Science.gov

Sample records for prl toomas haldma

  1. PRL — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    There is increasing evidence that prolactin (PRL), a hormone/cytokine, plays a role in breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers via local production or accumulation. Elevated levels of serum PRL in ovarian and endometrial cancers have been reported, indicating a potential role for PRL in endometrial and ovarian carcinogenesis.

  2. Expression and prognostic impact of the protein tyrosine phosphatases PRL-1, PRL-2, and PRL-3 in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Radke, I; Götte, M; Kersting, C; Mattsson, B; Kiesel, L; Wülfing, P

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) PRL-1, PRL-2, and PRL-3 in human breast cancer and to evaluate its clinical and prognostic significance. PRL-PTP mRNA expression was examined in malignant (n=7) and nonmalignant (n=7) cryoconserved breast tissue samples as well as in eight breast cancer cell lines by RT–PCR. Furthermore, protein expression of PRL-3 was analysed semiquantitatively by immunohistochemistry in ductal breast carcinoma in situ (n=135) and invasive breast cancer (n=147) by use of tissue microarray technology (TMA). In 24 lymph node-positive patients we selected the corresponding lymph node metastases for analysis of PRL-3 expression, and a validation set (n=99) of invasive breast cancer samples was examined. Staining results were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and long-term follow-up. PRL-3 mRNA expression was significantly higher in malignant compared to benign breast tissue. For PRL-1 and PRL-2 expression no significant differences were observed. Staining of TMAs showed PRL-3 expression in 85.9% ductal carcinoma in situ and 75.5% invasive breast carcinomas. Analysis of survival parameters revealed a shorter disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with PRL-3-positive carcinomas, and in particular a significantly shorter DFS in nodal-positive patients with PRL-3 overexpressing tumours as compared to PRL-3-negative breast carcinomas (66±7 months (95% CI, 52–80) vs 97±9 months (95% CI, 79–115); P=0.032). Moreover, we found a more frequent expression of PRL-3 in lymph node metastases as compared to the primary tumours (91.7 vs 66.7%; P=0.033). Our results suggest that PRL-3 might serve as a novel prognostic factor in breast cancer, which may help to predict an adverse disease outcome. PMID:16832410

  3. Tissue-specific alterations of PRL-1 and PRL-2 expression in cancer.

    PubMed

    Dumaual, Carmen M; Sandusky, George E; Soo, Han Weng; Werner, Sean R; Crowell, Pamela L; Randall, Stephen K

    2012-01-01

    The PRL-1 and PRL-2 phosphatases have been implicated as oncogenic, however the involvement of these molecules in human neoplasms is not well understood. To increase understanding of the role PRL-1 and PRL-2 play in the neoplastic process, in situ hybridization was used to examine PRL-1 and PRL-2 mRNA expression in 285 normal, benign, and malignant human tissues of diverse origin. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on a subset of these. PRL-1 and PRL-2 mRNA expression was also assessed in a small set of samples from a variety of diseases other than cancer. Where possible, associations with clinicopathological characteristics were evaluated. Alterations in PRL-1 or -2 expression were a frequent event, but the nature of those alterations was highly tumor type specific. PRL-1 was significantly overexpressed in 100% of hepatocellular and gastric carcinomas, but significantly under-expressed in 100% of ovarian, 80% of breast, and 75% of lung tumors. PRL-2 expression was significantly increased in 100% of hepatocellular carcinomas, yet significantly downregulated in 54% of kidney carcinomas. PRL-1 expression was correlated to patient gender in the bladder and to patient age in the brain and skeletal muscle. PRL-1 expression was also associated with tumor grade in the prostate, ovary, and uterus. These results suggest a pleiotropic role for PRL-1 and PRL-2 in the neoplastic process. These molecules may associate with tumor progression and serve as clinical markers of tumor aggressiveness in some tissues, but be involved in inhibition of tumor formation or growth in others.

  4. Intracerebroventricular administration of the prolactin (PRL) receptor antagonist, S179D PRL, disrupts parturition in rats.

    PubMed

    Nephew, B C; Amico, J; Cai, H M; Walker, A M; Bridges, R S

    2007-07-01

    The prolactin (PRL) receptor antagonist S179D PRL delays the onset of maternal behavior in steroid-primed nulliparous female rats. The present study investigated the role of the neural PRL system in the process of parturition. A preliminary study indicated that S179D PRL treatments administered by ALZET minipump to the lateral ventricle severely disrupted parturition. To examine the likely causes of this disruption, a group of timed-pregnant catheterized rats was continuously infused with S-179D PRL (0.001 and 0.1 ng/h) or vehicle control to the lateral ventricles for 3 days (gestation days 21-23), and serial blood samples were taken throughout this period. Effects of the treatments on parturition were recorded, and blood samples were assayed for PRL, progesterone, and oxytocin. Significantly fewer S179D PRL-treated rats successfully delivered by 1500 h on day 23 of gestation when compared with controls. The higher dose of S179D PRL also significantly suppressed the prepartum rise in PRL throughout the prepartum period, while the lower dose only affected plasma PRL during the first 24 h of treatment. No significant effects of the antagonist on plasma progesterone or oxytocin were detected. We conclude that disruption of parturition by S179D PRL is not caused by significant alterations in the plasma concentrations of progesterone or oxytocin. S179D PRL may indirectly act on parturition through the modulation of prepartum PRL. These findings suggest a previously unrecognized role for PRL in the regulation of parturition.

  5. Unmodified prolactin (PRL) promotes PRL secretion and acidophil hypertrophy and is associated with pituitary hyperplasia in female rats.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Terence E; Vue, Mayza; Brekhus, Sharyn; Khong, Amy; Ho, Timothy W C; Walker, Ameae M

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we have tested the hypothesis that unmodified prolactin (U-PRL) and phosphorylated prolactin (P-PRL) have differential roles in the autoregulation of PRL secretion in vivo. Recombinant human U-PRL and a molecular mimic of P-PRL (S179D PRL) were administered to male rats and to female rats in different physiological states and the effect on rat PRL release was measured. Administration of U-PRL elevated rat PRL in all female animals, but was without effect in males. By contrast, S179D PRL was inactive in females, but inhibited PRL release in males. Morphometric and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated acidophil hypertrophy and evidence of increased PRL secretion in the pituitaries of U-PRL-treated females. Analysis of the two forms of PRL during prolactinoma induction in two differentially susceptible strains of rats found a strong temporal correlation among increased ratios of U-PRL: P-PRL, increased circulating PRL, and increased cell proliferation. We conclude (1). that the autoregulatory mechanism(s) can distinguish between the two major forms of PRL and that higher proportions of U-PRL not only allow for higher circulating levels of PRL, but are also autostimulatory, (2). that the autoregulatory mechanism( s) are set differently in males and females such that females are more sensitive to autostimulation by U-PRL and less sensitive to inhibition by P-PRL, and (3). that U-PRL and P-PRL may also have differential roles in the regulation of pituitary cell proliferation.

  6. Purification of PRL receptors from toad kidney: Comparisons with rabbit mammary PRL receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Dunand, M.; Kraehenbuhl, J.P.; Rossier, B.C.; Aubert, M.L. Univ. of Lausanne School of Medicine )

    1988-03-01

    The binding characteristics of the prolactin (PRL) receptors present in toad (Bufo marinus) kidneys were investigated and compared to those of PRL receptors present in rabbit mammary glands. The molecular characteristics of the Triton X-100 solubilized renal and mammary PRL receptors were assessed by gel filtration and by migration analysis on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) after affinity labeling of the binding sites with {sup 125}I-human growth hormone. Similar results were obtained for both receptors. Partial purification of the toad PRL receptor could be achieved by affinity chromatography. The molecular weight of this purified receptor could be determined by analysis of SDS-PAGE. With the use of a polyclonal antiserum raised against a purified preparation of rabbit mammary PRL receptor, one or several antigenic epitope(s) could be identified on the core of the toad renal PRL receptor. In conclusion, although the structure and the biological role(s) of PRL have substantially changed during evolution, the receptor for this hormone has retained many of its structural features as could be assessed between an amphibian and a mammalian species on functionally different target tissues.

  7. Emodin inhibits migration and invasion of DLD-1 (PRL-3) cells via inhibition of PRL-3 phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Young-Min; Lee, Su-Kyung; Jeong, Dae Gwin; Ryu, Seong Eon; Han, Dong Cho; Kim, Dae Keun; Kwon, Byoung-Mog

    2012-01-01

    Anthraquinones have been reported as phosphatase inhibitors. Therefore, anthraquinone derivatives were screened to identify a potent phosphatase inhibitor against the phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3). Emodin strongly inhibited phosphatase activity of PRL-3 with IC(50) values of 3.5μM and blocked PRL-3-induced tumor cell migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. Emodin rescued the phosphorylation of ezrin, which is a known PRL-3 substrate. The results of this study reveal that emodin is a PRL-3 inhibitor and a good lead molecule for obtaining a selective PRL-3 inhibitor.

  8. Generation of conditional knockout alleles for PRL-3.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong; Kong, Dong; Ge, Xiaomei; Gao, Xiang; Han, Xiao

    2011-11-01

    Phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) superfamily and is highly expressed in cancer metastases. For better understanding of the role of PRL-3 in tumor metastasis, we applied a rapid and efficient method for generating PRL-3 floxed mice and investigated its phenotypes. A BAC retrieval strategy was applied to construct the PRL-3 conditional gene-targeting vector. Exon 4 was selected for deletion to generate a nonfunctional prematurely terminated short peptide as it will cause a frame-shift mutation. Conditional knockout PRL-3 mice were generated by using the Cre-loxP system and were validated by Southern blot and RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis revealed the phenotype characteristics of PRL-3 knockout mice and wildtype mice. In this study, we successfully constructed the PRL-3 conditional knockout mice, which will be helpful to clarify the roles of PRL-3 and the mechanisms in tumor metastasis.

  9. Hyperprolactinemia after neonatal prolactin (PRL) deficiency in rats: evidence for altered anterior pituitary regulation of PRL secretion.

    PubMed

    Shah, G V; Shyr, S W; Grosvenor, C E; Crowley, W R

    1988-05-01

    Previous findings from this laboratory suggest a role for milk-borne PRL in the development of the inhibitory neuroendocrine controls over PRL secretion. Thus, rats that consumed milk deficient in PRL on days 2-5 postpartum show reduced concentrations and turnover of DA in the median eminence and elevated serum levels of PRL at 30-35 days of age. The present experiments were undertaken to investigate whether these consequences of neonatal PRL deficiency persist beyond puberty, and whether alterations in pituitary responsiveness to hypothalamic hormones may be involved. Lactating rats received sc injections of either saline or the dopamine (DA) agonist bromocriptine (125 micrograms/rat.day) on each of days 2-5 postpartum, a treatment that reduces the amount of PRL in milk without abolishing lactation. Blood samples were obtained from male and female offspring at various postnatal ages, and PRL concentrations were determined by RIA. Serum PRL concentrations in offspring from both groups were low until after weaning, but the female offspring of bromocriptine-treated mothers showed significantly elevated serum PRL between days 30 and 90 postpartum. Male offspring of bromocriptine-treated mothers also had transiently increased serum PRL levels, which returned to control levels by day 40. The turnover rate of DA in the median eminence, calculated from the rate of decline after synthesis inhibition, was reduced on day 35 in neonatally PRL-deficient offspring, as shown previously. However, no differences in DA turnover between the two groups were apparent on day 60, indicating a recovery of normal dopaminergic activity. Anterior pituitary cells of 100-day-old control and neonatally PRL-deficient animals were dispersed, cultured for 3 days, and then exposed to either TRH, to stimulate PRL release, or to the DA agonist bromocriptine, which inhibits PRL release. Pituitary cells of neonatally PRL-deficient offspring were almost completely unresponsive to bromocriptine with

  10. Both prolactin (PRL) and a molecular mimic of phosphorylated PRL, S179D-PRL, protect the hippocampus of female rats against excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Morales, T; Lorenson, M; Walker, A M; Ramos, E

    2014-01-31

    Prolactin (PRL) has many functions in the CNS, including neuroprotection. During lactation, the dorsal hippocampus is protected from excitotoxic kainic acid (KA)-induced cellular damage. We have previously reported that systemic pre-treatment with ovine PRL had similar protective effects in female rats. Here, we asked (1) whether intracerebral human PRL (hPRL) would have the same action, (2) because phosphorylated PRL is high in lactation, whether a mimic of phosphorylated hPRL, human prolactin in which the normally phosphorylated serine at position 179 is replaced with an aspartate (S179D-PRL), had similar activity, and (3) what signaling pathways mediated the protective effect. Female ovariectomized (OVX, 1 month) rats were implanted with micro-osmotic pumps connected to unilateral icv cannulae directed at the right lateral ventricle. The pumps delivered 0.10 ng/h of hPRL, S179D-PRL, a combination of hPRL+S179D-PRL, or saline vehicle for 7 days prior to a systemic dose of 7.5mg/kg of KA. Rats were sacrificed 48 h after KA injection. Immunostaining for neuronal nuclei (Neu-N) revealed a significant KA-induced decrease in cell number in the CA1, CA3, and CA4 hippocampal areas of rats (∼55% of control). Treatment with either hPRL or S179D-PRL or the combination prevented the damaging effect of KA in these hippocampal regions (∼95% of corresponding control), but was not completely effective at preventing early seizure-related behaviors such as staring and wet dog shakes. Analysis of signals generated by hPRL and S179D-PRL showed no activation of signal transducer and activation of transcription 5 (Stat5) or other signaling molecules in the hippocampus, but activation of extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in the amygdala. These results support a central protective effect of both PRL forms and suggest that PRL could be exerting its protective action by indirectly modulating input signals to the hippocampus and thus regulating excitability.

  11. Cysteamine depletes prolactin (PRL) but does not alter the structure of PRL-containing granules in the anterior pituitary

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, L.A.; Landis, D.M.; Sagar, S.M.; Millard, W.J.; Martin, J.B.

    1984-10-01

    Cysteamine causes a profound depletion of PRL in the anterior pituitary and in the systemic circulation, as measured by RIA and bioassay. However, electron microscopic study of PRL-containing cells in rat anterior pituitary does not reveal changes in secretory granule or cytoplasmic structure during the interval of depressed PRL content and of subsequent recovery to normal levels. In contrast to the results obtained by RIA, PRL-like immunoreactivity as detected by immunocyto-chemistry is present and similar to that of control preparations after cysteamine administration. We suggest that cysteamine alters PRL structure in secretory granules, probably by interacting with the disulfide bonds of PRL, thereby altering bioactivity and immunoreactivity. The presence of cysteamine-altered PRL in secretory granules does not seem to trigger degradation of granules by the lysosomal system.

  12. Prolactin (PRL) in adipose tissue: regulation and functions.

    PubMed

    Ben-Jonathan, Nira; Hugo, Eric

    2015-01-01

    New information concerning the effects of prolactin (PRL) on metabolic processes warrants reevaluation of its overall metabolic actions. PRL affects metabolic homeostasis by regulating key enzymes and transporters associated with glucose and lipid metabolism in several target organs. In the lactating mammary gland, PRL increases the production of milk proteins, lactose, and lipids. In adipose tissue, PRL generally suppresses lipid storage and adipokine release and affect adipogenesis. A specific case is made for PRL in the human breast and adipose tissues, where it acts as a circulating hormone and an autocrine/paracrine factor. Although its overall effects on body composition are both modest and species-specific, PRL may be involved in the manifestation of insulin resistance.

  13. Characterization of the protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL from Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Tapia, Ana Lilia; Baylón-Pacheco, Lidia; Espíritu-Gordillo, Patricia; Rosales-Encina, José Luis

    2015-12-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) is a group of phosphatases that has not been broadly studied in protozoan parasites. In humans, PRLs are involved in metastatic cancer, the promotion of cell migration and invasion. PTPs have been increasingly recognized as important effectors of host-pathogen interactions. We characterized the only putative protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL (PTP EhPRL) in the eukaryotic human intestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Here, we reported that the EhPRL protein possessed the classical HCX5R catalytic motif of PTPs and the CAAX box characteristic of the PRL family and exhibited 31-32% homology with the three human PRL isoforms. In amebae, the protein was expressed at low but detectable levels. The recombinant protein (rEhPRL) had enzymatic activity with the 3-o-methyl fluorescein phosphate (OMFP) substrate; this enzymatic activity was inhibited by the PTP inhibitor o-vanadate. Using immunofluorescence we showed that native EhPRL was localized to the cytoplasm and plasma membrane. When the trophozoites interacted with collagen, EhPRL relocalized over time to vesicle-like structures. Interaction with fibronectin increased the presence of the enzyme in the cytoplasm. Using RT-PCR, we demonstrated that EhPRL mRNA expression was upregulated when the trophozoites interacted with collagen but not with fibronectin. Trophozoites recovered from amoebic liver abscesses showed higher EhPRL mRNA expression levels than normal trophozoites. These results strongly suggest that EhPRL may play an important role in the biology and adaptive response of the parasite to the host environment during amoebic liver abscess development, thereby participating in the pathogenic mechanism.

  14. PRL-3 activates mTORC1 in Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zu; Al-Aidaroos, Abdul Qader Omer; Park, Jung Eun; Yuen, Hiu Fung; Zhang, Shu Dong; Gupta, Abhishek; Lin, Youbin; Shen, Han-Ming; Zeng, Qi

    2015-11-24

    PRL-3, a metastasis-associated phosphatase, is known to exert its oncogenic functions through activation of PI3K/Akt, which is a key regulator of the rapamycin-sensitive mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), but a coherent link between PRL-3 and activation of mTOR has not yet been formally demonstrated. We report a positive correlation between PRL-3 expression and mTOR phospho-activation in clinical tumour samples and mouse models of cancer and demonstrate that PRL-3 increased downstream signalling to the mTOR substrates, p70S6K and 4E-BP1, by increasing PI3K/Akt-mediated activation of Rheb-GTP via TSC2 suppression. We also show that PRL-3 increases mTOR translocation to lysosomes via increased mTOR binding affinity to Rag GTPases in an Akt-independent manner, demonstrating a previously undescribed mechanism of action for PRL-3. PRL-3 also enhanced matrix metalloproteinase-2 secretion and cellular invasiveness via activation of mTOR, attributes which were sensitive to rapamycin treatment. The downstream effects of PRL-3 were maintained even under conditions of environmental stress, suggesting that PRL-3 provides a strategic survival advantage to tumour cells via its effects on mTOR.

  15. Extra-pituitary prolactin (PRL) and prolactin-like protein (PRL-L) in chickens and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Bu, Guixian; Liang, Xiaomeng; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2015-09-01

    It is generally believed that in vertebrates, prolactin (PRL) is predominantly synthesized and released by pituitary lactotrophs and plays important roles in many physiological processes via activation of PRL receptor (PRLR), including water and electrolyte balance, reproduction, growth and development, metabolism, immuno-modulation, and behavior. However, there is increasing evidence showing that PRL and the newly identified 'prolactin-like protein (PRL-L)', a novel ligand of PRL receptor, are also expressed in a variety of extra-pituitary tissues, such as the brain, skin, ovary, and testes in non-mammalian vertebrates. In this brief review, we summarize the recent research progress on the structure, biological activities, and extra-pituitary expression of PRL and PRL-L in chickens (Gallus gallus) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) from our and other laboratories and briefly discuss their potential paracrine/autocrine roles in non-mammalian vertebrates, which may promote us to rethink the broad spectrum of PRL actions previously attributed to pituitary PRL only.

  16. Discovery and Evaluation of PRL Trimer Disruptors for Novel Anticancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yunpeng; Yu, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of PRL phosphatases (PRL1, PRL2, and PRL3) has been found in a variety of late-stage tumors and their distant metastatic sites. Therefore, the oncogenic PRL phosphatases represent intriguing targets for cancer therapy. There is considerable interest in identifying small molecule inhibitors targeting PRLs as novel anticancer agents. However, it has been difficult to acquire phosphatase activity-based PRL inhibitors due to the unusual wide and shallow catalytic pockets of PRLs revealed by crystal structure studies. Here, we present a novel method to identify PRL1 inhibitors by targeting the PRL1 trimer interface and the procedure to characterize their biochemical and cellular activity.

  17. Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010 Modulates the Host Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Turroni, Francesca; Taverniti, Valentina; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Duranti, Sabrina; Guglielmetti, Simone; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Gioiosa, Laura; Palanza, Paola; Margolles, Abelardo; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2014-01-01

    Here, we describe data obtained from transcriptome profiling of human cell lines and intestinal cells of a murine model upon exposure and colonization, respectively, with Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010. Significant changes were detected in the transcription of genes that are known to be involved in innate immunity. Furthermore, results from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) showed that exposure to B. bifidum PRL2010 causes enhanced production of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 cytokines, presumably through NF-κB activation. The obtained global transcription profiles strongly suggest that Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010 modulates the innate immune response of the host. PMID:24242237

  18. Expression and clinical role of protein of regenerating liver (PRL) phosphatases in ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Reich, Reuven; Hadar, Shany; Davidson, Ben

    2011-02-11

    The present study analyzed the expression and clinical role of the protein of regenerating liver (PRL) phosphatase family in ovarian carcinoma. PRL1-3 mRNA expression was studied in 184 tumors (100 effusions, 57 primary carcinomas, 27 solid metastases) using RT-PCR. PRL-3 protein expression was analyzed in 157 tumors by Western blotting. PRL-1 mRNA levels were significantly higher in effusions compared to solid tumors (p < 0.001), and both PRL-1 and PRL-2 were overexpressed in pleural compared to peritoneal effusions (p = 0.001). PRL-3 protein expression was significantly higher in primary diagnosis pre-chemotherapy compared to post-chemotherapy disease recurrence effusions (p = 0.003). PRL-1 mRNA expression in effusions correlated with longer overall survival (p = 0.032), and higher levels of both PRL-1 and PRL-2 mRNA correlated with longer overall survival for patients with pre-chemotherapy effusions (p = 0.022 and p = 0.02, respectively). Analysis of the effect of laminin on PRL-3 expression in ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro showed dose-dependent PRL-3 expression in response to exogenous laminin, mediated by Phospholipase D. In contrast to previous studies associating PRL-3 with poor outcome, our data show that PRL-3 expression has no clinical role in ovarian carcinoma, whereas PRL-1 and PRL-2 expression is associated with longer survival, suggesting that PRL phosphatases may be markers of improved outcome in this cancer.

  19. Role of phosphatase of regenerating liver 1 (PRL1) in spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yunpeng; Zhou, Hong-Ming; Zhang, Lujuan; Dong, Yuanshu; Zeng, Qi; Shou, Weinian; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2016-01-01

    The PRL phosphatases are oncogenic when overexpressed but their in vivo biological function is less well understood. Previous gene deletion study revealed a role for PRL2 in spermatogenesis. We report here the first knockout mice lacking PRL1, the most related homolog of PRL2. We found that loss of PRL1 does not affect spermatogenesis and reproductive ability of male mice, likely due to functional compensation by the relatively higher expression of PRL2 in the testes. However, PRL1−/−/PRL2+/− male mice show testicular atrophy phenotype similar to PRL2−/− mice. More strikingly, deletion of one PRL1 allele in PRL2−/− male mice causes complete infertility. Mechanistically, the total level of PRL1 and PRL2 is negatively correlated with the PTEN protein level in the testis and PRL1+/−/PRL2−/− mice have the highest level of PTEN, leading to attenuated Akt activation and increased germ cell apoptosis, effectively halting spermatozoa production. These results provide the first evidence that in addition to PRL2, PRL1 is also required for spermatogenesis by downregulating PTEN and promoting Akt signaling. The ability of the PRLs to suppress PTEN expression underscores the biochemical basis for their oncogenic potential. PMID:27666520

  20. Thioredoxin-related protein 32 (TRP32) specifically reduces oxidized phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL).

    PubMed

    Ishii, Tasuku; Funato, Yosuke; Miki, Hiroaki

    2013-03-08

    PRL family constitutes a unique class of phosphatases associated with metastasis. The phosphatase activity of PRL has been reported to be important for promoting metastasis, and it is inactivated by reversible oxidation of its catalytic cysteine. Here, we show that TRP32 specifically reduces PRL. Reduction of oxidized PRL in cells is inhibited by 2,4-dinitro-1-chlorobenzene, an inhibitor of TRX reductase. In vitro assays for the reduction of PRL show that only TRP32 can potently reduce oxidized PRL, whereas other TRX-related proteins linked to TRX reductase show little or no reducing activity. Indeed, TRP32 knockdown significantly prolongs the H2O2-induced oxidation of PRL. Binding analyses reveal that the unique C-terminal domain of TRP32 is required and sufficient for its direct interaction with PRL. These results suggest that TRP32 maintains the reduced state of PRL and thus regulates the biological function of PRL.

  1. Enhanced serum prolactin (PRL) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: PRL levels are related to the disease activity.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, A M; Rohde, W; Ventz, M; Riemekasten, G; Burmester, G R; Hiepe, F

    2001-01-01

    Recent accumulated evidence suggests that prolactin (PRL) is an important immunomodulator and plays a part in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The current study assessed the frequency of hyperprolactinaemia in patients with SLE and its association with defined clinical manifestations or serological abnormalities. PRL levels were analysed in 60 patients with SLE including a follow-up of 20 patients, 18 patients with rheumatic autoimmune diseases other than SLE (AID) and in 47 normal healthy subjects (NHS) using ELISA. Clinical manifestations and disease activity (ECLAM) were recorded. Autoantibodies (anti-dsDNA, anti-CL) were determined by standard techniques. In all, 28.3% of the patients with SLE had raised serum PRL. Their PRL levels (17.4+/-15.1 ng/ml, P<0.0001) and those of patients with AID (13.1+/-10.3 ng/ml, P<0.001) were significantly higher compared to NHS (6.3+/-3.2 ng/ml). Anti-dsDNA (r(s) = 0.3, P = 0.04) and anti-CL antibody titres (IgG; r(s) = 0.3, P = 0.03) correlated with PRL level. Furthermore, elevated erytthrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), anaemia, decrease in C3, fatigue, fever and renal involvement were associated with hyperprolactinaemia. These results were confirmed by follow-up examinations. Moderate hyperprolactinaemia is present in a subset of patients with SLE and serum PRL correlates with clinical and serological disease activity.

  2. Phosphocysteine in the PRL-CNNM pathway mediates magnesium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Gulerez, Irina; Funato, Yosuke; Wu, Howie; Yang, Meng; Kozlov, Guennadi; Miki, Hiroaki; Gehring, Kalle

    2016-12-01

    PRLs (phosphatases of regenerating liver) are frequently overexpressed in human cancers and are prognostic markers of poor survival. Despite their potential as therapeutic targets, their mechanism of action is not understood in part due to their weak enzymatic activity. Previous studies revealed that PRLs interact with CNNM ion transporters and prevent CNNM4-dependent Mg(2+) transport, which is important for energy metabolism and tumor progression. Here, we report that PRL-CNNM complex formation is regulated by the formation of phosphocysteine. We show that cysteine in the PRL catalytic site is endogenously phosphorylated as part of the catalytic cycle and that phosphocysteine levels change in response to Mg(2+) levels. Phosphorylation blocks PRL binding to CNNM Mg(2+) transporters, and mutations that block the PRL-CNNM interaction prevent regulation of Mg(2+) efflux in cultured cells. The crystal structure of the complex of PRL2 and the CBS-pair domain of the Mg(2+) transporter CNNM3 reveals the molecular basis for the interaction. The identification of phosphocysteine as a regulatory modification opens new perspectives for signaling by protein phosphatases.

  3. Src-mediated phosphorylation of the tyrosine phosphatase PRL-3 is required for PRL-3 promotion of Rho activation, motility and invasion.

    PubMed

    Fiordalisi, James J; Dewar, Brian J; Graves, Lee M; Madigan, James P; Cox, Adrienne D

    2013-01-01

    The metastasis-associated tyrosine phosphatase PRL-3/PTP4A is upregulated in numerous cancers, but the mechanisms modulating PRL-3 activity other than its expression levels have not been investigated. Here we report evidence for both Src-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of PRL-3 and Src-mediated regulation of PRL-3 biological activities. We used structural mutants, pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA to demonstrate Src-dependent phosphorylation of endogenous PRL-3 in SW480 colon cancer cells. We also demonstrated that PRL-3 was not tyrosine phosphorylated in SYF mouse embryo fibroblasts deficient in Src, Yes and Fyn unless Src was re-expressed. Further, we show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) can stimulate PRL-3 phosphorylation in a Src-dependent manner. Finally, we show that PRL-3-induced cell motility, Matrigel invasion and activation of the cytoskeleton-regulating small GTPase RhoC were abrogated in the presence of the phosphodeficient PRL-3 mutant Y53F, or by use of a Src inhibitor. Thus, PRL-3 requires the activity of a Src kinase, likely Src itself, to promote these cancer-associated phenotypes. Our data establish a model for the regulation of PRL-3 by Src that supports the possibility of their coordinate roles in signaling pathways promoting invasion and metastasis, and supports simultaneous use of novel molecularly targeted therapeutics directed at these proteins.

  4. Src-Mediated Phosphorylation of the Tyrosine Phosphatase PRL-3 Is Required for PRL-3 Promotion of Rho Activation, Motility and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Fiordalisi, James J.; Dewar, Brian J.; Graves, Lee M.; Madigan, James P.; Cox, Adrienne D.

    2013-01-01

    The metastasis-associated tyrosine phosphatase PRL-3/PTP4A is upregulated in numerous cancers, but the mechanisms modulating PRL-3 activity other than its expression levels have not been investigated. Here we report evidence for both Src-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of PRL-3 and Src-mediated regulation of PRL-3 biological activities. We used structural mutants, pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA to demonstrate Src-dependent phosphorylation of endogenous PRL-3 in SW480 colon cancer cells. We also demonstrated that PRL-3 was not tyrosine phosphorylated in SYF mouse embryo fibroblasts deficient in Src, Yes and Fyn unless Src was re-expressed. Further, we show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) can stimulate PRL-3 phosphorylation in a Src-dependent manner. Finally, we show that PRL-3-induced cell motility, Matrigel invasion and activation of the cytoskeleton-regulating small GTPase RhoC were abrogated in the presence of the phosphodeficient PRL-3 mutant Y53F, or by use of a Src inhibitor. Thus, PRL-3 requires the activity of a Src kinase, likely Src itself, to promote these cancer-associated phenotypes. Our data establish a model for the regulation of PRL-3 by Src that supports the possibility of their coordinate roles in signaling pathways promoting invasion and metastasis, and supports simultaneous use of novel molecularly targeted therapeutics directed at these proteins. PMID:23691193

  5. Metastasis-associated phosphatase PRL-2 regulates tumor cell migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Lazo, J S

    2012-02-16

    The phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) family, comprising PRL-1, PRL-2 and PRL-3, is a group of prenylated phosphatases that are candidate cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Although several studies have documented that altered expression of PRL-1 or PRL-3 can influence cell proliferation, migration and invasion, there is a dearth of knowledge about the biological functions of PRL-2. Thus, in the current study we have evaluated the role of PRL-2 in cell migration and invasion in human cancer cells. We found that four human lung cancer cells, including A549 cells, overexpress PRL-2 when compared with normal lung cells. PRL-2 knockdown by RNA interference markedly inhibited cell migration and invasion, and this inhibition can be restored by overexpressing the short interference RNA (siRNA)-resistant vector HA-PRL-2m. PRL-2 suppression by siRNA decreased p130Cas and vinculin expression, and decreased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, while increasing the phosphorylation of ezrin on tyrosine 146. We found no significant changes in total p53, Akt and c-Src expression levels or their phosphorylation status, suggesting that PRL-2 knockdown could inhibit tumor cell migration and invasion through a Src-independent p130Cas signaling pathway. Ectopic expression of wild-type PRL-2, a catalytic inactive C101S mutant and a C-terminal CAAX deletion revealed a requirement for both the PRL-2 catalytic functionality and prenylation site. Expression of wild-type but not mutant forms of PRL-2 caused ERK phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. These results support a model in which PRL-2 promotes cell migration and invasion through an ERK-dependent signaling pathway.

  6. PRL3-zumab, a first-in-class humanized antibody for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Thura, Min; Al-Aidaroos, Abdul Qader Omer; Yong, Wei Peng; Kono, Koji; Gupta, Abhishek; Lin, You Bin; Mimura, Kousaku; Thiery, Jean Paul; Goh, Boon Cher; Tan, Patrick; Soo, Ross; Hong, Cheng William; Wang, Lingzhi; Lin, Suling Joyce; Chen, Elya; Rha, Sun Young; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Li, Jie; Nandi, Sayantani; Yuen, Hiu Fung; Zhang, Shu-Dong; Guan, Yeoh Khay; So, Jimmy

    2016-01-01

    Novel, tumor-specific drugs are urgently needed for a breakthrough in cancer therapy. Herein, we generated a first-in-class humanized antibody (PRL3-zumab) against PRL-3, an intracellular tumor-associated phosphatase upregulated in multiple human cancers, for unconventional cancer immunotherapies. We focused on gastric cancer (GC), wherein elevated PRL-3 mRNA levels significantly correlated with shortened overall survival of GC patients. PRL-3 protein was overexpressed in 85% of fresh-frozen clinical gastric tumor samples examined but not in patient-matched normal gastric tissues. Using human GC cell lines, we demonstrated that PRL3-zumab specifically blocked PRL-3+, but not PRL-3–, orthotopic gastric tumors. In this setting, PRL3-zumab had better therapeutic efficacy as a monotherapy, rather than simultaneous combination with 5-fluorouracil or 5-fluorouracil alone. PRL3-zumab could also prevent PRL-3+ tumor recurrence. Mechanistically, we found that intracellular PRL-3 antigens could be externalized to become “extracellular oncotargets” that serve as bait for PRL3-zumab binding to potentially bridge and recruit immunocytes into tumor microenvironments for killing effects on cancer cells. In summary, our results document a comprehensive cancer therapeutic approach to specific antibody-targeted therapy against the PRL-3 oncotarget as a case study for developing antibodies against other intracellular targets in drug discovery. PMID:27699276

  7. Rhodanine-based PRL-3 inhibitors blocked the migration and invasion of metastatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Min, Garam; Lee, Su-Kyung; Kim, Hye-Nan; Han, Young-Min; Lee, Rhan-Hee; Jeong, Dae Gwin; Han, Dong Cho; Kwon, Byoung-Mog

    2013-07-01

    PRL-3, phosphatase of regenerating liver-3, plays a role in cancer progression through its involvement in invasion, migration, metastasis, and angiogenesis. We synthesized rhodanine derivatives, CG-707 and BR-1, which inhibited PRL-3 enzymatic activity with IC50 values of 0.8 μM and 1.1 μM, respectively. CG-707 and BR-1 strongly inhibited the migration and invasion of PRL-3 overexpressing colon cancer cells without exhibiting cytotoxicity. The specificity of the inhibitors on PRL-3 phosphatase activity was confirmed by the phosphorylation recovery of known PRL-3 substrates such as ezrin and cytokeratin 8. The compounds selectively inhibited PRL-3 in comparison with other phosphatases, and CG-707 regulated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker proteins. The results of the present study reveal that rhodanine is a specific PRL-3 inhibitor and a good lead molecule for obtaining a selective PRL-3 inhibitor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. PRL-3 activates NF-κB signaling pathway by interacting with RAP1.

    PubMed

    Lian, Shenyi; Meng, Lin; Liu, Caiyun; Xing, Xiaofang; Song, Qian; Dong, Bin; Han, Yong; Yang, Yongyong; Peng, Lirong; Qu, Like; Shou, Chengchao

    2013-01-04

    Phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL-3) promotes cancer metastasis through enhanced cell motility and invasiveness, however its role in tumorigenesis remains unclear. Herein, we reported that PRL-3 interacts with telomere-related protein RAP1. PRL-3 promotes the cytosolic localization of RAP1, which is counteracted by silencing of PRL-3. Immunohistochemical staining of colon cancer tissue array (n=170) revealed that high level of PRL-3 associates with cytosolic localization of RAP1 (p=0.01). Microarray analysis showed that PRL-3 regulates expression of diverse genes and enhances phosphorylation of p65 subunit of NF-κB in a RAP1-dependent manner. Furthermore, PRL-3 transcriptionally activates RAP1 expression, which is counteracted by ablating p65. Therefore, our results demonstrate PRL-3 as a novel regulator of NF-κB signaling pathway through RAP1.

  9. The protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL-2 interacts with the magnesium transporter CNNM3 to promote oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hardy, S; Uetani, N; Wong, N; Kostantin, E; Labbé, D P; Bégin, L R; Mes-Masson, A; Miranda-Saavedra, D; Tremblay, M L

    2015-02-19

    The three PRL (phosphatases of regenerating liver) protein tyrosine phosphatases (PRL-1, -2 and -3) have been identified as key contributors to metastasis in several human cancers, yet the molecular basis of their pro-oncogenic property is unclear. Among the subfamily of PRL phosphatases, overexpression of PRL-2 in breast cancer cells has been shown to promote tumor growth by a mechanism that remains to be uncovered. Here we show that PRL-2 regulates intracellular magnesium levels by forming a functional heterodimer with the magnesium transporter CNNM3. We further reveal that CNNM3 is not a phosphorylated substrate of PRL-2, and that the interaction occurs through a loop unique to the CBS pair domains of CNNM3 that exists only in organisms having PRL orthologs. Supporting the role of PRL-2 in cellular magnesium transport is the observation that PRL-2 knockdown results in a substantial decrease of cellular magnesium influx. Furthermore, in PRL-2 knockout mice, serum magnesium levels were significantly elevated as compared with control animals, indicating a pivotal role for PRL-2 in regulating cellular magnesium homeostasis. Although the expression levels of CNNM3 remained unchanged after magnesium depletion of various cancer cell lines, the interaction between endogenous PRL-2 and CNNM3 was markedly increased. Importantly, xenograft tumor assays with CNNM3 and a mutant form that does not associate with PRL-2 confirm that CNNM3 is itself pro-oncogenic, and that the PRL-2/CNNM3 association is important for conferring transforming activities. This finding is further confirmed from data in human breast cancer tissues showing that CNNM3 levels correlate positively with both PRL-2 expression and the tumor proliferative index. In summary, we demonstrate that oncogenic PRL-2 controls tumor growth by modulating intracellular magnesium levels through binding with the CNNM3 magnesium transporter.

  10. Oncogenic function and prognostic significance of protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL-1 in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shaowen; Wang, Kaimei; Xu, Kang; Xu, Junyao; Sun, Jian; Chu, Zhonghua; Lin, Dechen; Koeffler, Phillip H.; Wang, Jie; Yin, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Our SNP-Chip data demonstrated 7/60 (12%) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients had PRL-1 copy number amplification. However, its biological functions and signaling pathways in HCC are deficient. Here, we investigated its oncogenic function and prognostic significance in HCC. PRL-1 protein levels were examined in 167 HCC samples by immunohistochemisty (IHC). The relationship of PRL-1 expression and clinicopathological features was assessed by correlation, Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. The oncogenic function of PRL-1 in HCC cells and its underlying mechanism were investigated by ectopic overexpression and knockdown model. PRL-1 levels in primary HCC and metastatic intravascular cancer thrombus were also determined by IHC. PRL-1 levels were frequently elevated in HCC tissues (81%), and elevated expression of PRL-1 was significantly associated with more aggressive phenotype and poorer prognosis in HCC patients (p<0.05). Ectopic overexpression of PRL-1 markedly enhanced HCC cells migration and invasion. Furthermore, the oncogenic functions of PRL-1 were mediated by PI3K/AKT/GSK3β signaling pathway through inhibiting E-cadherin expression. Finally, PRL-1 protein levels in metastatic cancer thrombus were higher than that in primary HCC tissues (p<0.05). These data highlight the oncogenic function of PRL-1 in HCC invasion and metastasis implicating PRL-1 as a potential prognostic marker as well as therapeutic target in HCC. PMID:25003523

  11. Oncogenic function and prognostic significance of protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL-1 in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shaowen; Wang, Kaimei; Xu, Kang; Xu, Junyao; Sun, Jian; Chu, Zhonghua; Lin, Dechen; Koeffler, Phillip H; Wang, Jie; Yin, Dong

    2014-06-15

    Our SNP-Chip data demonstrated 7/60 (12%) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients had PRL-1 copy number amplification. However, its biological functions and signaling pathways in HCC are deficient. Here, we investigated its oncogenic function and prognostic significance in HCC. PRL-1 protein levels were examined in 167 HCC samples by immunohistochemisty (IHC). The relationship of PRL-1 expression and clinicopathological features was assessed by correlation, Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. The oncogenic function of PRL-1 in HCC cells and its underlying mechanism were investigated by ectopic overexpression and knockdown model. PRL-1 levels in primary HCC and metastatic intravascular cancer thrombus were also determined by IHC. PRL-1 levels were frequently elevated in HCC tissues (81%), and elevated expression of PRL-1 was significantly associated with more aggressive phenotype and poorer prognosis in HCC patients (p<0.05). Ectopic overexpression of PRL-1 markedly enhanced HCC cells migration and invasion. Furthermore, the oncogenic functions of PRL-1 were mediated by PI3K/AKT/GSK3β signaling pathway through inhibiting E-cadherin expression. Finally, PRL-1 protein levels in metastatic cancer thrombus were higher than that in primary HCC tissues (p<0.05). These data highlight the oncogenic function of PRL-1 in HCC invasion and metastasis implicating PRL-1 as a potential prognostic marker as well as therapeutic target in HCC.

  12. Drosophila PRL-1 is a growth inhibitor that counteracts the function of the Src oncogene.

    PubMed

    Pagarigan, Krystle T; Bunn, Bryce W; Goodchild, Jake; Rahe, Travis K; Weis, Julie F; Saucedo, Leslie J

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatase of Regenerating Liver (PRL) family members have emerged as molecular markers that significantly correlate to the ability of many cancers to metastasize. However, contradictory cellular responses to PRL expression have been reported, including the inhibition of cell cycle progression. An obvious culprit for the discrepancy is the use of dozens of different cell lines, including many isolated from tumors or cultured cells selected for immortalization which may have missing or mutated modulators of PRL function. We created transgenic Drosophila to study the effects of PRL overexpression in a genetically controlled, organismal model. Our data support the paradigm that the normal cellular response to high levels of PRL is growth suppression and furthermore, that PRL can counter oncogenic activity of Src. The ability of PRL to inhibit growth under normal conditions is dependent on a CAAX motif that is required to localize PRL to the apical edge of the lateral membrane. However, PRL lacking the CAAX motif can still associate indiscriminately with the plasma membrane and retains its ability to inhibit Src function. We propose that PRL binds to other membrane-localized proteins that are effectors of Src or to Src itself. This first examination of PRL in a model organism demonstrates that PRL performs as a tumor suppressor and underscores the necessity of identifying the conditions that enable it to transform into an oncogene in cancer.

  13. Increased expression of the PRL-3 gene in human oral squamous cell carcinoma and dysplasia tissues.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur; Hamada, Jun-ichi; Kameyama, Takeshi; Tada, Mitsuhiro; Nakagawa, Koji; Yoshida, Shoko; Kashiwazaki, Haruhiko; Yamazaki, Yutaka; Suzuki, Yukiko; Sasaki, Akira; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Inoue, Nobuo; Moriuchi, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) belongs to a class of the protein tyrosine phosphatase family, which is known so far to consist of 3 members, PRL-1, PRL-2, and PRL-3. The aim of this study was to uncover the role of PRL genes in development of oral malignancy. We analyzed expression levels of the 3 PRL genes in 50 human oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs), 11 dysplasia and 12 normal mucosa tissues by a real-time RT-PCR method. PRL-3 but not PRL-1 or PRL-2 expressions were significantly higher in OSCC and dysplasia than in normal mucosa tissues. Additionally, PRL-3 expressions were significantly higher in OSCC tissues harboring dominant-negative p53 or recessive p53 mutation than in those harboring wild-type p53. These results suggest that PRL-3 plays a role in oral cancer development and can be useful as a marker of pre-malignant and malignant lesion of oral mucosa.

  14. Plasticity of the prolactin (PRL) axis: mechanisms underlying regulation of output in female mice.

    PubMed

    Le Tissier, P R; Hodson, D J; Martin, A O; Romanò, N; Mollard, P

    2015-01-01

    The output of prolactin (PRL) is highly dynamic with dramatic changes in its secretion from the anterior pituitary gland depending on prevailing physiological status. In adult female mice, there are three distinct phases of output and each of these is related to the functions of PRL at specific stages of reproduction. Recent studies of the changes in the regulation of PRL during its period of maximum output, lactation, have shown alterations at both the level of the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus. The PRL-secreting cells of the anterior pituitary are organised into a homotypic network in virgin animals, facilitating coordinated bouts of activity between interconnected PRL cells. During lactation, coordinated activity increases due to the changes in structural connectivity, and this drives large elevations in PRL secretion. Surprisingly, these changes in connectivity are maintained after weaning, despite reversion of PRL output to that of virgin animals, and result in an augmented output of hormone during a second lactation. At the level of the hypothalamus, tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons, the major inhibitors of PRL secretion, have unexpectedly been shown to remain responsive to PRL during lactation. However, there is an uncoupling between TIDA neuron firing and dopamine secretion, with a potential switch to enkephalin release. Such a process may reinforce hormone secretion through dual disinhibition and stimulation of PRL cell activity. Thus, integration of signalling along the hypothalamo-pituitary axis is responsible for increased secretory output of PRL cells during lactation, as well as allowing the system to anticipate future demands.

  15. Phosphatase PRL-3 is a direct regulatory target of TGFbeta in colon cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanjun; Liu, Xiao-Qiong; Rajput, Ashwani; Geng, Liying; Ongchin, Melanie; Zeng, Qi; Taylor, Gregory S; Wang, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Metastasis causes most deaths from cancer yet mechanistic understanding and therapeutic options remain limited. Overexpression of the phosphatase PRL-3 (phosphatase of regenerating liver) is associated with metastasis of colon cancer. Here, we show that PRL-3 is a direct target of signaling by TGFβ, which is broadly implicated in progression and metastasis. We found that suppression of PRL-3 expression by TGFβ was mediated by Smad-dependent inhibition of PRL-3 transcription at the level of promoter activity. PRL-3 activation stimulated PI3K/AKT signaling that caused resistance to stress-induced apoptosis. PRL-3 overexpression promoted metastatic colonization in an orthotopic mouse model of colon cancer, whereas PRL-3 knockdown reduced metastatic potential. Altered metastatic phenotypes were not derivative of primary tumor development or local invasion but could be attributed to PRL-3-mediated cell survival. Our findings suggest that inhibiting PRL-3 expression might be an important mechanism through which TGFβ suppresses metastasis in colon cancer. In addition, our findings suggest that loss of TGFβ signaling, which occurs commonly during colon cancer progression, is sufficient to activate a PRL-3-mediated cell survival pathway that can selectively promote metastasis. Therefore, a major implication of our findings is that PRL-3 antagonists may offer significant value for antimetastatic therapy in patients with colon cancer.

  16. The posterior chamber phakic refractive lens (PRL): a review

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Cambrodí, R J; Piñero, D P; Ferrer-Blasco, T; Cerviño, A; Brautaset, R

    2013-01-01

    Implantation of phakic intraocular lenses (pIOLs) is a reversible refractive procedure, preserving the patient's accommodative function with minimal induction of higher order aberrations compared with corneal photoablative procedures. Despite this, as an intraocular procedure, it has potential risks such as cataracts, chronic uveitis, pupil ovalization, corneal endothelial cell loss, pigmentary dispersion syndrome, pupillary block glaucoma, astigmatism, or endophthalmitis. Currently, only two models of posterior chamber pIOLs are commercially available, the implantable collammer lens (STAAR Surgical Co.) and the phakic refractive lens (PRL; Zeiss Meditec). The number of published reports on the latter is very low, and some concerns still remain about its long-term safety. The present article reviews the published literature on the outcomes after PRL implantation in order to provide a general overview and evaluate its real potential as a surgical refractive option. PMID:23222559

  17. Anti-cytomegalovirus activity of the anthraquinone atanyl blue PRL.

    PubMed

    Alam, Zohaib; Al-Mahdi, Zainab; Zhu, Yali; McKee, Zachary; Parris, Deborah S; Parikh, Hardik I; Kellogg, Glen E; Kuchta, Alison; McVoy, Michael A

    2015-02-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes significant disease in immunocompromised patients and serious birth defects if acquired in utero. Available CMV antivirals target the viral DNA polymerase, have significant toxicities, and suffer from resistance. New drugs targeting different pathways would be beneficial. The anthraquinone emodin is proposed to inhibit herpes simplex virus by blocking the viral nuclease. Emodin and related anthraquinones are also reported to inhibit CMV. In the present study, emodin reduced CMV infectious yield with an EC50 of 4.9μM but was cytotoxic at concentrations only twofold higher. Related anthraquinones acid blue 40 and alizarin violet R inhibited CMV at only high concentrations (238-265μM) that were also cytotoxic. However, atanyl blue PRL inhibited infectious yield of CMV with an EC50 of 6.3μM, significantly below its 50% cytotoxic concentration of 216μM. Atanyl blue PRL reduced CMV infectivity and inhibited spread. When added up to 1h after infection, it dramatically reduced CMV immediate early protein expression and blocked viral DNA synthesis. However, it had no antiviral activity when added 24h after infection. Interestingly, atanyl blue PRL inhibited nuclease activities of purified CMV UL98 protein with IC50 of 4.5 and 9.3μM. These results indicate that atanyl blue PRL targets very early post-entry events in CMV replication and suggest it may act through inhibition of UL98, making it a novel CMV inhibitor. This compound may provide valuable insights into molecular events that occur at the earliest times post-infection and serve as a lead structure for antiviral development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploring Amino Acid Auxotrophy in Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010

    PubMed Central

    Ferrario, Chiara; Duranti, Sabrina; Milani, Christian; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Lugli, Gabriele A.; Turroni, Francesca; Mangifesta, Marta; Viappiani, Alice; Ossiprandi, Maria C.; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition and assimilation strategies followed by members of the infant gut microbiota to retrieve nitrogen from the gut lumen are still largely unknown. In particular, no information on these metabolic processes is available regarding bifidobacteria, which are among the first microbial colonizers of the human intestine. Here, evaluation of amino acid auxotrophy and prototrophy of Bifidobacterium bifidum, with particular emphasis on B. bifidum strain PRL2010 (LMG S-28692), revealed a putative auxotrophy for cysteine. In addition, we hypothesized that cysteine plays a role in the oxidative stress response in B. bifidum. The use of glutathione as an alternative reduced sulfur compound did not alleviate cysteine auxotrophy of this strain, though it was shown to stimulate expression of the genes involved in cysteine biosynthesis, reminiscent of oxidative stress response. When PRL2010 was grown on a medium containing complex substrates, such as whey proteins or casein hydrolysate, we noticed a distinct growth-promoting effect of these compounds. Transcriptional analysis involving B. bifidum PRL2010 cultivated on whey proteins or casein hydrolysate revealed that the biosynthetic pathways for cysteine and methionine are modulated by the presence of casein hydrolysate. Such findings support the notion that certain complex substrates may act as potential prebiotics for bifidobacteria in their ecological niche. PMID:26635786

  19. Novel Anticancer Agents Based on Targeting the Trimer Interface of the PRL Phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yunpeng; Yu, Zhi-Hong; Liu, Sijiu; Zhang, Lujuan; Zhang, Ruo-Yu; Zeng, Li-Fan; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2016-08-15

    Phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) oncoproteins are phosphatases overexpressed in numerous types of human cancer. Elevated levels of PRL associate with metastasis and poor clinical outcomes. In principle, PRL phosphatases offer appealing therapeutic targets, but they remain underexplored due to the lack of specific chemical probes. In this study, we address this issue by exploiting a unique property of PRL phosphatases, namely, that they may function as homotrimers. Starting from a sequential structure-based virtual screening and medicinal chemistry strategy, we identified Cmpd-43 and several analogs that disrupt PRL1 trimerization. Biochemical and structural analyses demonstrate that Cmpd-43 and its close analogs directly bind the PRL1 trimer interface and obstruct PRL1 trimerization. Cmpd-43 also specifically blocks the PRL1-induced cell proliferation and migration through attenuation of both ERK1/2 and Akt activity. Importantly, Cmpd-43 exerted potent anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo in a murine xenograft model of melanoma. Our results validate a trimerization-dependent signaling mechanism for PRL and offer proof of concept for trimerization inhibitors as candidate therapeutics to treat PRL-driven cancers. Cancer Res; 76(16); 4805-15. ©2016 AACR.

  20. Metastasis-associated PRL-3 induces EGFR activation and addiction in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Aidaroos, Abdul Qader Omer; Yuen, Hiu Fung; Guo, Ke; Zhang, Shu Dong; Chung, Tae-Hoon; Chng, Wee Joo; Zeng, Qi

    2013-08-01

    Metastasis-associated phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) has pleiotropic effects in driving cancer progression, yet the signaling mechanisms of PRL-3 are still not fully understood. Here, we provide evidence for PRL-3-induced hyperactivation of EGFR and its downstream signaling cascades in multiple human cancer cell lines. Mechanistically, PRL-3-induced activation of EGFR was attributed primarily to transcriptional downregulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), an inhibitory phosphatase for EGFR. Functionally, PRL-3-induced hyperactivation of EGFR correlated with increased cell growth, promigratory characteristics, and tumorigenicity. Moreover, PRL-3 induced cellular addiction to EGFR signaling, as evidenced by the pronounced reversion of these oncogenic attributes upon EGFR-specific inhibition. Of clinical significance, we verified elevated PRL-3 expression as a predictive marker for favorable therapeutic response in a heterogeneous colorectal cancer (CRC) patient cohort treated with the clinically approved anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab. The identification of PRL-3-driven EGFR hyperactivation and consequential addiction to EGFR signaling opens new avenues for inhibiting PRL-3-driven cancer progression. We propose that elevated PRL-3 expression is an important clinical predictive biomarker for favorable anti-EGFR cancer therapy.

  1. LEO1 is regulated by PRL-3 and mediates its oncogenic properties in acute myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chong, Phyllis S Y; Zhou, Jianbiao; Cheong, Lip-Lee; Liu, Shaw-Cheng; Qian, Jingru; Guo, Tiannan; Sze, Siu Kwan; Zeng, Qi; Chng, Wee Joo

    2014-06-01

    PRL-3, an oncogenic dual-specificity phosphatase, is overexpressed in 50% of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and associated with poor survival. We found that stable expression of PRL-3 confers cytokine independence and growth advantage of AML cells. However, how PRL-3 mediates these functions in AML is not known. To comprehensively screen for PRL3-regulated proteins in AML, we performed SILAC-based quantitative proteomics analysis and discovered 398 significantly perturbed proteins after PRL-3 overexpression. We show that Leo1, a component of RNA polymerase II-associated factor (PAF) complex, is a novel and important mediator of PRL-3 oncogenic activities in AML. We described a novel mechanism where elevated PRL-3 protein increases JMJD2C histone demethylase occupancy on Leo1 promoter, thereby reducing the H3K9me3 repressive signals and promoting Leo1 gene expression. Furthermore, PRL-3 and Leo1 levels were positively associated in AML patient samples (N=24; P<0.01). On the other hand, inhibition of Leo1 reverses PRL-3 oncogenic phenotypes in AML. Loss of Leo1 leads to destabilization of the PAF complex and downregulation of SOX2 and SOX4, potent oncogenes in myeloid transformation. In conclusion, we identify an important and novel mechanism by which PRL-3 mediates its oncogenic function in AML.

  2. Overexpression of the protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL-2 correlates with breast tumor formation and progression.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Serge; Wong, Nau Nau; Muller, William J; Park, Morag; Tremblay, Michel L

    2010-11-01

    The PRL-1, PRL-2, and PRL-3 phosphatases are prenylated protein tyrosine phosphatases with oncogenic activity that are proposed to drive tumor metastasis. We found that PRL-2 mRNA is elevated in primary breast tumors relative to matched normal tissue, and also dramatically elevated in metastatic lymph nodes compared with primary tumors. PRL-2 knockdown in metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells decreased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration, suggesting that the malignant phenotype of these cells is mediated at least in part through PRL-2 signaling. In different mouse mammary tumor-derived cell lines overexpressing PRL-2, we confirmed its role in anchorage-independent growth and cell migration. Furthermore, injection of PRL-2-overexpressing cells into the mouse mammary fat pad promoted extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation and tumor formation. MMTV-PRL-2 transgenic mice engineered to overexpress the enzyme in mammary tissue did not exhibit spontaneous tumorigenesis, but they exhibited an accelerated development of mammary tumors initiated by introduction of an MMTV-ErbB2 transgene. Together, our results argue that PRL-2 plays a role in breast cancer progression.

  3. Direct effect of PGF2α pulses on PRL pulses, based on inhibition of PRL or PGF2α secretion in heifers.

    PubMed

    Pinaffi, F L V; Pugliesi, G; Hannan, M A; Silva, L A; Beg, M A; Ginther, O J

    2012-08-01

    The relationships between PRL and PGF(2α) and their effect on luteolysis were studied. Heifers were treated with a dopamine-receptor agonist (bromocriptine; Bc) and a Cox-1 and -2 inhibitor (flunixin meglumine [FM]) to inhibit PRL and PGF(2α), respectively. The Bc was given (Hour 0) when ongoing luteolysis was indicated by a 12.5% reduction in CL area (cm(2)) from the area on Day 14 postovulation, and FM was given at Hours 0, 4, and 8. Blood samples were collected every 8-h beginning on Day 14 until Hour 48 and hourly for Hours 0 to 12. Three groups of heifers in ongoing luteolysis were used: control (n = 7), Bc (n = 7), and FM (n = 4). Treatment with Bc decreased (P < 0.003) the PRL concentrations averaged over Hours 1 to 12. During the greatest decrease in PRL (Hours 2-6), LH concentrations were increased. Progesterone concentrations averaged over hours were greater (P < 0.05) in the Bc group than in the controls. In the FM group, no PGFM pulses were detected, and PRL concentrations were reduced. Concentrations of PGFM were not reduced in the Bc group, despite the reduction in PRL. Results supported the hypothesis that a decrease (12.5%) in CL area (cm(2)) is more efficient in targeting ongoing luteolysis (63%) than using any day from Days 14 to ≥ 19 (efficiency/day, 10-24%). The hypothesis that PRL has a role in luteolysis was supported but was confounded by the known positive effect of LH on progesterone. The hypothesis was supported that the synchrony of PGFM and PRL pulses represents a positive effect of PGF(2α) on PRL, rather than an effect of PRL on PGF(2α).

  4. The essential role of FKBP38 in regulating phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 (PRL-3) protein stability

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Myung-Suk; Min, Sang-Hyun; Jung, Haiyoung; Lee, Ju Dong; Lee, Tae Ho; Lee, Heung Kyu; Yoo, Ook-Joon

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} FKBP38 interacts with PRL-3. {yields} FKBP38 promotes degradation of endogenous PRL-3 protein via protein-proteasome pathway. {yields} FKBP38 suppresses PRL-3 oncogenic function. {yields} FKBP38 is a novel negative regulator of the oncogenic protein PRL-3. -- Abstract: The phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) is a member of protein tyrosine phosphatases and whose deregulation is implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis of many cancers. However, the underlying mechanism by which PRL-3 is regulated is not known. In this study, we identified the peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase FK506-binding protein 38 (FKBP38) as an interacting protein of PRL-3 using a yeast two-hybrid system. FKBP38 specifically binds to PRL-3 in vivo, and that the N-terminal region of FKBP38 is crucial for binding with PRL-3. FKBP38 overexpression reduces endogenous PRL-3 expression levels, whereas the depletion of FKBP38 by siRNA increases the level of PRL-3 protein. Moreover, FKBP38 promotes degradation of endogenous PRL-3 protein via protein-proteasome pathway. Furthermore, FKBP38 suppresses PRL-3-mediated p53 activity and cell proliferation. These results demonstrate that FKBP38 is a novel regulator of the oncogenic protein PRL-3 abundance and that alteration in the stability of PRL-3 can have a dramatic impact on cell proliferation. Thus, FKBP38 may play a critical role in tumorigenesis.

  5. Assessment of lactotroph axis functionality in mice: longitudinal monitoring of PRL secretion by ultrasensitive-ELISA.

    PubMed

    Guillou, Anne; Romanò, Nicola; Steyn, Frederik; Abitbol, Karine; Le Tissier, Paul; Bonnefont, Xavier; Chen, Chen; Mollard, Patrice; Martin, Agnès O

    2015-05-01

    The pattern of prolactin (PRL) secretion depends on the physiological state. Due to insufficient detection sensitivity of existing assays, the precise description of these patterns in mice is lacking. We described an ultrasensitive ELISA assay that can detect mouse PRL in small fractions of whole blood, allowing longitudinal studies of PRL secretion profiles in freely moving mice. Over a 24-hour period, males displayed no oscillation in PRL levels, whereas virgin and lactating females showed large pulses. Peaks of PRL secretion reached 30-40 ng/mL in lactating female mice and rarely exceeded 10 ng/mL in virgin females. These pulses of PRL in lactating females were associated with suckling. The return of pups after an experimental 12-hour weaning induced a pulse of PRL release, reaching 100 ng/mL. This approach also enabled us to assess the inhibitory tone from hypothalamic dopamine neurons on PRL secretion. We used a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist to relieve pituitary lactotrophs from the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic inhibitory tone and demonstrate a D2-induced PRL rise that can be used to evaluate both the secretory capacity of lactotrophs and the magnitude of the inhibitory tone on pituitary PRL release. We demonstrate that, although lactotroph function is altered to enhance chronic PRL output, their secretory response to acute stimulus is not modified during lactation and that chronic hyperprolactinemia is linked to a lower inhibitory tone. The combination of a sensitive PRL ELISA and administration of D2 receptor antagonist provide a unique opportunity to investigate the function and plasticity of the lactotroph axis in freely moving mice.

  6. Structure and backbone dynamics of vanadate-bound PRL-3: comparison of 15N nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation profiles of free and vanadate-bound PRL-3.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ki-Woong; Kang, Dong-Il; Lee, Eunjung; Shin, Areum; Jin, Bonghwan; Park, Young-Guen; Lee, Chung-Kyoung; Kim, Eun-Hee; Jeon, Young Ho; Kim, Eunice Eunkyeong; Kim, Yangmee

    2014-07-29

    Phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRLs) constitute a novel class of small, prenylated phosphatases with oncogenic activity. PRL-3 is particularly important in cancer metastasis and represents a potential therapeutic target. The flexibility of the WPD loop as well as the P-loop of protein tyrosine phosphatases is closely related to their catalytic activity. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we studied the structure of vanadate-bound PRL-3, which was generated by addition of sodium orthovanadate to PRL-3. The WPD loop of free PRL-3 extended outside of the active site, forming an open conformation, whereas that of vanadate-bound PRL-3 was directed into the active site by a large movement, resulting in a closed conformation. We suggest that vanadate binding induced structural changes in the WPD loop, P-loop, helices α4-α6, and the polybasic region. Compared to free PRL-3, vanadate-bound PRL-3 has a longer α4 helix, where the catalytic R110 residue coordinates with vanadate in the active site. In addition, the hydrophobic cavity formed by helices α4-α6 with a depth of 14-15 Å can accommodate a farnesyl chain at the truncated prenylation motif of PRL-3, i.e., from R169 to M173. Conformational exchange data suggested that the WPD loop moves between open and closed conformations with a closing rate constant k(close) of 7 s(-1). This intrinsic loop flexibility of PRL-3 may be related to their catalytic rate and may play a role in substrate recognition.

  7. Snail as a key regulator of PRL-3 gene in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ping; Meng, Hui-Min; Gao, Wei-Zhe; Chen, Lin; Liu, Xun-Hua; Xiao, Zheng-Quan; Liu, Yong-Xia; Sui, Hong-Mei; Zhou, Jun; Liu, Yu-Hong; Li, Jian-Ming

    2011-10-15

    The regulators of a key metastasis gene PRL-3 in colorectal cancer (CRC) are still largely unknown. We found three potential binding sites of Snail, a key transcriptional factor involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), in the region of PRL-3 promoter (located at -642 to -383). Moreover, our results showed that one of the Snail binding sites (located at -624 to -619) was the key element to maintain promoter activity of human PRL-3 gene. The transcriptional activity of PRL-3 promoter was abolished after the Snail binding site (located at -624 to -619) was mutated. Both promoter activity and protein expression of PRL-3 in CRC cell lines could be regulated by Snail. In clinical samples of CRC and metastatic lymph node of CRC, expression of PRL-3 protein was correlated with expression of Snail protein. Functional studies using gene over-expression and knockdown methods indicated that Snail promoted proliferation, cell adhesion and migration of human CRC cells. In SW480 cells with PRL-3 stable knockdown, cell proliferation increased after Snail was up-regulated. Our data first reveal transcriptional factor Snail as a key regulator of PRL-3 in CRC. The link between Snail and PRL-3 suggests a new potential mechanism of Snail contributing to progression and metastasis of CRC.

  8. Oncogenic roles of PRL-3 in FLT3-ITD induced acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Eun; Yuen, Hiu Fung; Zhou, Jian Biao; Al-Aidaroos, Abdul Qader O; Guo, Ke; Valk, Peter J; Zhang, Shu Dong; Chng, Wee Joo; Hong, Cheng William; Mills, Ken; Zeng, Qi

    2013-09-01

    FLT3-ITD mutations are prevalent mutations in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). PRL-3, a metastasis-associated phosphatase, is a downstream target of FLT3-ITD. This study investigates the regulation and function of PRL-3 in leukaemia cell lines and AML patients associated with FLT3-ITD mutations. PRL-3 expression is upregulated by the FLT3-STAT5 signalling pathway in leukaemia cells, leading an activation of AP-1 transcription factors via ERK and JNK pathways. PRL-3-depleted AML cells showed a significant decrease in cell growth. Clinically, high PRL-3 mRNA expression was associated with FLT3-ITD mutations in four independent AML datasets with 1158 patients. Multivariable Cox-regression analysis on our Cohort 1 with 221 patients identified PRL-3 as a novel prognostic marker independent of other clinical parameters. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed high PRL-3 mRNA expression was significantly associated with poorer survival among 491 patients with normal karyotype. Targeting PRL-3 reversed the oncogenic effects in FLT3-ITD AML models in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we suggest that PRL-3 could serve as a prognostic marker to predict poorer survival and as a promising novel therapeutic target for AML patients.

  9. Antibody Array Revealed PRL-3 Affects Protein Phosphorylation and Cytokine Secretion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongyong; Lian, Shenyi; Meng, Lin; Qu, Like; Shou, Chengchao

    2017-01-01

    Phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 (PRL-3) promotes cancer metastasis and progression via increasing cell motility and invasiveness, however the mechanism is still not fully understood. Previous reports showed that PRL-3 increases the phosphorylation of many important proteins and suspected that PRL-3-enhanced protein phosphorylation may be due to its regulation on cytokines. To investigate PRL-3's impact on protein phosphorylation and cytokine secretion, we performed antibody arrays against protein phosphorylation and cytokines separately. The data showed that PRL-3 could enhance tyrosine phosphorylation and serine/threonine phosphorylation of diverse signaling proteins. Meanwhile, PRL-3 could affect the secretion of a subset of cytokines. Furthermore, we discovered the PRL-3-increased IL-1α secretion was regulated by NF-κB and Jak2-Stat3 pathways and inhibiting IL-1α could reduce PRL-3-enhanced cell migration. Therefore, our result indicated that PRL-3 promotes protein phosphorylation by acting as an 'activator kinase' and consequently regulates cytokine secretion.

  10. Localizing PRL-2 expression and determining the effects of dietary Mg(2+) on expression levels.

    PubMed

    Gungabeesoon, Jeremy; Tremblay, Michel L; Uetani, Noriko

    2016-07-01

    The phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) is a group of protein tyrosine phosphatases that play a key role in cancer progression and metastasis. We previously showed that PRL-2 modulates intracellular Mg(2+) levels and sustains cancer phenotypes by binding to the Mg(2+) transporter CNNM3. However, the physiological functions of PRL-2 in animals remain largely unknown. To better understand which cell types are associated with PRL-2 function, we characterized its expression in mouse tissues using a PRL-2 β-galactosidase reporter mouse model. Our results demonstrated that PRL-2 was ubiquitously expressed, with the highest expression levels observed in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons, ependymal cells, cone and rod photoreceptor cells, endocardium, vascular and bronchial smooth muscle, and collecting ducts in the kidney. On the other hand, PRL-2 expression was undetectable or very low in the parenchymal cells of the liver and pancreas. Our results also indicated that PRL-2 is involved in cell-type-specific Mg(2+) homeostasis and that PRL-2 expression is potentially inversely regulated by dietary Mg(2+) levels.

  11. PRL-3 promotes cell adhesion by interacting with JAM2 in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Lian, Shenyi; Meng, Lin; Xing, Xiaofang; Yang, Yongyong; Qu, Like; Shou, Chengchao

    2016-09-01

    Phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3), also termed PTP4A3, is a metastasis-related protein tyrosine phosphatase. Its expression levels are significantly correlated with the progression and survival of a wide range of malignant tumors. However, the mechanism by which PRL-3 promotes tumor invasion and metastasis is not clear. In the present study, the functions of PRL-3 were systemically analyzed in the key events of metastasis including, motility and adhesion. A cell wounding assay, cell spread assay and cell-matrix adhesion assay were carried out to analyze the cell movement and cell adhesion ability of colon cancer, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assay was confirmed the interaction of PRL-3 and JAM2. It was demonstrated that PRL-3 promoted the motility of Flp-In-293 and LoVo colon cancer cells and increased the distribution of cell skeleton proteins on the cell protrusions. In addition, stably expressing PRL-3 reduced the spreading speed of colon cancer cells and cell adhesion on uncoated, fibronectin-coated and collagen I-coated plates. Mechanistically, junction adhesion molecular 2 (JAM2) was identified as a novel interacting protein of PRL-3. The findings of the present study revealed the roles of PRL-3 in cancer cell motility and adhesion process, and provided information on the possibility of PRL-3 increase cell-cell adhesion by associating with JAM2.

  12. Upregulation of metastasis-associated PRL-3 initiates chordoma in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Shi, Hongshun; Zhang, Mingming; Guo, Xiaoling; Tong, Fang; Zhang, Wenliang; Zhou, Junyi; Wang, Haihe; Yang, Shulan

    2016-04-01

    The metastasis-associated phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) plays multiple roles in progression of various human cancers; however, significance of its role during development has not been addressed. Here we cloned and characterized the expression pattern of zebrafish prl-3 transcript and showed that it is ubiquitiously expressed in the first 24 h of development with both maternal and zygotic expressions. The transcripts become progressively restricted to the notochord, vessels and the intestine by 96 h post-fertilization. Notably, overexpression of zebrafish Prl-3 (zPrl-3) and human PRL-3 induces notochord malformation in zebrafish. This phenotype resembles chordoma and is confirmed by associated misexpression of notochord-specific markers. Clinical significance of the PRL-3 in chordoma is strongly suggested by detection of PRL-3 antigen in clinical chordoma specimens. Collectively, our results uncovered that aberrant overexpression of PRL-3 could initiate chordoma in early development and suggest the use of PRL-3 could be used as a predictor and a therapeutic target for chordoma.

  13. Antibody Array Revealed PRL-3 Affects Protein Phosphorylation and Cytokine Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lin; Qu, Like; Shou, Chengchao

    2017-01-01

    Phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 (PRL-3) promotes cancer metastasis and progression via increasing cell motility and invasiveness, however the mechanism is still not fully understood. Previous reports showed that PRL-3 increases the phosphorylation of many important proteins and suspected that PRL-3-enhanced protein phosphorylation may be due to its regulation on cytokines. To investigate PRL-3’s impact on protein phosphorylation and cytokine secretion, we performed antibody arrays against protein phosphorylation and cytokines separately. The data showed that PRL-3 could enhance tyrosine phosphorylation and serine/threonine phosphorylation of diverse signaling proteins. Meanwhile, PRL-3 could affect the secretion of a subset of cytokines. Furthermore, we discovered the PRL-3-increased IL-1α secretion was regulated by NF-κB and Jak2-Stat3 pathways and inhibiting IL-1α could reduce PRL-3-enhanced cell migration. Therefore, our result indicated that PRL-3 promotes protein phosphorylation by acting as an ‘activator kinase’ and consequently regulates cytokine secretion. PMID:28068414

  14. PRL-3 promotes cell adhesion by interacting with JAM2 in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Shenyi; Meng, Lin; Xing, Xiaofang; Yang, Yongyong; Qu, Like; Shou, Chengchao

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3), also termed PTP4A3, is a metastasis-related protein tyrosine phosphatase. Its expression levels are significantly correlated with the progression and survival of a wide range of malignant tumors. However, the mechanism by which PRL-3 promotes tumor invasion and metastasis is not clear. In the present study, the functions of PRL-3 were systemically analyzed in the key events of metastasis including, motility and adhesion. A cell wounding assay, cell spread assay and cell-matrix adhesion assay were carried out to analyze the cell movement and cell adhesion ability of colon cancer, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assay was confirmed the interaction of PRL-3 and JAM2. It was demonstrated that PRL-3 promoted the motility of Flp-In-293 and LoVo colon cancer cells and increased the distribution of cell skeleton proteins on the cell protrusions. In addition, stably expressing PRL-3 reduced the spreading speed of colon cancer cells and cell adhesion on uncoated, fibronectin-coated and collagen I-coated plates. Mechanistically, junction adhesion molecular 2 (JAM2) was identified as a novel interacting protein of PRL-3. The findings of the present study revealed the roles of PRL-3 in cancer cell motility and adhesion process, and provided information on the possibility of PRL-3 increase cell-cell adhesion by associating with JAM2. PMID:27588115

  15. Oncogenic roles of PRL-3 in FLT3-ITD induced acute myeloid leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Eun; Yuen, Hiu Fung; Zhou, Jian Biao; Al-aidaroos, Abdul Qader O; Guo, Ke; Valk, Peter J; Zhang, Shu Dong; Chng, Wee Joo; Hong, Cheng William; Mills, Ken; Zeng, Qi

    2013-01-01

    FLT3-ITD mutations are prevalent mutations in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). PRL-3, a metastasis-associated phosphatase, is a downstream target of FLT3-ITD. This study investigates the regulation and function of PRL-3 in leukaemia cell lines and AML patients associated with FLT3-ITD mutations. PRL-3 expression is upregulated by the FLT3-STAT5 signalling pathway in leukaemia cells, leading an activation of AP-1 transcription factors via ERK and JNK pathways. PRL-3-depleted AML cells showed a significant decrease in cell growth. Clinically, high PRL-3 mRNA expression was associated with FLT3-ITD mutations in four independent AML datasets with 1158 patients. Multivariable Cox-regression analysis on our Cohort 1 with 221 patients identified PRL-3 as a novel prognostic marker independent of other clinical parameters. Kaplan–Meier analysis showed high PRL-3 mRNA expression was significantly associated with poorer survival among 491 patients with normal karyotype. Targeting PRL-3 reversed the oncogenic effects in FLT3-ITD AML models in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we suggest that PRL-3 could serve as a prognostic marker to predict poorer survival and as a promising novel therapeutic target for AML patients. PMID:23929599

  16. Cloning of PRL and VIP cDNAs of the Java sparrow (Padda oryzivora).

    PubMed

    Hiyama, Gen; Sato, Tsukasa; Zadworny, David; Kansaku, Norio

    2009-04-01

    Complementary DNA (cDNA) of prolactin (PRL) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) of the Java sparrow were cloned and sequenced. The proximal region of the PRL promoter was also identified. Java sparrow PRL was found to have 88.3, 88.3, and 89.1% sequence identity at the cDNA level to PRL of chicken, turkey, and duck, respectively. The predicted amino acid sequence had an overall similarity with a comparable region of chicken (91.4%), turkey (88.9%) and duck (92.0%) PRL. Based on the cDNA sequence and genomic structure of the chicken PRL gene, the proximal promoter was characterized. Sequence analysis of the proximal region of Java sparrow PRL promoter revealed a high degree of similarity to that of chicken, turkey and duck PRL promoters. Moreover, cDNA of prepro-VIP was also cloned and sequenced. Java sparrow prepro-VIP shows high similarity to chicken and turkey prepro-VIP. However, the region upstream of the 5' untranslated region of Java sparrow prepro-VIP did not show similarity to that of chicken. These results suggest that the mechanisms, which regulate expression of the VIP gene, may be different between precocial and altricial birds, but expression of the PRL gene may be widely conserved in avian species.

