (RDA) method that estimates the dynamic heritabilities of drug response. The prize goes a

  6. [A Nobel Prize for DNA repair].

    PubMed

    Jordan, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    This year's Nobel Prize for chemistry recognizes the seminal contributions of three researchers who discovered the existence and the basic mechanisms of DNA repair: base excision repair, mismatch repair, and nucleotide excision repair. They have since been joined by many scientists elucidating diverse aspects of these complex mechanisms that now constitute a thriving research field with many applications, notably for understanding oncogenesis and devising more effective therapies.

  7. The Brain Prize 2013: the optogenetics revolution.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Andreas; Isacoff, Ehud Y

    2013-10-01

    The 2013 Grete Lundbeck European Brain Research Prize was awarded to Ernst Bamberg, Edward Boyden, Karl Deisseroth, Peter Hegemann, Gero Miesenböck, and Georg Nagel 'for their invention and refinement of optogenetics'. Why optogenetics? And why this sextet? To appreciate why, we turn first to some of the core questions of neuroscience and the technical difficulties that long obstructed their resolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Brain Prize 2014: complex human functions.

    PubMed

    Grigaityte, Kristina; Iacoboni, Marco

    2014-11-01

    Giacomo Rizzolatti, Stanislas Dehaene, and Trevor Robbins were recently awarded the 2014 Grete Lundbeck European Brain Research Prize for their 'pioneering research on higher brain mechanisms underpinning such complex human functions as literacy, numeracy, motivated behavior and social cognition, and for their effort to understand cognitive and behavioral disorders'. Why was their work highlighted? Is there anything that links together these seemingly disparate lines of research?

  9. 2015 Nuclear Fusion Prize acceptance speech

    DOE PAGES

    Goldston, R. J.

    2016-12-19

    This is the 2015 Nuclear Fusion Prize acceptance speech of R.J. Goldston: It is a great pleasure to receive the 2015 Nuclear Fusion award for my work developing a heuristic drift-based model for the power scrape-off width in tokamaks. I was particularly pleased to receive the award from IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano, whose thoughtful leadership has advanced the cause of nuclear non-proliferation mightily.

  10. Prizes for innovation of new medicines and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Love, James; Hubbard, Tim

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that prizes can help stimulate medical innovation, control costs and ensure greater access to new medicines and vaccines. The authors explore four increasingly ambitious prize options to reward medical innovation, each addressing flaws in the current patent system. The first option promotes innovation through a large prize fund linked to the impact on health outcomes; the second option rewards the sharing of knowledge, data, and technology with open source dividends; the third option awards prizes for interim benchmarks and discrete technical problems; and the final option removes the exclusive right to use patented inventions in upstream research in favor of prizes. The authors conclude that a system of prizes to reward drug development would break the link between R&D incentives and product prices, and that such a reform is needed to improve innovation and access to new medicines and vaccines.

  11. Maria Goeppert Mayer and the Nobel Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Karen E.

    2013-04-01

    When Maria Goeppert Mayer was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1963, she was only the second woman to receive that award and there have been no additional female physics laureates since. Mayer was uniquely prepared to carry out her prize-winning work on the nuclear shell model. Furthermore, she worked with some of the most well-known figures in mid-twentieth century physics, and her award came at a time when American science was in ascendance. Why, then, is her name so little known beyond the physics community? There are several possible answers to this question, ranging from the personal (her modest reaction to public acclaim) and the scientific (the mathematically abstract nature of her prize-winning work), to the national (the nature of the issues commanding public attention in the 1960s). In this talk I will present an overview of the circumstances that enabled Mayer to make exceptional contributions to nuclear physics, and then examine some of the possible reasons why her exceptional status is not more widely known.

  12. First AGU Climate Communication Prize awarded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Christine

    2012-02-01

    Gavin Schmidt, a climate scientist at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and cofounder of the RealClimate blog (http://www.realclimate.org/), received the first AGU Climate Communication Prize at the honors ceremony. The prize recognizes excellence in climate communication as well as the promotion of scientific literacy, clarity of messaging, and efforts to foster respect and understanding for science-based values related to climate change. Sponsored by Nature's Own—a Boulder, Colo.-based company specializing in the sale of minerals, fossils, and decorative stone specimens—the prize comes with a $25,000 cash award. "AGU created this award to raise the visibility of climate change as a critical issue facing the world today, to demonstrate our support for scientists who commit themselves to the effective communication of climate change science, and to encourage more scientists to engage with the public and policy makers on how climate research can contribute to the sustainability of our planet," said AGU president Michael Mc Phaden. "That's why we are so pleased to recognize Gavin for his dedicated leadership and outstanding scientific achievements. We hope that his work will serve as an inspiration for others."

  13. Positron lifetime spectrometer using a DC positron beam

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Jun; Moxom, Jeremy

    2003-10-21

    An entrance grid is positioned in the incident beam path of a DC beam positron lifetime spectrometer. The electrical potential difference between the sample and the entrance grid provides simultaneous acceleration of both the primary positrons and the secondary electrons. The result is a reduction in the time spread induced by the energy distribution of the secondary electrons. In addition, the sample, sample holder, entrance grid, and entrance face of the multichannel plate electron detector assembly are made parallel to each other, and are arranged at a tilt angle to the axis of the positron beam to effectively separate the path of the secondary electrons from the path of the incident positrons.

  14. Profit Regulation of Defense and Prizes for Innovation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    AD-A253 965 Profit Regulation of Defense Contractors and Prizes for Innovation William P. Rogerson ,TIC ELECTE S AUG 191992 AD Ubi doewment bas bn...0004. ULbrary of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Rogerson, William P. (William Paul), 1955- Profit regulation of defense contractors and prizes...Published 1992 by RAND 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138 R-3635-PA&E Profit Regulation of Defense Contractors and Prizes for

  15. Pulse-firing winner-take-all networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Jack L.

    1991-01-01

    Winner-take-all (WTA) neural networks using pulse-firing processing elements are introduced. In the pulse-firing WTA (PWTA) networks described, input and activation signal shunting is controlled by one shared lateral inhibition signal. This organization yields an O(n) area complexity that is convenient for integrated circuit implementation. Appropriately specified network parameters allow for the accurate continuous evaluation of inputs using a signal representation compatible with established pulse-firing neural network implementations.

  16. Spring Research Festival and NICBR Collaboration Winners Announced | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer, and Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer The winners of the 2014 Spring Research Festival (SRF), held May 7 and 8, were recognized on July 2, and included 20 NCI at Frederick researchers: Matthew Anderson, Victor Ayala, Matt Bess, Cristina Bergamaschi, Charlotte Choi, Rami Doueiri, Laura Guasch Pamies, Diana Haines, Saadia Iftikhar, Maria Kaltcheva, Wojciech Kasprzak, Balamurugan Kuppusamy, James Lautenberger, George Lountos, Megan Mounts, Uma Mudunuri, Martha Sklavos, Gloriana Shelton, Alex Sorum, and Shea Wright.

  17. Spring Research Festival and NICBR Collaboration Winners Announced | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer, and Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer The winners of the 2014 Spring Research Festival (SRF), held May 7 and 8, were recognized on July 2, and included 20 NCI at Frederick researchers: Matthew Anderson, Victor Ayala, Matt Bess, Cristina Bergamaschi, Charlotte Choi, Rami Doueiri, Laura Guasch Pamies, Diana Haines, Saadia Iftikhar, Maria Kaltcheva, Wojciech Kasprzak, Balamurugan Kuppusamy, James Lautenberger, George Lountos, Megan Mounts, Uma Mudunuri, Martha Sklavos, Gloriana Shelton, Alex Sorum, and Shea Wright.

  18. Laser Created Relativistic Positron Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; Wilks, S C; Meyerhofer, D D; Bonlie, J; Chen, C D; Chen, S N; Courtois, C; Elberson, L; Gregori, G; Kruer, W; Landoas, O; Mithen, J; Murphy, C; Nilson, P; Price, D; Scheider, M; Shepherd, R; Stoeckl, C; Tabak, M; Tommasini, R; Beiersdorder, P

    2009-10-08

    Electron-positron jets with MeV temperature are thought to be present in a wide variety of astrophysical phenomena such as active galaxies, quasars, gamma ray bursts and black holes. They have now been created in the laboratory in a controlled fashion by irradiating a gold target with an intense picosecond duration laser pulse. About 10{sup 11} MeV positrons are emitted from the rear surface of the target in a 15 to 22-degree cone for a duration comparable to the laser pulse. These positron jets are quasi-monoenergetic (E/{delta}E {approx} 5) with peak energies controllable from 3-19 MeV. They have temperatures from 1-4 MeV in the beam frame in both the longitudinal and transverse directions. Positron production has been studied extensively in recent decades at low energies (sub-MeV) in areas related to surface science, positron emission tomography, basic antimatter science such as antihydrogen experiments, Bose-Einstein condensed positronium, and basic plasma physics. However, the experimental tools to produce very high temperature positrons and high-flux positron jets needed to simulate astrophysical positron conditions have so far been absent. The MeV temperature jets of positrons and electrons produced in our experiments offer a first step to evaluate the physics models used to explain some of the most energetic phenomena in the universe.

  19. Effect of reinforcement probability and prize size on cocaine and heroin abstinence in prize-based contingency management.

    PubMed

    Ghitza, Udi E; Epstein, David H; Schmittner, John; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Preston, Kenzie L

    2008-01-01

    Although treatment outcome in prize-based contingency management has been shown to depend on reinforcement schedule, the optimal schedule is still unknown. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial (Ghitza et al., 2007) to determine the effects of the probability of winning a prize (low vs. high) and the size of the prize won (small, large, or jumbo) on likelihood of abstinence until the next urine-collection day for heroin and cocaine users (N=116) in methadone maintenance. Higher probability of winning, but not the size of individual prizes, was associated with a greater percentage of cocaine-negative, but not opiate-negative, urines.

  20. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET. 22 figs.

  1. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Welch, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

  2. Quantum positron acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Metref, Hassina; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2014-12-15

    Nonlinear quantum positron-acoustic (QPA) waves are investigated for the first time, within the theoretical framework of the quantum hydrodynamic model. In the small but finite amplitude limit, both deformed Korteweg-de Vries and generalized Korteweg-de Vries equations governing, respectively, the dynamics of QPA solitary waves and double-layers are derived. Moreover, a full finite amplitude analysis is undertaken, and a numerical integration of the obtained highly nonlinear equations is carried out. The results complement our previously published results on this problem.

  3. EDITORIAL: Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2011 Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Simon; Ruffle, Jon

    2012-08-01

    The publishers of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB), IOP Publishing, in association with the journal owners, the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM), jointly award an annual prize for the best paper published in PMB during the previous year. The procedure for deciding the winner is a two-stage process. First, a shortlist of contenders is drawn up based on those papers that had the best referees' quality assessments, with a further quality check and endorsement by the Editorial Board. The papers on the shortlist are then reviewed by a specially convened IPEM committee consisting of members with fellow status. This committee reads the shortlisted papers and selects the winner. We have much pleasure in advising readers that the Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2011 is awarded to Matthew Hough et al from the University of Florida, the Francis Marion University and the National Cancer Institute, USA for their paper on a comprehensive electron dosimetry model of skeletal tissues in the adult male: An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference adult male—internal electron sources 2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 2309 Matthew Hough1, Perry Johnson1, Didier Rajon2, Derek Jokisch3, Choonsik Lee4 and Wesley Bolch1,5 1Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA 2Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA 3Department of Physics and Astronomy, Francis Marion University, Florence, SC, USA 4Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Bone marrow is one of the more radiosensitive tissues in the human body and is housed within a complex structure of bone. This paper describes a comprehensive model of energy deposition by internal electron or beta particle emitters for the ICRP reference adult male based upon ex vivo CT and microCT images of

  4. EDITORIAL: Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2012 Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Simon; Ruffle, Jon

    2013-08-01

    The publishers of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB), IOP Publishing, in association with the journal owners, the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM), jointly award the Roberts prize for the best paper published in PMB during the previous year. The procedure for deciding the winner is a two-stage process. First, a shortlist of contenders is drawn up based on those papers that had the best referees' quality assessments, with a further quality check and endorsement by the Editorial Board. The papers on the shortlist are then reviewed by a specially convened IPEM committee consisting of members with fellow status. This committee reads the shortlisted papers and selects the winner. We have much pleasure in advising readers that the Roberts Prize for the best paper published in 2012 is awarded to Michel Defrise, Ahmadreza Rezaei and Johan Nuyts from the Vrije Universiteit Brussels and the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium for their breakthrough paper that describes how the information needed for attenuation correction in PET imaging can be extracted, to within a constant, from time-of-flight emission data: Time-of-flight PET data determine the attenuation sinogram up to a constant 2012 Phys. Med. Biol. 57 885 Michel Defrise1, Ahmadreza Rezaei2 and Johan Nuyts2 1Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, B-1090 Brussels, Belgium 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium This paper represents an important and timely contribution to the literature as time-of-flight PET scanners are now offered by several manufacturers. In hybrid PET/CT scanners, the PET attenuation correction, necessary for quantitative reconstruction of the tracer distribution, can be derived directly from the CT data. Sometimes, however, the PET and CT scans may be poorly aligned due to patient motion and other approaches are needed. In addition, hybrid PET/MRI scanners also, have been developed recently, and in

  5. Sources of funding for Nobel Prize-winning work: public or private?

    PubMed

    Tatsioni, Athina; Vavva, Effie; Ioannidis, John P A

    2010-05-01

    Funding is important for scientists' work and may contribute to exceptional research outcomes. We analyzed the funding sources reported in the landmark scientific papers of Nobel Prize winners. Between 2000 and 2008, 70 Nobel laureates won recognition in medicine, physics, and chemistry. Sixty five (70%) of the 93 selected papers related to the Nobel-awarded work reported some funding source including U.S. government sources in 53 (82%), non-U.S. government sources in 19 (29%), and nongovernment sources in 33 (51%). A substantial portion of this exceptional work was unfunded. We contacted Nobel laureates whose landmark papers reported no funding. Thirteen Nobel laureates responded and offered their insights about the funding process and difficulties inherent in funding. Overall, very diverse sources amounting to a total of 64 different listed sponsors supported Nobel-related work. A few public institutions, in particular the U.S. National Institutes of Health (with n=26 funded papers) and the National Science Foundation (with n=17 papers), stood out for their successful record for funding exceptional research. However, Nobel-level work arose even from completely unfunded research, especially when institutions offered a protected environment for dedicated scientists.

  6. A review of Nobel prizes in medicine or physiology, 1901-87.

    PubMed

    Kantha, S S

    1989-03-01

    This review examines the awards of Nobel Prizes for Medicine or Physiology discipline between 1901 and 1987, in order to evaluate the advances made in biomedical sciences in the twentieth century. A total of 78 awards had been made amounting to 144 laureates. Countrywise, scientists from the USA lead the tally of Nobelists with 62 laureates, followed by those from Britain and Germany. In the first quarter (1901-25), majority of the awards were given to pioneering studies in microbiology and physiology. Following three decades (1926-55) show the emergence of biochemists as preferred winners with many of the nutrition-related discoveries receiving the recognition. During and immediately after the Second World War (between 1939 and 1957), pharmacology related studies were also awarded Nobel merit. Molecular biology, genetics and immunology had become the prime areas for recipients during the last three decades beginning with 1958. Apart from these four distinct speciality areas, classic discoveries in the fields of neurosciences and behavior, clinical medicine, experimental biology endocrinology had also been recognized at regular intervals.

  7. EPA SBIR Recipient -- Winner of the 2013 Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Faraday Technology, a 2011 Environmental Protection Agency Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) recipient, was recently announced as a winner of the 2013 Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards.

  8. Portable Positron Measurement System (PPMS)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Portable Positron Measurement System (PPMS) is an automated, non-destructive inspection system based on positron annihilation, which characterizes a material's in situatomic-level properties during the manufacturing processes of formation, solidification, and heat treatment. Simultaneous manufacturing and quality monitoring now are possible. Learn more about the lab's project on our facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  9. Cyclotrons and positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, A.P.; Fowler, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    The state of the art of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) technology as related to cyclotron use and radiopharmaceutical production is reviewed. The paper discusses available small cyclotrons, the positron emitters which can be produced and the yields possible, target design, and radiopharmaceutical development and application. 97 refs., 12 tabs. (ACR)

  10. Portable Positron Measurement System (PPMS)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Portable Positron Measurement System (PPMS) is an automated, non-destructive inspection system based on positron annihilation, which characterizes a material's in situatomic-level properties during the manufacturing processes of formation, solidification, and heat treatment. Simultaneous manufacturing and quality monitoring now are possible. Learn more about the lab's project on our facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  11. Undulator Production of Polarized Positrons

    SciTech Connect

    William M. Bugg

    2008-08-27

    E-166 at SLAC has demonstrated the feasibilty of production of polarized positrons for the International Linear Collider using a helical undulator to produce polarized photons which are converted in a thin target to polarized positrons. The success of the experim ent has resulted in the choice of this technique for the baseline design of ILC.

  12. Nominations sought for the 2016 Haagen-Smit Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-09-01

    We, the editors and publishers of Atmospheric Environment invite our readers to nominate papers for the 2016 "Haagen-Smit Prize". The prize is named in honor of Prof. Arie Jan Haagen-Smit, a pioneer in the field of air pollution.

  13. Nobel physics prize to Charpak for inventing particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarzschild, B.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the work of Georges Charpak of France leading to his receipt of the 1992 Nobel Prize in Physics. The Nobel Prize was awarded to Charpak [open quotes]for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber.[close quotes] Historical aspects of Charpak's life and research are given.

  14. Effect of Reinforcement Probability and Prize Size on Cocaine and Heroin Abstinence in Prize-Based Contingency Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghitza, Udi E.; Epstein, David H.; Schmittner, John; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2008-01-01

    Although treatment outcome in prize-based contingency management has been shown to depend on reinforcement schedule, the optimal schedule is still unknown. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial (Ghitza et al., 2007) to determine the effects of the probability of winning a prize (low vs. high) and…

  15. Society News: Welcome to Griffiths Bay; RAS Associate wins Shaw Prize; Postgraduate prize preparations; Council minutes on-line; Birthday Honours; Kavli Prize; New Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-08-01

    The late Donald Griffiths will be commemorated in the name of a bay on the Antarctic Peninsula. Prof. Reinhard Genzel, Associate of the Society since 1994, Darwin Lecturer in 2007, and Director of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics has been awarded the Shaw Prize in Astronomy for 2008. While postgrad students complete their PhD theses, supervisors should note the deadline for submissions to the annual Michael Penston and Keith Runcorn Prizes.

  16. Positron emission mammography imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, William W.

    2003-10-02

    This paper examines current trends in Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) instrumentation and the performance tradeoffs inherent in them. The most common geometry is a pair of parallel planes of detector modules. They subtend a larger solid angle around the breast than conventional PET cameras, and so have both higher efficiency and lower cost. Extensions to this geometry include encircling the breast, measuring the depth of interaction (DOI), and dual-modality imaging (PEM and x-ray mammography, as well as PEM and x-ray guided biopsy). The ultimate utility of PEM may not be decided by instrument performance, but by biological and medical factors, such as the patient to patient variation in radiotracer uptake or the as yet undetermined role of PEM in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Training winner-take-all simultaneous recurrent neural networks.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xindi; Prokhorov, Danil V; Wunsch, Donald C

    2007-05-01

    The winner-take-all (WTA) network is useful in database management, very large scale integration (VLSI) design, and digital processing. The synthesis procedure of WTA on single-layer fully connected architecture with sigmoid transfer function is still not fully explored. We discuss the use of simultaneous recurrent networks (SRNs) trained by Kalman filter algorithms for the task of finding the maximum among N numbers. The simulation demonstrates the effectiveness of our training approach under conditions of a shared-weight SRN architecture. A more general SRN also succeeds in solving a real classification application on car engine data.

  18. 2017 First Nations Launch Competition Winners visit Kennedy Spac

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-02

    A group of 19 college students recently visited NASA's Kennedy Space Center as winners of the First Nations Launch competition in Wisconsin. They were part of teams that successfully flew high-powered rockets, earning them an opportunity to visit the Florida spaceport. During their visit, they toured the Vehicle Assembly Building, Launch Control Center and the Kennedy visitor complex. The competition is supported by NASA and the Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium. It provides an opportunity for students attending tribal colleges or universities, or who are members of a campus American Indian Science and Engineering Society, or AISES, chapter to design, build and launch a rocket at a competition in Kansasville, Wisconsin.

  19. Intense source of slow positrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, P.; Rosowsky, A.

    2004-10-01

    We describe a novel design for an intense source of slow positrons based on pair production with a beam of electrons from a 10 MeV accelerator hitting a thin target at a low incidence angle. The positrons are collected with a set of coils adapted to the large production angle. The collection system is designed to inject the positrons into a Greaves-Surko trap (Phys. Rev. A 46 (1992) 5696). Such a source could be the basis for a series of experiments in fundamental and applied research and would also be a prototype source for industrial applications, which concern the field of defect characterization in the nanometer scale.

  20. Cosmic Ray Positrons from Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2010-01-01

    Pulsars are potential Galactic sources of positrons through pair cascades in their magnetospheres. There are, however, many uncertainties in establishing their contribution to the local primary positron flux. Among these are the local density of pulsars, the cascade pair multiplicities that determine the injection rate of positrons from the pulsar, the acceleration of the injected particles by the pulsar wind termination shock, their rate of escape from the pulsar wind nebula, and their propagation through the interstellar medium. I will discuss these issues in the context of what we are learning from the new Fermi pulsar detections and discoveries.

