Science.gov

Sample records for pro sharepoint solution

  1. Thermal effects of added propanol on the helix-coil transition of (Pro-Pro-Gly) 10 in D 2O solution: An NMR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, Tsutomu; Uchiyama, Susumu; Nishi, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Yuji; Tomiyama, Tetsuo

    2010-05-01

    The conformational transition of collagen model peptide, (Pro-Pro-Gly) 10, from the triple helical structure to the statistical coil was observed in various aqueous alcohol solutions by NMR measurements. In methanol or ethanol solution, the thermal transition temperature, Tm, of the peptide increased regularly with the concentration of alcohols. In 1- or 2-propanol, however, Tm first decreased and then increased steeply, in apparent contrast to the general trend that the addition of alcohol on aqueous solution increases the stability of ordered structure of polypeptides. This exceptional behavior of the collagen model peptide in propanols might provide a clue to investigate the mechanism of stabilization of protein conformation.

  2. Solution conformations of Zika NS2B-NS3pro and its inhibition by natural products from edible plants.

    PubMed

    Roy, Amrita; Lim, Liangzhong; Srivastava, Shagun; Lu, Yimei; Song, Jianxing

    2017-01-01

    The recent Zika viral (ZIKV) epidemic has been associated with severe neurological pathologies such as neonatal microcephaly and Guillain-Barre syndrome but unfortunately no vaccine or medication is effectively available yet. Zika NS2B-NS3pro is essential for the proteolysis of the viral polyprotein and thereby viral replication. Thus NS2B-NS3pro represents an attractive target for anti-Zika drug discovery/design. Here, we have characterized the solution conformations and catalytic parameters of both linked and unlinked Zika NS2B-NS3pro complexes and found that the unlinked complex manifested well-dispersed NMR spectra. Subsequently with selective isotope-labeling using NMR spectroscopy, we demonstrated that C-terminal residues (R73-K100) of NS2B is highly disordered without any stable tertiary and secondary structures in the Zika NS2B-NS3pro complex in the free state. Upon binding to the well-characterized serine protease inhibitor, bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), only the extreme C-terminal residues (L86-K100) remain disordered. Additionally, we have identified five flavonoids and one natural phenol rich in edible plants including fruits and vegetables, which inhibit Zika NS2B-NS3pro in a non-competitive mode, with Ki ranging from 770 nM for Myricetin to 34.02 μM for Apigenin. Molecular docking showed that they all bind to a pocket on the back of the active site and their structure-activity relationship was elucidated. Our study provides valuable insights into the solution conformation of Zika NS2B-NS3pro and further deciphers its susceptibility towards allosteric inhibition by natural products. As these natural product inhibitors fundamentally differ from the currently-known active site inhibitors in terms of both inhibitory mode and chemical scaffold, our finding might open a new avenue for development of better allosteric inhibitors to fight ZIKV infection.

  3. A General Comparison of SharePoint 2007 and SharePoint 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    moderately sophisticated Business Process Automation ( BPA ) system, without the need for investing in dedicated software to achieve this functionality... BPA offers the opportunity for significant increases in productivity, which is obviously highly relevant to Defence in light of the ongoing...Strategic Reform Program. It is important to note, however, that as in many cases the technology offered is an enabler, not a solution in its own right. BPA

  4. Photon Optimizer (PO) prevails over Progressive Resolution Optimizer (PRO) for VMAT planning with or without knowledge-based solution.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fan; Wu, Hao; Yue, Haizhen; Jia, Fei; Zhang, Yibao

    2017-03-01

    The enhanced dosimetric performance of knowledge-based volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning might be jointly contributed by the patient-specific optimization objectives, as estimated by the RapidPlan model, and by the potentially improved Photon Optimizer (PO) algorithm than the previous Progressive Resolution Optimizer (PRO) engine. As PO is mandatory for RapidPlan estimation but optional for conventional manual planning, appreciating the two optimizers may provide practical guidelines for the algorithm selection because knowledge-based planning may not replace the current method completely in a short run. Using a previously validated dose-volume histogram (DVH) estimation model which can produce clinically acceptable plans automatically for rectal cancer patients without interactive manual adjustment, this study reoptimized 30 historically approved plans (referred as clinical plans that were created manually with PRO) with RapidPlan solution (PO plans). Then the PRO algorithm was utilized to optimize the plans again using the same dose-volume constraints as PO plans, where the line objectives were converted as a series of point objectives automatically (PRO plans). On the basis of comparable target dose coverage, the combined applications of new objectives and PO algorithm have significantly reduced the organs-at-risk (OAR) exposure by 23.49-32.72% than the clinical plans. These discrepancies have been largely preserved after substituting PRO for PO, indicating the dosimetric improvements were mostly attributable to the refined objectives. Therefore, Eclipse users of earlier versions may instantly benefit from adopting the model-generated objectives from other RapidPlan-equipped centers, even with PRO algorithm. However, the additional contribution made by the PO relative to PRO accounted for 1.54-3.74%, suggesting PO should be selected with priority whenever available, with or without RapidPlan solution as a purchasable package. Significantly

  5. Rheological Behavior Xanthan and SlurryPro Polymer Solutions Evaluated as Shear Thinning Delivery Fluids for Subsurface Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, L.; Oostrom, M.; Truex, M.; Vermeul, V.

    2011-12-01

    Shear thinning fluids can be applied as a delivery means to enhance the uniformity of remedial amendment distribution in heterogeneous aquifers, thereby to improve remediation performance. The rheological behavior of biopolymer xanthan gum and synthetic polymer SlurryPro were tested, and their influence on the amendment delivery performance was evaluated. The impact of polymer concentration, basic water chemistry, salinity (e.g., Br-, Na+, Ca2+ concentrations), remedial amendments (phosphate, sodium lactate, ethyl lactate, lactate oil, whey), sediments, and the mixing approach on the rheological properties of the polymer solutions was determined. The SlurryPro polymer lost shear-thinning properties even at relatively low solution ionic strength. However, the xanthan gum polymer maintained shear-thinning properties under most of the tested conditions, though with some loss in absolute viscosity with increasing ionic strength. Xanthan appeared to be the better candidate for enhanced amendment delivery. Increasing in xanthan concentration not only increased the solution viscosity, but also increased degree of shear thinning. Addition of salt decreased the solution viscosity and the degree of shear thinning, while the influence was diminished when the polymer concentration was higher. After reaching a critical xanthan concentration, addition of salt increased solution viscosity. The degradation of xanthan and SlurryPro in the presence of site aquifer materials and microbes was studied in batch tests in which the field sediment/water ratio was simulated. The viscosity of the polymer solutions dropped 85% or more in the first week, while the solution chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreasing occurred at a much slower rate.

  6. Help Central: Creating a Help Desk and Knowledge Portal in SharePoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Lisa A.; Tims, Randy S.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the authors' implementation of Help Central, a site within the Lister Hill Library Collection on the University of Alabama-Birmingham's SharePoint server. Initially, Help Central was designed to address the inadequacies in the library's old, static HTML web-based support system, including haphazard issue reporting by staff…

  7. Help Central: Creating a Help Desk and Knowledge Portal in SharePoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Lisa A.; Tims, Randy S.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the authors' implementation of Help Central, a site within the Lister Hill Library Collection on the University of Alabama-Birmingham's SharePoint server. Initially, Help Central was designed to address the inadequacies in the library's old, static HTML web-based support system, including haphazard issue reporting by staff…

  8. Developing a Business Intelligence Process for a Training Module in SharePoint 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidtchen, Bryce; Solano, Wanda M.; Albasini, Colby

    2015-01-01

    Prior to this project, training information for the employees of the National Center for Critical Processing and Storage (NCCIPS) was stored in an array of unrelated spreadsheets and SharePoint lists that had to be manually updated. By developing a content management system through a web application platform named SharePoint, this training system is now highly automated and provides a much less intensive method of storing training data and scheduling training courses. This system was developed by using SharePoint Designer and laying out the data structure for the interaction between different lists of data about the employees. The automation of data population inside of the lists was accomplished by implementing SharePoint workflows which essentially lay out the logic for how data is connected and calculated between certain lists. The resulting training system is constructed from a combination of five lists of data with a single list acting as the user-friendly interface. This interface is populated with the courses required for each employee and includes past and future information about course requirements. The employees of NCCIPS now have the ability to view, log, and schedule their training information and courses with much more ease. This system will relieve a significant amount of manual input and serve as a powerful informational resource for the employees of NCCIPS in the future.