  17. Prolactin (PRL) and prolactin receptor (PRLR) genes and their role in poultry production traits.

    PubMed

    Wilkanowska, Anna; Mazurowski, Artur; Mroczkowski, Sławomir; Kokoszyński, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL), secreted from the anterior pituitary, plays extensive roles in osmoregulation, corpus luteum formation, mammogenesis, lactogenesis, lactopoiesis, and production of crop milk. In birds, prolactin (PRL) is generally accepted as crucial to the onset and maintenance of broodiness. All the actions of prolactin (PRL) hormone are mediated by its receptor (PRLR), which plays an important role in the PRL signal transduction cascade. It has been well established that the PRL gene is closely associated to the onset and maintenance of broody behavior, and could be a genetic marker in breeding against broodiness in chickens. Meanwhile, the prolactin receptor (PRLR) gene is regarded as a candidate genetic marker for reproductive traits. PRLR is also an important regulator gene for cell growth and differentiation. The identified polymorphism of this gene is mainly viewed in terms of egg production traits. Due to different biological activities attributed to PRL and PRLR, they can be used as major candidate genes in molecular animal breeding programs. Characterization of PRL and PRLR genes helps to elucidate their roles in birds and provides insights into the regulatory mechanisms of PRL and PRLR expression conserved in birds and mammals.

  18. PRL-1, a unique nuclear protein tyrosine phosphatase, affects cell growth.

    PubMed

    Diamond, R H; Cressman, D E; Laz, T M; Abrams, C S; Taub, R

    1994-06-01

    PRL-1 is a particularly interesting immediate-early gene because it is induced in mitogen-stimulated cells and regenerating liver but is constitutively expressed in insulin-treated rat H35 hepatoma cells, which otherwise show normal regulation of immediate-early genes. PRL-1 is expressed throughout the course of hepatic regeneration, and its expression is elevated in a number of tumor cell lines. Sequence analysis reveals that PRL-1 encodes a 20-kDa protein with an eight-amino-acid consensus protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) active site. PRL-1 is able to dephosphorylate phosphotyrosine substrates, and mutation of the active-site cysteine residue abolishes this activity. As PRL-1 has no homology to other PTPases outside the active site, it is a new type of PTPase. PRL-1 is located primarily in the cell nucleus. Stably transfected cells which overexpress PRL-1 demonstrate altered cellular growth and morphology and a transformed phenotype. It appears that PRL-1 is important in normal cellular growth control and could contribute to the tumorigenicity of some cancer cells.

  19. Analysis of Predicted Carbohydrate Transport Systems Encoded by Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010

    PubMed Central

    Turroni, Francesca; Strati, Francesco; Foroni, Elena; Serafini, Fausta; Duranti, Sabrina; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2012-01-01

    The Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010 genome encodes a relatively small set of predicted carbohydrate transporters. Growth experiments and transcriptome analyses of B. bifidum PRL2010 revealed that carbohydrate utilization in this microorganism appears to be restricted to a relatively low number of carbohydrates. PMID:22562993

  20. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PRL2 Mediates Notch and Kit Signals in Early T Cell Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michihiro; Nabinger, Sarah C; Bai, Yunpeng; Yoshimoto, Momoko; Gao, Rui; Chen, Sisi; Yao, Chonghua; Dong, Yuanshu; Zhang, Lujuan; Rodriguez, Sonia; Yashiro-Ohtani, Yumi; Pear, Warren S; Carlesso, Nadia; Yoder, Mervin C; Kapur, Reuben; Kaplan, Mark H; Daniel Lacorazza, Hugo; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Liu, Yan

    2017-04-01

    The molecular pathways regulating lymphoid priming, fate, and development of multipotent bone marrow hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) that continuously feed thymic progenitors remain largely unknown. While Notch signal is indispensable for T cell specification and differentiation, the downstream effectors are not well understood. PRL2, a protein tyrosine phosphatase that regulates hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and self-renewal, is highly expressed in murine thymocyte progenitors. Here we demonstrate that protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL2 and receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit are critical downstream targets and effectors of the canonical Notch/RBPJ pathway in early T cell progenitors. While PRL2 deficiency resulted in moderate defects of thymopoiesis in the steady state, de novo generation of T cells from Prl2 null hematopoietic stem cells was significantly reduced following transplantation. Prl2 null HSPCs also showed impaired T cell differentiation in vitro. We found that Notch/RBPJ signaling upregulated PRL2 as well as c-Kit expression in T cell progenitors. Further, PRL2 sustains Notch-mediated c-Kit expression and enhances stem cell factor/c-Kit signaling in T cell progenitors, promoting effective DN1-DN2 transition. Thus, we have identified a critical role for PRL2 phosphatase in mediating Notch and c-Kit signals in early T cell progenitors. Stem Cells 2017;35:1053-1064.

  1. PRL-3, an emerging marker of carcinogenesis, is strongly associated with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Guzińska-Ustymowicz, Katarzyna; Pryczynicz, Anna

    2011-01-01

    PRL-3 protein belongs to the family of protein tyrosine phosphatases with unique COOH-terminal prenylation motif, which determines the functions of this protein and its location in the cell. Numerous research studies revealed that apart from performing the poorly investigated physiological role, PRL-3 takes part in the process of carcinogenesis. Specifically, it is involved in reconstructing of the cytoskeleton, regulating adhesion and cell cycle of the cancer cells, and in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Through these mechanisms PRL-3 protein participates in invasion, migration, metastasis and angiogenesis. Numerous studies indicate that PRL-3 expression is particularly important in colorectal, as well as in gastric, ovarian and breast carcinomas. Recently, several studies on PRL-3 protein in other types of cancer have been published. They reveal a significant role of this protein in the process of angiogenesis and metastasis. It has been proven that a higher expression of PRL-3 correlates with tumor progression and its severity. While the degree of overexpression of PRL-3 varies in different types of tumors, most research shows that in the metastases of these tumors, whether to the lymph nodes or to other organs, the level of expression is extremely high. Overexpression of PRL-3 protein was repeatedly confirmed in metastases, but not with primary tumors. PRL-3 seems to be an adequate marker in diagnosing the stage of tumor advancement for various types of carcinomas, especially for colorectal carcinoma investigated thoroughly in this study. PRL-3 overexpression predicts poor prognosis in patients with various carcinomas and is a promising target in the cancer treatment.

  2. Phosphatase of Regenerating Liver 3 (PRL3) Provokes a Tyrosine Phosphoproteome to Drive Prometastatic Signal Transduction*

    PubMed Central

    Walls, Chad D.; Iliuk, Anton; Bai, Yunpeng; Wang, Mu; Tao, W. Andy; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 (PRL3) is suspected to be a causative factor toward cellular metastasis when in excess. To date, the molecular basis for PRL3 function remains an enigma, making efforts at distilling a concerted mechanism for PRL3-mediated metastatic dissemination very difficult. We previously discovered that PRL3 expressing cells exhibit a pronounced increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Here we take an unbiased mass spectrometry-based approach toward identifying the phosphoproteins exhibiting enhanced levels of tyrosine phosphorylation with a goal to define the “PRL3-mediated signaling network.” Phosphoproteomic data support intracellular activation of an extensive signaling network normally governed by extracellular ligand-activated transmembrane growth factor, cytokine, and integrin receptors in the PRL3 cells. Additionally, data implicate the Src tyrosine kinase as the major intracellular kinase responsible for “hijacking” this network and provide strong evidence that aberrant Src activation is a major consequence of PRL3 overexpression. Importantly, the data support a PDGF(α/β)-, Eph (A2/B3/B4)-, and Integrin (β1/β5)-receptor array as being the predominant network coordinator in the PRL3 cells, corroborating a PRL3-induced mesenchymal-state. Within this network, we find that tyrosine phosphorylation is increased on a multitude of signaling effectors responsible for Rho-family GTPase, PI3K-Akt, STAT, and ERK activation, linking observations made by the field as a whole under Src as a primary signal transducer. Our phosphoproteomic data paint the most comprehensive picture to date of how PRL3 drives prometastatic molecular events through Src activation. PMID:24030100

  3. Phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) is associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background PRL-3 is a member of phosphatases of regenerating liver family, characterized by phosphatase active domain and C-terminal prenylation motif. Overexpression of PRL-3 has been implicated in multiple cancers. Here we examined the clinical significance of PRL-3 in gastric cancer together with its metastatic biological functions utilizing different structural mutants. Methods PRL-3 expression was analyzed immunohistochemically in 196 gastric cancer patients and 21 cases of liver metastasis. A series of wild type PRL-3 or its mutant plasmids were expressed in BGC823 cells to investigate the relationship between its catalytic activity, cellular localization and metastatic potential in vitro. Results Positive staining of PRL-3 was observed in 19.4% (38/196) gastric cancer tissues compared with 76.2% (16/21) in liver metastasis. Statistical analysis revealed that PRL-3 expression correlated with lymph node metastasis and vascular invasion (P < 0.05). Patients with high PRL-3 expression showed poorer 5-year overall survival (P = 0.011). Wild type PRL-3 expressing cells resulted in enhanced migration and invasion ability, which were greatly crippled in form of PRL-3(C104S) or PRL-3(ΔCAAX) mutants accompanied with its alteration in subcellular localization. Conclusions Metastasis associated protein PRL-3 may serve as a potential prognostic biomarker in human gastric cancer. Both the phosphatase catalytic activity and cellular localization are critical for its function. PMID:24330843

  4. Effects of hypothalamic dopamine (DA) on salsolinol (SAL)-induced prolactin (PRL) secretion in male goats.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jin; Hara, Sayaka; Sawai, Ken; Fülöp, Ferenc; Nagy, György Miklos; Hashizume, Tsutomu

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the effects of hypothalamic dopamine (DA) on salsolinol (SAL)-induced prolactin (PRL) release in goats. The PRL-releasing response to an intravenous (i.v.) injection of SAL was examined after treatment with augmentation of central DA using carbidopa (carbi) and L-dopa in male goats under 8-h (8 h light, 16 h dark) or 16-h (16 h light, 8 h dark) photoperiod conditions. The carbi and L-dopa treatments reduced basal PRL concentrations in the 16-h photoperiod group (P < 0.05), while a reduction was not observed in the 8-h photoperiod group. The mean basal plasma PRL concentration in the control group for the 8-h photoperiod was lower than that for the 16-h photoperiod (P < 0.05). SAL significantly stimulated the release of PRL promptly after the injection in both the 8- and 16-h photoperiod groups (P < 0.05). PRL-releasing responses for the 16-h photoperiod were greater than those for the 8-h photoperiod (P < 0.05). The carbi and L-dopa treatments blunted SAL-induced PRL release in both the 8- and 16-h photoperiods (P < 0.05). These results indicate that hypothalamic DA blunts the SAL-induced release of PRL in male goats, regardless of the photoperiod, which suggests that both SAL and DA are involved in regulating the secretion of PRL in goats.

  5. Modeling prolactin actions in breast cancer in vivo: insights from the NRL-PRL mouse.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Kathleen A; Shea, Michael P; Schuler, Linda A

    2015-01-01

    Elevated exposure to prolactin (PRL) is epidemiologically associated with an increased risk of aggressive ER+ breast cancer. To understand the underlying mechanisms and crosstalk with other oncogenic factors, we developed the NRL-PRL mouse. In this model, mammary expression of a rat prolactin transgene raises local exposure to PRL without altering estrous cycling. Nulliparous females develop metastatic, histotypically diverse mammary carcinomas independent from ovarian steroids, and most are ER+. These characteristics resemble the human clinical disease, facilitating study of tumorigenesis, and identification of novel preventive and therapeutic approaches.

  6. The essential role of FKBP38 in regulating phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 (PRL-3) protein stability.

    PubMed

    Choi, Myung-Suk; Min, Sang-Hyun; Jung, Haiyoung; Lee, Ju Dong; Lee, Tae Ho; Lee, Heung Kyu; Yoo, Ook-Joon

    2011-03-11

    The phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) is a member of protein tyrosine phosphatases and whose deregulation is implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis of many cancers. However, the underlying mechanism by which PRL-3 is regulated is not known. In this study, we identified the peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase FK506-binding protein 38 (FKBP38) as an interacting protein of PRL-3 using a yeast two-hybrid system. FKBP38 specifically binds to PRL-3 in vivo, and that the N-terminal region of FKBP38 is crucial for binding with PRL-3. FKBP38 overexpression reduces endogenous PRL-3 expression levels, whereas the depletion of FKBP38 by siRNA increases the level of PRL-3 protein. Moreover, FKBP38 promotes degradation of endogenous PRL-3 protein via protein-proteasome pathway. Furthermore, FKBP38 suppresses PRL-3-mediated p53 activity and cell proliferation. These results demonstrate that FKBP38 is a novel regulator of the oncogenic protein PRL-3 abundance and that alteration in the stability of PRL-3 can have a dramatic impact on cell proliferation. Thus, FKBP38 may play a critical role in tumorigenesis.

  7. VEGF promotes the transcription of the human PRL-3 gene in HUVEC through transcription factor MEF2C.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianliang; Cao, Shaoxian; Wang, Lu; Xu, Rui; Chen, Gong; Xu, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 (PRL-3) is known to be overexpressed in many tumors, and its transcript level is high in the vasculature and endothelial cells of malignant tumor tissue. However, the mechanism(s) underlying its enhanced expression and its function in endothelial cells remain unknown. Here, we report that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) can induce PRL-3 transcription in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). An analysis of its 5'UTR revealed that PRL-3 transcription is initiated from two distinct sites, which results in the formation of the two transcripts, PRL-3-iso1 and PRL-3-iso2, but only the latter is up-regulated in HUVEC by VEGF. The PRL-3-iso2 promoter region includes two functional MEF2 (myocyte enhancer factor2) binding sites. The over-expression of the constitutively active form of MEF2C promotes the abundance of the PRL-3-iso2 transcript in a number of human cell lines. The siRNA-induced knockdown of MEF2C abolished the stimulative effect of VEGF on PRL-3 transcript in HUVEC, indicating that the VEGF-induced promotion of PRL-3 expression requires the presence of MEF2C. Finally, blocking PRL-3 activity or expression suppresses tube formation by HUVEC. We suggest that PRL-3 functions downstream of the VEGF/MEF2C pathway in endothelial cells and may play an important role in tumor angiogenesis.

  8. Photo-roll lithography (PRL) for continuous and scalable patterning with application in flexible electronics.

    PubMed

    Ok, Jong G; Kwak, Moon Kyu; Huard, Chad M; Youn, Hong Seok; Guo, L Jay

    2013-12-03

    A novel nanofabrication methodology for continuous, scalable, and geometry-tunable lithography is developed, named photo-roll lithography (PRL), by integrating photolithography with rollable processing. As a flexible mask attached to a quartz cylinder containing a UV source rolls over a photoresistcoated substrate, PRL realizes continuous photolithographic fabrication of various micro/nanoscale patterns with geometry that is tunable by controlling mask-substrate motions. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Expression of PRL proteins at invasive margin of rectal cancers in relation to preoperative radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wallin, Asa R.; Svanvik, Joar; Adell, Gunnar; Sun Xiaofeng . E-mail: xiasu@ibk.liu.se

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: PRL-3 (phosphatase of regenerating liver) is involved in metastasis of colorectal cancer; however, its therapeutic implication in cancer patients has not been studied. We investigated the relationships of PRL expression to radiotherapy (RT) in rectal cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Phosphatase of regenerating liver expression was immunohistochemically examined in distant (n = 36) and adjacent (n = 82) normal mucosa, primary tumor (n = 125), biopsy specimens (n = 96), and lymph node metastasis (n = 30) from rectal cancer patients participating in a clinical trial of preoperative RT. Results: Phosphatase of regenerating liver expression was increased from the distant to adjacent mucosa and to the primary tumor (p < 0.05). PRL was highly expressed at the invasive margin in 28% of the primary tumors and 26% of the metastases. In the RT group, strong PRL expression at the invasive margin was related to distant recurrence (p 0.006) and poor survival (p = 0.01), but not in the non-RT group. The survival significance remained even after adjusting for Dukes' stage and differentiation (p = 0.02). Additional multivariate analyses showed that the correlation with prognostic significance of PRL differed between the RT and non-RT groups (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Phosphatase of regenerating liver expression (rather than PRL-3 alone) at the invasive margin predicted resistance to RT and unfavorable survival in rectal cancer patients with preoperative RT.

  10. KCNN4 channels participate in the EMT induced by PRL-3 in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wei; Liu, Lu; Zeng, Yujie; Wu, Heng; Xu, Heyang; Chen, Shuang; Chu, Zhonghua

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) promotes the invasion, migration, and metastasis of human tumor cells by facilitating an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the mechanism by which PRL-3 induces tumor cell EMT is unknown. Our previous research revealed that PRL-3 promotes LoVo cell proliferation by up-regulating KCNN4 channels. In the current study, we explored the mechanism by which PRL-3 mediates EMT. We demonstrated that PRL-3 induced the expression of KCNN4 channels, leading to EMT and the down-regulation of E-cadherin. Further studies revealed that KCNN4 channels increased intracellular calcium levels and activated components of cell signaling downstream of calcium, including CaM-kinase II and glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3 beta), which increased Snail expression. Inhibiting KCNN4 with siRNA and TRAM-34, a specific inhibitor, restored E-cadherin expression and inhibited Snail expression. These results implicated the up-regulation of KCNN4 channels in the PRL-3-mediated induction of EMT and promotion of cancer metastasis.

  11. PRL-3 disrupts epithelial architecture by altering the post-mitotic midbody position.

    PubMed

    Luján, Pablo; Varsano, Giulia; Rubio, Teresa; Hennrich, Marco L; Sachsenheimer, Timo; Gálvez-Santisteban, Manuel; Martín-Belmonte, Fernando; Gavin, Anne-Claude; Brügger, Britta; Köhn, Maja

    2016-11-01

    Disruption of epithelial architecture is a fundamental event during epithelial tumorigenesis. We show that the expression of the cancer-promoting phosphatase PRL-3 (PTP4A3), which is overexpressed in several epithelial cancers, in polarized epithelial MDCK and Caco2 cells leads to invasion and the formation of multiple ectopic, fully polarized lumens in cysts. Both processes disrupt epithelial architecture and are hallmarks of cancer. The pathological relevance of these findings is supported by the knockdown of endogenous PRL-3 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells grown in three-dimensional branched structures, showing the rescue from multiple-lumen- to single-lumen-containing branch ends. Mechanistically, it has been previously shown that ectopic lumens can arise from midbodies that have been mislocalized through the loss of mitotic spindle orientation or through the loss of asymmetric abscission. Here, we show that PRL-3 triggers ectopic lumen formation through midbody mispositioning without altering the spindle orientation or asymmetric abscission, instead, PRL-3 accelerates cytokinesis, suggesting that this process is an alternative new mechanism for ectopic lumen formation in MDCK cysts. The disruption of epithelial architecture by PRL-3 revealed here is a newly recognized mechanism for PRL-3-promoted cancer progression.

  12. PRL-3 disrupts epithelial architecture by altering the post-mitotic midbody position

    PubMed Central

    Varsano, Giulia; Sachsenheimer, Timo; Brügger, Britta

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Disruption of epithelial architecture is a fundamental event during epithelial tumorigenesis. We show that the expression of the cancer-promoting phosphatase PRL-3 (PTP4A3), which is overexpressed in several epithelial cancers, in polarized epithelial MDCK and Caco2 cells leads to invasion and the formation of multiple ectopic, fully polarized lumens in cysts. Both processes disrupt epithelial architecture and are hallmarks of cancer. The pathological relevance of these findings is supported by the knockdown of endogenous PRL-3 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells grown in three-dimensional branched structures, showing the rescue from multiple-lumen- to single-lumen-containing branch ends. Mechanistically, it has been previously shown that ectopic lumens can arise from midbodies that have been mislocalized through the loss of mitotic spindle orientation or through the loss of asymmetric abscission. Here, we show that PRL-3 triggers ectopic lumen formation through midbody mispositioning without altering the spindle orientation or asymmetric abscission, instead, PRL-3 accelerates cytokinesis, suggesting that this process is an alternative new mechanism for ectopic lumen formation in MDCK cysts. The disruption of epithelial architecture by PRL-3 revealed here is a newly recognized mechanism for PRL-3-promoted cancer progression. PMID:27656108

  13. Effects of extracerebral dopamine on salsolinol- or thyrotropin-releasing hormone-induced prolactin (PRL) secretion in goats.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Yuki; Kato, Yuki; Itou, Azumi; Chiba, Aoi; Sawai, Ken; Fülöp, Ferenc; Nagy, György Miklos; Hashizume, Tsutomu

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of extracerebral dopamine (DA) on salsolinol (SAL)-induced prolactin (PRL) secretion in goats. An intravenous injection of SAL or thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) was given to female goats before and after treatment with an extracerebral DA receptor antagonist, domperidone (DOM), and the PRL-releasing response to SAL was compared with that to TRH. DOM alone increased plasma PRL concentrations and the PRL-releasing response to DOM alone was greater than that to either SAL alone or TRH alone. The PRL-releasing response to DOM plus SAL was similar to that to DOM alone, and no additive effect of DOM and SAL on the secretion of PRL was observed. In contrast, the PRL-releasing response to DOM plus TRH was greater than that to either TRH alone or DOM alone and DOM synergistically increased TRH-induced PRL secretion. The present results demonstrate that the mechanism involved in PRL secretion by SAL differs from that by TRH, and suggest that the extracerebral DA might be associated in part with the modulation of SAL-induced PRL secretion in goats.

  14. Genomic gain of the PRL-3 gene may represent poor prognosis of primary colorectal cancer, and associate with liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, N; Yamashita, K; Tanaka, T; Kawamata, H; Ooki, A; Sato, T; Nakamura, T; Watanabe, M

    2016-01-01

    PRL-3 genomic copy number is increased in colorectal cancer (CRC), and PRL-3 expression is closely associated with lymph node and liver metastasis of CRC. However, the clinical significance of PRL-3 genomic gain for CRC remains obscure. Here, PRL-3 genomic status in 109 primary CRC tumors and in 44 CRC tumors that had metastasized to the liver, was quantified using real time PCR. Association of PRL-3 genomic status with clinicopathological factors and prognosis was assessed in detail. PRL-3 genomic gain was identified in 31 primary CRC (27.4 %) and was more frequently seen in stage III than in stage II (p = 0.025). Among the clinicopathological factors assessed, PRL-3 genomic gain was significantly associated with poorly differentiated histology (p = 0.0039). Moreover, CRC patients with PRL-3 genomic gain exhibited poorer prognosis than those with no gain in stage II-IV CRC (p = 0.017). PRL-3 genomic gain was identified in 18 (41 %) of the liver metastasis tumors, and this frequency of gain was significantly increased as compared to that of the corresponding primary CRCs (11 %) (p = 0.001). Our findings suggested that PRL-3 genomic gain may represent an aggressive phenotype of primary CRC, and may associate with liver metastasis.

  15. The metastasis-promoting phosphatase PRL-3 shows activity toward phosphoinositides.

    PubMed

    McParland, Victoria; Varsano, Giulia; Li, Xun; Thornton, Janet; Baby, Jancy; Aravind, Ajay; Meyer, Christoph; Pavic, Karolina; Rios, Pablo; Köhn, Maja

    2011-09-06

    Phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 (PRL-3) is suggested as a biomarker and therapeutic target in several cancers. It has a well-established causative role in cancer metastasis. However, little is known about its natural substrates, pathways, and biological functions, and only a few protein substrates have been suggested so far. To improve our understanding of the substrate specificity and molecular determinants of PRL-3 activity, the wild-type (WT) protein, two supposedly catalytically inactive mutants D72A and C104S, and the reported hyperactive mutant A111S were tested in vitro for substrate specificity and activity toward phosphopeptides and phosphoinositides (PIPs), their structural stability, and their ability to promote cell migration using stable HEK293 cell lines. We discovered that WT PRL-3 does not dephosphorylate the tested phosphopeptides in vitro. However, as shown by two complementary biochemical assays, PRL-3 is active toward the phosphoinositide PI(4,5)P(2). Our experimental results substantiated by molecular docking studies suggest that PRL-3 is a phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphatase. The C104S variant was shown to be not only catalytically inactive but also structurally destabilized and unable to promote cell migration, whereas WT PRL-3 promotes cell migration. The D72A mutant is structurally stable and does not dephosphorylate the unnatural substrate 3-O-methylfluorescein phosphate (OMFP). However, we observed residual in vitro activity of D72A against PI(4,5)P(2), and in accordance with this, it exhibits the same cellular phenotype as WT PRL-3. Our analysis of the A111S variant shows that the hyperactivity toward the unnatural OMFP substrate is not apparent in dephosphorylation assays with phosphoinositides: the mutant is completely inactive against PIPs. We observed significant structural destabilization of this variant. The cellular phenotype of this mutant equals that of the catalytically inactive C104S mutant. These results provide a possible

  16. Somatomammotrophic cells in GH-secreting and PRL-secreting human pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Bassetti, M; Brina, M; Spada, A; Giannattasio, G

    1989-11-01

    A morphological study has been carried out on 20 GH-secreting adenomas removed from acromegalic normoprolactinemic patients, on 29 PRL-secreting adenomas removed from hyperprolactinemic patients without signs of acromegaly and on one normal human anterior pituitary gland collected at autopsy. The protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopic technique has been utilized in order to verify the presence of mixed cells producing both GH and PRL (somatomammotrophs) in these pituitary tissues. In the normal pituitary a considerable number of somatomammotrophs (15-20%) was found, thus supporting the idea that these cells are normal components of the human anterior pituitary gland. In 10 GH-secreting adenomas and in 10 PRL-secreting adenomas somatomammotrophs were present in a variable number (from 4 to 20% of the whole cell population in GH adenomas and from 1 to 47% in PRL tumors). It can be concluded therefore that these cells, largely present in all GH/PRL-secreting adenomas, can also be found in GH-secreting and PRL-secreting tumors without clinical evidence of a mixed secretion. Adenomatous somatomammotrophs displayed ultrastructural features of adenomatous somatotrophs and mammotrophs (prominent Golgi complexes, abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, irregular nuclei). The size and the number of granules were variable. In some cells GH and PRL were stored in distinct secretory granules, in others in mixed granules or both in mixed and distinct granules, thus suggesting that in adenomatous somatomammotrophs the efficiency of the mechanisms of sorting of the two hormones varies from one cell to another.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Escherichia coli prlC encodes an endopeptidase and is homologous to the Salmonella typhimurium opdA gene.

    PubMed Central

    Conlin, C A; Trun, N J; Silhavy, T J; Miller, C G

    1992-01-01

    Mutations at the Escherichia coli prlC locus suppress the export defect of certain lamB signal sequence mutations. The Salmonella typhimurium opdA gene encodes an endoprotease that can participate in the catabolism of certain peptides and is required for normal development of phage P22. Plasmids carrying either the wild-type (pTC100 prlC+) or suppressor alleles of prlC complemented all phenotypes associated with an S. typhimurium opdA mutation. A plasmid carrying an amber mutation in prlC [prlC31(AM)] was unable to complement except in an amber suppressor background. Tn1000 insertions which eliminated the ability of pTC100 (prlC+) to complement opdA mapped to the region of the plasmid shown by deletion analysis and subcloning to contain prlC. The nucleotide sequence of a 2.7-kb fragment including this region was determined, revealing an open reading frame encoding a 77-kDa protein. The sequences of this open reading frame and its putative promoter region were very similar (84% nucleotide sequence identity and 95% amino acid identity) to those of S. typhimurium opdA, showing that these genes are homologs. The nucleotide sequence of the prlC1 suppressor allele was determined and predicts an in-frame duplication of seven amino acids, providing further confirmation that the prlC suppressor phenotype results from changes in the endopeptidase OpdA. PMID:1325967

  18. Structural Basis of the Oncogenic Interaction of Phosphatase PRL-1 with the Magnesium Transporter CNNM2.

    PubMed

    Giménez-Mascarell, Paula; Oyenarte, Iker; Hardy, Serge; Breiderhoff, Tilman; Stuiver, Marchel; Kostantin, Elie; Diercks, Tammo; Pey, Angel L; Ereño-Orbea, June; Martínez-Chantar, María Luz; Khalaf-Nazzal, Reham; Claverie-Martin, Felix; Müller, Dominik; Tremblay, Michel L; Martínez-Cruz, Luis Alfonso

    2017-01-20

    Phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRLs), the most oncogenic of all protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), play a critical role in metastatic progression of cancers. Recent findings established a new paradigm by uncovering that their association with magnesium transporters of the cyclin M (CNNM) family causes a rise in intracellular magnesium levels that promote oncogenic transformation. Recently, however, essential roles for regulation of the circadian rhythm and reproduction of the CNNM family have been highlighted. Here, we describe the crystal structure of PRL-1 in complex with the Bateman module of CNNM2 (CNNM2BAT), which consists of two cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) domains (IPR000664) and represents an intracellular regulatory module of the transporter. The structure reveals a heterotetrameric association, consisting of a disc-like homodimer of CNNM2BAT bound to two independent PRL-1 molecules, each one located at opposite tips of the disc. The structure highlights the key role played by Asp-558 at the extended loop of the CBS2 motif of CNNM2 in maintaining the association between the two proteins and proves that the interaction between CNNM2 and PRL-1 occurs via the catalytic domain of the phosphatase. Our data shed new light on the structural basis underlying the interaction between PRL phosphatases and CNNM transporters and provides a hypothesis about the molecular mechanism by which PRL-1, upon binding to CNNM2, might increase the intracellular concentration of Mg(2+) thereby contributing to tumor progression and metastasis. The availability of this structure sets the basis for the rational design of compounds modulating PRL-1 and CNNM2 activities.

  19. Ovarian and PGF2α responses to stimulation of endogenous PRL pulses during the estrous cycle in mares.

    PubMed

    Pinaffi, F L V; Khan, F A; Silva, L A; Beg, M A; Ginther, O J

    2012-10-01

    The effects of a PRL-stimulating substance (sulpiride) on PRL and PGF2α secretion and on luteal and ovarian follicular dynamics were studied during the estrous cycle in mares. A control group (n = 9) and a sulpiride group (Sp; n = 10) were used. Sulpiride (25 mg) was given every 8 h from Day 13 postovulation to the next ovulation. Repeated sulpiride treatment did not appear to maintain PRL concentrations at 12-h intervals beyond Day 14. Therefore, the hypothesis that a long-term increase in PRL altered luteal and follicular end points was not testable. Hourly samples were collected from the hour of a treatment (Hour 0) to Hour 8 on Day 14. Concentrations of PRL increased to maximum at Hour 4 in the Sp group. The PRL pulses were more prominent (P < 0.008) in the sulpiride group (peak, 19.4 ± 1.9 ng/mL; mean ± SEM) than in the controls (11.5 ± 1.8 ng/mL). Concentrations of a metabolite of PGF2α (PGFM), number, and characteristics of PGFM pulses, and concentrations of progesterone during Hours 0 to 8 were not affected by the increased PRL. A novel observation was that the peak of a PRL pulse occurred at the same hour or 1 h later than the peak of a PGFM pulse in 8 of 8 PGFM pulses in the controls and in 6 of 10 pulses in the Sp group (P < 0.04), indicating that sulpiride interfered with the synchrony between PGFM and PRL pulses. The hypothesis that sulpiride treatment during the equine estrous cycle increases concentrations of PRL and the prominence of PRL pulses was supported.

  20. Enzyme Activity of Phosphatase of Regenerating Liver (PRL-1) Is Controlled by Redox Environment and Its C-terminal Residues†

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Andria L.; Vartia, Anthony A.; Williams, Todd D.; Laurence, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphatase of regenerating liver-1 (PRL-1) belongs to a unique subfamily of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) associated with oncogenic and metastatic phenotypes. While considerable evidence exists to supports a role for PRL-1 in promoting proliferation, the biological regulators and effectors of PRL-1 activity remain unknown. PRL-1 activity is inhibited by disulfide bond formation at the active site in vitro, suggesting PRL-1 may be susceptible to redox regulation in vivo. Because PRL-1 has been observed to localize to several different subcellular locations and cellular redox conditions vary with tissue type, age, stage of cell cycle and subcellular location, we determined the reduction potential of the active site disulfide bond that controls phosphatase activity to better understand the function of PRL-1 in various cellular environments. We used high-resolution solution NMR spectroscopy to measure the potential and found it to be −364.3 ± 1.5 mV. Because normal cellular environments range from −170 to −320 mV, we concluded that nascent PRL-1 would be primarily oxidized inside cells. Our studies show that a significant conformational change accompanies activation, suggesting a post-translational modification may alter the reduction potential, conferring activity. We further demonstrate that alteration of the C-terminus renders the protein reduced and active in vitro, implying the C-terminus is an important regulator of PRL-1 function. These data provide a basis for understanding how subcellular localization regulates the activity of PRL-1 and, with further investigation, may help reveal how PRL-1 promotes unique outcomes in different cellular systems, including proliferation in both normal and diseased states. PMID:19341304

  1. PRL-3 and E-cadherin show mutual interactions and participate in lymph node metastasis formation in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Pryczynicz, Anna; Guzińska-Ustymowicz, Katarzyna; Niewiarowska, Katarzyna; Cepowicz, Dariusz; Kemona, Andrzej

    2014-07-01

    E-cadherin, a transmembrane adhesion molecule, and phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 (PRL-3) protein, a member of the family of tyrosine phosphatases, seem to be responsible for cancer cell migration. Therefore, the study objective was to determine a correlation between PRL-3 and E-cadherin, to assess their expression in neoplastic tissue and normal mucosa of the stomach, to analyze their effect on cancer advancement, and to evaluate their potential as prognostic markers in gastric cancer. The expressions of PRL-3 and E-cadherin were assessed immunohistochemically in 71 patients with gastric cancer. Positive expression of PRL-3 was observed in 42.2 % of gastric cancer cases, whereas E-cadherin expression was abnormal in 38 % of cases. The study revealed that the positive PRL-3 expression and abnormal E-cadherin expression were associated with mucinous gastric carcinoma and lymph node involvement. The former was also related to the infiltrating type of tumor and abnormal E-cadherin expression. The expression of PRL-3, but not of E-cadherin, was associated with shorter survival of patients. PRL-3 and E-cadherin exhibit interactions in gastric cancer and are involved in the formation of lymph node metastases. The PRL-3 protein can be an independent predictive factor of overall survival in gastric cancer patients.

  2. The phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) is important for IL-6-mediated survival of myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Slørdahl, Tobias S; Abdollahi, Pegah; Vandsemb, Esten N; Rampa, Christoph; Misund, Kristine; Baranowska, Katarzyna A; Westhrin, Marita; Waage, Anders; Rø, Torstein B; Børset, Magne

    2016-05-10

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a neoplastic proliferation of bone marrow plasma cells. PRL-3 is a phosphatase induced by interleukin (IL)-6 and other growth factors in MM cells and promotes MM-cell migration. PRL-3 has also been identified as a marker gene for a subgroup of patients with MM. In this study we found that forced expression of PRL-3 in the MM cell line INA-6 led to increased survival of cells that were depleted of IL-6. It also caused redistribution of cells in cell cycle, with an increased number of cells in G2M-phase. Furthermore, forced PRL-3 expression significantly increased phosphorylation of Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 both in the presence and the absence of IL-6. Knockdown of PRL-3 with shRNA reduced survival in MM cell line INA-6. A pharmacological inhibitor of PRL-3 reduced survival in the MM cell lines INA-6, ANBL-6, IH-1, OH-2 and RPMI8226. The inhibitor also reduced survival in 9 of 9 consecutive samples of purified primary myeloma cells. Treatment with the inhibitor down-regulated the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 and led to activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Inhibition of PRL-3 also reduced IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3. In conclusion, our study shows that PRL-3 is an important mediator of growth factor signaling in MM cells and hence possibly a good target for treatment of MM.

  3. The phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) is important for IL-6-mediated survival of myeloma cells

    PubMed Central

    Slørdahl, Tobias S.; Abdollahi, Pegah; Vandsemb, Esten N.; Rampa, Christoph; Misund, Kristine; Baranowska, Katarzyna A.; Westhrin, Marita; Waage, Anders; Rø, Torstein B.; Børset, Magne

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a neoplastic proliferation of bone marrow plasma cells. PRL-3 is a phosphatase induced by interleukin (IL)-6 and other growth factors in MM cells and promotes MM-cell migration. PRL-3 has also been identified as a marker gene for a subgroup of patients with MM. In this study we found that forced expression of PRL-3 in the MM cell line INA-6 led to increased survival of cells that were depleted of IL-6. It also caused redistribution of cells in cell cycle, with an increased number of cells in G2M-phase. Furthermore, forced PRL-3 expression significantly increased phosphorylation of Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 both in the presence and the absence of IL-6. Knockdown of PRL-3 with shRNA reduced survival in MM cell line INA-6. A pharmacological inhibitor of PRL-3 reduced survival in the MM cell lines INA-6, ANBL-6, IH-1, OH-2 and RPMI8226. The inhibitor also reduced survival in 9 of 9 consecutive samples of purified primary myeloma cells. Treatment with the inhibitor down-regulated the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 and led to activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Inhibition of PRL-3 also reduced IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3. In conclusion, our study shows that PRL-3 is an important mediator of growth factor signaling in MM cells and hence possibly a good target for treatment of MM. PMID:27036022

  4. Temporal relationships of a pulse of prolactin (PRL) to a pulse of a metabolite of PGF2α in mares.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Pinaffi, F L V; Silva, L A; Beg, M A

    2012-01-01

    Hourly blood samples were collected from 10 mares during 24 h of each of the preluteolytic, luteolytic, and postluteolytic periods. The autocorrelation function of the R program was used to detect pulse rhythmicity, and the intra-assay CV was used to locate and characterize pulses of prolactin (PRL) and a metabolite of prostaglandin F2α (PGFM). Rhythmicity of PRL and PGFM concentrations was detected in 67% and 89% of mares, respectively. Combined for the three periods (no difference among periods), the PRL pulses were 5.2±0.4 h (mean±SEM) at the base, 7.5±1.5 h between nadirs of adjacent pulses, and 12.3±1.5 h from peak to peak. The peaks of PRL pulses were greater (P<0.05) during the luteolytic period (46±14 ng/mL) and postluteolytic period (52±15 ng/mL) than during the preluteolytic period (17±3 ng/mL). Concentrations of PRL during hours of a PGFM pulse were different (P<0.003) within the luteolytic period and postluteolytic period and were greatest at the PGFM peak; PRL concentrations during a PGFM pulse were not different during the preluteolytic period. The frequency of the peak of PRL and PGFM pulses occurring at the same hour (synchrony) was greater for the luteolytic period (65%, P<0.01) and postluteolytic period (50%, P<0.001) than for the preluteolytic period (17%). This is the first report in mares on characterization and rhythmicity of PRL pulses, synchrony between PRL and PGFM pulses, and greater PRL activity during the luteolytic and postluteolytic periods than during the preluteolytic period.

  5. Cadmium induces changes on ACTH and PRL cells in Podarcis sicula lizard pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Ferrandino, I; Favorito, R; Grimaldi, M C

    2010-11-05

    We analyzed the effect of cadmium on corticotropic (ACTH) and prolactin (PRL) cells in the pituitary gland of the Podarcis sicula lizard under chronic exposure to this metal. Adult lizards were given CdCl2 in drinking water at the dose of 10 μg/10 g body mass for 120 days. Light microscopy was performed after histological and immunohistochemical staining, and the effects were followed at regular time intervals up to 120 days post-treatment. We detected substantial variations in the general morphology of the pituitary: unlike the control lizards in which the gland appeared compact, the treated lizards showed a glandular tissue with dilated spaces that were more extensive at 90 and 120 days. PRL and ACTH cells showed an increase in occurrence and immunostaining intensity in treated lizards in comparison with the same cells of control animals. This cellular increase peaked for PRL at 30 days in the rostral, medial and also caudal pars distalis of the gland. ACTH cells appeared to increase markedly after 60 days of treatment in both the pars distalis and the pars intermedia. Again, at 60 days small, isolated ACTH cells were also found in the caudal pars distalis in which these cells were generally absent. However, at 120 days both these cellular types showed an occurrence, distribution and morphology similar to those observed in the control lizards. In lizards, protracted oral exposure to cadmium evidently involves an alteration of the normal morphology of the gland and an inhibitory effect of ACTH and PRL cells, since they increase in occurrence and immunostaining. Yet in time the inhibitory effect of cadmium on ACTH and PRL cells falls back and their occurrence appears similar to that of the control lizard.

  6. PRL-3 promotes the proliferation of LoVo cells via the upregulation of KCNN4 channels.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wei; Chen, Shuang; Wu, Heng; Guan, Yufeng; Liu, Lu; Zeng, Yujie; Zhao, Haiyan; Jiang, Jianmin; Chu, Zhonghua

    2011-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) plays an important role in the metastasis and proliferation of tumor cells. However, the mechanism by which PRL-3 controls the cell cycle of tumor cells remains unknown. In the present study, considering that the K+ channels strictly control cell proliferation, we examined whether K+ channels participate in the proliferation of tumor cells induced by PRL-3. Interestingly, the expression of intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (KCNN4) was upregulated in an NF-κB-dependent manner when PRL-3 was transfected into LoVo cells. Also, we identified two NF-κB binding sites in the promoter region of KCNN4. Use of the specific inhibitor 1-[(2-chlorophenyl) diphenylmethyl]-1H-pyrazole (TRAM-34) significantly inhibited the proliferation induced by PRL-3 and blocked the cell cycle at the G2/M phase. Meanwhile, the level of phosphorylation of Cdc2 was increased in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, TRAM-34 also inhibited tumor formation of PRL-3 cell xenografts implanted by injection in nude mice. In conclusion, PRL-3 promoted the proliferation of LoVo cells through upregulation of KCNN4 channels which facilitated the G2/M transition.

  7. Prolactin (PRL) induction of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression and prostaglandin (PG) production in hamster Leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Matzkin, María Eugenia; Ambao, Verónica; Carino, Mónica Herminia; Rossi, Soledad Paola; González, Lorena; Turyn, Daniel; Campo, Stella; Calandra, Ricardo Saúl; Frungieri, Mónica Beatriz

    2012-01-02

    Serum prolactin (PRL) variations play a crucial role in the photoperiodic-induced testicular regression-recrudescence transition in hamsters. We have previously shown that cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins (PGs), is expressed mostly in Leydig cells of reproductively active hamsters with considerable circulating and pituitary levels of PRL. In this study, we describe a stimulatory effect of PRL on COX2/PGs in hamster Leydig cells, which is mediated by IL-1β and prevented by P38-MAPK and JAK2 inhibitors. Furthermore, by preparative isoelectric focusing (IEF), we isolated PRL charge analogues from pituitaries of active [isoelectric points (pI): 5.16, 4.61, and 4.34] and regressed (pI: 5.44) hamsters. More acidic PRL charge analogues strongly induced COX2 expression, while less acidic ones had no effect. Our studies suggest that PRL induces COX2/PGs in hamster Leydig cells through IL-1β and activation of P38-MAPK and JAK2. PRL microheterogeneity detected in active/inactive hamsters may be responsible for the photoperiodic variations of COX2 expression in Leydig cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Feedback regulation of PRL secretion is mediated by the transcription factor, signal transducer, and activator of transcription 5b.

    PubMed

    Grattan, D R; Xu, J; McLachlan, M J; Kokay, I C; Bunn, S J; Hovey, R C; Davey, H W

    2001-09-01

    PRL secretion from the anterior pituitary gland is inhibited by dopamine produced in the tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons of the hypothalamus. The activity of tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons is stimulated by PRL; thus, PRL regulates its own secretion by a negative feedback mechanism. PRL receptors are expressed on tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons, but the intracellular signaling pathway is not known. We have observed that mice with a disrupted signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b gene have grossly elevated serum PRL concentrations. Despite this hyperprolactinemia, mRNA levels and immunoreactivity of tyrosine hydroxylase, the key enzyme in dopamine synthesis, were significantly lower in the tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons of these signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b-deficient mice. Concentrations of the dopamine metabolite dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in the median eminence were also significantly lower in signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b-deficient mice than in wild-type mice. No changes were observed in nonhypothalamic dopaminergic neuronal populations, indicating that the effects were selective to tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons. These data indicate that in the absence of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b, PRL signal transduction in tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons is impaired, and they demonstrate that this transcription factor plays an obligatory and nonredundant role in mediating the negative feedback action of PRL on tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons.

  9. PRL1, an RNA-Binding Protein, Positively Regulates the Accumulation of miRNAs and siRNAs in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuxin; Liu, Yuhui; Yu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary conserved WD-40 protein PRL1 plays important roles in immunity and development. Here we show that PRL1 is required for the accumulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). PRL1 positively influences the processing of miRNA primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) and double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs). Furthermore, PRL1 interacts with the pri-miRNA processor, DCL1, and the dsRNA processors (DCL3 and DCL4). These results suggest that PRL1 may function as a general factor to promote the production of miRNAs and siRNAs. We also show that PRL1 is an RNA-binding protein and associates with pri-miRNAs in vivo. In addition, prl1 reduces pri-miRNA levels without affecting pri-miRNA transcription. These results suggest that PRL1 may stabilize pri-miRNAs and function as a co-factor to enhance DCL1 activity. We further reveal the genetic interaction of PRL1 with CDC5, which interacts with PRL1 and regulates transcription and processing of pri-miRNAs. Both miRNA and pri-miRNA levels are lower in cdc5 prl1 than those in either cdc5 or prl1. However, the processing efficiency of pri-miRNAs in cdc5 prl1 is similar to that in cdc5 and slightly lower than that in prl1. Based on these results, we propose that CDC5 and PRL1 cooperatively regulate pri-miRNA levels, which results in their synergistic effects on miRNA accumulation, while they function together as a complex to enhance DCL1 activity. PMID:25474114

  10. Prenylation-dependent association of protein-tyrosine phosphatases PRL-1, -2, and -3 with the plasma membrane and the early endosome.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Q; Si, X; Horstmann, H; Xu, Y; Hong, W; Pallen, C J

    2000-07-14

    PRL-1, -2, and -3 represent a novel class of protein-tyrosine phosphatase with a C-terminal prenylation motif. Although PRL-1 has been suggested to be associated with the nucleus, the presence of three highly homologous members and the existence of a prenylation motif call for a more detailed examination of their subcellular localization. In the present study, we first demonstrate that mouse PRL-1, -2, and -3 are indeed prenylated. Examination of N-terminal epitope-tagged PRL-1, -2, and -3 expressed in transiently transfected cells suggests that PRL-1, -2, and -3 are present on the plasma membrane and intracellular punctate structures. Stable Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing PRL-1 and -3 in an inducible manner were established. When cells were treated with brefeldin A, PRL-1 and -3 accumulated in a collapsed compact structure around the microtubule-organizing center. Furthermore, PRL-1 and -3 redistributed into swollen vacuole-like structures when cells were treated with wortmannin. These characteristics of PRL-1 and -3 are typical for endosomal proteins. Electron microscope immunogold labeling reveals that PRL-1 and -3 are indeed associated with the plasma membrane and the early endosomal compartment. Expression of PRL-3 is detected in the epithelial cells of the small intestine, where PRL-3 is present in punctate structures in the cytoplasm. When cells are treated with FTI-277, a selective farnesyltransferase inhibitor, PRL-1, -2, and -3 shifted into the nucleus. Furthermore, a mutant form of PRL-2 lacking the C-terminal prenylation signal is associated with the nucleus. These results establish that the primary association of PRL-1, -2, and -3 with the membrane of the cell surface and the early endosome is dependent on their prenylation and that nuclear localization of these proteins may be triggered by a regulatory event that inhibits their prenylation.

  11. Bifidobacterium asteroides PRL2011 Genome Analysis Reveals Clues for Colonization of the Insect Gut

    PubMed Central

    Bottacini, Francesca; Milani, Christian; Turroni, Francesca; Sánchez, Borja; Foroni, Elena; Duranti, Sabrina; Serafini, Fausta; Viappiani, Alice; Strati, Francesco; Ferrarini, Alberto; Delledonne, Massimo; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Margolles, Abelardo; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are known as anaerobic/microaerophilic and fermentative microorganisms, which commonly inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of various animals and insects. Analysis of the 2,167,301 bp genome of Bifidobacterium asteroides PRL2011, a strain isolated from the hindgut of Apis mellifera var. ligustica, commonly known as the honey bee, revealed its predicted capability for respiratory metabolism. Conservation of the latter gene clusters in various B. asteroides strains enforces the notion that respiration is a common metabolic feature of this ancient bifidobacterial species, which has been lost in currently known mammal-derived Bifidobacterium species. In fact, phylogenomic based analyses suggested an ancient origin of B. asteroides and indicates it as an ancestor of the genus Bifidobacterium. Furthermore, the B. asteroides PRL2011 genome encodes various enzymes for coping with toxic products that arise as a result of oxygen-mediated respiration. PMID:23028506

  12. Inhibition of PRL-2·CNNM3 Protein Complex Formation Decreases Breast Cancer Proliferation and Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    Kostantin, Elie; Hardy, Serge; Valinsky, William C; Kompatscher, Andreas; de Baaij, Jeroen H F; Zolotarov, Yevgen; Landry, Melissa; Uetani, Noriko; Martínez-Cruz, Luis Alfonso; Hoenderop, Joost G J; Shrier, Alvin; Tremblay, Michel L

    2016-05-13

    The oncogenic phosphatase of regenerating liver 2 (PRL-2) has been shown to regulate intracellular magnesium levels by forming a complex through an extended amino acid loop present in the Bateman module of the CNNM3 magnesium transporter. Here we identified highly conserved residues located on this amino acid loop critical for the binding with PRL-2. A single point mutation (D426A) of one of those critical amino acids was found to completely disrupt PRL-2·human Cyclin M 3 (CNNM3) complex formation. Whole-cell voltage clamping revealed that expression of CNNM3 influenced the surface current, whereas overexpression of the binding mutant had no effect, indicating that the binding of PRL-2 to CNNM3 is important for the activity of the complex. Interestingly, overexpression of the CNNM3 D426A-binding mutant in cancer cells decreased their ability to proliferate under magnesium-deprived situations and under anchorage-independent growth conditions, demonstrating a PRL-2·CNNM3 complex-dependent oncogenic advantage in a more stringent environment. We further confirmed the importance of this complex in vivo using an orthotopic xenograft breast cancer model. Finally, because molecular modeling showed that the Asp-426 side chain in CNNM3 buries into the catalytic cavity of PRL-2, we showed that a PRL inhibitor could abrogate complex formation, resulting in a decrease in proliferation of human breast cancer cells. In summary, we provide evidence that this fundamental regulatory aspect of PRL-2 in cancer cells could potentially lead to broadly applicable and innovative therapeutic avenues.

  13. Stimulatory effect of PGF2α on PRL based on experimental inhibition of each hormone in mares.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Pinaffi, F L V; Rodriguez, M B; Duarte, L F; Beg, M A

    2012-12-01

    During the luteolytic period in mares, the peak of 65% of pulses of a PGF2α metabolite (PGFM) and the peak of a pulse of PRL have been reported to occur at the same hour. It is unknown whether the synchrony reflects an effect of PGF2α on PRL or vice versa. Controls, a flunixin meglumine (FM)-treated group (to inhibit PGF2α), and a bromocriptine-treated group (to inhibit PRL), were used at 14 days postovulation in June and in September (n = 6 mares/group/mo). Blood samples were collected hourly from just before treatment (Hour 0) to Hour 10. Concentrations of PGFM in the FM group were lower (P < 0.05) at Hours 4 to 6 than in the controls in each month, but bromocriptine had no detected effects on PGFM. Concentrations of PGFM averaged over all groups and within each group did not differ between June and September. Compared to the controls, concentrations of PRL in June were lower (P < 0.05) in the FM group at Hours 4 to 8 and in the bromocriptine group at Hours 4 to 10. Concentration of PRL averaged over groups was lower (P < 0.0001) in September (0.9 ± 0.05 ng/mL, mean ± SEM) than in June (3.0 ± 0.3 ng/mL). Results supported the hypothesis that the positive association between PGFM and PRL concentrations in mares represents an effect of PGF2α on PRL rather than an effect of PRL on PGF2α.

  14. PRL-3 Promotes the Malignant Progression of Melanoma via Triggering Dephosphorylation and Cytoplasmic Localization of NHERF1.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xian-Ying; Song, Ran; Chen, Wei; Yang, Yuan-Yuan; Gu, Yan-Hong; Shu, Yong-Qian; Wu, Xu-Dong; Wu, Xue-Feng; Sun, Yang; Shen, Yan; Xu, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    Phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) has been reported to have a critical role in metastatic progression of cancers. Here, we investigate how PRL-3 increases the malignant degree of melanoma cells. The expression of PRL-3 increased gradually during the malignant progression of melanoma. The phosphorylation of Akt was elevated in highly malignant melanoma cells, which was accompanied by a decrease in nuclear phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). The phosphorylation of NHERF1 in the serine site was regulated by PRL-3 and showed cytoplasmic translocation upon dephosphorylation, which resulted in a decrease in nuclear PTEN. The co-translocation of NHERF1 and PTEN from the nucleus to the cytoplasm was observed during the malignant progression of melanoma cells. Tumor growth was inhibited significantly, and the survival was prolonged upon knockdown of cytoplasmic NHERF1 in B16BL6 cells prior to the inoculation into mice. Taken together, to our knowledge previously unreported, we have identified NHERF1 as a potential substrate of PRL-3. Its phosphorylation status as well as its change in cellular localization and association with PTEN correlated with the malignant progression of melanoma. Our data provide an explanation for how PRL-3 promotes the malignant progression of melanoma, as well as a diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for malignant melanoma.

  15. ATF-7, a novel bZIP protein, interacts with the PRL-1 protein-tyrosine phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Peters, C S; Liang, X; Li, S; Kannan, S; Peng, Y; Taub, R; Diamond, R H

    2001-04-27

    We have identified a novel basic leucine zipper (bZIP) protein, designated ATF-7, that physically interacts with the PRL-1 protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase). PRL-1 is a predominantly nuclear, farnesylated PTPase that has been linked to the control of cellular growth and differentiation. This interaction was initially found using the yeast two-hybrid system. ATF-7 is most closely related to members of the ATF/CREB family of bZIP proteins, with highest homology to ATF-4. ATF-7 homodimers can bind specifically to CRE elements. ATF-7 is expressed in a number of different tissues and is expressed in association with differentiation in the Caco-2 cell model of intestinal differentiation. We have confirmed the PRL-1.ATF-7 interaction and mapped the regions of ATF-7 and PRL-1 important for interaction to ATF-7's bZIP region and PRL-1's phosphatase domain. Finally, we have determined that PRL-1 is able to dephosphorylate ATF-7 in vitro. Further insight into ATF-7's precise cellular roles, transcriptional function, and downstream targets are likely be of importance in understanding the mechanisms underlying the complex processes of maintenance, differentiation, and turnover of epithelial tissues.

  16. PRL-3/PTP4A3 phosphatase regulates integrin β1 in adhesion structures during migration of human ocular melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Foy, Malika; Anézo, Océane; Saule, Simon; Planque, Nathalie

    2017-03-08

    In a previous transcriptomic analysis of 63 ocular melanomas of the uvea, we found that expression of the PRL-3/PTP4A3 gene, encoding a phosphatase that is anchored to the plasma membrane, was associated with the risk of metastasis, and a poor prognosis. We also showed that PRL-3 overexpression in OCM-1 ocular melanoma cells significantly increased cell migration in vitro and invasiveness in vivo, suggesting a direct role for PRL-3 in the metastatic spreading of uveal melanoma. Here, we aimed to identify PRL-3 substrates at the plasma membrane involved in adhesion to the extracellular matrix. We focused on integrin β1, which is the most highly expressed integrin in our cohort of uveal melanomas. We show that preventing PRL-3 anchorage to the plasma membrane i) abolishes PRL-3-induced migration in OCM-1 cells, ii) specifically enhances the spreading of OCM-1 cells overexpressing PRL-3, and iii) favors the maturation of large focal adhesions (FAs) containing integrin β1 on collagen I. Knockdown experiments confirmed integrin β1 involvement in PRL3-induced migration. We identified interactions between PRL-3 and integrin β1, as well as with FAK P-Y397, an auto-activated form of Focal Adhesion Kinase found in FAs. We also show that integrin β1 may be dephosphorylated by PRL-3 in its intracytoplasmic S/T region, an important motif for integrin-mediated cell adhesion. Finally, we observed that PRL-3 regulated the clustering of integrin β1 in FAs on collagen I but not on fibronectin. This work identifies PRL-3 as a new regulator of cell adhesion structures to the extracellular matrix, and further supports PRL-3 as a key actor of metastasis in uveal melanoma, of which molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood.

  17. Effect of hyperprolactinemia on PRL-receptor expression and activation of Stat and Mapk cell signaling in the prostate of long-term sexually-active rats.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Mathey, Luz I; Rojas-Duran, Fausto; Aranda-Abreu, Gonzalo E; Manzo, Jorge; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; Muñoz-Zavaleta, David A; Garcia, Luis I; Hernandez, Ma Elena

    2016-04-01

    The abnormal elevation of serum PRL, referred to as hyperprolactinemia (HyperPRL), produces alterations in several reproductive parameters of male rats such as penile erection or decreased tendency to reach ejaculation. Additionally, this situation produces a significant modification of prostate histology, as observed in the epithelial structure and alveolar area, which could reach a level of hyperplasia in the long-term. In this tissue, HyperPRL produces an increase in expression of PRL receptors and activation of the Stat3 signaling pathway that is correlated with the evolution of prostate pathologies. However, the impact of HyperPRL in long-term sexually active male rats is unknown. In this work, using constantly copulating Wistar male rats with induced HyperPRL, we analyzed the level of serum PRL, the effect on prostate PRL receptors, and activation of pStat3, pStat5 and Mapk signaling pathways. Two procedures to induce HyperPRL were employed, comprising daily IP administration or adenohypophysis transplant, and although neither affected the execution of sexual behavior, the serum PRL profile following successive ejaculations was affected. Messenger RNA expression of the short and long isoforms of the PRL receptor at the ventral prostate was affected in different ways depending on the procedure to induce HyperPRL. The ventral prostate did not show any modification in terms of activation of the pStat5 signaling pathway in subjects with daily administration of PRL, although this was significantly increased in ADH transplanted subjects in the second and fourth consecutive ejaculation. A similar profile was found for the pStat3 pathway which additionally showed a significant increase in the third and fourth ejaculation of daily-injected subjects. The Mapk signaling pathway did not show any modifications in subjects with daily administration of PRL, but showed a significant increase in the second and third ejaculations of subjects with ADH transplants. Thus

  18. Increased serum interleukin-22 levels in patients with PRL-secreting and non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas.

    PubMed

    Cannavo, S; Ferrau, F; Cotta, O R; Saitta, S; Barresi, V; Cristani, M T; Saija, A; Ruggeri, R M; Trimarchi, F; Gangemi, S

    2014-02-01

    Cytokines' involvement in tumorigenesis has been hypothesized. Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is implicated in proliferative and anti-apoptotic pathways via its receptor IL-22R. Its role in pituitary adenomas has never been investigated. Twenty-seven patients with pituitary macroadenomas (PA, 21 males, mean age 53.8 ± 14.4 years) and 30 healthy controls (19 males, mean age 50.4 ± 8.4 years) were enrolled. Out of 27 PA patients, 17 had a non-functioning tumour (NFPA) and 10 a PRL-secreting adenoma (PRL-oma). Serum IL-22 levels were measured in both patients and controls. Immunohistochemical (IHC) tumoral IL-22R expression was evaluated in 10 patients with NFPA and 4 with PRL-oma. IL-22 levels were significantly higher in PA patients than in controls [32.47 (11.29-70.12) vs. 5.58 (0.19-21.46) pg/mL, p < 0.0001] but did not correlate with tumor maximum diameter and were not associated to pituitary function impairment. PRL-oma patients had significantly higher IL-22 levels than NFPA patients [37.18 (14.82-70.12) vs. 21.29 (11.29-56) pg/mL, p = 0.039]. IHC revealed a strong IL-22R staining in 100 % of PRL-omas and 60 % of NFPAs. We provide the first evidence of increased serum IL-22 levels in patients with pituitary macroadenoma, especially in PRL-omas, regardless of tumor size and/or degree of pituitary function impairment. We also demonstrated the expression of IL22R in all PRL-omas and in 60 % of NFPAs.

  19. Modeling Prolactin Actions in Breast Cancer in vivo: Insights from the NRL-PRL Mouse

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary, Kathleen A.; Shea, Michael P.; Schuler, Linda A.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated exposure to prolactin is epidemiologically associated with an increased risk of aggressive ER+ breast cancer. To understand the underlying mechanisms and crosstalk with other oncogenic factors, we developed the NRL-PRL mouse. In this model, mammary expression of a rat prolactin transgene raises local exposure to prolactin without altering estrous cycling. Nulliparous females develop metastatic, histotypically diverse mammary carcinomas independent from ovarian steroids, and most are ER+. These characteristics resemble the human clinical disease, facilitating study of tumorigenesis, and identification of novel preventive and therapeutic approaches. PMID:25472540

  20. LIN28B Activation by PRL-3 Promotes Leukemogenesis and a Stem Cell-like Transcriptional Program in AML.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianbiao; Chan, Zit-Liang; Bi, Chonglei; Lu, Xiao; Chong, Phyllis S Y; Chooi, Jing-Yuan; Cheong, Lip-Lee; Liu, Shaw-Cheng; Ching, Ying Qing; Zhou, Yafeng; Osato, Motomi; Tan, Tuan Zea; Ng, Chin Hin; Ng, Siok-Bian; Wang, Shi; Zeng, Qi; Chng, Wee-Joo

    2017-03-01

    PRL-3 (PTP4A3), a metastasis-associated phosphatase, is also upregulated in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is associated with poor prognosis, but the underlying molecular mechanism is unknown. Here, constitutive expression of PRL-3 in human AML cells sustains leukemogenesis in vitro and in vivo Furthermore, PRL-3 phosphatase activity dependently upregulates LIN28B, a stem cell reprogramming factor, which in turn represses the let-7 mRNA family, inducing a stem cell-like transcriptional program. Notably, elevated levels of LIN28B protein independently associate with worse survival in AML patients. Thus, these results establish a novel signaling axis involving PRL-3/LIN28B/let-7, which confers stem cell-like properties to leukemia cells that is important for leukemogenesis.Implications: The current study offers a rationale for targeting PRL-3 as a therapeutic approach for a subset of AML patients with poor prognosis. Mol Cancer Res; 15(3); 294-303. ©2016 AACR.

  1. Identification and characterization of novel membrane-bound PRL protein tyrosine phosphatases from Setaria cervi, a bovine filarial parasite.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neetu; Yadav, Smita; Rathaur, Sushma

    2015-11-01

    A significant amount of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity was detected in the detergent-soluble membrane-bound fraction of Setaria cervi, a bovine filarial parasite. The membrane-bound PTP activity was significantly inhibited when the adult parasites were exposed to compounds having antifilarial activity like aspirin and SK7 as well as phenylarsine oxide, a specific PTP inhibitor suggesting that this activity is stress regulated. Further, this enzyme was purified as a single protein of apparently 21 kDa using two different chromatographic techniques. The MALDI-MS/MS analysis of its peptides showed closest match with protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL (Aedes aegypti). This purified enzyme (named as PRL) showed maximum activity at pH 5.5/37 °C and hydrolysed para nitro phenyl phosphate (pNPP) at the highest rate followed by O-P-L-tyrosine and O-P-L-threonine. It showed significant inhibition by specific inhibitors of PTP such as sodium orthovanadate, phenylarsine oxide and ammonium molybdate and was activated by dithiothreitol (DTT). The active site modification studies suggested involvement of cysteine, arginine, histidine and aspartic acid in the catalytic activity of PRL. The activity of S. cervi PRL was also found to be resistant towards the external oxidative stress. Thus, S. cervi PRL could be taken as a potential target for the management of human lymphatic filariasis.

  2. PRL1 modulates root stem cell niche activity and meristem size through WOX5 and PLTs in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hongtao; Wang, Shuangfeng; Li, Kexue; Szakonyi, Dóra; Koncz, Csaba; Li, Xia

    2015-02-01

    The stem cell niche in the root meristem maintains pluripotent stem cells to ensure a constant supply of cells for root growth. Despite extensive progress, the molecular mechanisms through which root stem cell fates and stem cell niche activity are determined remain largely unknown. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the Pleiotropic Regulatory Locus 1 (PRL1) encodes a WD40-repeat protein subunit of the spliceosome-activating Nineteen Complex (NTC) that plays a role in multiple stress, hormone and developmental signaling pathways. Here, we show that PRL1 is involved in the control of root meristem size and root stem cell niche activity. PRL1 is strongly expressed in the root meristem and its loss of function mutation results in disorganization of the quiescent center (QC), premature stem cell differentiation, aberrant cell division, and reduced root meristem size. Our genetic studies indicate that PRL1 is required for confined expression of the homeodomain transcription factor WOX5 in the QC and acts upstream of the transcription factor PLETHORA (PLT) in modulating stem cell niche activity and root meristem size. These findings define a role for PRL1 as an important determinant of PLT signaling that modulates maintenance of the stem cell niche and root meristem size. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Stathmin, a new target of PRL-3 identified by proteomic methods, plays a key role in progression and metastasis of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ping; Liu, Yong-Xia; Chen, Lin; Liu, Xun-Hua; Xiao, Zheng-Quan; Zhao, Liang; Li, Guang-Qiu; Zhou, Jun; Ding, Yan-Qing; Li, Jian-Ming

    2010-10-01

    To better understand the role of PRL-3 in progression and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC), we searched for PRL-3 associated proteins using proteomic methods. We identified 39 PRL-3 associated proteins based on proteomic strategy. Stathmin, a key oncoprotein, was proved to be a new PRL-3 associated protein. Notably, co-immunoprecipitation assays in both endogenous CRC cell lines and CRC tissues indicated that PRL-3 could interact with stathmin. And, both stathmin and PRL-3 contributed to microtubule (MT) destabilization of CRC cells. Moreover, gain-of-function and loss-of-function analyses revealed that stathmin promoted proliferation, cell adhesion, and migration of human CRC cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of 149 colorectal tumor samples showed that overexpression of stathmin was strongly correlated with tumor differentiation (P = 0.035), tumor invasion (P = 0.024), lymph node status (P < 0.001), Dukes classification (P < 0.001), and TNM staging (P < 0.001) of CRC patients. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses further supported that overexpression of stathmin protein was a potential independent poor prognostic factor for CRC. Our results reveal many PRL-3 associated proteins for the first time. The oncoprotein stathmin plays a key role in CRC as a new target of PRL-3. Interaction between PRL-3 and stathmin leads to MT destabilization of CRC cells, which contributes to progression and metastasis of CRC.

  4. Molecular characterization of prolactin receptor (cPRLR) gene in chickens: gene structure, tissue expression, promoter analysis, and its interaction with chicken prolactin (cPRL) and prolactin-like protein (cPRL-L).

    PubMed

    Bu, Guixian; Ying Wang, Crystal; Cai, Guoqing; Leung, Frederick C; Xu, Min; Wang, Hongning; Huang, Guian; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2013-05-06

    In this study, gene structure, tissue expression, and promoter usage of prolactin receptor (PRLR) and its interaction with prolactin (PRL) and the newly identified prolactin-like protein (PRL-L) were investigated in chickens. The results showed that (1) PRLR gene was found to consist of at least 25 exons by 5'-RACE and RT-PCR assays; (2) multiple PRLR 5'-UTR sequences different in exon composition were isolated from chicken liver or intestine by 5'-RACE and could be subdivided into type I and type II transcripts according to the first exon used (exon 1G or exon 1A); (3) PRLR Type I transcripts with exon 1G were detected to be predominantly expressed in adult kidney and small intestine by RT-PCR, implying their expression is likely controlled by a tissue-specific promoter (P1). By contrast, PRLR type II transcripts containing exon 1A are widely expressed in adult and embryonic tissues examined and their expression is controlled by a generic promoter (P2) near exon 1A, which was demonstrated to display promoter activities in cultured DF-1, HEK293 and LoVo cells by the dual-luciferase reporter assay; (4) Using a 5×STAT5-luciferase reporter system, cPRLR expressed in HepG2 cells was shown to be activated by recombinant cPRL and cPRL-L via interaction with PRLR membrane-proximal ligand-binding domain, suggesting that like cPRL, cPRL-L is also a functional ligand of cPRLR. Collectively, characterization of cPRLR gene helps to elucidate the roles of PRLR and its ligands in birds and provides insights into the regulatory mechanisms of PRLR expression conserved in birds and mammals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Structural Basis of the Oncogenic Interaction of Phosphatase PRL-1 with the Magnesium Transporter CNNM2*♦

    PubMed Central

    Giménez-Mascarell, Paula; Oyenarte, Iker; Hardy, Serge; Breiderhoff, Tilman; Stuiver, Marchel; Kostantin, Elie; Diercks, Tammo; Pey, Angel L.; Ereño-Orbea, June; Martínez-Chantar, María Luz; Khalaf-Nazzal, Reham; Claverie-Martin, Felix; Müller, Dominik; Tremblay, Michel L.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRLs), the most oncogenic of all protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), play a critical role in metastatic progression of cancers. Recent findings established a new paradigm by uncovering that their association with magnesium transporters of the cyclin M (CNNM) family causes a rise in intracellular magnesium levels that promote oncogenic transformation. Recently, however, essential roles for regulation of the circadian rhythm and reproduction of the CNNM family have been highlighted. Here, we describe the crystal structure of PRL-1 in complex with the Bateman module of CNNM2 (CNNM2BAT), which consists of two cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) domains (IPR000664) and represents an intracellular regulatory module of the transporter. The structure reveals a heterotetrameric association, consisting of a disc-like homodimer of CNNM2BAT bound to two independent PRL-1 molecules, each one located at opposite tips of the disc. The structure highlights the key role played by Asp-558 at the extended loop of the CBS2 motif of CNNM2 in maintaining the association between the two proteins and proves that the interaction between CNNM2 and PRL-1 occurs via the catalytic domain of the phosphatase. Our data shed new light on the structural basis underlying the interaction between PRL phosphatases and CNNM transporters and provides a hypothesis about the molecular mechanism by which PRL-1, upon binding to CNNM2, might increase the intracellular concentration of Mg2+ thereby contributing to tumor progression and metastasis. The availability of this structure sets the basis for the rational design of compounds modulating PRL-1 and CNNM2 activities. PMID:27899452

  6. PRL-3 promotes the peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway by regulating PTEN.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jianbo; Li, Zhengrong; Zhang, Yang; Li, Daojiang; Zhang, Guoyang; Luo, Xianshi; Jie, Zhigang; Liu, Yi; Cao, Yi; Le, Zhibiao; Tan, Shengxing; Zou, Wenyu; Gong, Peitao; Qiu, Lingyu; Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Huan; Chen, Heping

    2016-10-01

    Peritoneal metastasis is the most frequent cause of death in patients with advanced gastric carcinoma (GC). The phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) is recognized as an oncogene and plays an important role in GC peritoneal metastasis. However, the mechanism of how PRL-3 regulates GC invasion and metastasis is unknown. In the present study, we found that PRL-3 presented with high expression in GC with peritoneal metastasis, but phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) was weakly expressed. The p-PTEN/PTEN ratio was also higher in GC with peritoneal metastasis than that in the normal gastric tissues. We also found the same phenomenon when comparing the gastric mucosa cell line with the GC cell lines. After constructing a wild-type and a mutant-type plasmid without enzyme activity and transfecting them into GC SGC7901 cells, we showed that only PRL-3 had enzyme activity to downregulate PTEN and cause PTEN phosphorylation. The results also showed that PRL-3 increased the expression levels of MMP-2/MMP-9 and promoted the migration and invasion of the SGC7901 cells. Knockdown of PRL-3 decreased the expression levels of MMP-2/MMP-9 significantly, which further inhibited the migration and invasion of the GC cells. PRL-3 also increased the expression ratio of p-Akt/Akt, which indicated that PRL-3 may mediate the PI3K/Akt pathway to promote GC metastasis. When we transfected the PTEN siRNA plasmid into the PRL-3 stable low expression GC cells, the expression of p-Akt, MMP-2 and MMP-9 was reversed. In conclusion, our results provide a bridge between PRL-3 and PTEN; PRL-3 decreased the expression of PTEN as well as increased the level of PTEN phosphorylation and inactivated it, consequently activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and upregulating MMP-2/MMP-9 expression to promote GC cell peritoneal metastasis.

  7. A novel method for detection of preferred retinal locus (PRL) through simple retinal image processing using MATLAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalikivayi, V.; Pal, Sudip; Ganesan, A. R.

    2013-09-01

    simple and new technique for detection of `Preferred Retinal Locus' (PRL) in human eye is proposed in this paper. Simple MATLAB algorithms for estimating RGB pixel intensity values of retinal images were used. The technique proved non-existence of `S' cones in Fovea Centralis and also proposes that rods are involved in blue color perception. Retinal images of central vision loss and normal retina were taken for image processing. Blue minimum, Red maximum and Red+Green maximum were the three methods used in detecting PRL. Comparative analyses were also performed for these methods with patient's age and visual acuity.

  8. The phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 (PRL-3) promotes cell migration through Arf-activity-dependent stimulation of integrin α5 recycling.

    PubMed

    Krndija, Denis; Münzberg, Christin; Maass, Ulrike; Hafner, Margit; Adler, Guido; Kestler, Hans A; Seufferlein, Thomas; Oswald, Franz; von Wichert, Götz

    2012-08-15

    The formation of metastasis is one of the most critical problems in oncology. The phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 (PRL-3) is a new target in colorectal cancer, mediating metastatic behavior through a promigratory function. However, detailed explanations for this effect have remained elusive. Here we show that PRL-3 interacts with the ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1). PRL-3 colocalizes with Arf1 in an endosomal compartment and associates with transmembrane proteins such as the transferrin receptor and α5 integrins. PRL-3 interacts with Arf1 through a distinct motif and regulates activation of Arf1. PRL-3-mediated migration depends on expression and activation of Arf1 and is sensitive to treatment with Brefeldin A. We also demonstrate that PRL-3 modulates recycling of α5 integrins and that its phosphatase activity as well as Arf activation and compartmentalization with Arf1 are required for this effect. In summary our data identify a new function for PRL-3 and show that Arf1 is a new PRL-3-dependent mediator of enhanced migration of cancer cells through enhanced recycling of matrix receptors.

  9. Inhibition of PRL-3 gene expression in gastric cancer cell line SGC7901 via microRNA suppressed reduces peritoneal metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhengrong; Zhan Wenhua . E-mail: wcywk@hotmail.com; Wang Zhao; Zhu Baohe; He Yulong; Peng Junsheng; Cai Shirong; Ma Jinping

    2006-09-15

    High expression of PRL-3, a protein tyrosine phosphatase, is proved to be associated with lymph node metastasis in gastric carcinoma from previous studies. In this paper, we examined the relationship between PRL-3 expression and peritoneal metastasis in gastric carcinoma. We applied the artificial miRNA (pCMV-PRL3miRNA), which is based on the murine miR-155 sequence, to efficiently silence the target gene expression of PRL-3 in SGC7901 gastric cancer cells at both mRNA and protein levels. Then we observed that, in vitro, pCMV-PRL3miRNA significantly depressed the SGC7901 cell invasion and migration independent of cellular proliferation. In vivo, PRL-3 knockdown effectively suppressed the growth of peritoneal metastases and improved the prognosis in nude mice. Therefore, we concluded that artificial miRNA can depress the expression of PRL-3, and that PRL-3 might be a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer peritoneal metastasis.

  10. Central infusions of the recombinant human prolactin receptor antagonist, S179D-PRL, delay the onset of maternal behavior in steroid-primed, nulliparous female rats.