  1. The Evolution of Creativity, Giftedness, and Multiple Intelligences: An Interview with Ellen Winner and Howard Gardner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henshon, Suzanna E.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Ellen Winner and Howard Gardner. Winner is Professor of Psychology at Boston College, and Senior Research Associate at Project Zero, Harvard Graduate School of Education. Her research focuses on learning and cognition in the arts in typical and gifted children. She is the author of over 100 articles and…

  2. Mentoring, Self-Awareness, and Collaboration. The 2012 EDUCAUSE Award Winners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blythe, Earving L.; Swartz, David; Woo, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    The EDUCAUSE Awards Program, under the guidance of the EDUCAUSE Recognition Committee, has announced the three 2012 winners who are recognized for their peer endorsement and distinction to professional accomplishments in higher education information technology. Winner Melissa Woo is recognized as a strong leader and one who is expected to achieve…

  3. The Evolution of Creativity, Giftedness, and Multiple Intelligences: An Interview with Ellen Winner and Howard Gardner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henshon, Suzanna E.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Ellen Winner and Howard Gardner. Winner is Professor of Psychology at Boston College, and Senior Research Associate at Project Zero, Harvard Graduate School of Education. Her research focuses on learning and cognition in the arts in typical and gifted children. She is the author of over 100 articles and…

  4. School-to-Careers Company of the Year: 2000 Award Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Employer Leadership Council, Washington, DC.

    This booklet profiles the four School-to-Careers Company of the Year Award winners judged to be demonstrating clearly the value and importance of these three key employer activities: working directly with students and teachers, building a school-to-careers system in the community, and strengthening company practice. The four winners and their…

  5. 40 CFR 105.13 - How are the award winners selected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How are the award winners selected? 105.13 Section 105.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Selection Criteria § 105.13 How are the award winners...

  6. 40 CFR 105.13 - How are the award winners selected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How are the award winners selected? 105.13 Section 105.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Selection Criteria § 105.13 How are the award winners...

  7. 40 CFR 105.13 - How are the award winners selected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are the award winners selected? 105.13 Section 105.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Selection Criteria § 105.13 How are the award winners...

  8. 40 CFR 105.13 - How are the award winners selected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How are the award winners selected? 105.13 Section 105.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Selection Criteria § 105.13 How are the award winners...

  9. 40 CFR 105.13 - How are the award winners selected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true How are the award winners selected? 105.13 Section 105.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Selection Criteria § 105.13 How are the award winners...

  10. Numbers And Gains Of Neurons In Winner-Take-All Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Timothy X.

    1993-01-01

    Report presents theoretical study of gains required in neurons to implement winner-take-all electronic neural network of given size and related question of maximum size of winner-take-all network in which neurons have specified sigmoid transfer or response function with specified gain.

  11. Mentoring, Self-Awareness, and Collaboration. The 2012 EDUCAUSE Award Winners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blythe, Earving L.; Swartz, David; Woo, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    The EDUCAUSE Awards Program, under the guidance of the EDUCAUSE Recognition Committee, has announced the three 2012 winners who are recognized for their peer endorsement and distinction to professional accomplishments in higher education information technology. Winner Melissa Woo is recognized as a strong leader and one who is expected to achieve…

  12. Who can get the next Nobel Prize in infectious diseases?

    PubMed

    Ergonul, Onder; Yalcin, Can Ege; Erkent, Mahmut Alp; Demirci, Mert; Uysal, Sanem Pinar; Ay, Nur Zeynep; Omeroglu, Asena

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to deliver a perspective on future Nobel prizes by reviewing the features of Nobel prizes awarded in the infectious diseases-related (IDR) field over the last 115 years. Thirty-three out of 106 Nobel prizes (31%) in Physiology or Medicine have been awarded for IDR topics. Out of 58 Nobel laureates for IDR topics, two have been female; 67% have been medical doctors. The median age of Nobel laureates in Physiology or Medicine was found to be lower than the median age of laureates in Literature (p<0.001). Since the Second World War, US-affiliated scientists have dominated the Nobel prizes (53%); however before 1945, German scientists did so (p=0.005). The new antimicrobials received Nobel prizes until 1960; however no treatment study was awarded the Prize until the discovery of artemisinin and ivermectin, for which the Nobel Prize was awarded in 2015. Collaborative works have increasingly been appreciated. In the future, more female laureates would be expected in the IDR field. Medical graduates and scientists involved in multi-institutional and multidisciplinary collaborative efforts seem to have an advantage.

  13. The Road to Stockholm - Nobel Prizes, Science, and Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargittai, István

    2002-05-01

    The Nobel Prize is by far the highest recognition a scientist may receive and the only one with which the general public is familiar. Its prestige has reached improbable heights. At the same time a lot of myth surrounds the Nobel Prize, and this is compounded by the fact that people tend to view scientists with some bewilderment.This book introduces the process of selection of the laureates, discusses the ingredients for scientific discovery and for getting recognition. It reviews the decisive moments of scientific careers en route to the Nobel Prize, points to characteristic features of the laureates, the importance of mentors and venues in scientific careers and other components of success. It also covers some discoverers and discoveries for whom and for which the Nobel Prize never materialized.Whereas there is no general recipe for receiving the Nobel Prize, there are common features of successful scientific careers. The book reveals some information about the scientists' lives and careers that may guide other scientists in increasing their chances of becoming more effective and better recognized players--although it is not expected to help anyone to receive the Nobel Prize!For the general reader The Road to Stockholm reveals the human face of scientists and the human side of their endeavours. The Nobel Prize has served as inspiration for scientists and the general public for a hundred years: this book discusses its problems and celebrates its triumphs.

  14. Prize level and debt size: impact on gambling behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crewe-Brown, Courtney; Blaszczynski, Alex; Russell, Alex

    2014-09-01

    No studies to date have specifically determined the relationship between prize levels, debt size, and impulsivity on reported gambling behaviour on Electronic Gaming Machines (EGM). The present study reports the findings of a pilot study designed to investigate whether or not the likelihood of increasing the size of a bet was related to the level of prize offered and personal debt. The sample consisted of 171 first year psychology students (61 males and 120 females). Participants completed a series of gambling vignettes designed to elicit data on reported bet size according to different prize levels and debt sizes; the Eysenck Impulsivity Scale (Eysenck and Eysenck 1977); the Canadian Problem Gambling Index; and an author-constructed questionnaire eliciting data on demographic and gambling behaviours. Results indicated that as prize levels increase the odds (relative risk) of an individual placing a bet on an EGM and the amount of money reportedly bet tends to increase. A negative relationship between debt size and reported gambling behaviour moderated by prize level was found. No differences were found in the odds of placing a bet according to impulsivity. It was concluded that prize and debt sizes do influence propensities to gamble and level of bets. The findings have implications for restricting jackpot and general prize levels as a responsible gambling strategy designed to reduce motivations to gamble.

  15. Keeping an Eye on the Prize

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A U

    2007-02-06

    Setting performance goals is part of the business plan for almost every company. The same is true in the world of supercomputers. Ten years ago, the Department of Energy (DOE) launched the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) to help ensure the safety and reliability of the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile without nuclear testing. ASCI, which is now called the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program and is managed by DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), set an initial 10-year goal to obtain computers that could process up to 100 trillion floating-point operations per second (teraflops). Many computer experts thought the goal was overly ambitious, but the program's results have proved them wrong. Last November, a Livermore-IBM team received the 2005 Gordon Bell Prize for achieving more than 100 teraflops while modeling the pressure-induced solidification of molten metal. The prestigious prize, which is named for a founding father of supercomputing, is awarded each year at the Supercomputing Conference to innovators who advance high-performance computing. Recipients for the 2005 prize included six Livermore scientists--physicists Fred Streitz, James Glosli, and Mehul Patel and computer scientists Bor Chan, Robert Yates, and Bronis de Supinski--as well as IBM researchers James Sexton and John Gunnels. This team produced the first atomic-scale model of metal solidification from the liquid phase with results that were independent of system size. The record-setting calculation used Livermore's domain decomposition molecular-dynamics (ddcMD) code running on BlueGene/L, a supercomputer developed by IBM in partnership with the ASC Program. BlueGene/L reached 280.6 teraflops on the Linpack benchmark, the industry standard used to measure computing speed. As a result, it ranks first on the list of Top500 Supercomputer Sites released in November 2005. To evaluate the performance of nuclear weapons systems, scientists must understand how

  16. Positron trapping at grain boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Dupasquier, A. ); Romero, R.; Somoza, A. )

    1993-10-01

    The standard positron trapping model has often been applied, as a simple approximation, to the interpretation of positron lifetime spectra in situations of diffusion-controlled trapping. This paper shows that this approximation is not sufficiently accurate, and presents a model based on the correct solution of the diffusion equation, in the version appropriate for studying positron trapping at grain boundaries. The model is used for the analysis of new experimental data on positron lifetime spectra in a fine-grained Al-Ca-Zn alloy. Previous results on similar systems are also discussed and reinterpreted. The analysis yields effective diffusion coefficients not far from the values known for the base metals of the alloys.

  17. High Power Polarized Positron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailichenko, Alexander

    2009-09-01

    We discuss the basics of polarized positron production by low energy polarized electrons. Efficiency of conversion ˜0.1-1% might be interesting for the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and the International Linear Collider (ILC).

  18. Resolvability of positron decay channels

    SciTech Connect

    Fluss, M.J.; Howell, R.H.; Rosenberg, I.J.; Meyer, P.

    1985-03-07

    Many data analysis treatments of positron experiments attempt to resolve two or more positron decay or exist channels which may be open simultaneously. Examples of the need to employ such treatments of the experimental results can be found in the resolution of the constituents of a defect ensemble, or in the analysis of the complex spectra which arise from the interaction of slow positrons at or near the surfaces of solids. Experimental one- and two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation experiments in Al single crystals have shown that two defect species (mono- and divacancies) can be resolved under suitable conditions. Recent experiments at LLNL indicate that there are a variety of complex exit channels open to positrons interacting at surfaces, and ultimely these decay channels must also be suitably resolved from one another. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Modelling Positron Interactions with Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, G.; Petrovic, Z.; White, R.; Buckman, S.

    2011-05-01

    In this work we link fundamental measurements of positron interactions with biomolecules, with the development of computer codes for positron transport and track structure calculations. We model positron transport in a medium from a knowledge of the fundamental scattering cross section for the atoms and molecules comprising the medium, combined with a transport analysis based on statistical mechanics and Monte-Carlo techniques. The accurate knowledge of the scattering is most important at low energies, a few tens of electron volts or less. The ultimate goal of this work is to do this in soft condensed matter, with a view to ultimately developing a dosimetry model for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The high-energy positrons first emitted by a radionuclide in PET may well be described by standard formulas for energy loss of charged particles in matter, but it is incorrect to extrapolate these formulas to low energies. Likewise, using electron cross-sections to model positron transport at these low energies has been shown to be in serious error due to the effects of positronium formation. Work was supported by the Australian Research Council, the Serbian Government, and the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Spain.

  20. Shaw Prize Goes to Reinhard Genzel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-06-01

    The Shaw Prize in Astronomy for 2008 is awarded to Professor Reinhard Genzel, Director of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), in recognition of his outstanding contribution in demonstrating that the Milky Way contains a supermassive black hole at its centre, a result largely obtained with the help of ESO's telescopes. Black Hole ESO PR Photo 18/08 Motion of a Star The Shaw Prize is awarded annually by the Shaw Prize Foundation in Hong Kong in the Life Sciences, Mathematical Sciences and Astronomy, each of the three prizes bearing a monetary award of one million US dollars. "I warmly congratulate Professor Genzel for this well-deserved award which highlights some of the best science produced with ESO's telescopes," says Tim de Zeeuw, ESO's Director General. "Professor Genzel and his team have made a dedicated, long-term effort, using our telescopes and co-developing instruments, to study the Centre of our Galaxy, and as such, he has allowed us to enter an era of observational black hole physics." In 1969, Donald Lynden-Bell and Martin Rees suggested that the Milky Way might contain a supermassive black hole at its centre. But evidence for such an object was lacking at the time because the centre of the Milky Way is obscured by interstellar dust, and was detected only as a relatively faint radio source. Reinhard Genzel and his collaborators obtained compelling evidence for this black hole by developing state-of-the-art astronomical instruments to be used on ESO's telescopes and carrying out a persistent programme of observing the Galactic Centre and its surrounding stars for many years, which ultimately led to the discovery of a black hole with a mass of about three million times that of the Sun. Genzel's group has in particular followed since 1992, the motion of several stars, around the Galactic Centre. These observations were first done with the MPE-built near-infrared speckle imaging camera SHARP on ESO's New Technology Telescope at La

  1. Perspectives on the 2010 Nobel Prize in physics for graphene.

    PubMed

    Dresselhaus, Mildred S; Araujo, Paulo T

    2010-11-23

    The 2010 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov for their groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene. Some personal perspectives about this award are presented.

  2. PREFACE 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckman, Stephen; Sullivan, James; White, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Preface These proceedings arose from the 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques (SLOPOS12), which was held on Magnetic Island, North Queensland, Australia, between 1-6th August 2010. Meetings in the SLOPOS series are held (roughly) every three years and have now been held on (almost) all continents, indicating the truly international nature of the field. SLOPOS12 marked the second time that the Workshop had been held in the southern hemisphere, and the first time in Australia. SLOPOS12 attracted 122 delegates from 16 countries. Most encouraging was the attendance of 28 student delegates, and that about half of the overall delegates were early career researchers - a good sign for the future of our field. We also enjoyed the company of more than a dozen partners and families of delegates. In a slight departure from previous SLOPOS meetings, the International Advisory Committee approved a broader scope of scientific topics for inclusion in the program for the 2010 Workshop. This broader scope was intended to capture the applications of positrons in atomic, molecular and biomedical areas and was encapsulated in the byeline for SLOPOS-12: The 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids, Surfaces, Atoms and Molecules. The scientific and social program for the meeting ran over 6 days with delegates gathering on Sunday August 1st and departing on August 6th. The scientific program included plenary, invited, contributed and student lectures, the latter being the subject of a student prize. In all there were 53 oral presentations during the week. There were also two poster sessions, with 63 posters exhibited, and a prize was awarded for the best poster by a student delegate. The standard of the student presentations, both oral and posters, was outstanding, so much so that the judging panel recommended an additional number of prizes be awarded. Topics that were the focus of invited presentations and contributed papers at

  3. Innate immunity's path to the Nobel Prize 2011 and beyond.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Hermann

    2012-05-01

    The 2011 Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine to Ralph Steinmann, Jules Hoffmann, and Bruce Beutler recognized a paradigm shift in our understanding of innate immunity, and its impact on adaptive immunity. The Prize highlighted the initial discoveries of Toll's role in immunity in flies, Toll-like receptors in mammals, and the establishment of dendritic cells as the initiators of adaptive immunity. This historical Commentary focuses on the developments in our understanding of innate immunity.

  4. Iranian PhD student wins human-rights prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Jon

    2013-11-01

    A physicist imprisoned in Iran while on a break from his PhD studies in the US has been awarded a human-rights prize. Omid Kokabee, who had been based at the University of Texas in Austin, has been given the Andrei Sakharov Prize from the American Physical Society (APS) for "his courage in refusing to use his physics knowledge to work on projects that he deemed harmful to humanity, in the face of extreme physical and psychological pressure".

  5. [Telomeres: a Nobel Prize at the beginning… of the end].

    PubMed

    Rajpar, Shanna; Guittat, Lionel; Mergny, Jean-Louis

    2011-10-01

    The 2009 Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine was awarded to Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider and Jack K. Szostak for their work on telomeres and telomerase. This prize acknowledges their pionneering discoveries on chromosomal extremities. Telomeres are the nucleoproteic complexes that may be found at the ends of linear chromosomes. They are essential for genomic stability and are involved in aging and tumorogenesis.

  6. Method for photon activation positron annihilation analysis

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2006-06-06

    A non-destructive testing method comprises providing a specimen having at least one positron emitter therein; determining a threshold energy for activating the positron emitter; and determining whether a half-life of the positron emitter is less than a selected half-life. If the half-life of the positron emitter is greater than or equal to the selected half-life, then activating the positron emitter by bombarding the specimen with photons having energies greater than the threshold energy and detecting gamma rays produced by annihilation of positrons in the specimen. If the half-life of the positron emitter is less then the selected half-life, then alternately activating the positron emitter by bombarding the specimen with photons having energies greater then the threshold energy and detecting gamma rays produced by positron annihilation within the specimen.

  7. Weak winner effect in a less aggressive mammal: correlations with corticosterone but not testosterone.

    PubMed

    Oyegbile, Temitayo O; Marler, Catherine A

    2006-09-30

    We investigated the existence of the "winner effect" (winning an aggressive encounter following previous victories) and an associated rise in testosterone (T) in the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) which generally display low levels of aggression and territoriality. We compared the effect of previously winning three, two, one, or zero resident-intruder encounters on the likelihood of winning a subsequent aggressive encounter. Although 50% of males were removed during training because of peaceful encounters, the winner effect was weak and not significant. We hypothesize that territoriality/aggression may be associated with the strength of the winner effect and discuss whether the slight winner effect exhibited by P. leucopus may become significant when population densities increase and males become more territorial. There was also no associated change in T with winning; however, corticosterone (Cort) changed with experience as winners had low Cort levels compared to losers and controls. Furthermore, low Cort levels in winners were associated with quicker attack latencies. These results contrast with findings of a significant winner effect and increase in T in males of the highly territorial and aggressive California mouse (Peromyscus californicus) using an identical methodology. California mice also attacked their opponents at more caudal regions of the body compared to white-footed mice that attacked their opponents at more rostral regions of the body, possibly related to different levels/types of aggression expressed by the two species.

  8. [Tau Positron Emission Tomography].

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Makoto

    2017-07-01

    Accumulation of fibrillar tau protein aggregates is a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related neurodegenerative dementias, including a subgroup of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Visualization of tau lesions in the brains of living subjects enables a pathology-based diagnosis of dementing illnesses in the prodromal stage, and offers objective measures of disease progression and outcomes of disease-modifying therapies. With this rationale, diverse classes of low-molecular-weight chemicals capable of binding to a β-pleated sheet structure have been developed to be used for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) of tau pathologies. Clinical PET studies of AD patients with such tau probes have provided the following insights: (1) Tau fibrils accumulate in the hippocampal formation in an age-dependent manner that is independent of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) pathology; (2) The deposition of Aβ may trigger a spatial expansion of tau pathology, in transition from normal aging to advanced AD; and (3) Tau accumulation is intimately associated with local neuronal loss, leading to cortical atrophy and focal symptoms. In contrast, studies of FTLD have shown a limited performance of first-generation PET probes in capturing non-AD-type tau lesions. New compounds have accordingly been developed and clinically tested, proving to yield a high contrast for tau deposits with high specificity. These second-generation probes are being evaluated primarily by pharmaceutical companies, in line with their growing demands for neuroimaging-based biomarkers serving for clinical trials of anti-Aβ and anti-tau therapies. Meanwhile, a consortium flexibly linking academia and industry to facilitate the utilization of research tools, including tau PET probes, has been established in Japan, for the ultimate purpose of elucidating the molecular etiology of tauopathies and creating diagnostic and therapeutic agents based on such an understanding.

  9. Characterizing and modelling persistence in the number of lottery winners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonio, Fernando J.; Mendes, Renio S.; Itami, Andreia S.; Picoli, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    Lottery is the most famous branch among all the games of chance. By analysing data from Mega-Sena, the major lottery in Brazil, we investigated the presence of persistent behaviour in the time series of the number of winners. We found that the demand for tickets grew collectively as an exponential driven by the size of the accumulated jackpot. Finally, we identified that a stochastic model grounded on the rolling-over feature of lotteries can generate correlations qualitatively similar to those observed empirically. The model is consistent with the idea that the growth in the number of bets, motivated by the size of the expected jackpot, is a mechanism generator of correlations in an apparently random scenario.

  10. Polio and Nobel prizes: looking back 50 years.

    PubMed

    Norrby, Erling; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2007-05-01

    In 1954, John Enders, Thomas Weller, and Frederick Robbins were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue."5370 This discovery provided for the first time opportunities to produce both inactivated and live polio vaccines. By searching previously sealed Nobel Committee archives, we were able to review the deliberations that led to the award. It appears that Sven Gard, who was Professor of Virus Research at the Karolinska Institute and an adjunct member of the Nobel Committee at the time, played a major role in the events leading to the awarding of the Prize. It appears that Gard persuaded the College of Teachers at the Institute to decide not to follow the recommendation by their Nobel Committee to give the Prize to Vincent du Vigneaud. Another peculiar feature of the 1954 Prize is that Weller and Robbins were included based on only two nominations submitted for the first time that year. In his speech at the Nobel Prize ceremony, Gard mentioned the importance of the discovery for the future production of vaccines, but emphasized the implications of this work for growing many different, medically important viruses. We can only speculate on why later nominations highlighting the contributions of scientists such as Jonas Salk, Hilary Koprowski, and Albert Sabin in the development of poliovirus vaccines have not been recognized by a Nobel Prize.

  11. Alfred Nobel and His Prizes: From Dynamite to DNA

    PubMed Central

    Lichtman, Marshall A.