  9. Solution conformations of Zika NS2B-NS3pro and its inhibition by natural products from edible plants

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shagun; Lu, Yimei

    2017-01-01

    The recent Zika viral (ZIKV) epidemic has been associated with severe neurological pathologies such as neonatal microcephaly and Guillain-Barre syndrome but unfortunately no vaccine or medication is effectively available yet. Zika NS2B-NS3pro is essential for the proteolysis of the viral polyprotein and thereby viral replication. Thus NS2B-NS3pro represents an attractive target for anti-Zika drug discovery/design. Here, we have characterized the solution conformations and catalytic parameters of both linked and unlinked Zika NS2B-NS3pro complexes and found that the unlinked complex manifested well-dispersed NMR spectra. Subsequently with selective isotope-labeling using NMR spectroscopy, we demonstrated that C-terminal residues (R73-K100) of NS2B is highly disordered without any stable tertiary and secondary structures in the Zika NS2B-NS3pro complex in the free state. Upon binding to the well-characterized serine protease inhibitor, bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), only the extreme C-terminal residues (L86-K100) remain disordered. Additionally, we have identified five flavonoids and one natural phenol rich in edible plants including fruits and vegetables, which inhibit Zika NS2B-NS3pro in a non-competitive mode, with Ki ranging from 770 nM for Myricetin to 34.02 μM for Apigenin. Molecular docking showed that they all bind to a pocket on the back of the active site and their structure-activity relationship was elucidated. Our study provides valuable insights into the solution conformation of Zika NS2B-NS3pro and further deciphers its susceptibility towards allosteric inhibition by natural products. As these natural product inhibitors fundamentally differ from the currently-known active site inhibitors in terms of both inhibitory mode and chemical scaffold, our finding might open a new avenue for development of better allosteric inhibitors to fight ZIKV infection. PMID:28700665

  10. Is the pro-competition policy an effective solution for China's public hospital reform?

    PubMed

    Pan, Jay; Qin, Xuezheng; Hsieh, Chee-Ruey

    2016-10-01

    The new round of health care reforms in China achieved significant initial results. New and emerging problems coinciding with the deepening of the reforms, however, require further institutional changes to strengthen the competition mechanism and promote public hospital efficiency. This paper provides a conceptual framework and preliminary assessment of public hospital competition in China. Specifically, we distinguish between two closely related concepts - competition and privatization, and identify several critical conditions under which hospital competition can be used as a policy instrument to improve health care delivery in China. We also investigate the current performance and identify several unintended consequences of public hospital competition - mainly, medical arms race, drug over-prescription and the erosion of a trusting relationship between patients and physicians. Finally, we discuss the policy options for enhancing the internal competition in China's hospital market, and conclude that public investment on information provision is key to reaping the positive outcomes of pro-competition policies.

  11. A Point to Share: Streamlining Access Services Workflow through Online Collaboration, Communication, and Storage with Microsoft SharePoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diffin, Jennifer; Chirombo, Fanuel; Nangle, Dennis; de Jong, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article explains how the document management team (circulation and interlibrary loan) at the University of Maryland University College implemented Microsoft's SharePoint product to create a central hub for online collaboration, communication, and storage. Enhancing the team's efficiency, organization, and cooperation was the primary goal.…

  12. A Point to Share: Streamlining Access Services Workflow through Online Collaboration, Communication, and Storage with Microsoft SharePoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diffin, Jennifer; Chirombo, Fanuel; Nangle, Dennis; de Jong, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article explains how the document management team (circulation and interlibrary loan) at the University of Maryland University College implemented Microsoft's SharePoint product to create a central hub for online collaboration, communication, and storage. Enhancing the team's efficiency, organization, and cooperation was the primary goal.…

  13. Cause and solution for false upstream boat velocities measured with a StreamPro acoustic doppler current profiler

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, David S.; Rehmel, Mike S.; Wagner, Chad R.

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, Teledyne RD Instruments introduced the StreamPro acoustic Doppler current profiler which does not include an internal compass. During stationary moving-bed tests the StreamPro often tends to swim or kite from the end of the tether (the instrument rotates then moves laterally in the direction of the rotation). Because the StreamPro does not have an internal compass, it cannot account for the rotation. This rotation and lateral movement of the StreamPro on the end of the tether generates a false upstream velocity, which cannot be easily distinguished from a moving-bed bias velocity. A field test was completed to demonstrate that this rotation and lateral movement causes a false upstream boat velocity. The vector dot product of the boat velocity and the unit vector of the depth-averaged water velocity is shown to be an effective method to account for the effect of the rotation and lateral movement.

  14. Identity Federation and Its Importance for NASA's Future: The SharePoint Extranet Pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baturin, Rebecca R.

    2013-01-01

    My project at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) during the spring 2013 Project Management and Systems Engineering Internship was to functionalJy test and deploy the SharePoint Extranet system and ensure successful completion of the project's various lifecycle milestones as described by NASA Procedural Requirement (NPR) 7 120.7. I worked alongside NASA Project Managers, Systems Integration Engineers, and Information Technology (IT) Professionals to pilot this collaboration capability between NASA and its External Partners. The use of identity federation allows NASA to leverage externally-issued credentials of other federal agencies and private aerospace and defense companies, versus the traditional process of granting and maintaining full NASA identities for these individuals. This is the first system of its kind at NASA and it will serve as a pilot for the Federal Government. Recognizing the novelty of this service, NASA's initial approach for deployment included a pilot period where nearby employees of Patrick Air Force Base would assist in testing and deployment. By utilizing a credential registration process, Air Force users mapped their Air Force-issued Common Access Cards (CAC) to a NASA identity for access to the External SharePoint. Once the Air Force stands up an Active Directory Federation Services (ADFS) instance within their Data Center and establishes a direct trust with NASA, true identity federation can be established. The next partner NASA is targeting for collaboration is Lockheed Martin (LMCO), since they collaborate frequently for the ORION Program. Through the use of Exostar as an identity hub, LMCO employees will be able to access NASA data on a need to know basis, with NASA ultimately managing access. In a time when every dollar and resource is being scrutinized, this capability is an exciting new way for NASA to continue its collaboration efforts in a cost and resource effective manner.

  15. A convergent solution-phase synthesis of the macrocycle Ac-Phe-[Orn-Pro-D-Cha-Trp-Arg], a potent new antiinflammatory drug.

    PubMed

    Reid, Robert C; Abbenante, Giovanni; Taylor, Stephen M; Fairlie, David P

    2003-05-30

    Relatively few cyclic peptides have reached the pharmaceutical marketplace during the past decade, most produced through fermentation rather than made synthetically. Generally, this class of compounds is synthesized for research purposes on milligram scales by solid-phase methods, but if the potential of macrocyclic peptidomimetics is to be realized, low-cost larger scale solution-phase syntheses need to be devised and optimized to provide sufficient quantities for preclinical, clinical, and commercial uses. Here, we describe a cheap, medium-scale, solution-phase synthesis of the first reported highly potent, selective, and orally active antagonist of the human C5a receptor. This compound, Ac-Phe[Orn-Pro-d-Cha-Trp-Arg], known as 3D53, is a macrocyclic peptidomimetic of the human plasma protein C5a and displays excellent antiinflammatory activity in numerous animal models of human disease. In a convergent approach, two tripeptide fragments Ac-Phe-Orn(Boc)-Pro-OH and H-d-Cha-Trp(For)-Arg-OEt were first prepared by high-yielding solution-phase couplings using a mixed anhydride method before coupling them to give a linear hexapeptide which, after deprotection, was obtained in 38% overall yield from the commercially available amino acids. Cyclization in solution using BOP reagent gave the antagonist in 33% yield (13% overall) after HPLC purification. Significant features of the synthesis were that the Arg side chain was left unprotected throughout, the component Boc-d-Cha-OH was obtained very efficiently via hydrogenation of d-Phe with PtO(2) in TFA/water, the tripeptides were coupled at the Pro-Cha junction to minimize racemization via the oxazolone pathway, and the entire synthesis was carried out without purification of any intermediates. The target cyclic product was purified (>97%) by reversed-phase HPLC. This convergent synthesis with minimal use of protecting groups allowed batches of 50-100 g to be prepared efficiently in high yield using standard laboratory

  16. [Influence of different ultrasonic irrigation solutions after root canal preparation with ProTaper by machine on micro-hardness of root canal dentin].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiang-li; Zhang, Yan; Zhen, Lei

    2015-08-01

    To develope the influence of different ultrasonic irrigations after root canal preparation with nickel titanium ProTaper on micro-hardness of root canal dentin. Sixty of maxillary anterior teeth with single-canal were collected and randomly divided into 6 groups. Group A was control group, group B was prepared to F3 with nickel titanium ProTaper by machine, group C was ultrasonic irrigated with 3% hydrogen peroxide solution for 1 minute after preparation, group D was ultrasonic irrigated with koutai mouthwash for 1 minute after preparation, group E was ultrasonic irrigated with 17% EDTA solution for 1 minute after preparation, group F was ultrasonic irrigated with distilled water for 1 minute after preparation. The roots were then sectioned horizontally into 3 parts, split longitudinally into halves and examined under a micro Vickers hardness test machine. The data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA and t test with SPSS 17.0 software package. The micro-hardness of group A was (52.66 ± 1.64) HV,(52.08 ± 1.53) HV and (51.47 ± 2.53) HV. There was no significant difference in all parts of the root canal in group A (P>0.05). The micro-hardness of the apical third of root canal was lower than that of the cervical and middle of root canal in the other groups (P<0.05). In the cervical and middle third of the root canals, the micro-hardness of group E was (44.65 ± 1.33) HV and(42.55 ± 1.12) HV, and there were statistical significances between group E and the other groups (P<0.05). In the apical third of root canal,the micro-hardness of group E was (37.82 ± 1.60) HV, and group C was (44.14±1.73) HV, both of the comparative differences with other groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). There was no significant difference among group B, group D and group F (P>0.05). Root canal preparation to F3 with nickel titanium ProTaper by machine can make the micro-hardness of the apical third of root canal decrease. Ultrasonic irrigation with 17% EDTA solution for 1 minute can