    PubMed

    Bridges, R; Rigero, B; Byrnes, E; Yang, L; Walker, A

    2001-02-01

    The expression of maternal behavior in the newly parturient rat is under endocrine regulation. Blocking endogenous PRL secretion with bromocriptine delays the normal rapid expression of maternal care shown toward foster young in steroid-primed virgin female rats. The recent development of the PRL receptor antagonist S179D-PRL, a mutant of human PRL in which the serine residue at the 179 position is replaced with aspartate, provides a potentially useful tool to examine the role of PRL in neural processing. In the present report, three experiments were conducted that examined the effects of this PRL antagonist on the induction of maternal behavior. In each experiment, ovariectomized, nulliparous rats were treated sequentially with SILASTIC capsules implanted sc with progesterone (days 1-11) and estradiol (days 11-17), a treatment that stimulates a rapid onset of maternal behavior in virgin rats. On day 11, females were implanted with Alzet miniosmotic pumps connected to cannulae directed unilaterally at the lateral ventricle (Exp 1) or bilaterally at the medial preoptic area (MPOA; Exp 2 and 3). Pumps contained either doses of S179D-PRL (0.115 or 1.15 mg/ml; Exp 1 and 2), wild-type human PRL (1.15 mg/ml; Exp 3), or the saline vehicle (Exp 1-3). Testing for maternal behavior began on day 12, a day after pump insertion, and animals were tested daily for 6 days. Latencies to contact, retrieve, and group foster test young were recorded. Administration of both the high and low doses of S179D-PRL infused into the lateral ventricle (Exp 1) or MPOA (Exp 2) significantly delayed the onset of maternal behavior. In contrast, MPOA infusions of the control hormone, wild-type human PRL, in Exp 3 did not delay the onset of maternal behavior. These findings support the concept that the effects of S179D-PRL are caused by its actions as a PRL receptor antagonist rather than by a nonspecific effect of the protein. Overall, these results demonstrate the effectiveness of S179D-PRL acting

  11. Genome analysis of Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010 reveals metabolic pathways for host-derived glycan foraging

    PubMed Central

    Turroni, Francesca; Bottacini, Francesca; Foroni, Elena; Mulder, Imke; Kim, Jae-Han; Zomer, Aldert; Sánchez, Borja; Bidossi, Alessandro; Ferrarini, Alberto; Giubellini, Vanessa; Delledonne, Massimo; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro; Oggioni, Marco; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Mills, David; Margolles, Abelardo; Kelly, Denise; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The human intestine is densely populated by a microbial consortium whose metabolic activities are influenced by, among others, bifidobacteria. However, the genetic basis of adaptation of bifidobacteria to the human gut is poorly understood. Analysis of the 2,214,650-bp genome of Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010, a strain isolated from infant stool, revealed a nutrient-acquisition strategy that targets host-derived glycans, such as those present in mucin. Proteome and transcriptome profiling revealed a set of chromosomal loci responsible for mucin metabolism that appear to be under common transcriptional control and with predicted functions that allow degradation of various O-linked glycans in mucin. Conservation of the latter gene clusters in various B. bifidum strains supports the notion that host-derived glycan catabolism is an important colonization factor for B. bifidum with concomitant impact on intestinal microbiota ecology. PMID:20974960

  12. Endoscopic transsphenoidal excision of a GH-PRL-secreting pituitary macroadenoma in a patient with McCune-Albright syndrome.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Manikandan S; Prabhu, Krishna; Chacko, Geeta; Rajaratnam, Simon; Chacko, Ari G

    2012-02-01

    We describe an endoscopic transsphenoidal excision of a GH-PRL-secreting pituitary adenoma and remodeling of frontotemporal fibrous dysplasia in a patient with McCune-Albright syndrome. Sphenoid dysplasia rendered transsphenoidal surgery challenging, but a study of the radiological anatomy and good surgical planning made this feasible. Medical therapy and radiation was required for persistent acromegaly after surgery.

  13. Modulation of rat testes lipid composition by hormones: Effect of PRL (prolactin) and hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)

    SciTech Connect

    Sebokova, E.; Wierzbicki, A.; Clandinin, M.T. )

    1988-10-01

    The effect of prolactin (PRL) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration for 7 days on the composition and function of rat testicular plasma membrane was investigated. Refractory state in Leydig cells desensitized by hCG decreased the binding capacity for {sup 125}I-labeled hCG and also luteinizing hormone (LH)-induced adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and testosterone production. In testicular membranes of hCG-treated animals, a depletion of cholesterol and an increase in total phospholipid content was observed after gonadotropin injection, thereby decreasing the cholesterol-to-phospholipid ratio. Injection of high doses of PRL had no effect on the binding capacity or affinity of the LH-hCG receptor but decreased the response of Leydig cells to LH in terms of cAMP and testosterone synthesis. PRL also increased total and esterified cholesterol and decreased free cholesterol and membrane phospholipid content. The fatty acid composition of testicular lipids was significantly and selectively influenced by both hormonal treatments. These observations suggest that metabolism of cholesterol and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in testicular tissue is affected by chorionic gonadotropin and PRL and may provide the mechanism for regulating steroidogenic functions.

  14. Differential regulation of mnp2, a new manganese peroxidase-encoding gene from the ligninolytic fungus Trametes versicolor PRL 572

    Treesearch

    Tomas Johansson; Per Olof Nyman; Daniel Cullen

    2002-01-01

    A peroxidase-encoding gene, mnp2, and its corresponding cDNA were characterized from the white-rot basidiomycete Trametes versicolor PRL 572. We used quantitative reverse transcriptase-mediated PCR to identify mnp2 transcripts in nutrient-limited stationary cultures. Although mnp2 lacks upstream metal response elements (MREs), addition of MnSO4 to cultures increased...

  15. prlF and yhaV encode a new toxin-antitoxin system in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Oliver; Schuenemann, Verena J; Hand, Nicholas J; Silhavy, Thomas J; Martin, Jörg; Lupas, Andrei N; Djuranovic, Sergej

    2007-09-28

    Toxin-antitoxin systems consist of a stable toxin, frequently with endonuclease activity, and a small, labile antitoxin, which sequesters the toxin into an inactive complex. Under unfavorable conditions, the antitoxin is degraded, leading to activation of the toxin and resulting in growth arrest, possibly also in bacterial programmed cell death. Correspondingly, these systems are generally viewed as agents of the stress response in prokaryotes. Here we show that prlF and yhaV encode a novel toxin-antitoxin system in Escherichia coli. YhaV, a ribonuclease of the RelE superfamily, causes reversible bacteriostasis that is counteracted by PrlF, a swapped-hairpin transcription factor homologous to MazE. The two proteins form a tight, hexameric complex, which binds with high specificity to a conserved sequence in the promoter region of the prlF-yhaV operon. As homologs of MazE and RelE, respectively, PrlF and YhaV provide an evolutionary connection between the two best-characterized toxin-antitoxin systems in E. coli, mazEF and relEB.

  16. Correlation of prolactin levels and PRL-receptor expression with Stat and Mapk cell signaling in the prostate of long-term sexually active rats.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Durán, Fausto; Pascual-Mathey, Luz I; Serrano, Karina; Aranda-Abreu, Gonzalo E; Manzo, Jorge; Soto-Cid, Abraham H; Hernandez, Ma Elena

    2015-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a key hormone for prostate function, with a basal level in serum and associated with two characteristic circadian peaks. In the male rat, the execution of one bout of sexual behavior with consecutive ejaculations produces a significant transient increase in PRL. However, the impact of a constant sexual life on both PRL levels and prostate function is unknown. Thus, by using constantly copulating males we analyzed the levels of serum PRL, the effect on prostate PRL receptors, and activation of pStat3, pStat5 and Mapk signaling pathways. Sexually experienced Wistar male rats were used, which underwent periodic sessions of sexual behavior tests. Males were subjected to a session of sexual behavior to achieve at least one and up to four ejaculations. Of these, a blood sample was collected from randomly selected males and the ventral prostate was removed for analysis. Serum PRL was quantified, the mRNA for PRL receptors was determined, and signaling pathways were analyzed. Data show that a constant sexual life produced a constant elevation of PRL in serum during four consecutive ejaculations. The ventral prostate showed a different mRNA expression profile for the long and short isoform of the PRL receptor, and both mRNA levels increased. Although the gland did not show modification of the activation of the pStat5 signaling pathway, the levels of pStat3 increased, and the Mapk pathway showed one significant elevation after the third ejaculation. Thus, we showed that an active and constant sexual life produces a sustained increase in serum PRL, its receptors, and the pStat3 signaling pathway. These responses seem to underlie the required physiological need to produce the quantity and quality of prostatic semen to ensure the appropriate environment for sperm to reach and fertilize the ovum.

  17. PRL-3, a metastasis associated tyrosine phosphatase, is involved in FLT3-ITD signaling and implicated in anti-AML therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianbiao; Bi, Chonglei; Chng, Wee-Joo; Cheong, Lip-Lee; Liu, Shaw-Cheng; Mahara, Sylvia; Tay, Kian-Ghee; Zeng, Qi; Li, Jie; Guo, Ke; Tan, Cheng Peow Bobby; Yu, Hanry; Albert, Daniel H; Chen, Chien-Shing

    2011-05-12

    Combination with other small molecule drugs represents a promising strategy to improve therapeutic efficacy of FLT3 inhibitors in the clinic. We demonstrated that combining ABT-869, a FLT3 inhibitor, with SAHA, a HDAC inhibitor, led to synergistic killing of the AML cells with FLT3 mutations and suppression of colony formation. We identified a core gene signature that is uniquely induced by the combination treatment in 2 different leukemia cell lines. Among these, we showed that downregulation of PTP4A3 (PRL-3) played a role in this synergism. PRL-3 is downstream of FLT3 signaling and ectopic expression of PRL-3 conferred therapeutic resistance through upregulation of STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) pathway activity and anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 protein. PRL-3 interacts with HDAC4 and SAHA downregulates PRL-3 via a proteasome dependent pathway. In addition, PRL-3 protein was identified in 47% of AML cases, but was absent in myeloid cells in normal bone marrows. Our results suggest such combination therapies may significantly improve the therapeutic efficacy of FLT3 inhibitors. PRL-3 plays a potential pathological role in AML and it might be a useful therapeutic target in AML, and warrant clinical investigation.

  18. PRL and GH synthesis and release from the sea bream (Sparus auratus L.) pituitary gland in vitro in response to osmotic challenge.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Juan; Brinca, Lilia; Guerreiro, Pedro M; Power, Deborah M

    2010-08-01

    The endocrine factors prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) are believed to have counteracting effects in the adaption of fish to changes in environmental salinity. In order to further investigate this interaction sea bream were challenged with full seawater (SW) or freshwater (FW) for 7 days and the response of pituitary glands cultured in vitro to an osmotic challenge (230, 275 and 320 mOsm/kg) was assessed. In vitro PRL secretion from pituitaries of SW-adapted fish was unaltered in response to an osmotic challenge, while GH secretion increased in the lowest osmolality (230 mOsm/kg). In contrast, both GH and PRL secretion by pituitaries from FW challenged fish was significantly increased (p<0.01) over that of pituitaries from SW fish at the highest osmolality (320 mOsm/kg). After FW challenge pituitary PRL content and de novo synthesised and released PRL were significantly increased (p<0.01), while total PRL secretion was not different from SW animals. GH pituitary content decreased in FW animals while total secretion and secretion of de novo synthesised protein were significantly increased (p<0.01). In addition, after transfer of fish to FW expression of PRL and GH increased 3- and 2-fold, respectively. Despite the increase in PRL expression, no increase in total PRL secretion occurred and although in gills a 2-fold increase in the osmoregulatory marker, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was detected, profound haemodilution and a cumulative mortality of 40% occurred in sea bream placed in FW. Taken together the results suggest that the sea bream pituitary gland fails to respond appropriately to the osmotic challenge caused by low salinity and the physiological response evoked in vivo is not enough to allow this species to withstand and adapt to FW. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of Apoptosis Genes Induced by the Human Prolactin Antagonist, hPRL-G129R, in Several Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    real - time PCR analysis was used to detect bcl-2 mRNA, in 11 human breast cancer cell lines after treatment with hPRL or its antagonist. Our data suggest that Bc 1-2 is upregulated in response to hPRL stimulation & is competively inhibited by the antagonist in the majority of the cell lines tested. We propose that the anti-apoptotic role of hPRL in breast cancer is mediated, at least in part, through regulation of

  20. Leptin, GH, PRL, insulin and metabolic parameters throughout the dry period and lactation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Accorsi, P A; Govoni, N; Gaiani, R; Pezzi, C; Seren, E; Tamanini, C

    2005-06-01

    Leptin may play a role in the endocrine-metabolic processes that guarantee the physiological course of lactation in dairy cattle. This study was aimed at determining the changes in plasma concentrations of leptin and some of the main hormones and metabolites involved in the lactogenetic process in high-yielding dairy cows throughout lactation; we also wanted to assess whether leptin secretion is subjected to seasonal influences. Blood samples were collected from 23 Italian Friesian dairy cows from the end of a lactation to the ninth month of the subsequent one; in addition, blood was sampled from 47 dairy cows in different phases of lactation during February and July. Plasma concentrations of leptin, growth hormone (GH), insulin, prolactin (PRL), glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and urea were quantified by either validated radioimmunoassay (RIA) or enzymatic colorimetric methods. At the beginning of lactation, GH concentrations significantly increased, while a significant reduction occurred in leptin and insulin. This endocrine condition, such as the significant increase in NEFA plasma concentrations, is indicative of a marked lipid mobilization. In the more advanced stages of lactation, when both energy and protein balances become positive, leptin plasma concentrations increased, whereas GH and NEFA concentrations declined. During the summer months, a significant increase in leptin plasma concentrations, irrespective of the phase of lactation, was observed. Collectively, our findings suggest that, in dairy cows, leptin may represent a 'metabolic signal' of animal's status of fattening and nutritional level; in addition, leptin seems to be influenced by photoperiod and environmental temperature.

  1. Role of sortase-dependent pili of Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010 in modulating bacterium–host interactions

    PubMed Central

    Turroni, Francesca; Serafini, Fausta; Foroni, Elena; Duranti, Sabrina; O’Connell Motherway, Mary; Taverniti, Valentina; Mangifesta, Marta; Milani, Christian; Viappiani, Alice; Roversi, Tommaso; Sánchez, Borja; Santoni, Andrea; Gioiosa, Laura; Ferrarini, Alberto; Delledonne, Massimo; Margolles, Abelardo; Piazza, Laura; Palanza, Paola; Bolchi, Angelo; Guglielmetti, Simone; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Bifidobacteria represent one of the dominant groups of microorganisms colonizing the human infant intestine. Commensal bacteria that interact with a eukaryotic host are believed to express adhesive molecules on their cell surface that bind to specific host cell receptors or soluble macromolecules. Whole-genome transcription profiling of Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010, a strain isolated from infant stool, revealed a small number of commonly expressed extracellular proteins, among which were genes that specify sortase-dependent pili. Expression of the coding sequences of these B. bifidum PRL2010 appendages in nonpiliated Lactococcus lactis enhanced adherence to human enterocytes through extracellular matrix protein and bacterial aggregation. Furthermore, such piliated L. lactis cells evoked a higher TNF-α response during murine colonization compared with their nonpiliated parent, suggesting that bifidobacterial sortase-dependent pili not only contribute to adherence but also display immunomodulatory activity. PMID:23776216

  2. A prl Mutation in SecY Suppresses Secretion and Virulence Defects of Listeria monocytogenes secA2 Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Durack, Juliana; Burke, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The bulk of bacterial protein secretion occurs through the conserved SecY translocation channel that is powered by SecA-dependent ATP hydrolysis. Many Gram-positive bacteria, including the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, possess an additional nonessential specialized ATPase, SecA2. SecA2-dependent secretion is required for normal cell morphology and virulence in L. monocytogenes; however, the mechanism of export via this pathway is poorly understood. L. monocytogenes secA2 mutants form rough colonies, have septation defects, are impaired for swarming motility, and form small plaques in tissue culture cells. In this study, 70 spontaneous mutants were isolated that restored swarming motility to L. monocytogenes secA2 mutants. Most of the mutants had smooth colony morphology and septated normally, but all were lysozyme sensitive. Five representative mutants were subjected to whole-genome sequencing. Four of the five had mutations in proteins encoded by the lmo2769 operon that conferred lysozyme sensitivity and increased swarming but did not rescue virulence defects. A point mutation in secY was identified that conferred smooth colony morphology to secA2 mutants, restored wild-type plaque formation, and increased virulence in mice. This secY mutation resembled a prl suppressor known to expand the repertoire of proteins secreted through the SecY translocation complex. Accordingly, the ΔsecA2prlA1 mutant showed wild-type secretion levels of P60, an established SecA2-dependent secreted autolysin. Although the prl mutation largely suppressed almost all of the measurable SecA2-dependent traits, the ΔsecA2prlA1 mutant was still less virulent in vivo than the wild-type strain, suggesting that SecA2 function was still required for pathogenesis. PMID:25535272

  3. Kefir fermented milk and kefiran promote growth of Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010 and modulate its gene expression.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Fausta; Turroni, Francesca; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Milani, Christian; Duranti, Sabrina; Zamboni, Nicole; Bottacini, Francesca; van Sinderen, Douwe; Margolles, Abelardo; Ventura, Marco

    2014-05-16

    Bifidobacteria constitute one of the dominant groups of microorganisms colonizing the human gut of infants. Their ability to utilize various host-derived glycans as well as dietary carbohydrates has received considerable scientific attention. However, very little is known about the role of fermented foods, such as kefir, or their constituent glycans, such as kefiran, as substrates for bifidobacterial growth and for the modulation of the expression of bifidobacterial host-effector molecules. Here, we show that Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010 exhibits high growth performance among the bifidobacterial strains tested when cultivated on kefir and/or kefiran polymer. Furthermore, a 16S rRNA metagenomic approach revealed that the microbiota of kefir is modified upon the addition of PRL2010 cells to the kefir matrix. Finally, our results show that kefir and kefiran are able to influence the transcriptome of B. bifidum PRL2010 causing increased transcription of genes involved in the metabolism of dietary glycans as well as genes that act as host-microbe effector molecules such as pili. Altogether, these data support the use of kefir as a valuable means for the delivery of effective microbial cells in probiotic therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of perfluorooctane sulfuric acid on placental PRL-family hormone production and fetal growth retardation in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chae Kwan; Kang, Sung Goo; Lee, Jong Tae; Lee, Soo-Woong; Kim, Jeong Ho; Kim, Dae Hwan; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Kun Hyung; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Se Yeong; Park, Yeong Beom

    2015-02-05

    Perfluorooctane sulfuric acid (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant, causes fetal growth retardation but the mechanism is still unclear. This study focused on PFOS-induced toxicity such as placental trophoblast cell histopathological changes, endocrine function (i.e., prolactin (PRL)-family hormone production) and subsequent fetal growth retardation in mice. Maternal body weight gain, placental and fetal weights were significantly decreased in proportion to PFOS dosage. Placental efficiency (fetal weight/placental weight) was significantly reduced dose-dependently. Necrotic changes were observed in PFOS-treated placental tissues, and the area of injury increased dose-dependently. Finally, mRNA levels and maternal serum concentrations of the PRL-family hormones (mPL-II, mPLP-Cα, mPLP-K) were significantly reduced dose-dependently. In addition, the changing pattern between PRL-family hormone concentrations and fetal body weight was positively correlated. These results suggest that gestational PFOS treatment induces placental histopathological changes and disruption of endocrine function, finally may lead to fetal growth retardation in mice.

  5. A Pit-1 Binding Site Adjacent to E-box133 in the Rat PRL Promoter is Necessary for Pulsatile Gene Expression Activity.

    PubMed

    Bose, Sudeep; Ganguly, Surajit; Kumar, Sachin; Boockfor, Fredric R

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidence reveals that prolactin gene expression (PRL-GE) in mammotropes occurs in pulses, but the molecular process(es) underlying this phenomenon remains unclear. Earlier, we have identified an E-box (E-box133) in the rat PRL promoter that binds several circadian elements and is critical for this dynamic process. Preliminary analysis revealed a Pit-1 binding site (P2) located immediately adjacent to this E-box133 raising the possibility that some type of functional relationship may exist between these two promoter regions. In this study, using serum shocked GH3 cell culture system to synchronize PRL-GE activity, we determined that Pit-1 gene expression occurred in pulses with time phases similar to that for PRL. Interestingly, EMSA analysis not only confirmed Pit-1 binding to the P2 site, but also revealed an interaction with factor(s) binding to the adjacent E-box133 promoter element. Additionally, down-regulation of Pit-1 by siRNA reduced PRL levels during pulse periods. Thus, using multiple evidences, our results demonstrate clearly that the Pit-1 P2 site is necessary for PRL-GE elaboration. Furthermore, the proximity of this critical Pit-1 binding site (P2) and the E-box133 element coupled with the evidences of a site-to-site protein interactions suggest that the process of PRL-GE pulse activity might involve more dynamic and intricate cross-talks between promoter elements that may span some, or all, of the proximal region of the PRL promoter in driving its pulsatile expression.

  6. PRL-3 engages the focal adhesion pathway in triple-negative breast cancer cells to alter actin structure and substrate adhesion properties critical for cell migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Gari, Hamid H; DeGala, Gregory D; Ray, Rahul; Lucia, M Scott; Lambert, James R

    2016-10-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are among the most aggressive cancers characterized by a high propensity to invade, metastasize and relapse. We previously reported that the TNBC-specific inhibitor, AMPI-109, significantly impairs the ability of TNBC cells to migrate and invade by reducing levels of the metastasis-promoting phosphatase, PRL-3. Here, we examined the mechanisms by which AMPI-109 and loss of PRL-3 impede cell migration and invasion. AMPI-109 treatment or knock down of PRL-3 expression were associated with deactivation of Src and ERK signaling and concomitant downregulation of RhoA and Rac1/2/3 GTPase protein levels. These cellular changes led to rearranged filamentous actin networks necessary for cell migration and invasion. Conversely, overexpression of PRL-3 promoted TNBC cell invasion by upregulating matrix metalloproteinase 10, which resulted in increased TNBC cell adherence to, and degradation of, the major basement membrane component laminin. Our data demonstrate that PRL-3 engages the focal adhesion pathway in TNBC cells as a key mechanism for promoting TNBC cell migration and invasion. Collectively, these data suggest that blocking PRL-3 activity may be an effective method for reducing the metastatic potential of TNBC cells. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. miR-495 and miR-551a inhibit the migration and invasion of human gastric cancer cells by directly interacting with PRL-3.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengrong; Cao, Yi; Jie, Zhigang; Liu, Yi; Li, Yingliang; Li, Junhe; Zhu, Guoming; Liu, Zhengren; Tu, Yi; Peng, Gen; Lee, Dong-woo; Park, Sung-soo

    2012-10-01

    The phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) gene is associated with metastasis in gastric cancer, and is believed to play a causative role by promoting tumor cell motility, invasion, and metastasis, but little is known of the mechanisms involved. We previously reported that PRL-3 expression is significantly higher in the tissues of primary gastric carcinomas with peritoneal metastasis. In the present study, we found that two microRNAs (miRNAs), miR-495 and miR-551a, predicted to target PRL-3, are downregulated in gastric carcinoma samples. The validation of this interaction between those two miRNAs and PRL-3 was confirmed by western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in GC cell lines transfected with miR-495 and miR-551a mimics. Furthermore, the migration and invasion of GC cells were significantly inhibited by transfection with miR-495 or -551a mimics, and the mRNA and protein levels of PRL-3 were reduced in cells overexpressing miR-495 or -551a. Collectively, our findings suggest that miR-495 and miR-551a both act as tumor suppressors by targeting the PRL-3 oncogene and inhibiting gastric cancer cell migration and invasion. The findings of this study contribute to current understanding of the functions of miRNA mimics in GC gene therapy.

  8. Combined expression of metastasis related markers Naa10p, SNCG and PRL-3 and its prognostic value in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Min, Li; Ma, Ruo-Lan; Yuan, Hua; Liu, Cai-Yun; Dong, Bing; Zhang, Cheng; Zeng, Yan; Wang, Li; Guo, Jian-Ping; Qu, Li-Ke; Shou, Cheng-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Combinations of multiple biomarkers representing distinct aspects of metastasis may have better prognostic value for breast cancer patients, especially those in late stages. In this study, we evaluated the protein levels of N-α-acetyltransferase 10 protein (Naa10p), synuclein-γ (SNCG), and phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) in 365 patients with breast cancer by immunohistochemistry. Distinct prognostic subgroups of breast cancer were identified by combination of the three biomarkers. The Naa10p+SNCG-PRL-3- subgroup showed best prognosis with a median distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) of 140 months, while the Naa10p-SNCG+PRL-3+ subgroup had the worst prognosis with a median DMFS of 60.5 months. Multivariate analysis indicated Naa10p, SNCG, PRL-3, and the TNM classification were all independent prognostic factors for both DMFS and overall survival (OS). The three biomarker combination of Naa10p, SNCG and PRL-3 performed better in patients with lymph node metastasis, especially those with more advanced tumors than other subgroups. In conclusion, the combined expression profile of Naa10p, SNCG and PRL-3, alone or in combination with the TNM classification system, may provide a precise estimate of prognosis of breast cancer patients.

  9. Analysis of genetic variation at the prolactin-RsaI (PRL-RsaI) locus in Indian native cattle breeds (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Sodhi, M; Mukesh, M; Mishra, B P; Parvesh, K; Joshi, B K

    2011-02-01

    This study assessed the distribution pattern of allelic variants at the prolactin-RsaI locus in 23 Indian native cattle breeds (Bos indicus). PCR-RFLP genotyping of a 156 bp fragment of prolactin (PRL) in exon 3 revealed the predominance of the heterozygous AB genotype (mean frequency 0.58) irrespective of utility type (dairy, dual, draft), geographic region (northern, central, southern), and coat color (red, gray) of the breeds analyzed. The overall frequencies of homozygous AA (0.22) and BB (0.20) genotypes were in a similar range. The PRL (A) and PRL (B) alleles exhibited similar gene frequencies (means 0.52 and 0.48, respectively). The existing profile of the PRL-RsaI gene locus in a large set of Indian native cattle breeds was different from that of Bos taurus and cattle breeds of other countries, where either the BB genotype and PRL (B) allele or the AA genotype and PRL (A) allele have been reported to be more prevalent.

  10. Genome-wide functional genetic screen with the anticancer agent AMPI-109 identifies PRL-3 as an oncogenic driver in triple-negative breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Gari, Hamid H; Gearheart, Christy M; Fosmire, Susan; DeGala, Gregory D; Fan, Zeying; Torkko, Kathleen C; Edgerton, Susan M; Lucia, M Scott; Ray, Rahul; Thor, Ann D; Porter, Christopher C; Lambert, James R

    2016-03-29

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are among the most aggressive and heterogeneous cancers with a high propensity to invade, metastasize and relapse. Here, we demonstrate that the anticancer compound, AMPI-109, is selectively efficacious in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of multiple TNBC subtype cell lines as assessed by activation of pro-apoptotic caspases-3 and 7, PARP cleavage and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation. AMPI-109 had little to no effect on growth in the majority of non-TNBC cell lines examined. We therefore utilized AMPI-109 in a genome-wide shRNA screen in the TNBC cell line, BT-20, to investigate the utility of AMPI-109 as a tool in helping to identify molecular alterations unique to TNBC. Our screen identified the oncogenic phosphatase, PRL-3, as a potentially important driver of TNBC growth, migration and invasion. Through stable lentiviral knock downs and transfection with catalytically impaired PRL-3 in TNBC cells, loss of PRL-3 expression, or functionality, led to substantial growth inhibition. Moreover, AMPI-109 treatment, downregulation of PRL-3 expression or impairment of PRL-3 activity reduced TNBC cell migration and invasion. Histological evaluation of human breast cancers revealed PRL-3 was significantly, though not exclusively, associated with the TNBC subtype and correlated positively with regional and distant metastases, as well as 1 and 3 year relapse free survival. Collectively, our study is proof-of-concept that AMPI-109, a selectively active agent against TNBC cell lines, can be used as a molecular tool to uncover unique drivers of disease progression, such as PRL-3, which we show promotes oncogenic phenotypes in TNBC cells.

  11. Immunodetection of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin (PRL) in Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Monogononta).

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Flores, Jesús; Montoya-Garcia, María Del Rosario; Juárez, Javier Ventura; Rico-Martínez, Roberto

    2009-12-01

    The endocrine system controls and coordinates behavioral, biochemical, and physiological processes through signal mechanisms using neuropeptides or products of neurosecretory cells. Among invertebrates, this system is poorly studied in rotifers, in which estrogens and androgens significantly affect sexual reproduction. This is the first report of the presence of the Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Prolactin (PRL) in rotifers. Analyses included the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with primary antibodies LH (Anti-Rat LH serum for RIA), PRL (Anti-Rat PRL serum for RIA), FSH (Anti-Rat FSH serum for RIA) and TSH (Anti-Rat TSH serum for RIA). These hormones were found in females, males and parthenogenetic and sexual eggs of the freshwater Brachionus calyciflorus. The immunoreactivity of FSH, LH, TSH and PRL in females was observed in: ovaries, cerebrum, mastax, stomach, lorica, and the stomach gland. However, in males LH was observed only at the trochal disk and cerebrum. The hormones FSH, TSH and PRL, were observed in testicles, contractil vesicles, and cementary gland of males. Regarding amictic or parthenogenetic eggs, the hormones LH, FSH, TSH, and PRL were located mainly in the micromeres, and the staining in the macromeres was weak. On the other hand, in the mictic or sexual eggs the inner shell is stained for the hormones PRL and LH, opposite to the staining of FSH and TSH, located mainly in the embryo. In general, immuno-reactivity was observed in areas important for the reproductive, excretory, digestive and developmental processes.

  12. Genome-wide functional genetic screen with the anticancer agent AMPI-109 identifies PRL-3 as an oncogenic driver in triple-negative breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Gari, Hamid H.; Gearheart, Christy M.; Fosmire, Susan; DeGala, Gregory D.; Fan, Zeying; Torkko, Kathleen C.; Edgerton, Susan M.; Lucia, M. Scott; Ray, Rahul; Thor, Ann D.; Porter, Christopher C.; Lambert, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are among the most aggressive and heterogeneous cancers with a high propensity to invade, metastasize and relapse. Here, we demonstrate that the anticancer compound, AMPI-109, is selectively efficacious in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of multiple TNBC subtype cell lines as assessed by activation of pro-apoptotic caspases-3 and 7, PARP cleavage and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation. AMPI-109 had little to no effect on growth in the majority of non-TNBC cell lines examined. We therefore utilized AMPI-109 in a genome-wide shRNA screen in the TNBC cell line, BT-20, to investigate the utility of AMPI-109 as a tool in helping to identify molecular alterations unique to TNBC. Our screen identified the oncogenic phosphatase, PRL-3, as a potentially important driver of TNBC growth, migration and invasion. Through stable lentiviral knock downs and transfection with catalytically impaired PRL-3 in TNBC cells, loss of PRL-3 expression, or functionality, led to substantial growth inhibition. Moreover, AMPI-109 treatment, downregulation of PRL-3 expression or impairment of PRL-3 activity reduced TNBC cell migration and invasion. Histological evaluation of human breast cancers revealed PRL-3 was significantly, though not exclusively, associated with the TNBC subtype and correlated positively with regional and distant metastases, as well as 1 and 3 year relapse free survival. Collectively, our study is proof-of-concept that AMPI-109, a selectively active agent against TNBC cell lines, can be used as a molecular tool to uncover unique drivers of disease progression, such as PRL-3, which we show promotes oncogenic phenotypes in TNBC cells. PMID:26909599

  13. Congenital complete absence of GH, TSH and PRL in infants: a consequence of Pit-1 gene deletion.

    PubMed

    Preeyasombat, C; Suprasongsin, C; Chiranuphab, A; Mahachoklertwattana, P; Sriphrapradang, A; Choubtum, L

    1993-10-01

    The patient was the first child of a short mother (140 cm) born at term with a birthweight of 2,700 g. On arrival, she was 1 4/12-year-old, weighed 4,150 g and 47 cm long. Her bone age was at the 6 month-old level. Endocrine investigation revealed undetectable plasma growth hormone (GH), thyrotropin (TSH) and prolactin (PRL) levels. CT scan of ovaries revealed bilateral ovarian agenesis in spite of normal, 46 XX karyotype. MRI of the brain did not demonstrate intracranial tumor or congenital malformation. Peak plasma GH level after oral clonidine provocation, insulin induced hypoglycemia, and I.V. GH-RF stimulation were 0.6, 0, and 0 ng/ml respectively. Peak plasma TSH response after I.V. TRH stimulation was 0.04 microU/ml. The patient could not secrete PRL at any time after insulin induced hypoglycemia, TRH and metoclopramide stimulations. On the other hand the child had elevated basal plasma cortisol (38 micrograms/dl at 8.00 AM) and raised 24 hr urinary 17 OHCS excretion (50 mg/1 g Cr against normal value of 3 mg/1 g Cr) without evidence of Cushing syndrome probably indicate partial glucocorticoid resistance. Peak plasma cortisol responses after intravenous metoclopramide and insulin induced hypoglycemia were 46 and 42.9 micrograms/dl respectively. Dexamethasone administration reduced plasma cortisol to 2.9 micrograms/dl. The child had also elevated basal plasma FSH (36 microU/ml) and LH (5 microU/ml) with further elevation to the peak of 123 and 99 microU/ml respectively after LHRH stimulation. All evidence suggested the diagnosis of congenital complete absence of GH, TSH, and PRL which is characteristic of Pit-1-gene deletion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Uptake Hydrogenase Activity Determined by Plasmid pRL6JI in Rhizobium leguminosarum Does Not Increase Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Scott D.; Kapulnik, Yoram; Brewin, Nicholas J.; Phillips, Donald A.

    1985-01-01

    Six mutants of Rhizobium leguminosarum 3855 lacking uptake hydrogenase activity (Hup− phenotype) as a result of Tn5-mob mutagenesis of the hup-containing plasmid pRL6JI were tested for symbiotic performance on Pisum sativum L. and Vicia benghalensis L. Three pea cultivars and one vetch line, which induce four different levels of Hup activity in strain 3855, were grown to flowering under microbiologically controlled conditions in the absence of combined N. Direct Kjeldahl N measurements showed that in every case at least one Hup− mutant fixed as much N2 as the isogenic Hup+ strain. Measures of C2H2 reduction, H2 evolution, 3H2 incorporation, and plant dry weight were consistent with the interpretation that the oxidation of H2 produced by the nitrogenase enzyme complex was not necessarily associated with increased N2 fixation in these symbiotic associations. Tests with a smaller subset of the Hup− strains under four different root environments ranging from pH 5.0 to 8.2 likewise showed no significant advantage for the isogenic Hup+ strain. It was concluded that the improvements in symbiotic N2 fixation produced by pRL6JI are associated with some trait other than the Hup+ phenotype. PMID:16346912

  15. Loss of the oncogenic phosphatase PRL-3 promotes a TNF-R1 feedback loop that mediates triple-negative breast cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Gari, H H; DeGala, G D; Lucia, M S; Lambert, J R

    2016-08-15

    Stimulating tumor cell senescence and apoptosis are proven methods for therapeutically combating cancer. However, senescence and apoptosis are conventionally viewed as parallel, not sequential, processes. We have discovered that the metastasis-promoting phosphatase, PRL-3, is transcriptionally regulated by the NF-ĸB pathway in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells, and that PRL-3 knockdown elicits an autocrine tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1) feedback loop that results in TNBC cell senescence followed by apoptosis. Knockdown of PRL-3 leads to rapid G1 cell cycle arrest and induction of a strong TNFα cytokine response that promotes a period of cellular senescence through TNF-R1-mediated activation of NF-ĸB. Senescent PRL-3 knockdown cells subsequently underwent apoptosis as a result of increased TNF-R1 signaling through the TNFα-associated extrinsic death pathway, shunting signaling away from the NF-ĸB cascade. These data suggest that TNF-R1 signaling dynamically re-programs after PRL-3 knockdown, from sustaining cell senescence through NF-ĸB to promoting apoptosis through TNF-R1 internalization and caspase-8 activation. The molecular mechanisms that determine the survival-death balance of TNF-R1 signaling are poorly understood, despite the fact that TNF-R1 has been extensively studied. Our results describe PRL-3 knockdown as a novel survival-death balance modifier of the TNF-R1 pathway, and show that senescent TNBC tumor cells can be sensitized to undergo apoptosis in a sequential manner.

  16. Methylation-associated silencing of miR-495 inhibit the migration and invasion of human gastric cancer cells by directly targeting PRL-3.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengrong; Zhang, Guoyang; Li, Daojiang; Jie, Zhigang; Chen, Heping; Xiong, Jianbo; Liu, Yi; Cao, Yi; Jiang, Mengmeng; Le, Zhibiao; Tan, Shengxing

    2015-01-02

    Phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) is believed to be associated with cell motility, invasion, and metastasis. Our previous work found that PRL-3 is highly overexpressed in gastric cancer (GC) tissue with peritoneal metastasis and directly involved in the pathogenesis of GC peritoneal metastasis. Moreover, we further found that the down-regulation of endogenous miR-495 expression plays a causative role in over expression of PRL-3 in GC peritoneal metastasis. However, the molecular regulation mechanisms by which endogenous miR-495 expression is down-regulated and PRL-3 promotes GC peritoneal metastasis remain to be clearly elucidated. Some studies have shown that the promoter methylation is closely related to the miRNA gene expression. Therefore, in present study, based on our previous findings, we will analysis whether DNA methylation is a major cause of the down-expression of endogenous miR-495, which results in PRL-3 overexpression in GC peritoneal metastasis. Methylation specific PCR (MSP) and sodium bisulfite sequencing method (BSP) detected miR-495 gene promoter methylation status. We treated GC cell lines with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) to make the gene promoter methylation inactivation. By treating with 5-Aza-dC the migration and invasion of GC cells were significantly inhibited. And the miR-495 was overexpressing, corresponds to the mRNA and protein levels of PRL-3 were reduced, the ability of invasion and metastasis was inhibited. This study suggest that miR-495 have tumor suppressor properties and are partially silenced by DNA hypermethylation in GC, will provide new strategies for prevention and treatment of GC peritoneal metastasis.

  17. Loss of the oncogenic phosphatase PRL-3 promotes a TNF-R1 feedback loop that mediates triple-negative breast cancer growth

    PubMed Central

    Gari, H H; DeGala, G D; Lucia, M S; Lambert, J R

    2016-01-01

    Stimulating tumor cell senescence and apoptosis are proven methods for therapeutically combating cancer. However, senescence and apoptosis are conventionally viewed as parallel, not sequential, processes. We have discovered that the metastasis-promoting phosphatase, PRL-3, is transcriptionally regulated by the NF-ĸB pathway in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells, and that PRL-3 knockdown elicits an autocrine tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1) feedback loop that results in TNBC cell senescence followed by apoptosis. Knockdown of PRL-3 leads to rapid G1 cell cycle arrest and induction of a strong TNFα cytokine response that promotes a period of cellular senescence through TNF-R1-mediated activation of NF-ĸB. Senescent PRL-3 knockdown cells subsequently underwent apoptosis as a result of increased TNF-R1 signaling through the TNFα-associated extrinsic death pathway, shunting signaling away from the NF-ĸB cascade. These data suggest that TNF-R1 signaling dynamically re-programs after PRL-3 knockdown, from sustaining cell senescence through NF-ĸB to promoting apoptosis through TNF-R1 internalization and caspase-8 activation. The molecular mechanisms that determine the survival–death balance of TNF-R1 signaling are poorly understood, despite the fact that TNF-R1 has been extensively studied. Our results describe PRL-3 knockdown as a novel survival–death balance modifier of the TNF-R1 pathway, and show that senescent TNBC tumor cells can be sensitized to undergo apoptosis in a sequential manner. PMID:27526109

  18. PRL-1 protein promotes ERK1/2 and RhoA protein activation through a non-canonical interaction with the Src homology 3 domain of p115 Rho GTPase-activating protein.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yunpeng; Luo, Yong; Liu, Sijiu; Zhang, Lujuan; Shen, Kui; Dong, Yuanshu; Walls, Chad D; Quilliam, Lawrence A; Wells, Clark D; Cao, Youjia; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2011-12-09

    Phosphatases of the regenerating liver (PRL) play oncogenic roles in cancer development and metastasis. Although previous studies indicate that PRL-1 promotes cell growth and migration by activating both the ERK1/2 and RhoA pathways, the mechanism by which it activates these signaling events remains unclear. We have identified a PRL-1-binding peptide (Peptide 1) that shares high sequence identity with a conserved motif in the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain of p115 Rho GTPase-activating protein (GAP). p115 RhoGAP directly binds PRL-1 in vitro and in cells via its SH3 domain. Structural analyses of the PRL-1·Peptide 1 complex revealed a novel protein-protein interaction whereby a sequence motif within the PxxP ligand-binding site of the p115 RhoGAP SH3 domain occupies a folded groove within PRL-1. This prevents the canonical interaction between the SH3 domain of p115 RhoGAP and MEKK1 and results in activation of ERK1/2. Furthermore, PRL-1 binding activates RhoA signaling by inhibiting the catalytic activity of p115 RhoGAP. The results demonstrate that PRL-1 binding to p115 RhoGAP provides a coordinated mechanism underlying ERK1/2 and RhoA activation.

  19. PRL-1 Protein Promotes ERK1/2 and RhoA Protein Activation through a Non-canonical Interaction with the Src Homology 3 Domain of p115 Rho GTPase-activating Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Yunpeng; Luo, Yong; Liu, Sijiu; Zhang, Lujuan; Shen, Kui; Dong, Yuanshu; Walls, Chad D.; Quilliam, Lawrence A.; Wells, Clark D.; Cao, Youjia; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2012-03-15

    Phosphatases of the regenerating liver (PRL) play oncogenic roles in cancer development and metastasis. Although previous studies indicate that PRL-1 promotes cell growth and migration by activating both the ERK1/2 and RhoA pathways, the mechanism by which it activates these signaling events remains unclear. We have identified a PRL-1-binding peptide (Peptide 1) that shares high sequence identity with a conserved motif in the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain of p115 Rho GTPase-activating protein (GAP). p115 RhoGAP directly binds PRL-1 in vitro and in cells via its SH3 domain. Structural analyses of the PRL-1 {center_dot} Peptide 1 complex revealed a novel protein-protein interaction whereby a sequence motif within the PxxP ligand-binding site of the p115 RhoGAP SH3 domain occupies a folded groove within PRL-1. This prevents the canonical interaction between the SH3 domain of p115 RhoGAP and MEKK1 and results in activation of ERK1/2. Furthermore, PRL-1 binding activates RhoA signaling by inhibiting the catalytic activity of p115 RhoGAP. The results demonstrate that PRL-1 binding to p115 RhoGAP provides a coordinated mechanism underlying ERK1/2 and RhoA activation.

  20. Polymorphisms in the 5'-flanking regions of the GH, PRL, and Pit-1 genes with Muscovy duck egg production.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z Q; He, J; Ji, C L; Zhang, Y; Nie, Q H; Zhang, D X; Zhang, X Q

    2015-01-01

    Somatotropic axis-related genes contribute to reproduction of ducks. Five SNP in the 5'-flanking regions of the growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and pituitary-specific transcription factor (Pit-1) genes were identified and genotyped in a female population of Muscovy ducks. Association analysis of these SNP with Muscovy duck egg production traits was performed. Results showed that SNP C-515G of GH was significantly associated with egg number in ducks at age 59 wk (E59W; P = 0.0009) and egg number in ducks at age 300 d (E300D; P = 0.0022). Single nucleotide polymorphism C-441T of GH was significantly associated with E59W (P = 0.0014). Significant associations of SNP T-884C and T-335C of PRL with the age at first egg (A1D), E59W, and E300D were detected in this population (P < 0.0001). It was concluded that these 4 SNP might be useful markers to use with the aim of increasing Muscovy duck E59W. On the basis of genetic parameter estimation, the heritability of A1D, E300D, E59W, and molting time were 0.43 ± 0.04, 0.45 ± 0.04, 0.36 ± 0.04, and 0.04 ± 0.03, respectively. Strong positive genetic correlation was noted between E59W and E300D (correlation coefficient = 0.80), whereas a negative association was noted between E59W and A1D (correlation coefficient = -0.80). Therefore, the selection for improved A1D should also increase E59W.

  1. Molecular performance of Prl and Gh/Igf1 axis in the Mediterranean meager, Argyrosomus regius, acclimated to different rearing salinities.

    PubMed

    Mohammed-Geba, Khaled; González, Antonio Astola; Suárez, Rubén Ayala; Galal-Khallaf, Asmaa; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Ibrahim, Hany Mohammed; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2017-02-01

    Aquaculture industry in the Mediterranean region exhibits a growing interest for the Mediterranean meager Argyrosomus regius. Some preliminary works showed a good growth performance of the species in nearly isosmotic salinities. However, the patterns of alteration of prolactin (Prl) as well as growth hormone (Gh)/insulin growth factor-1 (Igf1) axis at the molecular level are not yet described in this species. Therefore, we cloned and sequenced partial cDNAs for pituitary prolactin (prl) and growth hormone (gh), hepatic insulin-like growth factor (igf1), and β-actin (actb). Expression patterns of these transcripts were tested in juveniles of A. regius acclimated to four different environmental salinities: (1) 5 ‰ (hyposmotic); (2) 12 ‰ (isosmotic); (3) 38 ‰ (hyperosmotic; seawater control); and (4) 55 ‰ (extremely hyperosmotic). All investigated transcripts shared high sequence identities with their counterparts in other perciformes. prl mRNA levels showed inverse pattern with increasing salinities. gh mRNA enhanced significantly in both 12 and 55 ‰ salinity groups in comparison with the control group, while igf1 showed its maximum expression levels under the nearly isosmotic environment. The results indicated clear sensitivity of prl, gh and igf1 to changes in environmental salinity, which can possibly control the euryhalinity capacity of this species.

  2. Changes in gene expression for GH/PRL/SL family hormones in the pituitaries of homing chum salmon during ocean migration through upstream migration.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Takeshi A; Ban, Masatoshi; Makino, Keita; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Hu, WeiWei; Ando, Hironori; Fukuwaka, Masa-aki; Azumaya, Tomonori; Urano, Akihisa

    2010-05-01

    Gene expression for growth hormone (GH)/prolactin (PRL)/somatolactin (SL) family hormones in the pituitaries of homing chum salmon were examined, because gene expression for these hormones during ocean-migrating phases remains unclear. Fish were collected in the winter Gulf of Alaska, the summer Bering Sea and along homing pathway in the Ishikari River-Ishikari Bay water system in Hokkaido, Japan in autumn. The oceanic fish included maturing adults, which had developing gonads and left the Bering Sea for the natal river by the end of summer. The absolute amounts of GH, PRL and SL mRNAs in the pituitaries of the maturing adults in the summer Bering Sea were 5- to 20-fold those in the winter Gulf of Alaska. The amount of GH mRNA in the homing adults at the coastal seawater (SW) areas was smaller than that in the Bering fish, while the amount of PRL mRNA remained at the higher level until fish arrived at the Ishikari River. The gill Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in the coastal SW fish and the plasma Na(+) levels in the brackish water fish at the estuary were lowered to the levels that were comparable to those in the fresh water (FW) fish. In conclusion, gene expression for GH, PRL and SL was elevated in the pituitaries of chum salmon before initiation of homing behavior from the summer Bering Sea. Gene expression for GH is thereafter lowered coincidently with malfunction of SW adaptability in the breeding season, while gene expression for PRL is maintained high until forthcoming FW adaptation.

  3. Breeding period-associated changes in semen quality, concentrations of LH, PRL, gonadal steroid and thyroid hormones in domestic goose ganders (Anser anser f. domesticus).

    PubMed

    Gumułka, Małgorzata; Rozenboim, Israel

    2015-03-01

    In flocks of geese fertility decreases in the second half of the breeding season. The reasons for this reduction in reproduction ability are still unclear. This study measured changes in semen quality variables throughout the period of intensive breeding in relation to hormonal concentrations associated with the sexual activity of ganders. Semen was collected (2×/week) from 2-year-old ganders in the period February-June. Standard ejaculation parameters and spermatozoa (spz) membrane integrity after E/N and SYBR-14/PI staining were evaluated. The DNA Fragmentation Index was measured by flow cytometry and sperm quality factors (SQF). The plasma levels of T, E2, P4, LH, PRL, THs in relation to semen parameters were evaluated. In ejaculate collected at the onset of the second half of breeding (April - spring period), a reduction in sperm concentration and % of liveE/N and liveSYBR-14+/PI- spz was shown. At this time, decrease in concentrations of LH and T and increase in PRL were found as well as moderate changes in THs were observed. However, in May a second peak in T and sperm production occurred. The DFI-% was higher in the middle part of breeding. Gonadal steroids concentration were not good prognostic marker of the reproductive potential of ganders. We suggest that a marked decline in LH and T in the spring period indicated the onset of endocrine changes mediated by PRL and THs resulting in progressive regression of testis functions. The lowest SQF in the spring/summer period coincided with the highest PRL suggesting an anti-spermatogenic action of PRL in ganders.

  4. HLA class II, MICA and PRL gene polymorphisms: the common contribution to the systemic lupus erythematosus development in Czech population.

    PubMed

    Fojtíková, Markéta; Novota, Peter; Cejková, Pavlína; Pešičková, Satu; Tegzová, Dana; Cerná, Marie

    2011-09-01

    The genetic components contribute to the systemic lupus erythematosus development. This study for the first time determined the distribution of the polymorphisms and linkage disequilibrium in HLA class II, MICA and PRL gene among patients suffering from SLE and healthy Czech individuals. DNA was obtained from the peripheral blood cells of 123 SLE patients and 96 healthy people. Allele variants of the HLA class II, MICA transmembrane polymorphism and PRL extrapituitary promoter -1149G/T SNP were detected using the sequence-specific primers analysis, PCR-fragment analysis and PCR-RFLP, respectively. In Czech population, only DRB1*03-DQB1*0201 haplotype is significantly associated with increased risk for SLE development: the frequency in SLE group was 44.7% in comparison with 15.2% in controls, P (c) < 0.0001; OR 4.54 CI 95% (2.36-9.09). The MICA-A5.1 allele is present significantly more often in SLE (55.7%) than controls (39.9%), P (c) = 0.005; OR 1.88 CI 95% (1.29-2.77), and the combination of HLA DRB1 *03 together with MICA-A5.1 is strongly associated with SLE [P (c) < 0.000001; OR 9.71 CI 95% (3.4-27.7)]. On the other hand, the MICA-A6 allele is less frequent in SLE patients compared to controls, 10.6% and 19.7%, respectively [P (c) = 0.035; OR 0.48 CI 95% (0.28-0.82)], and the combination of absence both alleles MICA-A6 and HLA DRB*11 seems to be risk for SLE development compared to controls, 84.6 and 70.2%, respectively, [P (c) = 0.0003 OR 2.32 CI 95% (1.47-3.70)]. We found that only G allele of the -1149 G/T SNP is associated with specific clinical manifestation of SLE, arthritis [P (c) = 0.022; OR 2.63, CI 95% (1.45-4.81)]. HLA class II-MICA combinations may increase/decrease a risk for SLE development. Multiple studies focusing on the ethnical differences as well as genetic-epigenetic relationships are necessary for better understanding SLE pathogenesis.

  5. Biphasic actions of SecA inhibitors on Prl/Sec suppressors: Possible physiological roles of SecA-only channels.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ying-Hsin; Zhang, Hao; Jin, Jinshan; Dai, Chaofeng; Jiang, Chun; Wang, Binghe; Tai, Phang C

    2017-01-08

    SecA is an essential component in the bacterial Sec-dependent protein translocation process. We previously showed that in addition to the ubiquitous, high-affinity SecYEG-SecDF·YajC protein translocation channel, there is a low-affinity SecA-only channel that elicits ion channel activity and promotes protein translocation. The SecA-only channels are less efficient, and like Prl suppressors, lack signal peptide specificity; they function in the absence of signal peptides. The presence of SecYEG-SecDF·YajC alters the sensitivity of ATPase inhibitor Rose Bengal. In this study, we found that the suppressor membranes are much more resistant to inhibition by Rose Bengal. Similar results have been found for a SecA-specific inhibitor. Moreover, biphasic responses of inhibition of ion current and protein translocation activities were observed for many PrlA/SecY and PrlG/SecE suppressor membranes, with a low IC50 value similar to that of the SecA-only channels and a very high IC50. However, the suppressor strains are as sensitive to the inhibitor as the parental strain, suggesting that SecA-only channels have some essential physiological function(s) in the cells that are inhibited by the specific SecA inhibitor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Targeted deletion of the metastasis-associated phosphatase Ptp4a3 (PRL-3) suppresses murine colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Mark W; Homanics, Gregg E; Lazo, John S

    2013-01-01

    Ptp4a3 (commonly known as PRL-3) is an enigmatic member of the Ptp4a family of prenylated protein tyrosine phosphatases that are highly expressed in many human cancers. Despite strong correlations with tumor metastasis and poor patient prognosis, there is very limited understanding of this gene family's role in malignancy. Therefore, we created a gene-targeted murine knockout model for Ptp4a3, the most widely studied Ptp4a family member. Mice deficient for Ptp4a3 were grossly normal. Fewer homozygous-null males were observed at weaning, however, and they maintained a decreased body mass. Although Ptp4a3 is normally associated with late-stage cancer and metastasis, we observed increased Ptp4a3 expression in the colon of wildtype mice immediately following treatment with the carcinogen azoxymethane. To investigate the role of Ptp4a3 in malignancy, we used the most commonly studied murine colitis-associated colon cancer model. Wildtype mice treated with azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate developed approximately 7-10 tumors per mouse in the distal colon. The resulting tumor tissue had 4-fold more Ptp4a3 mRNA relative to normal colon epithelium and increased PTP4A3 protein. Ptp4a3-null mice developed 50% fewer colon tumors than wildtype mice after exposure to azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate. Tumors from the Ptp4a3-null mice had elevated levels of both IGF1Rβ and c-MYC compared to tumors replete with Ptp4a3, suggesting an enhanced cell signaling pathway engagement in the absence of the phosphatase. These results provide the first definitive evidence implicating Ptp4a3 in colon tumorigenesis and highlight the potential value of the phosphatase as a therapeutic target for early stage malignant disease.

  7. Area 3 Support Buildings (A3SB) H5-0992, H5-0996 PRL 218 Confirmatory Sampling Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mrdjenovich, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The Area 3 Support Buildings site (A3SB) consists of two separate areas located on the north side of Beach Road in the northern portion of Kennedy Space Center, Florida (KSC), outside the secured perimeter of KSC. The A3SB areas are approximately 0.6 miles apart, and were developed as Shiffler's Grocery Store and Service Station (west site) and as a residence (east site) prior to acquisition by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1963. Both areas were used by the Bendix Company in support of NASA as chemical laboratories from 1963 through 1969. Both of the buildings were demolished by 1987. The west portion of the site was used by the US Fish & Wildlife Service (F&W) in support of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR) for parking at the entrance to the Hammock Trails from 1969 to the present. The east portion of the site was used for intermittent suspect materials staging in the early 1990s and is still used as an apiary location, but is otherwise no longer active. In support of the NASA HSWA permit requirements, this site was identified as Potential Release Location (PRL) 218 and a Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) Assessment (SA) was conducted in 2013. Confirmatory Sampling (CS) was recommended and approved by the KSC Remediation Team (KSCRT). Three locations of concern (LOCs) were identified and sampled at the site. The LOCs include two former chemical labs and a former suspect staging area. The CS was conducted in March of 2015 at three locations by means of Direct Push Technology (DPT) groundwater sampling and at one location for soil sampling. The samples were collected and analyzed in accordance with the approved CS Work Plan. There were no exceedances of criteria detected in any of the samples from the three LOCs. The results of this investigation indicate that past and/or present operations have not negatively impacted environmental media at the A3SB. Based upon no confirmed groundwater detections above GCTLs and no

  8. [Polymorphism of POU1F1 gene and PRL gene and their combined effects on milk performance traits in Chinese Holstein cattle].

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiang-Jie; Wang, Chang-Fa; Yang, Gui-Wen; Huang, Jin-Ming; Li, Qiu-Ling; Zhong, Ji-Feng

    2011-12-01

    Three novel SNPs were found by DNA sequencing, PCR-RFLP and CRS-PCR methods were used for genotyping in 979 Chinese Holstein cattle. One SNP, G1178C, was identified in exon 2 of POU1F1 gene. Two novel SNPs, A906G and A1134G, were identified in 5'-flanking regulatory region (5'-UTR) of PRL gene. The association between polymorphisms of the two genes and milk performance traits were analyzed with PROC GLM of SAS. The results showed that GC genotype at 1178 locus of POU1F1 gene was advantageous for milk yield, milk protein yield, and milk fat yield. AG genotype at 906 locus was advantageous for milk yield. There was no significant difference between 1134 locus and milk performance traits of 5'-UTR of PRL gene. Analysis of genotype combination effect on milk production traits showed that the effect of combined genotype was not simple sum of single genotypes and the effects of gene pyramiding seemed to be more important in molecular breeding.

  9. P.R.L. Platelet Rich Lipotransfert: Our Experience and Current State of Art in the Combined Use of Fat and PRP

    PubMed Central

    Cervelli, V.; Bocchini, I.; Di Pasquali, C.; De Angelis, B.; Cervelli, G.; Curcio, C. B.; Orlandi, A.; Scioli, M. G.; Tati, E.; Delogu, P.; Gentile, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    The authors report their experience about the use of P.R.L. PLATELET RICH LIPOTRANSFERT method (platelet rich plasma mixed fat grafting) in 223 patients affected by soft tissue defects (ulcers, Romberg syndrome, Hemifacial atrophy, loss of substance, and signs of aging). This paper introduces the reader to PRP therapy and reviews the current literature on this emerging treatment modality, showing at the current clinical use of PRP in plastic and reconstructive surgery, with description of innovative methods and future prospects. This technique provides a promising alternative to surgery by promoting safe and natural healing. Here recent studies concerning the use of PRP in the treatment of chronic ulcers and soft tissue defect are reviewed. PMID:24191244

  10. nodO, a new nod gene of the Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae sym plasmid pRL1JI, encodes a secreted protein.

    PubMed

    de Maagd, R A; Wijfjes, A H; Spaink, H P; Ruiz-Sainz, J E; Wijffelman, C A; Okker, R J; Lugtenberg, B J

    1989-12-01

    The region of the Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae Sym plasmid pRL1JI, responsible for the production and secretion of a previously described 50-kilodalton protein (R. A. de Maagd, C. A. Wijffelman, E. Pees, and B. J. J. Lugtenberg, J. Bacteriol. 170:4424-4427, 1988), was cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. A new nod gene, nodO, preceded by a poorly conserved nod box, was identified and its transcriptional start site was determined. Comparison of its predicted protein product with the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the isolated secreted protein showed that nodO is the structural gene of this protein, although the nucleotide sequence predicted a protein only 30,002 daltons in size. This comparison also showed that the secreted protein is not the product of N-terminal processing of a larger precursor. A conventional N-terminal signal sequence was not detected in the NodO protein. The NodO protein has significant homology with a part (residues 720 to 920) of the hemolysin protein (HlyA) of Escherichia coli. Analysis of the transcriptional regulation of the nodO gene revealed that, in contrast with other nod promoters in this species, activity of the nodO promoter is greatly enhanced in the presence of multiple copies of the nodD gene.

  11. [Study of genetic variation in Yakutian cattle (Bos taurus L.) using the prolactin bPRL, growth hormone bGH, and transcription factor bPit-1 genes].

    PubMed

    Lazebnaia, I V; Lazebnyĭ, O E; Sulimova, G E

    2010-03-01

    The genetic structure of the Yakutian cattle breed was studied using the following genes: bPRL (RsaI site in exon 3), bGH (AluI site in exon 5), and bPit-1 (HinfI site in exon 6). The values of observed heterozygosity were 0.36 for bPRL, 0.29 for bGH, and 0.16 for bPit-1. These values are within the range of values for this parameter established for a number of Bos taurus breeds. The results obtained show that genetic variation is preserved in this aboriginal Russian breed, despite a catastrophic reduction of the number of animals.

  12. Hypothyroidism advances mammary involution in lactating rats through inhibition of PRL signaling and induction of LIF/STAT3 mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Campo Verde Arboccó, Fiorella; Sasso, Corina V; Actis, Esteban A; Carón, Rubén W; Hapon, María Belén; Jahn, Graciela A

    2016-01-05

    Thyroid diseases have deleterious effects on lactation, litter growth and survival, and hinder the suckling-induced hormone release, leading in the case of hyperthyroidism, to premature mammary involution. To determine the effects of hypothyroidism (HypoT) on late lactation, we analyzed the effect of chronic 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)-induced HypoT on mammary histology and the expression of members of the JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling pathway, milk proteins, prolactin (PRLR), estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and thyroid hormone (TR) receptors, markers of involution (such as stat3, lif, bcl2, BAX and PARP) on lactation (L) day 21. HypoT mothers showed increased histological markers of involution compared with control rats, such as adipose/epithelial ratio, inactive alveoli, picnotic nuclei and numerous detached apoptotic cells within the alveolar lumina. We also found decreased PRLR, β-casein and α-lactoalbumin mRNAs, but increased SOCS1, SOCS3, STAT3 and LIF mRNAs, suggesting a decrease in PRL signaling and induction of involution markers. Furthermore, Caspase-3 and 8 and PARP labeled cells and the expression of structural proteins such as β-Actin, α-Tubulin and Lamin B were increased, indicating the activation of apoptotic pathways and tissue remodelation. HypoT also increased PRA (mRNA and protein) and erβ and decreased erα mRNAs, and increased strongly TRα1, TRβ1, PRA and ERα protein levels. These results show that lactating HypoT rats have premature mammary involution, most probably induced by the inhibition of prolactin signaling along with the activation of the LIF-STAT3 pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. First demonstration of the effectiveness of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with 111In-DTPA-octreotide in a giant PRL-secreting pituitary adenoma resistant to conventional treatment.

    PubMed

    Baldari, S; Ferraù, F; Alafaci, C; Herberg, A; Granata, F; Militano, V; Salpietro, F M; Trimarchi, F; Cannavò, S

    2012-12-01

    In prolactin-secreting giant adenomas, cabergoline treatment is the first line approach. Surgery and/or radiotherapy are indicated when the tumour is resistant to medical treatment and continues growing, causing visual field impairment. Data concerning other therapeutic approach are scanty. Although PRL-secreting tumours may express somatostatin receptors type 2, 3 and 5, somatostatin analogs treatment is generally ineffective and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) has never been reported. A 58 year-old woman complaining of severe neurological symptoms caused by a giant prolactinoma, relapsing after surgery and not-responding to dopamine-agonists and octreotide LAR treatment, underwent four cycles of PRRT with 111-Indium-DTPA-octreotide with remarkable tumour shrinkage and a significant improvement in clinical conditions. No side effects were reported. This is the first report on the effectiveness and safety of PRRT with radio-labelled somatostatin analogs in a patient with aggressive giant prolactinoma resistant to conventional treatment.

  14. A nuclear protein tyrosine phosphatase TC-PTP is a potential negative regulator of the PRL-mediated signaling pathway: dephosphorylation and deactivation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5a and 5b by TC-PTP in nucleus.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Naohito; Matsuda, Tsukasa

    2002-01-01

    In the present study we examined involvement of nuclear protein tyrosine phosphatase TC-PTP in PRL-mediated signaling. TC-PTP could dephosphorylate signal transducer and activator of transcription 5a (STAT5a) and STAT5b, but the apparent dephosphorylation activity of TC-PTP was weaker than that of cytosolic PTP1B 30 min after PRL stimulation in transfected COS-7 cells, whereas both STAT5a and STAT5b were dephosphorylated to the same extent by recombinant TC-PTP and PTP1B in vitro. Tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT5 was coimmunoprecipitated with substrate trapping mutants of TC-PTP, suggesting that STAT5 is a specific substrate of TC-PTP. These observations were further extended in mammary epithelial COMMA-1D cells stably expressing TC-PTP. A time-course study revealed that dephosphorylation of STAT5 by TC-PTP was delayed compared with that by cytosolic PTP1B due to nuclear localization of TC-PTP throughout PRL stimulation in mammary epithelial cells. Endogenous beta-casein gene expression and beta-casein gene promoter activation in COS-7 cells were largely suppressed by TC-PTP wild type as well as catalytically inactive mutants, suggesting that stable complexes formed between STAT5 and TC-PTP in the nucleus. Taken together, we conclude that TC-PTP is catalytically competent with respect to dephosphorylation and deactivation of PRL-activated STAT5 in the nucleus.

  15. Organization and partial sequence of a DNA region of the Rhizobium leguminosarum symbiotic plasmid pRL6JI containing the genes fixABC, nifA, nifB and a novel open reading frame.

    PubMed Central

    Grönger, P; Manian, S S; Reiländer, H; O'Connell, M; Priefer, U B; Pühler, A

    1987-01-01

    By hybridization and heteroduplex studies the fixABC and nifA genes of the Rhizobium leguminosarum symbiotic plasmid pRL6JI have been identified. DNA sequencing of the region containing nifA showed an open reading frame of 1557 bp encoding a protein of 56, 178 D. Based on sequence homology, this ORF was confirmed to correspond to the nifA gene. Comparison of three nifA proteins (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Rhizobium meliloti, Rhizobium leguminosarum) revealed only a weak relationship in their N-terminal regions, whereas the C-terminal parts exhibited strong homology. Sequence analysis also showed that the R. leguminosarum nifA gene is followed by nifB and preceded by fixC with an open reading frame inserted in between. This novel ORF of 294 bp was found to be highly conserved also in R. meliloti. No known promoter and termination signals could be defined on the sequenced R. leguminosarum fragment. Images PMID:3029674

  16. Price-Responsive Load (PRL) Program - Framing Paper No.1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Charles A.

    2002-03-01

    By definition, effective and efficient competitive markets need a supply side and a demand side. One criticism of electric restructuring efforts in many states is that most of the attention has been focused on the supply side, in a market focused on the short term. In general, the demand side of the market has been under-addressed. The objective of the New England Demand Response Initiative (NEDRI) is to develop a comprehensive, coordinated set of demand response programs for the New England regional power markets. NEDRI aims to maximize the capability of demand response to compete in the wholesale market and to improve the economic efficiency and environmental profile of the electric sector. To those ends, NEDRI is focusing its efforts in four interrelated areas: (1) ISO-level reliability programs, (2) Market-based price-responsive load programs, (3) Demand response at retail through pricing, rate design, and advanced metering, and (4) End-use energy efficiency resources as demand response. The fourth area, energy efficiency, is the subject of this framing paper. Energy efficiency reduces the energy used by specific end-use devices and systems, typically without affecting the level of service and without loss of amenity. Energy savings and peak load reductions are achieved by substituting technically more advanced equipment, processes, or operational strategies to produce the same or an improved level of end-use service with less electricity. In contrast, load management programs lower peak demand during specific, limited time periods by either (1) influencing the timing of energy use by shifting load to another time period, or (2) reducing the level of energy use by curtailing or interrupting the load, typically with some loss of service or amenity.

  17. PRL S-030A Verification Survey at Former McClellan AFB, Sacramento, CA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-25

    contractor had completed the majority of the excavation of contaminated soils from the site. Radium-226 was the sole radionuclide of concern. Cabrera ...ATTN: MAJ DANIEL SHAW USAF RADIOISOTOPE COMMITTEE SECRETARIAT AIR FORCE MEDICAL SUPPORT AGENCY 7700 ARLINGTON...majority of the excavation of contaminated soils from the site. Radium-226 (Ra-226) was the sole radionuclide of concern. Cabrera Services, Inc

  18. 321 B North and PRL-S006 Verification Surveys at Former McClellan AFB, Sacramento, CA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-22

    remediation and after the contractor had completed its Final Status Survey (FSS) sampling. Radium -226 was the sole radionuclide of concern...Medicine (USAFSAM), former McClellan AFB, radium -226, verification survey, final status survey, independent radiological assessment 16. SECURITY...after the contractor had completed its Final Status Survey (FSS) sampling. Radium -226 (Ra-226) was the sole radionuclide of concern. Environmental

  19. [Influence, in normal subjects, of an isocaloric hyperprotein diet on cortisol, ACTH, GH and PRL response to lysine-8-vasopressin].

    PubMed

    Giovannini, C; Sellini, M; Manzo, G; Barletta, C; Scavo, D

    1981-12-30

    The Lysin-8-Vasopressin test has been experimented in ten healthy subjects during normocaloric balanced diet and after hyperproteic-normocaloric diet. The levels of ACTH, Cortisol and GH are significantly more elevated after hyperproteic-normocaloric diet than in basal conditions. The levels of Prolactin do not show any remarkable change. These results can indicate the increased reactivity of the diencephalon-hypophysis-adrenal axis and of the hormones connected with the mechanisms of homeostasis and stress, probably correlated to more disposable proteic material and to the metabolic effects which follow.

  20. Driving with Central Visual Field Loss II: How Scotomas above or below the Preferred Retinal Locus (PRL) Affect Hazard Detection in a Driving Simulator

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Alex R.; Goldstein, Robert; Peli, Eli

    2015-01-01

    We determined whether binocular central scotomas above or below the preferred retinal locus affect detection of hazards (pedestrians) approaching from the side. Seven participants with central field loss (CFL), and seven age-and sex-matched controls with normal vision (NV), each completed two sessions of 5 test drives (each approximately 10 minutes long) in a driving simulator. Participants pressed the horn when detecting pedestrians that appeared at one of four eccentricities (-14°, -4°, left, 4°, or 14°, right, relative to car heading). Pedestrians walked or ran towards the travel lane on a collision course with the participant’s vehicle, thus remaining in the same area of the visual field, assuming participant's steady forward gaze down the travel lane. Detection rates were nearly 100% for all participants. CFL participant reaction times were longer (median 2.27s, 95% CI 2.13 to 2.47) than NVs (median 1.17s, 95%CI 1.10 to 2.13; difference p<0.01), and CFL participants would have been unable to stop for 21% of pedestrians, compared with 3% for NV, p<0.001. Although the scotomas were not expected to obscure pedestrian hazards, gaze tracking revealed that scotomas did sometimes interfere with detection; late reactions usually occurred when pedestrians were entirely or partially obscured by the scotoma (time obscured correlated with reaction times, r = 0.57, p<0.001). We previously showed that scotomas lateral to the preferred retinal locus delay reaction times to a greater extent; however, taken together, the results of our studies suggest that any binocular CFL might negatively impact timely hazard detection while driving and should be a consideration when evaluating vision for driving. PMID:26332315

  1. Driving with Central Visual Field Loss II: How Scotomas above or below the Preferred Retinal Locus (PRL) Affect Hazard Detection in a Driving Simulator.

    PubMed

    Bronstad, P Matthew; Albu, Amanda; Bowers, Alex R; Goldstein, Robert; Peli, Eli

    2015-01-01

    We determined whether binocular central scotomas above or below the preferred retinal locus affect detection of hazards (pedestrians) approaching from the side. Seven participants with central field loss (CFL), and seven age-and sex-matched controls with normal vision (NV), each completed two sessions of 5 test drives (each approximately 10 minutes long) in a driving simulator. Participants pressed the horn when detecting pedestrians that appeared at one of four eccentricities (-14°, -4°, left, 4°, or 14°, right, relative to car heading). Pedestrians walked or ran towards the travel lane on a collision course with the participant's vehicle, thus remaining in the same area of the visual field, assuming participant's steady forward gaze down the travel lane. Detection rates were nearly 100% for all participants. CFL participant reaction times were longer (median 2.27s, 95% CI 2.13 to 2.47) than NVs (median 1.17s, 95%CI 1.10 to 2.13; difference p<0.01), and CFL participants would have been unable to stop for 21% of pedestrians, compared with 3% for NV, p<0.001. Although the scotomas were not expected to obscure pedestrian hazards, gaze tracking revealed that scotomas did sometimes interfere with detection; late reactions usually occurred when pedestrians were entirely or partially obscured by the scotoma (time obscured correlated with reaction times, r = 0.57, p<0.001). We previously showed that scotomas lateral to the preferred retinal locus delay reaction times to a greater extent; however, taken together, the results of our studies suggest that any binocular CFL might negatively impact timely hazard detection while driving and should be a consideration when evaluating vision for driving.

  2. Changes in biomarkers of the nitrooxidative stress response and Prolactin (PRL) signal transduction elements (STE) to E. coli infection (INFec) in the mammary gland (MG)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Key features of the MG response to INFec include (a) the cellular generation of reactive oxynitrogen molecules (Roxn) derived from nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion (SO) and (b) loss of responsiveness to lactogenic hormone signaling. Of significance to the MG is the damage done to mammary epit...

  3. Completion of One Year Bioventing Tests: Tank Farm #2; Tank Form #4; SA-6; PRL-T46; Davis Global Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    conducted to give a qualitative indication of changes in contaminant mass at each site within the Bioventing Initiative. Soil gas samples are somewhat...volatile contaminant mass (See Addendum One to Test Plan and Technical Protocol for a Field Treatability Test for Bioventing - Using Soil Gas Surveys...to Determine Bioventing Feasibility and Natural Attenuation Potential, February 1994). Soil samples, on the other hand, are discrete point samples

  4. Discovery of conventional prolactin from the holocephalan elephant fish, Callorhinchus milii.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoko; Takagi, Wataru; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Moriyama, Shunsuke; Bell, Justin D; Seale, Andre P; Lerner, Darren T; Grau, E Gordon; Hyodo, Susumu

    2015-12-01

    The conventional prolactin (PRL), also known as PRL1, is an adenohypophysial hormone that critically regulates various physiological events in reproduction, metabolism, growth, osmoregulation, among others. PRL1 shares its evolutionary origin with PRL2, growth hormone (GH), somatolactin and placental lactogen, which together form the GH/PRL hormone family. Previously, several bioassays implied the existence of PRL1 in elasmobranch pituitaries. However, to date, all attempts to isolate PRL1 from chondrichthyans have been unsuccessful. Here, we cloned PRL1 from the pituitary of the holocephalan elephant fish, Callorhinchus milii, as the first report of chondrichthyan PRL1. The putative mature protein of elephant fish PRL1 (cmPRL1) consists of 198 amino acids, containing two conserved disulfide bonds. The orthologous relationship of cmPRL1 to known vertebrate PRL1s was confirmed by the analyses of molecular phylogeny and gene synteny. The cmPRL1 gene was similar to teleost PRL1 genes in gene synteny, but was distinct from amniote PRL1 genes, which most likely arose in an early amphibian by duplication of the ancestral PRL1 gene. The mRNA of cmPRL1 was predominantly expressed in the pituitary, but was considerably less abundant than has been previously reported for bony fish and tetrapod PRL1s; the copy number of cmPRL1 mRNA in the pituitary was less than 1% and 0.1% of that of GH and pro-opiomelanocortin mRNAs, respectively. The cells expressing cmPRL1 mRNA were sparsely distributed in the rostral pars distalis. Our findings provide a new insight into the studies on molecular and functional evolution of PRL1 in vertebrates.

  5. Administration of Additional Phosphorylated Prolactin During Pregnancy Inhibits Mammary Ductal Branching and Promotes Premature Lobuloalveolus Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    promotes differentiation. Further, we have demonstrated that these effects of U-PRL and S179D PRL are produced directly on the mammary gland. In...addition, we have been able to show that U-PRL and S179D PRL exert these very different effects by changing the balance of signaling between the two major

  6. Prolactin regulates TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8 in sensory neurons in a sex-dependent manner: Contribution of prolactin receptor to inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Patil, Mayur J; Ruparel, Shivani B; Henry, Michael A; Akopian, Armen N

    2013-11-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a hormone produced in the anterior pituitary but also synthesized extrapituitary where it can influence diverse cellular processes, including inflammatory responses. Females experience greater pain in certain inflammatory conditions, but the contribution of the PRL system to sex-dependent inflammatory pain is unknown. We found that PRL regulates transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in a sex-dependent manner in sensory neurons. At >20 ng/ml, PRL sensitizes TRPV1 in female, but not male, neurons. This effect is mediated by PRL receptor (PRL-R). Likewise, TRPA1 and TRPM8 were sensitized by 100 ng/ml PRL only in female neurons. We showed that complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) upregulated PRL levels in the inflamed paw of both male and female rats, but levels were higher in females. In contrast, CFA did not change mRNA levels of long and short PRL-R in the dorsal root ganglion or spinal cord. Analysis of PRL and PRL-R knockout (KO) mice demonstrated that basal responses to cold stimuli were only altered in females, and with no significant effects on heat and mechanical responses in both sexes. CFA-induced heat and cold hyperalgesia were not changed in PRL and PRL-R KO compared with wild-type (WT) males, whereas significant reduction of heat and cold post-CFA hyperalgesia was detected in PRL and PRL-R KO females. Attenuation of CFA-induced mechanical allodynia was observed in both PRL and PRL-R KO females and males. Thermal hyperalgesia in PRL KO females was restored by administration of PRL into hindpaws. Overall, we demonstrate a sex-dependent regulation of peripheral inflammatory hyperalgesia by the PRL system.