    2017-01-01

    Alfred Nobel was one of the most successful chemists, inventors, entrepreneurs, and businessmen of the late nineteenth century. In a decision later in life, he rewrote his will to leave virtually all his fortune to establish prizes for persons of any nationality who made the most compelling achievement for the benefit of mankind in the fields of chemistry, physics, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace among nations. The prizes were first awarded in 1901, five years after his death. In considering his choice of prizes, it may be pertinent that he used the principles of chemistry and physics in his inventions and he had a lifelong devotion to science, he suffered and died from severe coronary and cerebral atherosclerosis, and he was a bibliophile, an author, and mingled with the literati of Paris. His interest in harmony among nations may have derived from the effects of the applications of his inventions in warfare (“merchant of death”) and his friendship with a leader in the movement to bring peace to nations of Europe. After some controversy, including Nobel’s citizenship, the mechanisms to choose the laureates and make four of the awards were developed by a foundation established in Stockholm; the choice of the laureate for promoting harmony among nations was assigned to the Norwegian Storting, another controversy. The Nobel Prizes after 115 years remain the most prestigious of awards. This review describes the man, his foundation, and the prizes with a special commentary on the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. PMID:28786809

  12. Alfred Nobel and His Prizes: From Dynamite to DNA.

    PubMed

    Lichtman, Marshall A

    2017-07-01

    Alfred Nobel was one of the most successful chemists, inventors, entrepreneurs, and businessmen of the late nineteenth century. In a decision later in life, he rewrote his will to leave virtually all his fortune to establish prizes for persons of any nationality who made the most compelling achievement for the benefit of mankind in the fields of chemistry, physics, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace among nations. The prizes were first awarded in 1901, five years after his death. In considering his choice of prizes, it may be pertinent that he used the principles of chemistry and physics in his inventions and he had a lifelong devotion to science, he suffered and died from severe coronary and cerebral atherosclerosis, and he was a bibliophile, an author, and mingled with the literati of Paris. His interest in harmony among nations may have derived from the effects of the applications of his inventions in warfare ("merchant of death") and his friendship with a leader in the movement to bring peace to nations of Europe. After some controversy, including Nobel's citizenship, the mechanisms to choose the laureates and make four of the awards were developed by a foundation established in Stockholm; the choice of the laureate for promoting harmony among nations was assigned to the Norwegian Storting, another controversy. The Nobel Prizes after 115 years remain the most prestigious of awards. This review describes the man, his foundation, and the prizes with a special commentary on the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

  13. Chandra Telescope Designer Wins 2002 Rossi Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    Leon Van Speybroeck of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts has been awarded the 2002 Bruno Rossi Prize of the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society. The Rossi Prize recognizes significant contributions in high-energy astrophysics. It is awarded annually in honor of the late Massachusetts Institute of Technology Professor Bruno Rossi, an authority on cosmic ray physics and a pioneer in the field of X-ray astronomy. The prize also includes an engraved certificate and a $1,500 award. Van Speybroeck, who led the effort to design and make the X-ray mirrors for NASA's premier X­ray observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, was recognized for a career of stellar achievements in designing precision X-ray optics. As Telescope Scientist for Chandra, he has worked for more than 20 years with a team that includes scientists and engineers from the Harvard-Smithsonian, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, TRW, Inc., Hughes-Danbury (now B.F. Goodrich Aerospace), Optical Coating Laboratories, Inc., and Eastman-Kodak on all aspects of the X-ray mirror assembly that is the heart of the observatory. "Leon is one of the master mirror designers of our time," said Harvey Tananbaum, director of the Chandra X-ray Center. "His contributions were crucial to the spectacular success of the Chandra mission." The Chandra mirrors are the most precise mirrors ever made, smooth with tolerances of a few atoms. If the state of Colorado had the same relative smoothness as the surface of the Chandra X-ray Observatory mirrors, Pike's Peak would be less than an inch tall. The smoothness and alignment of the Chandra's mirrors are enabling scientists to make new discoveries about black holes, neutron stars, and galactic explosions. "Many, many other people made essential contributions to the Chandra program, and hopefully some of them will receive proper recognition," said Van Speybroeck. "In the meantime, I am thoroughly enjoying

  14. "Microquasar" Discoveries Win Prize for Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The discovery of "microquasars" within our own Milky Way Galaxy has won two astronomers a prize from the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society. Felix Mirabel of the Center for Studies at Saclay, France, and Luis Rodriguez of the Institute of Astronomy at the National Autonomous University in Mexico City, were awarded the Bruno Rossi Prize at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Toronto, Ontario, today. The two researchers, who have collaborated for more than 15 years, used an orbiting X-Ray observatory and the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to discover the extremely energetic microquasars. Microquasars are thought to be binary-star systems with one of the stars either a superdense neutron star or a black hole. They emit X-rays and eject jets of subatomic particles at speeds approaching that of light. Though the neutron stars or black holes in microquasars are only a few times the mass of the sun, the phenomena associated with them, such as the jets, are similar to those seen in active galaxies and quasars, believed to be powered by the gravitational energy of black holes with millions of times the mass of the sun. As such, the microquasars provide much closer "laboratories" for study of these phenomena, which remain poorly understood. The Rossi Prize is awarded for "a significant contribution to high energy astrophysics, with particular emphasis on recent work," according to the High Energy Astrophysics Division. Mirabel and Rodriguez began the research that led to the microquasar discoveries in 1990. Using the French-Russian SIGMA- GRANAT X-Ray satellite, they discovered a microquasar near the Milky Way's center in 1992. With the VLA, they found radio emission from this object. In 1992, using the same satellite, they discovered a similar object, called GRS 1915+105. In 1994, that object experienced an outburst that made it bright enough at radio wavelengths to observe with the VLA

  15. [An illustrious unknown. Giuseppe Levi among science, anti-fascism and Nobel Prizes].

    PubMed

    Grignolio, Andrea; De Sio, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    The anatomist Giuseppe Levi (1872-1965) is unanimously considered one of the major figures of Italian biomedical sciences in the 20th century. His fame, however, is mainly derived from having nurtured three Nobel Prize winners, namely Salvador E. Luria, Rita Levi Montalcini and Renato Dulbecco. In reappraising Levi's role in the development of Italian science and culture in general, this article aims at questioning both the narrowness of earlier accounts and a certain kind of genealogical approach to the history of scientific disciplines and academic schools. We will here consider Giuseppe Levi as an instance of two major cultural phenomena: the development of experimental biology in Italy and continental Europe and the anti-fascist socialist culture expressed by a part of the Italian intellectuals. In so doing, we will reassess the historical specificity of the scientific maturation of Levi's three famous students, on the one hand, while on the other we will consider in some depth the cultural and moral environment in which Levi thrived and his role as a moral example for his students. Such revision, we will argue, have a direct bearing on more general historiographical issues, namely, the need for a stronger contextualization of the birth and consolidation of research traditions, implying a rejection of simplistic genealogical reconstructions, and the role of academic schools and institutional settings in the definition of novel, multidisciplinary scientific approaches. Finally, the following will highlight the importance of a more careful outlook on the master-pupil relationship in academic context, addressing issues of both continuity and rupture. The article is subdivided in two main sections, the first devoted to Levi as a scientist, the second to his Anti-fascism.

  16. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.

    1987-05-22

    This invention involved a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide in activators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography. 2 figs.

  17. Positron-alkali atom scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceachran, R. P.; Horbatsch, M.; Stauffer, A. D.; Ward, S. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron-alkali atom scattering was recently investigated both theoretically and experimentally in the energy range from a few eV up to 100 eV. On the theoretical side calculations of the integrated elastic and excitation cross sections as well as total cross sections for Li, Na and K were based upon either the close-coupling method or the modified Glauber approximation. These theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental measurements of the total cross section for both Na and K. Resonance structures were also found in the L = 0, 1 and 2 partial waves for positron scattering from the alkalis. The structure of these resonances appears to be quite complex and, as expected, they occur in conjunction with the atomic excitation thresholds. Currently both theoretical and experimental work is in progress on positron-Rb scattering in the same energy range.

  18. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, Joanna S.; MacGregor, Robert R.; Wolf, Alfred P.; Langstrom, Bengt

    1990-01-01

    This invention involves a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography.

  19. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.; Langstrom, B.

    1990-04-03

    This invention involves a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography.

  20. Positron spectroscopy for materials characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, P.J.; Snead, C.L. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    One of the more active areas of research on materials involves the observation and characterization of defects. The discovery of positron localization in vacancy-type defects in solids in the 1960's initiated a vast number of experimental and theoretical investigations which continue to this day. Traditional positron annihilation spectroscopic techniques, including lifetime studies, angular correlation, and Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation, are still being applied to new problems in the bulk properties of simple metals and their alloys. In addition new techniques based on tunable sources of monoenergetic positron beams have, in the last 5 years, expanded the horizons to studies of surfaces, thin films, and interfaces. In the present paper we briefly review these experimental techniques, illustrating with some of the important accomplishments of the field. 40 refs., 19 figs.

  1. Positron scattering from simple molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Suvam; Dutta, Sangita; Naghma, Rahla; Antony, Bobby

    2017-07-01

    A modified version of spherical complex optical potential formalism is employed to calculate the positron scattering cross sections over a wide energy range from near positronium formation threshold to 5000 eV. In the present study, the interaction potential of the positron-target scattering system is developed under an optical potential framework for the calculation of positron scattering total cross sections for CH4, CO, CO2, H2, N2O and NO molecules. The results obtained are in good agreement with most of the available experimental and theoretical values in terms of its shape and magnitude. A characteristic increase in cross section is observed for all the molecules near the positronium formation threshold, which signifies the emergence of positronium formation along with other inelastic channels.

  2. Positron Emission Tomography - Computed Tomography (PET/CT)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index A-Z Positron Emission Tomography - Computed Tomography (PET/CT) Positron emission tomography (PET) uses small amounts of ... CT)? What is Positron Emission Tomography – Computed Tomography (PET/CT) Scanning? Positron emission tomography, also called PET imaging ...

  3. Particle physics. Positrons ride the wave

    DOE PAGES

    Piot, Philippe

    2015-08-26

    Here, experiments reveal that positrons — the antimatter equivalents of electrons — can be rapidly accelerated using a plasma wave. The findings pave the way to high-energy electron–positron particle colliders.

  4. Particle physics. Positrons ride the wave

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, Philippe

    2015-08-26

    Here, experiments reveal that positrons — the antimatter equivalents of electrons — can be rapidly accelerated using a plasma wave. The findings pave the way to high-energy electron–positron particle colliders.

  5. Space Day 2002; Directors Breakfast @ NASA Ames Visitors Center for student Winners of Santa Clara

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Space Day 2002; Directors Breakfast @ NASA Ames Visitors Center for student Winners of Santa Clara Valley Science & Engineering Fair and San Francisco Bay Aera Science Fair (Students are addressed by Bob Rosen, Ames Associate Director for Aerospace Programs)

  6. OHIO INTERNATIONAL TELEVISION AND VIDEO FESTIVAL AWARD WINNERS FROM THE IMAGING TECHNOLOGY CENTER IT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    OHIO INTERNATIONAL TELEVISION AND VIDEO FESTIVAL AWARD WINNERS FROM THE IMAGING TECHNOLOGY CENTER ITC KEVIN BURKE - BILL FLETCHER - GARY NOLAN - EMERY ADANICH FOR THE VIDEO ENTITLED ICING FOR REGIONAL AND CORPORATE PILOTS

  7. 2016 Federal Green Challenge Award Winners in the New England Region

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In the New England region, the 2016 Federal Green Challenge award winners are the Manchester Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center, West Haven VA Medical Campus, and the U.S. Naval Undersea Warfare Center..

  8. Best Practices of Multiple-Time SmartWay Award Winners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EPA presentations focus is on the SmartWay Excellence Awards multiple winners, their best practices in protecting the environment, incorporating sustainability and reducing carbon pollution, along with benefits of being a partner.

  9. Amount of earnings during prize contingency management treatment is associated with posttreatment abstinence outcomes.

    PubMed

    Petry, Nancy M; Roll, John M

    2011-12-01

    Contingency management (CM) treatments that provide patients with the opportunity to earn chances of winning prizes of varying magnitudes are becoming increasingly popular. In the CM literature, magnitude of reinforcement is linked with effect sizes, such that CM treatments that provide larger magnitude reinforcement are more efficacious than those that provide lower magnitude reinforcement. With prize CM, even when magnitudes of overall expected prize earnings are constant, some patients win more prizes than others. Thus, patients who win larger overall amounts of prizes during treatment may have better outcomes than those who win fewer prizes. This study evaluated the impact of overall amounts of prizes won on long-term abstinence outcomes. The dollar amount of prizes won during prize CM treatments was determined from 78 cocaine-abusing methadone-maintenance patients who were randomized to prize CM treatments in three clinical trials. Abstinence three months following the end of the CM intervention was the primary dependent variable. The dollar amount of prizes won during CM treatment was a significant predictor of submission of cocaine-negative urine samples and self-reports of cocaine abstinence at the follow-up evaluation, even after controlling for other variables associated with long-term abstinence, such as pretreatment urinalysis results and longest duration of abstinence achieved during treatment. These results suggest that magnitudes of earnings during prize CM may impact outcomes and call for further experimentation of parameters related to the efficacy of prize CM.

  10. Study on low-energy positron polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schälicke, A.; Alexander, G.; Dollan, R.; Laihem, K.; Lohse, T.; Riemann, S.; Starovoitov, P.; Ushakov, A.

    2007-12-01

    A polarised positron source has been proposed for the design of the international linear collider (ILC). In order to optimise the positron beam, a measurement of its degree of polarisation close to the positron creation point is desired. In this contribution, methods for determining the positron polarisation at low energies are reviewed. A newly developed polarisation extension to GEANT4 will provide the basis for further polarimeter investigations.

  11. Bites and B-Roll: Announcments of the Architecture Contest Winners

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Broadcast-quality downloads of this video are available free and unrestricted at http://stratacomm.net/solar-decathlon... Video contains announcements of the architecture awards announcement at the 2009 Solar Decathlon. Includes announcement and house b-roll of 1st place winner Team California and 2nd place winner Rice University's houses, general Solar Village b-roll, and bites from students and architecture experts

  12. Bites and B-Roll: Announcments of the Architecture Contest Winners

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-14

    Broadcast-quality downloads of this video are available free and unrestricted at http://stratacomm.net/solar-decathlon... Video contains announcements of the architecture awards announcement at the 2009 Solar Decathlon. Includes announcement and house b-roll of 1st place winner Team California and 2nd place winner Rice University's houses, general Solar Village b-roll, and bites from students and architecture experts

  13. Studies of positron induced luminescence from polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J.; Hulett, L.D. Jr.; Lewis, T.A.; Tolk, N.H.

    1994-06-01

    Light emission from polymers (anthracene dissolved in polystryrene) induced by low-energy positrons and electrons has been studied. Results indicate a clear difference between optical emissions under positron and electron bombardment. The positron-induced luminescence spectrum is believed to be generated by both collisional and annihilation processes.

  14. Neuronal networks with NMDARs and lateral inhibition implement winner-takes-all

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, Patrick A.

    2015-01-01

    A neural circuit that relies on the electrical properties of NMDA synaptic receptors is shown by numerical and theoretical analysis to be capable of realizing the winner-takes-all function, a powerful computational primitive that is often attributed to biological nervous systems. This biophysically-plausible model employs global lateral inhibition in a simple feedback arrangement. As its inputs increase, high-gain and then bi- or multi-stable equilibrium states may be assumed in which there is significant depolarization of a single neuron and hyperpolarization or very weak depolarization of other neurons in the network. The state of the winning neuron conveys analog information about its input. The winner-takes-all characteristic depends on the nonmonotonic current-voltage relation of NMDA receptor ion channels, as well as neural thresholding, and the gain and nature of the inhibitory feedback. Dynamical regimes vary with input strength. Fixed points may become unstable as the network enters a winner-takes-all regime, which can lead to entrained oscillations. Under some conditions, oscillatory behavior can be interpreted as winner-takes-all in nature. Stable winner-takes-all behavior is typically recovered as inputs increase further, but with still larger inputs, the winner-takes-all characteristic is ultimately lost. Network stability may be enhanced by biologically plausible mechanisms. PMID:25741276

  15. Coalition formation in animals and the nature of winner and loser effects.

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, R A; Dugatkin, L A

    2000-01-01

    Coalition formation has been documented in a diverse array of taxa, yet there has been little formal analysis of polyadic interactions such as coalitions. Here, we develop an optimality model which examines the role of winner and loser effects in shaping coalition formation. We demonstrate that the predicted patterns of alliances are strongly dependent on the way in which winner and loser effects change with contestant strength. When winner and loser effects decrease with the resource-holding power (RHP) of the combatants, coalitions will be favoured between the strongest members of a group, but not between the weakest. If, in contrast, winner and loser effects increase with RHP, exactly the opposite predictions emerge. All other things being equal, intervention is more likely to prove worthwhile when the beneficiary of the aid is weaker (and its opponent is stronger), because the beneficiary is then less likely to win without help. Consequently, intervention is more probable when the impact of victory on the subsequent performance of a combatant increases with that individual's strength because this selects for intervention in favour of weaker combatants. The published literature on hierarchy formation does not reveal how winner and loser effects actually change with contestant strength and we therefore hope that our model will spur others to collect such data; in this light we suggest an experiment which will help to elucidate the nature of winner and loser effects and their impact on coalition formation in animals. PMID:10670947

  16. Species differences in the winner effect disappear in response to post-victory testosterone manipulations.

    PubMed

    Fuxjager, Matthew J; Montgomery, Jon L; Marler, Catherine A

    2011-12-07

    Evolutionary processes can interact with the mechanisms of steroid hormone action to drive interspecific variation in behavioural output, yet the exact nature of these interactions is poorly understood. To investigate this issue, we compare the endocrine machinery underlying the winner effect (an ability to increase winning behaviour in response to past victories) in two closely related species of Peromyscus mice. Typically, after winning a fight, California mice (Peromyscus californicus) experience a testosterone (T) surge that helps enhance their future winning behaviour, whereas white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) experience neither a T surge nor a change in subsequent winning behaviour. However, our results indicate that when the post-victory T response of male white-footed mice is phenotypically engineered to resemble that of California mice, individuals are capable of developing a strong and lasting winner effect. Moreover, this 'induced' winner effect in white-footed mice qualitatively matches the winner effect that develops naturally in California mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that white-footed mice have the physiological machinery necessary to form a robust winner effect comparable to that formed by California mice, but are unable to endogenously activate this machinery after achieving winning experiences. We speculate that evolutionary processes, like selection, operate on the physiological substrates that govern post-victory T release to guide divergence in the winner effect between these two species.

  17. PREFACE: 13th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques and Applications (SLOPOS13)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    These proceedings originate from the 13th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques and Applications SLOPOS13 which was held at the campus of the Technische Universität München in Garching between 15th-20th September, 2013. This event is part of a series of triennial SLOPOS conferences. In total 123 delegates from 21 countries participated in the SLOPOS13. The excellent scientific program comprised 50 talks and 58 posters presented during two poster sessions. It was very impressive to learn about novel technical developments on positron beam facilities and the wide range of their applications all over the world. The workshop reflected the large variety of positron beam experiments covering fundamental studies, e.g., for efficient production of anti-hydrogen as well as applied research on defects in bulk materials, thin films, surfaces, and interfaces. The topics comprised: . Positron transport and beam technology . Pulsed beams and positron traps . Defect profiling in bulk and layered structures . Nanostructures, porous materials, thin films . Surfaces and interfaces . Positronium formation and emission . Positron interactions with atoms and molecules . Many positrons and anti-hydrogen . Novel experimental techniques The international advisory committee of SLOPOS awarded student prizes for the best presented scientific contributions to a team of students from Finland, France, and the NEPOMUC team at TUM. The conference was overshadowed by the sudden death of Professor Klaus Schreckenbach immediately before the workshop. In commemoration of him as a spiritus rectus of the neutron induced positron source a minutes' silence was hold. We are most grateful for the hard work of the Local Organising Committee, the help of the International Advisory Committee, and all the students for their friendly and efficient support during the meeting. The workshop could not have occurred without the generous support of the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Deutsche

  18. 77 FR 56697 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The English Prize: The...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... for Exhibition Determinations: ``The English Prize: The Capture of the Westmorland, an Episode of the..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``The English Prize:...

  19. Positron-acoustic shock waves associated with cold viscous positron fluid in superthermal electron-positron-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Uddin, M. J. Alam, M. S.; Mamun, A. A.

    2015-06-15

    A theoretical investigation is made on the positron-acoustic (PA) shock waves (SHWs) in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasma containing immobile positive ions, cold mobile positrons, and hot positrons and electrons following the kappa (κ) distribution. The cold positron kinematic viscosity is taken into account, and the reductive perturbation method is used to derive the Burgers equation. It is found that the viscous force acting on cold mobile positron fluid is a source of dissipation and is responsible for the formation of the PA SHWs. It is also observed that the fundamental properties of the PA SHWs are significantly modified by the effects of different parameters associated with superthermal (κ distributed) hot positrons and electrons.

  20. Irish Team Wins SEA & SPACE Super Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-09-01

    A secondary school team from Ireland has won a trip to Europe's Spaceport in Kourou, French Guyana, and to ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Cerro Paranal, Chile. The trip is the Super-Prize for the Sea & Space Newspaper Competition , organised within the framework of the European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture. ESO PR Photo 33/98 ESO PR Photo 33/98 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 434 pix - 568k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 1627 pix - 6.7Mb] The presentation of prize certificates to the winning Irish team (right) in Lisbon, on August 31, 1998, by ESO, ESA and EAAE representatives. Stephen Kearney, Cian Wilson (both aged 16 years), Eamonn McKeogh (aged 17 years) together with their teacher, John Daly of Blackrock College in Dublin, prepared their newspaper, Infinitus , on marine and space themes, and came first in the national round of the competition. Together with other students from all over Europe, they were invited to present their winning newspaper to a jury consisting of representatives of the organisers, during a special programme of events at the Gulbenkian Planetarium and EXPO '98 in Lisbon, from 28-31 August, 1998. The Irish team scored highly in all categories of the judging, which included scientific content and originality and creativity of the articles. Their look at Irish contributions to sea and space research also proved popular in a ballot by fellow student competitors. This vote was also taken into account by the judges. The jury was very impressed by the high quality of the national entries and there were several close runners-up. The width and depth was amazing and the variety of ideas and formats presented by the sixteen teams was enormous. A poster competition was organised for younger students, aged 10 to 13 and winning entries at national level are on display at the Oceanophilia Pavilion at EXPO '98. The SEA & SPACE project is a joint initiative of the European Space Agency (ESA) , the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , and the

  1. Ecosystems Vulnerability Challenge and Prize Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. H.; Frame, M. T.; Ferriter, O.; Recker, J.

    2014-12-01

    Stimulating innovation and private sector entrepreneurship is an important way to advance the preparedness of communities, businesses and individuals for the impacts of climate change on certain aspects of ecosystems, such as: fire regimes; water availability; carbon sequestration; biodiversity conservation; weather-related hazards, and the spread of invasive species. The creation of tools is critical to help communities and natural resource managers better understand the impacts of climate change on ecosystems and the potential resulting implications for ecosystem services and conservation efforts. The Department of the Interior is leading an interagency effort to develop the Ecosystems Vulnerability theme as part of the President's Climate Action Plan. This effort will provide seamless access to relevant datasets that can help address such issues as: risk of wildfires to local communities and federal lands; water sensitivity to climate change; and understanding the role of ecosystems in a changing climate. This session will provide an overview of the proposed Ecosystem Vulnerability Challenge and Prize Competition, outlining the intended audience, scope, goals, and overall timeline. The session will provide an opportunity for participants to offer new ideas. Through the Challenge, access will be made available to critical datasets for software developers, engineers, scientists, students, and researchers to develop and submit applications addressing critical science issues facing our Nation today. Application submission criteria and guidelines will also be discussed. The Challenge will be open to all sectors and organizations (i.e. federal, non-federal, private sector, non-profits, and universities) within the United States. It is anticipated the Challenge will run from early January 2015 until spring of 2015.