  17. The Chinese pharmaceutical market at the crossroads: pro-competition solutions to improve access, quality and affordability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Richard

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese pharmaceutical market is large in absolute size (the second largest in Asia), but it faces similar problems to those that plague other developing countries, such as a lack of adequate patent protection, low pharmaceutical spending per capita, but high pharmaceutical expenditure as a proportion of total medical spending, and a lack of health insurance coverage. In this article, the pros and cons of two pro-competition policy proposals for China are explored. The first proposal is to follow the E5 guideline of the International Conference on Harmonisation and waive unnecessary local clinical trials for global new drugs that have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration or the European Medicines Agency (except for drugs for which there is a real possibility of there being ethnic differences in patient responses). The second proposal is to tighten the standards for generic drugs and approve only bioequivalent ones. While the first proposal encourages price competition between similar compounds in the same therapeutic class, the second proposal enhances generic competition for off-patent drugs. Working together, these two proposals would improve access to and the quality and affordability of pharmaceuticals in China.

  18. Genie Pro

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, S.; Esch-Mosher, D.; Edlund, K.; Eads, D.; Galassi, M.; Theiler, J.; Porter, R.; Harvey, N.; Brumby, S.

    2004-05-15

    Genie Pro is a general purpose, interactive, adaptive tool for automatically labeling regions and finding objects in large amounts of image data. Genie Pro uses supervised learning techniques to search for spatio-spectral algorithms that are best able to match exaple labels provided by a user during a training session. After Genie Pro has discovered a useful algorithm, this algorith can then be applied to other similar types of image data, to label regions and objects similar to those provided during the training session. Genie Pro was originally developed for analyzing multispectral satellite data, but it works equally well with panchromatic (grayscale) and hyperspectral satellite data, aerial imagery, and various kinds of medical imagery. AS a rough guideline, Genie Pro can work with any imagery where the scene being imaged is all approximately at a constant distance fromt he imaging device, and so the scale of imagery is fixed. Applications for Genie Pro include: Crop and terrain type mapping, Road and river network mapping, Broad area search for vehicles and buildings, and Cancer identification in histological images.

  19. Calculation of the three-dimensional structures of two antigenic sequences, pro-pro-pro-pro-asn-pro-asn-asp-pro and pro-pro-pro-pro-asn-pro-asn-asp-pro-pro-pro, of the circumsporozoite protein from a malaria-causing Plasmodium.

    PubMed

    Pincus, Matthew R; Carty, Robert P; Harding, Michael; Epstein, William

    2013-01-01

    Using the chain build-up procedure based on the program ECEPP, we have computed the lowest energy structures for two terminally blocked subsequences from the antigenic circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium berghei, that is known to cause malaria in animals. The full antigenic sequence is an octapeptide proline-rich tandem repeat, (Pro-Pro-Pro-Pro-Asn-Pro-Asn-Asp)(2). We computed the structures for the first octapeptide plus one Pro from the second octapeptide, terminally blocked CH(3)CO-Pro-Pro-Pro-Pro-Asn-Pro-Asn-Asp-Pro-NHCH(3) as well as the first octpeptide with an additional three Pro residues from the adjoining unit, i.e., CH(3)CO-Pro-Pro-Pro-Pro-Asn-Pro-Asn-Asp-Pro-Pro-Pro-NHCH(3). We find that the first sequence adopts a number of different low energy structures, the most probable of which has a probability of occurrence of 56 %. Addition of two more Pro residues results in the adoption a single, unique lowest energy structure that has a probability of occurrence of over 95 % without solvation effects and 86 % when solvation effects are included in the calculations. We predict that this structure may be the one recognized as a major antigenic determinant.

  20. Furosemide loading test in a case of homozygous solute carrier family 12, member 1 (SLC12A1) mutation (g.62382825G>A, p.Pro372Leu) in Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Kiyotoshi; Sasaki, Shinji; Sakamoto, Yoichi; Takano, Akifumi; Takayama, Megumi; Higashi, Tomoko; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Yasuda, Yasuaki

    2017-04-12

    Hydrallantois is the excessive accumulation of fluid in the allantoic cavity in a pregnant animal and is associated with fetal death. We recently identified a recessive missense mutation in the solute carrier family 12, member 1 (SLC12A1) gene (g.62382825G>A, p.Pro372Leu) that is associated with hydrallantois in Japanese Black cattle. Unexpectedly, we found a case of the homozygous risk-allele for SLC12A1 in a calf, using a PCR-based direct DNA sequencing test. The homozygote was outwardly healthy up to 3 months of age and the mother did not exhibit any clinical symptoms of hydrallantois. In order to validate these observations, we performed confirmation tests for the genotype and a diuretic loading test using furosemide, which inhibits the transporter activity of the SLC12A1 protein. The results showed that the calf was really homozygous for the risk-allele. In the homozygous calf, administration of furosemide did not alter urinary Na(+) or Cl(-) levels, in contrast to the heterozygote and wild-type calves in which these were significantly increased. These results demonstrate that the SLC12A1 (g.62382825G>A, p.Pro372Leu) is a hypomorphic or loss-of-function mutation and the hydrallantois with this mutation shows incomplete penetrance in Japanese Black cattle.

  1. Solution structure of a novel T-cell adhesion inhibitor derived from the fragment of ICAM-1 receptor: cyclo(1,8)-Cys-Pro-Arg-Gly-Gly-Ser-Val-Cys.

    PubMed

    Tejo, Bimo A; Siahaan, Teruna J

    2009-08-01

    This study is aimed at elucidating the structure of a novel T-cell adhesion inhibitor, cyclo(1,8)-CPRGGSVC using one- and two-dimensional (2D) (1)H NMR and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The peptide is derived from the sequence of its parent peptide cIBR (cyclo(1,12)-PenPRGGSVLVTGC), which is a fragment of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Our previous results show that the cyclo(1,8)-CPRGGSVC peptide binds to the LFA-1 I-domain and inhibits heterotypic T-cell adhesion, presumably by blocking the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interactions. The structure of the peptide was determined using NMR and MD simulation in aqueous solution. Our results indicate that the peptide adopts type-I beta-turn conformation at the Pro2-Arg3-Gly4-Gly5 (PRGG) sequence. The beta-turn structure at the PRGG motif is well conserved in cIBR peptide and ICAM-1 receptor, which suggests the importance of the PRGG motif for the biological activity of cyclo(1,8)-CPRGGSVC peptide. Meanwhile, the Gly5-Ser6-Val7-Cys8-Cys1 (GSVCC) sequence forms a "turn-like" random coil structure that does not belong to any structured motif. Therefore, cyclo(1,8)-CPRGGSVC peptide has only one structured region at the PRGG sequence, which may play an important role in the binding of the peptide to the LFA-1 I-domain. The conserved beta-turn conformation of the PRGG motif in ICAM-1, cIBR, and cyclo(1,8)-CPRGGSVC peptides can potentially be used to design peptidomimetics. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 91: 633-641, 2009.This article was originally published online as an accepted preprint. The "Published Online" date corresponds to the preprint version. You can request a copy of the preprint by emailing the Biopolymers editorial office at biopolymers@wiley.com.

  2. ProMat

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-12

    ProMAT is a software tool for statistically analyzing data from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay microarray experiments. The software estimates standard curves, sample protein concentrations and their uncertainties for multiple assays. ProMAT generates a set of comprehensive figures for assessing results and diagnosing process quality. The tool is available for Windows or Mac, and is distributed as open-source Java and R code

  3. Fibrinopeptide A binds Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro.

    PubMed Central

    Root-Bernstein, R S; Westall, F C

    1984-01-01

    The tetrapeptide Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro inhibits fibrinogen aggregation, probably by binding to the same sites used during initiation of fibrin formation. The Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro binding sites have not yet been identified. However, their possible sequence and locations have been predicted on the basis of the amino acid pairing hypothesis. One of these predicted sites is on fibrinopeptide A. We report here that nuclear magnetic resonance studies indicate that Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro binds to fibrinopeptide A with a binding constant, K, of ca. 10(4) per mol. We also report results of 19 related peptide combinations used as controls. PMID:6589598

  4. Two states of the triple helix in the thermal transition of the collagen model peptide (Pro-Pro-Gly)10.

    PubMed

    Kai, T; Uchiyama, S; Nishi, Y; Kobayashi, Y; Tomiyama, T

    2004-08-01

    The collagen model peptide (Pro-Pro-Gly)10 is known to fold into a triple helix in solution. So far, the triple helix has been considered to exist as a single state. However, our previous study of (Pro-Pro-Gly)10 in solution has indicated the presence of two different states of the triple helix, a lower (HL) and a higher temperature state (HH). In the present study, these triple-helical states were investigated in more detail by NMR. Complete stereospecific assignments of the methylene protons of the proline residues were accomplished by the use of NOESY and TOCSY spectra. The temperature dependence of the 1H chemical shifts showed that the HL-to-HH thermal transition can be attributed to a conformational change of the first proline (Pro1) residues of the (Pro-Pro-Gly) triplets. Since TOCSY spectra with a 10 ms mixing-time confirmed a down puckering of these Pro residues in the HL state, but interconverting down and up puckerings in the HH state, the HL-to-HH thermal transition corresponds to conformational changes of the pyrrolidine rings of the Pro1 residues from an uniform down puckering to a more flexible state. The results confirm that thermal unfolding of the triple helix proceeds through the intermediate HH state.