  7. Biological and binding activities of ovine and porcine prolactins in porcine mammary tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of prolactin receptors may play a critical role in regulating growth and development of the mammary gland during gestation and tumor development; however, the discrepancy between specific binding of ovine prolactin (oPRL) and porcine prolactin (pPRL) in porcine mammary tissue was disturbing. It was possible that /sup 125/I-oPRL may be an unsuitable ligand for the procine prolactin receptor. The validate the use of oPRL in binding assays, the biological and binding activities of oPRL and pPRL were compared. A lactogenic bioassay of pPRL was developed using porcine mammary explants cultured in Medium 199 containing insulin, cortisol, and pPRL. The potencies of oPRL and pPRL were compared using this bioassay. Oxidation of glucose and incorporation of glucose into lipids were similarly enhanced by physiological concentrations of both oPRL and pPRL. However, specific binding of /sup 125/I-oPRL was 20%, while less than 1% of /sup 125/I-pPRL was bound. /sup 125/I-oPRL bound to high affinity sites.

  8. A study of the effect of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone metabolite, histidyl-proline diketopiperazine, on prolactin secretion in vivo.

    PubMed

    Emerson, C H; Alex, S; Braverman, L E; Safran, M S

    1981-11-01

    TRH, a PRL secretogogue, is metabolized to histidyl-proline diketopiperazine (HPD) in brain and plasma. HPD has been reported to inhibit PRL secretion in vitro. In the present study, intravascular pulse injections or infusions of HPD were carried out in the rat to determine whether HPD affected 1) TRH-induced PRL secretion, 2) the PRL proestrous surge, 3) the PRL surge in the ovariectomized, estrogen-primed rat and 4) pimozide-induced hyperprolactinemia. HPD had no effect on TRH-induced PRL secretion in estrogen-primed male rats when administered in molar ratios of 1:1.5 to 1:150 (TRH:HPD). The infusion of 1 microgram/min HPD for 360 min to rats before and during the proestrous PRL surge did not inhibit or augment PRL secretion, nor was there any influence of pulse injections of HPD on PRL secretion during the proestrous surge. HPD did not influence spontaneous PRL surges in the ovariectomized estrogen-primed rat. Finally, HPD, given with pimozide and again 2 days later, did not influence the PRL surge after pimozide administration or the elevated serum PRL concentrations noted 2 days after pimozide treatment. Despite the promising in vitro data demonstrating that the TRH metabolite, HPD, has PRL inhibitory factor activity, this study does not support the concept that HPD is a physiological PRL inhibitory factor.

  9. Gene expression of lymphocyte prolactin receptor was suppressed in lactating mothers.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hironobu; Izumi, Shun-ichiro; Kato, Yukio; Cai, Li-yi; Kato, Takako; Suzuki, Takahiro; Nakamura, Eri; Sugiyama, Taro; Fuda, Takayo; Takahashi, Kazumi; Kondo, Akane; Matsumoto, Tadashi; Ishimoto, Hitoshi

    2010-07-20

    Prolactin (PRL) receptor (PRL-R) was proven to be ubiquitously expressed by cells in the immune system, while the physiological role of PRL was established in milk production in mammary glands. We analyzed the mRNA content of PRL-R in human lymphocytes in normo- and hyperprolactinemic conditions to document the presence of functioning PRL-R of human lymphocytes. Blood samples were obtained prior to treatment, and with written informed consent, from outpatients with ovarian dysfunction and hyperprolactinemia (n = 8; 19 ~ 41 y/o), from breast-feeding mothers after normal delivery (n = 12; 27 ~ 36 y/o), and from healthy volunteers: men (n = 9; 33 ~ 40 y/o) and women (n = 9; 26 ~ 36 y/o). Subsequently, total RNA was prepared from the lymphocytes separated. The quantity of PRL-R mRNA was examined by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction and normalized with a simultaneously measured amount of b actin. The resultant mRNA level of PRL-R was analyzed for its correlation with serum concentration of PRL measured by immunoassay. PRL-R mRNA levels of lymphocytes were significantly suppressed in lactating mothers, while there was a statistically significant negative correlation between PRL-R mRNA and serum PRL levels. However, there was no significant difference of PRL-R mRNA in the pathological condition of outpatients with ovarian dysfunction and/or hyperprolactinemia. While a few investigators reported the extra-mammary regulation on PRL-R by PRL, our data suggest that the PRL-R levels of circulating lymphocytes could be down-regulated by the elevated serum levels of PRL and that pituitary PRL may participate in regulating the expression of PRL-R genes on cells of the human immune system, especially in physiological circumstances such as in the postpartum period.

  10. Autocrine Positive Feedback Regulation of Prolactin Release From Tilapia Prolactin Cells and Its Modulation by Extracellular Osmolality.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoko; Moriyama, Shunsuke; Lerner, Darren T; Grau, E Gordon; Seale, Andre P

    2016-09-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a vertebrate hormone with diverse actions in osmoregulation, metabolism, reproduction, and in growth and development. Osmoregulation is fundamental to maintaining the functional structure of the macromolecules that conduct the business of life. In teleost fish, PRL plays a critical role in osmoregulation in fresh water. Appropriately, PRL cells of the tilapia are directly osmosensitive, with PRL secretion increasing as extracellular osmolality falls. Using a model system that employs dispersed PRL cells from the euryhaline teleost fish, Oreochromis mossambicus, we investigated the autocrine regulation of PRL cell function. Unknown was whether these PRL cells might also be sensitive to autocrine feedback and whether possible autocrine regulation might interact with the well-established regulation by physiologically relevant changes in extracellular osmolality. In the cell-perfusion system, ovine PRL and two isoforms of tilapia PRL (tPRL), tPRL177 and tPRL188, stimulated the release of tPRLs from the dispersed PRL cells. These effects were significant within 5-10 minutes and lasted the entire course of exposure, ceasing within 5-10 minutes of removal of tested PRLs from the perifusion medium. The magnitude of response varied between tPRL177 and tPRL188 and was modulated by extracellular osmolality. On the other hand, the gene expression of tPRLs was mainly unchanged or suppressed by static incubations of PRL cells with added PRLs. By demonstrating the regulatory complexity driven by positive autocrine feedback and its interaction with osmotic stimuli, these findings expand upon the knowledge that pituitary PRL cells are regulated complexly through multiple factors and interactions.

  11. Prolactin receptor and signal transduction to milk protein genes

    SciTech Connect

    Djiane, J.; Daniel, N.; Bignon, C.

    1994-06-01

    After cloning of the mammary gland prolactin (PRL) receptor cDNA, a functional assay was established using co-transfection of PRL receptor cDNA together with a milk protein promoter/chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) construct in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Different mutants of the PRL receptor were tested in this CAT assay to delimit the domains in the receptor necessary for signal transduction to milk protein genes. In CHO cells stably transfected with PRL receptor cDNA, high numbers of PRL receptor are expressed. By metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation, expressed PRL receptor was identified as a single species of 100 kDa. Using these cells, we analyzed the effects of PRL on intracellular free Ca{sup ++} concentration. PRL stimulates Ca{sup ++} entry and induces secondary Ca{sup ++} mobilization. The entry of Ca{sup ++} is a result of an increase in K{sup +} conductance that hyperpolarizes the membranes. We have also analyzed tyrosine phosphorylation induced by PRL. In CHO cells stably transfected with PRL receptor cDNA, PRL induced a very rapid and transient tyrosine phosphorylation of a 100-kDa protein which is most probably the PRL receptor. The same finding was obtained in mammary membranes after PRL injection to lactating rabbits. Whereas tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and lavendustin were without effect, PRL stimulation of milk protein gene promoters was partially inhibited by 2 {mu}M herbimycin in CHO cells co-transfected with PRL receptor cDNA and the {Beta} lactoglobulin CAT construct. Taken together these observations indicate that the cytoplasmic domain of the PRL receptor interacts with one or several tyrosine kinases, which may represent early postreceptor events necessary for PRL signal transduction to milk protein genes. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Prolactin Family of the Guinea Pig, Cavia porcellus

    PubMed Central

    Alam, S. M. Khorshed; Konno, Toshihiro; Rumi, M. A. Karim; Dong, Yafeng; Weiner, Carl P.; Soares, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a multifunctional hormone with prominent roles in regulating growth and reproduction. The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) has been extensively used in endocrine and reproduction research. Thus far, the PRL cDNA and protein have not been isolated from the guinea pig. In the present study, we used information derived from the public guinea pig genome database as a tool for identifying guinea pig PRL and PRL-related proteins. Guinea pig PRL exhibits prominent nucleotide and amino acid sequence differences when compared with PRLs of other eutherian mammals. In contrast, guinea pig GH is highly conserved. Expression of PRL and GH in the guinea pig is prominent in the anterior pituitary, similar to known expression patterns of PRL and GH for other species. Two additional guinea pig cDNAs were identified and termed PRL-related proteins (PRLRP1, PRLRP2). They exhibited a more distant relationship to PRL and their expression was restricted to the placenta. Recombinant guinea pig PRL protein was generated and shown to be biologically active in the PRL-responsive Nb2 lymphoma cell bioassay. In contrast, recombinant guinea pig PRLRP1 protein did not exhibit PRL-like bioactivity. In summary, we have developed a new set of research tools for investigating the biology of the PRL family in an important animal model, the guinea pig. PMID:20534723

  13. The orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 regulates decidual prolactin expression in human endometrial stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yue; Hu, Yali; Zhao, Jing; Zhen, Xin; Yan, Guijun; Sun, Haixiang

    2011-01-14

    Research highlights: {yields} Decidually produced PRL plays a key role during pregnancy. {yields} Overexpression of Nur77 increased PRL mRNA expression and enhanced decidual PRL promoter activity. {yields} Knockdown of Nur77 decreased decidual PRL secretion induced by 8-Br-cAMP and MPA. {yields} Nur77 is a novel transcription factor that plays an active role in decidual prolactin expression. -- Abstract: Prolactin (PRL) is synthesized and released by several extrapituitary tissues, including decidualized stromal cells. Despite the important role of decidual PRL during pregnancy, little is understood about the factors involved in the proper regulation of decidual PRL expression. Here we present evidence that the transcription factor Nur77 plays an active role in decidual prolactin expression in human endometrial stromal cells (hESCs). Nur77 mRNA expression in hESCs was significantly increased after decidualization stimulated by 8-Br-cAMP and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Nur77 in hESCs markedly increased PRL mRNA expression and enhanced decidual PRL promoter (dPRL/-332Luc) activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, knockdown of Nur77 in hESCs significantly decreased decidual PRL promoter activation and substantially attenuated PRL mRNA expression and PRL secretion (P < 0.01) induced by 8-Br-cAMP and MPA. These results demonstrate that Nur77 is a novel transcription factor that contributes significantly to the regulation of prolactin gene expression in human endometrial stromal cells.

  14. Molecular cloning of giant panda pituitary prolactin cDNA and its expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-He; Zheng, Xu; Hu, Xi-lian; Zhu, Mu-Yuan; Hou, Rong; Shen, Fu-Jun; Zhang, Liang; Liao, Ming-Juan; Lv, Xiao-Ping

    2005-01-01

    cDNA encoding pituitary (PRL) of giant panda was obtained using RT-PCR and expressed in E. coli. The results revealed that panda PRL cDNA encodes a precursor protein of 229 amino acids including a putative signal peptide of 30 amino acids and a mature protein of 199 residues with one potential N-glycosylation site. Sequence comparison indicated that panda PRL shares a high degree of identity to other known PRL sequences ranging from 98% with mink PRL to about 50% with rodent PRL. Six cysteine residues and 29 conserved residues distributed in four domains (PD1, PD2, PD3, and PD4) of PRL were observed. through multiple sequence alignment. Fourteen key residues of binding sites 1 and 2 involved in receptor binding are conserved in panda PRL. GST fused recombinant panda PRL protein was efficiently expressed with the form of insoluble inclusion bodies in E. coli BL21 transformed with a pGEX-4T-1 expression vector containing the DNA sequence encoding mature panda PRL. Western blot analysis indicated that GST-panda PRL recombinant protein could be recognized by antibody against human PRL. Our results would contribute to further elucidating the structural and functional characteristics of pituitary PRL and provide a basis for the production of recombinant panda prolactin for future use in the breeding of giant panda.

  15. Isolated Prolactin Deficiency Associated With Serum Autoantibodies Against Prolactin-Secreting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Iwama, Shintaro; Welt, Corrine K.; Romero, Christopher J.; Radovick, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Context: Isolated prolactin (PRL) deficiency is a rare entity of unknown etiology manifesting as failure of puerperal lactogenesis. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the cause of isolated PRL deficiency in an affected woman. Design and Setting: We examined genetic and autoimmune causes of isolated PRL deficiency at academic medical centers. Patient: The patient was a 39-year-old woman with puerperal alactogenesis after two deliveries and undetectable PRL. The other pituitary axes, serum calcium levels, and cranial magnetic resonance imaging were normal. Intervention: Recombinant human PRL (r-hPRL) was administered to the patient. Main Outcome Measures: We measured the sequencing of candidate genes and immunofluorescence analysis of autoantibodies directed against pituitary endocrine cells. Results: There were no rare sequence variants in the genes encoding for PRL, putative PRL-releasing peptide, putative PRL-releasing peptide receptor, or in other genes important for lactotroph lineage development (POU1F1, PROP1, LHX3, LHX4, HESX1, OTX2, and LSD1). The patient serum, on the contrary, contained autoantibodies that specifically recognized a subset of PRL-secreting cells but not PRL itself or any other pituitary cells or hormones. The mother was able to lactate fully after 17 days of treatment with r-hPRL 60 μg/kg every 12 hours, but alactogenesis resumed after treatment was completed. Conclusions: These studies report a new autoimmune etiology for women with isolated PRL deficiency and puerperal alactogenesis. PMID:23940128

  16. Dopaminergic control of prolactin mRNA accumulation in the pituitary of the male rat.

    PubMed

    Brocas, H; van Coevorden, A; Seo, H; Refetoff, S; Vassart, G

    1981-04-01

    Dopaminergic control of the expression of the prolactin gene was investigated by administration of bromoergocryptine (CB154) to male rats. The effects of the drug on the following parameters were measured: (i) circulating levels of GH and PRL; (ii) synthesis of GH and PRl measured by pulse labeling pituitary fragments in vitro; (iii) GH and PRL mRNA activities; and (iv) content of PRL and mRNA. After 1 day of CB154 administration, serum PRL fell to undetectable levels whereas it took 3 days to observe a 50% reduction in PRL synthesis. This effect was accounted for by a parallel decrease in PRL mRNA activity and content. GH synthesis and GH mRNA were not affected by the treatment. Our results show that the dopaminergic inhibition of PRL production involves regulation at a pre-translational level.

  17. 75 FR 53734 - Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot Rail Corp.-Continuance in Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Exemption--Piedmont & Northern Railway, Inc. Patriot Rail, LLC (PRL) and its subsidiaries, Patriot Rail... carrier.\\1\\ \\1\\ PRL is a noncarrier limited liability company that owns not less than 51% of the...

  18. Regulation of blood vessels by prolactin and vasoinhibins.

    PubMed

    Clapp, Carmen; Thebault, Stéphanie; Macotela, Yazmín; Moreno-Carranza, Bibiana; Triebel, Jakob; Martínez de la Escalera, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) stimulates the growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) either directly through actions on endothelial cells or indirectly by upregulating proangiogenic factors like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Moreover, PRL acquires antiangiogenic properties after undergoing proteolytic cleavage to vasoinhibins, a family of PRL fragments (including 16 kDa PRL) with potent antiangiogenic, vasoconstrictive, and antivasopermeability effects. In view of the opposing actions of PRL and vasoinhibins, the regulation of the proteases responsible for specific PRL cleavage represents an efficient mechanism for controlling blood vessel growth and function. This review briefly describes the vascular actions of PRL and vasoinhibins, and addresses how their interplay could help drive biological effects of PRL in the context of health and disease.

  19. Prosocial effects of prolactin in male rats: Social recognition, social approach and social learning.

    PubMed

    Donhoffner, Mary E; Al Saleh, Samar; Schink, Olivia; Wood, Ruth I

    2017-09-24

    Prolactin (PRL) and oxytocin (OT) are pituitary hormones essential for lactation, but also promote sexual behavior. OT stimulates social behaviors, such as recognition, approach, and learning, but less is known about PRL in these behaviors. Since PRL and OT have complementary functions in reproduction, we hypothesized that PRL increases social recognition, approach, and learning. Male Long-Evans rats received ovine PRL (oPRL; 0.5, 2.0 or 5.0mg/kg), the PRL antagonist bromocriptine (0.1, 3.0 or 5.0mg/kg) or saline 20 mins before testing for recognition of familiar vs. unfamiliar stimulus males. Saline controls preferred the unfamiliar male (p<0.05), while bromocriptine blocked this preference. oPRL did not increase preference. To measure social approach, we determined if PRL restores approach 2h after defeat by an aggressive male. Defeated rats avoided the aggressive male. 2mg/kg oPRL, before or after defeat, restored approach towards the aggressive male (p<0.05). In non-defeated rats, oPRL or 3mg/kg bromocriptine had no effect. To determine if PRL increases social learning, we tested social transmission of food preference. Rats choose between two unfamiliar flavors, one of which they have previously been exposed to through interaction with a demonstrator rat. Vehicle controls preferred chow with the demonstrated flavor over the novel flavor. oPRL-treated rats were similar. Bromocriptine-treated rats failed to show a preference. When tested one week later, only oPRL-treated rats preferred the demonstrated flavor. The results suggest that PRL is required for social recognition and learning, and that increasing PRL enhances social memory and approach, similar to OT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A major prolactin-binding complex on human milk fat globule membranes contains cyclophilins A and B: the complex is not the prolactin receptor.

    PubMed

    Lorenson, Mary Y; Ueda, Eric K; Chen, KuanHui E; Walker, Ameae M

    2012-03-01

    Prolactin (PRL) in milk influences maturation of gastrointestinal epithelium and development of both the hypothalamo-pituitary and immune systems of offspring. Here, we demonstrate that most PRL in human milk is part of a novel, high-affinity, multicomponent binding complex found on the milk fat globule membrane and not in whey. To examine properties of the complex, a sensitive ELISA was developed such that human PRL (hPRL) binding to the complex was measured by loss of hPRL detectability; thus, as much as 50 ng of hPRL was undetectable in the presence of 10 μl of human milk. Using the same methodology, no comparable complex formation was observed with human serum or amniotic fluid. hPRL complexation in milk was rapid, time dependent, and cooperative. Antibodies to or competitors of the hPRL receptor (placental lactogen and growth hormone) showed the hPRL receptor was not involved in the complex. However, hPRL complexation was antagonized by cyclosporine A and anti-cyclophilins. The complex was very stable, resisting dissociation in SDS, urea, and dithiothreitol. Western analysis revealed an ∼75-kDa complex that included hPRL, cyclophilins A and B, and a 16-kDa cyclophilin A. Compared with noncomplexed hPRL, complexed hPRL in whole milk showed similar activation of STAT5 but markedly delayed activation of ERK. Alteration of signaling suggests that complex formation may alter hPRL biological activity. This is the first report of a unique, multicomponent, high-capacity milk fat reservoir of hPRL; all other analyses of milk PRL have utilized defatted milk.

  1. Discovery of a Novel Prolactin in Non-Mammalian Vertebrates: Evolutionary Perspectives and Its Involvement in Teleost Retina Development

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xigui; Hui, Michelle N. Y.; Liu, Yun; Yuen, Don S. H.; Zhang, Yong; Chan, Wood Yee; Lin, Hao Ran; Cheng, Shuk Han; Cheng, Christopher H. K.

    2009-01-01

    Background The three pituitary hormones, viz. prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH) and somatolactin (SL), together with the mammalian placental lactogen (PL), constitute a gene family of hormones with similar gene structure and encoded protein sequences. These hormones are believed to have evolved from a common ancestral gene through several rounds of gene duplication and subsequent divergence. Principal Findings In this study, we have identified a new PRL-like gene in non-mammalian vertebrates through bioinformatics and molecular cloning means. Phylogenetic analyses showed that this novel protein is homologous to the previously identified PRL. A receptor transactivation assay further showed that this novel protein could bind to PRL receptor to trigger the downstream post-receptor event, indicating that it is biologically active. In view of its close phylogenetic relationship with PRL and also its ability to activate PRL receptor, we name it as PRL2 and the previously identified PRL as PRL1. All the newly discovered PRL2 sequences possess three conserved disulfide linkages with the exception of the shark PRL2 which has only two. In sharp contrast to the classical PRL1 which is predominantly expressed in the pituitary, PRL2 was found to be mainly expressed in the eye and brain of the zebrafish but not in the pituitary. A largely reduced inner nuclear layer of the retina was observed after morpholino knockdown of zebrafish PRL2, indicating its role on retina development in teleost. Significance The discovery of this novel PRL has revitalized our understanding on the evolution of the GH/PRL/SL/PL gene family. Its unique expression and functions in the zebrafish eye also provide a new avenue of research on the neuroendocrine control of retina development in vertebrates. PMID:19584915

  2. Prolactin stimulates integrin-mediated adhesion of circulating mononuclear cells to endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Montes de Oca, Pável; Macotela, Yazmín; Nava, Gabriel; López-Barrera, Fernando; de la Escalera, Gonzalo Martínez; Clapp, Carmen

    2005-05-01

    Attachment of leukocytes to endothelial cells is an essential step for the extravasation and recruitment of cells at sites of inflammation. The pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) is involved in the inflammatory process. Here, we show that treatment with PRL of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulates their adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) activated by interleukin-1beta. Stimulation of adhesion by PRL is mediated via integrins leukocyte functional antigen-1 (LFA-1) and very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), because immunoneutralization of both integrins prevents PRL action. Also, PRL promotes the adhesion of PBMC to immobilized intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and fibronectin, ligands for LFA-1 and VLA-4, respectively. Stimulation of integrin-mediated cell adhesion by PRL may involve the activation of chemokine receptors, because PRL upregulates the expression of the G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor CXCR3 in PBMC, and pertussis toxin, a specific G-protein inhibitor, blocks PRL stimulation of PBMC adhesion to HUVEC. In addition, PRL stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation pathways leading to leukocyte adhesion. PRL triggered the tyrosine phosphorylation of Janus kinase-2, of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 and 5, and of the focal adhesion protein paxillin. Furthermore, genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, blocked PRL-stimulated adhesion of PBMC and Jurkat T-cells to HUVEC. These results suggest that PRL promotes integrin-mediated leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells via chemokine receptors and tyrosine phosphorylation signaling pathways.

  3. Prolactin regulates transcription of the ion uptake Na+/Cl- cotransporter (ncc) gene in zebrafish gill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breves, Jason P.; Serizier, Sandy B.; Goffin, Vincent; McCormick, Stephen D.; Karlstrom, Rolf O.

    2013-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a well-known regulator of ion and water transport within osmoregulatory tissues across vertebrate species, yet how PRL acts on some of its target tissues remains poorly understood. Using zebrafish as a model, we show that ionocytes in the gill directly respond to systemic PRL to regulate mechanisms of ion uptake. Ion-poor conditions led to increases in the expression of PRL receptor (prlra), Na+/Cl− cotransporter (ncc; slc12a10.2), Na+/H+ exchanger (nhe3b; slc9a3.2), and epithelial Ca2+ channel (ecac; trpv6) transcripts within the gill. Intraperitoneal injection of ovine PRL (oPRL) increased ncc and prlra transcripts, but did not affect nhe3b or ecac. Consistent with direct PRL action in the gill, addition of oPRL to cultured gill filaments stimulated ncc in a concentration-dependent manner, an effect blocked by a pure human PRL receptor antagonist (Δ1-9-G129R-hPRL). These results suggest that PRL signaling through PRL receptors in the gill regulates the expression of ncc, thereby linking this pituitary hormone with an effector of Cl− uptake in zebrafish for the first time.

  4. 75 FR 45185 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC and NYSE Amex LLC; Order Approving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... that executes odd-lot interest and the odd-lot portion of ``part of round lot'' or ``PRL'' interest... Odd-lot Systems, all odd-lot interest and the odd-lot portion of PRL interest is executed against the... portion of PRL interest would be accepted and executed in the Display Book, enabling such interest...

  5. Heat stress abatement during the dry period influences prolactin signaling in lymphocytes Heat stress abatement during the dry period influences prolactin signaling in lymphocytes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heat stress perturbs PRL release and affects dairy cow lactational performance and immune cell function. We hypothesized that greater PRL concentration in plasma of heat-stressed cows would decrease expression of PRL-R mRNA and increase mRNA expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) in ...

  6. 75 FR 76520 - Tennessee Southern Railroad Company, Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... (PRL) and its subsidiaries, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC (PRH) and Patriot Rail Corp. (Patriot... within a corporate family. PRL proposes to restructure its corporate family by converting two of its...) will become Piedmont & Northern Railway, LLC (PNRLLC). PRL directly controls noncarrier PRH, which...

  7. Acute effect of prolactin on ornithine decarboxylase activity in the rat testis.

    PubMed

    de Las Heras, M A; Calandra, R S

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the acute treatment with prolactin (PRL) on ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity in the rat testis. Injection of a single SC dose of ovine PRL to puberal rats resulted in the activation of ODC from whole testis. This effect was maximal at 4 h after injection, and statistically significant at the dose of 500 micrograms. The effect of PRL was confined to the interstitial space; no change was observed in seminiferous tubules. PRL was unable to further increase testicular ODC activity when injected together with a stimulatory dose of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The effect of PRL was mimicked by injection of a single dose of the dopamine antagonist sulpiride, which provoked a ninefold increase in serum PRL levels. In contrast, PRL did not stimulate testicular ODC activity in hypophysectomized rats, either under basal conditions or during treatment with PRL-hCG, indicating the requirement of a functional hypophysis for the expression of PRL action. These results suggest that the stimulation of testicular ODC activity by PRL is a marker of the trophic response of the testis to this hormone, different from the stimulation of steroidogenesis. This activity could be useful for the study of PRL action on the testis as well as of the interaction between PRL and LH at the testicular level.

  8. MATERNAL EXPOSURE TO ATRAZINE DURING LACTATION SUPPRESSES SUCKLING-INDUCED PROLACTIN RELEASE AND RESULTS IN PROSTATITIS IN THE ADULT OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The availability of prolactin (PRL) to the neonatal brain is known to affect the development of the tuberoinfundibular (TIDA) neurons and, as a consequence, lead to alterations in subsequent PRL regulation. Without early lactational exposure to PRL (derived from the dam's milk), ...

  9. Prolactin regulates transcription of the ion uptake Na+/Cl- cotransporter (ncc) gene in zebrafish gill.

    PubMed

    Breves, Jason P; Serizier, Sandy B; Goffin, Vincent; McCormick, Stephen D; Karlstrom, Rolf O

    2013-04-30

    Prolactin (PRL) is a well-known regulator of ion and water transport within osmoregulatory tissues across vertebrate species, yet how PRL acts on some of its target tissues remains poorly understood. Using zebrafish as a model, we show that ionocytes in the gill directly respond to systemic PRL to regulate mechanisms of ion uptake. Ion-poor conditions led to increases in the expression of PRL receptor (prlra), Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (ncc; slc12a10.2), Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (nhe3b; slc9a3.2), and epithelial Ca(2+) channel (ecac; trpv6) transcripts within the gill. Intraperitoneal injection of ovine PRL (oPRL) increased ncc and prlra transcripts, but did not affect nhe3b or ecac. Consistent with direct PRL action in the gill, addition of oPRL to cultured gill filaments stimulated ncc in a concentration-dependent manner, an effect blocked by a pure human PRL receptor antagonist (Δ1-9-G129R-hPRL). These results suggest that PRL signaling through PRL receptors in the gill regulates the expression of ncc, thereby linking this pituitary hormone with an effector of Cl(-) uptake in zebrafish for the first time. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. MATERNAL EXPOSURE TO ATRAZINE DURING LACTATION SUPPRESSES SUCKLING-INDUCED PROLACTIN RELEASE AND RESULTS IN PROSTATITIS IN THE ADULT OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The availability of prolactin (PRL) to the neonatal brain is known to affect the development of the tuberoinfundibular (TIDA) neurons and, as a consequence, lead to alterations in subsequent PRL regulation. Without early lactational exposure to PRL (derived from the dam's milk), ...

  11. Relative prolactin-to-progesterone concentrations around farrowing influence colostrum yield in primiparous sows.

    PubMed

    Loisel, F; Farmer, C; van Hees, H; Quesnel, H

    2015-10-01

    In swine, colostrum production is induced by the drop of progesterone (P4) concentrations which leads to the prepartum peak of prolactin (PRL). PRL regulates mammary cell turnover and stimulates lacteal nutrient synthesis. P4 inhibits PRL secretion and downregulates the PRL receptor in the mammary gland. The aim of the present study was to determine if the relative prepartum concentrations of P4 and PRL (PRL/P4 ratio) influence sow colostrum production. The performance of 29 Landrace × Large White primiparous sows was analyzed. Colostrum yield was estimated during 24 h starting at the onset of parturition (T0) using litter weight gains. Colostrum was collected at T0 and 24 h later (T24). Repeated jugular blood samples were collected during the peripartum period, that is, from -72 to +24 h related to farrowing and were assayed for P4 and PRL. Sows were retrospectively categorized in 2 groups according to their PRL/P4 ratio 24 h before farrowing being either <2 (low PRL/P4, n = 16) or >3 (high PRL/P4, n = 13). During the peripartum period, the circulating concentrations of P4 were lower (P < 0.05) and those of PRL tended to be greater (P < 0.10) in high PRL/P4 compared with low PRL/P4 sows. Colostrum yield was greater in high PRL/P4 compared with low PRL/P4 sows (4.11 vs 3.48 kg [root mean square error = 0.69], P < 0.05). Colostrum composition (dry matter, energy, protein, lipid, and lactose contents) and IgG and IgA concentrations did not differ between the 2 groups of sows (P > 0.10). The Na/K ratio in colostrum 24 h after the onset of farrowing was lower in high PRL/P4 compared with low PRL/P4 sows (P < 0.05). Piglet mortality between birth and T24 averaged 10.0% in low PRL/P4 litters and 7.0% in high PRL/P4 litters (P = 0.29). In conclusion, a greater PRL/P4 ratio 24 h prepartum, characterized by lower P4 concentrations and a trend for greater PRL concentrations peripartum, led to increased colostrum yield in primiparous sows.

  12. Cysteamine, zinc, and thiols modify detectability of rat pituitary prolactin: a comparison with effects on bovine prolactin suggests differences in hormone storage

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, L.S.; Lorenson, M.Y.

    1986-03-01

    Little is known about the structure of prolactin (PRL) within secretory granules. Evidence from our previous studies in bovine tissue preparations suggests that control of secretion may reside, in part, in the conversion of storage hormone to releasable PRL. The conversion can be monitored by measuring changes in immunodetectability since the oligomeric, storage form is poorly recognized by antisera raised against monomeric PRL. Since many investigators use rats to study the secretory process and changes in detectability of rat pituitary PRL occur during lactation (depletion-transformation), we undertook the present immunodetectability studies to gain insight into the storage structure of rat (r) PRL. Cysteamine and zinc inhibited tissue PRL immunoassayability in male rat pituitary homogenates and also in partially purified secretory granules as they had inhibited bovine (b) PRL; however, zinc inhibited the rodent hormone less potently than the bovine. In vitro incubation of rat tissue samples without additions resulted in increases in rPRL detectability of up to 84% after 180 minutes; such incubation of bovine samples had no significant effect. A striking additional difference between the species was that exposure to reduced glutathione (GSH), cysteine, homocysteine, mercaptoethanol, and dithiothreitol inhibited rPRL by up to 44%. This compared to thiol stimulation of bPRL by as much as 450%. The inhibitory GSH effect on rPRL was abolished when 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was included; in contrast, the stimulatory GSH effect on bPRL did not change with added SDS. SDS alone had no effect on rat homogenate PRL, and only increased rat granule rPRL by 23% compared to its ability to increase bPRL assayability by 44%.

  13. Prolactin receptor attenuation induces zinc pool redistribution through ZnT2 and decreases invasion in MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bostanci, Zeynep; Alam, Samina; Soybel, David I.; Kelleher, Shannon L.

    2014-02-15

    Prolactin receptor (PRL-R) activation regulates cell differentiation, proliferation, cell survival and motility of breast cells. Prolactin (PRL) and PRL-R over-expression are strongly implicated in breast cancer, particularly contributing to tumor growth and invasion in the more aggressive estrogen-receptor negative (ER−) disease. PRL-R antagonists have been suggested as potential therapeutic agents; however, mechanisms through which PRL-R antagonists exert their actions are not well-understood. Zinc (Zn) is a regulatory factor for over 10% of the proteome, regulating critical cell processes such as proliferation, cell signaling, transcription, apoptosis and autophagy. PRL-R signaling regulates Zn metabolism in breast cells. Herein we determined effects of PRL-R attenuation on cellular Zn metabolism and cell function in a model of ER-, PRL-R over-expressing breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-453). PRL-R attenuation post-transcriptionally increased ZnT2 abundance and redistributed intracellular Zn pools into lysosomes and mitochondria. ZnT2-mediated lysosomal Zn sequestration was associated with reduced matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) activity and decreased invasion. ZnT2-mediated Zn accumulation in mitochondria was associated with increased mitochondrial oxidation. Our results suggest that PRL-R antagonism in PRL-R over-expressing breast cancer cells may reduce invasion through the redistribution of intracellular Zn pools critical for cellular function. - Highlights: • PRL-R attenuation increased ZnT2 expression. • PRL-R attenuation increased lysosomal and mitochondrial Zn accumulation. • PRL-R attenuation decreased MMP-2 and invasion. • PRL-R antagonists may modulate lysosomal and mitochondrial Zn pools.

  14. Prolactin messenger ribonucleic acid levels, prolactin synthesis, and radioimmunoassayable prolactin during the estrous cycle in the Golden Syrian hamster

    SciTech Connect

    Massa, J.S. ); Blask, D.E. )

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the molecular dynamics of pituitary prolactin (PRL) gene expression during the estrous cycle of the Golden Syrian hamster. PRL messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels, PRL synthesis were measured in the morning on each day of the cycle. We observed that all of these PRL indices declined or did not change from Day 2 to Day 3 of the cycle. From Day 3 to Day 4 however, PRL mRNA levels increased 33-38% and media {sup 3}H-PRL increased 32-42%, while there were no significant changes in pituitary {sup 3}H-PRL, or RIA-PRL in the media or pituitary. From Day 4 to Day 1 (estrus) there was reciprocal change in the levels of {sup 3}H-PRL in the pituitary vs. the media, with the former increasing 37-50% and the latter decreasing 25-32%. Pituitary RIA-PRL did also increased 45-64% from Day 4 to Day 1 while media RIA-PRL did not change. These data are consistent with the following hypothesis: On the morning of proestrus(Day 4) in the hamster, PRL mRNA levels are elevated compared to those on Day 3, signaling an increase in PRL synthesis. This newly synthesized PRL is shunted into a readily releasable pool on the morning of Day 4 (contributing to the afternoon surge of serum PRL), and into a preferentially stored pool by the morning of Day 1.

  15. Effects of prolactin on ionic membrane conductances in the human malignant astrocytoma cell line U87-MG.

    PubMed

    Ducret, Thomas; Vacher, Anne-Marie; Vacher, Pierre

    2004-03-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is involved in numerous biological processes in peripheral tissues and the brain. Although numerous studies have been conducted to elucidate the signal transduction pathways associated with the PRL receptor, very few have examined the role of ion conductances in PRL actions. We used the patch-clamp technique in "whole cell" configuration and microspectrofluorimetry to investigate the effects of PRL on membrane ion conductances in the U87-MG human malignant astrocytoma cell line, which naturally expresses the PRL receptor. We found that a physiological concentration (4 nM) of PRL exerted a biphasic action on membrane conductances. First, PRL activated a Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) current that was sensitive to CTX and TEA. This current depended on PRL-induced Ca(2+) mobilization, through a JAK2-dependent pathway from a thapsigargin- and 2-APB-sensitive Ca(2+) pool. Second, PRL also activated an inwardly directed current, mainly due to the stimulation of calcium influx via nickel- and 2-APB-sensitive calcium channels. Both phases resulted in membrane hyperpolarizations, mainly through the activation of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels. As shown by combined experiments (electrophysiology and microspectrofluorimetry), the PRL-induced Ca(2+) influx increased with cell membrane hyperpolarization and conversely decreased with cell membrane depolarization. Thus PRL-induced membrane hyperpolarizations facilitated Ca(2+) influx through voltage-independent Ca(2+) channels. Finally, PRL also activated a DIDS-sensitive Cl(-) current, which may participate in the PRL-induced hyperpolarization. These PRL-induced conductance activations are probably related to the PRL proliferative effect we have already described in U87-MG cells.

  16. Role of Mammary Prolactin in Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    surprise, the acidified microsomal pellet from MCF-7 cells cleaved rat PRL but not the human hormone . Similarly, acidified microsomal preparations from...breast carcinomas cleaved rat, but not human, PRL. Purified human cathepsin D, incubated with hPRL for up to 24h, also failed to cleave the hormone . These...we tested if hPRL binds to heparin. Upon fractionating hPRL on a heparin affinity column, the hormone was retained and was eluted with 0.5M NaCl. Such

  17. Prolactin messenger ribonucleic acid concentrations throughout the ovine estrous cycle: Assessment relative to prolactin serum and pituitary amounts

    SciTech Connect

    Landefeld, T.; Roulia, V.; Bagnell, T.; Ballard, T.; Levitan, I. )

    1991-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) mRNA concentrations were assessed by nucleic acid hybridization assays in pituitaries of ewes representing the defined stages of the ovine estrous cycle. Concomitantly, pituitary and serum PRL concentrations were measured in these ewes using radioimmunoassays. It was observed that PRL serum, pituitary and mRNA concentrations tended to increase near the time of the gonadotropin preovulatory surge, particularly between 24 hrs before behavioral estrus to 5 hours after estrus. However, the changes in PRL mRNA, serum and pituitary concentrations were shown not to be statistically significant. These data suggest that PRL production during the sheep estrous cycle is maintained without dramatic changes in synthesis or secretion.

  18. Water Extract of Fructus Hordei Germinatus Shows Antihyperprolactinemia Activity via Dopamine D2 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiong; Ma, Li; Zhang, En-jing; Zou, Ji-li; Guo, Hao; Peng, Si-wei; Wu, Jin-hu

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Fructus Hordei Germinatus is widely used in treating hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL) as a kind of Chinese traditional herb in China. In this study, we investigated the anti-hyperPRL activity of water extract of Fructus Hordei Germinatus (WEFHG) and mechanism of action. Methods. Effect of WEFHG on serum prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and hypothalamus protein kinase A (PKA) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels of hyperPRL rats were investigated. And effect of WEFHG on PRL secretion, D2 receptors, and dopamine transporters (DAT) was studied in MMQ, GH3, and PC12 cells, respectively. Results. WEFHG reduced the secretion of PRL in hyperPRL rats effectively. In MMQ cell, treatment with WEFHG at 1–5 mg/mL significantly suppressed PRL secretion and synthesis. Consistent with a D2-action, WEFHG did not affect PRL in rat pituitary lactotropic tumor-derived GH3 cells that lack the D2 receptor expression but significantly increased the expression of D2 receptors and DAT in PC12 cells. In addition, WEFHG reduced the cAMP and PKA levels of hypothalamus in hyperPRL rats significantly. Conclusions. WEFHG showed anti-hyperPRL activity via dopamine D2 receptor, which was related to the second messenger cAMP and PKA. PMID:25254056

  19. Prolactin Promotes Adipose Tissue Fitness and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Males.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Herrera, Xarubet; de Los Ríos, Ericka A; Díaz, Juan M; Lerma-Alvarado, Ricardo M; Martínez de la Escalera, Lucía; López-Barrera, Fernando; Lemini, María; Arnold, Edith; Martínez de la Escalera, Gonzalo; Clapp, Carmen; Macotela, Yazmín

    2017-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of body fat triggers insulin resistance and features of the metabolic syndrome. Recently, evidence has accumulated that obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are associated with reduced levels of serum prolactin (PRL) in humans and rodents, raising the question of whether low PRL levels contribute to metabolic dysfunction. Here, we have addressed this question by investigating the role of PRL in insulin sensitivity and adipose tissue fitness in obese rodents and humans. In diet-induced obese rats, treatment with PRL delivered via osmotic mini-pumps, improved insulin sensitivity, prevented adipocyte hypertrophy, and reduced inflammatory cytokine expression in visceral fat. PRL also induced increased expression of Pparg and Xbp1s in visceral adipose tissue and elevated circulating adiponectin levels. Conversely, PRL receptor null mice challenged with a high-fat diet developed greater insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and increased adipocyte hypertrophy compared with wild-type mice. In humans, serum PRL values correlated positively with systemic adiponectin levels and were reduced in insulin-resistant patients. Furthermore, PRL circulating levels and PRL produced by adipose tissue correlated directly with the expression of PPARG, ADIPOQ, and GLUT4 in human visceral and sc adipose tissue. Thus, PRL, acting through its cognate receptors, promotes healthy adipose tissue function and systemic insulin sensitivity. Increasing the levels of PRL in the circulation may have therapeutic potential against obesity-induced metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society.

  20. Increased serum level of prolactin is related to autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Li, Q; Yang, X; Li, M

    2016-04-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is known to aid effector B cells and augment autoimmunity, but the role of PRL in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the serum levels of PRL and autoantibody production in SLE. Blood levels of PRL, anti-double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) antibody, immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were determined in samples from 30 adult patients with SLE and 25 healthy controls. The relationships between the serum level of PRL and SLE disease activity, as well as the titres of the ds-DNA antibody, IgM and IgG were determined. The serum level of PRL was higher in the SLE patients than in the healthy controls. PRL concentration increased during SLE flares-ups and decreased following disease remission. There was a positive correlation between the PRL concentration and serum levels of IgM, IgG and ds-DNA antibody titre. These data suggest that the serum level of PRL was closely related to the antibody production and disease activity of SLE patients. PRL concentration was dramatically reduced upon the remission of disease activity, indicating that PRL levels might be a promising predictor of SLE disease severity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Macroprolactinemia: Diagnostic, Clinical, and Pathogenic Significance

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Macroprolactinemia is characterized by a large molecular mass of PRL (macroprolactin) as the main molecular form of PRL in sera, the frequent elevation of serum PRL (hyperprolactinemia), and the lack of symptoms. Macroprolactin is largely a complex of PRL with immunoglobulin G (IgG), especially anti-PRL autoantibodies. The prevalence of macroprolactinemia is 10–25% in patients with hyperprolactinemia and 3.7% in general population. There is no gender difference and a long-term followup demonstrates that macroprolactinemia develops before middle age and is likely a chronic condition. Polyethylene-glycol- (PEG-) precipitation method is widely used for screening macroprolactinemia, and gel filtration chromatography, protein A/G column, and I125-PRL binding studies are performed to confirm and clarify its nature. The cross-reactivity of macroprolactin varies widely according to the immunoassay systems. The epitope on PRL molecule recognized by the autoantibodies is located close to the binding site for PRL receptors, which may explain that macroprolactin has a lower biological activity. Hyperprolactinemia frequently seen in macroprolactinemic patients is due to the delayed clearance of autoantibody-bound PRL. When rats are immunized with rat pituitary PRL, anti-PRL autoantibodies are produced and hyperprolactinemia develops, mimicking macroprolactinemia in humans. Screening of macroprolactinemia is important for the differential diagnosis of hyperprolactinemia to avoid unnecessary examinations and treatments. PMID:23304187

  2. Identification of proteins suppressing the functions of oncogenic phosphatase of regenerating liver 1 and 3

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju-Dong; Jung, Haiyoung; Min, Sang-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) family, including PRL-1, PRL-2, and PRL-3, comprises protein tyrosine phosphatases whose deregulation is associated with the tumorigenesis and metastasis of many types of cancer. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, aiming to increase understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the functions of PRL-1 and PRL-3, a yeast two-hybrid system was employed to screen for their interacting proteins. Alignment with the NCBI BLAST database revealed 12 interactive proteins: Synaptic nuclear envelope protein 2, emerin, mannose 6-phosphate receptor-binding protein 1, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 10, Rab acceptor 1, tumor protein D52-like 2, selectin P ligand (SELPLG), guanylate binding protein 1, transmembrane and ubiquitin-like domain-containing 2, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit B8, syndecan 4 and FK506-binding protein 8 (FKBP8). These proteins are associated with cell proliferation, apoptosis, immune response, cell fate specification and metabolic process in biological process categories, and involved in various signaling pathways, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and cell adhesion molecules. Interactions of PRL-1 with the prey proteins SELPLG and FKBP8 were confirmed by immunoprecipitation or immunostaining. Furthermore, SELPLG and FKBP8 suppressed PRL-1− or PRL-3-mediated p53 activity. Identification of the proteins interacting with PRL family proteins may provide valuable information to better understand the mechanism of PRL-mediated signal transduction in cancer and other diverse diseases. PMID:27882103

  3. Prolactin and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Vera-Lastra, Olga; Jara, Luis J; Espinoza, Luis R

    2002-12-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a versatile hormone that is produced by the anterior pituitary gland and various extrapituitary sites including immune cells. Furthermore, PRL has widespread influences on proliferation and differentiation of a variety of cells in the immune system and is, in effect, a cytokine. PRL-receptors (PRL-R) are distributed throughout the immune system and are included as members of the cytokine receptor superfamily. PRL-R signal transduction is mediated by a complex array of signaling molecules of which JAK2, Stat1 and Stat5 pathway have been well studied. In PRL-stimulated T cells, the transcription factor gene, interferon regulatory factor-1 provides a mechanism whereby PRL can regulate the immune response. The human PRL gene is situated on the short arm of chromosome 6 close to the major histocompatibility complex. Polymorphisms of the human PRL gene have implications for production of lymphocyte PRL in SLE. Mild and moderate hyperprolactinemia (HPRL) has been demonstrated in 20-30% of SLE patients and is associated with active disease. HPRL may have a role in lupus nephritis and central nervous system involvement of SLE patients. HPRL stimulated the production of autoantibodies. These evidences support the important role of PRL in autoimmunity and autoimmune diseases, mainly SLE.

  4. Endocrinological study of the dopaminergic regulation of prolactin release in metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mandalà, M; Lissoni, P; Ardizzoia, A; Barni, S; Rovelli, F; Confalonieri, G; Malugani, F; Moro, C; Fumagalli, G; Giani, L; Tancini, G

    1999-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) may be a growth factor for breast cancer. Abnormally high levels of PRL have been proven to be associated with a poor prognosis in metastatic breast cancer. However, most studies have been limited to the evaluation of basal levels of PRL rather than its response to the classical endocrine dynamic tests. This study was performed to analyse the dynamic secretion of PRL under stimulatory and inhibitory tests in metastatic breast cancer. The study included 10 untreated metastatic breast cancer women, who were evaluated after the classical stimulatory and inhibitory tests for PRL secretion with the antidopaminergic agent Metoclopramide (10 mg iv as a bolus) and with L-dopa, respectively. Serum levels of PRL were measured by RIA before and at subsequent intervals after drug administration. PRL levels were considered to be elevated when they were higher than 25 ng/ml. Abnormally high basal levels of PRL were seen in 6/10 patients. L-dopa was unable to inhibit PRL secretion, whose mean concentrations paradoxically significantly increased in response to L-dopa, with values comparable to those observed after the classical stimulatory test with metoclopramide. This study confirm the existence of hyperprolactinemia associated with metastatic breast cancer. In addition, by showing a paradoxical rise of PRL in response to L-dopa, which inhibits PRL secretion in physiological conditions, this study would suggest that breast cancer-related hyperprolactinemia may depend at least in part on endogenous disease-related neuroendocrine alterations.

  5. The role of the prolactin/vasoinhibin axis in rheumatoid arthritis: an integrative overview.

    PubMed

    Clapp, Carmen; Adán, Norma; Ledesma-Colunga, María G; Solís-Gutiérrez, Mariana; Triebel, Jakob; Martínez de la Escalera, Gonzalo

    2016-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, autoimmune, inflammatory disease destroying articular cartilage and bone. The female preponderance and the influence of reproductive states in RA have long linked this disease to sexually dimorphic, reproductive hormones such as prolactin (PRL). PRL has immune-enhancing properties and increases in the circulation of some patients with RA. However, PRL also suppresses the immune system, stimulates the formation and survival of joint tissues, acquires antiangiogenic properties upon its cleavage to vasoinhibins, and protects against joint destruction and inflammation in the adjuvant-induced model of RA. This review addresses risk factors for RA linked to PRL, the effects of PRL and vasoinhibins on joint tissues, blood vessels, and immune cells, and the clinical and experimental data associating PRL with RA. This information provides important insights into the pathophysiology of RA and highlights protective actions of the PRL/vasoinhibin axis that could lead to therapeutic benefits.

  6. Prolactin-like hormone in the nematode Trichinella spiralis larvae.

    PubMed

    Quintanar, J Luis; Salinas, Eva; Guerrero, Raquel; Gómez, Rigoberto; Vidal, Sergio; Aranda, Jorge; Clapp, Carmen

    2007-06-01

    Expression of prolactin (PRL) or prolactin-like hormone has been reported in invertebrates. We investigated the larval phase of Trichinella spiralis: (a) to express 23 kDa PRL, (b) to define its localization and (c) to test its possible biological activity. Immunostaining in isolated larvae demonstrated positive material to 23 kDa PRL by all along the stichosome, specifically in the stichocytes. Homogenized immunoblot larvae showed a 23 kDa protein band. To assess PRL release and its biological activity, larvae were incubated in culture medium and the excretory/secretory products were analyzed by the Nb2 cells bioassay. A cellular growth equivalent until 10 nM PRL and using antibody against 23 kDa PRL, the growth was blocked. In conclusion our result provides evidence that PRL-like hormone is expressed and secreted by the larvae of T. spiralis.

  7. Effects of preferred retinal locus placement on text navigation and development of advantageous trained retinal locus.

    PubMed

    Watson, Gale R; Schuchard, Ronald A; De l'Aune, William R; Watkins, Erica

    2006-01-01

    Sixty readers were evaluated for visual function and text-navigation ability. The visual field and preferred retinal locus (PRL) were measured with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO). We found significant differences in text-navigation ability based on scotoma and PRL placement. Readers with a PRL to the left of or above a scotoma had significantly less text-navigation abilities. Readers with a PRL to the left of a scotoma tended to misread words with similar beginnings and omit the last word on a line. Readers with a PRL above a scotoma tended to skip a line or reread the same line twice. In a follow-up study, seven subjects with a nonadvantageous PRL quickly developed a trained retinal locus (TRL) during instruction with an SLO. Although the readers developed the TRL in about 15 minutes, they read slower with the TRL than the PRL. This TRL research provides promising pilot data.

  8. Pregnancy-Related Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Clinical Features, Outcome and Risk Factors of Disease Flares — A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lidan; Wang, Qian; Leng, Xiaomei; Zheng, Wenjie; Zhang, Fengchun; Tang, Fulin; Zhang, Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical features, outcome, and risk factors of disease flares in patients with pregnancy-related lupus (PRL). Methods Medical charts of 155 consecutive PRL inpatients were systematically reviewed, including demographic data, clinical features, laboratory findings, treatment, complications, and outcome. Results PRL cases were divided into active (a-PRL) (n = 82, 53.0%) and stable lupus (s-PRL) (n = 73, 47.0%). Compared with nonpregnant active female systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, a-PRL including new-onset lupus (n-PRL) and flare lupus (f-PRL) (n = 41 respectively), had a higher incidence of renal and hematological involvement but less mucocutaneous and musculoskeletal involvement (p<0.05). The incidence of preeclampsia/eclampsia, fetal loss, and preterm birth were significantly higher in a-PRL than in s-PRL (p<0.05). Despite receiving a more vigorous glucocorticoid treatment, a-PRL mothers had a poorer prognosis (p<0.001). Five (6.1%) of them died and 13 (15.9%) developed severe irreversible organ failure, whereas none of these events was observed in the s-PRL group. Multivariate logistic analysis indicated that a history of lupus flares and serological activity (hypocomplementemia and/or anti-dsDNA positivity) at the time of conception were associated with lupus flares in PRL mothers. Conclusions SLE patients with a flare history and serological activity at the time of conception were at an increased risk of disease flares during pregnancy and puerperium. a-PRL patients were more prone to renal and hematological involvement, pregnancy complications, and a poorer prognosis despite more vigorous glucocorticoid treatment. PMID:25118692

  9. Morphologic effects of bromocriptine on spontaneously occurring pituitary prolactin-cell hyperplasia in old Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed Central

    McComb, D. J.; Hellmann, P.; Thorner, M. O.; Scott, D.; Evans, W. S.; Kovacs, K.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of bromocriptine (BEC), a dopaminergic agonist, on nontumorous pituitary prolactin (PRL) cells of aging female Long-Evans rats, was studied histologically, immunocytologically, electron-microscopically, and morphometrically. Rats were arbitrarily divided into two control groups, one with normal (less than 20 ng/ml) and one with elevated serum PRL concentrations, and into four BEC-treated groups, all of which had increased serum PRL levels prior to commencement of BEC administration. In hyperprolactinemic control rats, compared with normoprolactinemic control rats, pituitary weight and percentage of pituitary PRL cells were increased. The morphologic features of PRL cells in these two groups did not differ markedly, which suggested that hyperprolactinemia was due to increased PRL-cell number and not increased PRL-cell function. Compared with age-matched hyperprolactinemic control rats, hyperprolactinemic rats treated with BEC showed a reversible decrease in serum PRL levels, pituitary weight as well as percentage of pituitary PRL cells, and by ultrastructural morphometry an increase in the volume density of lysosomes. BEC caused no striking changes in nuclear and cytoplasmic areas, volume densities of RER, Golgi regions, mitochondria, lipid droplets, and size and volume densities of forming and storage granules. Since spontaneously hyperplastic PRL cells show less conspicuous morphologic changes following BEC treatment than PRL cells rendered hyperplastic by estrogen administration or pituitary transplantation, it is suggested that PRL cells with no increased endocrine function respond less markedly to dopaminergic suppression than endocrinologically hyperactive PRL cells. It can be concluded that BEC suppresses spontaneous proliferation of PRL cells which occurs with aging. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3942200

  10. In vivo inhibition followed by exogenous supplementation demonstrates galactopoietic effects of prolactin on mammary tissue and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lollivier, V; Lacasse, P; Angulo Arizala, J; Lamberton, P; Wiart, S; Portanguen, J; Bruckmaier, R; Boutinaud, M

    2015-12-01

    It has been previously shown that the long-term inhibition of milking-induced prolactin (PRL) release by quinagolide (QN), a dopamine agonist, reduces milk yield in dairy cows. To further demonstrate that PRL is galactopoietic in cows, we performed a short-term experiment that used PRL injections to restore the release of PRL at milking in QN-treated cows. Nine Holstein cows were assigned to treatments during three 5-d periods in a 3×3 Latin square design: 1) QN: twice-daily i.m. injections of 1mg of QN; 2) QN-PRL: twice-daily i.m. injections of 1mg of QN and twice-daily (at milking time) i.v. injections of PRL (2µg/kg body weight); and 3) control: twice-daily injections of the vehicles. Mammary epithelial cells (MEC) were purified from milk so that their viability could be assessed, and mammary biopsies were harvested for immunohistological analyses of cell proliferation using PCNA and STAT5 staining. In both milk-purified MEC and mammary tissue, the mRNA levels of milk proteins and BAX were determined using real-time reverse-transcription PCR. Daily QN injections reduced milking-induced PRL release. The area under the PRL curve was similar in the control and PRL injection treatments, but the shape was different. The QN treatment decreased milk, lactose, protein, and casein production. Injections of PRL did not restore milk yield but tended to increase milk protein yield. In mammary tissue, the percentage of STAT5-positive cells was reduced during QN but not during QN-PRL in comparison with the control treatment. The percentage of PCNA-positive cells was greater during QN-PRL injections than during the control or QN treatment and tended to be lower during QN than during the control treatment. In milk-purified MEC, κ-casein and α-lactalbumin mRNA levels were lower during QN than during the control treatment, but during QN-PRL, they were not different from the control treatment. In mammary tissue, the BAX mRNA level was lower during QN-PRL than during QN. The

  11. Suppression of breast tumor growth by DNA vaccination against phosphatase of regenerating liver 3.

    PubMed

    Lv, J; Liu, C; Huang, H; Meng, L; Jiang, B; Cao, Y; Zhou, Z; She, T; Qu, L; Wei Song, S; Shou, C

    2013-08-01

    Phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL)-3 is highly expressed in multiple cancers and has important roles in cancer development. Some small-molecule inhibitors and antibodies targeting PRL-3 have been recently reported to inhibit tumor growth effectively. To determine whether PRL-3-targeted DNA vaccination can induce immune response to prevent or inhibit the tumor growth, we established mouse D2F2 breast cancer cells expressing PRL-3 (D2F2/PRL-3) and control cells (D2F2/NC) with lentivirus, and constructed pVAX1-Igκ-PRL-3 plasmid (named as K-P3) as DNA vaccine to immunize BALB/c mice. We found that the K-P3 vaccine delivered by gene gun significantly prevented the growth of D2F2/PRL-3 compared with pVAX1-vector (P<0.01), but not of D2F2/NC, and improved the survival of D2F2/PRL-3-innoculated mice. Both PRL-3-targeted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and T-helper type 1 cell immune response (production of high levels of interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α) were found to be involved in the preventive effect. Furthermore, PRL-3-targeted DNA immunization inhibited tumor growth of D2F2/PRL-3 cells in mice. We also evaluated the potential of immunization with PRL-3 protein, but no significant therapeutic or preventive effect was obtained on tumor growth. To enhance the immunity of PRL-3, we incorporated different molecular adjuvants, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis heat-shock protein, CTL antigen 4 and M. tuberculosis T-cell stimulatory epitope (MT), into K-P3 vaccine for expressing the fusion proteins. We found that these adjuvant molecules did not significantly improve the antitumor activity of PRL-3 vaccine, but enhanced the production of PRL-3 antibodies in immunized mice. Summarily, our findings demonstrate that PRL-3-targeted DNA vaccine can generate significantly preventive and therapeutic effects on the growth of breast cancer expressing PRL-3 through the induction of cellular immune responses to PRL-3.

  12. Identification of IgG-κ type macroprolactin found in the serum of an 8-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Keiichi; Moriyama, Takanori; Yasuda, Keiko; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Tajima, Toshihiro; Shigematsu, Akio; Shimizu, Chikara

    2014-06-10

    We report a case of macroprolactin (macroPRL) in an 8-year-old girl complaining of an enlarged and painful breast who showed elevated PRL levels by enzyme immunoassay. Size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was carried out on a Superose 12 column to estimate the PRL molecular profile. To identify the type of immunoglobulin bound to PRL, immunoprecipitation reactions were performed using three types of anti-heavy chain antibody and two types of anti-light chain. PRL in the patient's serum was eluted at a size slightly larger than the IgG peak by size-exclusion HPLC on a Superose 12 column. In the immunoprecipitation reaction, the PRL concentration of the supernatant mixed with anti-gamma heavy chain and anti-κ light chain was dramatically decreased compared to other types of antiserum. These results indicated that macromolecular PRL was composed of PRL and IgG-κ. A rare case of PRL-IgG-κ-type complex was identified in the serum of the girl and the type of immunoglobulin light chain was determined for the first time. When encountering a child with hyperprolactinemia, pediatricians should take into account the possibility of macroPRL to avoid unnecessary investigation and/or treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Insight into the Endocrine System and the Immune System: A Review of the Inflammatory Role of Prolactin in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Psoriatic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Man W; Garcia, Samuel; Gerlag, Danielle M; Tak, Paul P; Reedquist, Kris A

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects females three times more frequently than males. A potential role for hormones, such as prolactin (PRL), may in part explain this phenomenon. The risk of developing RA is increased in women who are lactating after the first pregnancy, which might be related to breastfeeding and the release of PRL. Other studies found a protective effect of PRL on RA development. Some studies have reported that hyperprolactinemia is more common in RA and serum PRL levels are correlated with several disease parameters, although others could not confirm these findings. Overall the plasma PRL levels are on average not elevated in RA. Previously, a small number of open-label clinical trials using bromocriptine, which indirectly decreases PRL levels, were performed in RA patients and showed clinical benefit, although others found the opposite effect. Locally produced PRL at the site of inflammation may have a crucial role in RA as well, as it has been shown that PRL can be produced by synovial macrophages. Locally produced PRL has both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects in arthritis. Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is also an autoinflammatory disease, in which the prolactin receptor is also expressed in macrophages. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential role of PRL signaling in inflammatory joint diseases (RA and PsA) and its potential as a therapeutic target.

  14. A 14-kilodalton prolactin-like fragment is secreted by the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system of the rat.

    PubMed

    Torner, L; Mejía, S; López-Gómez, F J; Quintanar, A; Martínez de la Escalera, G; Clapp, C

    1995-12-01

    The recently described expression of the PRL gene, and the occurrence of a 14-kilodalton (kDa)PRL-like immunoreactive protein in the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system of the rat have raised the possibility that PRL variants are released from neurohypophyseal terminals into the blood. In this study, we investigated the local production of a hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal 14-kDa PRL-like protein by showing an independent origin from adenohypophyseal PRL. No 14-kDa PRL-like protein was detected in adenohypophyseal extracts by Western blots, whereas chronic hypophysectomy produced no change in the immunocytochemical detection of PRLs in supraoptic and paraventricular magnocellular neurons. In addition, a 14-kDa immunoreactive PRL-like protein was released into the medium by incubated neurohypophyseal lobes. Western blot analysis showed that significantly more of this 14-kDa protein was released into calcium-containing medium (1.8 mM) than into calcium-free medium. Furthermore, depolarizing concentrations of potassium (56 mM) increased by 3-fold the release of immunoreactive PRL by incubated hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal explants. In addition, a 14-kDa PRL-like antigen was detected in the circulation of the rat by Western blot analysis. These results are consistent with the local synthesis and calcium-dependent release of neurohypophyseal PRL-like proteins that include a predominant 14-kDa form.

  15. Use of prolactin receptor antagonist to better understand prolactin regulation of pituitary homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ferraris, Jimena; Bernichtein, Sophie; Pisera, Daniel; Goffin, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The anterior pituitary is permanently regulated by processes of apoptosis and proliferation in order to maintain tissue homeostasis. Several factors have been implicated in this regulation and lately, prolactin (PRL) has been included into that list. However, since PRL is secreted by anterior pituitary lactotropes, the actual outcome of its autocrine/paracrine actions on pituitary cells has remained difficult to assess. The availability of the pure PRL receptor antagonist Del1-9-G129R-hPRL has been helpful to circumvent this problem. While PRL has been traditionally associated with increased cell proliferation, recent studies revealed that this hormone actually induces apoptosis and decreases proliferation of anterior pituitary cells, by mechanisms involving the PRL receptor. The aim of this short review is to overview our current understanding of the regulation of pituitary homeostasis by PRL. Moreover, studies involving Del1-9-G129R-hPRL have helped anticipate to what extent future treatments involving PRL receptor inhibitors may interfere with processes regulated by PRL at the central level. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Prolactin Levels Correlate with Abnormal B Cell Maturation in MRL and MRL/lpr Mouse Models of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-Like Disease

    PubMed Central

    Legorreta-Haquet, Maria Victoria; Flores-Fernández, Rocio; Blanco-Favela, Francisco; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M; Chávez-Sánchez, Luis; Hernández-González, Rafael; Tesoro-Cruz, Emiliano; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Chávez-Rueda, Adriana Karina

    2013-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) plays an important role in modulating the immune response. In B cells, PRL enhances antibody production, including antibodies with self-specificity. In this study, our aims were to determine the level of PRL receptor expression during bone-marrow B-cell development and to assess whether the presence of high PRL serum concentrations influences absolute numbers of developing populations and disease outcome in lupus-prone murine models. We observed that the PRL-receptor is expressed in early bone-marrow B-cell; the expression in lupus-prone mice, which had the highest level of expression in pro-B cells and immature cells, differed from that in wild-type mice. These expression levels did not significantly change in response to hyperprolactinemia; however, populations of pro-B and immature cells from lupus-prone strains showed a decrease in the absolute numbers of cells with high PRL-receptor expression in response to PRL. Because immature self-reactive B cells are constantly being eliminated, we assessed the expression of survival factor BIRC5, which is more highly expressed in both pro-B and immature B-cells in response to PRL and correlates with the onset of disease. These results identify an important role of PRL in the early stages of the B-cell maturation process: PRL may promote the survival of self-reactive clones. PMID:24454471

  17. High Prolactin Excretion in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Renal Function.

    PubMed

    Triebel, Jakob; Moreno-Vega, Aura Ileana; Vázquez-Membrillo, Miguel; Nava, Gabriel; García-Franco, Renata; López-Star, Ellery; Baldivieso-Hurtado, Olivia; Ochoa, Daniel; Macotela, Yazmín; Bertsch, Thomas; Martinez de la Escalera, Gonzalo; Clapp, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The metabolic clearance of prolactin (PRL) is partially executed by the kidney. Here, we investigate the urine excretion of PRL in patients with Diabetes Mellitus and renal impairment. Serum and urine samples were collected from male, mestizo patients in central Mexico employing a cross-sectional study design. Ninety-eight individuals had either no diabetes and normal renal function (control), diabetes and normal renal function, or diabetes with impaired renal function. PRL was determined by a chemiluminescent immunometric assay; protein, albumin, and creatinine were evaluated using quantitative colorimetric assays. The results were analyzed using ANOVA-testing. Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and renal impairment had significantly higher urine PRL levels than patients with Diabetes Mellitus and normal renal function and control patients. Higher urine PRL levels were associated with lower glomerular filtration rates, higher serum creatinine, and higher urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios (UACR). Urine PRL levels correlated positively with UACR. Serum PRL levels were similar among groups. Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and impaired renal function demonstrate a high urinary PRL excretion. Urinary PRL excretion in the context of proteinuria could contribute to PRL dysregulation in renal impairment.

  18. Prolactin confers resistance against cisplatin in breast cancer cells by activating glutathione-S-transferase.

    PubMed

    LaPensee, Elizabeth W; Schwemberger, Sandy J; LaPensee, Christopher R; Bahassi, El Mustapha; Afton, Scott E; Ben-Jonathan, Nira

    2009-08-01

    Resistance to chemotherapy is a major obstacle for successful treatment of breast cancer patients. Given that prolactin (PRL) acts as an anti-apoptotic/survival factor in the breast, we postulated that it antagonizes cytotoxicity by chemotherapeutic drugs. Treatment of breast cancer cells with PRL caused variable resistance to taxol, vinblastine, doxorubicin and cisplatin. PRL prevented cisplatin-induced G(2)/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In the presence of PRL, significantly less cisplatin was bound to DNA, as determined by mass spectroscopy, and little DNA damage was seen by gamma-H2AX staining. PRL dramatically increased the activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), which sequesters cisplatin in the cytoplasm; this increase was abrogated by Jak and mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors. PRL upregulated the expression of the GSTmu, but not the pi, isozyme. A GST inhibitor abrogated antagonism of cisplatin cytotoxicity by PRL. In conclusion, PRL confers resistance against cisplatin by activating a detoxification enzyme, thereby reducing drug entry into the nucleus. These data provide a rational explanation for the ineffectiveness of cisplatin in breast cancer, which is characterized by high expression of both PRL and its receptor. Suppression of PRL production or blockade of its actions should benefit patients undergoing chemotherapy by allowing for lower drug doses and expanded drug options.

  19. Prolactin receptors in liver, kidney, and gill of the tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus): Characterization and effect of salinity on specific binding of iodinated ovine prolactin

    SciTech Connect

    Dauder, S.; Young, G.; Hass, L.; Bern, H.A. )

    1990-03-01

    Specific binding of {sup 125}I-ovine prolactin (oPRL) to microsomal fractions from gill, kidney, and liver of adult tilapia was determined. Specific binding varied among tissues, the highest values being displayed by kidney membranes. In the liver, the binding of oPRL was not strongly displaced by tilapia prolactins (tPRL177 and tPRL188), although tPRL177 was six times more potent than tPRL188. On the other hand, in kidney and gill membranes, the two tPRLs were equipotent. Tilapia PRLs showed low potency in competing for oPRL-binding sites when pregnant rat liver membranes were utilized. Tilapia growth hormone (tGH) and human growth hormone (hGH) displaced {sup 125}I-oPRL from liver as well as did tPRL177 but were not recognized well by renal or branchial receptors. Two {sup 125}I-oPRL-binding sites were detected in every tissue tested. These binding sites are subject to physiological regulation since adaptation to seawater resulted in a significant decrease in specific binding.

  20. Melatonin effects on prolactin secretion in pituitary-grafted male rats.

    PubMed

    Villanua, M A; Agrasal, C; Tresguerres, J A; Vaughan, M K; Esquifino, A I

    1989-01-01

    Melatonin influences prolactin (PRL) secretion through unknown mechanisms. This work was undertaken to study the effects of melatonin administration on PRL secretion in pituitary-grafted male rats. Melatonin administration 5 hours before dark resulted in a marked decrease of previously high basal plasma PRL levels in pituitary-grafted rats, whereas a marked increase was detected in sham-operated animals. Vehicle treatment did not modify basal PRL values in grafted or sham-operated animals. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) administration resulted in a marked decrease of plasma PRL levels in vehicle-treated, sham-operated or grafted rats, as well as in melatonin-treated sham-operated rats. An increase in PRL levels was shown in grafted rats treated with melatonin. Estradiol benzoate (EB) administration resulted in an increase in plasma PRL levels both in sham-operated and grafted vehicle-treated rats. No PRL response could be detected in sham-operated, melatonin-treated animals after EB administration. In pituitary-grafted animals given melatonin, PRL response to EB administration was slight and delayed. From these data, melatonin appears to modify PRL secretion through multiple complex mechanisms that may depend on the physiological status (hormonal and neurotransmitter) of the animals. A direct effect at the pituitary level altering lactotroph sensitivity seems to be one plausible explanation for the current findings, although an hypothalamic site of action cannot be excluded.

  1. Temporal association between serum prolactin concentration and exposure to styrene

    PubMed Central

    Luderer, U; Tornero-Velez, R; Shay, T; Rappaport, S; Heyer, N; Echeverria, D

    2004-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have suggested that occupational exposure to styrene is associated with increased serum levels of the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL). Aims: To test the hypotheses that: (1) the effect of styrene exposure on PRL secretion is an acute effect, not a subchronic or chronic effect; (2) blood styrene, as a measure of absorbed dose, is a stronger predictor of serum PRL level than personal breathing zone air styrene concentration. Methods: Subjects were recruited from 17 workplaces in the reinforced plastics industry. Personal breathing zone air styrene, whole blood styrene, and serum PRL were measured during one to three sessions, approximately one year apart. Linear multiple regression was used to model the relations between acute (air styrene or blood styrene obtained at same time as PRL), subchronic (average air or blood styrene over two or three sessions), and chronic (years of work in industry or facility times average air styrene over all sessions) indices of styrene exposure and serum PRL. Results: Acute blood styrene concentration was the strongest predictor of serum PRL concentration, with the model predicting a 2.06-fold increase in PRL (95% CI 1.11 to 3.84) for every 10-fold increase in blood styrene. Serum PRL tended to increase with increasing styrene exposure in both men and women; however, women tended to have higher PRL levels. For women, the change in blood styrene between sessions 1 and 2 was a significant predictor of the change in serum PRL between sessions. Conclusions: Results confirm that styrene exposure enhances serum PRL concentrations and support an acute effect of styrene on PRL secretion. PMID:15031390

  2. Allometric relations of total volumes of prolactin cells and corticotropic cells to body length in the annual cyprinodont Cynolebias whitei: effects of environmental salinity, stress and ageing.

    PubMed

    Ruijter, J M; Wendelaar Bonga, S E

    1987-09-01

    An analysis of the allometric relations of the total volumes occupied by prolactin (PRL) and corticotropic (ACTH) cells (PRL volume and ACTH volume, respectively) to body length and a study of the immunocytochemical staining intensity of PRL and ACTH cells were used to determine the differences in activity of PRL and ACTH cells in freshwater-reared and in saltwater-reared Cynolebias whitei during the entire lifespan of this annual cyprinodont fish. An inflection in the allometric relation of PRL volume to body length was observed in fish of one-week old. The relatively large PRL volume in younger fish may be related to PRL cell activity before hatching. No inflections were observed in the allometric relations of PRL volume and ACTH volume to body length at the onset of maturation and the onset of ageing, indicating that the increased pituitary growth in maturing and ageing C. whitei is not the result of changes in PRL or ACTH cells. The slope of the allometric relation of PRL volume to body length in freshwater-reared fish was significantly steeper than the slope in saltwater-reared fish. The PRL volume in adult freshwater-reared fish was eight times larger than that in saltwater-reared fish of the same length. The intensity of immunocytochemical staining of saltwater PRL cells was significantly reduced. These volumetric and staining differences correspond to the low functional demand put upon PRL cells in saltwater-adapted fish. In contrast, the slope of the allometric relation of ACTH volume to body length and the intensity of immunocytochemical staining of ACTH cells were similar in freshwater-reared and in saltwater-reared fish.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Identification of a gain-of-function mutation of the prolactin receptor in women with benign breast tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bogorad, Roman L.; Courtillot, Carine; Mestayer, Chidi; Bernichtein, Sophie; Harutyunyan, Lilya; Jomain, Jean-Baptiste; Bachelot, Anne; Kuttenn, Frédérique; Kelly, Paul A.; Goffin, Vincent; Touraine, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    There is currently no known genetic disease linked to prolactin (Prl) or its receptor (PrlR) in humans. Given the essential role of this hormonal system in breast physiology, we reasoned that genetic anomalies of Prl/PrlR genes may be related to the occurrence of breast diseases with high proliferative potential. Multiple fibroadenomas (MFA) are benign breast tumors which appear most frequently in young women, including at puberty, when Prl has well-recognized proliferative actions on the breast. In a prospective study involving 74 MFA patients and 170 control subjects, we identified four patients harboring a heterozygous single nucleotide polymorphism in exon 6 of the PrlR gene, encoding Ile146→Leu substitution in its extracellular domain. This sole substitution was sufficient to confer constitutive activity to the receptor variant (PrlRI146L), as assessed in three reconstituted cell models (Ba/F3, HEK293 and MCF-7 cells) by Prl-independent (i) PrlR tyrosine phosphorylation, (ii) activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) signaling, (iii) transcriptional activity toward a Prl-responsive reporter gene, and (iv) cell proliferation and protection from cell death. Constitutive activity of PrlRI146L in the breast sample from a patient was supported by increased STAT5 signaling. This is a unique description of a functional mutation of the PrlR associated with a human disease. Hallmarks of constitutive activity were all reversed by a specific PrlR antagonist, which opens potential therapeutic approaches for MFA, or any other disease that could be associated with this mutation in future. PMID:18779591

  4. Role of calcium in prolactin-stimulated c-myc gene expression and mitogenesis in Nb2 lymphoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, P.R.; DiMattia, G.E.; Friesen, H.G.

    1988-06-01

    Receptor-activated transmembrane calcium flux has been implicated as a mediator of the actions of many growth factors and hormones. We examined the effects of PRL, calcium ionophores, and calcium antagonists on /sup 45/Ca2+ flux, c-myc gene expression, and DNA synthesis in the PRL-dependent rat Nb2 lymphoma cell line. PRL had no detectable effects on /sup 45/Ca2+ uptake or efflux, and the mitogenic effects of PRL could not be reproduced by the calcium ionophore A23187 alone or in combination with the tumor-promoting phorbol ester 12-O-tetra-decanoyl-phorbol-13 acetate (TPA). PRL, but not A23187 or TPA, stimulated c-myc gene expression in quiescent Nb2 cells. Exposure to PRL for brief periods (15 min to 4 h), followed by extensive washing, resulted in a time- and dose-dependent activation of DNA synthesis measured 16 h later. This activation was not blocked by addition of excess anti-PRL antiserum after the wash steps, indicating that the observed stimulation was not due to residual PRL. Despite the marked increase in DNA synthesis, removal of PRL after 4 h prevented mitosis, suggesting that PRL may be required throughout the cell cycle for Nb2 cell proliferation. Although continuous incubation with calcium antagonists resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of PRL-stimulated DNA synthesis, activation of DNA synthesis by brief exposure to PRL was not inhibited by the presence of EGTA, calcium channel blockers (nifedipine, cobalt chloride), or calmodulin inhibitors (trifluoperazine, N-6-aminohexyl-5-chloronaphthalene sulfonamide). PRL-stimulated c-myc expression was attenuated, but not blocked, by the calcium channel antagonists. However, the putative intracellular calcium antagonist TMB-8 inhibited both c-myc expression and DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 16 microM).