  2. Heat Deposition in Positron Sources for ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Bharadwaj, V.; Pitthan, R.; Sheppard, J.; Vincke, H.; Wang, J.W.; /SLAC

    2006-03-15

    In the International Linear Collider (ILC) positron source, multi-GeV electrons or multi-MeV photons impinge on a metal target to produce the needed positrons in the resulting electromagnetic showers. The incoming beam power is hundreds of kilowatts. Various computer programs -- such as FLUKA or MARS -- can calculate how the incoming beam showers in the target and can track the particle showers through the positron source system. Most of the incoming energy ends up as heat in the various positron source elements. This paper presents results from such calculations and their impact on the design of a positron source for the ILC.

  3. Piggyback-the-Winner in host-associated microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Cynthia B; Rohwer, Forest L

    2016-01-01

    Phages can exploit their bacterial hosts by lytic infection, when many viral particles are released at cell lysis, or by lysogeny, when phages integrate into the host's genome. We recently proposed a new dynamic model of bacteria-phage interactions in which lysogeny predominates at high microbial abundance and growth rates. This model, named Piggyback-the-Winner (PtW), contrasts to current accepted models on the frequency of lysis and lysogeny and predicts that phages integrate into their hosts' genomes as prophages when microbial abundances and growth rates are high. According to PtW, switching to the temperate life cycle reduces phage predation control on bacterial abundance and confers superinfection exclusion, preventing that a closely-related phage infects the same bacterial cell. Here we examine how PtW is important for metazoans. Specifically, we postulate that PtW and the recently described bacteriophage adherence to mucus (BAM) model are strongly interrelated and have an important role in the development of the microbiome. In BAM, phage produced by the microbiome attach to mucins and protect underlying epithelial cells from invading bacteria. Spatial structuring of the mucus creates a gradient of phage replication strategies consistent with PtW. We predict that lysogeny is favored at the top mucosal layer and lytic predation predominates in the bacteria-sparse intermediary layers. The lysogeny confers competitive advantage to commensals against niche invasion and the lytic infection eliminates potential pathogens from deeper mucus layers.

  4. Piggyback-the-Winner in host-associated microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Cynthia B; Rohwer, Forest L

    2016-01-01

    Phages can exploit their bacterial hosts by lytic infection, when many viral particles are released at cell lysis, or by lysogeny, when phages integrate into the host’s genome. We recently proposed a new dynamic model of bacteria–phage interactions in which lysogeny predominates at high microbial abundance and growth rates. This model, named Piggyback-the-Winner (PtW), contrasts to current accepted models on the frequency of lysis and lysogeny and predicts that phages integrate into their hosts’ genomes as prophages when microbial abundances and growth rates are high. According to PtW, switching to the temperate life cycle reduces phage predation control on bacterial abundance and confers superinfection exclusion, preventing that a closely-related phage infects the same bacterial cell. Here we examine how PtW is important for metazoans. Specifically, we postulate that PtW and the recently described bacteriophage adherence to mucus (BAM) model are strongly interrelated and have an important role in the development of the microbiome. In BAM, phage produced by the microbiome attach to mucins and protect underlying epithelial cells from invading bacteria. Spatial structuring of the mucus creates a gradient of phage replication strategies consistent with PtW. We predict that lysogeny is favored at the top mucosal layer and lytic predation predominates in the bacteria-sparse intermediary layers. The lysogeny confers competitive advantage to commensals against niche invasion and the lytic infection eliminates potential pathogens from deeper mucus layers. PMID:28721247

  5. Disordered eating cognitions and behaviours among slimming organization competition winners.

    PubMed

    Green, G C; Buckroyd, J

    2008-02-01

    Long-term success in weight loss treatments for obesity is elusive. The most widely used approach after diet books is slimming clubs. A percentage of members achieve dramatic and lasting weight losses. The study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of binge eating and unhealthy eating-related thought patterns among a group of highly successful weight losers. Sixty-five slimming competition winners self reported their weight history and eating habits in a semi-structured questionnaire. The Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) were also administered. Despite substantial weight loss (mean = 38%, SD = 10%) and widespread maintenance of losses, participants evidenced high levels of dietary restraint and weight, shape and eating overconcern. Emotional eating levels were significantly higher than those seen in noneating disordered populations on two of three subscales. Seventy-one per cent also reported bingeing in the past 3 months. Commercial slimming organizations should engage with broader psychological and behavioural features of obesity, including bingeing and eating-related cognitive patterns.

  6. Winners of CASMI2013: Automated Tools and Challenge Data.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Takaaki; Kasama, Takeshi; Kinumi, Tomoya; Makabe, Hidefumi; Matsuda, Fumio; Miura, Daisuke; Miyashita, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takemichi; Tanaka, Ken; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    CASMI (Critical Assessment of Small Molecule Identification) is a contest in which participants identify the molecular formula and chemical structure of challenging molecules using blind mass spectra as the challenge data. Seven research teams participated in CASMI2013. The winner of CASMI2013 was the team of Andrew Newsome and Dejan Nikolic, the University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, USA. The team identified 15 among 16 challenge molecules by manually interpreting the challenge data and by searching in-house and public mass spectral databases, and chemical substance and literature databases. MAGMa was selected as the best automated tool of CASMI2013. In some challenges, most of the automated tools successfully identified the challenge molecules, independent of the compound class and magnitude of the molecular mass. In these challenge data, all of the isotope peaks and the product ions essential for the identification were observed within the expected mass accuracy. In the other challenges, most of the automated tools failed, or identified solution candidates together with many false-positive candidates. We then analyzed these challenge data based on the quality of the mass spectra, the dissociation mechanisms, and the compound class and elemental composition of the challenge molecules.

  7. Background to the Nobel Prize to the Braggs.

    PubMed

    Liljas, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The Nobel Committees have to follow the nominations submitted for a specific year. During the early phase of X-ray crystallography, a limited number of scientists were active. In 1914 Max von Laue and William Henry Bragg were both nominated and could have been awarded a joint Nobel Prize. However, a member of the Nobel Committee for Physics, Allvar Gullstrand, was well aware of the activities in the field and strongly recommended that only von Laue should receive the prize since a main contributor, William Laurence Bragg, was not nominated. Next year, when the First World War had started, there were few nominations, but now both Braggs, father and son, were nominated. Gullstrand was very pleased and recommended them both for the 1915 Nobel Prize in Physics. The rest of the committee agreed and this then became the decision of the Royal Academy for Sciences, Stockholm.

  8. Positron microanalysis with high intensity beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hulett, L.D. Jr.; Donohue, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the more common applications for a high intensity slow positron facility will be microanalysis of solid materials. In the first section of this paper some examples are given of procedures that can be developed. Since most of the attendees of this workshop are experts in positron spectroscopy, comprehensive descriptions will be omitted. With the exception of positron emission microscopy, most of the procedures will be based on those already in common use with broad beams. The utility of the methods have all been demonstrated, but material scientists use very few of them because positron microbeams are not generally available. A high intensity positron facility will make microbeams easier to obtain and partially alleviate this situation. All microanalysis techniques listed below will have a common requirement, which is the ability to locate the microscopic detail or area of interest and to focus the positron beam exclusively on it. The last section of this paper is a suggestion of how a high intensity positron facility might be designed so as to have this capability built in. The method will involve locating the specimen by scanning it with the microbeam of positrons and inducing a secondary electron image that will immediately reveal whether or not the positron beam is striking the proper portion of the specimen. This scanning positron microscope' will be a somewhat prosaic analog of the conventional SEM. It will, however, be an indispensable utility that will enhance the practicality of positron microanalysis techniques. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Randomized Trial of Prize-Based Reinforcement Density for Simultaneous Abstinence from Cocaine and Heroin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghitza, Udi E.; Epstein, David H.; Schmittner, John; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the effect of reinforcer density in prize-based abstinence reinforcement, heroin/cocaine users (N = 116) in methadone maintenance (100 mg/day) were randomly assigned to a noncontingent control group (NonC) or to 1 of 3 groups that earned prize draws for abstinence: manual drawing with standard prize density (MS) or computerized drawing…

  10. 77 FR 58114 - SunShot Prize: Race to the Rooftop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... installation cost of rooftop solar energy systems. DATES: Registration opened on September 12, 2012, and will... about the SunShot Prize: Race to the Rooftop competition rules at eere.energy.gov/solar/sunshot/prize.html . Teams that wish to enter the competition can register at eere.energy.gov/solar/sunshot/prize...

  11. Randomized Trial of Prize-Based Reinforcement Density for Simultaneous Abstinence from Cocaine and Heroin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghitza, Udi E.; Epstein, David H.; Schmittner, John; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the effect of reinforcer density in prize-based abstinence reinforcement, heroin/cocaine users (N = 116) in methadone maintenance (100 mg/day) were randomly assigned to a noncontingent control group (NonC) or to 1 of 3 groups that earned prize draws for abstinence: manual drawing with standard prize density (MS) or computerized drawing…

  12. High intensity positron program at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Asoka-Kumar, P.; Howell, R.H.; Stoeffl, W.

    1998-09-23

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of the world's highest current beam of keV positrons. The potential for establishing a national center for materials analysis using positron annihilation techniques around this capability is being actively pursued. The high LLNL beam current will enable investigations in several new areas. We are developing a positron microprobe that will produce a pulsed, focused positron beam for 3-dimensional scans of defect size and concentration with submicron resolution. Below we summarize the important design features of this microprobe. Several experimental end stations will be available that can utilize the high current beam with a time distribution determined by the electron linac pulse structure, quasi-continuous, or bunched at 20 MHz, and can operate in an electrostatic or (and) magnetostatic environment. Some of the planned early experiments are: two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation of thin films and buried interfaces, positron diffraction holography, positron induced desorption, and positron induced Auger spectra.

  13. Slow positron beam generator for lifetime studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J. (Inventor); Eftekhari, Abe (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A slow positron beam generator uses a conductive source residing between two test films. Moderator pieces are placed next to the test film on the opposite side of the conductive source. A voltage potential is applied between the moderator pieces and the conductive source. Incident energetic positrons: (1) are emitted from the conductive source; (2) are passed through test film; and (3) isotropically strike moderator pieces before diffusing out of the moderator pieces as slow positrons, respectively. The slow positrons diffusing out of moderator pieces are attracted to the conductive source which is held at an appropriate potential below the moderator pieces. The slow positrons have to pass through the test films before reaching the conductive source. A voltage is adjusted so that the potential difference between the moderator pieces and the conductive source forces the positrons to stop in the test films. Measurable annihilation radiation is emitted from the test film when positrons annihilate (combine) with electrons in the test film.

  14. Spin polarized low-energy positron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, V. N.; Samarin, S. N.; Sudarshan, K.; Pravica, L.; Guagliardo, P.; Williams, J. F.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents an investigation of spin polarization of positrons from a source based on the decay of 22Na isotopes. Positrons are moderated by transmission through a tungsten film and electrostatically focussed and transported through a 90 deg deflector to produce a slow positron beam with polarization vector normal to the linear momentum. The polarization of the beam was determined to be about 10% by comparison with polarized electron scattering asymmetries from a thin Fe film on W(110) at 10-10 Torr. Low energy electron emission from Fe layer on W(100) surfaces under positron impact is explored. It is shown that the intensity asymmetry of the electron emission as a function of the incident positron energy can be used to estimate the polarization of the positron beam. Also several materials with long mean free paths for spin relaxation are considered as possible moderators with increased polarization of the emergent positrons.

  15. Design of the NLC positron source

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, H.; Emma, P.; Gross, G.; Kulikov, A.; Li, Z.; Miller, R.; Rinolfi, L.; Turner, J.; Yeremian, D.

    1996-08-01

    The design of the positron source for the Next Linear Collider (NLC) is presented. The key features of this design include accelerating positrons at an L-band frequency (1428 MHz) and using a rotating positron target with multi-stage differential pumping. Positron yield simulations show that the L-band design yields at the source 2.5 times the beam intensity required at the interaction point and is easily upgrade to higher intensities required for the 1 TeV NLC upgrade. Multi-bunch beam loading compensation schemes in the positron capture and booster accelerators and the optics design of the positron booster accelerator are described. For improved source efficiency, the design boasts two parallel positron vaults adequately shielded from each other such that one serves as an on-line spare.

  16. What's in a name? The Eppinger Prize and Nazi experiments.

    PubMed

    Levine, Carol

    1984-12-01

    It has come to public attention that the Eppinger Prize, established in 1973 by the West German Falk-Foundation, honors the name of a physician who experimented on inmates of the Dachau concentration camp and then committed suicide after being summoned to testify at the Nuremberg trials. Reactions from the foundation and from some physicians involved with the award have ranged from repudiation to attempts to separate Eppinger's "objectionable" methods from his contributions to science and his personal qualities. The prize has since been discontinued.

  17. Salivary hormones and anxiety in winners and losers of an international judo competition.

    PubMed

    Papacosta, Elena; Nassis, George P; Gleeson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the responses of salivary hormones and salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and anxiety in winners and losers during an international judo competition. Twenty-three trained, male, national-level judo athletes provided three saliva samples during a competition day: morning, in anticipation of competition after an overnight fast, mid-competition, and post-competition within 15 min post-fight for determination of salivary cortisol, salivary testosterone, salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio, SIgA absolute concentrations, SIgA secretion rate and saliva flow rate. The competitive state anxiety inventory questionnaire was completed by the athletes (n = 12) after the first saliva collection for determination of somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety and self-confidence. Winners were considered 1-3 ranking place (n = 12) and losers (n = 11) below third place in each weight category. Winners presented higher anticipatory salivary cortisol concentrations (p = 0.03) and a lower mid-competition salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio (p = 0.003) compared with losers with no differences for salivary testosterone. Winners tended to have higher SIgA secretion rates (p = 0.07) and higher saliva flow rates (p = 0.009) at mid-competition. Higher levels of cognitive anxiety (p = 0.02) were observed in the winners, without differences according to the outcome in somatic anxiety and self-confidence. The results suggest that winners experienced higher levels of physiological arousal and better psychological preparedness in the morning, and as the competition progressed, the winners were able to control their stress response better.

  18. Capture and polarization of positrons in a proposed NLC polarized positron source

    SciTech Connect

    Batygin, Yuri K

    2003-05-28

    A proposed NLC polarized positron source utilizes a 150 GeV electron beam passing through a helical undulator. The resulting flux of polarized photons is converted in a thin positron production target. Spin polarized positrons are captured using a high field flux concentrator followed by an accelerator section immersed in a solenoidal field. Positron tracking through the accelerating and focusing systems is done together with integration of spin precession. Optimization of the collection system is performed to insure high positron yield into the 6-dimensional acceptance of the subsequent pre-damping ring while keeping the high value of positron beam polarization.

  19. Positron confinement in embedded lithium nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Huis, M. A.; van Veen, A.; Schut, H.; Falub, C. V.; Eijt, S. W.; Mijnarends, P. E.; Kuriplach, J.

    2002-02-01

    Quantum confinement of positrons in nanoclusters offers the opportunity to obtain detailed information on the electronic structure of nanoclusters by application of positron annihilation spectroscopy techniques. In this work, positron confinement is investigated in lithium nanoclusters embedded in monocrystalline MgO. These nanoclusters were created by means of ion implantation and subsequent annealing. It was found from the results of Doppler broadening positron beam analysis that approximately 92% of the implanted positrons annihilate in lithium nanoclusters rather than in the embedding MgO, while the local fraction of lithium at the implantation depth is only 1.3 at. %. The results of two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation confirm the presence of crystalline bulk lithium. The confinement of positrons is ascribed to the difference in positron affinity between lithium and MgO. The nanocluster acts as a potential well for positrons, where the depth of the potential well is equal to the difference in the positron affinities of lithium and MgO. These affinities were calculated using the linear muffin-tin orbital atomic sphere approximation method. This yields a positronic potential step at the MgO||Li interface of 1.8 eV using the generalized gradient approximation and 2.8 eV using the insulator model.

  20. Collective stability of networks of winner-take-all circuits.

    PubMed

    Rutishauser, Ueli; Douglas, Rodney J; Slotine, Jean-Jacques

    2011-03-01

    The neocortex has a remarkably uniform neuronal organization, suggesting that common principles of processing are employed throughout its extent. In particular, the patterns of connectivity observed in the superficial layers of the visual cortex are consistent with the recurrent excitation and inhibitory feedback required for cooperative-competitive circuits such as the soft winner-take-all (WTA). WTA circuits offer interesting computational properties such as selective amplification, signal restoration, and decision making. But these properties depend on the signal gain derived from positive feedback, and so there is a critical trade-off between providing feedback strong enough to support the sophisticated computations while maintaining overall circuit stability. The issue of stability is all the more intriguing when one considers that the WTAs are expected to be densely distributed through the superficial layers and that they are at least partially interconnected. We consider how to reason about stability in very large distributed networks of such circuits. We approach this problem by approximating the regular cortical architecture as many interconnected cooperative-competitive modules. We demonstrate that by properly understanding the behavior of this small computational module, one can reason over the stability and convergence of very large networks composed of these modules. We obtain parameter ranges in which the WTA circuit operates in a high-gain regime, is stable, and can be aggregated arbitrarily to form large, stable networks. We use nonlinear contraction theory to establish conditions for stability in the fully nonlinear case and verify these solutions using numerical simulations. The derived bounds allow modes of operation in which the WTA network is multistable and exhibits state-dependent persistent activities. Our approach is sufficiently general to reason systematically about the stability of any network, biological or technological, composed of

  1. The Nobel Prize in Medicine for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Charles G.

    2004-01-01

    Nobel Prize in Medicine awarded in December 2003 to chemist Paul C. Lauterbur and physicist Peter Mansfield for the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a long overdue recognition of the huge impact MRI has had in medical diagnostics and research is mentioned. MRI was derived, and remains an extension of nuclear magnetic resonance…

  2. Lightweight Wearable Power Energized by Pentagon’s Prize Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-27

    the Virgin Earth Challenge under which Richard Branson and Al Gore are offering a prize of $25 million to anyone who can demonstrate a commercially...asserts Dr. Richard T. Fingers, Chief of the Energy Power Thermal Division at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base

  3. Reclaiming "Lost Prizes": An Interview with Ken McCluskey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bockern, Steve

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Dr. Ken McCluskey, Dean and Professor of Education at the University of Winnipeg. He is known internationally for his work in several areas including: (1) mentoring; (2) attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; (3) at-risk children and youth (where his "Lost Prizes" and related projects serve as…

  4. Whose Big Prize? A Response to Hall and Gunter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, John

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Hall and Gunter who accuse the author of trying to mount "a stout defence" of New Labour's reforms of the teaching profession. Hall and Gunter go further and accuse the author of "triumphalism" in his use of the title "Tony Blair's big prize". Their second and more…

  5. Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Prizes. Fact Sheets on Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish Inst., Stockholm.

    The life and personality of Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Prizes established by his will are discussed. Nobel was a 19th century Swedish industrialist who was fluent in six languages. He invented dynamite. At his death in 1896, his estate amounted to $9,200,000. His will stipulated that the income from his estate should be divided annually into five…

  6. The Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE Education Program

    SciTech Connect

    Robyn Ready

    2011-12-31

    The Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE Education Program conducted education and outreach activities and used the competition's technical goals and vehicle demonstrations as a means of attracting students and the public to learn more about advanced vehicle technologies, energy efficiency, climate change, alternative fuels, and the science and math behind efficient vehicle development. The Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE Education Program comprised three integrated components that were designed to educate the general public and create a multi-tiered initiative to engage students and showcase the 21st century skills students will need to compete in our global economy: teamwork, creativity, strong literacy, math and science skills, and innovative thinking. The elements included an Online Experience, a National Student Contest, and in person education events and activites. The project leveraged online connections, strategic partnerships, in-classroom, and beyond-the-classroom initiatives, as well as mainstream media. This education program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) also funded the specification of vehicle telemetry and the full development and operation of an interactive online experience that allowed internet users to follow the Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE vehicles as they performed in real-time during the Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE competition events.

  7. How Robert A. Millikan Got the Physics Nobel Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panusch, Martin; Heering, Peter; Singh, Rajinder

    2010-01-01

    In 1923, R.A. Millikan was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect. Recently, historical research had a focus on Millikan's publication practice, as well as on the role of his assistant, Harvey Fletcher. Several studies have raised doubts on whether Millikan can…

  8. The Competition "First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorzkowski, W.; Surya, Y; Zuberek, R

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the history of the competition First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics organized by Poland, its development from a national workshop in 1991/92 to an international competition nowadays and its organization, as well as the results obtained by the participants. (Contains 1 table.)

  9. An Elusive Honor: Psychology, Behavior, and the Nobel Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickren, Wade E.

    2003-01-01

    Apart from economics, the human sciences have not generally been rewarded with high honors from the world community. Psychology has been awarded the distinction of a Nobel Prize only when it has served a role in explicating human behavior in relation to economics. Yet psychological science has played no small part in the work of a number of Nobel…

  10. The Nobel Prize in Medicine for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Charles G.

    2004-01-01

    Nobel Prize in Medicine awarded in December 2003 to chemist Paul C. Lauterbur and physicist Peter Mansfield for the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a long overdue recognition of the huge impact MRI has had in medical diagnostics and research is mentioned. MRI was derived, and remains an extension of nuclear magnetic resonance…

  11. SunShot Catalyst Prize Competition Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2015-04-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Catalyst Energy Innovation Prize, an open innovation program launched in 2014 by the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. This program aims to catalyze the rapid creation and development of products and solutions that address near-term challenges in the U.S. solar energy marketplace.