  5. c[D-pro-Pro-D-pro-N-methyl-Ala] adopts a rigid conformation that serves as a scaffold to mimic reverse-turns.

    PubMed

    Arbor, Sage; Kao, Jeff; Wu, Yun; Marshall, Garland R

    2008-01-01

    Naturally occurring cyclic tetrapeptides (CTPs) such as tentoxin (Halloin et al., Plant Physiol 1970, 45, 310-314; Saad, Phytopathology 1970, 60, 415-418), ampicidin (Darkin-Rattray, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996, 93, 13143-13147), HC-toxin (Walton, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987, 84, 8444-8447), and trapoxin (Yoshida and Sugita, Jpn J Cancer Res 1992, 83, 324-328; Itazaki et al., J Antibiot (Tokyo) 1990, 43, 1524-1532) have a wide range of biological activity and potential use ranging from herbicides (Walton, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987, 84, 8444-8447; Judson, J Agric Food Chem 1987, 35, 451-456) to therapeutics (Loiseau, Biopolymers 2003, 69, 363-385) for malaria (Darkin-Rattray, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996, 93, 13143-13147) and cancer (Yoshida and Sugita, Jpn J Cancer Res 1992, 83, 324-328). To elucidate scaffolds that have few low-energy conformations and could serve as semirigid reverse-turn mimetics, the flexibility of CTPs was determined computationally. Four analogs of cyclic tetraproline c[Pro-pro-Pro-pro] with alternating L- and D-prolines, namely c[pro-Pro-pro-NMe-Ala], c[pip-Pro-pip-Pro], c[pro-Pip-pro-Pro], and c[Ala-Pro-pip-Pro] were synthesized and characterized by NOESY NMR. Both molecular mechanics and Density Functional Theory quantum calculations found these head-to-tail CTPs to be constrained to one or two relatively stable conformations. NMR structures, while not always yielding the same lowest energy conformation as expected by in silico predictions, confirmed only one or two highly populated solution conformations for all four peptides examined. c[pro-Pro-pro-NMe-Ala] was shown to have a single all trans-amide bond conformation from both in silico predictions and NMR characterization, and to be a reverse-turn mimetic by overlapping four Calpha-Cbeta bonds with those for approximately 6.5% (Tran, J Comput Aided Mol Des 2005, 19, 551-566) of reverse-turns in the Protein Data Bank PDB with a RMSD of 0.57 A.

  6. PRO-140 (Progenics).

    PubMed

    Poli, G

    2001-09-01

    PRO-140, a monoclonal antibody against the HIV coreceptor CCR5, is under investigation by Progenics and the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center (ADARC) as a potential treatment for HIV infection [211441], [286246], [286247]. Phase I/II trials were expected to commence during 2001 [395621], [409142], despite being initially planned for 2000 [322637], [361819], [365216], [375598], [408483]. In January 1998, ADARC and Progenics reported that the HIV binding site on the CCR5 coreceptor is distinct from betachemokine binding domains, which they claimed may allow for the development of therapeutics with fewer side effects [273391], 421256]. In vitro studies have shown PRO-140 potently blocked all of 17 primary HIV isolates that use CCR5 as a fusion coreceptor [342173]. In October 2000, Progenics was awarded an SBIR grant to fund a 2-year project exploring the breadth, potency and durability of PRO-140 therapy in laboratory and animal models of HIV infection. This project was a collaboration between Progenics, Weill Medical College of Cornell University and the Scripps Research Institute [385982]. In May 1999, the company entered into an agreement with Protein Design Labs (PDL) for the humanization by PDL of PRO-140 [325445]. In November 1997, Progenics was awarded a 600,000 dollars grant from the NIAID for the examination of new approaches to HIV vaccine design based on CCR5 [268407].

  7. TOXIRAE PRO PID

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ToxiRAE Pro PID measures total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a photoionization detector (PID). This sensor can be programmed to measure concentrations of a specified compound automatically and has a real time reading of VOC concentrations in parts per million (ppm) ...

  8. TOXIRAE PRO PID

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ToxiRAE Pro PID measures total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a photoionization detector (PID). This sensor can be programmed to measure concentrations of a specified compound automatically and has a real time reading of VOC concentrations in parts per million (ppm) ...

  9. The effects of super-flux (high performance) dialyzer on plasma glycosylated pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP) and glycosylated N-Terminal proBNP in end-stage renal disease patients on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yasuaki; Nishikimi, Toshio; Kuwahara, Koichiro; Yasuno, Shinji; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Kuwabara, Yoshihiro; Nakao, Kazuhiro; Minami, Takeya; Yamada, Chinatsu; Ueshima, Kenji; Ikeda, Yoshihiro; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Horii, Kazukiyo; Nagata, Kiyoshi; Kangawa, Kenji; Minamino, Naoto; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2014-01-01

    Plasma BNP levels are predictive of prognosis in hemodialysis patients. However, recent studies showed that the current BNP immunoassay cross-reacts with glycosylated proBNP, and the NT-proBNP assay underestimates glycosylated NT-proBNP. In addition, the recently developed high performance dialyzer removes medium-sized molecular solutes such as β2-microgloburin. We therefore investigated the effects of high performance dialysis on measured levels of glycosylated proBNP, glycosylated NT-proBNP and other BNP-related peptides in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on hemodialysis. The relationships between clinical parameters and BNP-related molecule were also investigated. We used our newly developed immunoassay to measure plasma total BNP and proBNP in 105 normal subjects and 36 ESRD patients before and after hemodialysis. Plasma NT-proBNP was measured using Elecsys II after treatment with or without deglycosylating enzymes. We also measured plasma ANP and cGMP using radioimmunoassays. All the measured BNP-related peptides were significantly higher in ESRD patients than healthy subjects. Total BNP (-38.9%), proBNP (-29.7%), glycoNT-proBNP (-45.5%), nonglycoNT-proBNP (-53.4%), ANP (-50.4%) and cGMP (-72.1%) were all significantly reduced after hemodialysis, and the magnitude of the reduction appeared molecular weight- dependent. Both the proBNP/total BNP and glycoNT-proBNP/nonglycoNT-proBNP ratios were increased after hemodialysis. The former correlated positively with hemodialysis vintage and negatively with systolic blood pressure, while the latter correlated positively with parathyroid hormone levels. These results suggest that hemodialysis using super-flux dialyzer removes BNP-related peptides in a nearly molecular weight-dependent manner. The ProBNP/total BNP and glycoNT-proBNP/nonglycoNT-proBNP ratios appear to be influenced by hemodialysis-related parameters in ESRD patients on hemodialysis.

  10. Pro-Active Behavior Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, James E., Jr.

    The paper outlines the basic tactics in pro-active behavior management, a behavior modification approach for use with severely handicapped students which reorders the staff/student relationship by focusing on positive interaction. Pro-active behavior management is noted to involve interruption of established behavior chains, environmental…

  11. Synthesis, DNA recognition and cleavage studies of novel tetrapeptide complexes, Cu(II)/Zn(II)-Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjmand, Farukh; Jamsheera, A.; Mohapatra, D. K.

    2013-05-01

    New tetrapeptide complexes Cu(II)·Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro (1) and Zn(II)·Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro (2) were synthesized from the reaction of tetrapeptide, Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro and CuCl2/ZnCl2 and were thoroughly characterized by elemental analysis, IR,1H and 13C NMR (in case of 2), ESI-MS, UV and molar conductance measurements. The solution stability study was carried out employing UV-vis absorption titrations over a broad range of pH which suggested the stability of the complexes in solution. In vitro interaction of complexes 1 and 2 with CT-DNA was studied employing UV-vis, fluorescence, circular dichroic and viscometry studies. To throw insight into molecular binding event at the target site, UV-vis titrations of 1 and 2 with mononucleotides of interest viz.; 5'-GMP and 5'-TMP were carried out. Cleavage activity of the complexes with pBR322 plasmid DNA was evaluated by agarose gel electrophoresis and, the electrophoresis pattern demonstrated that both the complexes 1 and 2 are efficient cleavage agents. Further, the Cu(II) complex displayed efficient oxidative cleavage of supercoiled DNA while various reactive oxygen species are responsible for the cleavage in Zn(II) complex.