  5. Evaluation of hyperprolactinaemia with the use of the intervals for prolactin after macroforms separation.

    PubMed

    Beda-Maluga, K; Pisarek, H; Komorowski, J; Swietoslawski, J; Fuss-Chmielewska, J; Winczyk, K

    2014-06-01

    Macroprolactin (MaPRL) - a complex of monomeric prolactin (PRL) with immunoglobulin G, may be a cause of laboratory diagnosed hyperprolactinaemia. To quantify MaPRL, a precipitation with polyethylene glycol may be performed. This method involves calculating of recovery ratio but the cut-off value is not precisely determined. Moreover, it is proposed that the assessment of macroprolactinaemia should include also the evaluation of real PRL concentration which means the level of the hormone after macroforms separation. The study included 245 patients with hyperprolactinaemia, in whom precipitation was performed. A recovery ratio ≤40% indicated macroprolactinaemia. The real PRL concentrations of the studied subjects were compared with reference ranges suggested by the assay manufacturer and with new intervals for PRL after macroforms separation. On the base of the recovery ratio after the precipitation, macroprolactinaemia was detected in 21 persons. In these patients true hyperprolactinaemia (elevation of real PRL concentration above manufacturer's reference ranges) was noted in 9 cases. Among 224 patients with a recovery >40%, real PRL concentration turned out to be within the manufacturer's reference range (pseudohyperprolactinaemia) in 36 persons. The new intervals for PRL after macroforms separation were about 20% lower than the manufacturer's reference ranges. After applying new ranges in patients with macroprolactinaemia, true hyperprolactinaemia was observed in 14 persons, while in the group without MaPRL dominance, pseudohyperprolactinaemia was noted in 5 patients. The use of the recovery ratio only to recognize macroprolactinaemia may lead in some subjects to the misclassification of the results. For that reason the assessment of the PRL concentration after macroforms separation that can help to distinguish true hyperprolactinaemia and pseudohyperprolactinaemia, seems to be reasonable. To evaluate the real PRL concentration, the reference intervals

  6. Evidence for hepatic involvement in the regulation of amphibian development by prolactin.

    PubMed

    Delidow, B C; Baldocchi, R A; Nicoll, C S

    1988-06-01

    Hormonal control of amphibian development involves thyroid hormones (TH), which promote metamorphosis, and prolactin (PRL), which antagonizes the effects of TH and promotes larval growth. Although the liver is not considered to be a regulator of developmental processes such as metamorphosis, it secretes a PRL-synergizing factor (synlactin) in response to PRL. We explored the possibility that the liver may participate in the antimetamorphic actions of PRL in Rana catesbeiana. Bullfrog tadpoles, in which release of endogenous PRL was suppressed by injections of bromocryptine to induce metamorphic changes including tail regression, received hormone-containing implants in various sites. PRL implants in the spleen to deliver hormone directly to the liver via the hepatic portal drainage not only prevented tail regression but actually caused a substantial increase in the height of the tail fin. PRL implanted in other sites or GH implanted in the spleen was much less effective. The liver of animals with intrasplenic PRL implants secreted more synlactin in vitro than that of tadpoles with subcutaneous PRL implants. Young grass frogs were injected with ovine (o) GH or oPRL to determine effects on hepatic synlactin secretion. Although the GH stimulated body growth it did not induce the liver to secrete synlactin. By contrast, PRL treatment did stimulate hepatic secretion of synlactin without stimulating body growth. These results indicate that the liver of pre- and postmetamorphic animals can be stimulated by PRL to secrete synlactin. Furthermore, the antimetamorphic actions of PRL in tadpoles appears to be mediated, at least in part, by an action on the liver. Synlactin may mediate this hepatic effect.

  7. Evidence for a Role of Prolactin in Mediating Effects of Photoperiod during the Dry Period

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Heather M.; Morin, Dawn E.; Wall, Emma H.; McFadden, Thomas B.; Dahl, Geoffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Photoperiod manipulation during the lactation cycle alters milk yield, with long days (LDPP) increasing yield in lactation and short days (SDPP) in the dry period improving subsequent yield. Circulating prolactin (PRL) is directly related to day length, with LDPP increasing and SDPP decreasing PRL, respectively. Two blocks of 24 multiparous Holstein cows were used during two consecutive years to test the hypothesis that the mammary response to SDPP is the result of decreased concentrations of PRL in the circulation relative to LDPP. Cows were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups during the dry period: SDPP, LDPP, or SDPP+PRL. Cows were returned to ambient photoperiod at calving and milk yield and DMI recorded for 120 d and 42 d, respectively. Mammary biopsies were obtained to determine rates of [3H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA in vitro. Treatment of SDPP cows with PRL caused a rapid increase in systemic PRL that reached concentrations similar to cows under LDPP. The periparturient PRL surge was similar for LDPP and SDPP+PRL cows, but those groups had greater surge concentrations versus SDPP. Cows exposed to SDPP produced more milk than LDPP cows, and there was a trend for SDPP+PRL cows to produce more milk than LDPP cows. Milk production was inversely related to the periparturient PRL surge. There was a trend for a treatment effect on mammary cell proliferation with greater proliferation in mammary tissue of SDPP cows relative to LDPP or SDPP+PRL on day −20 relative to parturition. Replacement of PRL to cows on SDPP when dry resulted in milk yield intermediate to cows on SDPP or LDPP, supporting the concept of a link between dry period PRL and yield. PMID:26479387

  8. Mifepristone treatment demonstrates the participation of adrenal glucocorticoids in the regulation of oestrogen-induced prolactin secretion in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Carón, R W; Salicioni, A M; Deis, R P

    1994-03-01

    Accumulated evidence indicates that the adrenal cortex is able to regulate prolactin (PRL) secretion in rats. The aim of this study was to determine the participation of adrenal steroids on the regulation of PRL release in ovariectomized (OVX) and oestrogen-treated rats, by using mifepristone or a specific progesterone antiserum. Blood samples were obtained at 13:00 and 18:00 h 3 days after priming with oestradiol benzoate (OB). A significant increase in serum PRL at 13:00 and 18:00 h was induced by OB treatment. The administration of mifepristone to OVX and oestrogen-primed rats enhanced serum PRL increase at 13:00 h, without modifying the values at 18:00 h; while the administration of progesterone antiserum did not modify PRL levels, indicating that the effect of mifepristone on PRL secretion is due to its antiglucocorticoid action. Adrenalectomy induced a release of PRL at 13:00 h similar to that observed in the OVX and oestrogen-primed rats after mifepristone administration. Treatment with a low dose of progesterone (0.1 mg/rat) to OVX, adrenalectomized and oestrogen-primed rats did not modify the effect of adrenalectomy in serum PRL. Progesterone (2 mg/rat) given at 08:00 h to OVX and oestrogen-primed rats increased serum PRL 5 h later. Mifepristone treatment partially reverted the PRL increase induced by progesterone. These results suggest that after a previous sensitization of the pituitary by oestrogen, circulating glucocorticoids may exert a direct inhibitory effect on PRL release. This inhibition takes place at 13:00 h on day 3. On the other hand, the lack of effect of mifepristone or adrenalectomy on the PRL release at 18:00 h may also indicate that neither progesterone nor glucocorticoids modify PRL release induced by oestrogen at this time.

  9. Differences between rat strains in the development of PRL-secreting pituitary tumors with long-term estrogen treatment: In vitro insulin-like growth factor-1-induced lactotroph proliferation and gene expression are affected in Wistar-Kyoto rats with low estrogen-susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Tetsuo; Ishida, Maho; Izawa, Michi; Arita, Jun

    2013-01-01

    There are differences in the susceptibility of rat strains to pituitary growth and lactotroph proliferation caused by long-term treatment with estrogens. To investigate the pituitary mechanism for this strain difference in estrogen-induced lactotroph proliferation, we compared the abilities of 17-β estradiol (E2) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) to modulate lactotroph proliferation and gene expression in vitro in Wistar and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. These two strains of rats have a high and very low susceptibility to estrogen, respectively. Long-term in vivo treatment with E2 was confirmed to markedly increase pituitary weight and lactotroph proliferation in ovariectomized Wistar, but not in WKY rats. Pituitary lactotrophs in primary cultures showed similar proliferative responsiveness to the culture condition-dependent, stimulatory and inhibitory actions of E2 in both strains. The only difference in lactotroph proliferation in vitro was a lower response to IGF-1 in WKY cells compared with Wistar cells. This difference in proliferation was associated with strain differences in IGF-1-induced gene expression in Wistar and WKY cultured cells. Of the genes tested, IGF-1-induced expression of the Wnt4, Stc1, Mybl1, and Myc genes was attenuated or abolished in WKY cells. These results suggest that the proliferative response to estrogen in lactotrophs in primary culture does not reflect the proliferative response to long-term estrogen treatment observed in vivo in Wistar and WKY rats. The strain difference in proliferation and gene expression to IGF-1 may be implicated in the variable degree of susceptibility for lactotroph proliferation observed in different strains of rats following long-term estrogen treatment.

  10. Prolactin affects bovine oocytes through direct and cumulus-mediated pathways.

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, Irina Y; Singina, Galina N; Volkova, Natalia A; Vejlsted, Morten; Zinovieva, Natalia A; Schmidt, Mette

    2014-11-01

    The available evidence points to participation of PRL in regulation of mammalian oocyte maturation. The aim of the present study was to characterize pathways of PRL action on bovine oocytes. We analyzed (1) the presence of the PRL receptor and its mRNA isoforms in oocytes and cumulus cells; (2) the effect of PRL on meiosis resumption and the role of cumulus cells, the NO/NO synthase system, protein kinase C, and tyrosine kinases in this effect; and (3) PRL effects in the presence of gonadotropins on the developmental capacity of cumulus-free and cumulus-enclosed oocytes. The transcript and protein expression of the PRL receptor in the cells were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry, respectively. The nuclear status of oocytes was assessed after culture of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and denuded oocytes (DOs) with or without PRL (5-500 ng/mL) for 7, 14, or 24 hours. Besides, DOs were incubated for 7 hours in the absence or the presence of PRL (50 ng/mL) and/or L-NAME (an inhibitor of NO synthase), genistein (an inhibitor of tyrosine kinases), or calpostin C (a protein kinase C inhibitor). After IVM in 2 different systems containing PRL (50 ng/mL) and/or gonadotropic hormones, a part of oocytes underwent IVF and IVC and the embryo development was tracked until the blastocyst stage. Messenger RNA of long and short isoforms of the PRL receptor was revealed in both oocytes and cumulus cells. Immunocytochemistry confirmed the presence of the PRL receptor in oocytes and the cumulus investment. In the absence of gonadotropins (system 1), PRL retarded meiosis resumption in DOs but not in cumulus-enclosed oocytes, with this effect being short term, dose dependent, suppressed by L-NAME and genistein, and unaffected by calpostin. In systems containing gonadotropins, PRL did not affect nuclear maturation and the cleavage rate of cumulus-free and cumulus-enclosed oocytes. However, in the case of COCs, it raised the blastocyst

  11. Depletion of pituitary prolactin by cysteamine is due to loss of immunological activity.

    PubMed

    Scammell, J G; Dannies, P S

    1984-03-01

    The mechanism by which cysteamine reduces the PRL content of pituitary cells was studied in primary cultures of estradiol-induced pituitary tumors in Fischer 344 rats. The PRL content of these cells was effectively decreased by cysteamine, with an IC50 of 0.2 mM. Cells previously labeled with [3H]leucine were exposed to cysteamine (0.25 mM), and the intracellular content of [3H]PRL was measured by immunological or nonimmunological means, that is by immunoprecipitation and electrophoresis or by electrophoresis alone. The intracellular concentration of immunoreactive [3H]PRL was reduced by 53% by cysteamine, whereas [3H]PRL quantified by electrophoresis alone was not significantly affected. Our data indicate that cysteamine reduces the PRL content of pituitary tumor cells by causing the loss of its immunoreactivity.

  12. Circulating prolactin and its response to TRH following administration of testosterone undecanoate in normal men.

    PubMed

    Kicovic, P M; Luisi, M; Franchi, F; Krempl, S

    1978-10-01

    To investigate the effect of orally administered testosterone undercanoate (TU) on circulating prolactin (PRL) and PRL response to TRH stimulation, 8 eugonadal male volunteers, aged 19--30, presenting with normal plasma levels of FSH, LH, testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and PRL, were given 120 mg/day of TU for 6 days. Plasma PRL levels were measured daily during the pre-treatment phase (3 days), treatment phase (6 days) and post-treatment phase (3 days) by radioimmunoassay. The TRH Test (200 micrograms iv) was done on the 3rd day of the pretreatment phase and on the treatment phase. No significant changes in circulating PRL levels or in PRL response to TRH stimulation were observed. Plasma T and E2 levels showed a slight, but not significant tendency to increase, while gonadotropin levels remained unchanged.

  13. Depletion of pituitary prolactin by cysteamine is due to loss of immunological activity

    SciTech Connect

    Scammell, J.G.; Dannies, P.S.

    1984-03-01

    The mechanism by which cysteamine reduces the prolactin(PRL) content of pituitary cells was studied in primary cultures of estradiol-induced pituitary tumors in Fischer 344 rats. The PRL content of these cells was effectively decreased by cysteamine, with an IC50 of 0.2 mM. Cells previously labeled with (/sup 3/H)leucine were exposed to cysteamine (0.25 mM), and the intracellular content of (/sup 3/H)PRL was measured by immunological or nonimmunological means, that is by immunoprecipitation and electrophoresis or by electrophoresis alone. The intracellular concentration of immunoreactive (/sup 3/H)PRL was reduced by 53% by cysteamine, whereas (/sup 3/H)PRL quantified by electrophoresis alone was not significantly affected. Our data indicate that cysteamine reduces the PRL content of pituitary tumor cells by causing the loss of its immunoreactivity.

  14. SOEMPI: A Secure Open Enterprise Master Patient Index Software Toolkit for Private Record Linkage

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Csaba; Durham, Elizabeth; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Xue, Yuan; Malin, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate bias in multi-institutional research studies, healthcare organizations need to integrate patient records. However, this process must be accomplished without disclosing the identities of the corresponding patients. Various private record linkage (PRL) techniques have been proposed, but there is a lack of translation into practice because no software suite supports the entire PRL lifecycle. This paper addresses this issue with the introduction of the Secure Open Enterprise Master Patient Index (SOEMPI). We show how SOEMPI covers the PRL lifecycle, illustrate the implementation of several PRL protocols, and provide a runtime analysis for the integration of two datasets consisting of 10,000 records. While the PRL process is slower than a non-secure setting, our analysis shows the majority of processes in a PRL protocol require several seconds or less and that SOEMPI completes the process in approximately two minutes, which is a practical amount of time for integration. PMID:25954421

  15. Effect of zinc administration on thyrotropin releasing hormone-stimulated prolactinemia in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Castro, A V; Mendonça, B B; Bloise, W; Shuhama, T; Brandão-Neto, J

    1999-12-01

    Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated zinc (Zn++) inhibition of basal and of potassium (K+) or thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-stimulated prolactin (PRL) secretion, in a selective, reversible, and dose-dependent manner. Thus, Zn++ may regulate physiologically pituitary PRL secretion. Furthermore, studies with patients with uremia, cirrhosis or prolactinoma, have shown the coexistence of hypozincemia and hyperprolactinemia and zinc supplementation did not correct hyperprolactinemia in these patients. In normal individuals Zn++ administration produced controversial results on PRL secretion. Here, we investigated whether zinc administration affects TRH-stimulated PRL in healthy men. We found that Zn++ administration does not change the TRH-stimulated PRL. Therefore, in normal conditions, Zn++ does not inhibit TRH-stimulated prolactinemia. In addition, we found that acute increases of blood PRL and TRH do not alter blood Zn++ levels.

  16. Antipsychotic drugs inhibit prolactin release from rat anterior pituitary cells in culture by a mechanism not involving the dopamine receptor.

    PubMed

    West, B; Dannies, P S

    1979-04-01

    Bromocriptine, a dopamine agonist, inhibited secretion of PRL and did not affect GH release from rat anterior pituitary cells in culture. The reversal of this inhibition of PRL release by butaclamol, a dopamine antagonist, was stereospecific; 10 nM d-butaclamol completely reversed the inhibition caused by 10 nM bromocriptine, while l-butaclamol had no effect at concentrations up to 10 microM. However, both enantiomers at 10 microM inhibited PRL release to 30% and GH release to 91% of control values. Two other dopamine antagonists also inhibited hormone release. Haloperidol (10 microM) inhibited PRL release to 23% of control values and did not affect GH release; 3.3 microM pimozide inhibited PRL and GH release to 18% and 38% of control values, respectively. These data indicate that, the inhibition of PRL by antipsychotic drugs is not mediated through the dopamine receptor.

  17. Human-Compatible Animal Models for Preclinical Research on Hormones in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    female reproductive defects at several levels (ovaries, pre-implantation endometrium , mammary glands). The PRL gene in humans and other primates...dependent on pituitary PRL (REFs). Elevated progesterone secretion from the CL induces functional receptivity in the uterus (REF), and promotes early...consistent feature in mammals. Unlike mice and humans, rabbits, dogs and armadillos do not express PRL in the endometrium (REF, Emera, et al

  18. Lower prolactin levels during cabergoline treatment are associated to tumor shrinkage in prolactin secreting pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, M; Lupi, I; Cosottini, M; Rossi, G; Manetti, L; Raffaelli, V; Sardella, C; Martino, E; Bogazzi, F

    2014-12-01

    Dopamine agonists are considered as the first line therapy in prolactin (PRL) secreting pituitary adenomas inducing a normalization of serum PRL and reduction of tumor size. It is known that serum PRL levels, obtained during treatment, are a predictor of tumor shrinkage. Whether PRL suppression below the lower limit of the normal range is related to a greater chance of tumor shrinkage than just its normalization has not been established. This retrospective cohort study was carried out in a tertiary center. Clinical records of 151 patients with PRL-secreting pituitary adenomas (73 micro-, 78 macroadenomas) treated with cabergoline for at least 24 months were analyzed. The adenoma size was analyzed by MRI before and after 24 months of treatment. PRL levels were evaluated every 6 months, assigning a score at each time point (PRL 0 = suppressed; 1 = normal; 2 = above normal). The total score, after 24 months of treatment, was expressed as the sum of the score at each time point and ranged between 0 and 8. A tumor shrinkage was observed in 102/151 patients (67.5%) and it was significantly associated to a lower PRL total score (p = 0.021, OR = 0.85, CI = 0.73-0.97), being significantly more frequent in patients with suppressed PRL than in those with normal PRL (p = 0.045, OR = 0.42, CI = 0.18-0.98) at 24 months. Cabergoline therapy with the goal of achieving PRL levels below the lower limit of normal range can increase the chance to obtain tumor shrinkage of PRL-secreting pituitary adenomas.

  19. Uncoupling clutch size, prolactin, and luteinizing hormone using experimental egg removal.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Calen P; Dawson, Alistair; Sharp, Peter J; Williams, Tony D

    2015-03-01

    Clutch size is a key avian fitness and life history trait. A physiological model for clutch size determination (CSD), involving an anti-gonadal effect of prolactin (PRL) via suppression of luteinizing hormone (LH), was proposed over 20 years ago, but has received scant experimental attention since. The few studies looking at a PRL-based mechanistic hypothesis for CSD have been equivocal, but recent experiments utilizing a pharmacological agent to manipulate PRL in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) found no support for a role of this hormone in clutch size determination. Here, we take a complementary approach by manipulating clutch size through egg removal, examining co-variation in PRL and LH between two breeding attempts, as well as through experimentally-extended laying. Clutch size increased for egg removal females, but not controls, but this was not correlated with changes in PRL or LH. There were also no differences in PRL between egg removal females and controls, nor did PRL levels during early, mid- or late-laying of supra-normal clutches predict clutch size. By uncoupling PRL, LH and clutch size in our study, several key predictions of the PRL-based mechanistic model for CSD were not supported. However, a positive correlation between PRL levels late in laying and days relative to the last egg (clutch completion) provides an alternative explanation for the equivocal results surrounding the conventional PRL-based physiological model for CSD. We suggest that females coordinate PRL-mediated incubation onset with clutch completion to minimize hatching asynchrony and sibling hierarchy, a behavior that is amplified in females laying larger clutches.

  20. Prolactin induces apoptosis of lactotropes in female rodents.

    PubMed

    Ferraris, Jimena; Zárate, Sandra; Jaita, Gabriela; Boutillon, Florence; Bernadet, Marie; Auffret, Julien; Seilicovich, Adriana; Binart, Nadine; Goffin, Vincent; Pisera, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Anterior pituitary cell turnover occurring during female sexual cycle is a poorly understood process that involves complex regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis by multiple hormones. In rats, the prolactin (PRL) surge that occurs at proestrus coincides with the highest apoptotic rate. Since anterior pituitary cells express the prolactin receptor (PRLR), we aimed to address the actual role of PRL in the regulation of pituitary cell turnover in cycling females. We showed that acute hyperprolactinemia induced in ovariectomized rats using PRL injection or dopamine antagonist treatment rapidly increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation specifically of PRL producing cells (lactotropes), suggesting a direct regulation of these cell responses by PRL. To demonstrate that apoptosis naturally occurring at proestrus was regulated by transient elevation of endogenous PRL levels, we used PRLR-deficient female mice (PRLRKO) in which PRL signaling is totally abolished. According to our hypothesis, no increase in lactotrope apoptotic rate was observed at proestrus, which likely contributes to pituitary tumorigenesis observed in these animals. To decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying PRL effects, we explored the isoform-specific pattern of PRLR expression in cycling wild type females. This analysis revealed dramatic changes of long versus short PRLR ratio during the estrous cycle, which is particularly relevant since these isoforms exhibit distinct signaling properties. This pattern was markedly altered in a model of chronic PRLR signaling blockade involving transgenic mice expressing a pure PRLR antagonist (TGΔ1-9-G129R-hPRL), providing evidence that PRL regulates the expression of its own receptor in an isoform-specific manner. Taken together, these results demonstrate that i) the PRL surge occurring during proestrus is a major proapoptotic signal for lactotropes, and ii) partial or total deficiencies in PRLR signaling in the anterior pituitary may result in

  1. Prolactin Induces Apoptosis of Lactotropes in Female Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Ferraris, Jimena; Zárate, Sandra; Jaita, Gabriela; Boutillon, Florence; Bernadet, Marie; Auffret, Julien; Seilicovich, Adriana; Binart, Nadine; Pisera, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Anterior pituitary cell turnover occurring during female sexual cycle is a poorly understood process that involves complex regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis by multiple hormones. In rats, the prolactin (PRL) surge that occurs at proestrus coincides with the highest apoptotic rate. Since anterior pituitary cells express the prolactin receptor (PRLR), we aimed to address the actual role of PRL in the regulation of pituitary cell turnover in cycling females. We showed that acute hyperprolactinemia induced in ovariectomized rats using PRL injection or dopamine antagonist treatment rapidly increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation specifically of PRL producing cells (lactotropes), suggesting a direct regulation of these cell responses by PRL. To demonstrate that apoptosis naturally occurring at proestrus was regulated by transient elevation of endogenous PRL levels, we used PRLR-deficient female mice (PRLRKO) in which PRL signaling is totally abolished. According to our hypothesis, no increase in lactotrope apoptotic rate was observed at proestrus, which likely contributes to pituitary tumorigenesis observed in these animals. To decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying PRL effects, we explored the isoform-specific pattern of PRLR expression in cycling wild type females. This analysis revealed dramatic changes of long versus short PRLR ratio during the estrous cycle, which is particularly relevant since these isoforms exhibit distinct signaling properties. This pattern was markedly altered in a model of chronic PRLR signaling blockade involving transgenic mice expressing a pure PRLR antagonist (TGΔ1–9-G129R-hPRL), providing evidence that PRL regulates the expression of its own receptor in an isoform-specific manner. Taken together, these results demonstrate that i) the PRL surge occurring during proestrus is a major proapoptotic signal for lactotropes, and ii) partial or total deficiencies in PRLR signaling in the anterior pituitary may result

  2. Truncated Hormone Inhibits Breast Tumor Blood Vessel Formation, Not Tumor Growth | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The hormone prolactin (PRL) plays a critical role in normal breast development by stimulating the proliferation of mammary cells, the production of milk proteins, and the formation of new mammary blood vessels. Unfortunately, the same cell and vessel growth pathways controlled by PRL in normal cells also operate in breast cancer cells, and elevated plasma PRL is a risk factor for breast cancer, especially in post-menopausal women.

  3. Another player joins the complex field of sugar-regulated gene expression in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, Susan I.; Graham, Ian A.

    1999-04-01

    This article summarizes recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms by which soluble sugar levels affect plant development and gene expression. The article focuses on the role played by a newly identified protein, the PRL1 protein. The PRL1 protein has been found to interact with the SNF1 protein. Previously, SNF1 was shown to function in sugar-regulated gene expression in yeast. Mutations in the gene encoding PRL1 confer increased sensitivity to sugar and to several phytohormones.

  4. Hormonal regulation of prolactin cell development in the fetal pituitary gland of the mouse.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Kiyomoto; Nogami, Haruo; Tsuda, Mumeko C; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Korach, Kenneth S; Ogawa, Sonoko; Harigaya, Toshio; Hisano, Setsuji

    2009-02-01

    The developmental process of prolactin (PRL) cells in the fetal pituitary gland was studied in mice. Although PRL cells were hardly detectable in the pituitary gland of intact fetuses, a treatment with 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) in vitro induced a number of PRL cells that varied drastically in number depending on the stage of gestation with a peak at embryonic d 15. This effect was specific to E(2), with epidermal growth factor, insulin, and forskolin failing to induce PRL cells. Although both estrogen receptor (ER)alpha and ERbeta were expressed in the fetal pituitary gland, the results from ER knockout models showed that only ERalpha mediates E(2) action on PRL cells. A few PRL cells were observed in ERalpha-deficient mice as well as in their control littermates, suggesting that estrogen is not required for the phenotype determination of PRL cells. Unexpectedly, the effect of E(2) on the induction of PRL cells in vitro was diminished after embryonic d 15. Present results suggest that the exposure of fetal PRL cells to glucocorticoids (GCs) results in a reduction of sensitivity to E(2). The mechanism underlying the down-regulation of estrogen sensitivity by GCs was found not to be down-regulation of ER levels, induction of annexin 1, a GC-inducible inhibitor of PRL secretion, or a decrease in the number of PRL precursors by apoptosis. The effect of GCs appeared within 2 h and did not require a de novo protein synthesis. GCs are considered to be involved in the mechanisms of silencing pituitary PRL in gestation possibly through a novel mechanism.

  5. The secretory pattern and source of immunoreactive prolactin in pregnant African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Yuto, Natsuki; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Lueders, Imke; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Shiina, Osamu; Mouri, Yasushi; Sugimura, Keisuke; Sakamoto, Sayuri; Kaewmanee, Saroch; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to define the secretion of prolactin (PRL) in pregnant African and Asian elephants. Levels of immunoreactive (ir-) PRL in serum and placental homogenates were measured by a heterologous radioimmunoassay (RIA) based on an ovine and human RIA system, and the localization of ir-PRL in the placenta was detected by immunohistochemistry using anti-human PRL. Circulating ir-PRL clearly showed a biphasic pattern during pregnancy in African and Asian elephants. Serum levels of ir-PRL started to increase from the 4 - 6th month of gestation and reached the first peak level around the 11-14th month. A second peak of circulating ir-PRL levels was observed around the 18-20th month of gestation followed by an abrupt decline after parturition. In contrast, in a case of abortion of an African elephant, the second peak of ir-PRL was not observed, and the levels remained low for about four months until parturition. The weight of the fetus delivered at the 17th month of gestation was 23.5 kg, which was quite small compared with normal fetuses in previous reports. Ir-PRL was detected in placental homogenates, and immunolocalization was observed in trophoblasts in both the African and Asian elephants, indicating that the placenta is the source of ir-PRL during pregnancy in elephants. The present results clearly demonstrated that circulating ir-PRL shows a biphasic pattern during normal pregnancy and that the placenta appears to be an important source of circulating ir-PRL during pregnancy in both African and Asian elephants.

  6. Regulation of prolactin secretion by adrenal steroids in oestrogen-treated ovariectomized rats: participation of endogenous opioid peptides.

    PubMed

    Carón, R W; Salicioni, A M; Deis, R P

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether glucocorticoid inhibition of prolactin (PRL) release in oestrogen-treated ovariectomized (OVX) rats is mediated by endogenous opioid peptides (EOPs). All the animals were OVX and given oestradiol benzoate (OB, 20 microg/rat, s.c.) 2 weeks later (day 0). On day 3 they received vehicle, mifepristone (MIF, 10 mg/kg, s.c.) or hydrocortisone (HYD, 2 mg/rat, s.c.), in combination with the opioid antagonist naloxone (NAL, 2 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle. Serum PRL concentration was then measured by RIA at 13.00 and 18.00 hr, to include assessment of diurnal variation of PRL secretion. At 13.00 hr either MIF or NAL alone increased PRL secretion with no additional effect when NAL was combined with MIF. HYD had no significant inhibitory effect, but NAL with HYD increased PRL secretion. At 18.00 hr serum PRL concentration was higher than at 13.00 hr, and not affected significantly by MIF or NAL alone, although PRL secretion was increased by treatment with both. HYD inhibited PRL secretion and this inhibition was prevented by NAL. In a second experiment to distinguish antiglucocorticoid and antiprogesterone effects of MIF, we administered progesterone (2 mg/rat, s.c.) or a specific progesterone antiserum. In contrast with MIF, the progesterone antibody had no effect on PRL secretion at 13.00 hr, nor on the stimulation by NAL, while progesterone (unlike HYD) increased PRL secretion and NAL attenuated this response; this was opposite to the effect of NAL with HYD. Similarly, at 18.00 hr the interaction of MIF and NAL was not explained by antagonism of progesterone. Together, these results indicate inhibition of PRL by glucocorticoids but not progesterone, mediated in part by EOPs. At 18.00 hr endogenous glucocorticoids do not regulate oestrogen-stimulated PRL release, although HYD is inhibitory through EOPs.

  7. Prolactin and 16K prolactin stimulate release of vasopressin by a direct effect on hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system.

    PubMed

    Mejía, Salvador; Torner, Luz M; Jeziorski, Michael C; Gonzalez, Carmen; Morales, Miguel A; de la Escalera, Gonzalo Martín; Clapp, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    Activity of the magnocellular neurons that synthesize vasopressin and oxytocin in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus can be modulated by local release of neuromediators within the nuclei. Among the bioactive peptides that may play autocrine or paracrine roles in this system is prolactin (PRL). Paraventricular and supraoptic neurons express PRL mRNA and contain and secrete PRL-like proteins of 23 and 14 kDa. We investigated the localization of PRL receptors in vasopressinergic and oxytocinergic magnocellular neurons using dual-label immunofluorescence. The results demonstrate that both vasopressin- and oxytocin-immunoreactive cells of the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei contain the PRL receptor. In addition, we investigated the possible regulation of vasopressin secretion by PRL using hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal explants in culture. The results show that PRL and a 16 kDa N-terminal fragment of the hormone that is analogous to the neurohypophyseal 14-kDa PRL fragment stimulate the release of vasopressin. Together, these findings support the hypothesis that vasopressinergic and oxytocinergic neurons of the magnocellular secretory system are regulated directly by various isoforms of PRL via autocrine/paracrine mechanisms.

  8. Opposite association of serum prolactin and survival in patients with colon and rectal carcinomas: influence of preoperative radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Marcos Gutiéerrez De La; Trejo, Belem; Luna-Péerez, Pedro; López-Barrera, Fernándo; Escalera, Gonzalo Martínez De La; Clapp, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a pleiotropic hormone associated with the progression of various cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Here we investigate whether the association of serum PRL concentration and survival is affected by tumor location and preoperative radiotherapy (PRERT) in patients with CRC cancer. Serum PRL was determined in 82 CRC patients without previous treatment. Patients with PRL concentrations at and above the 75th percentile (high PRL) or below this level (low PRL), had a significant correlation with overall survival determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. In colon cancer, there was an increased risk of mortality when PRL values were at and above the highest quartile (22% vs. 73%; P = 0.01). In contrast, in rectal cancer, high PRL values were associated with a significant overall survival advantage (88% vs. 44%; P = 0.05), which became more significant (100% vs. 34%; P = 0.005) when only rectal cancer patients receiving PRERT were compared. These findings suggest that tumor location and adjuvant radiotherapy influence the association between circulating PRL and survival in CRC.

  9. An empiric weight computation for record linkage using linearly combined fields' similarity scores.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinran; Guttmann, Aline; Demongeot, Jacques; Boire, Jean-Yves; Ouchchane, Lemlih

    2014-01-01

    Record linkage is the task of identifying which records from one or more data sources refer to the same entity. Many record linkage methods were introduced and applied over the last decades. In general, the principle is to compare a range of available identifier fields in record pairs among different data sources, in order to make a linkage decision. The Fellegi-Sunter probabilistic record linkage (PRL-FS) is one of the most commonly used methods. To obtain a better performance, Winkler proposed an enhanced PRL-FS method (PRL-W) that takes into account field similarity, but its implementation requires the estimation of much more parameters which complicates the task. Consequently, we propose to develop a method that contains the best features in the PRL-FS and the PRL-W methods: simplicity of parameters estimation and consideration of fields' similarities. We hypothesize that our record linkage method outperforms the PRL-FS, and can achieve a similar performance of the PRL-W. This paper presents briefly the PRL-FS and PRL-W methods, and describes in details how to combine fields' similarity scores to create a novel record pair weight. Simulated data sets were used to assess and to compare these three methods regarding their ability to reduce the rates of false matches and false non-matches.

  10. Hormonal regulation of prolactin release by human prolactinoma cells cultured in serum-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Jaquet, P; Gunz, G; Grisoli, F

    1985-01-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulates the prolactin (PRL) release from normal lactotrophs or tumoral cell line GH3. This effect is not observed in many patients with PRL-secreting tumors. We examined in vitro the PRL response to TRH on cultured human PRL-secreting tumor cells (n = 10) maintained on an extracellular matrix in a minimum medium (DME + insulin, transferrin, selenium). Addition of 10(-8) M TRH to 4 X 10(4) cells produced either no stimulation of PRL release (n = 6) or a mild PRL rise of 32 +/- (SE) 11% (n = 4) when measured 1, 2 and 24 h after TRH addition. When tumor cells were preincubated for 24 h with 5 X 10(-11) M bromocriptine, a 47 +/- 4% inhibition of PRL release was obtained. When TRH (10(-8) M) was added, 24 h after bromocriptine, it produced a 85 +/- 25% increase of PRL release (n = 8). This stimulation of PRL release was evident when measured 1 h after TRH addition and persisted for 48 h. The half maximal stimulatory effect of TRH was 2 X 10(-10) M and the maximal effect was achieved at 10(-9) M TRH. When tumor cells were pretreated with various concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3), the PRL release was inhibited by 50% with 5 X 10(-11) M T3 and by 80% with 10(-9) M T3. Successive addition of TRH (10(-8) M) was unable to stimulate PRL release at any concentration of T3. The addition of 10(-8) M estradiol for up to 16 days either stimulated or had no effect upon the PRL basal release according to the cases. In all cases tested (n = 4), preincubation of the tumor cells with estradiol (10(-8) M) modified the inhibition of PRL release induced by bromocriptine with a half-inhibitory concentration displaced from 3 X 10(-11) M (control) to 3 X 10(-10) M (estradiol). These data demonstrate that the absence of TRH effect observed in some human prolactinomas is not linked to the absence of TRH receptor in such tumor cells. TRH responsiveness is always restored in the presence of dopamine (DA) at appropriate concentration. This TRH

  11. The ultrastructure of prolactin cells in the annual cyprinodont Cynolebias whitei during its life cycle. A morphometric study in freshwater- and saltwater-reared fish.

    PubMed

    Ruijter, J M; Creuwels, L A

    1988-08-01

    Prolactin (PRL) cells were studied electron-microscopically and morphometrically in the annual cyprinodont fish, Cynolebias whitei during its life cycle. In prehatching larvae, PRL cells possessed small secretory granules, giant mitochondria and a well-developed Golgi apparatus. During hatching, no changes were observed in the volume density of the secretory granules, indicating that no increased release of PRL occurs at hatching. A significant change in the composition of PRL cells, i.e., the volume densities per cytoplasm volume of the different organelles, occurred between one day and one week of age. Thereafter, only minor differences were observed between age groups, indicating that no major changes occur in PRL cell activity during the lifespan of C. whitei. However, the volume density per cell volume of the nucleus decreased steadily with age during the lifespan. A comparison of the PRL cells in young and adult fish reared in fresh water (FW) with siblings reared from hatching in diluted sea water (1/3 SW) did not reveal any differences with respect to the volume densities of the organelles, including the secretory granules. However, significant differences were observed with respect to the diameter, electron-dense content and affinity to anti-PRL serum of the secretory granules. These differences indicate that, despite the similar volumetric composition of the PRL cells, their secretory granules contain a substantially higher concentration of PRL in FW-reared fish than in 1/3 SW-reared fish.

  12. Studies on the regulatory effect of Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction on prolactin hyperactivity and underlying mechanism in hyperprolactinemia rat model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Yulin; Wang, Juan; Jia, Dongxu; Wong, Hei Kiu; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2015-10-08

    Clinical trials have demonstrated the beneficial effects of Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction (PGD) in alleviating antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL) in schizophrenic patients. In previous experiment, PGD suppressed prolactin (PRL) level in MMQ cells, involving modulating the expression of D2 receptor (DRD2) and dopamine transporter (DAT). In the present study, hyperPRL female rat model induced by dopamine blocker metoclopramide (MCP) was applied to further confirm the anti-hyperpPRL activity of PGD and underlying mechanism. In MCP-induced hyperPRL rats, the elevated serum PRL level was significantly suppressed by either PGD (2.5-10 g/kg) or bromocriptine (BMT) (0.6 mg/kg) administration for 14 days. However, in MCP-induced rats, only PGD restored the under-expressed serum progesterone (P) to control level. Both PGD and BMT administration restore the under-expression of DRD2, DAT and TH resulted from MCP in pituitary gland and hypothalamus. Compared to untreated group, hyperPRL animals had a marked reduction on DRD2 and DAT expression in the arcuate nucleus. PGD (10 g/kg) and BMT (0.6 mg/kg) treatment significant reversed the expression of DRD2 and DAT. Collectively, the anti-hyperPRL activity of PGD associates with the modulation of dopaminergic neuronal system and the restoration of serum progesterone level. Our finding supports PGD as an effective agent against hyperPRL.

  13. The role of prolactin in the development of reproductive photorefractoriness and postnuptial molt in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Dawson, A; Sharp, P J

    1998-02-01

    Seasonal breeding in many birds, including the European starling, is terminated by the development of absolute reproductive photorefractoriness, followed by a postnuptial molt, when photo-induced PRL secretion is at its seasonal maximum. To determine whether this photo-induced increase in PRL secretion has a causal role in the development of photorefractoriness or molt, European starlings were actively immunized against vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), the PRL releasing hormone in birds, or against PRL, during a photo-induced breeding cycle. In half of the VIP-immunized birds, the photo-induced increase in PRL was completely suppressed. Although these birds became photorefractory, the rate of gonadal regression was markedly slowed. These birds did not molt. In the remaining VIP-immunized birds, the photo-induced increase in PRL was inhibited but not completely suppressed. In these birds, and in those immunized against PRL, gonadal regression was also slowed, but molt progressed as normal. There were no significant differences in concentrations of plasma thyroxine between treatment and control groups, indicating that the effects of immunization on gonadal regression were not mediated by the induction of hypothyroidism. These results are consistent with the view that in the European starling the seasonal photo-induced increase in PRL accelerates gonadal regression during the onset of photorefractoriness but does not itself cause photorefractoriness. Further, the seasonal increase in PRL is required for the induction of the postnuptial molt.

  14. Prolactin response to suckling and maintenance of postpartum amenorrhea among intensively breastfeeding Nepali women.

    PubMed

    Stallings, J F; Worthman, C M; Panter-Brick, C; Coates, R J

    1996-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the association between PRL responses to suckling and maintenance of postpartum amenorrhea among breastfeeding mothers. Three blood spot samples (5, 30, and 50 min following a timed nursing bout) were collected from 71 intensively breastfeeding Nepali women for PRL determination. Maternal age, BMI (weight/height2), menstrual status, caste, infant age, nursing bout length, and duration of supplementation were recorded at time of sample collection. Independent and paired t tests, linear regression analyses, and general linear models were used to evaluate differences between cycling (n = 36) and amenorrheic (n = 35) women and associations among variables. Logistic regression analyses were used to relate PRL measures to the odds of maintaining lactational amenorrhea. Amenorrheic breastfeeding mothers had higher (P < .001) PRL levels at all 3 collection times than cycling breastfeeding mothers, and PRL levels declined with time since birth (P < 0.05). The odds (OR) of having ceased lactational amenorrhea was significantly higher (OR = 5.0, 95% Cl = 1.3-19.9) among mothers with lower PRL levels (< or = 10 ng/mL) at 50 min post-sucking, and PRL at 50 min showed a significant dose response relationship with menstrual status. The association between 50 min PRL levels and lactational amenorrhea appears to be independent of time postpartum, maternal age, BMI, nursing bout length, and duration of supplementation. Among intensively nursing women, maintenance of elevated PRL levels across the interbout interval increases the odds of maintaining lactational amenorrhea.

  15. Possible modulation of N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid induced prolactin release by testicular steroids in the adult male rhesus monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Arslan, M.; Rizvi, S.S.R.; Jahan, S.; Zaidi, P.; Shahab, M. )

    1991-01-01

    N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid (NMA), an agonist of the neurotransmitter glutamate has been shown to acutely stimulate the release of prolactin (PRL) in intact rats and monkeys. To further investigate the role of neuroexcitatory amino acids in PRL secretion, the effects of NMA administration were examined on PRL release in long term orchidectomized adult rhesus monkeys, in both the absence and presence of testosterone. Intact and long term castrated adult male monkeys weighing between 8-13 kg, were implanted with a catheter via the saphenous vein for blood withdrawal and drug infusion. Blood samples were collected at 10 min intervals for 50 min before and 70 min after administration of the drug or vehicle. Plasma PRL concentrations were estimated using radioimmunoassay. Whereas a single iv injection of NMA induced a prompt discharge of PRL in intact monkeys, an identical dose had surprisingly no effect on PRL secretion in orchidectomized animals. On the other hand, plasma PRL increases in response to a challenge dose of thyrotropin releasing hormone were similar in magnitude in the two groups of monkeys. Testosterone replacement in orchidectomized animals by parenteral administration of testosterone enanthate reinitiated the PRL responsiveness to acute NMA stimulation. These results indicate that N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) dependent drive to PRL release in the adult male rhesus monkey may be overtly influenced by the sex steroid milieu.

  16. Chicken egg antibodies for immunohistochemical labeling of growth hormone and prolactin in bovine pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, P; Erhard, M H; Schams, D; Hafner, A; Folger, S; Lösch, U

    1993-09-01

    We describe the production of polyclonal chicken antibodies specific for bovine growth hormone (bGH) and prolactin (PRL). Antibodies were generated by immunization of laying hens with recombinant bGH (rbGH), pituitary derived bGH (pbGH), and ovine PRL (oPRL). After the lipoprotein fraction was removed by dextran sulfate precipitation the antibodies were isolated from the egg yolks by ammonium sulfate precipitation. Immunization with rbGH and oPRL generated large amounts of specific antibodies, as revealed by ELISA and Western blot analysis. Antibodies against pbGH showed pronounced crossreactions with oPRL. The antibodies against rbGH and oPRL were well suited for sensitive and specific labeling of the GH- and PRL-synthesizing cells in bovine pituitary glands by immunohistochemistry. In addition, a quick and sensitive procedure for demonstration of both bGH- and PRL-synthesizing cells in a single paraffin section by double immunohistochemistry is presented. The chicken anti-bGH antibodies showed excellent results in combination with rabbit anti-PRL antibodies. The main advantage of avian antibodies in double immunostaining methods is the lack of crossreactions between avian antibodies and mammalian immunoglobulins and receptors which bind to the crystalline fragment of mammalian immunoglobulins (Fc receptors).

  17. Prolactin and blood-brain barrier permeability.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Hernandez, Hector; Cuevas, Elvis; Lantz, Susan M; Hamilton, W Ryan; Ramirez-Lee, Manuel A; Ali, Syed F; Gonzalez, Carmen

    2013-11-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) consists in part of a highly specialized set of cells which separates the brain from the vascular system. The BBB controls the entry and exit of substances from the brain tissue through tight junctions (TJs) between endothelial cells. It is known that the hormone prolactin (PRL) is able to regulate endothelial-dependent processes, like the balance between proliferation and apoptosis and the mammary epithelial permeability. However, the effects of PRL and the role it plays in the BBB permeability are still not well understood. A primary culture of bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells was used as in vitro model of BBB. Cells were treated with PRL (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 nM) for 24 hours. PRL significantly increased cellular proliferation at 10 and 100 nM, but did not modify basal apoptosis. These effects were dependent on the production of the mitogenic factor nitric oxide (NO). PRL significantly decreased the permeability and promoted an increase in trans-endothelial electrical resistance in a NO-independent way. PRL also increased the expression of the TJs proteins claudin-5 and occludin. The short form of the PRL receptor was detected in these cells but its expression was not modified by PRL. Together, these results suggest that PRL has the ability to increase cellular proliferation associated with a decrease on BBB permeability by increasing the expression of TJs proteins.

  18. Expression of phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 is associated with prognosis of Wilms’ tumor

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fengyin; Li, Wenyi; Wang, Lie; Jiao, Changfeng

    2017-01-01

    Objective The current study was undertaken to explore the clinical and prognostic value of phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) expression in Wilms’ tumor. Methods Seventy-six patients with Wilms’ tumor in Qilu Hospital from January 2003 to July 2009 were enrolled in the study. Protein expression level of PRL-3 was examined by immunohistochemical staining, and the correlation between PRL-3 expression and histopathological parameters, clinical variables, and outcome of patients with Wilms’ tumor were analyzed. Results We found that 19% of patients with unfavorable histology had tumor recurrence and 16% of patients died following the operation. PRL-3 was expressed in 15 out of 76 tumors (19%) and expressed highly in unfavorable histology Wilms’ tumor (P=0.04). PRL-3 protein expression level was correlated to 2.5-fold increase in recurrence rate of Wilms’ tumor (P=0.06) without any statistically significant difference. However, in favorable histology Wilms’ tumor, PRL-3 expression was correlated to an increase of 3.4-fold in recurrence rate (P=0.03). Conclusion The expression of PRL-3 protein was correlated with an increased recurrence rate of favorable histology Wilms’ tumor. PRL-3 may serve as a promising biomarker for predicting patients with high risk of Wilms’ tumor. Further investigations are warranted to investigate the clinical function of PRL-3 in Wilms’ tumor. PMID:28138254

  19. Treating prolactinoma can prevent autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Watad, Abdulla; Versini, Mathilde; Jeandel, Pierre-Yves; Amital, Howard; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-04-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a pleiotropic hormone; in addition to a wide variety of endocrine effects, PRL also exhibits immunostimulating effects. Therefore, there is increasing evidence linking PRL with a large number of systemic and organ specific autoimmune diseases. Herein, we report the case of an adolescent girl diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) occurring in the context of untreated prolactinoma evolving since childhood. This raises the exciting question of the involvement of PRL in the pathogenesis of MS. It is likely that early treatment of hyperprolactinemia in this case would have significantly reduced the risk of developing MS or even prevented its occurrence.

  20. Actions of Prolactin in the Brain: From Physiological Adaptations to Stress and Neurogenesis to Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Torner, Luz

    2016-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is one of the most versatile hormones known. It is considered an adaptive hormone due to the key roles it plays in the modulation of the stress response and during pregnancy and lactation. Within the brain, PRL acts as a neuropeptide to promote physiological responses related to reproduction, stress adaptation, neurogenesis, and neuroprotection. The action of PRL on the nervous system contributes to the wide array of changes that occur in the female brain during pregnancy and result in the attenuation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. Together, all these changes promote behavioral and physiological adaptations of the new mother to enable reproductive success. Brain adaptations driven by PRL are also important for the regulation of maternal emotionality and well-being. PRL also affects the male brain during the stress response, but its effects have been less studied. PRL regulates neurogenesis both in the subventricular zone and in the hippocampus. Therefore, alterations in the PRL system due to stress or exposure to substances that reduce neurogenesis or other conditions, could contribute to maladaptive responses and pathological behavioral outcomes. Here, we review the PRL system and the role it plays in the modulation of stress response and emotion regulation. We discuss the effects of PRL on neurogenesis and neuroprotection, the putative neuronal mechanisms underlying these effects, and their contribution to the onset of psychopathological states such as depression. PMID:27065946

  1. New insights into the importance of prolactin in dairy ruminants.

    PubMed

    Lacasse, P; Ollier, S; Lollivier, V; Boutinaud, M

    2016-01-01

    In most mammals, prolactin (PRL) is essential for maintaining lactation, and the suppression of PRL inhibits lactation. However, the involvement of PRL in the control of ruminant lactation is less clear, because inconsistent effects on milk yield have been observed with the short-term suppression of PRL by bromocriptine. Therefore, several experiments have been conducted to assess the galactopoietic role of PRL. In an initial experiment, cows in early lactation received daily injections of the dopamine agonist quinagolide for 9 wk. Quinagolide reduced milking-induced PRL release and caused a faster decline in milk production. Quinagolide also reduced mammary epithelial cell activity, survival, and proliferation. In goats, cabergoline, another dopamine agonist, caused a 28% decrease in milk yield the day after injection. In another experiment, cows were injected for 5d with quinagolide, with quinagolide plus bovine PRL injected at milking time, or with vehicles only. Again, quinagolide reduced milk, protein, and lactose yields. Although PRL injections were not sufficient to restore milk yield, they tended to increase milk protein and lactose yields and increased the viability of mammary epithelial cells purified from milk. Recently, our team stimulated PRL secretion with daily injections of the dopamine antagonist domperidone for 5 wk. Milk production increased gradually and was greater in domperidone-treated cows during the last 4 wk of the treatment period. In most experiments where PRL secretion was manipulated, feed intake paralleled the changes of PRL concentration, supporting the idea that PRL increases feed intake to provide the nutrients necessary to support lactation in dairy ruminants. In late-lactation cows, quinagolide and cabergoline decreased milk production within the first day of treatment and induced more rapid changes in several markers of mammary gland involution after drying-off. In addition, quinagolide improved the resistance to intramammary

  2. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS, AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY DISEASE STATE CLINICAL REVIEW: CLINICAL RELEVANCE OF MACROPROLACTIN IN THE ABSENCE OR PRESENCE OF TRUE HYPERPROLACTINEMIA.

    PubMed

    Samson, Susan L; Hamrahian, Amir H; Ezzat, Shereen

    2015-12-01

    To review the current literature regarding the prevalence of macroprolactin (macroPRL) in hyperprolactinemic patients and determine recommendations for testing. An electronic United States National Library of Medicine PubMed search (through October, 2014) was conducted for search term "macroprolactin." Only English-language articles were considered. MacroPRL is an under-recognized cause of elevated prolactin (PRL) and is present in approximately 4% to 40% of hyperprolactinemic patients depending on the referral population. Clinical findings which could be due to hyperprolactinemia are the impetus for testing for PRL. Because of this there is significant overlap in the clinical presentation of patients with true hyperprolactinemia and those with macroPRL, differentiation cannot always be made on the basis of symptoms. A lack of recognition of the presence of macroPRL can lead to unnecessary laboratory investigations, imaging, and pharmacologic or surgical treatment. Until there is a commercially available PRL assay that is not subject to interference by macroPRL, clinicians should consider the possibility of macroPRL, especially if the clinical presentation, imaging findings, and/or response to therapy reveal inconsistencies.

  3. The human prolactin receptor in the fetal membranes, decidua, and placenta.

    PubMed

    Maaskant, R A; Bogic, L V; Gilger, S; Kelly, P A; Bryant-Greenwood, G D

    1996-01-01

    Human PRL is synthesized and secreted by the maternal decidua, but not by the chorionic cytotrophoblast of the chorion laeve or the placenta. The sites of action for decidual PRL are currently unknown. Accordingly, Northern analysis and in situ hybridization histochemistry have been used respectively to quantitate and localize the expression of the PRL receptor (PRL-R) gene within the uterus during the peripartal period. Immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis using an anti-PRL-R antibody (U5) localized the translated protein at the cellular level in the same tissues. As judged by the level of expression of the PRL-R gene and its translated products, the chorionic cytotrophoblast has been shown to be a primary site of action. Novel sites were also shown in the decidua, placental trophoblast, and amniotic epithelium. In situ hybridization was not obtained in the latter despite positive Northern analysis and immunostaining. Western analyses with an antibody (U5) to the extracellular domain of the rat PRL-R detected six major molecular species of 95, 85, 63, less than 63, more than 30, and 30 kDa in cytosol from separated amnion, chorion, and decidua. The two bands at 95 and 85 kDa were approximate values only and represent the mature glycosylated forms of the human PRL-R. The other four major bands were partial degradation products from the PRL-R, showing tissue-specific processing and patient to patient variation related to the spectrum of proteases present in these tissues. The 63- and 30-kDa PRL-R-related proteins were detected in both the cytosol and medium from amnion, chorion, and decidua and were also present in amniotic fluid. The 30-kDa species was equal in size to a recently reported PRL-binding protein in human milk. The release of these two PRL-R-related proteins into amniotic fluid suggests possible functions as binding and or/PRL transport proteins in these tissues. The more than 30-kDa species was detected in high amounts in both cytosol and

  4. New concepts in prolactin biology.

    PubMed

    Bernichtein, Sophie; Touraine, Philippe; Goffin, Vincent

    2010-07-01

    Human prolactin (PRL) is currently viewed as a hormone of pituitary origin, whose production (i.e. serum levels) is controlled by dopamine, whose biological actions relate exclusively to lactation and reproductive functions, for which any genetic disorder is yet to be identified, and whose unique associated pathology is hyperprolactinemia. Both experimental studies and human sample/cohort-based investigations performed during the past decade have considerably widened our perception of PRL biology: i) there are now strong epidemiological arguments supporting the fact that circulating PRL is a risk factor for breast cancer, ii) in addition to the endocrine hormone, locally produced PRL has been documented in several human tissues; there is increasing evidence supporting the tumor growth potency of local PRL, acting via autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, in both rodent models, and human breast and prostate tumors, iii) the first functional germinal polymorphisms of the PRL receptor were recently identified in patients presenting with breast tumors, which involve single amino acid substitution variants exhibiting constitutive activity, iv) human PRL analogs have been engineered, which were shown in experimental models to down-regulate the effects triggered by local PRL (competitive antagonism) or by the constitutively active receptor variants (inverse agonism). The aim of this review is to discuss these novel concepts in PRL biology, including their potential pathophysiological outcomes.

  5. Hyperprolactinemia and medications for bipolar disorder: systematic review of a neglected issue in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Murru, Andrea; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Bonnin, C Mar; Mazzarini, Lorenzo; Colom, Francesc; Vieta, Eduard

    2015-08-01

    Drug-induced changes in serum prolactin (sPrl) levels constitute a relevant issue due to the potentially severe consequences on physical health of psychiatric patients such as sexual dysfunctions, osteoporosis and Prl-sensitive tumors. Several drugs have been associated to sPrl changes. Only antipsychotics have been extensively studied as sPrl-elevating agents in schizophrenia, but the extent to which bipolar disorder (BD) treatments affect sPrl levels is much less known. The objective of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence of the effects of drugs used in BD on Prl. This review followed the PRISMA statement. The MEDLINE/PubMed/Index Medicus, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched for articles in English appearing from any time to May 30, 2014. Twenty-six studies were included. These suggest that treatments for BD are less likely to be associated with Prl elevations, with valproate, quetiapine, lurasidone, mirtazapine, and bupropion reported not to change PRL levels significantly and lithium and aripiprazole to lower them in some studies. Taking into account the effects of the different classes of drugs on Prl may improve the care of BD patients requiring long-term pharmacotherapy. Based on the results of this review, lithium and valproate appear to be safer due to their low potential to elevate sPrL; among antipsychotics, quetiapine, lurasidone and aripiprazole appear to be similarly safe.

  6. Prolactin and growth hormone responses to hypoglycemia in patients with systemic sclerosis and psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rovensky, Jozef; Raffayova, Helena; Imrich, Richard; Radikova, Zofia; Penesova, Adela; Macho, Ladislav; Lukac, Jozef; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Vigas, Milan

    2006-06-01

    This study compared prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) responses to hypoglycemia in premenopausal females with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) with those in matched healthy controls. No differences were found in glucose and GH responses to hypoglycemia in both groups of patients compared to controls. SSc patients had lower PRL response (P < 0.05) to hypoglycemia compared to controls. PRL response tended to be lower also in PsA patients, however the difference did not reach level of statistical significance (P = 0.11). The present study showed decreased PRL response to hypoglycemia in premenopausal females with SSc.

  7. The ontogenesis of human fetal hormones. III. Prolactin.

    PubMed Central

    Aubert, M J; Grumbach, M M; Kaplan, S L

    1975-01-01

    The synthesis and release of human prolactin (hPRL) in the human fetus was assessed by radioimmunoassay analysis of the content and concentration of hPRL in 82 pituitary glands and the concentration of serum hPRL in 47 fetuses of gestational age 68 days to term. Fetal hPRL exhibited parallelism with the reference standard (Lewis 203-1). hPRL was detected by 68 days of gestation (10 wk), the earliest fetal pituitary gland studied; 8 out of 33 pituitaries had a prolactin (PRL) content above 2.0 ng between 10-15 wk gestation. The mean ocntent of PRL in the pituitary gland increased sharply from 14.8 plus or minus 4.6 ng at 15-19 wk to 405 plus or minus 142 ng at 20-24 wk and 542 plus or minus ng at 25-29 wk gestation. By term, the mean content was 2,039 plus or minus 459 (range 493-3,689) and the mean concentration 15.9 plus or minus 2.4 ng/mg (range 7-20). There was a significant positive correlation (P less than 0.001) between the hPRL and human growth hormone (hGH) content of fetal pituitary glands; at term the hPRL/hGH ratio was 1/290. The concentration of serum hPRL between 12 and 24 wk ranged from 2.9 to 67 ng/ml, mean 19.5 plus or minus 2.5 ng/ml )n = 21); by 26 wk fetal serum hPRL increased sharply and attained levels of 300-500 ng/ml in late gestation. At delivery, the mean plasma concentration of hPRL was 167 plus or minus 14.2 ng/ml in 36 umbilical venous specimens and 111.8 plus or minus 12.3 ng/ml in the matched maternal venous specimens. No correlation between serum hPRL and the pituitary content or concentration of hPRL was demonstrable in 12 matched fetal specimens. In five anencephalic infants, umbilical venous hPRL levels were between 65 and 283 ng/ml. In two anencephalic infants, thyrotropin releasing factor (TRF) (200 mug IV) evoked a rise in serum hPRL in one patient from 43 to 156 ng/ml at 30 min, and in the other from 65 to 404 ng/ml at 120 min. In both patients, plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) rose from undetectable base-line levels to

  8. Prolactin signaling through focal adhesion complexes is amplified by stiff extracellular matrices in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Barcus, Craig E; Keely, Patricia J; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Schuler, Linda A

    2016-07-26

    Estrogen receptor α positive (ERα+) breast cancer accounts for most breast cancer deaths. Both prolactin (PRL) and extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness/density have been implicated in metastatic progression of this disease. We previously demonstrated that these factors cooperate to fuel processes involved in cancer progression. Culture of ERα+ breast cancer cells in dense/stiff 3D collagen-I matrices shifts the repertoire of PRL signals, and increases crosstalk between PRL and estrogen to promote proliferation and invasion. However, previous work did not distinguish ECM stiffness and collagen density. In order to dissect the ECM features that control PRL signals, we cultured T47D and MCF-7 cells on polyacrylamide hydrogels of varying elastic moduli (stiffness) with varying collagen-I concentrations (ligand density). Increasing stiffness from physiological to pathological significantly augmented PRL-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and the SFK target, FAK-Y925, with only modest effects on pSTAT5. In contrast, higher collagen-I ligand density lowered PRL-induced pSTAT5 with no effect on pERK1/2 or pFAK-Y925. Disrupting focal adhesion signaling decreased PRL signals and PRL/estrogen-induced proliferation more efficiently in stiff, compared to compliant, extracellular environments. These data indicate that matrix stiffness shifts the balance of PRL signals from physiological (JAK2/STAT5) to pathological (FAK/SFK/ERK1/2) by increasing PRL signals through focal adhesions. Together, our studies suggest that PRL signaling to FAK and SFKs may be useful targets in clinical aggressive ERα+ breast carcinomas.

  9. Prolactin signaling through focal adhesion complexes is amplified by stiff extracellular matrices in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Barcus, Craig E.; Keely, Patricia J.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Schuler, Linda A.

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α positive (ERα+) breast cancer accounts for most breast cancer deaths. Both prolactin (PRL) and extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness/density have been implicated in metastatic progression of this disease. We previously demonstrated that these factors cooperate to fuel processes involved in cancer progression. Culture of ERα+ breast cancer cells in dense/stiff 3D collagen-I matrices shifts the repertoire of PRL signals, and increases crosstalk between PRL and estrogen to promote proliferation and invasion. However, previous work did not distinguish ECM stiffness and collagen density. In order to dissect the ECM features that control PRL signals, we cultured T47D and MCF-7 cells on polyacrylamide hydrogels of varying elastic moduli (stiffness) with varying collagen-I concentrations (ligand density). Increasing stiffness from physiological to pathological significantly augmented PRL-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and the SFK target, FAK-Y925, with only modest effects on pSTAT5. In contrast, higher collagen-I ligand density lowered PRL-induced pSTAT5 with no effect on pERK1/2 or pFAK-Y925. Disrupting focal adhesion signaling decreased PRL signals and PRL/estrogen-induced proliferation more efficiently in stiff, compared to compliant, extracellular environments. These data indicate that matrix stiffness shifts the balance of PRL signals from physiological (JAK2/STAT5) to pathological (FAK/SFK/ERK1/2) by increasing PRL signals through focal adhesions. Together, our studies suggest that PRL signaling to FAK and SFKs may be useful targets in clinical aggressive ERα+ breast carcinomas. PMID:27344177

  10. Prolactin-binding components in rabbit mammary gland: characterization by partial purification and affinity labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, M.; Djiane, J.; Kelly, P.A.

    1985-06-01

    The molecular characteristics of the PRL receptor isolated from rabbit mammary gland microsomes were investigated. Two approaches were employed: 1) affinity purification of PRL receptors and direct electrophoretic analysis, and 2) affinity cross-linking of microsomal receptors with (/sup 125/I)ovine PRL ((/sup 125/I)oPRL). PRL receptors were solubilized from mammary microsomes with 3-((3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio)1-propane sulfonate and purified using an oPRL agarose affinity column. Sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining of the gel revealed at least nine bands, including a 32,000 mol wt band which was most intensively labeled with /sup 125/I using the chloramine-T method. Covalent labeling of PRL receptors with (/sup 125/I)oPRL was performed using N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-4-azido benzoate, disuccinimidyl suberate, or ethylene glycol bis (succinimidyl succinate). A single band of 59,000 mol wt was produced by all three cross-linkers when sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed under reducing conditions. Assuming 1:1 binding of hormone and binding subunit and by subtracting the mol wt of (/sup 125/I)oPRL, which was estimated from the migration distance on the gel, the mol wt of the binding subunit was calculated as 32,000. In the absence of dithiothreitol during electrophoresis, only one major hormone-receptor complex band was observed. The same mol wt binding components were also detected in microsomal fractions of rabbit kidney, ovary, and adrenal. A slightly higher mol wt binding subunit was observed in rat liver microsomes. Rabbit liver microsomes revealed five (/sup 125/I)oPRL-binding components, three of which were considered to be those of a GH receptor. Moreover, affinity labeling of detergent-solubilized and affinity purified mammary PRL receptors showed a similar major binding subunit.

  11. High Levels of Serum Prolactin Protect Against Diabetic Retinopathy by Increasing Ocular Vasoinhibins

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Edith; Rivera, José C.; Thebault, Stéphanie; Moreno-Páramo, Daniel; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo; Quintanar-Stéphano, Andrés; Binart, Nadine; Martínez de la Escalera, Gonzalo; Clapp, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Increased retinal vasopermeability (RVP) occurs early in diabetes and is crucial for the development of sight-threatening proliferative diabetic retinopathy (DR). The hormone prolactin (PRL) is proteolytically processed to vasoinhibins, a family of peptides that inhibit the excessive RVP related to DR. Here, we investigate the circulating levels of PRL in association with DR in men and test whether increased circulating PRL, by serving as a source of ocular vasoinhibins, can reduce the pathological RVP in diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Serum PRL was evaluated in 40 nondiabetic and 181 diabetic men at various stages of DR. Retinal vasoinhibins were measured in rats rendered hyperprolactinemic by placing two anterior pituitary grafts under the kidney capsule and in PRL receptor–null mice. RVP was determined in hyperprolactinemic rats subjected to the intraocular injection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or made diabetic with streptozotocin. RESULTS The circulating levels of PRL increased in diabetes and were higher in diabetic patients without retinopathy than in those with proliferative DR. In rodents, hyperprolactinemia led to vasoinhibin accumulation within the retina; genetic deletion of the PRL receptor prevented this effect, indicating receptor-mediated incorporation of systemic PRL into the eye. Hyperprolactinemia reduced both VEGF-induced and diabetes-induced increase of RVP. This reduction was blocked by bromocriptine, an inhibitor of pituitary PRL secretion, which lowers the levels of circulating PRL and retinal vasoinhibins. CONCLUSIONS Circulating PRL influences the progression of DR after its intraocular conversion to vasoinhibins. Inducing hyperprolactinemia may represent a novel therapy against DR. PMID:20823101

  12. Prolactin 177, prolactin 188, and extracellular osmolality independently regulate the gene expression of ion transport effectors in gill of Mozambique tilapia.

    PubMed

    Inokuchi, Mayu; Breves, Jason P; Moriyama, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Soichi; Kaneko, Toyoji; Lerner, Darren T; Grau, E Gordon; Seale, Andre P

    2015-11-15

    This study characterized the local effects of extracellular osmolality and prolactin (PRL) on branchial ionoregulatory function of a euryhaline teleost, Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). First, gill filaments were dissected from freshwater (FW)-acclimated tilapia and incubated in four different osmolalities, 280, 330, 380, and 450 mosmol/kg H2O. The mRNA expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α1a (NKA α1a) and Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) showed higher expression with decreasing media osmolalities, while Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter 1a (NKCC1a) and PRL receptor 2 (PRLR2) mRNA levels were upregulated by increases in media osmolality. We then incubated gill filaments in media containing ovine PRL (oPRL) and native tilapia PRLs (tPRL177 and tPRL188). oPRL and the two native tPRLs showed concentration-dependent effects on NCC, NKAα1a, and PRLR1 expression; Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3) expression was increased by 24 h of incubation with tPRLs. Immunohistochemical observation showed that oPRL and both tPRLs maintained a high density of NCC- and NKA-immunoreactive ionocytes in cultured filaments. Furthermore, we found that tPRL177 and tPRL188 differentially induce expression of these ion transporters, according to incubation time. Together, these results provide evidence that ionocytes of Mozambique tilapia may function as osmoreceptors, as well as directly respond to PRL to modulate branchial ionoregulatory functions. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Prolactin 177, prolactin 188, and extracellular osmolality independently regulate the gene expression of ion transport effectors in gill of Mozambique tilapia

    PubMed Central

    Breves, Jason P.; Moriyama, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Soichi; Kaneko, Toyoji; Lerner, Darren T.; Grau, E. Gordon; Seale, Andre P.

    2015-01-01

    This study characterized the local effects of extracellular osmolality and prolactin (PRL) on branchial ionoregulatory function of a euryhaline teleost, Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). First, gill filaments were dissected from freshwater (FW)-acclimated tilapia and incubated in four different osmolalities, 280, 330, 380, and 450 mosmol/kg H2O. The mRNA expression of Na+/K+-ATPase α1a (NKA α1a) and Na+/Cl− cotransporter (NCC) showed higher expression with decreasing media osmolalities, while Na+/K+/2Cl− cotransporter 1a (NKCC1a) and PRL receptor 2 (PRLR2) mRNA levels were upregulated by increases in media osmolality. We then incubated gill filaments in media containing ovine PRL (oPRL) and native tilapia PRLs (tPRL177 and tPRL188). oPRL and the two native tPRLs showed concentration-dependent effects on NCC, NKAα1a, and PRLR1 expression; Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) expression was increased by 24 h of incubation with tPRLs. Immunohistochemical observation showed that oPRL and both tPRLs maintained a high density of NCC- and NKA-immunoreactive ionocytes in cultured filaments. Furthermore, we found that tPRL177 and tPRL188 differentially induce expression of these ion transporters, according to incubation time. Together, these results provide evidence that ionocytes of Mozambique tilapia may function as osmoreceptors, as well as directly respond to PRL to modulate branchial ionoregulatory functions. PMID:26377558

  14. Chondroregulatory action of prolactin on proliferation and differentiation of mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells in 3-dimensional micromass cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Seriwatanachai, Dutmanee; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells expressed PRL receptor mRNAs and proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low PRL concentration (10 ng/mL) increased chondrocyte viability and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher PRL concentrations ( Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 100 ng/mL) decreased viability and increased apoptosis. -- Abstract: A recent investigation in lactating rats has provided evidence that the lactogenic hormone prolactin (PRL) increases endochondral bone growth and bone elongation, presumably by accelerating apoptosis of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plate and/or subsequent chondrogenic matrix mineralization. Herein, we demonstrated the direct chondroregulatory action of PRL on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of chondrocytes in 3-dimensional micromass culture of mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cell line. The results showed that ATDC5 cells expressed PRL receptor (PRLR) transcripts, and responded typically to PRL by downregulating PRLR expression. Exposure to a low PRL concentration of 10 ng/mL, comparable to the normal levels in male and non-pregnant female rats, increased chondrocyte viability, differentiation, proteoglycan accumulation, and mRNA expression of several chondrogenic differentiation markers, such as Sox9, ALP and Hspg2. In contrast, high PRL concentrations of Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 100 ng/mL, comparable to the levels in pregnancy or lactation, decreased chondrocyte viability by inducing apoptosis, with no effect on chondrogenic marker expression. It could be concluded that chondrocytes directly but differentially responded to non-pregnant and pregnant/lactating levels of PRL, thus suggesting the stimulatory effect of PRL on chondrogenesis in young growing individuals, and supporting the hypothesis of hypertrophic chondrocyte apoptosis in the growth plate of lactating rats.

  15. Stimulation of rat prolactin secretion by indolealkylamine hallucinogens.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, H Y; Fessler, R G; Simonovic, M; Fang, V S

    1978-04-11

    The hallucinogenic indoleamine drugs N,N-dimethyltryptamine (N,N-DMT), psilocybin, bufotenin, 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, and N-methyltryptamine, increased rat plasma prolactin (PRL) levels. The increase in plasma PRL produced by N,N-DMT, psilocybin, and bufotenin was inhibited by methysergide, a serotonin receptor blocker. Parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA), an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis, significantly potentiated the increase in PRL produced by N,N-DMT, and psilocybin. Parachloroamphetamine, a relatively selective toxin for serotonin neurons, also stimulated the increase in PRL produced by N,N-DMT. These results suggest that the indole hallucinogens stimulate PRL secretion by a serotonergic agonist mechanism. Bufotenin has been reported to pass the blood-brain barrier poorly, but of the indoles studied it had the most potent effect on PRL secretion. This raises the possibility that the serotonin receptors which promote PRL secretion may be outside the blood-brain barrier or that the central 5-HT receptors which mediate PRL secretion may be especially responsive to bufotenin.

  16. Radioautographic localization of prolactin messenger RNA on histological sections by in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Pochet, R; Brocas, H; Vassart, G; Toubeau, G; Seo, H; Refetoff, S; Dumont, J E; Pasteels, J L

    1981-05-04

    In situ hybridization of complementary [H3]DNA ([H3]cDNA) synthetized from purified rat prolactin messenger RNA (rPRL mRNA) was performed to specifically identify on histologic sections of rat hypophysis cells expressing the PRL gene. Radioautographic labelling occurred over weakly acidophilic cells, while other acidophils, with darker cytoplasm did not contain more silver grains than blood vessels.

  17. What Can We Learn from Rodents about Prolactin in Humans?

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Jonathan, Nira; LaPensee, Christopher R.; LaPensee, Elizabeth W.

    2008-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a 23-kDa protein hormone that binds to a single-span membrane receptor, a member of the cytokine receptor superfamily, and exerts its action via several interacting signaling pathways. PRL is a multifunctional hormone that affects multiple reproductive and metabolic functions and is also involved in tumorigenicity. In addition to being a classical pituitary hormone, PRL in humans is produced by many tissues throughout the body where it acts as a cytokine. The objective of this review is to compare and contrast multiple aspects of PRL, from structure to regulation, and from physiology to pathology in rats, mice, and humans. At each juncture, questions are raised whether, or to what extent, data from rodents are relevant to PRL homeostasis in humans. Most current knowledge on PRL has been obtained from studies with rats and, more recently, from the use of transgenic mice. Although this information is indispensable for understanding PRL in human health and disease, there is sufficient disparity in the control of the production, distribution, and physiological functions of PRL among these species to warrant careful and judicial extrapolation to humans. PMID:18057139

  18. Experimental Modification of Rat Pituitary Prolactin Cell Function During and After Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, W. C.; Salada, T.; Avery, L.; Grindeland, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental modification of rat pituitary prolactin cell function during and after spaceflight. This study was done to evaluate the effects of microgravity on prolactin (PRL) cells of the male rat pituitary gland. We used the identical passive closed-vial cell culture system that was described for the culture of growth hormone cells (W C. Hymer, R. E. Grindeland, T. Salada, P. Nye, E. Grossman, and R Lane). After an 8-day spaceflight, all flight media (containing released PRL), as well as extracts (containing intracellular PRL), contained significantly lower amounts of immunoreactive PRL than their corresponding ground control samples. On the other hand, these same samples, when assessed for their biological activities by two different in vitro lymphocyte assays, yielded disparate results that may reflect posttranslational modifications to the hormone molecule. Other data showed that: (1) the apparent molecular weights of released PRL molecules were not altered by microgravity; but (2) the region from which the PRL cells came (dorsal or ventral) made a significant difference in the amount and activity of PRL released from the flight cells. Because there is much current interest in the role that PRL may play in the regulation of the immune system and because changes in both cellular and humoral immunity accompany spaceflight, this study could help define future microgravity research in this area.

  19. Stimulation of prolactin receptor induces STAT-5 phosphorylation and cellular invasion in glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Alkharusi, Amira; Yu, Shengze; Landázuri, Natalia; Zadjali, Fahad; Davodi, Belghis; Nyström, Thomas; Gräslund, Torbjörn; Rahbar, Afsar; Norstedt, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in humans and is characterized with poor outcome. In this study, we investigated components of prolactin (Prl) system in cell models of GBM and in histological tissue sections obtained from GBM patients. Expression of Prolactin receptor (PrlR) was detected at high levels in U251-MG, at low levels in U87-MG and barely detectable in U373 cell lines and in 66% of brain tumor tissues from 32 GBM patients by immunohistochemical technique. In addition, stimulation of U251-MG and U87-MG cells but not U373 with Prl resulted in increased STAT5 phosphorylation and only in U251-MG cells with increased cellular invasion. Furthermore, STAT5 phosphorylation and cellular invasion induced in Prl stimulated cells were significantly reduced by using a Prl receptor antagonist that consists of Prl with four amino acid replacements. We conclude that Prl receptor is expressed at different levels in the majority of GBM tumors and that blocking of PrlR in U251-MG cells significantly reduce cellular invasion. PMID:27788487

  20. Variation in the coding and 3’ untranslated regions of the porcine prolactin receptor short form modifies protein expression and function

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The actions of prolactin (PRL) are mediated by both long (LF) and short isoforms (SF) of the PRL receptor (PRLR). Here, we report on a genetic and functional analysis of the porcine PRLR (pPRLR) SF. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within exon 11 of the pPRLR-SF give rise to four amino a...