  12. Physics GRE Scores of Prize Postdoctoral Fellows in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, Emily M.; Bezanson, Rachel; Tremblay, Grant

    2017-01-01

    The Physics GRE has long been a required element of the graduate admissions process in many U.S. astronomy programs; however, its predictive power and utility as a means of selection "successful" applicants had not been quantitatively examined until recently. In the fall of 2015 we circulated a short questionnaire to 271 people who have held U.S. prize postdoctoral fellowships in astrophysics between 2010-2015, asking them to report their Physics GRE scores. The response rate was 64%, and the responding sample was unbiased with respect to the overall gender distribution of prize fellows. The responses revealed that the Physics GRE scores of prize fellows do not adhere to any minimum percentile score and show no statistically significant correlation with the number of first author papers published. As an example, a Physics GRE percentile cutoff of 60% would have eliminated 44% of 2010-2015 U.S. prize postdoctoral fellows, including 60% of the female fellows. From these data, we found no evidence that the Physics GRE could be used as an effective predictor of "success" either in or beyond graduate school. Following this work and last year's official recommendation from the AAS, several astronomy departments have recently decided to eliminate the Physics GRE as a requirement for graduate applicants.

  13. What to do to win a Nobel prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foundationeer, Second; chrischievious; Hasler, John; nvrao; dedalus22; Martin

    2014-11-01

    In reply to the infographic "Illustrating a century of Nobels" and a related physicsworld.com blog post "What type of physics should you do if you want to bag a Nobel prize?" (2 October, http://ow.ly/CmCzl, see also pp22-23).

  14. Student Intern Lands Top Prize in National Science Competition | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Student intern Sam Pritt’s interest in improving geolocation led him to develop a project that won a top regional prize at the Siemens Competition in Math, Science, and Technology in November. Pritt was awarded a $3,000 college scholarship, and he competed in the national competition in early December.

  15. Cracker Jacks: "Finding the Prize" inside Each Adolescent Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerbrock, Cheryl; DiCicco, Michael; Denmon, Jennifer M.; Parke, Erin; Mead, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight several practical classroom examples of asset-driven acts of reciprocal care and content-driven community builders and icebreakers that highlight ways to "find the prize" inside each student by fostering an adolescent-centered community of care that is committed to both relationships and…

  16. Eppur Si Muove! The 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Roux, Benoit

    2013-12-03

    The 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt, and Arieh Warshel for their work on developing computational methods to study complex chemical systems. Hence, their work has led to mechanistic critical insights into chemical systems both large and small and has enabled progress in a number of different fields, including structural biology.

  17. An Elusive Honor: Psychology, Behavior, and the Nobel Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickren, Wade E.

    2003-01-01

    Apart from economics, the human sciences have not generally been rewarded with high honors from the world community. Psychology has been awarded the distinction of a Nobel Prize only when it has served a role in explicating human behavior in relation to economics. Yet psychological science has played no small part in the work of a number of Nobel…

  18. The Competition "First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorzkowski, W.; Surya, Y; Zuberek, R

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the history of the competition First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics organized by Poland, its development from a national workshop in 1991/92 to an international competition nowadays and its organization, as well as the results obtained by the participants. (Contains 1 table.)

  19. Whose Big Prize? A Response to Hall and Gunter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, John

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Hall and Gunter who accuse the author of trying to mount "a stout defence" of New Labour's reforms of the teaching profession. Hall and Gunter go further and accuse the author of "triumphalism" in his use of the title "Tony Blair's big prize". Their second and more…

  20. Defining Excellence: Lessons from the 2013 Aspen Prize Finalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspen Institute, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In many respects, one couldn't find a group of 10 schools more diverse than the finalists for the 2013 Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence. One community college serves 1,500 students, another 56,000. There are institutions devoted primarily--even solely--to technical degrees, and ones devoted mainly to preparing students for further…

  1. Pat Thiel talks about attending the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony

    ScienceCinema

    Thiel, Pat

    2016-07-12

    Pat Thiel, Ames Laboratory senior scientist and Iowa State University Distinguished Professor of Chemistry, was invited to be a guest at the ceremony on December 10th, in Stockholm, Sweden, where Danny Shechtman, Ames Laboratory scientist, received the 2011 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Following her return to the Lab, Thiel shared some of her recollections of the momentous event.

  2. How Robert A. Millikan Got the Physics Nobel Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panusch, Martin; Heering, Peter; Singh, Rajinder

    2010-01-01

    In 1923, R.A. Millikan was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect. Recently, historical research had a focus on Millikan's publication practice, as well as on the role of his assistant, Harvey Fletcher. Several studies have raised doubts on whether Millikan can…

  3. Tight Focus on Instruction Wins Texas District Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2009-01-01

    It took a while for four-time finalist Aldine, Texas, to win the Broad Prize for Urban Education. But it took even longer to craft the system that ultimately put the district over the top. Educators in Aldine district have been working for more than a decade to refine their "managed instruction" system. Reviewers examined how the school…

  4. The 2013 Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlstein, Linda

    2013-01-01

    For millions of Americans, community colleges provide an essential pathway to well-paying jobs and continuing higher education. The Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence honors those institutions that strive for and achieve exceptional levels of success for all students, while they are in college and after they graduate. Community colleges…

  5. Harry Smith — recipient of the 2008 Molecular Ecology Prize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Harry Smith is a scholar, mentor, internationally renowned researcher, eloquent speaker and author, pioneering journal editor and highly valued colleague who has contributed greatly in multiple ways to plant science and the community. He richly deserves the honour of the Molecular Ecology Prize....

  6. Cracker Jacks: "Finding the Prize" inside Each Adolescent Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerbrock, Cheryl; DiCicco, Michael; Denmon, Jennifer M.; Parke, Erin; Mead, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight several practical classroom examples of asset-driven acts of reciprocal care and content-driven community builders and icebreakers that highlight ways to "find the prize" inside each student by fostering an adolescent-centered community of care that is committed to both relationships and…

  7. "Not Censorship but Selection": Censorship and/as Prizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    This essay calls for a fresh critical approach to the topic of censorship, suggesting that anticensorship efforts, while important and necessary, function much like literary prizing. The analysis draws especially on James English's recent study "The Economy of Prestige." There are two central arguments: first, that the librarian ethic of…

  8. Student Intern Lands Top Prize in National Science Competition | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Student intern Sam Pritt’s interest in improving geolocation led him to develop a project that won a top regional prize at the Siemens Competition in Math, Science, and Technology in November. Pritt was awarded a $3,000 college scholarship, and he competed in the national competition in early December.

  9. Prizes in Cereal Boxes: An Application of Probability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litwiller, Bonnie H.; Duncan, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents four cases of real-world probabilistic situations to promote more effective teaching of probability. Calculates the probability of obtaining six of six different prizes successively in six, seven, eight, and nine boxes of cereal, generalizes the problem to n boxes of cereal, and offers suggestions to extend the problem. (MDH)

  10. Supporting Military Veteran Students: Early Lessons from Kohlberg Prize Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Melinda Mechur; Klempin, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Postsecondary education participation is critical for military-connected individuals as they transition back to civilian life. The Kisco Foundation's Kohlberg Prize, a competitive grant awarded in 2015 and 2016, is aimed at making community colleges more welcoming and better able to meet the needs of veteran students. This review details the early…

  11. Training Quality: Before and after Winning the Deming Prize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magennis, Jo P.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the Quality Improvement Program developed by Florida Power and Light's Nuclear Training organization that was awarded the Deming Application Prize for quality control. Training quality, team activities, training's role in business planning, customer involvement and evaluation, and continuous improvement of training are discussed. (LRW)

  12. "Not Censorship but Selection": Censorship and/as Prizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    This essay calls for a fresh critical approach to the topic of censorship, suggesting that anticensorship efforts, while important and necessary, function much like literary prizing. The analysis draws especially on James English's recent study "The Economy of Prestige." There are two central arguments: first, that the librarian ethic of…

  13. Pat Thiel talks about attending the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Pat Thiel, Ames Laboratory senior scientist and Iowa State University Distinguished Professor of Chemistry, was invited to be a guest at the ceremony on December 10th, in Stockholm, Sweden, where Danny Shechtman, Ames Laboratory scientist, received the 2011 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Following her return to the Lab, Thiel shared some of her recollections of the momentous event.

  14. Nonplanar positron-acoustic Gardner solitary waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas with superthermal electrons and positrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, M. J.; Alam, M. S.; Mamun, A. A.

    2015-02-01

    Nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) positron-acoustic (PA) Gardner solitary waves (SWs) in an unmagnetized plasma system consisting of immobile positive ions, mobile cold positrons, and superthermal (kappa distributed) hot positrons and electrons are investigated. The modified Gardner equation is derived by using the reductive perturbation technique. The effects of cylindrical and spherical geometries, superthermal parameter of hot positrons and electrons, relative temperature ratios, and relative number density ratios on the PA Gardner SWs are studied by using the numerical simulations. The implications of our results in various space and laboratory plasma environments are briefly discussed.

  15. Nonplanar positron-acoustic Gardner solitary waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas with superthermal electrons and positrons

    SciTech Connect

    Uddin, M. J. Alam, M. S.; Mamun, A. A.

    2015-02-15

    Nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) positron-acoustic (PA) Gardner solitary waves (SWs) in an unmagnetized plasma system consisting of immobile positive ions, mobile cold positrons, and superthermal (kappa distributed) hot positrons and electrons are investigated. The modified Gardner equation is derived by using the reductive perturbation technique. The effects of cylindrical and spherical geometries, superthermal parameter of hot positrons and electrons, relative temperature ratios, and relative number density ratios on the PA Gardner SWs are studied by using the numerical simulations. The implications of our results in various space and laboratory plasma environments are briefly discussed.

  16. Positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, Alex; Koymen, A. R.; Mehl, David; Jensen, K. O.; Lei, Chun; Lee, K. H.

    1990-01-01

    Recently, Weiss et al. have demonstrated that it is possible to excite Auger transitions by annihilating core electrons using a low energy (less than 30eV) beam of positrons. This mechanism makes possible a new electron spectroscopy, Positron annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES). The probability of exciting an Auger transition is proportional to the overlap of the positron wavefunction with atomic core levels. Since the Auger electron energy provides a signature of the atomic species making the transition, PAES makes it possible to determine the overlap of the positron wavefunction with a particular element. PAES may therefore provide a means of detecting positron-atom complexes. Measurements of PAES intensities from clean and adsorbate covered Cu surfaces are presented which indicate that approx. 5 percent of positrons injected into CU at 25eV produce core annihilations that result in Auger transitions.

  17. Duncan Tanner Essay Prize Winner 2014. Against the 'Sacred Cow': NHS Opposition and the Fellowship for Freedom in Medicine, 1948-72.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This essay recovers organized opposition to the National Health Service (NHS) by considering the Fellowship for Freedom in Medicine (FFM), a conservative organization of doctors who challenged the 'Sacred Cow' of nationalized healthcare in the 1950s and 1960s. While there has been little interest in anti-NHS politics because of shortcomings in the institution's historiography, this study suggests ways a new history of the service can be written. Central to that project is taking the broader ideological and emotive quality of the NHS seriously, and appreciating the way, for all sides of the political spectrum, as well as the general public, the service has always been a contested symbol of post-war British identity. This essay argues that two NHS 'crises'--panics over costs, and disillusionment within general practice--were not merely disagreements over budgets and pay-packets but politically charged moments infused with conservative anxieties over Britain's post-war trajectory. The FFM imagined the NHS as an economically dangerous bureaucratic machine that crushed medical independence and risked pushing the country towards dictatorship. Allies within the Conservative Party, private health insurance industry, and free-market 'think-tanks' worked with the FFM to challenge defences of both the service's operation and meaning. To appreciate why the NHS remains 'the closest thing the English have to a religion', one must consider the apostates as well as the faithful.

  18. Muller's Nobel Prize Lecture: when ideology prevailed over science.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Edward J

    2012-03-01

    This paper extends and confirms the report of Calabrese (Calabrese, E. J. (2011b). Muller's Nobel Lecture on dose-response for ionizing radiation: Ideology or science? Arch. Toxicol. 85, 1495-1498) that Hermann J. Muller knowingly made deceptive comments in his 1946 Nobel Prize Lecture (Muller, H. J. (1946). Nobel Prize Lecture. Stockholm, Sweden. Available at http://www.nobelprize.org/. Accessed December 12) concerning the dose-response. Supporting a linearity perspective, Muller stated there is "no escape from the conclusion that there is no threshold" while knowing the results of a recent study by Ernst Caspari and Curt Stern contradicted these comments. Recently uncovered private correspondence between Muller and Stern reveals Muller's scientific assessment of the Caspari and Stern manuscript in a letter from Muller to Stern 5 weeks (14 January 1947) after his Nobel Prize Lecture of 12 December 1946. Muller indicated that the manuscript was of acceptable scientific quality; he indicated the manuscript should be published, but the findings needed replication because it significantly challenged the linearity hypothesis. These findings complement the previous letter (12 November 1946 letter from Muller to Stern), which revealed that Muller received the Caspari and Stern manuscript, recognized it as significant, and recommended its replication 5 weeks before his Nobel Prize Lecture. Muller therefore supported this position immediately before and after his Nobel Prize Lecture. Muller's opinions on the Caspari and Stern manuscript therefore had not changed during the time leading up to his Lecture, supporting the premise that his Lecture comments were deceptive. These findings are of historical and practical significance because Muller's comments were a notable contributory factor, changing how risks would be assessed for carcinogens (i.e., changing from a threshold to a linear model) throughout the 20th century to the present.

  19. Recent Advances in Electron and Positron Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Clendenin, James E

    2000-07-20

    Recent advances in electron and positron sources have resulted in new capabilities driven in most cases by the increasing demands of advanced accelerating systems. Electron sources for brighter beams and for high average-current beams are described. The status and remaining challenges for polarized electron beams are also discussed. For positron sources, recent activity in the development of polarized positron beams for future colliders is reviewed. Finally, a new proposal for combining laser cooling with beam polarization is presented.

  20. Positron study of annealing of gallium arsenide

    SciTech Connect

    Rice-Evans, P.C.; Smith, D.L.; Evans, H.E.; Gledhill, G.A. )

    1991-02-01

    A positron beam has been used to investigate the sub-surface changes in semi-insulating gallium arsenide which had been annealed to a range of temperatures. The variations of the Doppler S parameter as a function of positron implantation energy, when subjected to a diffusion analysis, indicate variations in positron trapping at different depths. The results indicate the changes in the type of point defect that accompany the annealing.

  1. Lord Rutherford of Nelson, his 1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, and why he didn't get a second prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarlskog, Cecilia

    2008-11-01

    'I have dealt with many different transformations with various periods of time, but the quickest that I have met was my own transformation in one moment from a physicist to a chemist.' Ernest Rutherford (Nobel Banquet, 1908) This article is about how Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) got the 1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry and why he did not get a second Prize for his subsequent outstanding discoveries in physics, specially the discovery of the atomic nucleus and the proton. Who were those who nominated him and who did he nominate for the Nobel Prizes? In order to put the Prize issue into its proper context, I will briefly describe Rutherford's whereabouts. Rutherford, an exceptionally gifted scientist who revolutionized chemistry and physics, was moulded in the finest classical tradition. What were his opinions on some scientific issues such as Einstein's photon, uncertainty relations and the future prospects for atomic energy? What would he have said about the 'Theory of Everything'? Extended version of an invited talk presented at the conference 'Neutrino 2008', Christchurch, NZ, 25-31 May 2008

  2. Initial results of positron ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, D. L.; Hulett, L. D., Jr.; Mcluckey, S. A.; Glish, G. L.; Eckenrode, B. A.

    1990-01-01

    The use of monoenergetic positrons for the ionization of organic molecules in the gas phase is described. The ionic products are analyzed with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and detected to produce a mass spectrum. The ionization mechanisms which can be studied in this way include positron impact at energies above the ionization limit of the target molecules, positronium formation in the Ore gap energy range, and positron attachment at energies less than 1eV. The technique of positron ionization mass spectrometry (PIMS) may have analytical utility in that chemical selectivity is observed for one or more of these processes.

  3. KEK-IMSS Slow Positron Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyodo, T.; Wada, K.; Yagishita, A.; Kosuge, T.; Saito, Y.; Kurihara, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Shirakawa, A.; Sanami, T.; Ikeda, M.; Ohsawa, S.; Kakihara, K.; Shidara, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Slow Positron Facility at the Institute of Material Structure Science (IMSS) of High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) is a user dedicated facility with an energy tunable (0.1 - 35 keV) slow positron beam produced by a dedicated 55MeV linac. The present beam line branches have been used for the positronium time-of-flight (Ps-TOF) measurements, the transmission positron microscope (TPM) and the photo-detachment of Ps negative ions (Ps-). During the year 2010, a reflection high-energy positron diffraction (RHEPD) measurement station is going to be installed. The slow positron generator (converter/ moderator) system will be modified to get a higher slow positron intensity, and a new user-friendly beam line power-supply control and vacuum monitoring system is being developed. Another plan for this year is the transfer of a 22Na-based slow positron beam from RIKEN. This machine will be used for the continuous slow positron beam applications and for the orientation training of those who are interested in beginning researches with a slow positron beam.

  4. Applications and advances of positron beam spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, R., LLNL

    1998-03-18

    Over 50 scientists from DOE-DP, DOE-ER, the national laboratories, academia and industry attended a workshop held on November 5-7, 1997 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Workshop participants were charged to address two questions: Is there a need for a national center for materials analysis using positron techniques and can the capabilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory serve this need. To demonstrate the need for a national center, the workshop participants discussed the technical advantages enabled by high positron currents and advanced measurement techniques, the role that these techniques would play in materials analysis and the demand for the data. Livermore now leads the world in materials analysis capabilities by positrons due to developments in response to demands of stockpile stewardship. The Livermore facilities now include the world`s highest current beam of keV positrons, a scanning pulsed positron microprobe under development capable of three dimensional maps of defect size and concentration, an MeV positron beam for defect analysis of large samples, and electron momentum spectroscopy by positrons. It was concluded that the positron microprobe under development at LLNL and other new instruments that would be relocated at LLNL at the high current keV source are an exciting step forward in providing results for the positron technique. These new data will impact a wide variety of applications.

  5. Engagement of National Winners of the 2006 All-USA Community College Academic Team while Attending Senior Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley, Rod; King, Stephanie B.

    2012-01-01

    All-USA Community College Academic Team national winners attending senior colleges were compared with both a general population of community college transfer students as well as senior college native students based on their responses to the National Survey on Student Engagement (NSSE). Results indicated that the national winners' levels of…

  6. A Winner Determination Algorithm for Combinatorial Auctions Based on Hybrid Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Genrang; Lin, ZhengChun

    The problem of winner determination in combinatorial auctions is a hotspot electronic business, and a NP hard problem. A Hybrid Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm(HAFSA), which is combined with First Suite Heuristic Algorithm (FSHA) and Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm (AFSA), is proposed to solve the problem after probing it base on the theories of AFSA. Experiment results show that the HAFSA is a rapidly and efficient algorithm for The problem of winner determining. Compared with Ant colony Optimization Algorithm, it has a good performance with broad and prosperous application.

  7. Positronic complexes with unnatural parity

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, M. W. J.; Mitroy, J.; Varga, K.

    2007-06-15

    The structure of the unnatural parity states of PsH, LiPs, NaPs, and KPs are investigated with the configuration interaction and stochastic variational methods. The binding energies (in hartree) are found to be 8.17x10{sup -4}, 4.42x10{sup -4}, 15.14x10{sup -4}, and 21.80x10{sup -4}, respectively. These states are constructed by first coupling the two electrons into a configuration which is predominantly {sup 3}P{sup e}, and then adding a p-wave positron. All the active particles are in states in which the relative angular momentum between any pair of particles is at least L=1. The LiPs state is Borromean since there are no three-body bound subsystems (of the correct symmetry) of the (Li{sup +}, e{sup -}, e{sup -}, e{sup +}) particles that make up the system. The dominant decay mode of these states will be radiative decay into a configuration that autoionizes or undergoes positron annihilation.

  8. Distribution of positron annihilation radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Peter A.

    2006-10-01

    The SPI instrument on-board the ESA/INTEGRAL satellite is engaged in a mission-long study of positron annihilation radiation from the Galaxy. Early results suggest that the disk component is only weakly detected at 511 keV by SPI. We review CGRO/OSSE, TGRS and SMM studies of 511 keV line and positronium continuum emission from the Galaxy in light of the early INTEGRAL/SPI findings. We find that when similar spatial distributions are compared, combined fits to the OSSE/SMM/TGRS data-sets produce bulge and disk fluxes similar in total flux and in B/D ratio to the fits reported for SPI observations. We further find that the 511 keV line width reported by SPI is similar to the values reported by TGRS, particularly when spectral fits include both narrow-line and broad-line components. Collectively, the consistency between these four instruments suggests that all may be providing an accurate view of positron annihilation in the Galaxy.

  9. De-identification Methods for Open Health Data: The Case of the Heritage Health Prize Claims Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Arbuckle, Luk; Koru, Gunes; Eze, Benjamin; Gaudette, Lisa; Neri, Emilio; Rose, Sean; Howard, Jeremy; Gluck, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Background There are many benefits to open datasets. However, privacy concerns have hampered the widespread creation of open health data. There is a dearth of documented methods and case studies for the creation of public-use health data. We describe a new methodology for creating a longitudinal public health dataset in the context of the Heritage Health Prize (HHP). The HHP is a global data mining competition to predict, by using claims data, the number of days patients will be hospitalized in a subsequent year. The winner will be the team or individual with the most accurate model past a threshold accuracy, and will receive a US $3 million cash prize. HHP began on April 4, 2011, and ends on April 3, 2013. Objective To de-identify the claims data used in the HHP competition and ensure that it meets the requirements in the US Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy Rule. Methods We defined a threshold risk consistent with the HIPAA Privacy Rule Safe Harbor standard for disclosing the competition dataset. Three plausible re-identification attacks that can be executed on these data were identified. For each attack the re-identification probability was evaluated. If it was deemed too high then a new de-identification algorithm was applied to reduce the risk to an acceptable level. We performed an actual evaluation of re-identification risk using simulated attacks and matching experiments to confirm the results of the de-identification and to test sensitivity to assumptions. The main metric used to evaluate re-identification risk was the probability that a record in the HHP data can be re-identified given an attempted attack. Results An evaluation of the de-identified dataset estimated that the probability of re-identifying an individual was .0084, below the .05 probability threshold specified for the competition. The risk was robust to violations of our initial assumptions. Conclusions It was possible to ensure that the probability of re

  10. Positron collisions with alkali-metal atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gien, T. T.

    1990-01-01

    The total cross sections for positron and electron collisions with potassium, sodium, lithium and rubidium are calculated, employing the modified Glauber approximation. The Modified Glauber cross sections for positron collision with potassium and sodium at low intermediate energies are found to agree reasonably well with existing experimental data.