  12. Experimental results from RO-PRO: a next generation system for low-energy desalination.

    PubMed

    Achilli, Andrea; Prante, Jeri L; Hancock, Nathan T; Maxwell, Eric B; Childress, Amy E

    2014-06-03

    A pilot system was designed and constructed to evaluate reverse osmosis (RO) energy reduction that can be achieved using pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO). The RO-PRO experimental system is the first known system to utilize energy from a volume of water transferred from atmospheric pressure to elevated pressure across a semipermeable membrane to prepressurize RO feedwater. In other words, the system demonstrated that pressure could be exchanged between PRO and RO subsystems. Additionally, the first experimental power density data for a RO-PRO system is now available. Average experimental power densities for the RO-PRO system ranged from 1.1 to 2.3 W/m2. This is higher than previous river-to-sea PRO pilot systems (1.5 W/m2) and closer to the goal of 5 W/m2 that would make PRO an economically feasible technology. Furthermore, isolated PRO system testing was performed to evaluate PRO element performance with higher cross-flow velocities and power densities exceeding 8 W/m2 were achieved with a 28 g/L NaCl draw solution. From this empirical data, inferences for future system performance can be drawn that indicate future RO-PRO systems may reduce the specific energy requirements for desalination by ∼1 kWh/m3.

  13. ["Pro Ana": Psychodynamic References for Anorexia Nervosa].

    PubMed

    Siefert, Linda

    2017-02-01

    "Pro Ana": Psychodynamic References for Anorexia Nervosa The internet-based phenomenon "Pro Ana" refers to the eating disorder anorexia nervosa in a positive way. To understand what the phenomenon "Pro Ana" represents, the websites are used as a starting point of the current analysis. Based on these results, similarities and differences between "Pro Ana" and the eating disorder anorexia nervosa are discussed. Furthermore psychodynamic references for anorexia nervosa are derived and finally their importance for treatment motivation will be considered.

  14. Corner Office: ProQuest's Marty Kahn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fialkoff, Francine; Oder, Norman

    2009-01-01

    In a scant three years at ProQuest, Marty Kahn, CEO, has moved a company coming out of a financial morass back onto solid ground. He came on board after the purchase of ProQuest Information and Learning by the (mostly) privately owned Cambridge Information Group in late 2006 and the merger of ProQuest and CSA to form ProQuest CSA. (It's now just…

  15. Corner Office: ProQuest's Marty Kahn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fialkoff, Francine; Oder, Norman

    2009-01-01

    In a scant three years at ProQuest, Marty Kahn, CEO, has moved a company coming out of a financial morass back onto solid ground. He came on board after the purchase of ProQuest Information and Learning by the (mostly) privately owned Cambridge Information Group in late 2006 and the merger of ProQuest and CSA to form ProQuest CSA. (It's now just…

  16. Tempus Pro Patient Monitoring System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-03

    5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Remote...En route care, vital signs, monitoring, expeditionary 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME...record. Tempus Pro is a multi-parameter vital signs monitor designed for use in pre-hospital and remote locations. AF3899L, Patient Movement Record

  17. [Pro Familia statistics for 1974].

    PubMed

    1975-09-01

    Statistics for 1974 for the West German family planning organization Pro Familia are reported. 56 offices are now operating, and 23,726 clients were seen. Men were seen more frequently than previously. 10,000 telephone calls were also handled. 16-25 year olds were increasingly represented in the clientele, as were unmarried persons of all ages. 1,242 patients were referred to physicians or clinics for clinical diagnosis.

  18. Rat pro-opiomelanocortin contains sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshina, H.; Hortin, G.; Boime, I.

    1982-07-02

    Intermediate lobes isolated from rat pituitary glands incorporated (/sup 35/S)sulfate into pro-opiomelanocortin and other adrenocorticotropic hormone-containing peptides. Incubation of intermediate lobes in medium containing the arginine analog canavanine inhibited the cleavage of pro-opiomelanocortin into smaller products. Pro-opiomelanocortin that accumulated in the presence of canavanine was also sulfated.

  19. Neuronal release of proBDNF.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianmin; Siao, Chia-Jen; Nagappan, Guhan; Marinic, Tina; Jing, Deqiang; McGrath, Kelly; Chen, Zhe-Yu; Mark, Willie; Tessarollo, Lino; Lee, Francis S; Lu, Bai; Hempstead, Barbara L

    2009-02-01

    Pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) and mature BDNF utilize distinct receptors to mediate divergent neuronal actions. Using new tools to quantitate endogenous BDNF isoforms, we found that mouse neurons secrete both proBDNF and mature BDNF. The highest levels of proBDNF and p75 were observed perinatally and declined, but were still detectable, in adulthood. Thus, BDNF actions are developmentally regulated by secretion of proBDNF or mature BDNF and by local expression of p75 and TrkB.

  20. ProMAT: protein microarray analysis tool

    SciTech Connect

    White, Amanda M.; Daly, Don S.; Varnum, Susan M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bollinger, Nikki; Zangar, Richard C.

    2006-04-04

    Summary: ProMAT is a software tool for statistically analyzing data from ELISA microarray experiments. The software estimates standard curves, sample protein concentrations and their uncertainties for multiple assays. ProMAT generates a set of comprehensive figures for assessing results and diagnosing process quality. The tool is available for Windows or Mac, and is distributed as open-source Java and R code. Availability: ProMAT is available at http://www.pnl.gov/statistics/ProMAT. ProMAT requires Java version 1.5.0 and R version 1.9.1 (or more recent versions) which are distributed with the tool.

  1. NGF and proNGF Reciprocal Interference in Immunoassays: Open Questions, Criticalities, and Ways Forward

    PubMed Central

    Malerba, Francesca; Paoletti, Francesca; Cattaneo, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    The homeostasis between mature neurotrophin NGF and its precursor proNGF is thought to be crucial in physiology and in pathological states. Therefore, the measurement of the relative amounts of NGF and proNGF could serve as a footprint for the identification of disease states, for diagnostic purposes. Since NGF is part of proNGF, their selective identification with anti-NGF antibodies is not straightforward. Currently, many immunoassays for NGF measurement are available, while the proNGF assays are few and not validated by published information. The question arises, as to whether the commercially available assays are able to distinguish between the two forms. Also, since in biological samples the two forms coexist, are the measurements of one species affected by the presence of the other? We describe experiments addressing these questions. For the first time, NGF and proNGF were measured together and tested in different immunoassays. Unexpectedly, NGF and proNGF were found to reciprocally interfere with the experimental outcome. The interference also calls into question the widely used NGF ELISA methods, applied to biological samples where NGF and proNGF coexist. Therefore, an immunoassay, able to distinguish between the two forms is needed. We propose possible ways forward, toward the development of a selective assay. In particular, the use of the well validated anti-NGF αD11 antibody in an alphaLISA assay with optimized incubation times would be a solution to avoid the interference in the measurement of a mixed sample containing NGF and proNGF. Furthermore, we explored the possibility of measuring proNGF in a biological sample. But the available commercial kit for the detection of proNGF does not allow the measurement of proNGF in mouse brain tissues. Therefore, we validated an SPR approach for the measurement of proNGF in a biological sample. Our experiments help in understanding the technical limits in the measurement of the NGF/proNGF ratio in biological

  2. proPSA — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    ProPSA (-2), or [-2]proPSA, is a PSA isoform which has a leader peptide (-2) amino acids at its N terminal region and does not interact with ACT or alpha-2-macroglobulin or spermidine and therefore is detected as a separate isoform. ProPSA is produced primarily in the peripheral zone of the prostate gland and therefore is very useful in distinguishing between prostate cancer patients with PSA range of 2-10, from those who have BPH. Percent proPSA is the ratio of proPSA to free PSA. In July 2012 the FDA approved an assay measuring levels of [-2]proPSA for monitoring and diagnostic purposes.

  3. Clinton administration shows pro-gas bias

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, L.

    1993-02-01

    President Bill Clinton's cabinet appointments signify a strong shift to more pro-environmental, proconservation energy policies. Clinton signaled a pro-consumer, pro-conservation tilt for the Energy Department with the nomination of Hazel O'Leary, an executive vice president of Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, to be Secretary of Energy. O'Leary will be responsible for implementing the new National Energy Policy Act, which must resolve a number of energy efficiency and conservation issues.