  1. Reliability and Expected Loss: A Unifying Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooil, Bruce; Rust, Roland T.

    1994-01-01

    It is proposed that proportional reduction in loss (PRL) be used as a theoretical basis to derive, justify, and interpret reliability measures to gauge reliability on a zero-to-one scale. This PRL approach simplifies the interpretation of existing measures (e.g., generalizability-theory measures). (SLD)

  2. Identification of Polymorphisms in the Enhancer Region of the Bovine Prolactin Gene and Association with Fertility in Beef Cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objectives were to investigate the polymorphic nature of the enhancer region of the bovine prolactin (PRL) gene and determine the association of these polymorphisms with fertility in beef cows. Primers were designed to amplify a 500 base pair fragment 892 to 1392 bases upstream of the bovine PRL gen...

  3. Tissue-specific Regulation of Porcine Prolactin Receptor Expression by Estrogen, Progesterone and Prolactin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prolactin (PRL) acts through its receptor (PRLR) via both endocrine and local paracrine/autocrine pathways to regulate biological processes including reproduction and lactation. We analyzed the tissue and stage of gestation-specific regulation of PRL and PRLR expression in various tissues of pigs. ...

  4. Identification of the reptilian prolactin and its receptor cDNAs in the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius.

    PubMed

    Kato, Keisuke; Ikemoto, Tadahiro; Park, Min Kyun

    2005-02-14

    In spite of their physiological significance, there is no available information about the nucleotide sequences of prolactin (PRL) and its receptor in reptilian species. In order to fill this gap, PRL and its receptor cDNAs were identified in a reptilian species, the leopard gecko Eublepharis macularius. The deduced leopard gecko PRL polypeptide showed high identities with the corresponding polypeptides of other reptiles. The leopard gecko PRL receptor (PRLR) was estimated to have tandem repeated regions in its extracellular domain, which had been originally found in avian PRLR. Molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that these tandem repeated regions were generated by the duplication of the extracellular region in the latest common ancestor among reptiles and birds. In addition, tissue distributions of PRL and PRLR in the leopard gecko were examined by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). PRLR mRNA was detected in all tissues examined and highly expressed in the whole brain, pituitary, intestine, kidney, ovary, oviduct and testis. Whereas, PRL mRNA was expressed in the whole brain, pituitary, ovary and testis. The co-expressions of PRL and its receptor in some extrapituitary organs suggest that PRL acts as an autocrine/paracrine factor in such organs of the leopard gecko.

  5. Technologies for Genome-Wide Identification of Stat5 Regulated Genes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    37 Role of Prl- Jak2 -Stat5 Signaling in Mammary Physiology.......................................... 39 Clinical Implications of Stat5...ROLE OF PRL- JAK2 -STAT5 SIGNALING IN MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELL DIFFERENTIATION AND GROWTH...Differentiation of HC11 Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells Correlated With Activation of Tyrosine Kinase Jak2

  6. Chromatin remodeling as a mechanism for circadian prolactin transcription: rhythmic NONO and SFPQ recruitment to HLTF.

    PubMed

    Guillaumond, Fabienne; Boyer, Benedicte; Becquet, Denis; Guillen, Severine; Kuhn, Lauriane; Garin, Jerome; Belghazi, Maya; Bosler, Olivier; Franc, Jean-Louis; François-Bellan, Anne-Marie

    2011-08-01

    Most clock-controlled genes (CCGs) lack the specific E-box response element necessary for direct circadian regulation. This is the case for the prolactin (Prl) gene, the expression of which oscillates in individual lactotrope pituitary cells. To characterize the processes underlying this oscillation, we used a lactotrope cell line (GH4C1 cells). In these cells, Prl gene expression fluctuated significantly during 24 h (P=0.0418). Circadian Prl transcription depended on an interaction between the pituitary-specific transcription factor, PIT-1, and the helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF), a SWI/SNF chromatin remodeler, shown here to bind the Prl promoter on an E-box that differs from the specific E-box preferentially bound by clock proteins. Circadian Prl transcription was further accompanied by marked daily chromatin transitions. While neither HLTF nor PIT-1 was rhythmically expressed, NONO and SFPQ, identified as HLTF-associated proteins by mass spectrometry, displayed a circadian pattern and bound rhythmically to the Prl promoter. Furthermore, NONO and SFPQ were functionally involved in circadian Prl transcription since overexpression of both proteins greatly reduced Prl promoter activity (P<0.001) and disrupted its circadian pattern. A mechanism involving a rhythm in paraspeckle protein recruitment is proposed to explain how the core oscillator can generate a circadian pattern of CCGs lacking the specific E-box response element.

  7. Pituitary control of branchial NCC, NKCC and Na(+), K (+)-ATPase α-subunit gene expression in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Breves, Jason P; Seale, Andre P; Moorman, Benjamin P; Lerner, Darren T; Moriyama, Shunsuke; Hopkins, Kevin D; Grau, E Gordon

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated endocrine control of branchial ionoregulatory function in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by prolactin (Prl188 and Prl177), growth hormone (Gh) and cortisol. Branchial expression of Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (ncc) and Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter (nkcc) genes were employed as specific markers for freshwater- and seawater-type ionocytes, respectively. We further investigated whether Prl, Gh and cortisol direct expression of two Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (nka)-α1 subunit genes, denoted nka-α1a and nka-α1b. Tilapia transferred to fresh water following hypophysectomy failed to adequately activate gill ncc expression; ncc expression was subsequently restored by Prl replacement. Prl188 and Prl177 stimulated ncc expression in cultured gill filaments in a concentration-related manner, suggesting that ncc is regulated by Prl in a gill-autonomous fashion. Tilapia transferred to brackish water (23 ‰) following hypophysectomy exhibited a reduced capacity to up-regulate nka-α1b expression. However, Gh and cortisol failed to affect nka-α1b expression in vivo. Similarly, we found no clear effects of Gh or cortisol on nkcc expression both in vivo and in vitro. When considered with patterns previously described in euryhaline Mozambique tilapia (O. mossambicus), the current study suggests that ncc is a conserved target of Prl in tilapiine cichlids. In addition, we revealed contrasting dependencies upon the pituitary to direct nka-α1b expression in hyperosmotic environments between Nile and Mozambique tilapia.

  8. Prolactin has a pathogenic role in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Jara, Luis J; Medina, Gabriela; Saavedra, Miguel A; Vera-Lastra, Olga; Torres-Aguilar, Honorio; Navarro, Carmen; Vazquez Del Mercado, Monica; Espinoza, Luis R

    2017-01-28

    Prolactin, a 23-kDa peptide hormone, is produced by the anterior pituitary gland and extrapituitary sites including the immune cells. Prolactin (PRL) participates in innate and adaptive immune response. PRL stimulates the immune cells by binding to receptor (PRL-R). Binding of PRL to its receptor activates the Janus kinase-signal transducer (JAK-STAT). Activation of these cascades results in endpoints such as immunoestimulator and immunosupressor action. Prolactin belongs to the network of immune-neuroendocrine interaction. Hyperprolactinemia has been found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and new evidence has confirmed a significant correlation between serum PRL levels and disease activity. PRL participates in activation of SLE during pregnancy and in pathogenesis of lupus nephritis, neuropsychiatric, serosal, hematologic, articular, and cutaneous involvement. Hyperprolactinemia was associated with increase IgG concentrations, anti-DNA antibodies, immune complex, glomerulonephritis, and accelerated mortality in murine lupus. Bromocriptine, a dopamine analog that suppresses PRL secretion, was associated with decreased lupus activity, prolonged lifespan, and restoration of immune competence in experimental model. In clinical trials, bromocriptine and derivative drugs showed beneficial therapeutic effect in treating human lupus, including pregnancy. Taken together, clinical and experimental results leave little doubt that PRL indeed contributes to the pathogenesis and clinical expression of SLE.

  9. Biochemical evaluation of virtual screening methods reveals a cell-active inhibitor of the cancer-promoting phosphatases of regenerating liver.

    PubMed

    Hoeger, Birgit; Diether, Maren; Ballester, Pedro J; Köhn, Maja

    2014-12-17

    Computationally supported development of small molecule inhibitors has successfully been applied to protein tyrosine phosphatases in the past, revealing a number of cell-active compounds. Similar approaches have also been used to screen for small molecule inhibitors for the cancer-related phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRL) family. Still, selective and cell-active compounds are of limited availability. Since especially PRL-3 remains an attractive drug target due to its clear role in cancer metastasis, such compounds are highly demanded. In this study, we investigated various virtual screening approaches for their applicability to identify novel small molecule entities for PRL-3 as target. Biochemical evaluation of purchasable compounds revealed ligand-based approaches as well suited for this target, compared to docking-based techniques that did not perform well in this context. The best hit of this study, a 2-cyano-2-ene-ester and hence a novel chemotype targeting the PRLs, was further optimized by a structure-activity-relationship (SAR) study, leading to a low micromolar PRL inhibitor with acceptable selectivity over other protein tyrosine phosphatases. The compound is active in cells, as shown by its ability to specifically revert PRL-3 induced cell migration, and exhibits similar effects on PRL-1 and PRL-2. It is furthermore suitable for fluorescence microscopy applications, and it is commercially available. These features make it the only purchasable, cell-active and acceptably selective PRL inhibitor to date that can be used in various cellular applications.

  10. Prolactin secretion patterns: basic mechanisms and clinical implications for reproduction.

    PubMed

    Egli, Marcel; Leeners, Brigitte; Kruger, Tillmann H C

    2010-11-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is one of the most versatile hormones in the mammalian body affecting reproductive, sexual, metabolic, immune, and other functions. It is therefore not surprising that the neural control of PRL secretion is complex, involving the coordinated actions of several hypothalamic nuclei. A plethora of experimental data exists on the hypothalamic control of hormone secretion under various physiological stimuli. There have been even mathematical models and computer studies published, which help to understand the complex hypothalamic-pituitary network. Nevertheless, the putative role of PRL for human reproduction still has to be clarified. Here, we review data on the underlying mechanisms controlling PRL secretion using both experimental and mathematical approaches. These investigations primarily focus on rhythmic secretion in rats during early pregnancy or pseudopregnancy, and they point to the important role of oxytocin as a crucial PRL-releasing factor. Recent data on human studies and their theoretical and clinical implications are reviewed as well. In particular, studies demonstrating a sustained PRL surge after sexual climax in males and females are presented, indicating possible implications for both sexual satiation and reproductive functions. Taking these data together, there is evidence for the hypothesis that the PRL surge induced by sexual activity, together with the altered PRL rhythmic pattern, is important for successful initialization of pregnancy not only in rodents but also possibly in humans. However, further investigations are needed to clarify such a role in humans.

  11. Serum prolactin is associated with apoptosis in men with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Parra, A; Ramírez-Peredo, J; Larrea, F; Pérez-Romano, B; Cabrera, V; Torres, I; Reyes-Núñez, V; Ruiz-Argüelles, G; Ruiz-Argüelles, A

    2001-06-01

    We examined the in vivo and in vitro production of prolactin (PRL) in 20 untreated HIV-infected men compared to 14 uninfected men and its association with the cell cycle and apoptosis. Compared to uninfected men, the HIV-infected men had: (i) higher fasting serum bioactive (BIO) PRL; (ii) lower serum immunoreactive (RIA) and BIO-PRL responses to intravenous metoclopramide; (iii) greater BIO-RIA PRL ratio both fasting and during intravenous metoclopramide; (iv) lower percentage of non-stimulated PBMC in the G0/G1 phase, but a higher percentage in the S phase, of the cell cycle with normal response to Concanavalin-A; and (v) higher in vitro production of BIO-PRL by non-stimulated PBMC, which was blocked after Concanavalin-A. Fasting serum BIO-PRL positively correlated with the percent of non-stimulated PBMC in S + G2/M phases. The percentage of apoptotic PBMC negatively correlated with CD4+ T lymphocytes and with the area under the serum RIA-PRL curve, but positively correlated with the area under the curve for the BIO/RIA ratio. These results suggest that in these HIV-infected men: (i) a diminished dopaminergic tone may exist, as an adaptive mechanism attempting to survive; and (ii) BIO-PRL may participate as a cofactor in the stimulation of T-cell proliferation.

  12. Coexistence of macroprolactinaemia and hyperprolactinaemia in women with oligo-/amenorrhoea is associated with high risk of pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Krzysztof C; Gasior-Perczak, Danuta; Kowalska, Aldona; Lewinski, Andrzej

    2014-05-01

    Macroprolactin may cause elevation of prolactin (PRL) concentrations measured by standard assays. In our study, we assessed the prevalence of pituitary lesions in women with macroprolactinaemia and either oligomenorrhoea or secondary amenorrhoea. Pituitary MRI scans were performed in 61 women aged 31.0  ±  6.7 years (mean  ±  SD), with raised PRL concentrations due to macroprolactinaemia, detected by 25% polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation method (PRL recovery <40%). After PEG precipitation of macroprolactin, free PRL concentrations were still raised in 36 (59%) women. Microadenomas were detected in 10 patients out of 61 (16.4%), with raised free PRL in 9 of these cases, while macroadenomas were detected in 4 out of 61 (6.6%) women, all of whom also had raised free PRL. In case of coexistence of macroprolactinaemia and raised free PRL after PEG precipitation of macroprolactin, the chance of finding of either a micro- or a macroadenoma was 36% (13 cases out of 36). We conclude that hyperprolactinaemia and macroprolactinaemia may coexist in the same patient. Furthermore, if free PRL is raised after PEG precipitation of macroprolactin, then the chance of finding either a pituitary micro- or macroadenoma in women with oligo-/amenorrhoea is over 30%. Therefore pituitary magnetic resonance imaging is mandatory in all such cases.

  13. EFFECT OF ATRAZINE ON IMPLANTATION AND EARLY PREGNANCY IN FOUR STRAINS OF RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atrazine (ATR) is an herbicide that has been shown to have adverse reproductive effects including alterations in levels of pituitary hormones such as prolactin (prl) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Since prl's action to promote progesterone secretion is essential for the initiatio...

  14. Hormone-induced ovulation in Ambystoma tigrinum: influence of prolactin and thyroxine.

    PubMed

    Norris, D O; Duvall, D

    1981-04-01

    Treatment of hypophysectomized or intact neotenic tiger salamander larvae (Ambystoma tigrinum) with ovine prolactin (PRL) increased sensitivity of the ovary to the ovulation-inducing hormones, human chorionic gonadotropin and luteinizing hormone (LH). Effects of pretreatment in vivo with PRL or thyroxine (T4) on the responsiveness of ovarian fragments in vitro to ovulation-inducing agents, LH, or progesterone (PROG) in the presence or absence of PRL were observed. In November (prior to normal spawning occurring from January through May) in vivo and in vitro treatment with PRL increased the number of oocytes producing polar bodies and the number of eggs ovulated in vitro. In April addition of PRL in vitro increased polar body formation and ovulations in response to LH or PROG, but in vivo pretreatment with PRL had no effect. Pretreatment in vivo with T4 blocked the in vitro enhancement observed with PRL. Thus, endogenous PRL may play a role in the development of ovarian sensitivity to ovulatory hormones at the level of the oocyte, and T4 may inhibit this action.

  15. Bovine lactotroph cultures for the study of prolactin synthesis functions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianfa; Yang, Zhanqing; Fu, Shoupeng; Liu, Bingrun; Wu, Dianjun; Wang, Wei; Sun, Dongbo; Wu, Rui; Liu, Juxiong

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a bovine anterior pituitary-derived lactotroph (BAPDL) line that expresses prolactin (PRL) in vitro to study the mechanisms of bovine PRL synthesis and secretion. Immunohistochemistry assay of PRL in the newborn calves' anterior pituitary glands showed that most lactotrophs were located within the superior border of the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary. Tissues of the superior border of the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary were dispersed and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The limiting dilution method was used to establish BAPDL from single cell clone. BAPDL cells constantly expressed mRNAs for PRL and pituitary-specific transcription factor 1 (Pit-1) gene and grew steadily and rapidly in the DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS. PRL immunoreactivity was present in BAPDL at passage 20. The concentration of bovine PRL in BAPDL at passage 20 culture supernatant was decreased to below 35% compared with that in BAPDL at passage 1. The effects of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) and dopamine (DA) on the expression and secretion of PRL in BAPDL at passage 4 were also investigated. The results are consistent with those of previous studies. Thus, it can be used successfully for studying the mechanisms of stimuli regulating PRL synthesis and release.

  16. Effect of ghrelin and metoclopramide on prolactin secretion in normal women.

    PubMed

    Messini, C I; Dafopoulos, K; Chalvatzas, N; Georgoulias, P; Anifandis, G; Messinis, I E

    2011-04-01

    Administration of ghrelin to women stimulates the secretion of PRL but the mechanism is not known. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the dopamine receptor blocker, metoclopramide, on ghrelin-induced PRL release. Ten healthy normally cycling women were studied in the midluteal phase of 4 menstrual cycles. A single dose of normal saline (cycle 1), ghrelin (1 μg/kg) (cycle 2), metoclopramide (20 mg) (cycle 3), and ghrelin plus metoclopramide (cycle 4) was given to the women iv. Blood samples in relation to the iv injection (time 0) were taken at -15, 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, and 120 min. The response of PRL and GH was assessed. Following ghrelin administration (cycles 2 and 4), plasma ghrelin and serum PRL and GH levels increased rapidly, peaking at 30 min (p<0.001). PRL was also increased after the injection of metoclopramide (p<0.001, cycle 3), but the increase was much greater than after the administration of ghrelin. The combination of ghrelin and metoclopramide stimulated PRL secretion to the same extent with metoclopramide alone. No changes in GH and PRL levels were seen after saline injection. These results demonstrate that the stimulating effect of ghrelin on PRL secretion is not additive with that of metoclopramide, although a dose range study might provide further information.

  17. Prolactin variations during risperidone therapy in a sample of drug-naive children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Matera, Emilia; Petruzzelli, Maria G.; Simone, Marta; Lamanna, Anna L.; Pastore, Adriana; Palmieri, Vincenzo O.; Margari, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this prospective observational study was to investigate the variations of serum prolactin hormone (PRL) in a sample of 34 drug-naive patients (mean age 13 years) who started risperidone therapy assuming that several factors may favor the increase in serum PRL. Serum PRL and hyperprolactinemia clinical signs were examined at baseline (T0) and after almost 3 months of treatment (T1). We considered sex, pubertal status, risperidone dosage, psychiatric diagnosis, and any personal/family history of autoimmune diseases. The mean serum PRL value increased between T0 and T1 (P=0.004). The mean serum PRL was higher in females in the pubertal/postpubertal stage and for risperidone dosage up 1 mg/day. Hyperprolactinemia was found in 20% of patients at T0 and in 38% of patients at T1 (P=0.03). The mean serum PRL increase was greater in early-onset schizophrenia spectrum psychosis patients compared with no-early-onset schizophrenia spectrum psychosis patients (P=0.04). The increase in PRL was higher in patients with a personal and a family history of autoimmune diseases. This study suggests that the increase in serum PRL in patients treated with risperidone may be linked not only to the drug and its dosage but also to several risk factors such as sex, pubertal stage, psychiatric disease, and autoimmune disorders. PMID:25514607

  18. Prolactin circadian rhythm persists throughout lactation in women.

    PubMed

    Stern, J M; Reichlin, S

    1990-01-01

    To determine whether the prolactin (PRL) circadian rhythm, with its characteristic nocturnal rise, persists during the hyperprolactinemia of lactation, PRL levels were analyzed in blood samples collected hourly for 24 h from 20 mothers, 4-46 months postpartum. The circadian rhythm of PRL persisted throughout lactation as manifested by: (1) significantly higher mean nighttime than daytime PRL levels in the whole sample, despite higher daytime nursing durations; (2) the distribution of zenith levels which most frequently occur between 23.00 and 07.00 h, when nursing duration is lowest, and which are almost absent between 07.00 and 23.00 h, when nursing duration is highest, and of nadir levels, which have an opposite pattern; (3) spontaneous PRL surges that are more frequent, longer, and of higher magnitude at night than during the day, and (4) the larger magnitude of suckling-induced PRL release from late afternoon through the night compared to the morning in some women. Our data suggest that the mechanisms responsible for the circadian rhythm in PRL secretion are relatively independent of the mechanisms of suckling-induced release. We propose that the nocturnal rise in PRL during lactation functions to ensure a robust milk supply during an extensive nonsuckling interval.

  19. Prolactin stimulates sodium and chloride ion channels in A6 renal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Greenlee, Megan M.; Mitzelfelt, Jeremiah D.; Duke, Billie Jeanne; Al-Khalili, Otor; Bao, Hui-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Many hormonal pathways contribute to the regulation of renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) function, a key process for maintaining blood volume and controlling blood pressure. In the present study, we examined whether the peptide hormone prolactin (PRL) regulates ENaC function in renal epithelial cells (A6). Basolateral application of several different concentrations of PRL dramatically stimulated the transepithelial current in A6 cells, increasing both amiloride-sensitive (ENaC) and amiloride-insensitive currents. Using cell-attached patch clamp, we determined that PRL increased both the number (N) and open probability (Po) of ENaC present in the apical membrane. Inhibition of PKA with H-89 abolished the effect of PRL on amiloride-sensitive and insensitive transepithelial currents and eliminated the increase in ENaC NPo with PRL exposure. PRL also increased cAMP in A6 cells, consistent with signaling through the cAMP-dependent PKA pathway. We also identified that PRL induced activity of a 2-pS anion channel with outward rectification, electrophysiological properties consistent with ClC4 or ClC5. RT-PCR only detected ClC4, but not ClC5 transcripts. Here, we show for the first time that PRL activates sodium and chloride transport in renal epithelial cells via ENaC and ClC4. PMID:25587116

  20. Proliferation and mRNA expression of absorptive villous cell markers and mineral transporters in prolactin-exposed IEC-6 intestinal crypt cells.

    PubMed

    Teerapornpuntakit, Jarinthorn; Wongdee, Kannikar; Thongbunchoo, Jirawan; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2012-06-01

    During pregnancy and lactation, prolactin (PRL) enhances intestinal absorption of calcium and other minerals for fetal development and milk production. Although an enhanced absorptive efficiency is believed to mainly result from the upregulation of mineral transporters in the absorptive villous cells, some other possibilities, such as PRL-enhanced crypt cell proliferation and differentiation to increase the absorptive area, have never been ruled out. Here, we investigated cell proliferation and mRNA expression of mineral absorption-related genes in the PRL-exposed IEC-6 crypt cells. As expected, the cell proliferation was not altered by PRL. Inasmuch as the mRNA expressions of villous cell markers, including dipeptidylpeptidase-4, lactase and glucose transporter-5, were not increased, PRL was not likely to enhance crypt cell differentiation into the absorptive villous cells. In contrast to the previous findings in villous cells, PRL was found to downregulate the expression of calbindin-D(9k), claudin-3 and occludin in IEC-6 crypt cells, while having no effect on transient receptor potential vanilloid family channels-5/6, plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA)-1b and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger-1 expression. In conclusion, IEC-6 crypt cells did not respond to PRL by increasing proliferation or differentiation into villous cells. The present results thus supported the previous hypothesis that PRL enhanced mineral absorption predominantly by increasing transporter expression and activity in the absorptive villous cells. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The Lipidosterolic Extract fromSerenoa repens Interferes with Prolactin Receptor Signal Transduction.

    PubMed

    Vacher, P.; Prevarskaya, N.; Skryma, R.; Audy, M.C.; Vacher, A.M.; Odessa, M.F.; Dufy, B.

    1995-10-01

    The lipidosterolic extract from the saw palmetto Serenoa repens (LSESr) is commonly used for medical treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophia due to its ability to inhibit 5alpha-reductase which permits the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, the active androgen on prostate cell proliferation. However, the complete action mechanism of LSESr is still unknown. Several lines of evidence suggest that, in addition to inhibition of 5alpha-reductase, it may interfere with the action of prolactin (PRL). We therefore investigated a possible interference of this plant extract with another hormone that controls prostate gland growth, PRL. As the action mechanism of PRL is now fully documented in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the PRL receptor, we have conducted our experiments on these cells. In this study, using electrophysiological (whole-cell recording and single-channel recording), microspectrofluorimetric and biochemical techniques, we show that LSESr (1-30 &mgr;g/ml) reduced the basal activity of a K(+) channel and of protein kinase C (PKC) in CHO cells. In addition, pretreatment of the cells with 1-10 &mgr;g/ml LSESr for 6-36 h abolished the effects of PRL on [Ca(2+)](i), K(+) conductance and PKC. LSESr may block PRL-induced prostate growth by inhibiting several steps of PRL receptor signal transduction. LSESr may also be useful for diseases implicating PRL. Copyright 1995 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Increased demand for steroid therapy in hyperprolactinemic patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rovenský, J; Bakosová, J; Payer, J; Lukác, J; Raffayová, H; Vigas, M

    2001-01-01

    The role of increased plasma prolactin (PRL) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is not fully explained. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical features and the treatment administered in RA patients with normal and elevated plasma PRL concentrations. Forty-nine patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 16 healthy subjects were included in this study In healthy controls, PRL concentrations were 7.6 micro/l (median), in 34 patients plasma PRL was less than 20 micro/l (9.9 micro/l) and in 15 patients it was elevated, with a median of 26.7 micro/l. No differences in clinical features were found compared with normal or increased plasma PRL. The introduction of corticoid therapy produced a significant difference. Steroid therapy was administered to 93% of the patients with hyperprolactinemia, compared with 59% of those with normal PRL concentrations. Daily prednisone doses higher than 5 mg were administered to 43% of the patients with elevated PRL, compared with 25% of patients with normal prolactin concentrations. In conclusion, the clinical feature of patients with rheumatoid arthritis did not differ in subjects with elevated PRL concentrations and in those with normal concentrations. The difference between these two groups was in the higher demand for steroid therapy in patients with hyperprolactinemia.

  3. Dopamine–prolactin pathway potentially contributes to the schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Gragnoli, C; Reeves, G M; Reazer, J; Postolache, T T

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are clinically associated, and common knowledge attributes this association to side effects of antipsychotic treatment. However, even drug-naive patients with SCZ are at increased risk for T2D. Dopamine dysfunction has a central role in SCZ. It is well-known that dopamine constitutively inhibits prolactin (PRL) secretion via the dopamine receptor 2 (DR2D). If dopamine is increased or if dopamine receptors hyperfunction, PRL may be reduced. During the first SCZ episode, low PRL levels are associated with worse symptoms. PRL is essential in human and social bonding, as well as it is implicated in glucose homeostasis. Dopamine dysfunction, beyond contributing to SCZ symptoms, may lead to altered appetite and T2D. To our knowledge, there are no studies of the genetics of the SCZ–T2D comorbidity focusing jointly on the dopamine and PRL pathway in the attempt to capture molecular heterogeneity correlated to possible disease manifestation heterogeneity. In this dopamine–PRL pathway-focused-hypothesis-driven review on the association of SCZ with T2D, we report a specific revision of what it is known about PRL and dopamine in relation to what we theorize is one of the missing links between the two disorders. We suggest that new studies are necessary to establish the genetic role of PRL and dopamine pathway in SCZ–T2D comorbidity. PMID:27093067

  4. Enhanced prolactin responsiveness to galanin in patients with Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Invitti, C; Pecori Giraldi, F; Tagliaferri, A; Scacchi, M; Dubini, A; Cavagnini, F

    1993-08-01

    Galanin is believed to play a role in the control of prolactin (PRL) secretion in the rat. Such a role is uncertain in humans where the neuropeptide is expressed by the corticotrophs. However, in clinical conditions of enhanced ACTH secretion, increased PRL levels are often observed. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of galanin infusion on serum PRL levels in patients with Cushing's disease and in control subjects. For comparison, the PRL responses to TRH and metoclopramide were also investigated in the same patients. Four tests were performed: (a) 40-minute infusion of 0.3 micrograms/kg/min of galanin; (b) infusion of normal saline only; (c) metoclopramide test (10 mg as i.v. bolus); (d) TRH test (200 mg as i.v. bolus). Twenty-four normal subjects and nine patients suffering from active Cushing's disease were investigated. Serum concentrations of PRL were measured by radioimmunoassay on blood samples collected before and for 90 minutes after drug or saline administration. Serum baseline PRL levels were superimposable in normal subjects and in patients with Cushing's disease. In normal subjects, infusion of galanin induced a distinct PRL increase compared to saline (mean +/- SEM incremental areas 6514 +/- 2572 vs 540 +/- 571 mU/l/90 min, P = 0.05, respectively). In patients with Cushing's disease, galanin evoked a remarkable PRL rise with hormone levels which were significantly greater (P < 0.001) than those observed in the same patients after infusion of saline (21908 +/- 4180 vs 534 +/- 1556 mU/l/90 min) or after galanin administration in controls (P < 0.01). The PRL response to TRH and, much more so, to metoclopramide was significantly lower in patients with Cushing's disease than in normal subjects (42125 +/- 8000 vs 73181 +/- 7246 mU/l/90 min, P < 0.01 after TRH and 79095 +/- 27265 vs 229049 +/- 10602 mU/l/90 min, P < 0.01 after metoclopramide). Galanin appears to be a specific, though weak, PRL secretagogue in normal subjects. The galanin-induced PRL release

  5. Effects of cysteamine on pituitary, MTTW15 tumor, and serum prolactin levels measured by rat lymphoma cell bioassay and radioimmunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, J.A.; Peterson, E.K.; Hartfel, M.A.

    1984-05-01

    Cysteamine (CSH), a sulfhydryl compound, reduces both serum and anterior pituitary (AP) PRL measured by RIA. We have used the Nb2 lymphoma cell bioassay (BIO) for PRL to evaluate possible CSH-related changes in PRL levels in sera and tissues of male and MtTW15 mammosomatotropic tumor-bearing female rats. Experimental animals received a single sc injection of CSH (300 mg/kg), and samples were collected 0.5-24 h later. Since CSH and serum from CSH rats were toxic in BIO, samples were dialyzed before assay. All samples were evaluated for PRL and GH by RIA as well. A significant decrease (P less than 0.05) in BIO serum PRL was evident in male rats 0.5 h after CSH; levels remained low for 24 h. Serum PRL by RIA was significantly depressed at 4 h but not at 0.5 h or 24 h. PRL in AP extracts was decreased (60-90%) at all times by BIO and RIA. Significant decreases of BIO- and RIA-detectable PRL were recorded in serum and tissues (AP and tumors) at 4 h in tumor rats. Sequentially bled (0.5-4 h) CSH-treated tumor-bearing rats showed 50% and 80% reductions in serum PRL at 1 and 4 h by both BIO and RIA. CSH had no effect on GH levels in sera and tissues of any animal studied at any time interval. Our results substantiate earlier reports on CSH-induced decreases in RIA-detectable PRL. They show that such changes cannot be attributed to assay effects alone, as significant decreases in circulating and stored PRL (both AP and tumor) were evident by BIO. Results with tissue extracts were the most dramatic. They suggest an action of CSH or a metabolic intermediate with stored PRL which reduces both extractable PRL and hormone release. Such an effect of CSH on PRL extraction has been suggested by others. Whatever the mechanism, it appears to be relatively specific, since GH cells were not affected.

  6. Mechanisms subserving the physiological nocturnal relative hypoprolactinemia of healthy older men: dual decline in prolactin secretory burst mass and basal release with preservation of pulse duration, frequency, and interpulse interval--a General Clinical Research Center study.

    PubMed

    Iranmanesh, A; Mulligan, T; Veldhuis, J D

    1999-03-01

    Increasing age is accompanied by decrements in randomly obtained, fasting, or frequently sampled serum PRL concentrations. The precise neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying such relative hypoprolactinemia in aging are incompletely understood. In the present study, we sampled blood at 2.5-min intervals overnight in 11 young (aged 21-34 yr) and 8 older (aged 62-72 yr) healthy men for subsequent chemiluminescence-based assay of serum PRL concentrations. The mean (+/- SEM) serum PRL concentration was significantly reduced at 4.3 +/- 0.78 microg/L in older men compared with 9.5 +/- 1.2 microg/L in young volunteers (P = 0.0049). PRL concentrations correlated with serum testosterone (r = 0.473; P = 0.041), dehydroepiandrosteroen sulfate (r = +0.455, P = 0.05), and insulin-like growth factor I (r = 0.494; P = 0.032) levels. Deconvolution analysis was used to evaluate combined pulsatile and basal modes of PRL secretion. In older men, discrete PRL secretory bursts were marked by a significantly (2.4-fold) attenuated mass of hormone secreted per burst (amount of PRL secreted per unit distribution volume), viz. 1.6 +/- 0.23 (older) vs. 3.9 +/- 0.57 microg/L (young; P < 0.01). In contrast, PRL secretory burst frequency, interpulse interval, and pulse duration were invariant of age. Concomitantly, basal PRL secretion was reduced by 2-fold in older subjects, namely to 0.00030 +/- 0.00027 (older) vs. 0.00065 +/- 0.0002 microg/L/min (young; P < 0.01). The amount of total PRL secretion that was pulsatile averaged 82 +/- 5.3% in young and 99 +/- 0.13% in older men (P = 0.012), indicating preferential loss of the basal mode of PRL release in aging. Assuming that basal PRL secretion mirrors functional pituitary lactotroph cell secretory mass, whereas pulsatile PRL release reflects effective (net) intermittent hypothalamic drive to responsive lactotroph cells, then our results suggest both an attrition in lactotroph cell mass and an impoverishment of net positive hypothalamic (agonistic

  7. Prolactin induces tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurone differentiation in Snell dwarf mice if administered beginning at 3 days of age.

    PubMed

    Khodr, C E; Hurley, D L; Phelps, C J

    2009-06-01

    The hypothalamic tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurones secrete dopamine, which inhibits prolactin secretion. TIDA neurone numbers are deficient in Ames (df/df) and Snell (dw/dw) dwarf mice, which lack prolactin, growth hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Prolactin therapy initiated before 21 days maintains normal-sized TIDA neurone numbers in df/df mice and, when initiated as early as 7 days, maintains the maximum TIDA neurone numbers observed in dw/dw development, which are decreased compared to those in normal mice. The present study investigated the effect of prolactin dose and species on TIDA neurone development. Snell dwarf and normal mice were treated with saline, 5 microg of ovine prolactin (oPRL), 50 microg of oPRL, or 50 microg of recombinant mouse prolactin (rmPRL) beginning at 3 days of age. Brains were analysed at 45 days using catecholamine histofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase or bromodeoxyuridine. Normal mice had greater (P PRL-treated dw/dw mice were greater (P PRL- and rmPRL-treated dw/dw mice, which were greater (P PRL-treated dw/dw mice also had greater (P < 0.01) TIDA neurone numbers than the maximum numbers observed in untreated dw/dw mice development. Among saline, 5 microg oPRL and 50 microg oPRL treatments, but not rmPRL, A14 neurone numbers were higher (P PRL, but not oPRL, had increased BrdU incorporation in the periventricular area surrounding the third ventricle and median eminence and in the arcuate nucleus. The data obtained in the present study indicate that oPRL, but not rmPRL, when given at a high enough

  8. Prolactin inhibits the apoptosis of chondrocytes induced by serum starvation.

    PubMed

    Zermeño, C; Guzmán-Morales, J; Macotela, Y; Nava, G; López-Barrera, F; Kouri, J B; Lavalle, C; de la Escalera, G Martínez; Clapp, C

    2006-05-01

    The apoptosis of chondrocytes plays an important role in endochondral bone formation and in cartilage degradation during aging and disease. Prolactin (PRL) is produced in chondrocytes and is known to promote the survival of various cell types. Here we show that articular chondrocytes from rat postpubescent and adult cartilage express the long form of the PRL receptor as revealed by immunohistochemistry of cartilage sections and by RT-PCR and Western blot analyses of the isolated chondrocytes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PRL inhibits the apoptosis of these same chondrocytes cultured in low-serum. Chondrocyte apoptosis was measured by hypodiploid DNA content determined by flow cytometry and by DNA fragmentation evaluated by the ELISA and the TUNEL methods. The anti-apoptotic effect of PRL was dose-dependent and was prevented by heat inactivation. These data demonstrate that PRL can act as a survival factor for chondrocytes and that it has potential preventive and therapeutic value in arthropathies characterized by cartilage degradation.

  9. Polyhormonal regulation of avian and mammalian corticosteroidogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Carsia, R V; Scanes, C G; Malamed, S

    1987-01-01

    1. The combined actions of ACTH, corticosterone and prolactin (PRL) in the acute regulation of corticosteroidogenesis were investigated using isolated adrenocortical cells from intact and hypophysectomized (hypox) rats (Rattus norvegicus) and from intact male domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus). 2. Exogenous corticosterone suppressed to about 50% ACTH-induced corticosterone production of cells from either species. This suppression, in part, was due to corticosterone degradation. 3. oPRL, in the presence or absence of ACTH, raised corticosterone production of hypox rat cells, but not intact rat and domestic fowl cells. 4. In addition, oPRL counteracted the corticosterone-induced suppression of net ACTH-stimulated corticosterone production of hypox rat and intact domestic fowl cells, but not intact rat cells. 5. The potency of oPRL with domestic fowl cells was 4 times that with hypox rat cells. 6. Furthermore, in domestic fowl cells, the effect of oPRL was Ca2+-dependent.

  10. Orgasm-induced prolactin secretion: feedback control of sexual drive?

    PubMed

    Krüger, Tillmann H C; Haake, Philip; Hartmann, Uwe; Schedlowski, Manfred; Exton, Michael S

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies from our laboratory have investigated the hormonal response to various forms of sexual stimulation, including film, masturbation, and coitus in both men and women. This series of studies clearly demonstrated that plasma prolactin (PRL) concentrations are substantially increased for over 1h following orgasm (masturbation and coitus conditions) in both men and women, but unchanged following sexual arousal without orgasm. Here we discuss evidence suggesting that the PRL response to orgasm may play an important role in the control of acute sexual arousal following orgasm. Supporting this position, chronic elevations of PRL (hyperprolactinemia) produce pronounced reductions in animal sexual activity, and significant reduction of libido and gonadal function in both men and women. These data suggest that PRL may represent a peripheral regulatory factor for reproductive function, and/or a feedback mechanism that signals CNS centres controlling sexual arousal and behaviour. Thus, we propose a theoretical model of the role of PRL as a neuroendocrine reproductive reflex.

  11. Plasma prolactin and homovanillic acid as markers for psychopathology and abnormal movements after neuroleptic dose decrease.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, J W; Riney, S J; Vinogradov, S; Csernansky, J G

    1992-01-01

    Plasma prolactin concentration (pPRL), plasma homovanillic acid concentration (pHVA), and symptomatology were measured in 24 male subjects with schizophrenia during maintenance haloperidol treatment. Fourteen subjects subsequently underwent 50 percent dose decreases under placebo-controlled, double-blind conditions. At baseline, a significant inverse correlation was found between pPRL and both tardive dyskinesia (TD) and "thinking disorder"; pPRL was directly correlated with negative symptoms. No such relationship was found with pHVA. In the patients who underwent a dose decrease, no relationship was found between baseline pPRL or pHVA and any clinical variable after the decrease. These data do not support the use of baseline pPRL or pHVA as markers of central dopamine function subsequent to a neuroleptic dose decrease.

  12. Role of prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4 in skin reaction induced by transdermal application of propranolol.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, I; Hosaka, K; Maruo, H; Saeki, Y; Kamiyama, M; Konno, C; Gemba, M

    2000-02-01

    Dermal application of propranolol (PRL) induced formation of erythema and edema, and pseudoeosinophil infiltration in epidermis and dermis at the application site in guinea pigs. We investigated the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) at the application site of PRL and the role of these inflammatory chemical mediators in the occurrence of the skin reactions. PGE2 was found to be produced at the application site slightly after the accumulation of PRL released from the adhesive bandage in the patch test, and the amount of PGE2 increased continuously, with a peak value obtained at 24 h after application. The time-course changes resembled those of delta a* value, the index of erythema formation determined by colorimetric measurement, and edema formation. The production of PGE2 by dermal application of PRL was suppressed by local pretreatment with dexamethasone or indomethacin. However, no notable production of LTB4 was observed at the application site of PRL.

  13. Relationship between prolactin, reproductive experience, and parental care in a biparental songbird, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Smiley, Kristina O; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Hormonal systems have long been thought to play an important role in stimulating the onset of parental behavior, a critical component of reproductive success in a variety of taxa. Elevations in the peptide hormone prolactin (PRL) have been repeatedly positively correlated with the onset and maintenance of parental care across vertebrate species. A causal role for PRL in parental care has been established in several mammalian species, but less evidence for a causal role of PRL and parental care exists in birds. The zebra finch, a socially monogamous, biparental songbird, is an exceptionally useful animal model to study parental care and other close social relationships. Both sexes share parental care equally, exhibit the same parental behaviors, and show a marked improvement in breeding success with experience. We hypothesize that PRL is critically involved in the expression of zebra finch parental care and predict that circulating PRL levels will increase with breeding experience. To begin testing this, we measured plasma PRL concentrations in 14 male-female zebra finch pairs (N=28) across two breeding cycles, using a repeated measures design. PRL was measured in the birds' first, reproductively inexperienced, breeding cycle beginning at courtship and extending through chick fledging. PRL was measured again during the birds' second, reproductively experienced, breeding cycle, beginning with egg laying until chick fledging. We found that plasma PRL is significantly elevated from non-breeding concentrations during late incubation and early post-hatch care and that this elevation is greater in the reproductively experienced cycle compared to the inexperienced cycle. Findings of this study will be used to inform hypotheses and predictions for future experimental manipulations of PRL during parental care.

  14. Cysteamine inhibition of prolactin immunoassayability and secretion: studies with aminothiophenols and other analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, L.S.; Lorenson, M.Y.

    1984-09-01

    Analogs of the aminothiol cysteamine (CySH) have been studied to clarify the structural features required for exertion of inhibitory effects on PRL. The inhibited functions examined were the detectability of PRL by RIA and the release of PRL from suspensions of isolated secretory granules. The influence on GH assayability and release was also tested. The aromatic compounds 2-aminothiophenol, 3-aminothiophenol, and 4-aminothiophenol shared with CySH the ability to inhibit PRL assayability and release, but were all more potent. Derivatization of the thiol, as in 4-aminothioanisole, was associated with a substantial loss of inhibitory potency, whereas derivatization of the primary amine, as in N-dimethylaminoethanethiol, had no influence. Thiols such as mercaptoethanol, cysteine, glutathione, and others without nearby amino groups were stimulators of PRL assayability and release. The inhibitory effects of the aminothiols were highly pH dependent, being marked at pH 5.5, 6.5, and 7.5, but modest or marginal at 8.5. After CySH exposure, inhibition was reversible in part by extraction of samples with reduced glutathione or at pH 10.5. Though CySH and 4-aminothiophenol induced changes in the electrophoretic migration of granule PRL, similar changes occurred in the migration of standard purified hormone despite the known absence of immunochemical effects. There was close quantitative correlation between the potency of a compound to inhibit PRL assayability and its potency to inhibit PRL release. It was conclude that the inhibitory aminothiol action on PRL requires the thiol rather than the sulfide form and involves a reversible interaction which diminishes the immunochemical recognition of granule PRL. This change also results in diminished secretion.

  15. The in vitro effect of prolactin on the growth, motility and expression of prolactin receptors in larvae of Toxocara canis.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Güitrón, L E; Morales-Montor, J; Muñoz-Guzmán, M A; Nava-Castro, K E; Ramírez-Álvarez, H; Moreno-Méndoza, N A; Hernández-Cervantes, R; Alba-Hurtado, F

    2016-07-15

    The in vitro effect of prolactin (PRL) on the growth and motility of Toxocara canis larvae was assessed. Additionally, the expression and location of prolactin receptors (PRL-Rs) were determined in the larvae. Larvae of T. canis were incubated with different concentrations of PRL for different periods of time. The stimulated larvae accelerated their enlargement and increased their motility. The mean percentage of PRL-R+ cells in non-stimulated larvae, measured by flow cytometry was 7.3±0.3%. Compared with non-stimulated larvae, the mean fluorescence intensity (p<0.05) increased in larvae incubated with 40ng/mL of PRL for 10 days. A 465-bp length fragment was amplified from larvae gDNA by PCR. The sequence of this fragment showed 99% similarity with the gene fragment that codes for the PRL-R of the domestic dog. A high concentration of PRL-Rs was immune-located in the posterior region of the larval intestine; therefore, the intestinal cells in this region were most likely the targets for this hormone. Based on these results, PRL-Rs were identified in T. canis larvae, and the in vitro stimulation with PRL increased the number of these receptors, accelerated the growth and modified the activity of larvae. All of the above suggest that T. canis larvae are evolutionarily adapted to recognize the PRL of their definitive host and furthermore might explain the reactivation of tissue-arrested larvae during the gestation of bitches, which does not occur in gestating females of other species.

  16. Expression of autocrine prolactin and the short isoform of prolactin receptor are associated with inflammatory response and apoptosis in monocytes stimulated with Mycobacterium bovis proteins.

    PubMed

    López-Rincón, Gonzalo; Mancilla, Raúl; Pereira-Suárez, Ana L; Martínez-Neri, Priscila A; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Estrada-Chávez, Ciro

    2015-06-01

    Increased levels of prolactin (PRL) have recently been associated with carcinogenesis and the exacerbation of autoimmune diseases, and might be involved in the progression of tuberculosis (TB). To investigate the relationship between PRL and prolactin receptor (PRLr) expression with inflammatory response and apoptosis in monocytes, we used THP-1 cells stimulated with antigens of the Mycobacterium bovis AN5 strain culture filtrate protein (CFP-M. bovis). Western blot (WB), real-time Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and immunocytochemistry were performed to identify both PRL and PRLr molecules. PRL bioactivity and proinflammatory cytokine detection were assessed. The results showed that PRL and PRLr messenger RNA (mRNA) were synthesized in THP-1 monocytes induced with CFP-M. bovis at peaks of 176- and 404-fold, respectively. PRL forms of 60 and 80kDa and PRLr isoforms of 40, 50, and 65kDa were also identified as time-dependent, while 60-kDa PRL, as well as 40-, and 50-kDa PRLr, were found as soluble forms in culture media and later in the nucleus of THP-1 monocytes. PRL of 60kDa released by monocytes exhibited bioactivity in Nb2 cells, and both synthesized PRL and synthesized PRLr were related with nitrite and proinflammatory cytokine levels proapoptotic activity in CFP-M. bovis-induced monocytes. Our results suggest the overexpression of a full-autocrine loop of PRL and PRLr in monocytes that enhances the inflammatory response and apoptosis after priming with M. bovis antigens.

  17. Pivotal roles of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and the melanocortin 4 receptor in leptin stimulation of prolactin secretion in rats.

    PubMed

    Watanobe, Hajime; Schiöth, Helgi B; Izumi, Junkichi

    2003-04-01

    Leptin, the obese gene product, was reported to stimulate prolactin (PRL) secretion, but the neuroendocrine mechanism underlying this hormonal response is largely unknown. Thus, in this study we examined the involvement of several important PRL regulators in the leptin-induced PRL secretion in male rats. Compared with the values in normally fed rats, food deprivation for 3 days significantly decreased both PRL and leptin levels in the plasma. These changes were reverted to normal by a 3-day constant infusion of 75 microg/kg/day of leptin to the fasted rats, while 225 microg/kg/day of leptin further elevated both PRL and leptin levels. These four groups of animals were used for the following experiments. Results of dopamine and serotonin turnover studies in the brain and the pituitary indicated that neither of these biogenic amines plays a primary role in mediating leptin's effects on PRL. Repeated intracerebroventricular injections over 72 h of neutralizing antibodies against vasoactive intestinal peptide, PRL-releasing peptide, or beta-endorphin, did not significantly suppress the leptin actions. However, both the blockade of the melanocortin (MC) 4 receptor (R) and the immunoquenching of brain alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) completely abolished the leptin-induced PRL release, and the stimulation of the MC4-R, but not the MC3-R, significantly elevated PRL levels in the fasted rats. These results suggest that alpha-MSH, a cleaved peptide from pro-opiomelanocortin of which synthesis is stimulated by leptin, may be the pivotal neuropeptide in the brain mediating the leptin's stimulatory influence on PRL secretion. It was also suggested that the MC4-R may be the primary subtype of the MC-Rs mediating this action of alpha-MSH.

  18. Monoclonal antibodies against rabbit mammary prolactin receptors. Specific antibodies to the hormone binding domain

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, M.; Djiane, J.; Kelly, P.A.

    1985-09-25

    Three monoclonal antibodies (M110, A82, and A917) were obtained by fusing myeloma cells and spleen cells from mice immunized with partially purified rabbit mammary gland prolactin (PRL) receptors. All 3 antibodies were capable of complete inhibition of SVI-ovine prolactin (oPRL) binding to rabbit mammary PRL receptors in either particulate or soluble form. M110 showed slightly greater potency than oPRL in competing for SVI-oPRL binding. These antibodies also inhibited PRL binding to microsomal fractions from rabbit liver, kidney, adrenal, ovary, and pig mammary gland, although A82 showed poor inhibition in pig mammary gland. There was no cross-reaction of any of the 3 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for the other species tested: human (T-47D breast cancer cells) and rat (liver, ovary). In order to confirm that these antibodies are specific to the binding domain, antibodies were purified, iodinated, and binding characteristics were investigated. SVI-M110 and SVI-A82 binding was completely inhibited by lactogenic hormones, whereas nonlactogenic hormones did not cross-react. Competition of 125I-M110 by oPRL was comparable to that of SVI-oPRL by unlabeled oPRL, while SVI-A917 binding was only partially competed (30-60%) by lactogenic hormones. Tissue and species specificity of labeled antibody binding paralleled results of binding inhibition experiments using 125I-oPRL. In addition, A82 and A917 completely inhibited 125I-M110 binding. In contrast, 125I-A82 binding was stimulated by A917 and 125I-A917 binding was stimulated by A82.

  19. Prolactin secretory surge during estrus coincides with increased dopamine activity in the hypothalamus and preoptic area and is not altered by ovariectomy on proestrus.

    PubMed

    Szawka, Raphael E; Rodovalho, Gisele V; Helena, Cleyde V V; Franci, Celso R; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A

    2007-06-15

    Prolactin (PRL) secretory surges have been reported on the afternoons of both proestrus and estrous in cycling rats. As neuroendocrine regulation of estrous PRL surge is poorly understood, the present study aimed to investigate the involvement of hypothalamic dopamine and serotonin as well as of plasma ovarian steroids in this hormonal surge generation. For that, we determined the concentrations of dopamine, serotonin and their respective metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) and medial preoptic area (MPOA) throughout the day of estrus and correlated them with plasma PRL levels. In a second study, we evaluated the effect of ovariectomy on the morning of proestrus on PRL surges of both proestrus and estrus. Dopamine turnover, as determined by DOPAC/dopamine ratio, increased in both the MBH and MPOA coinciding with the afternoon PRL surge on estrus. In contrast, both the concentration and turnover (5-HIAA/serotonin) of serotonin within these areas were unaltered during estrus. In addition, ovariectomy reduced plasma estradiol and progesterone levels but did not alter the PRL surges on proestrus and estrus. Considering that dopamine is the main inhibitor of PRL release and that PRL auto-regulates its secretion through a short-loop feedback mechanism, our present results suggest that PRL may suppress its own secretion during the estrus surge through the activation of the dopaminergic neurons in the MBH and MPOA. In addition, the PRL surge on estrus seems do not depend on either the activity of hypothalamic serotonin or the increased secretion of ovarian steroids on proestrus.

  20. Hormonal regulation of aquaporin 3: opposing actions of prolactin and cortisol in tilapia gill.

    PubMed

    Breves, Jason P; Inokuchi, Mayu; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Seale, Andre P; Hunt, Bethany L; Watanabe, Soichi; Lerner, Darren T; Kaneko, Toyoji; Grau, E Gordon

    2016-09-01

    Aquaporins (Aqps) are expressed within key osmoregulatory tissues where they mediate the movement of water and selected solutes across cell membranes. We leveraged the functional plasticity of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) gill epithelium to examine how Aqp3, an aquaglyceroporin, is regulated in response to osmoregulatory demands. Particular attention was paid to the actions of critical osmoregulatory hormones, namely, prolactin (Prl), growth hormone and cortisol. Branchial aqp3 mRNA levels were modulated following changes in environmental salinity, with enhanced aqp3 mRNA expression upon transfer from seawater to freshwater (FW). Accordingly, extensive Aqp3 immunoreactivity was localized to cell membranes of branchial epithelium in FW-acclimated animals. Upon transferring hypophysectomized tilapia to FW, we identified that a pituitary factor(s) is required for Aqp3 expression in FW. Replacement with ovine Prl (oPrl) was sufficient to stimulate Aqp3 expression in hypophysectomized animals held in FW, an effect blocked by coinjection with cortisol. Both oPrl and native tilapia Prls (tPrl177 and tPrl188) stimulated aqp3 in incubated gill filaments in a concentration-related manner. Consistent with in vivo responses, coincubation with cortisol blocked oPrl-stimulated aqp3 expression in vitro Our data indicate that Prl and cortisol act directly upon branchial epithelium to regulate Aqp3 in tilapia. Thus, within the context of the diverse actions of Prl on hydromineral balance in vertebrates, we define a new role for Prl as a regulator of Aqp expression. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  1. Lipopolysaccharide induces the expression of an autocrine prolactin loop enhancing inflammatory response in monocytes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prolactin from pituitary gland helps maintain homeostasis but it is also released in immune cells where its function is not completely understood. Pleiotropic functions of prolactin (PRL) might be mediated by different isoforms of its receptor (PRLr). Methods The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the eventual synthesis of PRL and PRLr isoforms with the inflammatory response in monocytes. We used THP-1 and monocytes isolated from healthy subjects stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Western blot, real time PCR and immunocytochemistry were performed to identify both molecules. The bioactivity of the PRL was assessed using a bioassay and ELISA to detect pro inflammatory cytokines. Results PRLr mRNA and PRL mRNA were synthesized in THP-1 monocytes activated with LPS with peaks of 300-fold and 130-fold, respectively. The long (100 kDa) and the intermediate (50 kDa) isoforms of PRLr and big PRL (60 kDa) were time-dependent upregulated for monocytes stimulated with LPS. This expression was confirmed in monocytes from healthy subjects. The PRLr intermediate isoform and the big PRL were found soluble in the culture media and later in the nucleus in THP-1 monocytes stimulated with LPS. Big PRL released by monocytes showed bioactivity in Nb2 Cells, and both PRL and PRLr, synthesized by monocytes were related with levels of nitrites and proinflammatory citokines. Conclusions Our results suggest the expression of a full-autocrine loop of PRL enhances the inflammatory response in activated monocytes. This response mediated by big PRL may contribute to the eradication of potential pathogens during innate immune response in monocytes but may also contribute to inflammatory disorders. PMID:23731754

  2. A New Method of Using Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Precipitation of Macroprolactin to Detect Genuine Hyperprolactinemia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongjian; Wang, Huan; Yang, Wei; Jin, Weidong; Yu, Wenge; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Kailin; Song, Guangzhong

    2016-11-01

    The most commonly used method of polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation for macroprolactinemia (MP) screening has some significant drawbacks. The aim of this study was to establish a new method using PEG for precipitation of macroprolactin (macroPRL) to detect genuine hyperprolactinemia (genuine HP). The optimal PEG concentration for precipitation and the effect of PEG on the precipitation of PRL were analyzed to establish and optimize our PEG precipitation method. The PRL recovery rate and genuine HP detection rate were compared between our method and MP screening method. About 25% PEG6000 was determined to be the optimal PEG concentration for precipitation. Along with an increase in protein concentration in the PRL calibration solution, the PRL recovery rate after precipitation decreased gradually. The PRL recovery rate increased when the precipitation was carried out with diluted PRL calibration solution; the recovery rate reached greater than 90% after a 5-fold dilution of the calibration solution. The genuine HP detection rate and PRL recovery rate using our diluted serum PEG precipitation method were significantly higher than those obtained with the MP screening method. Our method successfully detected 31 cases of genuine HP, which was significantly higher than the detection rate obtained using the MP screening method (25 cases; P < 0.001). Precipitation using 5-fold diluted serum with 25% PEG6000 can effectively reduce the macroPRL concentration, increasing the PRL recovery rate and detection rate of genuine HP after precipitation, which is an effective and convenient method for the detection of genuine HP. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Prolactin mediates neuroprotection against excitotoxicity in primary cell cultures of hippocampal neurons via its receptor.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Castañeda, E; Grattan, D R; Pasantes-Morales, H; Pérez-Domínguez, M; Cabrera-Reyes, E A; Morales, T; Cerbón, M

    2016-04-01

    Recently it has been reported that prolactin (PRL) exerts a neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity in hippocampus in the rat in vivo models. However, the exact mechanism by which PRL mediates this effect is not completely understood. The aim of our study was to assess whether prolactin exerts neuroprotection against excitotoxicity in an in vitro model using primary cell cultures of hippocampal neurons, and to determine whether this effect is mediated via the prolactin receptor (PRLR). Primary cell cultures of rat hippocampal neurons were used in all experiments, gene expression was evaluated by RT-qPCR, and protein expression was assessed by Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. Cell viability was assessed by using the MTT method. The results demonstrated that PRL treatment of neurons from primary cultures did not modify cell viability, but that it exerted a neuroprotective effect, with cells treated with PRL showing a significant increase of viability after glutamate (Glu)--induced excitotoxicity as compared with neurons treated with Glu alone. Cultured neurons expressed mRNA for both PRL and its receptor (PRLR), and both PRL and PRLR expression levels changed after the excitotoxic insult. Interestingly, the PRLR protein was detected as two main isoforms of 100 and 40 kDa as compared with that expressed in hypothalamic cells, which was present only as a 30 kDa variant. On the other hand, PRL was not detected in neuron cultures, either by western blot or by immunohistochemistry. Neuroprotection induced by PRL was significantly blocked by specific oligonucleotides against PRLR, thus suggesting that the PRL role is mediated by its receptor expressed in these neurons. The overall results indicated that PRL induces neuroprotection in neurons from primary cell cultures.

  4. Failure of maintained hyperprolactinemia to improve lactational performance in late puerperium.

    PubMed

    Barguño, J M; del Pozo, E; Cruz, M; Figueras, J

    1988-04-01

    Although stimulation of PRL secretion in the early postpartum period has been found to improve lactational performance, the effect of chronic maintenance of elevated plasma PRL levels on milk production is not known. In a randomized design, 66 lactating women were assigned to receive either a placebo (n = 32) or the dopamine antagonist sulpiride (n = 34; 100 mg, three times daily), for 4 days, followed by 50 mg, three times daily, for a 90-day period). Their basal and 30 min postsuckling plasma PRL levels as well as the weights of their infants were measured 1, 4, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days postpartum. Forty-one women (20 sulpiride-treated and 21 placebo-treated) completed the study. Compared with the placebo group, which had the expected postpartum plasma PRL decline, the sulpiride-treated women maintained significantly elevated basal plasma PRL values up to the 90th postpartum day. In contrast, the postsuckling plasma PRL level was significantly diminished in the latter group, and on day 90 was practically absent. On day 15, weight gain was significantly greater in the infants whose mothers received sulpiride, but later, no differences were detectable between groups of infants despite the disparity in PRL levels in their mothers. We conclude that enhancement of PRL secretion in the early postpartum period may transiently increase milk production, but chronic hyperprolactinemia has no effect on lactational performance. The plasma PRL response to suckling is not essential for the maintenance of milk secretion. Instead, basal plasma PRL levels and neurogenic reflexes may be more instrumental in maintaining established lactation.

  5. Placental antiangiogenic prolactin fragments are increased in human and rat maternal diabetes.

    PubMed

    Perimenis, P; Bouckenooghe, T; Delplanque, J; Moitrot, E; Eury, E; Lobbens, S; Gosset, P; Devisme, L; Duvillie, B; Abderrahmani, A; Storme, L; Fontaine, P; Froguel, P; Vambergue, A

    2014-09-01

    The role of the placenta in diabetic mothers on fetal development and programming is unknown. Prolactin (PRL) produced by decidual endometrial cells may have an impact. Although full-length PRL is angiogenic, the processed form by bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP-1) and/or cathepsin D (CTSD) is antiangiogenic. The objectives were to investigate the involvement of decidual PRL and its antiangiogenic fragments in placentas from type-1 diabetic women (T1D) and from pregnant diabetic rats with lower offspring weights than controls. PRL, BMP-1, and CTSD gene expressions and PRL protein level were assessed in T1D placentas (n=8) at delivery and compared to controls (n=5). Wistar rats received, at day 7 of pregnancy, streptozotocin (STZ) (n=5) or nicotinamide (NCT) plus STZ (n=9) or vehicle (n=9). Placental whole-genome gene expression and PRL western blots were performed at birth. In human placentas, PRL (p<0.05) and BMP-1 (p<0.01) gene expressions were increased with a higher amount of cleaved PRL (p<0.05) in T1D than controls. In rats, diabetes was more pronounced in STZ than in NCT-STZ group with intra-uterine growth restriction. Decidual prolactin-related protein (Dprp) (p<0.01) and Bmp-1 (p<0.001) genes were up-regulated in both diabetic groups, with an increased cleaved PRL amount in the STZ (p<0.05) and NCT-STZ (p<0.05) groups compared to controls. No difference in CTSD gene expression was observed in rats or women. Alterations in the levels of the PRL family are associated with maternal diabetes in both rats and T1D women suggesting that placental changes in these hormones impact on fetal development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prolactin variants in ram adenohypophyses vary with season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, C. M.; Deaver, D. R.; Peters, J. L.; Loeper, D. C.; Toth, B. E.; Derr, J. A.; Hymer, W. C.

    1992-01-01

    Secretion of PRL in sheep is affected by photoperiod being highest during the spring and summer, lowest in fall and winter. The objectives of this study were to determine if 1) the production of variant forms of PRL, and 2) immuno- and bioactivities of PRL (iPRL and bPRL) differ during times of the year selected to represent periods of low, transitional and high PRL secretion. Twelve mature rams were maintained on pasture and killed in October, December, and April (n = 4/month). Individual pituitary glands were dispersed, cells obtained, and fixed for immunocytochemical flow cytometry, extracted with 0.01 N NaHCO3 or cultured in serum-free, defined media. The Mr of PRL extracted from cells immediately following dispersion ranged from 14-140K, with significantly more bands greater than 40K being detected from rams sacrificed in December than from those killed in October and April (P less than 0.01). No bands of PRL greater than 25K were observed when samples were reduced with beta-mercaptoethanol prior to electrophoresis, indicating that the high Mr forms were disulfide-linked aggregates. Culture media from October and April contained variants of PRL that ranged from 22-40K but those greater than 25K were generally not observed from cells harvested during December. Extracts of cells after 24 h in culture contained fewer high Mr species during December than had been present in initial extracts from that month. In contrast, during April more high Mr intracellular forms were present after culture than had been detected prior to culture during that month. The percentage of lactotrophs averaged 50.0 +/- 2.5, 47.4 +/- 5.7, and 59.4 +/- 5.5 for October, December, and April, respectively. Initial lactotroph content (pg/lactotroph) of iPRL was higher (P = 0.06) in April (46.0 +/- 17.0) when compared to October and December (8.0 +/- 2.0 and 20.0 +/- 10.0, respectively). In contrast, the bPRL content of initial extracts was higher (P = 0.05) in December (267.0 +/- 68.0) than

  7. Prolactin variants in ram adenohypophyses vary with season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, C. M.; Deaver, D. R.; Peters, J. L.; Loeper, D. C.; Toth, B. E.; Derr, J. A.; Hymer, W. C.

    1992-01-01

    Secretion of PRL in sheep is affected by photoperiod being highest during the spring and summer, lowest in fall and winter. The objectives of this study were to determine if 1) the production of variant forms of PRL, and 2) immuno- and bioactivities of PRL (iPRL and bPRL) differ during times of the year selected to represent periods of low, transitional and high PRL secretion. Twelve mature rams were maintained on pasture and killed in October, December, and April (n = 4/month). Individual pituitary glands were dispersed, cells obtained, and fixed for immunocytochemical flow cytometry, extracted with 0.01 N NaHCO3 or cultured in serum-free, defined media. The Mr of PRL extracted from cells immediately following dispersion ranged from 14-140K, with significantly more bands greater than 40K being detected from rams sacrificed in December than from those killed in October and April (P less than 0.01). No bands of PRL greater than 25K were observed when samples were reduced with beta-mercaptoethanol prior to electrophoresis, indicating that the high Mr forms were disulfide-linked aggregates. Culture media from October and April contained variants of PRL that ranged from 22-40K but those greater than 25K were generally not observed from cells harvested during December. Extracts of cells after 24 h in culture contained fewer high Mr species during December than had been present in initial extracts from that month. In contrast, during April more high Mr intracellular forms were present after culture than had been detected prior to culture during that month. The percentage of lactotrophs averaged 50.0 +/- 2.5, 47.4 +/- 5.7, and 59.4 +/- 5.5 for October, December, and April, respectively. Initial lactotroph content (pg/lactotroph) of iPRL was higher (P = 0.06) in April (46.0 +/- 17.0) when compared to October and December (8.0 +/- 2.0 and 20.0 +/- 10.0, respectively). In contrast, the bPRL content of initial extracts was higher (P = 0.05) in December (267.0 +/- 68.0) than

  8. The effects of novel and newly approved antipsychotics on serum prolactin levels: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Peuskens, J; Pani, L; Detraux, J; De Hert, M

    2014-05-01

    Since the 1970s, clinicians have increasingly become more familiar with hyperprolactinemia (HPRL) as a common adverse effect of antipsychotic medication, which remains the cornerstone of pharmacological treatment for patients with schizophrenia. Although treatment with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) as a group is, compared with use of the first-generation antipsychotics, associated with lower prolactin (PRL) plasma levels, the detailed effects on plasma PRL levels for each of these compounds in reports often remain incomplete or inaccurate. Moreover, at this moment, no review has been published about the effect of the newly approved antipsychotics asenapine, iloperidone and lurasidone on PRL levels. The objective of this review is to describe PRL physiology; PRL measurement; diagnosis, causes, consequences and mechanisms of HPRL; incidence figures of (new-onset) HPRL with SGAs and newly approved antipsychotics in adolescent and adult patients; and revisit lingering questions regarding this hormone. A literature search, using the MEDLINE database (1966-December 2013), was conducted to identify relevant publications to report on the state of the art of HPRL and to summarize the available evidence with respect to the propensity of the SGAs and the newly approved antipsychotics to elevate PRL levels. Our review shows that although HPRL usually is defined as a sustained level of PRL above the laboratory upper limit of normal, limit values show some degree of variability in clinical reports, making the interpretation and comparison of data across studies difficult. Moreover, many reports do not provide much or any data detailing the measurement of PRL. Although the highest rates of HPRL are consistently reported in association with amisulpride, risperidone and paliperidone, while aripiprazole and quetiapine have the most favorable profile with respect to this outcome, all SGAs can induce PRL elevations, especially at the beginning of treatment, and have the

  9. New developments on the galactopoietic role of prolactin in dairy ruminants.

    PubMed

    Lacasse, P; Lollivier, V; Dessauge, F; Bruckmaier, R M; Ollier, S; Boutinaud, M

    2012-08-01

    In most mammals, prolactin (PRL) is essential for maintaining lactation and its suppression strongly inhibits lactation. However, the involvement of PRL in the control of ruminant lactation is less clear because inconsistent effects on milk yield have been observed with short-term suppression of PRL by bromocriptine. By contrast, in vitro studies have provided evidence that PRL helps to maintain the differentiation state and act as a survival factor for mammary epithelial cells. Therefore, a series of experiments were conducted to assess the galactopoietic role of PRL. In a first experiment, daily injections of the PRL inhibitor quinagolide reduced milking-induced PRL release and induced a faster decline in milk production. Milk production was correlated with PRL released at milking. Quinagolide reduced mammary cell activity, survival, and proliferation. During the last week of treatments, differential milking (1× vs 2×) was applied. The inhibition of milk production by quinagolide was maintained in the udder half that was milked 2× but not in the udder half milked 1×, suggesting that the response to PRL is modulated at the gland level. In a second experiment, cows were injected with quinagolide, quinagolide + injection of bovine PRL at milking time, or water. As in the first experiment, quinagolide reduced milk, protein, and lactose yields. Although PRL injections at milking time were not sufficient to restore milk yield, they tended to increase milk protein and lactose yields and increased the viability of milk-purified mammary epithelial cells. Recently, we investigated the use of quinagolide at drying off. Treating late-lactation cows with quinagolide decreased milk production within the first day of treatment and induced faster increases in somatic cells and bovine serum albumin content in mammary secretions after drying off, which indicates an acceleration of mammary gland involution. In conclusion, these data, combined with data from other studies

  10. Regulation of epithelial calcium transport by prolactin: from fish to mammals.

    PubMed

    Wongdee, Kannikar; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2013-01-15

    Among the reported ∼300 biological actions, the established role of prolactin (PRL) is to act as a vertebrate hypercalcemic hormone that regulates epithelial calcium transport in several organs, such as the gills, intestine, and kidney. In fish, PRL stimulates the branchial calcium transport by increasing the activity of Ca(2+)-ATPase. Although this calciotropic hormone also induces hypercalcemia in amphibians, reptiles and birds, little has been known regarding the underlying mechanism. In contrast, the effects of PRL on the epithelial calcium transport in mammals are well documented. In rodents, PRL has been shown to stimulate the renal tubular calcium reabsorption and intestinal calcium absorption, the latter of which is mediated by the PRL-induced upregulation of calcium transporter gene expression and activities. Recently, we demonstrated that the duodenal calcium absorption in lactating rats was markedly enhanced by the suckling-induced PRL surge, presumably to provide calcium for milk production. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of the PRL-stimulated calcium transport in mammals have been elaborated in this review. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A critical review finds styrene lacks direct endocrine disruptor activity.

    PubMed

    Gelbke, Heinz-Peter; Banton, Marcy; Leibold, Edgar; Pemberton, Mark; Samson, Susan Leanne

    2015-01-01

    The European Commission lists styrene (S) as an endocrine disruptor based primarily on reports of increased prolactin (PRL) levels in S-exposed workers. The US Environmental Protection Agency included S in its list of chemicals to be tested for endocrine activity. Therefore, the database of S for potential endocrine activity is assessed. In vitro and in vivo screening studies, as well as non-guideline and guideline investigations in experimental animals indicate that S is not associated with (anti)estrogenic, (anti)androgenic, or thyroid-modulating activity or with an endocrine activity that may be relevant for the environment. Studies in exposed workers have suggested elevated PRL levels that have been further examined in a series of human and animal investigations. While there is only one definitively known physiological function of PRL, namely stimulation of milk production, many normal stress situations may lead to elevations without any chemical exposure. Animal studies on various aspects of dopamine (DA), the PRL-regulating neurotransmitter, in the central nervous system did not give mechanistic explanations on how S may affect PRL levels. Overall, a neuroendocrine disruption of PRL regulation cannot be deduced from a large experimental database. The effects in workers could not consistently be reproduced in experimental animals and the findings in humans represented acute reversible effects clearly below clinical and pathological levels. Therefore, unspecific acute workplace-related stress is proposed as an alternative mode of action for elevated PRL levels in workers.

  12. Prolactin Rescues Immature B-Cells from Apoptosis Induced by B-Cell Receptor Cross-Linking

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Fernández, Rocio; Blanco-Favela, Francisco; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.; Chávez-Sánchez, Luis; Gorocica-Rosete, Patricia; Pizaña-Venegas, Alberto; Chávez-Rueda, Adriana Karina

    2016-01-01

    Prolactin has an immunomodulatory effect and has been associated with B-cell-triggered autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In mice that develop SLE, the PRL receptor is expressed in early bone marrow B-cells, and increased levels of PRL hasten disease manifestations, which are correlated with a reduction in the absolute number of immature B-cells. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of PRL in an in vitro system of B-cell tolerance using WEHI-231 cells and immature B-cells from lupus prone MRL/lpr mice. WEHI-231 cells express the long isoform of the PRL receptor, and PRL rescued the cells from cell death by decreasing the apoptosis induced by the cross-linking of the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) as measured by Annexin V and active caspase-3. This decrease in apoptosis may have been due to the PRL and receptor interaction, which increased the relative expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-xL and decreased the relative expression of proapoptotic Bad. In immature B-cells from MRL/lpr mice, PRL increased the viability and decreased the apoptosis induced by the cross-linking of BCR, which may favor the maturation of self-reactive B-cells and contribute to the onset of disease. PMID:27314053

  13. Vasoinhibins: a family of N-terminal prolactin fragments that inhibit angiogenesis and vascular function.

    PubMed

    Clapp, Carmen; González, Carmen; Macotela, Yazmín; Aranda, Jorge; Rivera, José C; García, Celina; Guzmán, Jessica; Zamorano, Miriam; Vega, Claudia; Martín, Cecilia; Jeziorski, Michael C; de la Escalera, Gonzalo Martínez

    2006-01-01

    Antiangiogenic molecules derived from prolactin (PRL) are not a single entity, but rather a family of peptides with different molecular masses, all containing the N-terminal region of PRL. Cleavage of PRL by cathepsin-D or by matrix metalloproteases generates N-terminal fragments that act on endothelial cells to suppress vasodilation and angiogenesis and promote vascular regression. N-terminal PRL fragments have been identified in cartilage and retina, where angiogenesis is highly restricted. In vivo experiments demonstrate that these PRL fragments exert a tonic and essential suppression of retinal blood vessel growth and dilation. Similar PRL fragments have been detected in the pituitary gland, a highly vascularized organ where the control of vascular growth may differ from that in tissues where angiogenesis is highly restricted. We have previously proposed the name vasoinhibins to describe the collection of N-terminal PRL fragments having blood vessel-blocking activity, and here we discuss their promise as factors to control vascular function in health and disease.

  14. Receptor to nucleus signaling by prolactin and interleukin 2 via activation of latent DNA-binding factors.

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, K C; Reich, N C

    1994-01-01

    The mechanism of action of prolactin (PRL), a lactogenic and immunoregulatory hormone, has remained undetermined despite its critical role in development. This study identifies a DNA-binding factor induced by PRL that appears to mediate a signal from the cell surface receptor to specific gene expression in the nucleus. PRL stimulates the proliferation of Nb2 T-lymphoma cells and activates transcription of the interferon-regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) gene. Within minutes of PRL stimulation, a PRL-induced factor (PRLIF) is activated and binds to a target site in the promoter of the IRF-1 gene. The PRLIF-binding site contains an inverted GAAA repeat that is also functional in the hormone-responsive beta-casein gene. The PRL-receptor complex signals tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK2, a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, which may lead to activation of PRLIF. T-cell proliferation and transcriptional activation of the IRF-1 gene is also induced by the cytokine interleukin 2 (IL-2). This report demonstrates the rapid activation of an IL-2 nuclear-activated factor that recognizes the same GAAA inverted repeat in the IRF-1 promoter. PRLIF and IL-2 nuclear-activated factor are newly identified factors that appear to serve fundamental roles in the signal transduction pathways of PRL and IL-2, respectively, leading to the transcriptional regulation of responsive genes. Images PMID:8041708

  15. Mechanism of action of cysteamine in depleting prolactin immunoreactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Sagar, S.M.; Millard, W.J.; Martin, J.B.; Murchison, S.C.

    1985-08-01

    The thiol reagent cysteamine (CSH) depletes anterior pituitary cells of immunoreactive PRL both in vivo and in vitro. The authors examined the hypothesis that CSH affects either the solubility or immunoreactivity of PRL through a mechanism involving thiol-disulfide exchange. Adult female rats were treated with either CSH (300 mg/kg, sc) or an equimolar dose of ethanolamine as a control. Anterior pituitary glands were extracted in 0.1 M sodium borate buffer, pH 9.0. Treatment of pituitary extracts with beta-mercaptoethanol (BME) destroys the immunoreactivity of PRL. However, extraction in the presence of reduced glutathione or CSH of pituitaries of rats treated with CSH restores immunoreactive PRL to control levels. Extracts were also subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). On gels of pituitary extracts of CSH-treated rats, the band that comigrates with purified PRL is diminished compared to that in ethanolamine-treated controls. However, extraction of the pituitaries in sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing buffer followed by chemical reduction with BME restores the PRL band. Therefore, CSH acts on PRL through a thiol-related mechanism to yield a product that is poorly soluble in aqueous buffer at pH 9 and is poorly immunoreactive. Dispersed anterior pituitary cells in tissue culture were incubated with L-(TVS)methionine to radiolabel newly synthesized peptides. PAGE followed by autoradiography confirmed the above results obtained in vivo.