  11. Electron and Positron Stopping Powers of Materials

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 7 NIST Electron and Positron Stopping Powers of Materials (PC database for purchase)   The EPSTAR database provides rapid calculations of stopping powers (collisional, radiative, and total), CSDA ranges, radiation yields and density effect corrections for incident electrons or positrons with kinetic energies from 1 keV to 10 GeV, and for any chemically defined target material.

  12. Ionisation of atomic hydrogen by positron impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spicher, Gottfried; Olsson, Bjorn; Raith, Wilhelm; Sinapius, Guenther; Sperber, Wolfgang

    1990-01-01

    With the crossed beam apparatus the relative impact-ionization cross section of atomic hydrogen by positron impact was measured. A layout of the scattering region is given. The first measurements on the ionization of atomic hydrogen by positron impact are also given.

  13. Compact Positron Tomograph for Prostate Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Qi, W. Moses, R. Huesman, and T. Budinger, at "Conceptual design of a compact positron tomograph for prostate imag- Cr 3000 ing’ IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci...35, pp. 598-602, 1988.2000 [4] L. E. Adam, J. S. Karp, and G. Brix , "Investigation of scattered radiotion in 3D whole-body positron emission using

  14. 21 CFR 892.1110 - Positron camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Positron camera. 892.1110 Section 892.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1110 Positron camera. (a) Identification. A...

  15. 21 CFR 892.1110 - Positron camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Positron camera. 892.1110 Section 892.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1110 Positron camera. (a) Identification. A...

  16. 21 CFR 892.1110 - Positron camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Positron camera. 892.1110 Section 892.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1110 Positron camera. (a) Identification. A...

  17. 21 CFR 892.1110 - Positron camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Positron camera. 892.1110 Section 892.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1110 Positron camera. (a) Identification. A...

  18. 21 CFR 892.1110 - Positron camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Positron camera. 892.1110 Section 892.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1110 Positron camera. (a) Identification. A...

  19. The Truly Conventional Positron Source for Ilc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omori, Tsunehiko; Urakawa, Junji; Takahashi, Tohru; Kawada, Shin-Ichi; Riemann, Sabine; Gai, Wei; Liu, Wanming; Gao, Jie; Pei, Guoxi; Okuda, Natsuki; Ushakov, Andriy

    2013-10-01

    We propose the conventional positron source driven by a several-GeV electron beam for ILC. Thermal load of the positron production target was a risk of the conventional positron source. To cure it, we employ a 300 Hz electron linac to create positrons with stretched pulse length. In ILC, the bunch timing structures and pulse timing structures can be diffecent in the positron source, in the DR, and in the main linac. We have some flexibility to choose timing structures in positron source and we use it for time stretching. ILC requires about 2600 bunches in a train in the main linac which pulse length is 1 ms. In the conventional source, about 130 positron bunches are created by each pulse of the 300Hz linac. Then 2600 bunches are created in 63 ms. We optimized parameters such as drive beam energy, beam size on the target, and target thickness to maximize the capture efficiency and to mitigate the target thermal load. A slow rotating tungsten disk is employed as positron production target.

  20. On the method of positron lifetime measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiyama, F.; Shizuma, K.; Nasai, H.; Nishi, M.

    1983-01-01

    A fast-slow coincidence system was constructed for the measurement of positron lifetimes in material. The time resolution of this system was 270 ps for the (60)Co gamma rays. Positron lifetime spectra for 14 kinds of alkali halides were measured with this system. Two lifetime components and their intensities were derived from analyses of the lifetime spectra.

  1. Nondestructive examination using neutron activated positron annihilation

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.; Denison, Arthur B.

    2001-01-01

    A method is provided for performing nondestructive examination of a metal specimen using neutron activated positron annihilation wherein the positron emitter source is formed within the metal specimen. The method permits in situ nondestructive examination and has the advantage of being capable of performing bulk analysis to determine embrittlement, fatigue and dislocation within a metal specimen.

  2. Applications of slow positrons to cancer research: Search for selectivity of positron annihilation to skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, Y. C.; Li, Ying; Liu, Gaung; Chen, Hongmin; Zhang, Junjie; Gadzia, Joseph E.

    2006-02-01

    Slow positrons and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) have been applied to medical research in searching for positron annihilation selectivity to cancer cells. We report the results of positron lifetime and Doppler broadening energy spectroscopies in human skin samples with and without cancer as a function of positron incident energy (up to 8 μm depth) and found that the positronium annihilates at a significantly lower rate and forms at a lower probability in the samples having either basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) than in the normal skin. The significant selectivity of positron annihilation to skin cancer may open a new research area of developing positron annihilation spectroscopy as a novel medical tool to detect cancer formation externally and non-invasively at the early stages.

  3. Design Issues for the ILC Positron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Bharadwaj, V.; Batygin, Yu.K.; Pitthan, R.; Schultz, D.C.; Sheppard, J.; Vincke, H.; Wang, J.W.; Gronberg, J.; Stein, W.; /LLNL, Livermore

    2006-02-15

    A positron source for the International Linear Collider (ILC) can be designed using either a multi-GeV electron beam or a multi-MeV photon beam impinging on a metal target. The major design issues are: choice of drive beam and its generation, choice of target material, the target station, positron capture section, target vault and beam transport to the ILC positron damping ring complex. This paper lists the ILC positron source requirements and their implications for the design of the positron source. A conceptual design for the ILC is expected to be finished in the next two years. With emphasis on this timescale, source design issues and possible solutions are discussed.

  4. Positron beam studies of transients in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beling, C. D.; Ling, C. C.; Cheung, C. K.; Naik, P. S.; Zhang, J. D.; Fung, S.

    2006-02-01

    Vacancy-sensing positron deep level transient spectroscopy (PDLTS) is a positron beam-based technique that seeks to provide information on the electronic ionization levels of vacancy defects probed by the positron through the monitoring of thermal transients. The experimental discoveries leading to the concept of vacancy-sensing PDLTS are first reviewed. The major problem associated with this technique is discussed, namely the strong electric fields establish in the near surface region of the sample during the thermal transient which tend to sweep positrons into the contact with negligible defect trapping. New simulations are presented which suggest that under certain conditions a sufficient fraction of positrons may be trapped into ionizing defects rendering PDLTS technique workable. Some suggestions are made for techniques that might avoid the problematic electric field problem, such as optical-PDLTS where deep levels are populated using light and the use of high forward bias currents for trap filling.

  5. Simulation of a Positron Source for CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    S. Golge; A. Freyberger; C. Hyde-Wright

    2007-08-01

    A positron source for the 6 GeV (or the proposed 12 GeV upgrade) recirculating linacs at Jefferson Lab is presented. The proposed 100nA CW positron source has several unique characteristics; high incident beam power (100kW), 10 MeV incident electron beam energy, CW incident beam and CW production. Positron production with 10 MeV electrons has several advantages; the energy is below neutron threshold so the production target will not become activated during use and the absolute energy spread is bounded by the low incident energy. These advantages are offset by the large angular distribution of the outgoing positrons. Results of simulations of the positron production, capture, acceleration and injection into the recirculating linac are presented. Energy flow and thermal management of the production target present a challenge and are included in the simulations.

  6. Values most extolled in Nobel Peace Prize speeches.

    PubMed

    Kinnier, Richard T; Kernes, Jerry L; Hayman, Jessie Wetherbe; Flynn, Patricia N; Simon, Elia; Kilian, Laura A

    2007-11-01

    The authors randomly selected 50 Nobel Peace Prize speeches and content analyzed them to determine which values the speakers extolled most frequently. The 10 most frequently mentioned values were peace (in 100% of the speeches), hope (92%), security (86%), justice (85%), responsibility (81%), liberty (80%), tolerance (79%), altruism (75%), God (49%), and truth (38%). The authors discuss the interplay of these values in the modern world and implications regarding the search for universal moral values.

  7. The American Orthodontics BOS MOrth Cases Prize 2005.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Nadine

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes the orthodontic treatment of two cases that were successfully entered for the 2005 American Orthodontics MOrth Cases Prize. The first case is that of a patient presenting with a Class II division 2 malocclusion treated with upper and lower fixed appliances plus headgear. The second case demonstrates the use of a twin-block appliance, followed by fixed appliances to correct a moderate Class II division 1 malocclusion.

  8. Selecting Quality Literature for Your Child: Lessons from the Caldecott Award Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Lois W.

    The Caldecott Awards are presented annually for the most distinguished American picture book(s) published for children. Invariably these books are well written and illustrated and frequently touch an inner core. Here are some of the messages the Caldecott winners can pass along: a book should be a pleasure to hear; a book should help a child…

  9. 2016 Federal Green Challenge Award Winners in the Great Lakes Region

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016 FGC award winners in the Great Lakes region: Mpls. Veterans Affairs (VA) Healthcare System, MN National Guard, U.S. EPA Mid-Continent Ecology Division, U.S. Customs and Border Protection Detroit Field Office, and Naval Station Great Lakes.

  10. ACCE/ACS National Educator and Leader of the Year Winners: AEC Congratulates These Outstanding Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Educational Computing, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the ACCE/ACS National Educator and Leader of the Year winners. Anne Mirtschin is the recipient of the ACCE/ACS 2012 Educator of the Year Award. Mirtschin is an innovative teacher at Hawkesdale P-12 College a small rural school that is isolated culturally and geographically. She uses online tools and technology to create…

  11. Permanence and Stability of a Kill the Winner Model in Marine Ecology.

    PubMed

    Korytowski, Daniel A; Smith, Hal

    2017-05-01

    We focus on the long-term dynamics of "killing the winner" Lotka-Volterra models of marine communities consisting of bacteria, virus, and zooplankton. Under suitable conditions, it is shown that there is a unique equilibrium with all populations present which is stable, the system is permanent, and the limiting behavior of its solutions is strongly constrained.

  12. Excellence in Workplace Literacy, Large Business Winner, 2001: The North West Company. Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Alison

    The North West Company (NWC), which is the leading retailer of food and everyday products and services to remote communities across northern Canada and Alaska, was the large business winner of the Excellence in Workplace Literacy award in 2001. NWC's workplace literacy program was selected for an award because of the improvements it brought, not…

  13. Pegasus5 is Co-Winner of NASA's 2016 Software of the Year Award

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-04

    Shareable video highlighting the Pegasus5 software, which was the co-winner of the NASA's 2016 Software of the Year award. Developed at NASA Ames, it helps in the simulation of air flow around space vehicles during launch and re-entry.

  14. ACCE/ACS National Educator and Leader of the Year Winners: AEC Congratulates These Outstanding Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Educational Computing, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the ACCE/ACS National Educator and Leader of the Year winners. Anne Mirtschin is the recipient of the ACCE/ACS 2012 Educator of the Year Award. Mirtschin is an innovative teacher at Hawkesdale P-12 College a small rural school that is isolated culturally and geographically. She uses online tools and technology to create…

  15. The Greatest Story Never Told: An Interview with National Book Award Winner Phillip Hoose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Marc

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Phillip Hoose, National Book Award winner for young people's literature for his book "Claudette Colvin: Twice Toward Justice," a true story of a teen who refused to surrender her seat to a white passenger on a segregated bus in Montgomery, Alabama. Hoose is no stranger to the world of literary honors. His…

  16. Winners of the First 1960 Televised Presidential Debate between Kennedy and Nixon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Sidney

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the events, studies, and comments (from 1960 to the present) regarding the controversial question of who won the first 1960 televised debate between John F. Kennedy and Richard M. Nixon. Supports the view that, for television viewers, Kennedy was the winner, whereas radio listeners gave Nixon the edge. (SR)

  17. Winners and losers. Corporate tax overhaul would have very different effects for various healthcare sectors.

    PubMed

    Kutscher, Beth

    2013-04-15

    Washington is in the mood for a corporate tax overhaul, but not every segment of healthcare will like the result. One proposed change cracks down on opportunities for companies to shift profits on intellectual property to countries with lower tax rates---a tactic frequently deployed by the pharmaceutical industry. Providers and insurers would be winners under the proposals.

  18. CEFPI 2000 Design Portfolio: James D. MacConnell Award Winner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facility Planner, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents an architectural description of the Edmonds-Woodway High School (Washington), winner of the James D. MacConnel Award from the Council of Educational Facility Planners, International. Photos, floor plans, and project data and school statistics are included. (GR)

  19. Coretta Scott King Award Winner Javaka Steptoe Stands Tall "In Daddy's Arms."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Jackie; Hendershot, Judy

    1999-01-01

    Offers an interview with artist and author Javaka Steptoe, winner of the Coretta Scott King award for his book "In Daddy's Arms I Am Tall: African Americans Celebrating Fathers." Discusses his background in the arts, the variety of media he uses, how he begins thinking about his illustrations, his work with children's art, and aspects of his work.…

  20. The Great Unknown: Daniel Handler Interviews National Book Award-Winner Judy Blundell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handler, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an interview with National Book Award-winner Judy Blundell. For nearly 20 years, Blundell has toiled in anonymity, turning out more than 100 mysteries, romances, and media tie-ins under various pen names, such as Jude Watson. But in mid-November, the writer-for-hire was suddenly shoved into the spotlight. That's when "What I…

  1. University of Maryland Named Winner of EPA Campus RainWorks Challenge

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PHILADELPHIA (April 22, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced the University of Maryland as a winner of its third annual Campus RainWorks Challenge, a design competition created to engage college and university students in r

  2. The Great Unknown: Daniel Handler Interviews National Book Award-Winner Judy Blundell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handler, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an interview with National Book Award-winner Judy Blundell. For nearly 20 years, Blundell has toiled in anonymity, turning out more than 100 mysteries, romances, and media tie-ins under various pen names, such as Jude Watson. But in mid-November, the writer-for-hire was suddenly shoved into the spotlight. That's when "What I…

  3. 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, P. B.

    2015-01-01

    It is a great honor to receive the 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize, here at the 25th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. On behalf of everyone involved in this work, I would like to thank the IAEA, the Nuclear Fusion journal team, the IOP, and specifically Mitsuru Kikuchi, for their support of this important award. I would also like to acknowledge the many important contributions made by the other ten papers nominated for this prize. Our paper investigates the physics of the H-mode pedestal in tokamaks, specifically the development of a predictive understanding of the pedestal structure based on electromagnetic instabilities which constrain it, and the testing of the resulting theoretical model (EPED) against detailed observations on multiple devices. In addition to making pedestal predictions for existing devices, the paper also presents predictions for ITER, including methods for optimizing its pedestal height and fusion performance. What made this work possible, and indeed a pleasure to be involved with, was an extensive set of collaborations, including theory-experiment, multi-institutional, and international collaborations. Many of these collaborations have gone on for over a decade, and have been fostered in part by the ITPA Pedestal Group. The eight authors of this paper, from five institutions, all made important contributions. Rich Groebner, Tom Osborne and Tony Leonard carried out dedicated experiments and data analysis on the DIII-D tokamak, testing the EPED model over a very wide range of parameters. Jerry Hughes led dedicated experiments on Alcator C-Mod which tested the model at high magnetic field and pedestal pressure. Marc Beurskens carried out experiments and data analysis on the JET tokamak, testing the model at large scale. Xueqiao Xu conducted two-fluid studies of diamagnetic stabilization, which enabled a more accurate treatment of this important effect. Finally, Howard Wilson and I have been working together for many years to develop analytic formalism

  4. [Advances in the investigation of structure and function of G protein-coupled receptors (by awarding the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2012 to Robert Lefkowitz and Bryan Kobilka)].

    PubMed

    Shpakov, A O

    2013-01-01

    The Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2012 was awarded to Robert Lefkowitz and Bryan Kobilka "for studies in G-protein-coupled receptors" (GPCR). In this review the most important discoveries of these Nobel Prize winners dealing with investigation of the structure and functions of GPCR were discussed and analyzed. In the 1980s, they were the first in the world to clone GPCR--the 32-adrenergic receptor. After 20 years, the team led by B. Kobilka for the first time prepared this receptor in the crystalline form and established its three-dimensional structure. In these studies, unique approaches for purification and crystallization of other receptors were developed. In 1980s, R. Lefkowitz and his colleagues discovered beta-arrestins that regulate signal transduction occurring via GPCR. Later they revealed that beta-arrestins were the most important members of signal transduction and were responsible for the signal transduction from the hormone-activated receptor to intracellular signaling cascades independently of heterotrimeric G-proteins. These and other outstanding discoveries of R. Lefkowitz and B. Kobilka have become the basis for the novel area of molecular biology and pharmacology--the molecular endocrinology of GPCR.

  5. "Highly qualified loser"? Harvey Cushing and the Nobel Prize.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils; Schlich, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Neurosurgery, in particular surgery of the brain, was recognized as one of the most spectacular transgressions of the traditional limits of surgical work. With their audacious, technically demanding, laboratory-based, and highly promising new interventions, prominent neurosurgeons were primary candidates for the Nobel Prize. Accordingly, neurosurgical pioneers such as Victor Horsley and, in particular, Harvey Cushing continued to be nominated for the prize. However, only António Egas Moniz was eventually awarded the prestigious award in 1949 for the introduction of frontal lobotomy, an intervention that would no longer be prize-worthy from today's perspective. Horsley and Cushing, who were arguably the most important proponents of early neurosurgery, remained "highly qualified losers," as such cases have been called. This paper examines the nominations, reviews, and discussions kept in the Nobel Archives to understand the reasons for this remarkable choice. At a more general level, the authors use the example of neurosurgery to explore the mechanisms of scientific recognition and what could be called the enacting of excellence in science and medicine.

  6. Kevin E. Trenberth Receives 2013 Climate Communication Prize: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    I am delighted to be recognized with this prize. I want to first thank AGU and the prize committee and, especially, Nature's Own for establishing this prize in a field that has become contentious and highly political. It did not used to be this way. Following the media frenzy with the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report, there was hope at the 2009 Conference of Parties meeting in Copenhagen that an international framework agreement on climate change might be achieved. It was not to be. Planned actions to address issues of climate change were undermined by huge funding of misinformation by vested interests. It was not helped by so-called "climategate" in which many emails illegally hacked from a computer server at the University of East Anglia in the United Kingdom were released, cherry picked, distorted, and misused by climate change deniers. Minor errors in the IPCC report were blown out of all proportion and ineffectively addressed. I was caught up in all this, and one of my many emails went viral: the "travesty" quote in which I bemoaned the inability to close the global energy balance associated with short-term climate variability but which was misinterpreted as saying there was no global warming. These examples highlight failures of communication.

  7. [The 69th Congress-urologists nominated for the Nobel Prize : Not everyone got a prize: four biographical sketches].

    PubMed

    Moll, F H; Halling, T; Krischel, M; Hansson, N; Fangerau, H

    2017-07-24

    Our research group has reconstructed why the board certified urologists Werner Forssmann (1904-1979) and Charles Huggins (1901-1997) received the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine (1956, and 1966, respectively). But the history of "Urology and the Nobel Prize" is in fact more multifaceted than the success stories of these two laureates suggest. James Israel (1848-1926), Berlin, Félix Guyon (1831-1920), Paris, Peter J. Freyer (1852-1921), London and Edwin Beer (1876-1938), New York were nominated for the award during the first three decades of the 20th century. Their candidacies mirror trends among leading urologists during the time when urology became a specialty in its own right.

  8. Testosterone across successive competitions: evidence for a 'winner effect' in humans?

    PubMed

    Zilioli, Samuele; Watson, Neil V

    2014-09-01

    In many species testosterone fluctuates in concert with outcome-dependent changes in social status, such that winning a competition leads to an increase in circulating testosterone (i.e., competition effect). Although this phenomenon has been well studied in humans, the cumulative endocrine impact of multiple successive competitions is poorly understood. Moreover, although changes in testosterone after a competition seem to predict immediate aggressive behavior, competitive motivation, risk-taking, and affiliation, whether this endocrine response also has long-term behavioral effects, as suggested by studies in non-human animals, has not been examined. In this study, salivary testosterone was collected from pairs of male participants engaging, on two consecutive days, in head-to-head competitions on a previously validated laboratory task. We found that testosterone reactivity on the first day, which was congruent with the competition effect (i.e., net testosterone increase in randomly assigned winners), predicted the task performance on the second day. Further, when looking at testosterone reactivity on the second day, those individuals that lost both competitions experienced the steepest decline in testosterone compared to those individuals who lost on the second day but won on the first day. Testosterone fluctuations on the second day were also analyzed considering the type of status hierarchy (stable vs. unstable) that emerged as a result of the combined outcomes of the two competitions. In accordance with the challenge hypothesis, men in unstable hierarchies (first day winners/second day losers and first day losers/second day winners) experienced an increase in testosterone compared to men in the stable hierarchies (double winners and double losers). Results are discussed within a comparative perspective, drawing parallels with the winner effect and the challenge hypothesis observed in non-human animals.

  9. Hormonal, Physiological, and Physical Performance During Simulated Kickboxing Combat: Differences Between Winners and Losers.