  4. Neuronal release of proBDNF

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianmin; Siao, Chia-Jen; Nagappan, Guhan; Marinic, Tina; Jing, Deqiang; McGrath, Kelly; Chen, Zhe-Yu; Mark, Willie; Tessarollo, Lino; Lee, Francis S; Lu, Bai; Hempstead, Barbara L

    2009-01-01

    Pro–brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) and mature BDNF utilize distinct receptors to mediate divergent neuronal actions. Using new tools to quantitate endogenous BDNF isoforms, we found that mouse neurons secrete both proBDNF and mature BDNF. The highest levels of proBDNF and p75 were observed perinatally and declined, but were still detectable, in adulthood. Thus, BDNF actions are developmentally regulated by secretion of proBDNF or mature BDNF and by local expression of p75 and TrkB. PMID:19136973

  5. The PRO-ACT database

    PubMed Central

    Berry, James; Shui, Amy; Zach, Neta; Sherman, Alexander; Sinani, Ervin; Walker, Jason; Katsovskiy, Igor; Schoenfeld, David; Cudkowicz, Merit; Leitner, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To pool data from completed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) clinical trials and create an open-access resource that enables greater understanding of the phenotype and biology of ALS. Methods: Clinical trials data were pooled from 16 completed phase II/III ALS clinical trials and one observational study. Over 8 million de-identified longitudinally collected data points from over 8,600 individuals with ALS were standardized across trials and merged to create the Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials (PRO-ACT) database. This database includes demographics, family histories, and longitudinal clinical and laboratory data. Mixed effects models were used to describe the rate of disease progression measured by the Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) and vital capacity (VC). Cox regression models were used to describe survival data. Implementing Bonferroni correction, the critical p value for 15 different tests was p = 0.003. Results: The ALSFRS-R rate of decline was 1.02 (±2.3) points per month and the VC rate of decline was 2.24% of predicted (±6.9) per month. Higher levels of uric acid at trial entry were predictive of a slower drop in ALSFRS-R (p = 0.01) and VC (p < 0.0001), and longer survival (p = 0.02). Higher levels of creatinine at baseline were predictive of a slower drop in ALSFRS-R (p = 0.01) and VC (p < 0.0001), and longer survival (p = 0.01). Finally, higher body mass index (BMI) at baseline was associated with longer survival (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The PRO-ACT database is the largest publicly available repository of merged ALS clinical trials data. We report that baseline levels of creatinine and uric acid, as well as baseline BMI, are strong predictors of disease progression and survival. PMID:25298304

  6. Vilification and Social Movements: A Case Study of Pro-Life and Pro-Choice Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderford, Marsha L.

    1989-01-01

    Examines vilification (a rhetorical strategy which discredits adversaries as ungenuine and malevolent advocates) in the rhetoric of pro-life and pro-choice movements in Minnesota between 1973 and 1980. (SR)

  7. Phase behavior and crystallogenesis under counter-diffusion conditions of the collagen-model peptide (Pro-Pro-Gly) 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergara, Alessandro; Castagnolo, Dario; Carotenuto, Luigi; Vitagliano, Luigi; Berisio, Rita; Sorrentino, Giosué; González-Ramírez, Luis; García-Ruiz, Juan; Zagari, Adriana

    2009-01-01

    Single chains of the collagen-model polypeptide with sequence (Pro-Pro-Gly) 10, hereafter referred to as (PPG) 10, aggregate to form rod-shaped triple helices. Precipitation diagrams of (PPG) 10 as a function of pH and various molecular mass poly(ethylene glycol) concentrations have been measured. These results were used to design experiments to test the quality of (PPG) 10 crystal grown on ground (in gelled and free solutions) and in space in two different facilities, the Advanced Protein Crystallization Facility based on the free-interface diffusion technique and the Granada Crystallization Facility based on counter-diffusion technique. Experiments were monitored by optical microscopy on earth. X-ray diffraction analysis of the grown crystals reveals the benefit of the counter-diffusion technique.

  8. Synthesis of poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly)(n) by direct poly-condensation of (Pro-Hyp-Gly)(n), where n=1, 5, and 10, and stability of the triple-helical structure.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Takahiro; Morihara, Yasushi; Osanai, Michinori; Ogata, Shin-Ichi; Kamitakahara, Masanobu; Ohtsuki, Chikara; Tanihara, Masao

    2005-10-15

    Pro-Hyp-Gly is a characteristic amino acid sequence found in fibrous collagens, and (Pro-Hyp-Gly)(10), which has been widely used as a collagen-model peptide, forms a stable triple-helical structure. Here, we synthesized polypeptides consisting of the Pro-Hyp-Gly sequence by direct poly-condensation of (Pro-Hyp-Gly)(n), where n=1, 5, and 10, using 1-hydroxybenzotriazole and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-aminopropyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride in both phosphate buffer (pH=7.4) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solutions for 48 h at 20 degrees C. The reaction of (Pro-Hyp-Gly)(5) and (Pro-Hyp-Gly)(10) in DMSO successfully gave polypeptides with molecular weights over 10,000, whereas low molecular weight products were obtained by reaction in phosphate buffer (pH=7.4). In contrast, Pro-Hyp-Gly at a concentration of 50 mg/mL in phosphate buffer (pH=7.4) gave polypeptides with molecular weights over 10,000. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly)(10) revealed that the polymerization of (Pro-Hyp-Gly)(10) described in this report had no side reactions. Each polypeptide obtained shows a collagen-like triple-helical structure, and the triple-helical structures of poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly) and poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly)(10) were stable up to T=80 degrees C, which suggests that the high molecular weight promotes stability of the triple-helical structure, in addition to the high Hyp content. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations show that poly(Pro-Hyp-Gly)(10) aggregates to form nanofiber-like structures about 10 nm in width, which suggests that a Pro-Hyp-Gly repeating sequence contains enough information for triple-helix formation, and for subsequent nanofiber-like structure formation.

  9. AnswerPro: Designing to Motivate Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlSugair, Balsam; Hopkins, Gail; FitzGerald, Elizabeth; Brailsford, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and initial testing of AnswerPro, a mobile academic peer support system for school pupils aged 11-16 years. AnswerPro is a mobile optimised web application that enables pupils to seek support with school work from knowledgeable peers on various subjects. This paper presents research findings from the project, and in…

  10. AnswerPro: Designing to Motivate Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlSugair, Balsam; Hopkins, Gail; FitzGerald, Elizabeth; Brailsford, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and initial testing of AnswerPro, a mobile academic peer support system for school pupils aged 11-16 years. AnswerPro is a mobile optimised web application that enables pupils to seek support with school work from knowledgeable peers on various subjects. This paper presents research findings from the project, and in…

  11. Integrated Programs and Pro-Environmental Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Research suggested that "nature experience as an education method played a role in developing environmental value and attitudes, and was influential in pro-environmental behaviour." Few of these studies however, assessed the long-term influences of outdoor education experiences on participants' pro-environmental behaviour. The Outward…

  12. Conformational characterization of Nerve growth factor-β reveals that its regulatory pro-part domain stabilizes three loop regions in its mature part.

    PubMed

    Trabjerg, Esben; Kartberg, Fredrik; Christensen, Søren; Rand, Kasper D

    2017-08-10

    Nerve growth factor-β (NGF) is essential for correct development of the nervous system. NGF exists both in a mature and a pro-form (proNGF). The two forms have opposing effects on neurons, in which NGF induces proliferation, while proNGF induces apoptosis via binding to a receptor complex of the common neurotrophine receptor (p75NTR) and Sortilin. Overexpression of both proNGF and Sortilin has been associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. Insights into the conformational differences between proNGF and NGF are central to a better understanding of the opposing mechanisms of action of NGF and proNGF on neurons. However, while the structure of NGF has been determined by X-ray crystallography, structural details for proNGF remain elusive. Here, using a sensitive MS-based analytical method to measure the hydrogen/deuterium exchange of proteins in solution, we analyzed the conformational properties of proNGF and NGF. We detected the presence of a localized higher-order structure in the pro-part of proNGF. Furthermore, by comparing the hydrogen/deuterium exchange in the mature part of NGF and proNGF, we found that the presence of the pro-part in proNGF causes a structural stabilization of three loop regions in the mature part, possibly through a direct molecular interaction. Moreover, using tandem MS analyses, we identified two N-linked and two O-linked glycosylations in the pro-part of proNGF. These results advance our knowledge of the conformational properties of proNGF and NGF and help provide a rationale for the diverse biological effects of NGF and proNGF at the molecular level. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  13. Structural Analysis of Tobacco Etch Potyvirus HC-Pro Oligomers Involved in Aphid Transmission†

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Ferrer, Virginia; Boskovic, Jasminka; Alfonso, Carlos; Rivas, Germán; Llorca, Oscar; López-Abella, Dionisio; López-Moya, Juan José

    2005-01-01

    Oligomeric forms of the HC-Pro protein of the tobacco etch potyvirus (TEV) have been analyzed by analytical ultracentrifugation and single-particle electron microscopy combined with three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. Highly purified HC-Pro protein was obtained from plants infected with TEV by using a modified version of the virus that incorporates a histidine tag at the HC-Pro N terminus (hisHC-Pro). The purified protein retained a high biological activity in solution when tested for aphid transmission. Sedimentation equilibrium showed that the hisHC-Pro preparations were heterogenous in size. Sedimentation velocity confirmed the previous observation and revealed that the active protein solution contained several sedimenting species compatible with dimers, tetramers, hexamers, and octamers of the protein. Electron microscopy fields of purified protein showed particles of different sizes and shapes. The reconstructed 3D structures suggested that the observed particles could correspond to dimeric, tetrameric, and hexameric forms of the protein. A model of the interactions required for oligomerization of the HC-Pro of potyviruses is proposed. PMID:15731269