  16. Environmental influences on prolactin cell development in the cyprinodont fish, Cynolebias whitei.

    PubMed

    Ruijter, J M; van Kemenade, J A; Wendelaar Bonga, S E

    1984-01-01

    A combined immunocytochemical and morphometric study on the development of the prolactin (PRL) cells of the annual cyprinodont Cynolebias whitei, transferred as newly hatched larvae to water with different salinities and/or Ca2+-concentrations, was carried out. The percentage of the pituitary volume occupied by PRL cells and the affinity of PRL cells for immunocytochemical staining were used as criteria for their activity. Exposure of the larvae for one day to salt water (260 mOsm/kg) led to a significant reduction in the pituitary volume occupied by PRL cells, indicating an osmoregulatory function of PRL shortly after hatching. In fish reared in diluted artificial seawater (70 and 260 mOsm/kg) or Na+-enriched fresh water the development of PRL cells was significantly retarded, but such an effect was not observed in fish placed in Ca2+-enriched fresh water. These experiments show that in C. whitei the development and activity of PRL cells are influenced by changes in environmental osmolarity and not by changes in ambient Ca2+-concentration.

  17. Possible role of the pineal gland in pituitary prolactin secretion in female rats.

    PubMed

    Minato, K; Takahashi, K; Ikeno, N; Watanabe, M; Endo, H; Yamamoto, H

    1984-07-01

    Wistar female rats housed under conditions of 12 hr dark/12 hr light were pinealectomized (PX) or underwent sham-operation (SO) 21 days after ovariectomy, on the 7th or on the 15-17 th day of pregnancy. Serum and pituitary prolactin (PRL) levels in ovariectomized (OVX) rats were determined 9 days after pinealectomy. In the case of OVX rats receiving estrogen and progesterone injections (OVX-EP), PRL levels were determined 48 hr after injection administered 7 day after pinealectomy. PRL levels in pregnant rats were determined on the 20th day of pregnancy and in postpartum rats, on the 3rd day following parturition. As compared with the SO control, pinealectomy resulted in a significant decrease in the serum PRL level in the OVX-EP rats but in a significant increase in that level in the OVX, pregnant and postpartum rats. In OVX-EP rats, exogenous estrogen raised the serum PRL level less in PX than in SO rats, probably because the pineal gland is closely related to the facilitation of PRL secretion by estrogen. The high estrogen level in OVX-EP rats seemed to trigger pineal stimulation of PRL release, but low estrogen levels in OVX and postpartum rats or markedly high levels of progesterone in pregnant rats on the 20th day are thought to cause pineal inhibition.

  18. Prolactin and estrogen enhance the activity of activating protein 1 in breast cancer cells: role of extracellularly regulated kinase 1/2-mediated signals to c-fos.

    PubMed

    Gutzman, Jennifer H; Nikolai, Sarah E; Rugowski, Debra E; Watters, Jyoti J; Schuler, Linda A

    2005-07-01

    Despite the important roles of both prolactin (PRL) and 17beta-estradiol (E2) in normal mammary development as well as in breast cancer, and coexpression of the estrogen receptor (ER) and PRL receptor in many mammary tumors, the interactions between PRL and E2 in breast cancer have not been well studied. The activating protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor, a known regulator of processes essential for normal growth and development as well as carcinogenesis, is a potential site for cross-talk between these hormones in breast cancer cells. Here we demonstrate that PRL and E2 cooperatively enhance the activity of AP-1 in MCF-7-derived cells. In addition to the acute PRL-induced ERK1/2 activation, PRL and E2 also individually elicited delayed, sustained rises in levels of phosphorylated p38 and especially ERK1/2. Together, these hormones increased the dynamic phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and c-Fos, and induced c-fos promoter activity. Synergistic activation of the transcription factor, Elk-1, reflected the PRL-E2 interaction at ERK1/2 and is a likely mechanism for activation of the c-fos promoter via the serum response element. The enhanced AP-1 activity resulting from the interaction of these hormones may increase expression of many target genes that are critical for oncogenesis and may contribute to neoplastic progression.

  19. Evidence that the growth hormone receptor mediates differentiation and development of the mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Feldman, M; Ruan, W; Cunningham, B C; Wells, J A; Kleinberg, D L

    1993-10-01

    We have shown that nonlactogenic rat (r) GH is far more potent than rPRL in inducing rat mammary development. To determine the relative roles of GH and PRL in mammary development and their mechanisms of action, we have compared the abilities of a group of native and mutant GHs, PRLs, and placental lactogens (PLs) to induce mammary development, bind to GH receptors, and activate lactogenic receptors. Mammary development was assessed histologically by counting terminal end buds and alveolar structures in glands from sexually immature, hypophysectomized, castrated, estradiol-treated rats. Hormones were implanted, in Elvax pellets, into the lumbar mammary gland. Significant increases in terminal end buds (P < 0.03) over internal control values were obtained with rGH, recombinant human GH (rhGH), rbGH, and one of two mutant rhGHs. These four hormones were also found to bind to GH receptors with high affinity. In contrast, little development occurred with hPRL, rPRL, rhPL, ovine PRL, mutant forms of rhPRL and rhPL, and a mutant of rhGH altered to reduce binding to GH and PRL receptors. All of these substances are more than 50-fold reduced in binding to the GH receptor, yet can bind and activate lactogenic receptors. Thus, only those natural or mutant pituitary or placental hormones with high binding affinity to GH receptors induce mammary development, suggesting that GH receptors play a central role in this process.

  20. Serum prolactin and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations during the summer and winter hair growth cycles of mink (Mustela vison).

    PubMed

    Rose, J; Kennedy, M; Johnston, B; Foster, W

    1998-11-01

    We investigated the relationship between serum concentrations of prolactin (PRL) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) during initiation and development of summer and winter hair growth (anagen) cycles in mink. In the spring, haloperidol (HAL) increased PRL concentrations and induced summer anagen earlier than controls, whereas melatonin (MEL) inhibited PRL secretion and completely blocked summer anagen. In the fall, HAL increased PRL concentrations, inducing anagen at an earlier time than controls, although the resulting fur was abnormal being almost devoid of underhair fibers. Exogenous MEL during the fall reduced PRL concentrations, initiating winter anagen 4 weeks earlier than controls. Adrenalectomy (ADX) induced earlier onset of summer and winter anagen and neutralized the inhibitory effects of HAL in the fall and MEL in the spring. No change in serum DHEA concentrations was observed during the onset of summer or winter anagen in any group although MEL increased DHEA levels from 27 March through 5 June relative to HAL-treated mink. We conclude that changes in serum levels of DHEA and PRL are not requisite to onset of summer or winter anagen in mink. It is possible that metabolites of DHEA and/or PRL may still affect other aspects of the hair growth cycle.

  1. Polymeric micelles based on poly(ethylene glycol) block poly(racemic amino acids) hybrid polypeptides: conformation-facilitated drug-loading behavior and potential application as effective anticancer drug carriers

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Peng Fei; Xu, Hui; Sui, Bo Wen; Gou, Jing Xin; Meng, Ling Kuo; Sun, Feng; Wang, Xiu Jun; Qi, Na; Zhang, Yu; He, Hai Bing; Tang, Xing

    2012-01-01

    In this work, racemic hybrid polypeptides poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-b-poly(racemic-leucine) (PRL) copolymers with different leucine residues have been synthesized and characterized. Using docetaxel as a model molecule, the high drug-loaded spherical micelles based on PEG-PRL were prepared successfully using dialysis, with a tunable particle size from 170 nm to 250 nm obtained by changing the length of the hydrophobic blocks. Facilitated drug-loading behavior (higher drug-loading ability and easier drug-loading process) of PEG-PRL compared with their corresponding levo forms (PEG-b-poly[levo leucine]) was observed and clarified for the first time. With this facilitation, the highest drug-loading content and efficiency of PEG-PRL micelles can achieve 11.2% ± 0.4% and 67.2% ± 2.4%, respectively. All drug-loaded PEG-PRL micelles exhibit a similar release behavior with a sustained release up to 72 hours. The PEG-PRL was shown to be nontoxic against MCF-7 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells up to a concentration of 100 μg/mL, displaying a good biocompatibility. Also, the docetaxel-loaded PEG-PRL micelles were more toxic than the free drug against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells – both dose and time dependent. Therefore, these high docetaxel-loaded micelles based on racemic hybrid polypeptides appear to be a novel promising nanomedicine for anticancer therapy. PMID:22275827

  2. Androgens induce prolactin production by human endometrial stromal cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Narukawa, S; Kanzaki, H; Inoue, T; Imai, K; Higuchi, T; Hatayama, H; Kariya, M; Mori, T

    1994-01-01

    Although there is a significant quantity of androgens in the endometrium, the function of these hormones has not been clarified, except for being estrogen precursors. Human endometrial stromal cells (ESC) were cultured in the presence of testosterone (T) and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Following culture, prolactin (PRL), a biochemical marker of stromal cell differentiation (decidualization) which is produced by ESC, was examined. T induced PRL production in a time- and dose-dependent manner, as reported previously for progesterone (P) stimulation. In addition, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, which cannot be converted to estrogens, similarly induced PRL production. T in combination with P enhanced PRL production in cultured ESC significantly more than either P or T stimulation alone. A specific androgen receptor blocker, flutamide, when added to cultures containing T, inhibited PRL production in a dose-dependent manner, but did not affect the production of PRL induced by P. These results indicate that in vitro PRL production by human ESC is induced not only by P, but also by androgens through specific receptors and further suggest that androgens play an important role in human endometrial differentiation.

  3. HER2/ErbB2 receptor signaling in rat and human prolactinoma cells: strategy for targeted prolactinoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Hidenori; Cooper, Odelia; Mizutani, Jun; Tong, Yunguang; Ren, Song-Guang; Bannykh, Serguei; Melmed, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine agonist resistance or intolerance is encountered in approximately 20% of prolactinoma patients. Because human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)/ErbB2 is overexpressed in prolactinomas and ErbB receptor ligands regulate prolactin (PRL) gene expression, we tested the role of HER2/ErbB2 in prolactinoma hormone regulation and adenoma cell proliferation to assess the rationale for targeting this receptor for prolactinoma therapy. As we showed prolactinoma HER2 overexpression, we generated constitutively active HER2-stable GH3 cell transfectants (HER2CA). PRL mRNA levels were induced approximately 250-fold and PRL secretion was enhanced 100-fold in HER2CA cells, which also exhibited increased proliferation. Lapatinib, a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of both epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ErbB1 and HER2, blocked receptor signaling, and suppressed PRL expression more than gefitinib, a TKI of EGFR/ErbB1. Lapatinib also suppressed colony formation in soft agar more than gefitinib. Oral lapatinib treatment caused tumor shrinkage and serum PRL suppression both in HER2CA transfectant-inoculated Wistar-Furth rats and in estrogen-induced Fischer344 rat prolactinomas. In cultured human cells derived from resected prolactinoma tissue, lapatinib suppressed both PRL mRNA expression and secretion. These results demonstrate that prolactinoma HER2 potently induces PRL and regulates experimental prolactinoma cell proliferation. Because pituitary HER2 signaling is abrogated by TKIs, this receptor could be an effective target for prolactinoma therapy.

  4. L-DOPA attenuates prolactin secretion in response to isolation stress in Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Kasuya, Etsuko; Yayou, Ken-ichi; Sutoh, Madoka

    2013-07-01

    To clarify endocrine responses to psychological stressors in cattle, the effects of isolation from familiar peers on plasma prolactin (PRL) and cortisol (CORT) concentrations, and the effect of 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA), a precursor of dopamine (DA), on stress-induced PRL secretion were determined in Holstein steers. First, the potency of peripheral L-DOPA administration on attenuation of central DA levels was confirmed. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from a chronic cannula in the third ventricle and plasma were sampled 1 h before and 3 h after intravenous injection of L-DOPA (100 mg/head). DA concentrations in CSF increased just after L-DOPA injection with subsequent decrease in PRL secretion. Injection of L-DOPA increased CORT secretion. Second, one experimental steer was isolated in its stall by removing its peers for 2 h with or without- pre-injection of L-DOPA. The concentration of PRL was elevated by isolation treatment, whereas the effect of isolation on CORT concentration could not be detected. The increase in PRL concentration after isolation was abolished by pre-injection of L-DOPA. These results suggest that PRL responds to isolation and that DA neurons in the central nervous system may regulate stress-induced PRL secretion in steers.

  5. Prolactin and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Shelly, Shahar; Boaz, Mona; Orbach, Hedi

    2012-05-01

    Sex hormones, especially estrogen and prolactin (PRL), have an important role in modulating the immune response. PRL is secreted from the pituitary gland as well as other organs and cells particularly lymphocytes. PRL has an immune stimulatory effect and promotes autoimmunity. PRL interferes specifically with B cell tolerance induction, enhances proliferative response to antigens and mitogens and increases the production of immune globulins, cytokines and autoantibodies. Hyperprolactinemia (HPRL) in women present with clinical manifestations of galactorrhea, primary or secondary amenorrhea, delayed menarche or a change in the menses either in the amount or in the regularity. Furthermore in the last 2 decades multi-organ and organ specific autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjogren's syndrome (SS), Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), multiple sclerosis (MS), psoriasis, hepatitis C patients, Behçet's disease, peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) and active celiac disease were discussed to be associated with HPRL. There is data showing correlation between PRL level and diseases activity in few diseases. Genetic factors may have a role in humans as in animal models. The PRL isoforms based on the differences in the amino acid sequence and size of the cytoplasmic domain have an important effect on the bioactivity on prolactin receptors (PRL-Rs).

  6. Plasticity of hypothalamic dopamine neurons during lactation results in dissociation of electrical activity and release.

    PubMed

    Romanò, Nicola; Yip, Siew H; Hodson, David J; Guillou, Anne; Parnaudeau, Sébastien; Kirk, Siobhan; Tronche, François; Bonnefont, Xavier; Le Tissier, Paul; Bunn, Stephen J; Grattan, Dave R; Mollard, Patrice; Martin, Agnès O

    2013-03-06

    Tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons are the central regulators of prolactin (PRL) secretion. Their extensive functional plasticity allows a change from low PRL secretion in the non-pregnant state to the condition of hyperprolactinemia that characterizes lactation. To allow this rise in PRL, TIDA neurons are thought to become unresponsive to PRL at lactation and functionally silenced. Here we show that, contrary to expectations, the electrical properties of the system were not modified during lactation and that the neurons remained electrically responsive to a PRL stimulus, with PRL inducing an acute increase in their firing rate during lactation that was identical to that seen in non-pregnant mice. Furthermore, we show a long-term organization of TIDA neuron electrical activity with an harmonization of their firing rates, which remains intact during lactation. However, PRL-induced secretion of dopamine (DA) at the median eminence was strongly blunted during lactation, at least in part attributable to lack of phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase, the key enzyme involved in DA synthesis. We therefore conclude that lactation, rather than involving electrical silencing of TIDA neurons, represents a condition of decoupling between electrical activity at the cell body and DA secretion at the median eminence.

  7. High expression of prolactin receptor is associated with cell survival in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Pulido, Edgar I; Muñoz-Valle, José F; Del Toro-Arreola, Susana; Jave-Suárez, Luis F; Bueno-Topete, Miriam R; Estrada-Chávez, Ciro; Pereira-Suárez, Ana Laura

    2013-10-22

    The altered expression of prolactin (PRL) and its receptor (PRLR) has been implicated in breast and other types of cancer. There are few studies that have focused on the analysis of PRL/PRLR in cervical cancer where the development of neoplastic lesions is influenced by the variation of the hormonal status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of PRL/PRLR and the effect of PRL treatment on cell proliferation and apoptosis in cervical cancer cell lines. High expression of multiple PRLR forms and PRLvariants of 60-80 kDa were observed in cervical cancer cell lines compared with non-tumorigenic keratinocytes evaluated by Western blot, immunofluorecence and real time PCR. Treatment with PRL (200 ng/ml) increased cell proliferation in HeLa cells determined by the MTT assay at day 3 and after 1 day a protective effect against etoposide induced apoptosis in HeLa, SiHa and C-33A cervical cancer cell lines analyzed by the TUNEL assay. Our data suggests that PRL/PRLR signaling could act as an important survival factor for cervical cancer. The use of an effective PRL antagonist may provide a better therapeutic intervention in cervical cancer.

  8. Neuroendocrine effects of acute nickel chloride administration in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Clemons, G.K.; Garcia, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    An sc injection of nickel chloride (20 and 10 mg/kg) led to a profound and consistent increase of circulating prolactin (PRL) levels after 1 day and lasted for 4 days (p < 0.001) in male rats. Increases in insulin levels occurred 1 and 2 days postinjection. The nickel-induced PRL rise could be abolished by a simultaneous administration of 2-bromo-..cap alpha..-ergocryptine (CB 154). In vitro incubation of pituitaries from rats that received 20 mg/kg of nickel chloride 48 hr prior to sacrifice released more PRL into the culture medium, as well as contained more PRL in the final tissue than did the pituitaries from control animals. The hypothalamic extracts (HE) obtained from hypothalami of nickel-injected rats were tested also in vitro on normal rat pituitaries and the results showed that the HE from such rats released more PRL and therefore had less prolactin-inhibiting factor (PIF) than the HE obtained from control rats. The results show that nickel chloride has effects on the endocrine system that (a) last considerably longer than previously reported, (b) are mediated through the neuroendocrine system, and (c) instead of specifically inhibiting PRL secretion from the pituitary promote high circulating PRL levels lasting from 1 to 4 days.

  9. Physiological role of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in modulating the secretion of prolactin and luteinizing hormone in the female rat.

    PubMed Central

    Khorram, O; Bedran de Castro, J C; McCann, S M

    1984-01-01

    Long-term ovariectomized (OVX) rats were injected in the third cerebral ventricle with 5 microliter of the globulin fraction of an antiserum raised against alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) or an equal volume of the globulin fraction of normal rabbit serum (NRS). Immunoneutralization of brain alpha-MSH produced an increase in the area under the secretion curve of prolactin (Prl), the amplitude of Prl pulses, and mean plasma Prl (P less than 0.01). In animals that had received two injections of NRS or anti-MSH and were subjected to a 2-min ether stress, Prl levels significantly increased within 5 minutes in the NRS-injected rats, whereas Prl levels in the antiserum-injected rats did not increase any further from the initially high baseline levels. The administration of antibodies against alpha-MSH produced a small increase (P less than 0.05) in the area under the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and mean plasma LH; however, the number of LH pulses was unaffected. We conclude that endogenous alpha-MSH of central origin is a physiological neuromodulator of release of Prl and LH in the OVX rat and is involved in the stress-induced release of Prl. PMID:6595673

  10. Effects of prolactin and experimental handling on liver, fat body and ovary lipid contents and their daily variations in Rana esculenta (L.).

    PubMed

    Sotowska-Brochocka, J; Jaklewicz, S

    1984-01-01

    Three groups of females of R. esculenta were kept under constant temperature and photoperiod conditions (L:D = 12:12). One group consisted of intact frogs, while the remainder were given saline or prolactin (PRL) injections 6 hours after light onset. After 5 days of such treatment examination was made every 6 hours over a 24-hour period of lipid content in the liver, fat bodies (FBs) and ovaries and the level and composition of plasma lipids. Both the experimental handling and PRL treatment caused in animals a decrease in weight of the liver and mobilization of lipid metabolism, inducing a shift in lipids and a change in their distribution within the organs examined. In animals injected with saline lipids were transported chiefly to FBs, whereas in frogs given PRL the whole, combined lipid content in these organs decreased considerably, suggesting that they had been transported to the tissues and that their catabolism had been intensified. It is suggested also that PRL has sparing effect on the ovarian lipid pool. In both groups, especially in frogs given PRL, there was a marked increase in plasma lipid concentration and the contents in percentages of its different classes. Increase in concentration of phospholipids (3X) and cholesterol (10X) in animals given PRL is particularly distinct. Both experimental handling and PRL administration affected the pattern of diurnal fluctuations in the lipid content of the organs examined.

  11. High expression of prolactin receptor is associated with cell survival in cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The altered expression of prolactin (PRL) and its receptor (PRLR) has been implicated in breast and other types of cancer. There are few studies that have focused on the analysis of PRL/PRLR in cervical cancer where the development of neoplastic lesions is influenced by the variation of the hormonal status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of PRL/PRLR and the effect of PRL treatment on cell proliferation and apoptosis in cervical cancer cell lines. Results High expression of multiple PRLR forms and PRLvariants of 60–80 kDa were observed in cervical cancer cell lines compared with non-tumorigenic keratinocytes evaluated by Western blot, immunofluorecence and real time PCR. Treatment with PRL (200 ng/ml) increased cell proliferation in HeLa cells determined by the MTT assay at day 3 and after 1 day a protective effect against etoposide induced apoptosis in HeLa, SiHa and C-33A cervical cancer cell lines analyzed by the TUNEL assay. Conclusions Our data suggests that PRL/PRLR signaling could act as an important survival factor for cervical cancer. The use of an effective PRL antagonist may provide a better therapeutic intervention in cervical cancer. PMID:24148306

  12. Evidence that Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels participate in the regulation of pituitary prolactin secretion.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Inukai, T; Greer, M A; Greer, S E

    1994-10-31

    We evaluated the role of Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels in the regulation of prolactin (PRL) secretion with a perifusion system using acutely dispersed rat anterior pituitary cells. Apamin, which blocks Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels, induced PRL secretion in a dose-dependent fashion between 1 and 300 nM (r = 0.99, P < 0.01). Charybdotoxin, another Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel-blocker, also induced PRL secretion at 20 nM concentration. These were not non-specific toxic effects, since stimulation of PRL secretion by 10 nM thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) was not different before and after applying the channel-blockers. Both 10 microM dopamine and 2 microM nifedipine significantly, but incompletely, depressed PRL secretion induced by 100 nM apamin; 10 microM dopamine completely blocked PRL secretion induced by 20 nM charybdotoxin. Our data indicate that Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels may play an important role in the regulation of PRL secretion.

  13. Prolactin, Oxytocin, and the development of paternal behavior across the first six months of fatherhood

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Ilanit; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Leckman, James F.; Feldman, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Animal studies have implicated the neuropeptides Prolactin (PRL) and Oxytocin (OT) in processes of maternal bonding and PRL has similarly been shown to play a role in the neurophysiology of fatherhood. Yet, very little is known on the involvement of PRL and OT in human fathering. Forty-three fathers and their firstborn infant were seen twice: in the second and sixth postpartum months. Paternal plasma PRL and OT were sampled at both time-points and analyzed with ELISA methods. At six months fathers were videotaped interacting with their child in social and exploratory play contexts and interactions were micro-analyzed for father–infant Affect Synchrony and father facilitation of child toy exploration. PRL and OT showed high individual stability across time and were correlated at the second observation. PRL was related to father– infant Coordinated Exploratory Play in the toy context whereas OT was associated with father–infant Affect Synchrony in the social context. Results point to the role of PRL and OT in the development of human fathering and underscore their differential relations with patterns of paternal care. PMID:20399783

  14. Modulating effect of the nootropic drug, piracetam on stress- and subsequent morphine-induced prolactin secretion in male rats.

    PubMed Central

    Matton, A.; Engelborghs, S.; Bollengier, F.; Finné, E.; Vanhaeist, L.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effect of the nootropic drug, piracetam on stress- and subsequent morphine-induced prolactin (PRL) secretion was investigated in vivo in male rats, by use of a stress-free blood sampling and drug administration method by means of a permanent indwelling catheter in the right jugular vein. 2. Four doses of piracetam were tested (20, 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1), being given intraperitoneally 1 h before blood sampling; control rats received saline instead. After a first blood sample, rats were subjected to immobilization stress and received morphine, 6 mg kg-1, 90 min later. 3. Piracetam had no effect on basal plasma PRL concentration. 4. While in the non-piracetam-treated rats, stress produced a significant rise in plasma PRL concentration, in the piracetam-pretreated rats PRL peaks were attenuated, especially in the group given 100 mg kg-1 piracetam, where plasma PRL concentration was not significantly different from basal values. The dose-response relationship showed a U-shaped curve; the smallest dose had a minor inhibitory effect and the highest dose had no further effect on the PRL rise. 5. In unrestrained rats, morphine led to a significant elevation of plasma PRL concentration. After the application of immobilization stress it lost its ability to raise plasma PRL concentration in the control rats, but not in the piracetam-treated rats. This tolerance was overcome by piracetam in a significant manner but with a reversed dose-response curve; i.e. the smaller the dose of piracetam, the higher the subsequent morphine-induced PRL peak. 6. There is no simple explanation for the mechanism by which piracetam induces these contradictory effects. Interference with the excitatory amino acid system, which is also involved in opiate action, is proposed speculatively as a possible mediator of the effects of piracetam. PMID:8821540

  15. Antiapoptotic effects of erythropoietin in differentiated neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells require activation of both the STAT5 and AKT signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Um, Moonkyoung; Lodish, Harvey F

    2006-03-03

    The hematopoietic cytokine erythropoietin (Epo) prevents neuronal death during ischemic events in the brain and in neurodegenerative diseases, presumably through its antiapoptotic effects. To explore the role of different signaling pathways in Epo-mediated antiapoptotic effects in differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, we employed a prolactin receptor (PrlR)/erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) chimera system, in which binding of prolactin (Prl) to the extracellular domain activates EpoR signaling in the cytosol. On induction of apoptosis by staurosporine, Prl supports survival of the SH-SY5Y cells expressing the wild-type PrlR/EpoR chimera. In these cells Prl treatment strongly activates the STAT5, AKT, and MAPK signaling pathways and induces weak activation of the p65 NF-kappaB factor. Selective mutation of the eight tyrosine residues of the EpoR cytoplasmic domain results in impaired or absent activation of either STAT5 (mutation of Tyr(343)) or AKT (mutation of Tyr(479)) or both (mutation of all eight tyrosine residues). Most interestingly, Prl treatment does not prevent apoptosis in cells expressing mutant PrlR/EpoR chimeras in which either the STAT5 or the AKT signaling pathways are not activated. In contrast, ERK 1/2 is fully activated by all mutant PrlR/EpoR chimeras, comparable with the level seen with the wild-type PrlR/EpoR chimera, implying that activation of the MAPK signaling pathway per se is not sufficient for antiapoptotic activity. Therefore, the antiapoptotic effects of Epo in neuronal cells require the combinatorial activation of multiple signaling pathways, including STAT5, AKT, and potentially MAPK as well, in a manner similar to that observed in hematopoietic cells.

  16. Prolactin modulates cytokine production induced by culture filtrate proteins of M. bovis through different signaling mechanisms in THP1 cells.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Neri, Priscila A; López-Rincón, Gonzalo; Mancilla-Jiménez, Raúl; del Toro-Arreola, Susana; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Fafutis-Morris, Mary; Bueno-Topete, Miriam Ruth; Estrada-Chávez, Ciro; Pereira-Suárez, Ana Laura

    2015-01-01

    The immunomodulatory functions of prolactin (PRL) are well recognized. Augmented PRL plasma levels were observed in patients with advanced tuberculosis (TB). Recently, we have reported that LPS and Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) induced differential expression of PRL receptor (PRLR) isoforms in THP-1 cells and bovine macrophages, respectively. The aim of this work was to determine whether PRL should be considered as a potential modulator of the signaling pathways and cytokine synthesis, induced by culture filtrate protein (CFP) from M. bovis in THP-1 monocytes. The THP-1 cells were stimulated with PRL (20ng/mL), M. bovis CFP (50μg/mL). PRLR as well as phosphorylated STAT3, STAT5, Akt1/2/3, ERK1/2 and p38 expression were evaluated by Western blot. IL1-β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, IL-8, and IL-10 concentrations were measured by ELISA. Our results demonstrated that the expression pattern of PRLR short isoforms is induced by M. bovis CFP. M bovis CFP induced phosphorylation of Akt2, ERK1/2, p38, STAT3, and STAT5 pathways. In turn, PRL only activated the JAK2/STAT3-5 signaling pathway. However, when combined both stimuli, PRL significantly increased STAT3-5 phosphorylation and downregulated Akt2, ERK1/2, and p38 phosphorylation. As expected, M. bovis CFP induced substantial amounts of IL1-β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-12, and IL-10. However, the PRL costimulation considerably decreased IL1-β, TNF-α, and IL-12 secretion, and increased IL-10 production. This results suggest that up-regulation of IL-10 by PRL might be modulating the pro-inflammatory response against mycobacterial antigens through the MAPK pathway.

  17. Integrating oculomotor and perceptual training to induce a pseudofovea: A model system for studying central vision loss

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rong; Kwon, MiYoung

    2016-01-01

    People with a central scotoma often adopt an eccentric retinal location (Preferred Retinal Locus, PRL) for fixation. Here, we proposed a novel training paradigm as a model system to study the nature of the PRL formation and its impacts on visual function. The training paradigm was designed to effectively induce a PRL at any intended retinal location by integrating oculomotor control and pattern recognition. Using a gaze-contingent display, a simulated central scotoma was induced in eight normally sighted subjects. A subject's entire peripheral visual field was blurred, except for a small circular aperture with location randomly assigned to each subject (to the left, right, above, or below the scotoma). Under this viewing condition, subjects performed a demanding oculomotor and visual recognition task. Various visual functions were tested before and after training at both PRL and nonPRL locations. After 6–10 hr of the training, all subjects formed their PRL within the clear window. Both oculomotor control and visual recognition performance significantly improved. Moreover, there was considerable improvement at PRL location in high-level function, such as trigram letter-recognition, reading, and spatial attention, but not in low-level function, such as acuity and contrast sensitivity. Our results demonstrated that within a relatively short time, a PRL could be induced at any intended retinal location in normally-sighted subjects with a simulated scotoma. Our training paradigm might not only hold promise as a model system to study the dynamic nature of the PRL formation, but also serve as a rehabilitation regimen for individuals with central vision loss. PMID:27089065

  18. Effects of Recombinant Human Prolactin on Breast Milk Composition

    PubMed Central

    Powe, Camille E.; Puopolo, Karen M.; Newburg, David S.; Lönnerdal, Bo; Chen, Ceng; Allen, Maureen; Merewood, Anne; Worden, Susan

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the impact of recombinant human prolactin (r-hPRL) on the nutritional and immunologic composition of breast milk. METHODS: We conducted 2 trials of r-hPRL treatment. In the first study, mothers with documented prolactin deficiency were given r-hPRL every 12 hours in a 28-day, open-label trial. In the second study, mothers with lactation insufficiency that developed while they were pumping breast milk for their preterm infants were given r-hPRL daily in a 7-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Breast milk characteristics were compared before and during 7 days of treatment. RESULTS: Among subjects treated with r-hPRL (N = 11), milk volumes (73 ± 36 to 146 ± 54 mL/day; P < .001) and milk lactose levels (155 ± 15 to 184 ± 8 mmol/L; P = .01) increased, whereas milk sodium levels decreased (12.1 ± 2.0 to 8.3 ± 0.5 mmol/L; P = .02). Milk calcium levels increased in subjects treated with r-hPRL twice daily (2.8 ± 0.6 to 5.0 ± 0.9 mmol/L; P = .03). Total neutral (1.5 ± 0.3 to 2.5 ± 0.4 g/L; P = .04) and acidic (33 ± 4 to 60 ± 6 mg/L; P = .02) oligosaccharide levels increased in r-hPRL-treated subjects, whereas total daily milk immunoglobulin A secretionwas unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: r-hPRL treatment increased milk volume and induced changes in milk composition similar to those that occur during normal lactogenesis. r-hPRL also increased antimicrobially active oligosaccharide concentrations. These effects were achieved for women with both prolactin deficiency and lactation insufficiency. PMID:21262884

  19. Effects of Hypergravity Exposure on Prolactin Levels in Pre-parturient , Parturient and Lactating Rat Dams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer. Lisa A.; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.; Sun, Sid (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of 2.0-g, 1.75-g and 1.5-g hypergravity exposure on plasma concentrations of the lactotrophic hormone, prolactin (PRL), in female rats on pre-parturient (Gestation Day 20), parturient (Post-natal day 0) and lactating (P10) days. PRL levels have been found to be reduced in rat dams around the time of birth following exposure to gravitational loads varying from 2.16 to 3.14-g (Megory et. al., Aviation, Space and Environs 1129-1135, 1984). It has also been reported that at these high gravitational loads, neonatal mortality has been extremely high, suggesting a possible interaction between dam PRL concentration and neonatal outcome. We have previously reported no significant differences in PRL levels of parturient (PO) and lactating (P6 & P 15) dams when exposed to 1.5-g hypergravity, but did observe a slight elevation of PRL on PO and P 15, with a decrease on P6. In the present study, time-bred pregnant dams were exposed to either continuous 2.0-g, 1.75-g or 1.5-g centrifugation, beginning on Gestational day (G) 11 of the rats' 22-day pregnancy. We observed no significant differences in PRL concentrations between SC and any of the HG conditions. On G20 and PO, PRL concentrations of the 2.0-g and 1.5-g groups were slightly elevated as compared to SC. Similar to what we previously reported. PRL secretion was elevated in both HG and SC conditions on the day of birth relative to later during lactation, but on P10 it appeared to be reduced in HG relative to SC dams. These findings suggests that hypergravity slightly elevates plasma concentration of PRL in pre-parturient and lactating rat dams, with effects most pronounced during the periparturitional period and in a direction opposite to that observed following microgravity exposure.

  20. Effect of prolactin on carcinoembryonic antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response induced by dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Matera, L; Beltramo, E; Martinuzzi, E; Buttiglieri, S

    2004-08-01

    The cytokine hormone prolactin (PRL) has been shown previously to modulate native cellular responses and maturation of antigen-presenting cells. Here we have addressed its effect on the antigen-specific response of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). CTL were generated from HLA-A2 lymphocytes after three rounds of stimulation with autologous dendritic cells loaded with HLA-A2-restricted carcinoembrionic antigen (CEA) Cap-1 (YLSGANLNL) peptide. Selected cultures were expanded on cytokine-supplemented feeder-layers, enriched for CD8+ lymphocytes and analysed for PRL-receptor (PRL-R) expression and PRL responsiveness. Resting CD8+ lymphocytes were negative for PRL-R, whereas antigen-activated CD8+ lymphocytes derived from long-term cultures were highly positive. Results of a 51Cr release assay showed CTL killing of CEA-loaded, but not unloaded, T2 cell line and the CEA-positive gastric carcinoma cell line KATO, but not of the CEA-negative T leukaemia cell line Jurkat. Interferon (IFN)-gamma release, evaluated in an ELISPOT assay against CEA-loaded T2, was enhanced (P < 0.05) by concentrations of PRL (12-25 ng/ml) very close to the physiological levels (6-20 ng/ml), but was decreased (P < 0.05) by high concentrations (200 ng/ml). Pre-incubation of the stimulators with the anti-MHC class I MoAb W6.32 induced a 40-60% decrease of the PRL-boosted IFN-gamma release, thus proving the MHC restriction of the lymphocyte response. Cytotoxicity against CEA-loaded T2 and KATO cell lines was also increased by 12-25 ng (P < 0.05) and decreased (P < 0.05) by 200 ng PRL. Pre-incubation of CTL with an antibody specific for the PRL-R almost completely abrogated this effect.

  1. Possible involvement of matrix metalloproteinase-3 in the pathogenesis of macroprolactinaemia in some patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Takashi; Hattori, Naoki; Ishihara, Takashi; Iida, Hirokazu; Saito, Takanori; Miyashima, Shigeo; Shimatsu, Akira

    2013-08-01

    Macroprolactin primarily comprises a complex of prolactin (PRL) and IgG molecules, particularly anti-PRL autoantibodies. However, it is unknown why autoantibodies against PRL develop in certain subjects. This study aimed to elucidate post-translational modifications in the PRL molecule that may be involved in the pathogenesis of macroprolactinaemia. Macroprolactinaemia was screened with a polyethylene glycol method in 238 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 302 control subjects and confirmed by gel chromatography. We examined the relationship between macroprolactinaemia and several RA-related laboratory tests including matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody titres. The effect of MMP-3 on the PRL molecule was examined by western blotting. Patients with RA exhibited a significantly higher prevalence of macroprolactinaemia (15/238; 6.3%) than the young control subjects (5/219 subjects; 2.3%), but the prevalence was not different from that observed in the elderly control subjects (5/83 subjects; 6.0%). The prevalence of macroprolactinaemia in patients with elevated MMP-3 levels (9.68%) was significantly higher than that in those with normal MMP-3 levels (2.63%). Digestion of PRL with MMP-3 produced vasoinhibins with several molecular species. Serum total and free PRL levels in RA patients were higher than those in the age- and gender-matched control subjects. The levels of macroprolactin were not significantly correlated with those of RA-specific anti-CCP antibody. We speculate that elevated MMP-3 levels may lead to the formation of new epitopes on the PRL molecule that might trigger an immune response to produce anti-PRL autoantibodies in some patients with RA. Such post-translational modifications may possibly contribute to the increased prevalence of macroprolactinaemia in elderly subjects.

  2. Effects of Hypergravity Exposure on Prolactin Levels in Pre-parturient , Parturient and Lactating Rat Dams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer. Lisa A.; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.; Sun, Sid (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of 2.0-g, 1.75-g and 1.5-g hypergravity exposure on plasma concentrations of the lactotrophic hormone, prolactin (PRL), in female rats on pre-parturient (Gestation Day 20), parturient (Post-natal day 0) and lactating (P10) days. PRL levels have been found to be reduced in rat dams around the time of birth following exposure to gravitational loads varying from 2.16 to 3.14-g (Megory et. al., Aviation, Space and Environs 1129-1135, 1984). It has also been reported that at these high gravitational loads, neonatal mortality has been extremely high, suggesting a possible interaction between dam PRL concentration and neonatal outcome. We have previously reported no significant differences in PRL levels of parturient (PO) and lactating (P6 & P 15) dams when exposed to 1.5-g hypergravity, but did observe a slight elevation of PRL on PO and P 15, with a decrease on P6. In the present study, time-bred pregnant dams were exposed to either continuous 2.0-g, 1.75-g or 1.5-g centrifugation, beginning on Gestational day (G) 11 of the rats' 22-day pregnancy. We observed no significant differences in PRL concentrations between SC and any of the HG conditions. On G20 and PO, PRL concentrations of the 2.0-g and 1.5-g groups were slightly elevated as compared to SC. Similar to what we previously reported. PRL secretion was elevated in both HG and SC conditions on the day of birth relative to later during lactation, but on P10 it appeared to be reduced in HG relative to SC dams. These findings suggests that hypergravity slightly elevates plasma concentration of PRL in pre-parturient and lactating rat dams, with effects most pronounced during the periparturitional period and in a direction opposite to that observed following microgravity exposure.

  3. Effect of the prolactin-release inhibitor quinagolide on lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lacasse, P; Lollivier, V; Bruckmaier, R M; Boisclair, Y R; Wagner, G F; Boutinaud, M

    2011-03-01

    In most mammals, prolactin (PRL) is essential for maintaining lactation, and yet the short-term suppression of PRL during established lactation by bromocriptine has produced inconsistent effects on milk yield in cows and goats. To assess the effect of the long-term inhibition of PRL release in lactating dairy cows, 5 Holstein cows in early lactation received daily intramuscular injections of 1mg of the PRL-release inhibitor quinagolide for 9 wk. Four control cows received the vehicle (water) only. During the last week of the treatments, one udder half was milked once a day (1×) and the other twice a day (2×). Blood samples were harvested at milking in wk -1, 1, 4, and 8. The daily injections of quinagolide reduced milking-induced PRL release but not the basal PRL concentration. Quinagolide induced a faster decline in milk production, which was about 5.3 kg/d lower in the quinagolide-treated cows during the last 4 wk of treatment. During wk 9, the inhibition of milk production by quinagolide was maintained in the udder half that was milked 2× but not in the half milked 1×. Milk production was significantly correlated with the quantity of PRL released at milking. Quinagolide did not affect the release of oxytocin at milking. Serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1 was not affected by treatment or correlated with milk production. Serum concentrations of leptin and the calciotropic hormone stanniocalcin were not affected by the treatment. In conclusion, the chronic administration of the PRL-release inhibitor quinagolide decreases milk production in dairy cows. The effect is likely the result of the reduced release of milking-induced PRL and is modulated at the level of the gland by milking frequency.

  4. Effect of prolactin on carcinoembryonic antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response induced by dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Matera, L; Beltramo, E; Martinuzzi, E; Buttiglieri, S

    2004-01-01

    The cytokine hormone prolactin (PRL) has been shown previously to modulate native cellular responses and maturation of antigen-presenting cells. Here we have addressed its effect on the antigen-specific response of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). CTL were generated from HLA-A2 lymphocytes after three rounds of stimulation with autologous dendritic cells loaded with HLA-A2-restricted carcinoembrionic antigen (CEA) Cap-1 (YLSGANLNL) peptide. Selected cultures were expanded on cytokine-supplemented feeder-layers, enriched for CD8+ lymphocytes and analysed for PRL-receptor (PRL-R) expression and PRL responsiveness. Resting CD8+ lymphocytes were negative for PRL-R, whereas antigen-activated CD8+ lymphocytes derived from long-term cultures were highly positive. Results of a 51Cr release assay showed CTL killing of CEA-loaded, but not unloaded, T2 cell line and the CEA-positive gastric carcinoma cell line KATO, but not of the CEA-negative T leukaemia cell line Jurkat. Interferon (IFN)-γ release, evaluated in an ELISPOT assay against CEA-loaded T2, was enhanced (P < 0·05) by concentrations of PRL (12–25 ng/ml) very close to the physiological levels (6–20 ng/ml), but was decreased (P < 0·05) by high concentrations (200 ng/ml). Pre-incubation of the stimulators with the anti-MHC class I MoAb W6·32 induced a 40–60% decrease of the PRL-boosted IFN-γ release, thus proving the MHC restriction of the lymphocyte response. Cytotoxicity against CEA-loaded T2 and KATO cell lines was also increased by 12–25 ng (P < 0·05) and decreased (P < 0·05) by 200 ng PRL. Pre-incubation of CTL with an antibody specific for the PRL-R almost completely abrogated this effect. PMID:15270849

  5. Effects of prolactin on lipid biosynthesis and protein kinase C in mouse mammary gland and NB sub 2 node lymphoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    In cultured mouse mammary gland explants derived from 12-14 day pregnant mice, prolactin (PRL) stimulates an increased rate of incorporation of ({sup 14}C)acetate and ({sup 3}H)glucose into triglycerides. The effect is significant between 4-6 hours after addition of PRL. Enzymes likely to be rate-limiting to this process include acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthetase, acetyl CoA synthetase, and/or pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH). It is possible that early perturbations of phospholipid (PL) metabolism may represent the initial cellular effects of PRL. Consequently the effect of PRL on the incorporation of several precursors into PLs was determined. Employing ({sup 14}C)acetate as a substrate, PRL stimulates its incorporation into phosphatidylcholine, as early as 1-2 hours, and phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine by 2-4 hours. ({sup 3}H)Glycerol incorporation into triglycerides was significantly enhanced by PRL between 4-6 hours, but not into PLs until after 16 hours. Similarly, PRL did not enhance incorporation of ({sup 32}P)O{sub 4}, ({sup 3}H)choline, ({sup 3}H)inositol or ({sup 3}H)seine into PLs until 14-16 hours after addition to culture. 12-O-tetradeconyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was found to increase ({sup 3}H)uridine incorporation into RNA, and ({sup 3}H)leucine incorporation into caseins in a PRL-like manner. In addition, PRL stimulates a transient, time-dependent translocation of PKC to the particulate fraction of mammary gland explants.

  6. Prolactin-induced neuroprotection against glutamate excitotoxicity is mediated by the reduction of [Ca2+]i overload and NF-κB activation

    PubMed Central

    Rivero-Segura, Nadia A.; Flores-Soto, Edgar; García de la Cadena, Selene; Coronado-Mares, Isabel; Gomez-Verjan, Juan C.; Ferreira, Diana G.; Cabrera-Reyes, Erika Alejandra; Lopes, Luísa V.; Massieu, Lourdes

    2017-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a peptidic hormone that displays pleiotropic functions in the organism including different actions in the brain. PRL exerts a neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity produced by glutamate (Glu) or kainic acid in both in vitro and in vivo models. It is well known that Glu excitotoxicity causes cell death through apoptotic or necrotic pathways due to intracellular calcium ([Ca2+] i) overload. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the molecular mechanisms by which PRL maintains cellular viability of primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons exposed to Glu excitotoxicity. We determined cell viability by monitoring mitochondrial activity and using fluorescent markers for viable and dead cells. The intracellular calcium level was determined by a fluorometric assay and proteins involved in the apoptotic pathway were determined by immunoblot. Our results demonstrated that PRL afforded neuroprotection against Glu excitotoxicity, as evidenced by a decrease in propidium iodide staining and by the decrease of the LDH activity. In addition, the MTT assay shows that PRL maintains normal mitochondrial activity even in neurons exposed to Glu. Furthermore, the Glu-induced intracellular [Ca2+]i overload was attenuated by PRL. These data correlate with the reduction found in the level of active caspase-3 and the pro-apoptotic ratio (Bax/Bcl-2). Concomitantly, PRL elicited the nuclear translocation of the transcriptional factor NF-κB, which was detected by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that PRL prevents Glu excitotoxicity by a mechanism involving the restoration of the intracellular calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial activity, as well as an anti-apoptotic action possibly mediated by the activity of NF-κB. Overall, the current results suggest that PRL could be of potential therapeutic advantage in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:28475602

  7. Prolactin-induced neuroprotection against glutamate excitotoxicity is mediated by the reduction of [Ca2+]i overload and NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Rivero-Segura, Nadia A; Flores-Soto, Edgar; García de la Cadena, Selene; Coronado-Mares, Isabel; Gomez-Verjan, Juan C; Ferreira, Diana G; Cabrera-Reyes, Erika Alejandra; Lopes, Luísa V; Massieu, Lourdes; Cerbón, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a peptidic hormone that displays pleiotropic functions in the organism including different actions in the brain. PRL exerts a neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity produced by glutamate (Glu) or kainic acid in both in vitro and in vivo models. It is well known that Glu excitotoxicity causes cell death through apoptotic or necrotic pathways due to intracellular calcium ([Ca2+] i) overload. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the molecular mechanisms by which PRL maintains cellular viability of primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons exposed to Glu excitotoxicity. We determined cell viability by monitoring mitochondrial activity and using fluorescent markers for viable and dead cells. The intracellular calcium level was determined by a fluorometric assay and proteins involved in the apoptotic pathway were determined by immunoblot. Our results demonstrated that PRL afforded neuroprotection against Glu excitotoxicity, as evidenced by a decrease in propidium iodide staining and by the decrease of the LDH activity. In addition, the MTT assay shows that PRL maintains normal mitochondrial activity even in neurons exposed to Glu. Furthermore, the Glu-induced intracellular [Ca2+]i overload was attenuated by PRL. These data correlate with the reduction found in the level of active caspase-3 and the pro-apoptotic ratio (Bax/Bcl-2). Concomitantly, PRL elicited the nuclear translocation of the transcriptional factor NF-κB, which was detected by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that PRL prevents Glu excitotoxicity by a mechanism involving the restoration of the intracellular calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial activity, as well as an anti-apoptotic action possibly mediated by the activity of NF-κB. Overall, the current results suggest that PRL could be of potential therapeutic advantage in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Cost Implications of the Broad Area Maritime Surveillance Unmanned Aircraft System for the Navy Flying Hour Program and Operation and Maintenance Budget

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    shown in Table 28. 58 Aircraft Type PRE Costs $FY10 (Million) PRL Costs $FY10 (Million) Fire Scout $16.1 $4.0 SH -60B $0.9 $1.3 SH - 60F $1.0 $1.5...complexity of new aircraft systems, evident in the PRE and PRL cost estimates for new manned aircraft systems in development such as the F-35, P- 8, SH ...60S and SH -60R (OPNAV N432 analyst, personal communication, August 20, 2010). A comparison of the Fire Scout and SH -60 T/M/S PRL and PRE costs is

  9. Physical randomness sources for loophole-free Bell tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Morgan W.

    2016-05-01

    We describe the strategy and physics used to select unpredictable measurement settings in the loophole-free Bell tests reported in [Hensen et al. Nature 2015, Giustina et al. PRL 2015, and Shalm et al. PRL 2015]. We demonstrate direct measurements of laser phase diffusion, a process driven by spontaneous emission, rigorous bounds on the effect of other, less-trusted contributions, and exponential predictability reduction by randomness extraction. As required for the cited experiments, we show the six-sigma bound for the predictability of the basis choices is below 0.001%. C. Abellan et al. PRL 2015.

  10. Direct effects of catecholamines, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, and somatostatin on growth hormone and prolactin secretion from adenomatous and nonadenomatous human pituitary cells in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, M; Yamaji, T

    1984-01-01

    To determine the mechanism and the site of action of catecholamines as well as hormones including thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)1 and somatostatin on pituitary hormone release in patients with acromegaly and in normal subjects, the effects of these substances on growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) secretion from adenomatous and nonadenomatous human pituitary cells in culture were examined. When dopamine (0.01-0.1 microM) or bromocriptine (0.01-0.1 microM) was added to the culture media, a significant inhibition of GH and PRL secretion from adenoma cells from acromegalic patients was observed. This inhibition was blocked by D2 receptor blockade with metoclopramide or sulpiride, but not by D1 receptor blockade. Similarly, dopamine suppressed GH and PRL release by nonadenomatous pituitary cells in a dose-dependent manner, which was again blocked by D2 receptor blockade. The minimum effective concentration of dopamine required for a significant inhibition of PRL secretion (0.01 microM) was lower than that for GH release (0.1 microM). Norepinephrine, likewise, caused a suppression of PRL secretion from adenomatous and nonadenomatous pituitary cells. This effect was blocked by sulpiride, phentolamine, however, was ineffective. When TRH was added to the media, both GH and PRL secretion were enhanced in adenoma cells, while only the stimulation of PRL release was observed in nonadenomatous pituitary cells. Coincubation of TRH and dopamine resulted in variable effects on GH and PRL secretion. Somatostatin consistently lowered GH and PRL secretion in both adenomatous and nonadenomatous pituitary cells and completely blocked the TRH-induced stimulation of GH and PRL secretion from adenoma cells. Opioid peptides (1 microM) failed to affect hormone release. These results suggest that no qualitative difference in GH and PRL responses to dopaminergic agonists or to somatostatin exists between adenoma cells of acromegalic patients and normal pituitary cells, and that the

  11. [Study on preferred retinal locus].

    PubMed

    Dai, Bing-Fa; Hu, Jian-Min; Xu, Duan-Lian

    2012-03-01

    Preferred retinal locus (PRL) is always found in the age-related macular degeneration and other macular damages in patients with low vision, and it is a very important anatomic position in patients with central vision impairment to achieve the rehabilitation. In recent years, the training of preferred retinal locus (PRL) has become a research hotspot of low vision rehabilitation, it can clearly improve functional vision and quality of life. The authors reviewed relevant literatures, and summarized the definition, position, characteristics, training and clinical implications of the PRL.

  12. Quantitative and functional expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes in human prolactinomas.

    PubMed

    Jaquet, P; Ouafik, L; Saveanu, A; Gunz, G; Fina, F; Dufour, H; Culler, M D; Moreau, J P; Enjalbert, A

    1999-09-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated that somatostatin analogs preferential for the SSTR5 subtype suppress PRL release from prolactinoma cell cultures by 30-40%. These data supported the idea of somatostatin receptor subtype-specific control of PRL secretion in such tumors. The present study examines the quantitative profile of SSTRs messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in 10 PRL-secreting tumors and correlates the expression with the ability of native somatostatins (SS14 and SS28), SSTR2 preferential analogs (octreotide and BIM-23197), and the SSTR5 preferential analog BIM-23268 to suppress PRL secretion. RT-PCR quantitative analysis showed a large predominance of SSTR5 mRNA [5648 +/- 1918 pg/pg glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)] vs. SSTR2 mRNA (148 +/- 83 pg/pg GAPDH). The SSTR1 transcript was also highly expressed in prolactinomas (1296 +/- 669 pg/pg GAPDH). SSTR5 mRNA expression correlated with PRL inhibition induced by both SRIF14 and SRIF28. Among the different analogs tested, only BIM-23268 produced inhibition of PRL release similar to that achieved with the native peptides. Its EC50 for PRL suppression was 0.28 +/- 0.10 nmol/L. No additive effects on PRL suppression were achieved by cotreatment of the tumor cells with SSTR2 and SSTR5 preferential analogs. In the same tumor cell cultures, quinagolide, a potent dopamine agonist, produced a dose-dependent inhibition of PRL with an EC50 at least 10 times lower than that of BIM-23268. Coincubation of quinagolide and BIM-23268, particularly in tumor cells resistant to dopamine agonist treatment, did not produce additive effects on PRL suppression. In conclusion, prolactinomas have a specific pattern of SSTR subtype mRNA expression (SSTR5 and SSTR1). SSTR5 expression is correlated to PRL regulation. These inhibitory effects are superimposable, at a higher concentration, to those of the dopamine agonists, but are not additive, particularly in the adenomas resistant to dopaminergic suppression of PRL release.

  13. Prolactin decrease and shift to a normal-like isoform profile during treatment with quinagolide in a patient affected by an invasive prolactinoma.

    PubMed

    Guido, R; Valenti, S; Foppiani, L; De Martini, D; Cossu, M; Giusti, M

    1997-05-01

    Prolactin (PRL) circulates as multiple molecular weight variants: glycosylated phosphorylated, deamidated and sulphated forms. The profiles of the forms, as determined by isoelectrofocusing (IEF), differ in physiological and pathological conditions. The case of a 72-year-old woman affected by an invasive prolactinoma is described. The patient had undergone surgical treatment followed by radiotherapy at the age of 71 years. Bromocriptine therapy followed (up to 10 mg/die), but the PRL levels were still extremely high (over 13,000 micrograms/l as determined by IRMA, after dilution). We therefore treated the patient with quinagolide, at increasing dosages, from 150 micrograms/die on day 0 to 600 micrograms/die on day 220. This treatment progressively lowered PRL to 23.2 micrograms/l. In addition to a decrease in PRL levels, a progressive change in the IEF profile was also noted. Indeed, on day 0, the PRL isoforms were very acidic and during treatment they progressively shifted toward a more basic range. For purpose of comparison PRL profiles were also determined in 8 women with pathological hyperprolactinaemia (group A, aged 16-50 years, PRL levels: 25.1-170.4 micrograms/l), in 6 normal women (group B, aged 25-29 years, PRL levels: 3.4-7.9 micrograms/l) and in 5 normal women during a TRH test (group C, aged 17-52 years, PRL levels: 2.7-10.3 micrograms/l). The profiles observed in group A had a single major peak at isoelectric point (pI) 6.5, while the group B and C profiles were more heterogeneous displaying multiple minor peaks, the majority of the molecules being in a more basic range (pI 6.9 for group B and pI 7.5 for group C). During treatment, the profiles of our subject at first resembled those of group A; subsequently, when the PRL levels had normalised, the profile resembled those noted in group B. Altered (immature?, more glycosilated?, less bioactive?) PRL molecules could be secreted by the tumour. These data show that quinagolide successfully reduced PRL

  14. Prolactin Receptor Coupling to Jak-Stat Pathways in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    receptors (PRLR) have been considered selective activators of tyrosine kinase Jak2 but not Jak1, Jak3 or Tyk2. We now report marked PRL-induced tyrosine...been considered selective activators of tyrosine kinase Jak2 but not Jak1, Jak3 or Tyk2. We now report marked PRL-induced tyrosine phosphorylation...other members of the Janus kinase family, Jak1, Jak3 or Tyk2 (2-5). Upon PRL-induced receptor aggregation, activated Jak2 in turn phosphorylates

  15. Concurrent production of adrenocorticotropin and prolactin from two distinct cell lines in a single pituitary adenoma: a detailed immunohistochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Sherry, S H; Guay, A T; Lee, A K; Hedley Whyte, E T; Federman, M; Freidberg, S R; Woolf, P D

    1982-11-01

    A pituitary tumor from a patient with severe Cushing's disease and marked hyperprolactinemia was extensively studied by immunohistochemical techniques. Tissues from two separate areas of the adenoma were found to contain similar cell proportions of PRL as well as ACTH and related peptides (beta-lipotropin, beta-endorphin, and alpha MSH). The tumor was composed of approximately 70% immunoreactive PRL cells and 5% ACTH-containing cells. Double immunostaining revealed that PRL or ACTH and related peptides were found in two distinct populations of tumor cells. These results document for the first time inappropriate synthesis and secretion of an unusual combination of pituitary hormones from a mixed pituitary adenoma.

  16. Maternal exposure to atrazine during lactation suppresses suckling-induced prolactin release and results in prostatitis in the adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Stoker, T E; Robinette, C L; Cooper, R L

    1999-11-01

    The availability of prolactin (PRL) to the neonatal brain is known to affect the development of the tuberoinfundibular (TIDA) neurons and, as a consequence, lead to alterations in subsequent PRL regulation. Without early lactational exposure to PRL (derived from the dam's milk), TIDA neuronal growth is impaired and elevated PRL levels are present in the prepubertal male. These observations, combined with the finding that alterations in PRL secretion (i.e., hyperprolactinemia) in the adult male rat have been implicated in the development of prostatitis, led us to hypothesize that early lactational exposure to agents that suppress suckling-induced PRL release would lead to a disruption in TIDA development, altered PRL regulation, and subsequent prostatitis in the male offspring. To test this hypothesis, suckling-induced PRL release was measured in Wistar dams treated twice daily with the herbicide atrazine (ATR, by gavage, on PND 1-4 at 0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg body weight), or twice daily with the dopamine receptor agonist bromocriptine (BROM, sc, at 0.052, 0.104, 0.208, and 0.417 mg/kg); BROM is known to suppress PRL release. Similarly, atrazine has also been reported to suppress PRL in adult females. Serum PRL was measured on PND 3 using a serial sampling technique and indwelling cardiac catheters. A significant rise in serum PRL release was noted in all control females within 10 min of the initiation of suckling. Fifty-mg/kg ATR inhibited suckling-induced PRL release in all females, whereas 25 and 12.5 mg/kg ATR inhibited this measure in some dams and had no discernible effect in others. The 6.25 mg/kg dose of ATR was without effect. BROM, used here as a positive control, also inhibited suckling-induced PRL release at doses of 0.104 to 0.417 mg/kg, with no effect at 0.052 mg/kg. To examine the effect of postnatal ATR and BROM on the incidence and severity of inflammation (INF) of the lateral prostate of the offspring, adult males were examined at 90 and

  17. Learning and Memory Improvement through Chemistry: Dream or Reality in the Offing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansl, Nikolaus R.; Hansl, Adele B.

    1979-01-01

    Reports on PRL-8-53, an experimental drug that will boost the chemical system in the brain called the cholinergic system and thereby improve one's ability to retrieve information from a preexisting information pool. (Author/IRT)

  18. Bulls grazing Kentucky 31 tall fescue exhibit impaired growth, semen quality, and decreased semen freezing potential

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Serum prolactin (PRL) and testosterone concentrations, body weight, body composition, semen quality, and semen freezing potential for bulls grazing the toxic tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh. ¼ Schedonorous arundinaceum [Schreb.] Dumort.) cultivar Kentucky 31 (E+) compared with a n...

  19. Correlation and comparison of Nb/sub 2/ lymphoma cell bioassay with radioimmunoassay for human prolactin

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, M.G.; Spirtos, N.J.; Moghissi, K.S.; Magyar, D.M.; Hayes, M.F.; Gala, R.R.

    1984-12-01

    Serum samples from groups of men and women with normal and elevated prolactin (PRL) levels were assayed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and by Nb/sub 2/ lymphoma cell bioassay (BA) for the presence of PRL. Because the Nb/sub 2/ lymphoma cells respond to both PRL and growth hormone, BA for PRL activity was carried out before and after neutralization of growth hormone in the serum samples. There were excellent correlations between RIA and BA both in euprolactinemic and hyperprolactinemic subjects. On an absolute basis, RIA and BA values were similar in the euprolactinemic group (6.6 +/- 0.8 versus 6.2 +/- 1.0), whereas in the hyperprolactinemic group, RIA values were significantly higher than the BA results. The two assay systems also appeared to correlate better in women who were hyperprolactinemic, with obvious menstrual cycle disturbances, than in hyperprolactinemic women without menstrual cycle disturbances.

  20. Monoclonal antibodies against methionyl recombinant human prolactin.

    PubMed

    Paris, N; Robert, R; Mercier, L

    1993-02-01

    Hybridoma cell lines producing monoclonal antibody (Mab) against recombinant human prolactin (rhPrl) were established from fusion between X63-Ag8 myeloma cells and Balb/c mice splenocytes. Four Mabs numbered I to IV were selected by ELISA, purified and characterized. All these Mabs were of the Ig1 kappa isotype and able to recognize oxidized as well as reduced rhPrl. As shown by a competitive inhibition assay, Mab IV did not compete with any of the three others. Moreover, both rhPrl and hPrl extracted from human pituitaries, were recognized equally by this Mab. Properties displayed by Mab IV make it very attractive for the evaluation of prolactin levels by sandwich immunoassays.

  1. [Hyperprolactinemia: causes, diagnosis, and treatment].

    PubMed

    Karasek, Michał; Pawlikowski, Marek; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    The basic data on hyperprolactinemia (i.e. an excess of PRL above a reference laboratory's upper limits), the most common endocrine disorder of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis are given in this review. The following issues are discussed: regulation of prolactin (Prl) secretion, definition of hyperprolactinemia, its etiology and pathogenesis as well as its symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment (including medical and surgical therapy). It should be stressed that finding of elevated PRL serum concentrations constitute the beginning of diagnostic procedure and, after exclusion of physiologic, pharmacologic, and other organic causes of increased PRL levels, should be followed by detailed diagnosis including MRI. In patients in whom hyperprolactinemia has been confirmed the treatment with dopamine agonists (with prevalence of cabergoline, followed by quinagoline) is currently considered first-choice therapy. Surgery should be performed only in the patients resistant or intolerant to these agents, or in patients who refuse long-term therapy.

  2. Changes in the nuclear uptake and retention of /sup 3/H-estrogen in gonadotrophs and lactotrophs as a function of age

    SciTech Connect

    Nogami, H.; Yoshimura, F.; Herbert, D.C.; Aufdemorte, T.B.; Gates, G.A.; Holt, G.R.; Sheridan, P.J.

    1985-07-01

    A quantitative autoradiographic immunocytochemical study was performed in which the nuclear uptake and retention of /sup 3/H-estradiol (/sup 3/H-E2) by luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) cells was examined in 19-21-year-old baboons. /sup 3/H-E2 concentrating cells were found in all of the three lobes of the pituitary in varying percentages. Approximately 80% of PRL cells and nearly 100% of LH cells were labeled. A count of the number of silver grains over nuclei revealed a marked variation of the accumulation of /sup 3/H-E2 by LH cells and to a lesser extent in PRL cells. These results suggest functional heterogeneity among LH and PRL cells. The present results are discussed in relation to the physiological state of old animals.

  3. Effect on prolactin secretion of Echinacea purpurea, hypericum perforatum and Eleutherococcus senticosus.

    PubMed

    Di Carlo, G; Pacilio, M; Capasso, R; Di Carlo, R

    2005-09-01

    It has been recently reported that prolactin (PRL) plays an important role in immune system regulation. In this study we investigated the activity of three natural drugs with immunomodulatory activity: Echinacea purpurea (EP), Hypericum perforatum (HP) and Eleutherococcus senticosus (ES) on PRL production. Male rats were orally treated with two different doses (30 and 100 mg/kg) of extract of these drugs for 3 or 15 days. A 3-day treatment was not able to modify PRL serum levels, whereas a 15-day treatment with EP and HP at the higher dose significantly inhibits PRL production. A treatment with ES was always ineffective. A possible mechanism for this effect could be that both HP and EP extracts display a direct dopaminergic activity, although an involvement of the GABA-ergic system cannot be excluded.

  4. Discovery of the improved antagonistic prolactin variants by library screening.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Gong, Wei; Breinholt, Jens; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Leif; Zhang, Jinchao; Ma, Qinhong; Chen, Jianhe; Panina, Svetlana; Guo, Wei; Li, Tengkun; Zhang, Jingyuan; Kong, Meng; Liu, Zibing; Mao, Jingjing; Christensen, Leif; Hu, Sean; Wang, Lingyun

    2011-11-01

    Prolactin (PRL), a potent growth stimulator of the mammary epithelium, has been suggested to be a factor contributing to the development and progression of breast and prostate cancer. Several PRL receptor (PRLR) antagonists have been identified in the past decades, but their in vivo growth inhibitory potency was restricted by low receptor affinity, rendering them pharmacologically unattractive for clinical treatment. Thus, higher receptor affinity is essential for the development of improved PRLR antagonistic variants with improved in vivo potency. In this study, we generated Site 1 focused protein libraries of human G129R-PRL mutants and screened for those with increased affinity to the human PRLR. By combining the mutations with enhanced affinities for PRLR, we identified a novel G129R-PRL variant with mutations at Site 1 that render nearly 50-fold increase in the antagonistic potency in vitro.

  5. Growth hormone augments superoxide anion secretion of human neutrophils by binding to the prolactin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Y K; Arkins, S; Fuh, G; Cunningham, B C; Wells, J A; Fong, S; Cronin, M J; Dantzer, R; Kelley, K W

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant human growth hormone (HuGH) and human prolactin (HuPRL), but not GH of bovine or porcine origin, prime human neutrophils for enhanced superoxide anion (O2-) secretion. Since HuGH, but not GH of other species, effectively binds to the HuPRL receptor (HuPRL-R), we used a group of HuGH variants created by site-directed mutagenesis to identify the receptor on human neutrophils responsible for HuGH priming. A monoclonal antibody (MAb) directed against the HuPRL-R completely abrogated O2- secretion by neutrophils incubated with either HuGH or HuPRL, whereas a MAb to the HuGH-R had no effect. The HuGH variant K172A/F176A, which has reduced affinity for both the HuGH-binding protein (BP) and the HuPRL-BP, was unable to prime human neutrophils. This indicates that priming is initiated by a ligand-receptor interaction, the affinity of which is near that defined for receptors for PRL and GH. Another HuGH variant, K168A/E174A, which has relatively low affinity for the HuPRL-BP but slightly increased affinity for the HuGH-BP, had much reduced ability to prime neutrophils. In contrast, HuGH variant E56D/R64M, which has a similar affinity as wild-type HuGH for the HuPRL-BP but a lower affinity for the HuGH-BP, primed neutrophils as effectively as the wild-type HuGH. Finally, binding of HuGH to the HuPRL-BP but not to the HuGH-BP has been shown to be zinc dependent, and priming of neutrophils by HuGH was also responsive to zinc. Collectively, these data directly couple the binding of HuGH to the HuPRL-R with one aspect of functional activation of human target cells. Images PMID:1310696

  6. Role of abnormal anterior pituitary hormones-growth hormone and prolactin in active systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaohua; Xu, Jinhua; Li, Shujuan; Huang, Wen; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of anterior pituitary hormones in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remains controversial. Aims and Objectives: We determined the expression levels of human growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and their receptors in subjects presenting with SLE, and modulation of disease severity. Materials and methods: Forty-seven subjects and ten healthy controls were assessed for possible association between SLE disease activity and levels of serum PRL, GH and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), specific binding and mRNA expression of receptors for GH (GHR), and PRL (PRLR) were determined by receptor-ligand binding assay (RLBA) and RT-PCR. PBMC of recruited subjects were treated with hPRL and rhGH to assess IgG production and antibodies against dsDNA. Results: In active SLE subjects we found elevated PRL and GH levels. Study subject PBMCs displayed augmented GHR and PRLR protein and mRNA expression. Study subjects also showed a positive correlation in serum PRL levels and specific antibodies against dsDNA, SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), and proteinuria. However, a negative correlation was found between serum PRL levels and complement component C3. We found a positive correlation between specific binding rates of PRLR and GHR and both SLE activity and dsDNA antibody titers. Enhanced IgG and anti-dsDNA secretion was observed in cultured PBMC stimulated by PRL or GH with/without PHA, PWM, IL-2 or IL-10. In active SLE, a close association was found between augmented PRL and GH levels, expression and specific binding activities of PRLR and GHR, and changes in the specific titer of anti-dsDNA. Conclusion: Anterior pituitary hormones play an important role in the pathogenesis of SLE. High levels of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) play a role in pathogenesis of SLE, which is correlated with SLE disease activity and antibodies against dsDNA. The mechanism of GH and PRL in SLE was complicated and should

  7. Growth hormone and prolactin responses to bolus and sustained infusions of GRH-1-40-OH in man.

    PubMed

    Goldman, J A; Molitch, M E; Thorner, M O; Vale, W; Rivier, J; Reichlin, S

    1987-08-01

    To determine whether GRH stimulates PRL secretion we studied the effects of iv bolus injections and prolonged infusions of GRH 1-40-OH on PRL and GH serum levels in normal volunteers. Eight patients with acromegaly, two of whom had elevated basal levels of PRL, were also tested with single bolus injections. Six normal subjects given 3.3 micrograms/kg bolus injections of GRH showed a mean increment of GH of 22.0 +/- 1.7 ng/ml (mean +/- SE). A small rise in PRL was noted in 5 of the 6 subjects (mean peak level of 6.4 +/- 1.9 ng/ml vs basal level of 3.3 +/- 0.4 ng/ml, p less than 0.05). During the continuous intusion of GRH (10 ng/kg/min), GH levels rose gradually from a mean baseline of 1.1 +/- 0.1 ng/ml to a mean peak of 30.0 +/- 7.2 ng/ml at about 2 h and then slowly declined to a nadir of 4.2 +/- 0.4 ng/ml at 330 min. PRL levels did not rise significantly during the infusion. To determine whether the decline in GH levels in the face of continued infusion was due to loss of GH responsiveness, a 3.3 micrograms/kg bolus of GRH was given during the nadir at 330 min; this GH increment was significantly less than that obtained by the GRH bolus injection without the infusion (12.9 +/- 3.5 ng/ml vs 22.0 +/- 1.7 ng/ml, p less than 0.05). The PRL response to the GRH bolus was the same during the infusion of GRH as before. In each of 8 acromegalic patients (including two who had initially elevated basal PRL levels) GRH led to an increase in both GH and PRL levels. PRL and GH levels spontaneously fluctuated in parallel in 4 acromegalic cases studied with repeated samples over 6 h during placebo administration. These experiments show that GRH has significant, though weak, PRF effect in normals and that it is more potent PRF in acromegalic patients. Furthermore, the effects on GH and PRL of a sustained infusion of GRH for 5 1/2 h are both qualitatively and quantitatively different. These results suggest that the GRH effect is exerted either on different pituitary receptors for

  8. Immunohistochemical detection of glycoprotein hormone alpha subunit in somatoprolactinic and pure somatotroph adenomas.

    PubMed

    Vantyghem, M C; Cortet, C; Bauters, C; Gevaert, M H; Dewailly, D; Lefebvre, J; Mazzucca, M

    1998-01-01

    Glycoprotein hormone alpha subunit (alpha SU) is expressed in nearly all thyreotroph adenomas and most gonadotrophinomas, but is less well documented in plurisecreting adenomas. We therefore examined the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of alpha SU in a generally accepted model of plurisecreting adenomas (somatoprolactinic type) by comparison to a series of pure monosecreting somatotroph tumors. Fifty patients (32 females, 18 males) aged 15 to 68 years with clinical and/or biological acromegaly requiring adenomectomy were studied. Forty-five had clinical acromegaly and 5 had isolated amenorrhea and/or galactorrhea syndromes. Forty-eight of the 49 patients who had baseline assessments of plasma GH had a mean concentration of 5 ng/ml or more (normal value < 5). Fifteen of the 46 patients who had baseline measurements of plasma PRL had a prolactinemia value greater than 20 ng/ml (normal value < 20) but below 100 ng/ml, except for one patient. All the adenomas studied were positive by GH immunohistochemistry; 21 were immunostained by an antiPRL antibody and formed the "somatoprolactinic" (GH-PRL) group. Five of these 21 patients were male. The 12 female patients younger than 50 years had amenorrhea or galactorrhea, and one male patient complained of impotence. Eleven patients (9 females, 2 males) in this GH-PRL group had hyperprolactinemia. Sixteen of these GH-PRL adenomas were immunolabeled by alpha SU antiserum. The remaining 29 adenomas, which were immunonegative with the PRL antibody and formed the "somatotroph adenoma" (GH) group, were more frequent in male patients (13/29; 45%) compared to GH-PRL group. Eight amenorrhea or galactorrhea syndromes occurred among the 14 women younger than 50 years, 3 of whom had hyperprolactinemia. Thirteen of these 29 adenomas (45%) were immunopositive with alpha SU antibody. Compared to the GH group, the GH-PRL group had a significant higher frequency of amenorrhea and/or galactorrhea syndromes among women under 50 years (100

  9. Maternal prolactin secretion during labor. The role of dopamine.

    PubMed

    Stefos, T; Sotiriadis, A; Tsirkas, P; Messinis, I; Lolis, D

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the role of dopamine on the mechanisms of maternal prolactin secretion during labor and in the first six hours following delivery. The study included 30 pregnant women with normal pregnancies, who were meeting the same criteria. They were divided into three subgroups of 10 patients each and they delivered healthy newborns. Group A was the control group. Metoclopramide 10 mg/h intravenously was given in Group B, while bromocryptine 5 mg per os was given in Group C. Maternal blood samples were obtained every hour during labor and in the six hours postpartum. Prolactin values were determined by using a radioimmunoassay method. Metoclopramide infusion caused an initial significant (p<0.01) rise in PRL level in Group B. Prolactin levels showed the same multiphasic pattern during labor and first h postpartum in both Groups A and B. PRL levels decreased until 1-2 h antepartum, then increased for about 3 h and they finally decreased, starting at 2 h postpartum and reaching values lower than the basic at 6 h postpartum. However, absolute PRL values were higher in Group B (where metoclopramide was given) than in Group A, in every time point. Bromocryptine (Group C) markedly lowered PRL levels, but PRL fluctuation still followed the same trends as in the other two groups. The different PRL values between the three groups show that maternal PRL is still under dopaminergic influence during labor. However, the fact that PRL levels exhibit the same multiphasic pattern, suggests that there are factors other than dopamine, which strongly influence this pattern.