    PubMed

    Ouergui, Ibrahim; Davis, Philip; Houcine, Nizar; Marzouki, Hamza; Zaouali, Monia; Franchini, Emerson; Gmada, Nabil; Bouhlel, Ezzedine

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the hormonal, physiological, and physical responses of simulated kickboxing competition and evaluate if there was a difference between winners and losers. Twenty athletes of regional and national level participated in the study (mean ± SD age 21.3 ± 2.7 y, height 170.0 ± 5.0 cm). Hormone (cortisol, testosterone, growth hormone), blood lactate [La], and glucose concentrations, as well as upper-body Wingate test and countermovement-jump (CMJ) performances, were measured before and after combats. Heart rate (HR) was measured throughout rounds 1, 2, and 3 and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was taken after each round. All combats were recorded and analyzed to determine the length of different activity phases (high-intensity, low-intensity, and referee pause) and the frequency of techniques. Hormones, glucose, [La], HR, and RPE increased (all P < .001) precombat to postcombat, while a decrease was observed for CMJ, Wingate test performance, body mass (all P < .001), and time of high-intensity activities (P = .005). There was no difference between winners and losers for hormonal, physiological, and physical variables (P > .05). However, winners executed more jab cross, total punches, roundhouse kicks, total kicks, and total attacking techniques (all P < .042) than losers. Kickboxing is an intermittent physically demanding sport that induces changes in the stress-related hormones soliciting the anaerobic lactic system. Training should be oriented to enhance kickboxers' anaerobic lactic fitness and their ability to strike at a sufficient rate. Further investigation is needed to identify possible differences in tactical and mental abilities that offer some insight into what makes winners winners.

  10. Positron emission tomography wrist detector

    DOEpatents

    Schlyer, David J.; O'Connor, Paul; Woody, Craig; Junnarkar, Sachin Shrirang; Radeka, Veljko; Vaska, Paul; Pratte, Jean-Francois

    2006-08-15

    A method of serially transferring annihilation information in a compact positron emission tomography (PET) scanner includes generating a time signal representing a time-of-occurrence of an annihilation event, generating an address signal representing a channel detecting the annihilation event, and generating a channel signal including the time and address signals. The method also includes generating a composite signal including the channel signal and another similarly generated channel signal concerning another annihilation event. An apparatus that serially transfers annihilation information includes a time signal generator, address signal generator, channel signal generator, and composite signal generator. The time signal is asynchronous and the address signal is synchronous to a clock signal. A PET scanner includes a scintillation array, detection array, front-end array, and a serial encoder. The serial encoders include the time signal generator, address signal generator, channel signal generator, and composite signal generator.

  11. Prototyping of the ILC Baseline Positron Target

    SciTech Connect

    Gronberg, J; Brooksby, C; Piggott, T; Abbott, R; Javedani, J; Cook, E

    2012-02-29

    The ILC positron system uses novel helical undulators to create a powerful photon beam from the main electron beam. This beam is passed through a titanium target to convert it into electron-positron pairs. The target is constructed as a 1 m diameter wheel spinning at 2000 RPM to smear the 1 ms ILC pulse train over 10 cm. A pulsed flux concentrating magnet is used to increase the positron capture efficiency. It is cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures to maximize the flatness of the magnetic field over the 1 ms ILC pulse train. We report on prototyping effort on this system.

  12. The Buffer-Gas Positron Accumulator and Resonances in Positron-Molecule Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surko, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    This is a personal account of the development of our buffer-gas positron trap and the new generation of cold beams that these traps enabled. Dick Drachman provided much appreciated advice to us from the time we started the project. The physics underlying trap operation is related to resonances (or apparent resonances) in positron-molecule interactions. Amusingly, experiments enabled by the trap allowed us to understand these processes. The positron-resonance "box score" to date is one resounding "yes," namely vibrational Feshbach resonances in positron annihilation on hydrocarbons; a "probably" for positron-impact electronic excitation of CO and NZ;an d a "maybe" for vibrational excitation of selected molecules. Two of these processes enabled the efficient operation of the trap, and one almost killed it in infancy. We conclude with a brief overview of further applications of the trapping technology discussed here, such as "massive" positron storage and beams with meV energy resolution.

  13. Addiction Studies with Positron Emission Tomography

    ScienceCinema

    Joanna Fowler

    2016-07-12

    Brookhaven scientist Joanna Fowler describes Positron Emission Technology (PET) research at BNL which for the past 30 years has focused in the integration of basic research in radiotracer chemistry with the tools of neuroscience to develop new scientific

  14. Addiction Studies with Positron Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Joanna Fowler

    2008-10-13

    Brookhaven scientist Joanna Fowler describes Positron Emission Technology (PET) research at BNL which for the past 30 years has focused in the integration of basic research in radiotracer chemistry with the tools of neuroscience to develop new scientific

  15. Electron and positron induced processes. POSMOL 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Campeanu, Radu; Hoshino, Masamitsu; Ingólfsson, Oddur; Mason, Nigel; Nagashima, Yasuyuki; Tanuma, Hajime

    2014-09-01

    POSMOL 2013, the international meeting on electron and positron induced processes comprising the XVII International Workshop on Low-Energy Positron and Positronium Physics and the XVIII International Symposium on Electron-Molecule Collisions and Swarms, was held at Kanazawa Bunka Hall, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan, from 19-21 July 2013. The XVII Workshop encompassed all aspects of positron, positronium and antiproton interactions with electrons, atoms, molecules and solid surfaces, and topics related to these, whereas the XVIII Symposium encompassed all aspects of electron interactions with molecules in both gaseous and condensed phases. Particular topics include studies of electron interactions with biomolecules, electron induced surface chemistry and the study of plasma processes. Recent research on the study of electron swarms was also highlighted. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Electron and Positron Induced Processes", edited by Michael Brunger, Radu Campeanu, Masamitsu Hoshino, Oddur Ingólfsson, Paulo Limão-Vieira, Nigel Mason, Yasuyuki Nagashima and Hajime Tanuma.

  16. Positron kinetics in an idealized PET environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, R. E.; Brunger, M. J.; Buckman, S. J.; Garcia, G.; Petrović, Z. Lj.; White, R. D.

    2015-08-01

    The kinetic theory of non-relativistic positrons in an idealized positron emission tomography PET environment is developed by solving the Boltzmann equation, allowing for coherent and incoherent elastic, inelastic, ionizing and annihilating collisions through positronium formation. An analytic expression is obtained for the positronium formation rate, as a function of distance from a spherical source, in terms of the solutions of the general kinetic eigenvalue problem. Numerical estimates of the positron range - a fundamental limitation on the accuracy of PET, are given for positrons in a model of liquid water, a surrogate for human tissue. Comparisons are made with the ‘gas-phase’ assumption used in current models in which coherent scattering is suppressed. Our results show that this assumption leads to an error of the order of a factor of approximately 2, emphasizing the need to accurately account for the structure of the medium in PET simulations.

  17. Electric charges of positrons and antiprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.J. ); Deutch, B.I. )

    1992-07-27

    Tests of the electric charges carried by the positron and antiproton are derived from recent measurements of the cyclotron frequencies of these particles, and from the spectroscopy of exotic atoms in which they are constituents.

  18. Method of processing positron lifetime spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Valuev, N.P.; Klimov, A.B.; Zhikharev, A.N.

    1985-05-01

    This paper describes a method for the processing of spectra of positron annihilation which permits a much more relaible determination of the lifetime during numerical processing of spectra by computer.

  19. Bulk Materials Analysis Using High-Energy Positron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Glade, S C; Asoka-Kumar, P; Nieh, T G; Sterne, P A; Wirth, B D; Dauskardt, R H; Flores, K M; Suh, D; Odette, G R

    2002-11-11

    This article reviews some recent materials analysis results using high-energy positron beams at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We are combining positron lifetime and orbital electron momentum spectroscopic methods to provide electron number densities and electron momentum distributions around positron annihilation sites. Topics covered include: correlation of positron annihilation characteristics with structural and mechanical properties of bulk metallic glasses, compositional studies of embrittling features in nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel, pore characterization in Zeolites, and positron annihilation characteristics in alkali halides.

  20. Positron annihilation induced Auger electron emission

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A.; Jibaly, M.; Lei, Chun; Mehl, D.; Mayer, R.; Lynn, K.G.

    1988-01-01

    We report on measurements of Auger electron emission from Cu and Fe due to core hole excitations produced by the removal of core electrons by matter-antimatter annihilation. Estimates are developed of the probability of positrons annihilating with a 3p electron in these materials. Several important advantages of Positron annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES) for surface analysis are suggested. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Thermal positron interactions with alkali covered tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Takashi; Iida, Shimpei; Terabe, Hiroki; Nagashima, Yasuyuki

    2016-11-01

    The branching ratios of positron reemission, positronium emission, positronium negative ion emission and capture to the surface state for thermalized positrons at polycrystalline tungsten surfaces coated with Na, K and Cs have been measured. The data shows that the ratios depend on the coverage of the alkali-metal coating. The fraction of the emitted positronium increases with the coverage of the coating up to 90%.

  2. Modulation of a quantum positron acoustic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, M. R.

    2015-09-01

    Amplitude modulation of a positron acoustic wave is considered in a four-component electron-positron plasma in the quantum magnetohydrodynamic regime. The important ingredients of this study are the inclusion of the particle exchange-correlation potential, quantum diffraction effects via the Bohm potential, and dissipative effect due to viscosity in the momentum balance equation of the charged carriers. A modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived for the evolution of the slowly varying amplitude of the quantum positron acoustic wave by employing the standard reductive perturbation technique. Detailed analysis of the linear and nonlinear dispersions of the quantum positron acoustic wave is presented. For a typical parameter range, relevant to some dense astrophysical objects, it is found that the quantum positron acoustic wave is modulationally unstable above a certain critical wavenumber. Effects of the exchange-correlation potential and the Bohm potential in the wave dynamics are also studied. It is found that the quantum effect due to the particle exchange-correlation potential is significant in comparison to the effect due to the Bohm potential for smaller values of the carrier wavenumber. However, for comparatively larger values of the carrier wavenumber, the Bohm potential effect overtakes the effect of the exchange-correlation potential. It is found that the critical wavenumber for the modulation instability depends on the ratio of the equilibrium hot electron number density and the cold positron number density and on the ratio of the equilibrium hot positron number density and the cold positron number density. A numerical result on the growth rate of the modulation instability is also presented.

  3. Positron annihilation studies of organic superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, H.L.; Lou, Y.; Ali, E.H.

    1994-09-01

    The positron lifetimes of two organic superconductors, {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2} and {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br, are measured as a function of temperature across {Tc}. A drop of positron lifetime below {Tc} is observed. Positron-electron momentum densities are measured by using 2D-ACAR to search for the Fermi surface in {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br. Positron density distributions and positron-electron overlaps are calculated by using the orthogonalized linear combination atomic orbital (OLCAO) method to interprete the temperature dependence due to the local charge transfer which is inferred to relate to the superconducting transition. 2D-ACAR results in {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br are compared with theoretical band calculations based on a first-principles local density approximation. Importance of performing accurate band calculations for the interpretation of positron annihilation data is emphasized.

  4. Undulator-based production of polarized positrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, G.; Barley, J.; Batygin, Y.; Berridge, S.; Bharadwaj, V.; Bower, G.; Bugg, W.; Decker, F.-J.; Dollan, R.; Efremenko, Y.; Flöttmann, K.; Gharibyan, V.; Hast, C.; Iverson, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Kovermann, J. W.; Laihem, K.; Lohse, T.; McDonald, K. T.; Mikhailichenko, A. A.; Moortgat-Pick, G. A.; Pahl, P.; Pitthan, R.; Pöschl, R.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Riemann, S.; Schälicke, A.; Schüler, K. P.; Schweizer, T.; Scott, D.; Sheppard, J. C.; Stahl, A.; Szalata, Z.; Walz, D. R.; Weidemann, A.

    2009-11-01

    Full exploitation of the physics potential of a future International Linear Collider will require the use of polarized electron and positron beams. Experiment E166 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) has demonstrated a scheme in which an electron beam passes through a helical undulator to generate photons (whose first-harmonic spectrum extended to 7.9 MeV) with circular polarization, which are then converted in a thin target to generate longitudinally polarized positrons and electrons. The experiment was carried out with a 1-m-long, 400-period, pulsed helical undulator in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) operated at 46.6 GeV. Measurements of the positron polarization have been performed at five positron energies from 4.5 to 7.5 MeV. In addition, the electron polarization has been determined at 6.7 MeV, and the effect of operating the undulator with a ferrofluid was also investigated. To compare the measurements with expectations, detailed simulations were made with an upgraded version of G EANT4 that includes the dominant polarization-dependent interactions of electrons, positrons, and photons with matter. The measurements agree with calculations, corresponding to 80% polarization for positrons near 6 MeV and 90% for electrons near 7 MeV.

  5. Vouchers Versus Prizes: Contingency Management Treatment of Substance Abusers in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Marx, Jacqueline; Austin, Mark; Tardif, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) interventions usually use vouchers as reinforcers, but a new technique awards chances of winning prizes. This study compares these approaches. In community treatment centers, 142 cocaine- or heroin-dependent outpatients were randomly assigned to standard treatment (ST), ST with vouchers, or ST with prizes for 12 weeks.…

  6. Collecting Poetry for the Academic Library: An Evaluation of Poetry Prizes as Selection Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golomb, Liorah

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the usefulness of poetry book prizes as a selection tool by evaluating their fairness, meaningfulness, and reliability as an indication of quality. The results of two surveys, one collecting data on poetry book prizes and the other asking librarians about their collecting practices, suggest that selecting on the basis of prizes…

  7. Vouchers Versus Prizes: Contingency Management Treatment of Substance Abusers in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Marx, Jacqueline; Austin, Mark; Tardif, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) interventions usually use vouchers as reinforcers, but a new technique awards chances of winning prizes. This study compares these approaches. In community treatment centers, 142 cocaine- or heroin-dependent outpatients were randomly assigned to standard treatment (ST), ST with vouchers, or ST with prizes for 12 weeks.…

  8. The History of Molecular Structure Determination Viewed through the Nobel Prizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William P.; Palenik, Gus J.; Suh, Il-Hwan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of complex molecular structures. Emphasizes their individual significance through examination of the Nobel Prizes of the 20th century. Highlights prizes awarded to Conrad Rontgen, Francis H.C. Crick, James D. Watson, Maurice H.F. Wilkins, and others. (SOE)

  9. Yoshinori Ohsumi's Nobel Prize for mechanisms of autophagy: from basic yeast biology to therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Rubinsztein, D C; Frake, R A

    2016-12-01

    On 3 October 2016, Japanese cell biologist Yoshinori Ohsumi was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 'for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy'; autophagy being an intracellular degradation pathway that helps maintain cytoplasmic homeostasis. This commentary discusses Ohsumi's Nobel prize-winning work in context, before explaining the clinical relevance of autophagy.

  10. The History of Molecular Structure Determination Viewed through the Nobel Prizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William P.; Palenik, Gus J.; Suh, Il-Hwan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of complex molecular structures. Emphasizes their individual significance through examination of the Nobel Prizes of the 20th century. Highlights prizes awarded to Conrad Rontgen, Francis H.C. Crick, James D. Watson, Maurice H.F. Wilkins, and others. (SOE)

  11. Collecting Poetry for the Academic Library: An Evaluation of Poetry Prizes as Selection Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golomb, Liorah

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the usefulness of poetry book prizes as a selection tool by evaluating their fairness, meaningfulness, and reliability as an indication of quality. The results of two surveys, one collecting data on poetry book prizes and the other asking librarians about their collecting practices, suggest that selecting on the basis of prizes…

  12. Paul Ehrlich: the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine 1908.

    PubMed

    Piro, Anna; Tagarelli, Antonio; Tagarelli, Giuseppe; Lagonia, Paolo; Quattrone, Aldo

    2008-01-01

    We wish to commemorate Paul Ehrlich on the centennial of his being awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1908. His studies are now considered as milestones in immunology: the morphology of leukocytes; his side-chain theory where he defined the cellular receptor for first time; and his clarification of the difference between serum therapy and chemotherapy. Ehrlich also invented the first chemotherapeutic drug: compound 606, or Salvarsan. We have used some original documents from the Royal Society of London, where Ehrlich was a fellow, and from Leipzig University, where he took a degree in medicine.

  13. Intense low energy positron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, K.G.; Jacobsen, F.M.

    1993-12-31

    Intense positron beams are under development or being considered at several laboratories. Already today a few accelerator based high intensity, low brightness e{sup +} beams exist producing of the order of 10{sup 8} {minus} 10{sup 9} e{sup +}/sec. Several laboratories are aiming at high intensity, high brightness e{sup +} beams with intensities greater than 10{sup 9} e{sup +}/sec and current densities of the order of 10{sup 13} {minus} 10{sup 14} e{sup +} sec{sup {minus}} {sup 1}cm{sup {minus}2}. Intense e{sup +} beams can be realized in two ways (or in a combination thereof) either through a development of more efficient B{sup +} moderators or by increasing the available activity of B{sup +} particles. In this review we shall mainly concentrate on the latter approach. In atomic physics the main trust for these developments is to be able to measure differential and high energy cross-sections in e{sup +} collisions with atoms and molecules. Within solid state physics high intensity, high brightness e{sup +} beams are in demand in areas such as the re-emission e{sup +} microscope, two dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation, low energy e{sup +} diffraction and other fields. Intense e{sup +} beams are also important for the development of positronium beams, as well as exotic experiments such as Bose condensation and Ps liquid studies.

  14. Hierarchical winner-take-all particle swarm optimization social network for neural model fitting.

    PubMed

    Coventry, Brandon S; Parthasarathy, Aravindakshan; Sommer, Alexandra L; Bartlett, Edward L

    2017-02-01

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) has gained widespread use as a general mathematical programming paradigm and seen use in a wide variety of optimization and machine learning problems. In this work, we introduce a new variant on the PSO social network and apply this method to the inverse problem of input parameter selection from recorded auditory neuron tuning curves. The topology of a PSO social network is a major contributor to optimization success. Here we propose a new social network which draws influence from winner-take-all coding found in visual cortical neurons. We show that the winner-take-all network performs exceptionally well on optimization problems with greater than 5 dimensions and runs at a lower iteration count as compared to other PSO topologies. Finally we show that this variant of PSO is able to recreate auditory frequency tuning curves and modulation transfer functions, making it a potentially useful tool for computational neuroscience models.

  15. Do OSCAR winners live longer than less successful peers? A reanalysis of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Huszti, Ella; Hanley, James A

    2006-09-05

    In an article published in Annals of Internal Medicine in 2001, Redelmeier and Singh reported that Academy Award-winning actors and actresses lived almost 4 years longer than their less successful peers. However, the statistical method used to derive this statistically significant difference gave winners an unfair advantage because it credited an Oscar winner's years of life before winning toward survival subsequent to winning. When the authors of the current article reanalyzed the data using methods that avoided this "immortal time" bias, the survival advantage was closer to 1 year and was not statistically significant. The type of bias in Redelmeier and Singh's study is not limited to longevity comparisons of persons who reach different ranks within their profession; it can, and often does, occur in nonexperimental studies of life- or time-extending benefits of medical interventions. The current authors suggest ways in which researchers and readers may avoid and recognize this bias.

  16. Forecasting a winner for Malaysian Cup 2013 using soccer simulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Muhammad Mat; Fauzee, Mohd Soffian Omar; Latif, Rozita Abdul

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates through soccer simulation the calculation of the probability for each team winning Malaysia Cup 2013. Our methodology used here is we predict the outcomes of individual matches and then we simulate the Malaysia Cup 2013 tournament 5000 times. As match outcomes are always a matter of uncertainty, statistical model, in particular a double Poisson model is used to predict the number of goals scored and conceded for each team. Maximum likelihood estimation is use to measure the attacking strength and defensive weakness for each team. Based on our simulation result, LionXII has a higher probability in becoming the winner, followed by Selangor, ATM, JDT and Kelantan. Meanwhile, T-Team, Negeri Sembilan and Felda United have lower probabilities to win Malaysia Cup 2013. In summary, we find that the probability for each team becominga winner is small, indicating that the level of competitive balance in Malaysia Cup 2013 is quite high.

  17. Biased Random-Key Genetic Algorithms for the Winner Determination Problem in Combinatorial Auctions.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Carlos Eduardo; Toso, Rodrigo Franco; Resende, Mauricio G C; Miyazawa, Flávio Keidi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of picking a subset of bids in a general combinatorial auction so as to maximize the overall profit using the first-price model. This winner determination problem assumes that a single bidding round is held to determine both the winners and prices to be paid. We introduce six variants of biased random-key genetic algorithms for this problem. Three of them use a novel initialization technique that makes use of solutions of intermediate linear programming relaxations of an exact mixed integer linear programming model as initial chromosomes of the population. An experimental evaluation compares the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms with the standard mixed linear integer programming formulation, a specialized exact algorithm, and the best-performing heuristics proposed for this problem. The proposed algorithms are competitive and offer strong results, mainly for large-scale auctions.

  18. The Stock Performance of C. Everett Koop Award Winners Compared With the Standard & Poor's 500 Index.

    PubMed

    Goetzel, Ron Z; Fabius, Raymond; Fabius, Dan; Roemer, Enid C; Thornton, Nicole; Kelly, Rebecca K; Pelletier, Kenneth R

    2016-01-01

    To explore the link between companies investing in the health and well-being programs of their employees and stock market performance. Stock performance of C. Everett Koop National Health Award winners (n = 26) was measured over time and compared with the average performance of companies comprising the Standard and Poor's (S&P) 500 Index. The Koop Award portfolio outperformed the S&P 500 Index. In the 14-year period tracked (2000-2014), Koop Award winners' stock values appreciated by 325% compared with the market average appreciation of 105%. This study supports prior and ongoing research demonstrating a higher market valuation--an affirmation of business success by Wall Street investors--of socially responsible companies that invest in the health and well-being of their workers when compared with other publicly traded firms.

  19. The value of victory: social origins of the winner's curse in common value auctions

    PubMed Central

    van den Bos, Wouter; Li, Jian; Lau, Tatiana; Maskin, Eric; Cohen, Jonathan D.; Montague, P. Read; McClure, Samuel M.