  14. Pro-sociality without empathy

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Marco; Hollis, Karen; Nowbahari, Elise; Kacelnik, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Empathy, the capacity to recognize and share feelings experienced by another individual, is an important trait in humans, but is not the same as pro-sociality, the tendency to behave so as to benefit another individual. Given the importance of understanding empathy's evolutionary emergence, it is unsurprising that many studies attempt to find evidence for it in other species. To address the question of what should constitute evidence for empathy, we offer a critical comparison of two recent studies of rescuing behaviour that report similar phenomena but are interpreted very differently by their authors. In one of the studies, rescue behaviour in rats was interpreted as providing evidence for empathy, whereas in the other, rescue behaviour in ants was interpreted without reference to sharing of emotions. Evidence for empathy requires showing that actor individuals possess a representation of the receiver's emotional state and are driven by the psychological goal of improving its wellbeing. Proving psychological goal-directedness by current standards involves goal-devaluation and causal sensitivity protocols, which, in our view, have not been implemented in available publications. Empathy has profound significance not only for cognitive and behavioural sciences but also for philosophy and ethics and, in our view, remains unproven outside humans. PMID:22859561

  15. Troubleshooting ProSeal LMA

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bimla; Sood, Jayashree; Sahai, Chand; Kumra, V P

    2009-01-01

    Summary Supraglottic devices have changed the face of the airway management. These devices have contributed in a big way in airway management especially, in the difficult airway scenario significantly decreasing the pharyngolaryngeal morbidity. There is a plethora of these devices, which has been well matched by their wider acceptance in clinical practice. ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) is one such frequently used device employed for spontaneous as well as controlled ventilation. However, the use of PLMA at times maybe associated with certain problems. Some of the problems related with its use are unique while others are akin to the classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA). However, expertise is needed for its safe and judicious use, correct placement, recognition and management of its various malpositions and complications. The present article describes the tests employed for proper confirmation of placement to assess the ventilatory and the drain tube functions of the mask, diagnosis of various malpositions and the management of these aspects. All these areas have been highlighted under the heading of troubleshooting PLMA. Many problems can be solved by proper patient and procedure selection, maintaining adequate depth of anaesthesia, diagnosis and management of malpositions. Proper fixation of the device and monitoring cuff pressure intraoperatively may bring down the incidence of airway morbidity. PMID:20640203

  16. Pro-Anorexia and Pro-Recovery Photo Sharing: A Tale of Two Warring Tribes

    PubMed Central

    Yom-Tov, Elad; Weber, Ingmar; Crain, Steven P

    2012-01-01

    Background There is widespread use of the Internet to promote anorexia as a lifestyle choice. Pro-anorexia content can be harmful for people affected or at risk of having anorexia. That movement is actively engaged in sharing photos on social networks such as Flickr. Objective To study the characteristics of the online communities engaged in disseminating content that encourages eating disorders (known as “pro-anorexia”) and to investigate if the posting of such content is discouraged by the posting of recovery-oriented content. Methods The extraction of pro-anorexia and pro-recovery photographs from the photo sharing site Flickr pertaining to 242,710 photos from 491 users and analyzing four separate social networks therein. Results Pro-anorexia and pro-recovery communities interact to a much higher degree among themselves than what is expected from the distribution of contacts (only 59-72% of contacts but 74-83% of comments are made to members inside the community). Pro-recovery users employ similar words to those used by pro-anorexia users to describe their photographs, possibly in order to ensure that their content appears when pro-anorexia users search for images. Pro-anorexia users who are exposed to comments from the opposite camp are less likely to cease posting pro-anorexia photographs than those who do not receive such comments (46% versus 61%), and if they cease, they do so approximately three months later. Our observations show two highly active communities, where most interaction is within each community. However, the pro-recovery community takes steps to ensure that their content is visible to the pro-anorexia community, both by using textual descriptions of their photographs that are similar to those used by the pro-anorexia group and by commenting to pro-anorexia content. The latter activity is, however, counterproductive, as it entrenches pro-anorexia users in their stance. Conclusions Our results highlight the nature of pro-anorexia and pro

  17. Pro-anorexia and pro-recovery photo sharing: a tale of two warring tribes.

    PubMed

    Yom-Tov, Elad; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Weber, Ingmar; Crain, Steven P

    2012-11-07

    There is widespread use of the Internet to promote anorexia as a lifestyle choice. Pro-anorexia content can be harmful for people affected or at risk of having anorexia. That movement is actively engaged in sharing photos on social networks such as Flickr. To study the characteristics of the online communities engaged in disseminating content that encourages eating disorders (known as "pro-anorexia") and to investigate if the posting of such content is discouraged by the posting of recovery-oriented content. The extraction of pro-anorexia and pro-recovery photographs from the photo sharing site Flickr pertaining to 242,710 photos from 491 users and analyzing four separate social networks therein. Pro-anorexia and pro-recovery communities interact to a much higher degree among themselves than what is expected from the distribution of contacts (only 59-72% of contacts but 74-83% of comments are made to members inside the community). Pro-recovery users employ similar words to those used by pro-anorexia users to describe their photographs, possibly in order to ensure that their content appears when pro-anorexia users search for images. Pro-anorexia users who are exposed to comments from the opposite camp are less likely to cease posting pro-anorexia photographs than those who do not receive such comments (46% versus 61%), and if they cease, they do so approximately three months later. Our observations show two highly active communities, where most interaction is within each community. However, the pro-recovery community takes steps to ensure that their content is visible to the pro-anorexia community, both by using textual descriptions of their photographs that are similar to those used by the pro-anorexia group and by commenting to pro-anorexia content. The latter activity is, however, counterproductive, as it entrenches pro-anorexia users in their stance. Our results highlight the nature of pro-anorexia and pro-recovery photo sharing and accentuate the need for

  18. Pro-GLP-1, a Pro-drug of GLP-1, is neuroprotective in cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huinan; Meng, Jingru; Li, Xubo; Zhou, Shimeng; Qu, Di; Wang, Ning; Jia, Min; Ma, Xue; Luo, Xiaoxing

    2015-04-05

    Pro-Glucagon-like peptide-1 (Pro-GLP-1), a long-lasting GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, was developed using a polymeric pro-drug strategy and its neuroprotective effects on ischemic stroke were investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Pro-GLP-1 was injected into the intraperitoneal cavity of C57BL/6 mice once a day for 7days before middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery. The neurological deficit score and TTC staining were determined 24h after ischemia. The results demonstrated that Pro-GLP-1 was slowly degraded in the plasma and brain of the mice, and GLP-1 could be detected even 12h after administration. Pro-GLP-1 was significantly neuroprotective in C57BL/6 mice subjected to MCAO. In cultured cortical neurons, treatment with Pro-GLP-1 attenuated apoptosis induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The neuroprotective effects of Pro-GLP-1 were blocked by a selective GLP-1 receptor antagonist and knockdown of GLP-1 receptor with shRNA. However, Pro-GLP-1 had no effect on blood glucose and insulin levels which indicated that neuroprotection was mediated by the activation of GLP-1 receptor in the brain. Pro-GLP-1 repaired the balance of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and decreased the expression of caspase-3. The anti-apoptotic effect was mediated by the cAMP/PKA and PI3K/Akt pathway. Our research provides evidence that pre-treatment of MCAO mice with Pro-GLP-1 exerts a neuroprotective effect mediated by a blockade of apoptosis and that Pro-GLP-1 might be a potential neuroprotective agent candidate against ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Manduca sexta proprophenoloxidase activating proteinase-3 (PAP3) stimulates melanization by activating proPAP3, proSPHs, and proPOs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Lu, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Haobo

    2014-01-01

    Melanization participates in various insect physiological processes including antimicrobial immune responses. Phenoloxidase (PO), a critical component of the enzyme system catalyzing melanin formation, is produced as an inactive precursor prophenoloxidase (proPO) and becomes active via specific proteolytic cleavage by proPO activating proteinase (PAP). In Manduca sexta, three PAPs can activate proPOs in the presence of two serine proteinase homologs (SPH1 and SPH2). While the hemolymph proteinases (HPs) that generate the active PAPs are known, it is unclear how the proSPHs (especially proSPH1) are activated. In this study, we isolated from plasma of bar-stage M. sexta larvae an Ile-Glu-Ala-Arg-p-nitroanilide hydrolyzing enzyme that cleaved the proSPHs. This proteinase, PAP3, generated active SPH1 and SPH2, which function as cofactors for PAP3 in proPO activation. Cleavage of the purified recombinant proSPHs by PAP3 yielded 38 kDa bands similar in mobility to the SPHs formed in vivo. Surprisingly, PAP3 also can activate proPAP3 to stimulate melanization in a direct positive feedback loop. The enhanced proPO activation concurred with the cleavage activation of proHP6, proHP8, proPAP1, proPAP3, proSPH1, proSPH2, proPOs, but not proHP14 or proHP21. These results indicate that PAP3, like PAP1, is a key factor of the self-reinforcing mechanism in the proPO activation system, which is linked to other immune responses in M. sexta. PMID:24768974