  10. Dynamic responses of prolactin, growth hormone and their receptors to hyposmotic acclimation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Mingzhe; Jia, Qianqian; Wang, Ting; Lu, Qi; Tang, Langlang; Wang, Youji; Lu, Weiqun

    2017-09-18

    Prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) play important roles in regulating salt and water balance through osmoregulatory organs in vertebrates. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamic changes of GH/PRL hormone gene expressions in the pituitary gland and their receptors in gill and kidney, as well as the plasma osmolality when the olive flounder fish Paralichthys olivaceus were acclimated in freshwater (FW) conditions. After transfer from seawater (SW) to freshwater (FW), the osmolality of FW-adaption fish reached the lowest level at 1d which rose slightly afterwards. However, the hormone gene expression of PRL increased from 2d, reaching its peak at 5d, and then decreased at 14d. At this time, the value was still significantly higher than the control, showing a similar trend to the plasma hormone PRL. In contrast, the pituitary mRNA level of GH significantly decreased at 1d and then returned to normal levels. The mRNA levels of PRL receptor (PRLR) in both gill and kidney displayed a similar trend to the pituitary PRL. We also observed the synchronous expression trend of the renal PRLR with pituitary PRL (5d) and the asynchronous expression peaks between branchial (8d) and renal PRLR (5d). Significant responses of GH and its receptor (GHR) in both gill and kidney during the FW-acclimation were not observed. Nevertheless, the gene expression of GH receptor variant (GHR-V) in both gill and kidney declined at 2d, indicating unknown osmoregulatory functions of GHR-V. Collectively, our results provided more insights of the PRL, GH and their corresponding receptors in modulating osmoregulatory responses, representing an important aspect of FW-acclimation in flounder fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Glucocorticoids repress transcription from a negative glucocorticoid response element recognized by two homeodomain-containing proteins, Pbx and Oct-1.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, N; Cairns, W; Okret, S

    1998-09-04

    Several studies have established that the prolactin (PRL) gene is expressed not only in lactotrophs and somatotrophs of the anterior pituitary but, albeit to a lesser extent, in non-pituitary cells like human thymocytes, decidualized endometrium, mammary glands during lactation, and some human non-pituitary cell lines. Despite the requirement in the pituitary for the pituitary-specific transcription factor Pit-1/GHF-1 for PRL expression, the expression in non-pituitary cells occurs in the absence of Pit-1/GHF-1 and can be repressed by glucocorticoids. This prompted us to investigate the transcription factors in non-pituitary cells which are involved in controlling expression and glucocorticoid repression of a previously characterized negative glucocorticoid response element from the bovine prolactin gene (PRL3 nGRE). Here we have demonstrated that non-pituitary cells (COS-7 and mouse hepatoma Hepa1c1c7 cells) conferred increased expression via the PRL3 nGRE mainly because of the binding of the ubiquitously expressed POU-homeodomain-containing octamer transcription factor-1 (Oct-1) to an AT-rich sequence present in the PRL3 sequence. However, full transcriptional activity required the binding of a second ubiquitously expressed homeodomain-containing protein, Pbx, previously shown to bind cooperatively with several homeotic selector proteins. The Pbx binding site in the PRL3 nGRE, located just upstream of the Oct-1 binding site, showed a strong sequence similarity with known Pbx binding sites and bound Pbx with an affinity similar to that of other established Pbx target sequences. Interestingly, both Oct-1 and Pbx binding to the PRL3 nGRE were found to be required for glucocorticoid repression. Addition of in vitro translated glucocorticoid receptor DNA binding domain to the nuclear extract prevented Oct-1 and Pbx from binding to the PRL element. The involvement of the homeobox protein Pbx in glucocorticoid repression via an nGRE identifies a new role for this

  12. Alpha-Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors Modulate Kisspeptin Effects on Prolactin: Role in Estradiol-Induced Prolactin Surge in Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Nayara S S; Araujo-Lopes, Roberta; Henriques, Patricia C; Lopes, Felipe E F; Gusmao, Daniela O; Coimbra, Candido C; Franci, Celso R; Reis, Adelina M; Szawka, Raphael E

    2017-04-06

    Kisspeptin regulates prolactin (PRL) in an estradiol-dependent manner. We investigated the interaction between ovarian-steroid receptors and kisspeptin in the control of PRL secretion. Intracerebroventricular injections of kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10) or kisspeptin-234 (Kp-234) were performed in ovariectomized (OVX) rats under different hormonal treatments. Kp-10 increased PRL release and decreased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacet acid (DOPAC) levels in the median eminence (ME) of OVX rats treated with estradiol (OVX+E), which was prevented by tamoxifen. Whereas these effects of Kp-10 were absent in OVX rats, they were replicated in OVX rats treated with selective agonist of estrogen receptor (ER)α, propylpyrazole triol (PPT), but not of ERβ, diarylpropionitrile (DPN). Furthermore, the Kp-10-induced increase in PRL was 2-fold higher in OVX+E rats further treated with progesterone (OVX+EP), which was associated with a reduced expression of both tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and Ser40-phosphorylated TH in the ME. Kp-10 also reduced dopamine levels in the ME of OVX+EP rats, an effect blocked by the progesterone receptor (PR) antagonist, RU486. We also determined the effect of kisspeptin antagonism with Kp-234 on the estradiol-induced surges of PRL and luteinizing hormone (LH), using tail-tip blood sampling combined with ultrasensitive ELISA. Kp-234 impaired the early phase of the PRL surge and prevented the LH surge in OVX+E rats. Thus, we provide evidence for the first time that kisspeptin stimulation of PRL release requires ERα and is potentiated by progesterone via PR activation. Moreover, alongside its essential role in the LH surge, kisspeptin seems to play a role in the peak phase of the estradiol-induced PRL surge.

  13. PAK1 translocates into nucleus in response to prolactin but not to estrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Oladimeji, Peter Diakonova, Maria

    2016-04-22

    Tyrosyl phosphorylation of the p21-activated serine–threonine kinase 1 (PAK1) has an essential role in regulating PAK1 functions in breast cancer cells. We previously demonstrated that PAK1 serves as a common node for estrogen (E2)- and prolactin (PRL)-dependent pathways. We hypothesize herein that intracellular localization of PAK1 is affected by PRL and E2 treatments differently. We demonstrate by immunocytochemical analysis that PAK1 nuclear translocation is ligand-dependent: only PRL but not E2 stimulated PAK1 nuclear translocation. Tyrosyl phosphorylation of PAK1 is essential for this nuclear translocation because phospho-tyrosyl-deficient PAK1 Y3F mutant is retained in the cytoplasm in response to PRL. We confirmed these data by Western blot analysis of subcellular fractions. In 30 min of PRL treatment, only 48% of pTyr-PAK1 is retained in the cytoplasm of PAK1 WT clone while 52% re-distributes into the nucleus and pTyr-PAK1 shuttles back to the cytoplasm by 60 min of PRL treatment. In contrast, PAK1 Y3F is retained in the cytoplasm. E2 treatment causes nuclear translocation of neither PAK1 WT nor PAK1 Y3F. Finally, we show by an in vitro kinase assay that PRL but not E2 stimulates PAK1 kinase activity in the nuclear fraction. Thus, PAK1 nuclear translocation is ligand-dependent: PRL activates PAK1 and induces translocation of activated pTyr-PAK1 into nucleus while E2 activates pTyr-PAK1 only in the cytoplasm. - Highlights: • Prolactin but not estrogen causes translocation of PAK1 into nucleus. • Tyrosyl phosphorylation of PAK1 is required for nuclear localization. • Prolactin but not estrogen stimulates PAK1 kinase activity in nucleus.

  14. Immunological properties of prolactin and studies on a gonadotropin binding inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.S.

    1985-01-01

    The physiological role of prolactin in horses has not yet been well defined. With the availability of highly purified ePRL for inducing antibody formation in rabbits and for radiolabeling with Na/sup 125/I, a very sensitive (0.4-0.6 ng/ml) and highly specific homologous RIA for ePRL was developed. A heterologous RIA using /sup 125/I-labeled ovine PRL and anti-ePRL antiserum was also developed and compared to the homologous RIA for ePRL. Of the two systems, it is concluded that this homologous RIA system is more suitable and more reliable for measuring prolactin concentration in horse serum samples. Until now, biochemical information on PRL has not been available for reptilian species. Sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) prolactin was purified from pituitary extracts by selective precipitation, DEAE-cellulose chromatography and gel filtration. Similar to other species of PRL, sea turtle PRL is a 22,000-24,000 daltons protein and contains a high content of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, serine and leucine, the N-terminal amino acid residue. Gonadotropin (FSH) binding inhibitor was partially purified from sheep testes by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion exchange chromatography. The FSH-BI (molecular weight: 50,000 daltons, estimated by gel filtration) contains a protein moiety necessary for binding inhibitory activity. The inhibition of the binding of /sup 125/I-labeled ovine FSH to its receptor by the FSH-BI is not competitive. Both in vivo and in vitro biological studies of FSH-BI preparations in rats indicated various effects on FSH and LH activities at the gonadal level. These findings suggest a physiological role for FSH-BI in the regulation of reproduction.

  15. Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics in the Multicanonical Ensemble: Connections between Wang-Landau Sampling and Metadynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Thomas; Perez, Danny; Junghans, Christoph

    2014-03-01

    We show direct formal relationships between the Wang-Landau iteration [PRL 86, 2050 (2001)], metadynamics [PNAS 99, 12562 (2002)] and statistical temperature molecular dynamics [PRL 97, 050601 (2006)], the major Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics work horses for sampling from a generalized, multicanonical ensemble. We aim at helping to consolidate the developments in the different areas by indicating how methodological advancements can be transferred in a straightforward way, avoiding the parallel, largely independent, developments tracks observed in the past.

  16. Salsolinol is present in the bovine posterior pituitary gland and stimulates the release of prolactin both in vivo and in vitro in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, T; Shida, R; Suzuki, S; Nonaka, S; Yonezawa, C; Yamashita, T; Kasuya, E; Sutoh, M; Oláh, M; Székács, D; Nagy, G M

    2008-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine whether salsolinol (SAL), a dopamine-related compound, is present in the bovine posterior pituitary (PP) gland, and to clarify the effect of SAL on the secretion of prolactin (PRL) in ruminants. SAL was detected in extract of bovine PP gland using high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC). A single intravenous (i.v.) injection of SAL (5 and 10mg/kg body weight) significantly and dose-dependently stimulated the release of PRL in goats (P<0.05). Plasma PRL levels reached a peak 10min after the injection, then gradually returned to basal values in 60-80min. The PRL-releasing pattern was similar to that in response to sulpiride (a dopamine receptor antagonist). The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of 1mg of SAL had no significant effect on the release of PRL in calves, however, 5mg significantly stimulated the release (P<0.05) with peak values reached 30-40min after the injection. Moreover, SAL significantly stimulated the release of PRL from cultured bovine anterior pituitary cells at doses of 10(-6) and 10(-5)M, compared to control cells (P<0.05). Taken together, our data clearly show that SAL is present in extract of the PP gland of ruminants, and has PRL-releasing activity both in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, this endogenous compound is a strong candidate for the factor having PRL-releasing activity that has been previously detected in extract of the bovine PP gland.

  17. STAT3 activation is required for the antiapoptotic effects of prolactin in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ramírez de Arellano, Adrián; Lopez-Pulido, Edgar I; Martínez-Neri, Priscila A; Estrada Chávez, Ciro; González Lucano, Renee; Fafutis-Morris, Mary; Aguilar-Lemarroy, A; Muñoz-Valle, José F; Pereira-Suárez, Ana Laura

    2015-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) has been implicated in the development of different types of cancer. However, signaling pathways might be activated depending on various forms of prolactin receptor (PRLR). JAK/STAT is an important pathway associated with PRL effects. The activation of JAK/STAT pathway might activate antiapoptotic genes that could importantly lead to progression of tumorigenesis. Recently, we have reported that PRL is associated with cell survival by inhibition of apoptosis and the precise activated signaling pathways for this process are still questioned. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activation of different signaling pathways in response to PRL as well as to identify the induction of antiapoptotic genes. Cervical cancer cell lines HeLa, SiHa and C-33 A were stimulated with PRL (200 ng/mL) for 30 and 60 min and non stimulated cells were used to measure basal protein expression. Inhibition assays were performed by using Jak2 specific inhibitor AG490, either alone or in combination with PRL for 48 h. Western blot were carried out to evaluate protein induction of the different signaling pathways and antiapoptotic proteins. Significant effects were determined by using ANOVA test. STAT3 was significantly activated in cervical cancer lines in comparison with non-tumorigenic keratinocytes HaCaT. No significant differences were found when analyzing MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways. An increase of antiapoptotic genes Bcl-xl, Bcl-2, survivin and Mcl-1 was observed after stimulus with PRL; however, after inhibition with AG490, the induction of antiapoptotic genes was decreased. Our data suggests that STAT3 is an important signaling pathway activated by PRL in cervical cancer cells and it modulates the induction of antiapoptotic genes. Blocking STAT3 could represent a possible therapeutic strategy in cervical cancer.

  18. Trypanosoma cruzi Disrupts Thymic Homeostasis by Altering Intrathymic and Systemic Stress-Related Endocrine Circuitries

    PubMed Central

    Lepletier, Ailin; de Carvalho, Vinicius Frias; e Silva, Patricia Machado Rodrigues; Villar, Silvina; Pérez, Ana Rosa; Savino, Wilson; Morrot, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that experimental infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is associated with changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. Increased glucocorticoid (GC) levels are believed to be protective against the effects of acute stress during infection but result in depletion of CD4+CD8+ thymocytes by apoptosis, driving to thymic atrophy. However, very few data are available concerning prolactin (PRL), another stress-related hormone, which seems to be decreased during T. cruzi infection. Considering the immunomodulatory role of PRL upon the effects caused by GC, we investigated if intrathymic cross-talk between GC and PRL receptors (GR and PRLR, respectively) might influence T. cruzi-induced thymic atrophy. Using an acute experimental model, we observed changes in GR/PRLR cross-activation related with the survival of CD4+CD8+ thymocytes during infection. These alterations were closely related with systemic changes, characterized by a stress hormone imbalance, with progressive GC augmentation simultaneously to PRL reduction. The intrathymic hormone circuitry exhibited an inverse modulation that seemed to counteract the GC-related systemic deleterious effects. During infection, adrenalectomy protected the thymus from the increase in apoptosis ratio without changing PRL levels, whereas an additional inhibition of circulating PRL accelerated the thymic atrophy and led to an increase in corticosterone systemic levels. These results demonstrate that the PRL impairment during infection is not caused by the increase of corticosterone levels, but the opposite seems to occur. Accordingly, metoclopramide (MET)-induced enhancement of PRL secretion protected thymic atrophy in acutely infected animals as well as the abnormal export of immature and potentially autoreactive CD4+CD8+ thymocytes to the periphery. In conclusion, our findings clearly show that Trypanosoma cruzi subverts mouse thymus homeostasis by altering intrathymic and systemic stress

  19. Prolactin Receptor Coupling to Jak-Stat Pathways in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    PRL) signaling through the Jak2-Stat5 pathway has been well characterized and implicated for the normal growth , development, and differentiation of...Gordon Research Conference on Prolactin and Growth Hormone Family, Ventura CA, January 29-February 3, 2006. Poster Neilson LM, Zhu J, Xie J...Stat3 pathways on Jak1 raises the possibility that Jak1 represents a new and conditional branching point of the PRL receptor signaling network that

  20. Prolactin and Human Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    Edery, Nadine Binart, and Paul A. Kelly. Prolactin (PRL) and its receptor: Actions, Signal transduction pathways and Phenotypes Observed in PRL receptor...development and tumorigenesis. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 2001, 6:115– 127 6. JF Trott , RC Hovey, S Koduri, and BK Vonderhaar. Alternative...Jean-Baptiste Jomain and Paul A. Kelly. Development of Prolactin Receptor Antagonists: Same Goal, Different Ways. Recent Patents on Endocrine

  1. Defective prolactin signaling impairs pancreatic β-cell development during the perinatal period

    PubMed Central

    Auffret, Julien; Freemark, Michael; Carré, Nadège; Mathieu, Yves; Tourrel-Cuzin, Cécile; Lombès, Marc; Movassat, Jamileh

    2013-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) and placental lactogens stimulate β-cell replication and insulin production in pancreatic islets and insulinoma cells through binding to the PRL receptor (PRLR). However, the contribution of PRLR signaling to β-cell ontogeny and function in perinatal life and the effects of the lactogens on adaptive islet growth are poorly understood. We provide evidence that expansion of β-cell mass during both embryogenesis and the postnatal period is impaired in the PRLR−/− mouse model. PRLR−/− newborns display a 30% reduction of β-cell mass, consistent with reduced proliferation index at E18.5. PRL stimulates leucine incorporation and S6 kinase phosphorylation in INS-1 cells, supporting a role for β-cell mTOR signaling in PRL action. Interestingly, a defect in the development of acini is also observed in absence of PRLR signaling, with a sharp decline in cellular size in both endocrine and exocrine compartments. Of note, a decrease in levels of IGF-II, a PRL target, in the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat, a spontaneous model of type 2 diabetes, is associated with a lack of PRL-mediated β-cell proliferation in embryonic pancreatic buds. Reduced pancreatic IGF-II expression in both rat and mouse models suggests that this factor may constitute a molecular link between PRL signaling and cell ontogenesis. Together, these results provide evidence that PRL signaling is essential for pancreas ontogenesis during the critical perinatal window responsible for establishing functional β-cell reserve. PMID:24064341

  2. Prolactin Signaling Stimulates Invasion via Na(+)/H(+) Exchanger NHE1 in T47D Human Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Pedraz-Cuesta, Elena; Fredsted, Jacob; Jensen, Helene H; Bornebusch, Annika; Nejsum, Lene N; Kragelund, Birthe B; Pedersen, Stine F

    2016-07-01

    Prolactin (PRL) and its receptor (PRLR) are implicated in breast cancer invasiveness, although their exact roles remain controversial. The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE1) plays essential roles in cancer cell motility and invasiveness, but the PRLR and NHE1 have not previously been linked. Here we show that in T47D human breast cancer cells, which express high levels of PRLR and NHE1, exposure to PRL led to the activation of Janus kinase-2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription-5 (STAT5), Akt, and ERK1/2 signaling and the rapid formation of peripheral membrane ruffles, known to be associated with cell motility. NHE1 was present in small ruffles prior to PRL treatment and was further recruited to the larger, more dynamic ruffles induced by PRL exposure. In PRL-induced ruffles, NHE1 colocalized with activated Akt, ERK1/2, and the ERK effector p90Ribosomal S kinase (p90RSK), known regulators of NHE1 activity. Stimulation of T47D cells with PRL augmented p90RSK activation, Ser703-phosphorylation of NHE1, NHE1-dependent intracellular pH recovery, pericellular acidification, and NHE1-dependent invasiveness. NHE1 activity and localization to ruffles were attenuated by the inhibition of Akt and/or ERK1/2. In contrast, noncancerous MCF10A breast epithelial cells expressed NHE1 and PRLR at lower levels than T47D cells, and their stimulation with PRL induced neither NHE1 activation nor NHE1-dependent invasiveness. In conclusion, we show for the first time that PRLR activation stimulates breast cancer cell invasiveness via the activation of NHE1. We propose that PRL-induced NHE1 activation and the resulting NHE1-dependent invasiveness may contribute to the metastatic behavior of human breast cancer cells.

  3. Kisspeptin regulates tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurones and prolactin secretion in an oestradiol-dependent manner in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, A B; Leite, C M; Kalil, B; Franci, C R; Anselmo-Franci, J A; Szawka, R E

    2015-02-01

    Prolactin (PRL) secretion is inhibited by hypothalamic dopamine. Kisspeptin controls luteinising hormone (LH) secretion and is also involved in PRL regulation. We further investigated the effect of kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10) on the activity of tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurones and the role of oestradiol (E2 ) in this mechanism. Female and male rats were injected with i.c.v. Kp-10 and evaluated for PRL release and the activity of dopamine terminals in the median eminence (ME) and neurointermediate lobe of the pituitary (NIL). Kp-10 at the doses of 0.6 and 3 nmol increased plasma PRL and decreased 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels in the ME and NIL of ovariectomised (OVX), E2 -treated rats but had no effect in OVX. In gonad-intact males, 3 nmol Kp-10 increased PRL secretion and decreased DOPAC levels in the ME but not in the NIL. Castrated males treated with either testosterone or E2 also displayed increased PRL secretion and reduced ME DOPAC in response to Kp-10, whereas castrated rats receiving oil or dihydrotestosterone were unresponsive. By contrast, the LH response to Kp-10 was not E2 -dependent in either females or males. Additionally, immunohistochemical double-labelling demonstrated that TIDA neurones of male rats contain oestrogen receptor (ER)-α, with a higher proportion of neurones expressing ERα than in dioestrous females. The dopaminergic neurones of periventricular hypothalamic nucleus displayed much lower ERα expression. Thus, TIDA neurones express ERα in male and female rats, and kisspeptin increases PRL secretion through inhibition of TIDA neurones in an E2 -dependent manner in both sexes. These findings provide new evidence about the role of kisspeptin in the regulation of dopamine and PRL. © 2014 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  4. Comparing the fixational and functional preferred retinal location in a pointing task.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Brian; Walker, Laura

    2015-11-01

    Patients with central vision loss (CVL) typically adopt eccentric viewing strategies using a preferred retinal locus (PRL) in peripheral retina. Clinically, the PRL is defined monocularly as the area of peripheral retina used to fixate small stimuli. It is not clear if this fixational PRL describes the same portion of peripheral retina used during dynamic binocular eye-hand coordination tasks. We studied this question with four participants each with a unique CVL history. Using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope, we measured participants' monocular visual fields and the location and stability of their fixational PRLs. Participants' monocular and binocular visual fields were also evaluated using a computer monitor and eye tracker. Lastly, eye-hand coordination was tested over several trials where participants pointed to and touched a small target on a touchscreen monitor. Trials were blocked and carried out monocularly and binocularly, with a target appearing at 5° or 15° from screen center, in one of 8 locations. During pointing, our participants often exhibited long movement durations, an increased number of eye movements and impaired accuracy, especially in monocular conditions. However, these compensatory changes in behavior did not consistently worsen when loci beyond the fixational PRL were used. While fixational PRL size, location and fixation stability provide a necessary description of behavior, they are not sufficient to capture the pointing PRL used in this task. Generally, patients use a larger portion of peripheral retina than one might expect from measures of the fixational PRL alone, when pointing to a salient target without time constraints. While the fixational and pointing PRLs often overlap, the fixational PRL does not predict the large area of peripheral retina that can be used.

  5. Antagonism of Taxol Cytotoxicity by Prolactin: Implication for Patient Resistance to Chemotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    NMR require large amounts of highly pu- rified proteins, bacterial expression systems , which do not undergo posttranslational modifications, are used...in mice and humans. A more detailed coverage of the control of PRL release is found in several reviews (142–145). 1. The dopaminergic systems . As...shown in Fig. 5, PRL release in rats is regulated by three hypothalamic dopaminergic neuronal systems , the TIDA (tuberoinfundibular), THDA

  6. fMRI with Central Vision Loss: Effects of Fixation Locus and Stimulus Type.

    PubMed

    Plank, Tina; Frolo, Jozef; Brandl-Rühle, Sabine; Renner, Agnes B; Jägle, Herbert; Greenlee, Mark W

    2017-03-01

    In patients with central visual field scotomata, a large part of visual cortex is not adequately stimulated. Patients often use a new eccentric fixation area on intact peripheral retina ("preferred retinal locus"-PRL) that functions as a pseudo-fovea. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine whether stimulating this pseudo-fovea leads to increased activation or altered activation patterns in visual cortex in comparison to stimulating a comparable peripheral area in the opposite hemifield (OppPRL). Nineteen patients with binocular central scotomata caused by hereditary retinal dystrophies and an age-matched control group were tested. The center of the visual field, PRL, and OppPRL were stimulated with flickering checkerboard stimuli and object pictures during fMRI measurement. Results show that stimulation with pictures of everyday objects led to overall larger BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent) responses in visual cortex compared to that evoked by stimulation with flickering checkerboards. Patients showed this enhancement as early as in V1. When the PRL was directly stimulated with object pictures, the central representation area in early visual cortex was coactivated in the patients but not in the controls. In higher visual areas beyond retinotopic cortex, BOLD responses to stimulation of the PRL with object pictures were significantly enhanced in comparison to stimulation of the OppPRL area. Highly stable eccentric fixation with the PRL was associated with a higher BOLD signal in visual cortex in patients, and this effect was most pronounced in the conditions with object picture stimulation. The observed results suggest that naturalistic images are more likely to trigger top-down processes that regulate activation in early visual cortex in patients with central vision loss.

  7. Prolactin is a major inhibitor of hepatic Leptin A synthesis and secretion: studies utilizing a homologous Leptin A ELISA in the tilapia.

    PubMed

    Douros, Jonathan D; Baltzegar, David A; Breves, Jason P; Lerner, Darren T; Seale, Andre P; Gordon Grau, E; Borski, Russell J

    2014-10-01

    The present study identifies regulatory interactions between leptin A (LepA) and the pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL). In order to measure tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) LepA, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) utilizing a rabbit polyclonal antibody specific to tilapia LepA was first developed. The antibody shows strong cross reactivity to recombinant tilapia LepA (rtLepA), and a corresponding 16kDa protein in both tilapia and striped bass plasma, but not to recombinant human leptin (rhLep). The assay has a linear detection range of 0.25-1000nM, with intra- and interassay variability of 9% and 16%, respectively. Plasma LepA levels measured in tilapia ranged from 0.8 to 3.9nM, similar to that found for other vertebrates. Hypophysectomy (Hx) increased circulating LepA and lepa mRNA levels in the liver, the dominant source of hormone production. Adminstration of ovine PRL (oPRL, 5μg/g BW) to Hx fish restored circulating LepA and hepatic lepa mRNA levels to those of control fish. Additionally, oPRL reduced lepa mRNA levels in a dose-dependent fashion in cultured hepatocytes following an 18h incubation. Previous work in our lab indicates that rhLep stimulates PRL release in vitro from tilapia pituitaries. Here, both rtLepA and rhLep (0.5μg/g BW) increased mRNA expression of tilapia prolactin mRNAs (prl1, prl2) in the pituitary in vivo. These results demonstrate that LepA enhances pituitary prolactin synthesis and release, while PRL in turn inhibits hepatic leptin secretion and synthesis in teleosts. We postulate this regulatory interaction may be necessary for mobilizing energy reserves during acute hyperosmotic adaptation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparing the fixational and functional preferred retinal location in a pointing task

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Brian; Walker, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Patients with central vision loss (CVL) typically adopt eccentric viewing strategies using a preferred retinal locus (PRL) in peripheral retina. Clinically, the PRL is defined monocularly as the area of peripheral retina used to fixate small stimuli. It is not clear if this fixational PRL describes the same portion of peripheral retina used during dynamic binocular eye-hand coordination tasks. We studied this question with four participants each with a unique CVL history. Using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope, we measured participants’ monocular visual fields and the location and stability of their fixational PRLs. Participants’ monocular and binocular visual fields were also evaluated using a computer monitor and eye tracker. Lastly, eye-hand coordination was tested over several trials where participants pointed to and touched a small target on a touchscreen monitor. Trials were blocked and carried out monocularly and binocularly, with a target appearing at 5° or 15° from screen center, in one of 8 locations. During pointing, our participants often exhibited long movement durations, an increased number of eye movements and impaired accuracy, especially in monocular conditions. However, these compensatory changes in behavior did not consistently worsen when loci beyond the fixational PRL were used. While fixational PRL size, location and fixation stability provide a necessary description of behavior, they are not sufficient to capture the pointing PRL used in this task. Generally, patients use a larger portion of peripheral retina than one might expect from measures of the fixational PRL alone, when pointing to a salient target without time constraints. While the fixational and pointing PRLs often overlap, the fixational PRL does not predict the large area of peripheral retina that can be used. PMID:26440864

  9. Reproductive experience reduces circulating 17beta-estradiol and prolactin levels during proestrus and alters estrogen sensitivity in female rats.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Robert S; Byrnes, Elizabeth M

    2006-05-01

    The reproductive experiences of pregnancy, parturition, and lactation affect a range of neural and endocrine processes after the end of lactation. In women, previous parity results in reduced circulating prolactin (PRL) and androgen levels years after giving birth. Reductions in PRL secretion also occur in reproductively experienced, female rats. In the present study we examined the status and regulation of estradiol (E(2)) and PRL during the reproductive cycle after reproductive experience. These hormones regulate one another and have been implicated in a number of disease and aging processes. Using a rat model, the patterns of E(2) and PRL secretion, pituitary PRL content, and estrogen receptor alpha expression were characterized from 1200-1800 h on proestrus in age-matched, primiparous and nulliparous animals. The possible effect of parity on estrogen sensitivity was then examined by challenging nonlactating, ovariectomized, age-matched, multiparous and nulliparous rats with estradiol benzoate (EB; 0, 1, 5, 25, and 125 microg/kg) and measuring PRL responses 24 and 48 h later. Previous parity resulted in modest, yet significant, reductions in E(2) and PRL levels on proestrus, a limited increase in pituitary estrogen receptor alpha expression, and a significant shift in estrogen sensitivity, as measured by EB-induced PRL secretion. Nulliparous animals were more sensitive than multiparous rats to the two lower doses of EB, whereas multiparous animals were more responsive to the highest EB dose. These unique parity-induced alterations in the female's endocrine state that persist beyond lactation may impact a multitude of estrogen-mediated processes over the female's adult life span.

  10. Circulating angiogenic factors and urinary prolactin as predictors of adverse outcomes in women with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Leaños-Miranda, Alfredo; Campos-Galicia, Inova; Ramírez-Valenzuela, Karla Leticia; Chinolla-Arellano, Zarela Lizbeth; Isordia-Salas, Irma

    2013-05-01

    Preeclampsia is characterized by an imbalance in angiogenic factors. Urinary prolactin (PRL) levels and its antiangiogenic PRL fragments have been associated with disease severity. In this study, we assessed whether these biomarkers are associated with an increased risk of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes in preeclamptic women. We studied 501 women with preeclampsia attended at a tertiary care hospital. Serum concentrations of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), placental growth factor (PlGF), and soluble endoglin (sEng), as well as urinary PRL levels, were measured by enzymed-linked immunosorbent assay. Antiangiogenic PRL fragments were determined by immunoblotting. The risk for any adverse maternal outcome and for having a small-for-gestational-age infant was higher among women with sFlt-1/PlGF ratios, sEng, and urinary PRL level values in the highest quartile (odds ratios ≥ 2.7), compared with the lowest quartile. Both urinary PRL levels and the presence of antiangiogenic PRL fragments were more closely associated with the risk of specific adverse maternal outcomes (placental abruption, hepatic hematoma or rupture, acute renal failure, pulmonary edema, maternal death, and need for endotracheal intubation, positive inotropic drug support, and hemodialysis; odds ratios ≥ 5.7 and ≥ 4.7, respectively) than either sFlt-1/PlGF ratio or sEng alone. We concluded that in preeclamptic women at the time of initial evaluation, sFlt-1/PlGF ratio and sEng are associated with increased risk of combined adverse maternal outcomes. However, urinary PRL concentrations and its antiangiogenic fragments appear to be better predictors of an adverse maternal outcome and may be useful for risk stratification in preeclampsia.

  11. Hyper-Prolactinemia in Men With Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Does It Have any Prognostic Implications?

    PubMed Central

    Naderi, Nasim; Bakhshandeh, Hooman; Ardeshiri, Maryam; Barzegari, Fatemeh; Amin, Ahmad; Taghavi, Sepideh; Maleki, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prolactin (PRL) has increasingly been recognized to play a stimulatory role in inflammatory response. Recently, studies have reported an increase in prolactin level among patients with chronic heart failure, however, there is conflicting data about its role as a prognostic factor in these patients. Objectives: We aimed to measure PRL level in male patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) and its relationship with some prognostic factors. Patients and Methods: Serum prolactin level was assessed in 33 men with a diagnosis of IDC, left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) less than 35% on standard medical therapy for heart failure and New York Heart Association class II-III. Serum NT-Pro BNP (N terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide), hs-CRP (High sensitive C reactive protein) and six-minute walk test (6MWT) were also measured. Our secondary endpoints were mortality, transplantation and hospitalization due to acute heart failure and all patients were followed for one year. Results: The mean age was 33 ± 7 years (24-45 years) and the mean LVEF was 23% ± 6.5. The mean PRL level was 16 ± 7.7 ng/mL (95% confidence interval: 13.3-18.7 ng/mL), which was significantly higher than normal reference values (4.04-15 ng/mL) (P < 0.0001). There was no correlation between PRL levels and pro BNP, hs-CRP or 6MWT test, however, the serum PRL level was slightly higher among patients who died or were hospitalized or transplanted. Conclusions: Considering our study results, prognostic implication of PRL should be questioned. However, it seems that the significant increase in serum PRL in the study population needs more consideration and may have its own pathophysiologic importance. Further studies are recommended for better addressing the role of PRL in chronic heart failure patients. PMID:25478544

  12. A dopamine receptor d2-type agonist attenuates the ability of stress to alter sleep in mice.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, F; Ehlen, J C; Williams, N S; Montemarano, J J; Paul, K N

    2014-11-01

    Although sleep disruptions that accompany stress reduce quality of life and deteriorate health, the mechanisms through which stress alters sleep remain obscure. Psychological stress can alter sleep in a variety of ways, but it has been shown to be particularly influential on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Prolactin (PRL), a sexually dimorphic, stress-sensitive hormone whose basal levels are higher in females, has somnogenic effects on REM sleep. In the current study, we examined the relationship between PRL secretion and REM sleep after restraint stress to determine whether: 1) the ability of stress to increase REM sleep is PRL-dependent, and 2) fluctuating PRL levels underlie sex differences in sleep responses to stress. Because dopamine D2 receptors in the pituitary gland are the primary regulator of PRL secretion, D2 receptor agonist, 1-[(6-allylergolin-8β-yl)-carbonyl]-1-[3-(dimethylamino) propyl]-3-ethylurea (cabergoline), was used to attenuate PRL levels in mice before 1 hour of restraint stress. Mice were implanted with electroencephalographic/electromyographic recording electrodes and received an ip injection of either 0.3-mg/kg cabergoline or vehicle before a control procedure of 1 hour of sleep deprivation by gentle handling during the light phase. Six days after the control procedure, mice received cabergoline or vehicle 15 minutes before 1 hour of restraint stress. Cabergoline blocked the ability of restraint stress to increase REM sleep amount in males but did not alter REM sleep amount after stress in females even though it reduced basal REM sleep amount in female controls. These data provide evidence that the ability for restraint stress to increase REM sleep is dependent on PRL and that sex differences in REM sleep amount may be driven by PRL.

  13. Hyperprolactinemia does not promote testicular recrudescence in photoregressed Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Whitten, R D; Youngstrom, T G; Bartness, T J

    1993-07-01

    Serum prolactin (PRL) concentrations, as well as body, epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT), and testes weights, decrease in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus sungorus) following short-photoperiod exposure. Previously, we have shown that lesions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus (SCNx) block regression of the testes and decreases in body weight and EWAT caused by short day-like, timed daily subcutaneous melatonin infusions in pinealectomized Siberian hamsters and elevate dramatically serum PRL concentrations. We also have shown that SCNx, as well as lesions of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVNx) and an area immediately ventral to the PVN (subPVN), promote accelerated testicular recrudescence, increases in EWAT and body weights, and increases in serum PRL concentrations, in short-day (SD)-housed, photoregressed Siberian hamsters. The stimulation of the testes seen in these previous studies could have been due to the lesion-induced increases in serum PRL concentrations. Therefore, the purpose of the present experiment was to test whether experimentally induced hyperprolactinemia could stimulate testicular recrudescence. This was accomplished by giving photoregressed, SD-housed Siberian hamsters chronic subcutaneous infusions of ovine PRL (oPRL) to mimic either long-day- or lesion-induced serum concentrations of hamster prolactin (hPRL). No increase in testes, body, or EWAT weights were observed following 5 weeks of oPRL infusions in either group compared with their vehicle-infused counterparts. These data suggest that hyperprolactinemia was not solely responsible for the stimulation of testicular recrudescence in SCNx or PVNx photoregressed, or SCNx pinealectomized hamsters receiving timed melatonin infusions seen previously.

  14. Intestinal mucosal changes and upregulated calcium transporter and FGF-23 expression during lactation: Contribution of lactogenic hormone prolactin.

    PubMed

    Wongdee, Kannikar; Teerapornpuntakit, Jarinthorn; Sripong, Chanakarn; Longkunan, Asma; Chankamngoen, Wasutorn; Keadsai, Chutiya; Kraidith, Kamonshanok; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2016-01-15

    As the principal lactogenic hormone, prolactin (PRL) not only induces lactogenesis but also enhances intestinal calcium absorption to supply calcium for milk production. How the intestinal epithelium res-ponses to PRL is poorly understood, but it is hypothesized to increase mucosal absorptive surface area and calcium transporter expression. Herein, lactating rats were found to have greater duodenal, jejunal and ileal villous heights as well as cecal crypt depths than age-matched nulliparous rats. Morphometric analyses in the duodenum and cecum showed that their mucosal adaptations were diminished by bromocriptine, an inhibitor of pituitary PRL release. PRL also upregulated calcium transporter expression (e.g., TRPV6 and PMCA1b) in the duodenum of lactating rats. Since excessive calcium absorption could be detrimental to lactating rats, local negative regulator of calcium absorption, e.g., fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, should be increased. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the upregulation of FGF-23 protein expression in the duodenal and cecal mucosae of lactating rats, consistent with the enhanced FGF-23 mRNA expression in Caco-2 cells. Bromocriptine abolished this lactation-induced FGF-23 expression. Additionally, FGF-23 could negate PRL-stimulated calcium transport across Caco-2 monolayer. In conclusion, PRL was responsible for the lactation-induced mucosal adaptations, which were associated with compensatory increase in FGF-23 expression probably to prevent calcium hyperabsorption.

  15. Prolactin mediates effects of chronic psychological stress on induction of fibrofatty cells in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jiangping; Wang, Mangyuan; Chen, Xiao; Liu, Li; Chen, Liang; Song, Zhizhao; Teng, Xiao; Xing, Yong; Chen, Kai; Zhao, Kun; Hou, Jianfeng; Yang, Pingchang

    2016-01-01

    Cardiocyte apoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of heart diseases. The mechanism is unclear. It is reported that prolactin (PRL) is involved in cardiac disorders. This study aims to investigate the role of PRL in mediating the psychological stress-induced fibrofatty cell differentiation in the heart. In this study, BALB/c mice were treated with a 30-day restraint stress. The heart tissue was processed by paraffin embedding and hematoxylin and eosin. The expression of Sca1 in NIH3T3 cells was assessed by cell culture, flow cytometry and Western blotting. The results showed that chronic stress induced fibrofatty cells in the mouse heart and high serum PRL levels. The induction of fibrofatty cell was mimicked by administration with recombinant PRL. The stress also induced the expression of Sca1 in the mouse heart. Exposure of NIH3T3 cells (a fibroblast cell line) to PRL in the culture enhanced the expression of stem cell antigen-1 (Sca1), phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and expression of adipocyte-related protein molecules, including adiponectin, fatty acid binding protein (aP2), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-g (PPARg) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)α, in the cells. We conclude that psychological stress-derived PRL induces fibroblasts to differentiate into fibrofatty cells in the heart. PMID:27158356

  16. Rat Prolactinoma cell growth regulation by Epidermal Growth Factor receptor ligands

    PubMed Central

    Vlotides, George; Siegel, Emily; Donangelo, Ines; Gutman, Shiri; Ren, Song-Guang; Melmed, Shlomo

    2008-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) regulates pituitary development, hormone synthesis and cell proliferation. Although ErbB receptor family members are expressed in pituitary tumors, effects of EGF signaling on pituitary tumors are not known. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot confirmed EGFR and p185c-neu protein expression in GH3 lacto-somatotroph but not in ACTH-secreting AtT20 pituitary tumor cells. EGF (5 nM) selectively enhanced baseline (~ 4-fold) and serum-induced (> 6-fold) PRL mRNA levels, while gefitinib, an EGFR antagonist, suppressed serum-induced cell proliferation and Pttg1 expression, blocked PRL gene expression, and reversed EGF-mediated somatotroph-lactotroph phenotype switching. Downstream EGFR signaling by ERK, but not PI3K or PKC, mediated the gefitinib-response. Tumors in athymic mice implanted sc with GH3 cells resulted in weight gain accompanied by increased serum PRL, GH and IGF-I levels. Gefitinib decreased tumor volumes and peripheral hormone levels by ~ 30% and restored normal mouse body weight patterns. Mice treated with gefitinib exhibited decreased tumor tissue ERK1/2 phosphorylation and downregulated tumor PRL and Pttg1 mRNA abundance. These results show that EGFR inhibition controls tumor growth and PRL secretion in experimental lacto-somatotroph tumors. EGFR inhibitors could therefore be useful for control of PRL secretion and tumor load in prolactinomas resistant to dopaminergic treatment, or for those prolactinomas undergoing rare malignant transformation. PMID:18676863

  17. Persistent synchronized oscillations in prolactin gene promoter activity in living pituitary cells.

    PubMed

    McFerran, D W; Stirland, J A; Norris, A J; Khan, R A; Takasuka, N; Seymour, Z C; Gill, M S; Robertson, W R; Loudon, A S; Davis, J R; White, M R

    2001-07-01

    PRL gene expression in the anterior pituitary gland responds rapidly to different hormonal signals. We have investigated the long-term timing of transcriptional activation from the PRL, GH, and cytomegalovirus promoters in response to different stimulus duration, using real-time imaging of luciferase expression in living stably transfected GH3 cells. Long-term stimulation of serum-starved cells with 50% serum induced a homogeneous rise in PRL promoter activity, with subsequent heterogeneous fluctuations in luciferase activity in individual cells. When cells were subjected to a 2-h pulse of 50% serum, followed by serum-free medium, there were long-term (approximately 50 h) synchronized, homogeneous oscillations in PRL promoter activity. This response was PRL-specific, because in GH3 cells expressing luciferase from the GH or cytomegalovirus promoters, a serum pulse elicited no oscillations in luciferase expression after an initial transient response to serum. The PRL promoter may therefore be a template for an unstable transcription complex subject to stochastic regulation, allowing an oscillatory transcriptional response to physiological signals. This suggests that precise timing and coordination of cell responses to different signal-duration may represent a novel mechanism for coordinating long-term dynamic changes in transcription in cell populations.

  18. Cysteamine-induced depletion of somatostatin and prolactin

    SciTech Connect

    Millard, W.J.; Sagar, S.M.; Martin, J.B.

    1985-06-01

    Cysteamine (2-aminoethanethiol (CSH), given in vivo or in vitro, rapidly but reversibly depletes immunoreactive somatostatin (irSS) in the central nervous system and gut as well as biological and immunological prolactin (PRL) activity in both the anterior pituitary and blood of the rat. This depletion of irSS and PRL is dose dependent and cannot be accounted for by release of either compound. Basal and potassium-stimulated SS release is reduced from hypothalamic tissue in vitro in CSH-treated animals. PRL secretion induced both pharmacologically and physiologically is abolished after CSH administration. Furthermore, CSH reduces cellular PRL content in a number of hyperprolactinemic states. The mechanism by which CSH reduces PRL levels is not clear, but it does not appear to act through the dopamine receptor nor does it alter the morphological structure of the lactotrope in normal animals. Most likely, CSH acts by interacting with the disulfide bonds of PRL, thus rendering the molecule both immunologically and biologically inactive.

  19. Prolactin: Friend or Foe in Central Nervous System Autoimmune Inflammation?

    PubMed Central

    Costanza, Massimo; Pedotti, Rosetta

    2016-01-01

    The higher prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in females, along with the modulation of disease activity observed during pregnancy and the post-partum period, has suggested a hormonal influence in MS. Even if prolactin (PRL) does not belong to the sex hormones family, its crucial role in female reproduction and lactation has prompted great efforts to understand if PRL could represent a gender factor in the pathogenesis of MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model for this disease. Extensive literature has documented a remarkable immune-stimulating potential for this hormone, indicating PRL as a disease-promoting factor in MS and EAE. However, recent work has pointed out that PRL is endowed with important neuroprotective and remyelinating properties and has encouraged a reinterpretation of the involvement of this hormone in MS. In this review we summarize both the protective functions that PRL exerts in central nervous system tissue as well as the inflammatory activity of this hormone in the context of autoimmune responses against myelin. Last, we draw future lines of research that might help to better clarify the impact of PRL on MS pathology. PMID:27918427

  20. Fluoxetine, but not tricyclic antidepressants, potentiates the 5-hydroxytryptophan-mediated increase in plasma cortisol and prolactin secretion in subjects with major depression or with obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, H; Bastani, B; Jayathilake, K; Maes, M

    1997-07-01

    It has been suggested that the clinical efficacy of chronic treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine and perhaps all antidepressants is due to their ability to enhance serotonergic activity. The effects of chronic treatment with fluoxetine or tricyclic antidepressants on the L-5-hydroxytryptophan (200 mg, L-5-HTP; PO)-induced increases in plasma cortisol and prolactin (PRL) concentrations were studied in patients with major depression or obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Administration of L-5-HTP increased plasma cortisol and PRL levels in medicated and unmedicated patients with major depression or OCD. The L-5-HTP-induced cortisol and PRL responses were significantly higher in fluoxetine-treated than in tricyclic-treated or unmedicated major depressed patients. The latter two groups did not differ significantly in their cortisol or PRL responses to L-5-HTP. The L-5-HTP-induced increases in cortisol and PRL in fluoxetine-treated patients with major depression or OCD were not significantly different. The results suggest that fluoxetine, but not tricyclic antidepressants, potentiates 5-HT receptor-mediated stimulation of cortisol and PRL secretion in humans, consistent with available evidence that fluoxetine treatment, but not tricyclic antidepressants, increases central serotonergic activity in patients with MD or OCD by a presynaptic mechanism.

  1. Prolactin and aging: X-irradiated and estrogen-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, A.; Naito, M.; Watanabe, H.; Yokoro, K.

    1984-07-01

    Both sexes of inbred WF rats at either 8 or 28-60 weeks of age were exposed to 200 rad whole-body radiation, 2.5 or 5.0 mg 17 beta-estradiol (E2), or both agents The female rats treated with E2 alone or with both X-rays and E2 at 8 weeks of age showed a high incidence of mammary carcinomas (MCA), a large increase in pituitary weight, and a rise in serum prolactin (PRL) levels. However, the same treatments to males did not induce MCA despite a moderate increase in both pituitary weight and serum PRL. Ovariectomy prior to E2 treatment failed to modify the occurrence of MCA or pituitary tumors. When X-rays and E2 were given to female rats at 28-60 weeks of age, pituitary weight, serum PRL levels, and the incidence of MCA were unaffected. When the E2 pellet was kept for the first 24 weeks and withdrawn during the last 12 weeks, the incidence of MCA, pituitary weight, and serum PRL was low. It was concluded that: 1) the pituitary glands of young female rats were susceptible to E2 treatment but were insensitive in older females, and 2) the occurrence of MCA in female rats appeared to be promoted by elevated PRL levels secreted by E2-induced pituitary tumors. Mammary tissue of male rats was less sensitive to PRL levels in the development of MCA.

  2. Effects of the Janus Kinase Inhibitor, Tofacitinib, on Testicular Leydig Cell Hyperplasia and Adenoma in Rats, and on Prolactin Signaling in Cultured Primary Rat Leydig Cells.

    PubMed

    Chapin, Robert E; Ball, Douglas J; Radi, Zaher A; Kumpf, Steven W; Koza-Taylor, Petra H; Potter, David M; Mark Vogel, W

    2017-01-01

    Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Tofacitinib preferentially inhibits receptor signaling through JAK3 and JAK1, relative to JAK2. In the 2-year rat carcinogenicity study, there were tofacitinib, dose-related increases in the incidences of testicular Leydig cell hyperplasia and benign adenomas in male rats, and decreased incidences of mammary tumors and duct dilatation/galactocele in female rats. Such findings in rats are typical of agents, such as dopamine agonists, which decrease prolactin (PRL) activity. Since prolactin signals through the JAK2 pathway, we hypothesized that these findings were off-target effects due to inhibition of PRL signaling via JAK2. The studies reported here were designed to investigate the interruption of PRL signaling pathways in Leydig cells. In isolated primary rat Leydig cells, PRL increased phosphorylated Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-5 protein, and mRNA levels for luteinizing hormone receptor. Tofacitinib, at concentrations observed in the rat carcinogenicity study, dose-dependently inhibited these effects. These observations illustrate a novel mechanism, the inhibition of prolactin signaling by which modulation of JAK activity can modulate PRL signaling pathways to induce Leydig cell tumors in rats. Since human Leydig cells lack this PRL dependence for normal function, these rodent tumors do not indicate a health risk to human patients.

  3. Isolation of Sparus auratus prolactin gene and activity of the cis-acting regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Astola, Antonio; Ortiz, Manuela; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Valdivia, Manuel M

    2003-10-15

    A sea bream prolactin (sbPRL) gene was isolated using a prolactin cDNA fragment, generated by PCR as a probe. The gene analyzed comprises 3.5 kb of DNA containing five exons as described previously for other fish PRL genes. Analysis of 1.0 kb of the proximal promoter sequence reveals a consensus TATAA box, up to seven (A/T)3NCAT consensus motifs for binding of the pituitary-specific factor Pit-1 and putative CREB and GATA binding sites. CHO culture cells co-transfected with a sbPRL promoter sequence and a sea bream Pit-1 cDNA expression plasmid showed expression of a linked luciferase reporter gene. Transient expression experiments with 5'-delection mutants reveals at least three regulatory regions on the sbPRL gene, two with a stimulatory effect on transcription and one with apparent inhibitory effect. From a comparative point of view, this study of PRL gene in Sparus auratus, correlates well with those previously published on tilapia and rainbow trout. The molecular data reported will be useful for comparative analysis of gene regulation in the GH/PRL gene family in teleosts.

  4. Overexpression of Protein Kinase Mζ in the Prelimbic Cortex Enhances the Formation of Long-Term Fear Memory.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yan-Xue; Zhu, Zhen-Zhen; Han, Hai-Bin; Liu, Jian-Feng; Meng, Shi-Qiu; Chen, Chen; Yang, Jian-Li; Wu, Ping; Lu, Lin

    2015-08-01

    Neuroplasticity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) after fear conditioning has been suggested to regulate the formation and expression of fear memory. Protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ), an isoform of protein kinase C with persistent activity, is involved in the formation and maintenance of memory. However, less is known about the role of PKMζ in the PFC in the formation of fear memory. We investigated whether the overexpression of PKMζ enhances the formation of auditory fear memory in rats. We found that microinfusion of lentiviral vector-expressing PKMζ into the prelimbic cortex (PrL) selectively enhanced the expression of PKMζ without influencing the expression of other isoforms of PKC. The overexpression of PKMζ in the PrL enhanced the formation of long-term fear memory without affecting short-term fear memory, whereas the overexpression of PKMζ in the infralimbic cortex had no effect on either short-term or long-term fear memory. The overexpression of PKMζ in the PrL had no effect on anxiety-like behavior or locomotor activity. We also found that PKMζ overexpression potentiated the fear conditioning-induced increase in the membrane levels of glutamate subunit 2 of AMPA receptors in the PrL. These results demonstrate that the overexpression of PKMζ in the PrL but not infralimbic cortex selectively enhanced the formation of long-term fear memory, and PKMζ in the PrL may be involved in the formation of fear memory.

  5. Prolactin promotes cartilage survival and attenuates inflammation in inflammatory arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Adán, Norma; Guzmán-Morales, Jessica; Ledesma-Colunga, Maria G.; Perales-Canales, Sonia I.; Quintanar-Stéphano, Andrés; López-Barrera, Fernando; Méndez, Isabel; Moreno-Carranza, Bibiana; Triebel, Jakob; Binart, Nadine; Martínez de la Escalera, Gonzalo; Thebault, Stéphanie; Clapp, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Chondrocytes are the only cells in cartilage, and their death by apoptosis contributes to cartilage loss in inflammatory joint diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A putative therapeutic intervention for RA is the inhibition of apoptosis-mediated cartilage degradation. The hormone prolactin (PRL) frequently increases in the circulation of patients with RA, but the role of hyperprolactinemia in disease activity is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that PRL inhibits the apoptosis of cultured chondrocytes in response to a mixture of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ) by preventing the induction of p53 and decreasing the BAX/BCL-2 ratio through a NO-independent, JAK2/STAT3–dependent pathway. Local treatment with PRL or increasing PRL circulating levels also prevented chondrocyte apoptosis evoked by injecting cytokines into the knee joints of rats, whereas the proapoptotic effect of cytokines was enhanced in PRL receptor–null (Prlr–/–) mice. Moreover, eliciting hyperprolactinemia in rats before or after inducing the adjuvant model of inflammatory arthritis reduced chondrocyte apoptosis, proinflammatory cytokine expression, pannus formation, bone erosion, joint swelling, and pain. These results reveal the protective effect of PRL against inflammation-induced chondrocyte apoptosis and the therapeutic potential of hyperprolactinemia to reduce permanent joint damage and inflammation in RA. PMID:23908112

  6. Growth hormone producing pituitary adenomas with concomitant hypersecretion of prolactin are particularly sensitive to photon irradiation.

    PubMed

    Werner, S; af Trampe, E; Palacios, P; Lax, I; Hall, K

    1985-09-01

    The effect of photon irradiation (50 Gy with a 3-field technique in fractionated doses) on growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and somatomedin A (SMA) was studied in 25 patients with acromegaly after previous unsuccessful surgery. In patients with concomitant hypersecretion of PRL, the GH reduction was 70 +/- 22% 1 year and 88 +/- 10% 3 years after radiotherapy. The corresponding reductions in patients with isolated GH hypersecretion were 42 +/- 25% and 60 +/- 22%. The reduction of GH levels was most notable the first year after radiotherapy in 16 patients and during the second year in 7 patients. Serum PRL decreased after radiotherapy in all patients with hyperprolactinemia, whereas PRL in normoprolactinemic patients showed inconsistent changes, including PRL increments in 8/12 patients. The effect of radiotherapy on GH and PRL was not correlated to the irradiation target volume or the cumulative radiation effect. SMA levels decreased after radiotherapy, but became normal only in 3 patients, all with pretreatment GH less than 5 micrograms/l. Radiotherapy, 3 years after treatment, appeared to be equivalent to the primary surgical intervention in reducing GH and SMA in patients with acromegaly due to advanced macroadenomas. Patients with concomitant hyperprolactinemia showed increased sensitivity to radiation compared to normoprolactinemic patients with acromegaly.

  7. Short-Chain Fatty Acids Inhibit Growth Hormone and Prolactin Gene Transcription via cAMP/PKA/CREB Signaling Pathway in Dairy Cow Anterior Pituitary Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Fa; Fu, Shou-Peng; Li, Su-Nan; Hu, Zhong-Ming; Xue, Wen-Jing; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Huang, Bing-Xu; Lv, Qing-Kang; Liu, Ju-Xiong; Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) play a key role in altering carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, influence endocrine pancreas activity, and as a precursor of ruminant milk fat. However, the effect and detailed mechanisms by which SCFAs mediate bovine growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) gene transcription remain unclear. In this study, we detected the effects of SCFAs (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) on the activity of the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway, GH, PRL, and Pit-1 gene transcription in dairy cow anterior pituitary cells (DCAPCs). The results showed that SCFAs decreased intracellular cAMP levels and a subsequent reduction in PKA activity. Inhibition of PKA activity decreased CREB phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting GH and PRL gene transcription. Furthermore, PTX blocked SCFAs- inhibited cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway. These data showed that the inhibition of GH and PRL gene transcription induced by SCFAs is mediated by Gi activation and that propionate is more potent than acetate and butyrate in inhibiting GH and PRL gene transcription. In conclusion, this study identifies a biochemical mechanism for the regulation of SCFAs on bovine GH and PRL gene transcription in DCAPCs, which may serve as one of the factors that regulate pituitary function in accordance with dietary intake. PMID:24177567

  8. Characterization of Arabidopsis and rice DWD proteins and their roles as substrate receptors for CUL4-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hoon; Terzaghi, William; Gusmaroli, Giuliana; Charron, Jean-Benoit F; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Chen, Haodong; He, Yizhou Joseph; Xiong, Yue; Deng, Xing Wang

    2008-01-01

    A subset of WD40 proteins that contain a DWD motif (for DDB1 binding WD40) is reported to act as substrate receptors for DDB1-CUL4-ROC1 (for Damaged DNA Binding 1-Cullin 4-Regulator of Cullins 1) based E3 ubiquitin ligases in humans. Here, we report 85 Arabidopsis thaliana and 78 rice (Oryza sativa) proteins containing the conserved 16-amino acid DWD motif. We show by yeast two-hybrid and in vivo coimmunoprecipitation that 11 Arabidopsis DWD proteins directly interact with DDB1 and thus may serve as substrate receptors for the DDB1-CUL4 machinery. We further examine whether the DWD protein PRL1 (for Pleiotropic Regulatory Locus 1) may act as part of a CUL4-based E3 ligase. PRL1 directly interacts with DDB1, and prl1 and cul4cs mutants exhibited similar phenotypes, including altered responses to a variety of stimuli. Moreover, AKIN10 (for Arabidopsis SNF1 Kinase Homolog 10) was degraded more slowly in cell extracts of prl1 and cul4cs than in cell extracts of the wild type. Thus, both genetic and biochemical analyses support the conclusion that PRL1 is the substrate receptor of a CUL4-ROC1-DDB1-PRL1 E3 ligase involved in the degradation of AKIN10. This work adds a large new family to the current portfolio of plant E3 ubiquitin ligases.

  9. Characterization of Arabidopsis and Rice DWD Proteins and Their Roles as Substrate Receptors for CUL4-RING E3 Ubiquitin Ligases[W

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Hoon; Terzaghi, William; Gusmaroli, Giuliana; Charron, Jean-Benoit F.; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Chen, Haodong; He, Yizhou Joseph; Xiong, Yue; Deng, Xing Wang

    2008-01-01

    A subset of WD40 proteins that contain a DWD motif (for DDB1 binding WD40) is reported to act as substrate receptors for DDB1-CUL4-ROC1 (for Damaged DNA Binding 1–Cullin 4–Regulator of Cullins 1) based E3 ubiquitin ligases in humans. Here, we report 85 Arabidopsis thaliana and 78 rice (Oryza sativa) proteins containing the conserved 16–amino acid DWD motif. We show by yeast two-hybrid and in vivo coimmunoprecipitation that 11 Arabidopsis DWD proteins directly interact with DDB1 and thus may serve as substrate receptors for the DDB1–CUL4 machinery. We further examine whether the DWD protein PRL1 (for Pleiotropic Regulatory Locus 1) may act as part of a CUL4-based E3 ligase. PRL1 directly interacts with DDB1, and prl1 and cul4cs mutants exhibited similar phenotypes, including altered responses to a variety of stimuli. Moreover, AKIN10 (for Arabidopsis SNF1 Kinase Homolog 10) was degraded more slowly in cell extracts of prl1 and cul4cs than in cell extracts of the wild type. Thus, both genetic and biochemical analyses support the conclusion that PRL1 is the substrate receptor of a CUL4-ROC1-DDB1-PRL1 E3 ligase involved in the degradation of AKIN10. This work adds a large new family to the current portfolio of plant E3 ubiquitin ligases. PMID:18223036

  10. Stimulation of food intake and weight gain in mature female rats by bovine prolactin and bovine growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Byatt, J C; Staten, N R; Salsgiver, W J; Kostelc, J G; Collier, R J

    1993-06-01

    Recombinant bovine prolactin (rbPRL) or bovine growth hormone (rbGH) was administered to mature female rats (10/treatment group) by daily subcutaneous injection for 10 days. Doses ranged from 7 to 5,000 micrograms/day (0.03-24 mg/kg body wt). Both rbPRL and rbGH increased body weight gain and food intake, but these parameters were increased at lower doses of rbPRL (7-63 micrograms/day) than rbGH (> 190 micrograms/day). Weight gain and food intake were maximally stimulated by 190 micrograms/day rbPRL, whereas maximal increased weight gain was obtained with the highest dose of rbGH (5,000 micrograms/day). Total carcass protein was increased by both hormones; however, protein as a percentage of body weight was unchanged. Similarly, neither rbPRL nor rbGH changed the percentage of carcass moisture. Percentage of body fat was increased by rbPRL but was decreased by rbGH. Weight of the gastrointestinal tract and kidneys was increased by both hormones, but increases were in proportion to body weight gain. These data confirm that ungulate prolactin is a hyperphagic agent in the female rat. In addition, they suggest that, while prolactin stimulates growth in mature female rats, this growth is probably not via a somatogenic mechanism.

  11. Endocrine responses after d-fenfluramine and ipsapirone challenge: further support for Cloninger's tridimensional model of personality.

    PubMed

    Hennig, J; Toll, C; Schonlau, P; Rohrmann, S; Netter, P

    2000-01-01

    The tridemensional model of personality introduced by Cloninger relates aspects of novelty seeking to the dopaminergic, harm avoidance (HA) to the serotonergic, and reward dependence to the noradrenergic neurotransmitter system. Using a neuroendocrine challenge paradigm, this study investigates whether subjects characterized by blunted cortisol (CORT) responses after ipsapirone (IPS) relate to different subfactors of HA from those characterized by blunted prolactin (PRL) responses after treatment with d-fenfluramine (D-FEN). Moreover, subjects blunted in both responses should differ in scale values of subfactors of HA from those with only one or no blunted reactions. In the first part of the experiment, 16 healthy male volunteers were treated with 15 mg D-FEN. The second part of the study (about 1 year later) consists of a challenge with the partial 5-hydroxytryptamine-1a (5-HT(1a)) agonist IPS (10 mg) in the same subjects. The results indicate that blunted PRL responses are accompanied by high values in HA, while the main effect of IPS responsivity did not relate significantly to this dimension. With respect to the subscales of HA, subjects blunted in both responses (PRL-/C-) exhibit significantly higher levels in fatigability and asthenia when compared to all other groups (PRL-/C+, PRL+/C-,PRL+/C+). The data demonstrate that combined challenge tests may shed more light on the biological basis of personality and that HA and most clearly fatigability and asthenia relate to the 5-HT system. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. No association between oxytocin or prolactin gene variants and childhood-onset mood disorders

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, John S.; Freeman, Natalie L.; Shaikh, Sajid A.; Vetró, Ágnes; Kiss, Enikő; Kapornai, Krisztina; Daróczi, Gabriella; Rimay, Timea; Kothencné, Viola Osváth; Dombovári, Edit; Kaczvinszk, Emília; Tamás, Zsuzsa; Baji, Ildikó; Besny, Márta; Gádoros, Julia; DeLuca, Vincenzo; George, Charles J.; Dempster, Emma; Barr, Cathy L.; Kovacs, Maria; Kennedy, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Oxytocin (OXT) and prolactin (PRL) are neuropeptide hormones that interact with the serotonin system and are involved in the stress response and social affiliation. In human studies, serum OXT and PRL levels have been associated with depression and related phenotypes. Our purpose was to determine if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the loci for OXT, PRL and their receptors, OXTR and PRLR, were associated with childhood-onset mood disorders (COMD). Methods Using 678 families in a family-based association design, we genotyped sixteen SNPs at OXT, PRL, OXTR and PRLR to test for association with COMD. Results No significant associations were found for SNPs in the OXTR, PRL, or PRLR genes. Two of three SNPs 3' of the OXT gene were associated with COMD (p ≤ 0.02), significant after spectral decomposition, but were not significant after additionally correcting for the number of genes tested. Supplementary analyses of parent-of-origin and proband sex effects for OXT SNPs by Fisher’s Exact test were not significant after Bonferroni correction. Conclusions We have examined sixteen OXT and PRL system gene variants, with no evidence of statistically significant association after correction for multiple tests. PMID:20547007

  13. In vitro effects of thyrotropin-releasing hormone and somatostatin on prolactin and growth hormone release by the pituitary of Poecilia latipinna. I. An electrophoretic study.

    PubMed

    Wigham, T; Batten, T F

    1984-09-01

    Pituitary glands were removed from Poecilia latipinna which had been maintained in one-third seawater and were incubated for 18 hr in media of either 300 mosmol/kg (OP300) or 340 mosmol/kg (OP340) osmotic pressure for measurement of both total and newly synthesised prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) release. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) at 100 ng/ml increased release of total and newly synthesised PRL into OP340, but not into OP300, medium. Conversely, 300 ng/ml of somatotropin-release-inhibiting factor (SRIF) inhibited total and newly synthesised PRL release into OP300, but not OP340, medium. At 1000 ng/ml, SRIF inhibited total PRL release into both media, but newly synthesised PRL release was reduced significantly only in OP300 medium. The release of GH was unaffected by 100 ng/ml TRH in OP300 medium, but both total and newly synthesised GH release were enhanced by this dose in OP340 medium. SRIF at 300 ng/ml reduced total GH release into OP300 medium, whereas the release of newly synthesised GH was inhibited in OP340 medium. At 1000 ng/ml, SRIF inhibited total GH release into both media, but release of the newly synthesised hormone was not significantly altered. These results suggest that TRH can stimulate and SRIF inhibit both PRL and GH release by Poecilia pituitaries, but that these effects may be modulated by plasma osmotic pressure.

  14. Quantitative ultrastructural evidence of alterations in prolactin secretion related to external salinity in a teleost fish (Poecilia latipinna).

    PubMed

    Batten, T F; Ball, J N

    1977-11-30

    Quantitative ultrastructural morphometric studies were made on the prolactin cells of Poecilia latipinna adapted to freshwater (FW), one-third seawater (1/3 SW) and full-strength seawater (SW), and at various times after transfers between 1/3 SW and FW. In fully-adapted fish the rates of prolactin (PRL) synthesis and PRL release are inversely related to environmental salinity. During adaptation to a new salinity the two rates are temporarily uncoordinated, with release increasing or decreasing more readily than synthesis. Synthesis appears to take 30 h or longer to come into balance with the increased release rate following transfer from 1/3 SW to FW, and 72 h or longer to adjust to the reduction in release rate that follows the reverse transfer. The excess PRL granules that accumulate in the latter situation appear to be removed by lysosomal digestion. As in other teleosts, in fish adapted to the external medium the size of the stored PRL granules is inversely related to external salinity, but this relationship breaks down during adaptation to a new salinity. The stellate cells which penetrate between the PRL cells are more prominent, more extensively ramified, and appear more metabolically active in FW-adapted fish than in the other groups. These cells seem to be closely related in function to the secretory activity of the PRL cells.

  15. Comparison of plasma prolactin and CEA in monitoring patients with adenocarcinoma of colon and rectum.

    PubMed Central

    Bhatavdekar, J. M.; Patel, D. D.; Giri, D. D.; Karelia, N. H.; Vora, H. H.; Ghosh, N.; Shah, N. G.; Trivedi, S. N.; Balar, D. B.

    1992-01-01

    Plasma prolactin (PRL) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were measured by radioimmunoassay in 74 patients with adenocarcinoma of colon and rectum. The markers were correlated with disease stage, histological grade and progression/remission of disease. The circulating preoperative median PRL and CEA levels were significantly higher in colorectal cancer patients than in their respective controls. PRL was elevated in all Dukes stages and in all histological grades of the tumour whereas the rise in CEA was more pronounced in Dukes D. Out of 74 patients, 29% (21/74) developed recurrent disease and 31% (23/74) responded to the treatment. With regard to monitoring recurrence(s), the predictive value of PRL was 94% which was significantly greater than that of CEA which was only 62%. In patients who developed liver metastases PRL remained elevated whereas CEA showed more than 100-fold increase. Therefore, we feel that CEA is a better marker for monitoring patients who developed liver metastases. From our results, we suggest that PRL can be used as a better overall marker for detecting recurrence(s) in patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. PMID:1419646

  16. [Prolactin and male fertility].

    PubMed

    Schreiber, G; Börner, A; Lauterbach, H; Thiel, W

    1983-03-01

    On 68 selected patients with disturbances of the potentia generandi et/sive coeundi (25 males with healthy metabolism and 43 males with diabetes) as well as 14 control persons PRL, LH, FSH, testosterone and oestradiol were determined radioimmunologically and the results were ascribed to sexological, clinical, spermatological and testo-histological findings. A statistically secure correlation was found between PRL values and disturbance of the libido as well as the presence of a gynaecomasty. PRL did not correlate with the spermatological variables volume of ejaculate, relative and absolute number of spermatozoa and motility. PRL did also not correlate with the testohistological findings. A relation between PRL and the peptide hormones LH and FSH as well as the steroid hormones testosterone and oestradiol could not be ascertained. Therefore the diagnostic values of a PRL determination is much limited; the pertinency of a hyperprolactinaemia may be increased by the proof of the symptoms reduction of libido and gynaecomasty with simultaneous disturbance of fertility. In our opinion the definition of hyperprolactinaemia needs revision, since at only determination of the basal value of more than 800 mU/l no more frequently pathologically andrological findings are to be observed than below 200 mU/l.

  17. Reorganization of visual processing in macular degeneration is not specific to the "preferred retinal locus".

    PubMed

    Dilks, Daniel D; Baker, Chris I; Peli, Eli; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2009-03-04

    Recent work has shown that foveal cortex, deprived of its normal bottom-up input as a result of macular degeneration (MD), begins responding to stimuli presented to a peripheral retinal location. However, these studies have only presented stimuli to the "preferred retinal location," or PRL, a spared part of the peripheral retina used by individuals with MD for fixating, face recognition, reading, and other visual tasks. Thus, previous research has not yet answered a question critical for understanding the mechanisms underlying this reorganization: Does formerly foveal cortex respond only to stimuli presented at the PRL, or does it also respond to other peripheral locations of similar eccentricity? If foveal cortex responds to stimuli at PRL because it is the long-term habitual use of this region as a functional fovea that drives the formerly foveal cortex to respond to stimuli presented at the PRL (the "use-dependent reorganization" hypothesis), then foveal cortex will not respond to stimuli presented at other locations. Alternatively, it may be that foveal cortex responds to any peripheral retinal input, independent of whether input at that retinal location has been chronically attended for months or years (the "use-independent reorganization" hypothesis). Using fMRI, we found clear activation of formerly foveal cortex to stimuli presented at either the PRL or an isoeccentric non-PRL location in two individuals with MD, supporting the use-independent reorganization hypothesis. This finding suggests that reorganization is driven by passive, not use-dependent mechanisms.

  18. A case of an ectopic prolactinoma.

    PubMed

    Simsir, Ilgin Yildirim; Kocabas, Gokcen Unal; Sahin, Serap Baydur; Erdogan, Mehmet; Cetinkalp, Sevki; Saygili, Fusun; Yilmaz, Candeger; Ozgen, Ahmet Gokhan

    2012-02-01

    A 34-year-old female presented to our clinic with a 1.5 year history of secondary amenorrhea and galactorrhea. Prolactin (PRL) level was found to be 151.89 ng/ml. Pituitary imaging was reported to be normal. An examination of the patient revealed that PRL level was still high so the dose of cabergoline was further increased and subsequently, bromocriptine was added to the treatment. There was no reduction in PRL levels in controls. A scanning was performed to look for an ectopic focus. Abdominal computerized tomography revealed a heterogenous mass lesion originating from the uterus. Octreotide scintigraphy was performed and we observed an involvement consistent with the mass in the uterus. The patient underwent abdominal total hysterectomy. PRL dropped to 0.4 ng/ml the next day after the operation. The pathology result was a low-grade malignant mesenchymal tumor. Prolactin was found to be immunohistochemically negative. However, galactorrhea disappeared postoperative and PRL levels are still low. Elevated levels of PRL, resistant to bromocriptine and cabergoline, rapidly returned to normal after hysterectomy, which obviously indicates that hyperprolactinemia was associated with the myoma of the uterus.

  19. Inhibition of prolactin with bromocriptine for 28days increases blood-brain barrier permeability in the rat.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Hernandez, H; Ramirez, M; Ramirez-Lee, M A; Ali, S F; Gonzalez, C

    2015-08-20

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is necessary for the proper function of the brain. Its maintenance is regulated by endogenous factors. Recent evidences suggest prolactin (PRL) regulates the BBB properties in vitro, nevertheless no evidence of these effects have been reported in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of PRL in the maintenance of the BBB in the rat. Male Wistar rats were treated with Bromocriptine (Bromo) to inhibit PRL production for 28days in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). BBB permeability was evaluated through the Evans Blue dye and fluorescein-dextran extravasation as well as through edema formation. The expression of claudin-5, occludin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and the PRL receptor (PRLR) was evaluated through western blot. Bromo reduced the physiological levels of PRL at 28days. At the same time, Bromo increased BBB permeability and edema formation associated with a decrement in claudin-5 and occludin and potentiated the increase in BBB permeability induced by LPS. However, no neuroinflammation was detected, since the expression of GFAP was unchanged, as well as the expression of the PRLR. These data provide the first evidence that inhibition of PRL with Bromo affects the maintenance of the BBB through modulating the expression of tight junction proteins in vivo. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship between antipsychotic medication, serum prolactin levels and osteoporosis/osteoporotic fractures in patients with schizophrenia: a critical literature review.

    PubMed

    De Hert, Marc; Detraux, Johan; Stubbs, Brendon

    2016-06-01

    Using an antipsychotic medication can increase prolactin (PRL) levels, causing hyperprolactinemia (HPRL). Although the occurrence of osteoporosis within the population of patients with schizophrenia has been recognized, the precise nature of the association between antipsychotic treatment, PRL, osteoporosis, and the disease itself seems to be elusive. The aim of this review is to critically review the literature regarding the association between osteoporosis and PRL and to summarize the available evidence with respect to the impact of PRL-elevating antipsychotics on bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures in non-elderly patients with schizophrenia. Although long-standing HPRL can have an impact on the rate of bone metabolism and, when associated with hypogonadism, may lead to decreased bone density in both female and male subjects, the relative contribution of antipsychotic-induced HPRL in bone mineral loss in patients with schizophrenia remains unclear. Methodological shortcomings of existing studies, including the lack of prospective data and the focus on measurements of BMD instead of bone turnover markers, preclude definitive conclusions regarding the relationship between PRL-raising antipsychotics and BMD loss in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, more well conducted prospective trials of these biomarkers are necessary to establish the precise relationship between antipsychotics, PRL levels and osteoporosis/osteoporotic risk.

  1. Protective Effect of Prolactin against Methylmercury-Induced Mutagenicity and Cytotoxicity on Human Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Pereira, Liz Carmem; da Rocha, Carlos Alberto Machado; Cunha, Luiz Raimundo Campos da Silva e; da Costa, Edmar Tavares; Guimarães, Ana Paula Araújo; Pontes, Thais Brilhante; Diniz, Domingos Luiz Wanderley Picanço; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Moreira-Nunes, Caroline Aquino; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Mercury exhibits cytotoxic and mutagenic properties as a result of its effect on tubulin. This toxicity mechanism is related to the production of free radicals that can cause DNA damage. Methylmercury (MeHg) is one of the most toxic of the mercury compounds. It accumulates in the aquatic food chain, eventually reaching the human diet. Several studies have demonstrated that prolactin (PRL) may be differently affected by inorganic and organic mercury based on interference with various neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of PRL secretion. This study evaluated the cytoprotective effect of PRL on human lymphocytes exposed to MeHg in vitro, including observation of the kinetics of HL-60 cells (an acute myeloid leukemia lineage) treated with MeHg and PRL at different concentrations, with both treatments with the individual compounds and combined treatments. All treatments with MeHg produced a significant increase in the frequency of chromatid gaps, however, no significant difference was observed in the chromosomal breaks with any treatment. A dose-dependent increase in the mitotic index was observed for treatments with PRL, which also acts as a co-mitogenic factor, regulating proliferation by modulating the expression of genes that are essential for cell cycle progression and cytoskeleton organization. These properties contribute to the protective action of PRL against the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of MeHg. PMID:25247425

  2. Reversible weight gain and prolactin levels--long-term follow-up in childhood.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, F; Salti, R; Stagi, S; La Cauza, F; Chiarelli, F

    2005-09-01

    In adult patients weight gain is a frequent complaint of hyperprolactinaemia and it has been associated with a high prevalence of obesity. Normalization of prolactin (PRL) levels result in weight loss. The nature of this link is poorly defined. In this report we describe a 14 year-old female with primary amenorrhea and persistent progressive weight gain. The patient's height, weight and BMI were 152 cm, 70 kg, and 30.3 kg/m2, respectively. Basal hormonal investigation showed normal free thyroxin, TSH, IGF-I, cortisol and ACTH values. Serum PRL level was very high (16,278 mIU/l; normal range 63-426 mIU/l). Magnetic resonance imaging scan showed the presence of a pituitary microadenoma. Treatment with the non-selective dopamine agonist pergolide caused a significant reduction of serum PRL concentration with a remarkable decrease of body weight. During follow-up, repeat MRI scan revealed disappearance of the microadenoma. The reduction of the daily dose of pergolide was associated with an increase of serum PRL with significant weight gain. A further reduction of body weight was subsequently observed with an increase of pergolide dosage. Serum PRL measurement may be useful as part of the endocrine work-up of obese children with a history of unexplained recent weight gain, especially if associated with pituitary-gonadal axis dysfunction. The relationship between PRL secretion and weight change needs to be examined in prospective larger studies.

  3. Targeted overexpression of calcitonin in gonadotrophs of transgenic mice leads to chronic hypoprolactinemia.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ren; Kulkarni, Trupti; Wei, Fu; Shah, Girish V

    2005-01-14

    It was previously shown that calcitonin-like pituitary peptide (pit-CT) is synthesized and secreted by gonadotrophs, and pit-CT inhibits PRL gene transcription and lactotroph cell proliferation. Present studies examined long-term consequences of pit-CT overexpression on the functioning of mouse anterior pituitary (AP) gland. Targeted overexpression of pit-CT in gonadotrophs of mouse pituitaries was achieved by generating mice overexpressing bovine luteinizing hormone (LH)-alpha subunit promoter-pit-CT cDNA transgene. Transgenic (pit-CT+) mice displayed chronic but selective overexpression of pit-CT in gonadotrophs. The mice also displayed a dramatic decline in PRL gene expression as assessed