    2009-01-01

    Auctions, normally considered as devices facilitating trade, also provide a way to probe mechanisms governing one's valuation of some good or action. One of the most intriguing phenomena in auction behavior is the winner's curse — the strong tendency of participants to bid more than rational agent theory prescribes, often at a significant loss. The prevailing explanation suggests that humans have limited cognitive abilities that make estimating the correct bid difficult, if not impossible. Using a series of auction structures, we found that bidding approaches rational agent predictions when participants compete against a computer. However, the winner's curse appears when participants compete against other humans, even when cognitive demands for the correct bidding strategy are removed. These results suggest the humans assign significant future value to victories over human but not over computer opponents even though such victories may incur immediate losses, and that this valuation anomaly is the origin of apparently irrational behavior. PMID:20305741

  20. Recognizing 21. century citizenship: 1997 federal energy and water management award winners

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    Energy is a luxury that no one can afford to waste, and many Federal government agencies are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of using energy wisely. Thoughtful use of energy resources is important, not only to meet agency goals, but because energy efficiency helps improve air quality. Sound facility management offers huge savings that affect the agency`s bottom line, the environment, and workplace quality. Hard work, innovation, and vision are characteristic of those who pursue energy efficiency. That is why the Department of Energy, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is proud to salute the winners of the 1997 Federal Energy and Water Management Award. The 1997 winners represent the kind of 21st century thinking that will help achieve widespread Federal energy efficiency. In one year, the winners, through a combination of public and private partnerships, saved more than $100 million and 9.8 trillion Btu by actively identifying and implementing energy efficiency, water conservation, and renewable energy projects. The contributions of these individuals, small groups, and organizations are presented in this report.

  1. The Role of Awards Programs in Stimulating Energy Efficient Behavior: A Study of Award Winners

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, Christa; Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2014-07-01

    The value of formal awards programs may be principally in gaining wider recognition for achievements in energy efficiency. But how do these programs contribute to the goal that is presumably behind this value, i.e., stimulating further energy efficient behavior, beyond publicizing the awards ceremonies and describing the projects via websites, posters, and the like? Interviews with 22 individuals and teams of award winners under the Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (DOE FEMP) yield insights on the roles that awards programs can play in stimulating energy efficient behavior, especially with regard to institutional dimensions of such behavior. Award winners identified institutional facilitators and barriers in their projects and programs as well as factors in their implementation processes, thus providing information that can guide other efforts. Although only one of the interviewees affirmed that winning an award was a motivating factor, awards do validate often-hard-won achievements through recognition and, in some cases, additional resources, thus stimulating both the winners themselves and those who see the achievements to further energy-saving activities. Finally, award winners’ responses demonstrated the importance of behavioral and institutional change in energy efficiency.

  2. Imitating winner or sympathizing loser? Quadratic effects on cooperative behavior in prisoners' dilemma games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Peng

    2015-10-01

    Cooperation is vital in human societies and therefore is widely investigated in the evolutionary game theory. Varieties of mechanisms have been proposed to overcome temptation and promote cooperation. Existing studies usually believe that agents are rational, but irrationalism such as emotions and feelings matters as well. Winner and loser are defined by their payoffs. In addition to admiring and imitating winners, the mechanism of sympathizing and imitating losers is introduced into the model as an alternative action rule, and each one plays the prisoners' dilemma game with eight neighbors under the influence of both irrationalism and rationalism. Rationalism refers to imitating winner to get highest payoff, and irrationalism means that people sympathize and adopt the actions of losers. As it is widely recognized that temptation reduces cooperation, this study focuses on the effect of sympathy on cooperation within a certain group or society. If it overcomes temptation that leads to defection, sympathy will be a powerful mechanism to promote cooperative behavior. Simulation results indicate that sympathy and temptation shares similar quadratic relationships with cooperation. Both sympathy and temptation undermine cooperation below their thresholds, and they both promote cooperation above their thresholds. Temptation not only reduces cooperation but also promote it as temptation goes beyond the threshold. Although sympathy is a good merit or human nature that is beneficial to society, a crisis or collapse of cooperation is inevitable when the sympathy propensity is relatively smaller. After cooperation reaches a minimal bottom, it then rises increasingly and dramatically, which brings a much brighter future of the society.

  3. Learning your own strength: winner and loser effects should change with age and experience

    PubMed Central

    Fawcett, Tim W.; Johnstone, Rufus A.

    2010-01-01

    Winner and loser effects, in which the outcome of an aggressive encounter influences the tendency to escalate future conflicts, have been documented in many taxa, but we have limited understanding of why they have evolved. One possibility is that individuals use previous victories and defeats to assess their fighting ability relative to others. We explored this idea by modelling a population of strong and weak individuals that do not know their own strength, but keep track of how many fights they have won. Under these conditions, adaptive behaviour generates clear winner and loser effects: individuals who win fights should escalate subsequent conflicts, whereas those who lose should retreat from aggressive opponents. But these effects depend strongly on age and experience. Young, naive individuals should show highly aggressive behaviour and pronounced loser effects. For these inexperienced individuals, fighting is especially profitable because it yields valuable information about their strength. Aggression should then decline as an individual ages and gains experience, with those who lose fights becoming more submissive. Older individuals, who have a better idea of their own strength, should be more strongly influenced by victories than losses. In conclusion, we predict that both aggressiveness and the relative magnitude of winner and loser effects should change with age, owing to changes in how individuals perceive their own strength. PMID:20053644

  4. Dynamics of the positron acoustic waves in electron-positron-ion magnetoplasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Rustam; Saha, Asit; Chatterjee, Prasanta

    2017-01-01

    Dynamics of the positron acoustic waves in electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) magnetoplasmas with κ-distributed hot electrons and positrons is investigated in the frameworks of the Kadomtsev-Petviashili (KP) and modified Kadomtsev-Petviashili (mKP) equations. Employing the reductive perturbation technique, the KP and mKP equations are derived. Using the bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems, the positron acoustic solitary wave solutions, the kink and anti-kink wave solutions are obtained. Considering an external periodic perturbation in the electron-positron-ion magnetoplasmas, the perturbed KP and mKP equations are studied via some qualitative and quantitative approaches. To corroborate in the fact that the perturbed KP and mKP equations can indeed give rise to the quasiperiodic and chaotic motions, the phase plane plots, time series plots, and the Poincaré section are used. The quasiperiodic and developed chaos can be observed for the perturbed positron acoustic waves. The frequency (ω ) of the external periodic perturbation plays the role of the switching parameter in chaotic motions of the perturbed positron acoustic waves through quasiperiodic route to chaos. This work can be useful to understand the dynamics of nonlinear electromagnetic perturbations in space and laboratory plasmas consisting of κ-distributed hot electrons and positrons.

  5. Investigation of Positron Moderator Materials for Electron-Linac-Based Slow Positron Beamlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Ryoichi; Ohdaira, Toshiyuki; Uedono, Akira; Cho, Yang; Yoshida, Sadafumi; Ishida, Yuuki; Ohshima, Takeshi; Itoh, Hisayoshi; Chiwaki, Mitsukuni; Mikado, Tomohisa; Yamazaki, Tetsuo; Tanigawa, Shoichiro

    1998-08-01

    Positron re-emission properties were studied on moderator materials in order to improve the positron moderation system of electron-linac-based intense slow positron beamlines. The re-emitted positron fraction was measured on tungsten, SiC, GaN, SrTiO3, and hydrogen-terminated Si with a variable-energy pulsed positron beam. The results suggested that tungsten is the best material for the primary moderator of the positron beamlines while epitaxially grown n-type 6H SiC is the best material for the secondary moderator. Defect characterization by monoenergetic positron beams and surface characterization by Auger electron spectroscopy were carried out to clarify the mechanism of tungsten moderator degradation induced by high-energy electron irradiation. The characterization experiments revealed that the degradation is due to both radiation-induced vacancy clusters and surface carbon impurities. For the restoration of degraded tungsten moderators, oxygen treatment at ˜900°C is effective. Furthermore, it was found that oxygen at the tungsten surface inhibits positronium formation; as a result, it can increase the positron re-emission fraction.

  6. Van de Graaff based positron source production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Kasey Roy

    The anti-matter counterpart to the electron, the positron, can be used for a myriad of different scientific research projects to include materials research, energy storage, and deep space flight propulsion. Currently there is a demand for large numbers of positrons to aid in these mentioned research projects. There are different methods of producing and harvesting positrons but all require radioactive sources or large facilities. Positron beams produced by relatively small accelerators are attractive because they are easily shut down, and small accelerators are readily available. A 4MV Van de Graaff accelerator was used to induce the nuclear reaction 12C(d,n)13N in order to produce an intense beam of positrons. 13N is an isotope of nitrogen that decays with a 10 minute half life into 13C, a positron, and an electron neutrino. This radioactive gas is frozen onto a cryogenic freezer where it is then channeled to form an antimatter beam. The beam is then guided using axial magnetic fields into a superconducting magnet with a field strength up to 7 Tesla where it will be stored in a newly designed Micro-Penning-Malmberg trap. Several source geometries have been experimented on and found that a maximum antimatter beam with a positron flux of greater than 0.55x10 6 e+s-1 was achieved. This beam was produced using a solid rare gas moderator composed of krypton. Due to geometric restrictions on this set up, only 0.1-1.0% of the antimatter was being frozen to the desired locations. Simulations and preliminary experiments suggest that a new geometry, currently under testing, will produce a beam of 107 e+s-1 or more.

  7. APS presents prizes in fluid dynamics and plasma physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This article reviews the presentation of the American Physical Society awards in fluid dynamics and plasma physics. The recipient of the plasma physics James Clerk Maxwell Prize was John M. Green for contributions to the theory of magnetohydrodynamics equilibria and ideal and resistive instabilities, for discovering the inverse scattering transform leading to soliton solutions of many nonlinear partial differential equations and for inventing the residue method of determining the transition to global chaos. The excellence in Plasma Physics Research Award was presented to Nathaniel A. Fisch for theoretical investigations of noninductive current generation in toroidally confined plasma. Wim Pieter Leemans received the Simon Ramo Award for experimental and simulational contributions to laser-plasma physics. William R. Sears was given the 1992 Fuid Dynamics Prize for contributions to the study of steady and unsteady aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, magnetoaerodynamics,and wind tunnel design. William C. Reynolds received the Otto Laporte Award for experimental, theoretical, and computational work in turbulence modeling and control and leadership in direct numerical simulation and large eddy simulation.

  8. Jeffrey T. Kiehl Receives 2012 Climate Communication Prize: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiehl, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    I thank James Hurrell for his gracious citation of my work on communicating climate science to the public. I am deeply moved by his summary of my work over these past years. It clearly reflects how passionately I feel about this work and how important communication is for our field. I thank the Prize Committee for their recognition of my work and Nature's Own for supporting this important AGU prize. As climate scientists, I feel we have a duty to convey our research to the public in meaningful ways. This is especially true given that much of our scientific research is supported by tax-paying citizens. I also believe there is a moral imperative to communicate our research to the world. Our understanding of the significant climatic changes occurring now and those that will occur in the future places a great burden on all of us as scientists. We cannot hold onto our science like some protected treasure but must convey both the facts and the serious implications of our science to more than just our peers.

  9. Leon Van Speybroeck Wins Astrophysics Bruno Rossi Prize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Leon Van Speybroeck of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge Massachusetts was awarded the 2002 Bruno Rossi Prize of the High-Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomy Society. The Rossi Prize is an arnual recognition of significant contributions in high-energy astrophysics in honor of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's late Professor Bruno Rossi, an authority on cosmic ray physics and a pioneer in the field of x-ray astronomy. Van Speybroeck, who led the effort to design and make the x-ray mirrors for NASA's premier Chandra X-Ray Observatory, was recognized for a career of stellar achievements in designing precision x-ray optics. As Telescope Scientist for Chandra, he has worked for more than 20 years with a team that includes scientists and engineers from the Harvard-Smithsonian, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, TRW, Inc., Huhes-Danbury (now B.F. Goodrich Aerospace), Optical Coating Laboratories, Inc., and Eastman-Kodak on all aspects of the x-ray mirror assembly that is the heart of the observatory.

  10. [Weizsäcker, Bethe and the Nobel Prize].

    PubMed

    Schaaf, Michael

    2014-01-01

    For his work on nuclear physics Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker was twice nominated for the Nobel Prize in physics. Bethe had worked on the energy production in stars at about the same time as Weizsäcker but independently from him. The Nobel Committee valued the structural depth of BETHE'S work more than Weizsäcker's temporal priority because Bethe had described the nuclear reactions quantitatively and had shown a much deeper understanding of the nuclear processes in the centre of stars whereas Weizsäcker had worked more qualitatively. There are no reasons to believe that political resentments towards Weizsäcker played any significant role in awarding of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1967 only to Bethe. The lives and works of Weizsäcker and Bethe show some remarkable parallels, ranging from calculating the binding energy in nuclei to the energy production in sun-like and massive stars to peace- and disarmament initiatives.

  11. Development of spin-polarized slow positron beam using a 68Ge-68Ga positron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maekawa, Masaki; Fukaya, Yuki; Yabuuchi, Atsushi; Mochizuki, Izumi; Kawasuso, Atsuo

    2013-08-01

    A 68Ge-68Ga positron source was produced from the 69Ga(p, 2n)68Ge nuclear reaction by irradiating a GaN substrate with 20 MeV protons. Fast positrons from the source were converted to slow positrons using tungsten meshes and foils and were then electrostatically transported to the sample chamber. The spin polarization of the positron beam was determined as 47 ± 8% from the magnetic field dependence of the para-positronium intensity in fused silica. The Doppler broadening of the annihilation radiation spectra of polycrystalline Fe showed asymmetry upon field reversal. The spin-polarized positron beam generated by the 68Ge-68Ga source may be applicable to study the magnetic properties associated with surfaces, interfaces, and thin films.

  12. Calculation of Positron Binding Energies and Implications for Feshbach-Resonant Positron-Uracil Annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanniarachchi, Indika; Morgan, Caroline

    2010-04-01

    Here we investigate by first-principles calculations the possible role of vibrational Feshbach resonances in enhancing positron annihilation for low-energy positron beams incident on uracil, a base found in RNA. Geometries, vibrational polarizabilities, and dipole moments for uracil and 5-halouracils are calculated with density functional theory, DFT-B3LYP with a 6-31G+(d, p) basis set, and are used to determine positron-uracil and positron-5-halouracil binding energies. The energy of the Feshbach resonances is then determined by the law of energy conservation. Experimental work on positron interactions with uracil and 5-halouracils in conjunction with the theoretical work reported here is underway.

  13. [Opinions of the participants of 'Quit and Win' competition concerning prizes motivating to refrain from smoking].

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Alina; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Rzeźnicki, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Big antinicotine campaigns both in Poland and worldwide, are finished with a competition with prizes of different value. Psychologists say that a prize significantly motivates a person to certain kinds of behaviour. During educational activities carried out in the time of campaign, it is recommended to use techniques of psychological interaction that would release motives most beneficial to health. The aim of the work was to recognize frequency of being influenced mostly by the possibility of winning a prize before making a decision about quitting smoking and joining the competition, and learning the opinions of prize laureates concerning efficiency of 'Quit and Win' competitions. Empirical material comes from two sources. The first one is the selected fragments of a survey study carried out at Social and Preventive Medicine Department among 1700 participants of 'Quit and Win' competition that finished the 2nd International Antinicotine Campaign in Poland. The correctly filled survey was sent by 1285 people, that is 75.6%. The second source is a fragment of a survey study carried out in 2003 among 54 laureates of 'Quit and Win' competition in Poland. The completed survey was sent by majority of the laureates, that is 34 people (f = 0.63). Possibility of winning a prize as the most important reason for taking up the attempt to stop smoking and joining the competition was pointed to by 56 respondents (4.4%), whereas the remaining people chose other reasons as the most important ones. In the group of 34 respondents who were the laureates of competitions, majority, that is 22 people (f = 0.65) claimed the competition with prizes as a very effective method of reducing smoking. Half of the surveyed (17 people) claimed the possibility of winning a few prizes of high value would be more motivating than winning one of many prizes of smaller value. As the least attractive, prize gifts were pointed to. A prize in the form of a trip or holiday was considered very popular, as

  14. Elastic and inelastic scattering of positrons in gases and solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgowan, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Three apparatuses were designed and built: The first, which is now operative, was designed to study the details of positron thermalization in solids and the subsequent emission of the low energy positrons from moderating foils; The second apparatus now under test is a positron bottle similar in design to an electron trap. It was built to store positrons at a fixed energy and to look at the number of stored positrons (storage time) as a function of a scattering gas in the vacuum chamber. The third apparatus is a crossed beam apparatus where positron-, alkali scattering will be studied. Much of the apparatus is now under test with electrons.

  15. Electron capture from solids by positrons

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, R.

    1987-08-01

    The capture of electrons in solids is modified from that in gasses by several factors. The most important is the collective interaction of the electrons which results in a density of electron states in the solid in wide bands. Also the high density of electrons in many solids gives a high frequency of interaction as compared to gasses, and quickly destroys any electron-positron states in the metal matrix. Consequently, most positrons implanted in a metal will rapidly thermalize, and unless they reach the surface will annihilate with an electron in an uncorrelated state. Positronium formation from positrons scattered at a metal surface is analogous to ion neutralization however, most of the positronium comes from positrons passing through the surface from the bulk. The dominant motivation for studying positronium formation has been the hope that the distribution of the electrons at the surface would be obtained through the annihilation properties of positrons trapped at the surface or through analysis of the energy and angular distributions of the positronium emitted into the vacuum. These distributions have been measured and are included in this paper. 17 refs.

  16. Positron annihilation in solid and liquid Ni

    SciTech Connect

    Fluss, M.J.; Smedskjaer, L.C.; Chakraborty, B.; Chason, M.K.

    1982-03-01

    New techniques have been developed for the study of metals via positron annihilation which provide for the in-situ melting of the samples and subsequent measurements via Doppler broadening of positron-annihilation radiation. Here we report these metods currently in use at our laboratory; ion implantation of /sup 58/Co and the use of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ crucibles for in-situ melting followed by the decomposition of the Doppler-broadened spectrum into a parabolic and a Gaussian component. Our earliest results obtained for pure Ni in the polycrystalline solid and in the liquid state are compared. An interesting similarity is reported for the distributions of the high-momentum (Gaussian) component for positrons annihilating in vacancies at high temperatures and those annihilating in liquid Ni.

  17. Defects in metals. [Positron annihilation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, R.W.

    1982-06-01

    The application of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) to the study of defects in metals has led to increased knowledge on lattice-defect properties during the past decade in two areas: the determination of atomic defect properties, particularly those of monovacancies, and the monitoring and characterization of vacancy-like microstructure development during post-irradiation and post-quench annealing. The study of defects in metals by PAS is reviewed within the context of the other available techniques for defect studies. The strengths and weaknesses of PAS as a method for the characterization of defect microstructures are considered. The additional possibilities for using the positron as a localized probe of the atomic and electronic structures of atomic defects are discussed, based upon theoretical calculations of the annihilation characteristics of defect-trapped positrons and experimental observations. Finally, the present status and future potential of PAS as a tool for the study of defects in metals is considered. 71 references, 9 figures.

  18. Unthermalized positrons in gamma ray burst sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tkaczyk, W.; Karakula, S.

    1992-01-01

    The spectra of the broadening 0.511 MeV annihilation line produced by high temperatures was calculated in the case of unthermalized plasma; i.e., T sub e(+) is not = T sub e(-). The flattening in the spectrum of the annihilation lines for large differences of electron and positron temperatures is a strong indication that the observed features of the hard tailed spectrum of the gamma bursts can be well described by annihilation of unthermalized positrons. It is proposed that the charge separation occurring in Eddington limited accretion onto a neutron star or the one photon pair production in strong magnetic fields as a mechanism for the production of unthermalized positrons in the sources of gamma bursts. From the best fit of experimental spectra by the model, the parameters of sources for which the regions with different plasma temperatures can exist is evaluated.

  19. Trapped positrons observed by PAMELA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, V. V.; Adriani, O.; Barbarino, G.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Bellotti, R.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bottai, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F. S.; Campana, D.; Carbone, R.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; Castellini, G.; Consiglio, L.; De Santis, C.; De Simone, N.; Di Felice, V.; Galper, A. M.; Karelin, A. V.; Koldashov, S. V.; Koldobsky, S.; Krutkov, S. Yu; Kvashnin, A. N.; Leonov, A. A.; Malakhov, V. V.; Marcelli, L.; Martucci, M.; Mayorov, A. G.; Menn, W.; Merge, M.; Mocchiutti, E.; Monaco, A.; Mori, N.; Munini, R.; Osteria, G.; Papini, P.; Palma, F.; Panico, B.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Ricci, M.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Sarkar, R.; Scotti, V.; Simon, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Yu I.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasiliev, G. I.; Voronov, S. A.; Yurkin, Yu T.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.

    2016-02-01

    Measurements of electron and positron spatial distributions in energy range from 80 MeV to several GeV below the geomagnetic cutoff rigidity were carried out using the PAMELA magnetic spectrometer. The instrument is installed on board the Resurs-DK satellite which was launched June 15th 2006 on an elliptical orbit with the inclination 70 degrees and the altitude 350-600 km. The procedure of trajectories calculations in the geomagnetic filed gives a way to separate stably trapped and short lived albedo components produced in interactions of cosmic ray protons with the residual atmosphere. The work presents spatial distributions of trapped, quasitrapped and short-lived albedo electrons and positrons in the near Earth space. Electron to positron ratio points out on different production mechanism of trapped and quasitrapped particles.

  20. Positron transport: The plasma-gas interface

    SciTech Connect

    Marler, J. P.; Petrovic, Z. Lj.; Bankovic, A.; Dujko, S.; Suvakov, M.; Malovic, G.; Buckman, S. J.

    2009-05-15

    Motivated by an increasing number of applications, new techniques in the analysis of electron transport have been developed over the past 30 years or so, but similar methods had yet to be applied to positrons. Recently, an in-depth look at positron transport in pure argon gas has been performed using a recently established comprehensive set of cross sections and well-established Monte Carlo simulations. The key novelty as compared to electron transport is the effect of positronium formation which changes the number of particles and has a strong energy dependence. This coupled with spatial separation by energy of the positron swarm leads to counterintuitive behavior of some of the transport coefficients. Finally new results in how the presence of an applied magnetic field affects the transport coefficients are presented.