  20. The effect of deuterium oxide on the stability of the collagen model peptides H-(Pro-Pro-Gly)(10)-OH, H-(Gly-Pro-4(R)Hyp)(9)-OH, and Type I collagen.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Kazunori; Bächinger, Hans Peter

    2010-01-01

    The collagen triple helix has a larger accessible surface area per molecular mass than globular proteins, and therefore potentially more water interaction sites. The effect of deuterium oxide on the stability of collagen model peptides and Type I collagen molecules was analyzed by circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimetry. The transition temperatures (T(m)) of the protonated peptide (Pro-Pro-Gly)(10) were 25.4 and 28.7 degrees C in H(2)O and D(2)O, respectively. The increase of the T(m) of (Pro-Pro-Gly)(10) measured calorimetrically at 1.0 degrees C min(-1) in a low pH solution from the protonated to the deuterated solvent was 5.1 degrees C. The increases of the T(m) for (Gly-Pro-4(R)Hyp)(9) and pepsin-extracted Type I collagen were measured as 4.2 and 2.2 degrees C, respectively. These results indicated that the increase in the T(m) in the presence of D(2)O is comparable to that of globular proteins, and much less than reported previously for collagen model peptides [Gough and Bhatnagar, J Biomol Struct Dyn 1999, 17, 481-491]. These experimental results suggest that the interaction of water molecules with collagen is similar to the interaction of water with globular proteins, when the ratio of collagen to water is very small and collagen is monomerically dispersed in the solvent.

  1. Anchimerically Activatable Antiviral ProTides.

    PubMed

    Okon, Aniekan; Matos de Souza, Marcos Romário; Shah, Rachit; Amorim, Raquel; da Costa, Luciana Jesus; Wagner, Carston R

    2017-09-14

    This work describes the synthesis and biological evaluation of an anchimerically activated proTide of 2'-C-β-methylguanosine as an inhibitor of dengue virus 2 (DENV-2). The proTide incorporates a chemically cleavable 2-(methylthio)ethyl moiety and a HINT1 hydrolyzable tryptamine phosphoramidate. Inhibition of DENV-2 replication by proTide 6 was 5-fold greater than the parent nucleoside while displaying no apparent cytotoxicity. Furthermore, we demonstrate with a HINT1 inhibitor that the anti DENV-2 activity of the proTide correlates with the activity of HINT1. Taken together, these results demonstrate that a phosphoramidate based pronucleotide that undergoes an initial nonenzymatic activation step based on anchimeric assistance followed by P-N bond cleavage by HINT1 can be prepared.

  2. Pro Libra Makes the Impossible Happen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Susan Spaeth

    1981-01-01

    Pro Libra Associates, Inc. in South Orange, New Jersey, is a cadre of some 200 carefully screened professionals and clerical workers who perform a variety of library tasks on a contract basis. (Author/LLS)

  3. Collective Protection (ColPro) Field Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-28

    ColPro) systems are designed to provide protection of enclosed personnel and equipment from chemical warfare agent (CWA) and biological or radiological...environmental control unit and a blower equipped with a chemical, biological , and radiological (CBR) filter, which supplies clean air inside the system...ColPro system entry/exit trials. Medical treatment facility Must be staffed with personnel trained and equipped to treat overexposure to

  4. Technology evaluation: PRO-542, Progenics Pharmaceuticals inc.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, M; Parveen, Z; Pomerantz, R J

    2000-12-01

    Progenics's rCD4-IgG2 (PRO-542) is a recombinant fusion protein, which has been developed using the company's Universal Antiviral Binding (UnAB) technology, and is in phase I/II clinical trials for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) infection [273391]. At the beginning of 1997, Progenics received a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR) grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious diseases (NIAID) to fund the development of PRO-542 [236048]. A further grant of $2.7 million was awarded in August 1998 for the clinical evaluation of PRO-542 and other anti-HIV therapies [294200]. Progenics is collaborating with the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center (ADARC) in New York and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta [178410]. In February 2000, Progenics and Genzyme Transgenics Corp signed an agreement to continue the development of a transgenic source of PRO-542. Genzyme will develop transgenic goats that produce PRO-542 in their milk in exchange for undisclosed fees and milestone payments. Genzyme will supply PRO-542 to Progenics for clinical trials with a possibility for eventual commercial supply [357291]. Following on from this, in October 2000, Progenics received an SBIR grant to fund a two-year project with Genzyme Transgenics into the development of cost-effective methods for the manufacture of PRO-542, by optimization of the production of the drug in the milk of transgenic dairy animals [385982]. In August 2000, Punk, Ziegel & Company predicted that Progenics Pharmaceuticals will become sustainably profitable in 2003 following the launch of PRO-542 and GMK (Progenics Pharmaceuticals) in 2002 [390063].

  5. Pro/con a precessional geodynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanyo, J.

    2003-04-01

    The modest amount of research that exists on the ability, or lack of ability, of mantle precession to power a geodynamo developed mostly during the last half of the 1900s. Papers by Roberts and Stewartson (1965) and by Busse (1968) studied precession generally without a pro/con conclusion. Malkus in the late 1960s attempted to advance a positive role for precession through experiments and analysis. His experiments have survived criticism, but his analyses were discounted, especially by Rochester, Jacobs, Smylie, and Chong (1975) and by Loper (1975). Rochester, et al. critiqued existing analyses of precession, including those of Malkus, but did not reach a strong position either pro or con a precessional geodynamo. Loper argued emphatically that precession was not capable of powering the geodynamo. Explicit analyses that either critique or support Loper’s arguments have yet to appear in the literature. During the 1970s, Vanyo and associates studied energy dissipation during precession of satellite liquid fuels and its effect on satellite attitude stability. Engineers and scientists in every country that has launched satellites completed similar research. Some is published in the aerospace literature, more is available in company and government reports. Beginning in 1981, Vanyo and associates applied this knowledge to the very similar problem of energy dissipation and flow patterns in precessing mechanical models scaled geometrically and dynamically to the Earth’s liquid core. Energy experiments indicate massive amounts of mechanical energy are dissipated at the CMB, and flow experiments show complex motions within the boundary layer and axial flows with helicity throughout the interior. Analysis of Earth core precession also advanced, especially in several papers by Kerswell and by Tilgner in the late 1990s. Detail numerical models have yet to appear. Although progress in understanding the role of precession in Earth core motions has advanced, there remains a

  6. Collisional Activation of [14Pro+2H]2+ Clusters: Chiral Dependence of Evaporation and Fission Processes

    PubMed Central

    Atlasevich, Natalya; Holliday, Alison E.; Valentine, Stephen J.; Clemmer, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Ion mobility/mass spectrometry techniques are used to investigate the dissociation of the small proline cluster [14Pro+2H]2+ produced by electrospray ionization. While this cluster is known to prefer heterochiral compositions (i.e., mixed L- and D-compositions, J. Phys. Chem. A, submitted for publication), it is possible to produce homochiral forms by electrospraying solutions containing only L or D proline. Differences in the measured cross sections for [14Pro+2H]2+ produced from enantiomerically pure (100% L or 100% D) or racemic (50:50 L/D) solutions indicate that homochiral and heterochiral clusters have different structures. Upon low-energy collisional activation, both the heterochiral and homochiral doubly charged structures evaporate neutral proline monomers, resulting in the formation of [xPro+2H]2+ ions, (where x = 13 to 9). At higher activation energies, there is evidence that these smaller clusters (primarily [10Pro+2H]2+) fission to produce [xPro+H]+ (where x = 1 to 6). Analysis of product ion intensities reveals a strong chiral preference associated with fissioning. Products of evaporation also show a chiral dependence, but to a lesser extent. PMID:22668003

  7. 19 CFR 141.85 - Pro forma invoice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro forma invoice. 141.85 Section 141.85 Customs... (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Invoices § 141.85 Pro forma invoice. A pro forma invoice submitted in accordance with any provision of this chapter shall be in substantially the following form: Pro Forma Invoice...

  8. Induction of systemic disease resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana by the cyclodipeptides cyclo (l-Pro-l-Pro) and cyclo (d-Pro-d-Pro).

    PubMed

    Wu, Liming; Wu, Huijun; Chen, Lina; Zhang, Hongyue; Gao, Xuewen

    2017-01-01

    Cyclodipeptides, formed from two amino acids by cyclodehydration, are produced naturally by many organisms, and are known to possess a large number of biological activities. In this study, we found that cyclo (l-Pro-l-Pro) and cyclo (d-Pro-d-Pro) (where Pro is proline) could induce defence responses and systemic resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana. Treatment with the two cyclodipeptides led to a reduction in disease severity by Phytophthora nicotianae and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infections compared with controls. Both cyclopeptides triggered stomatal closure, induced reactive oxygen species production and stimulated cytosolic calcium ion and nitric oxide production in guard cells. In addition, the application of cyclodipeptides significantly up-regulated the expression of the plant defence gene PR-1a and the PR-1a protein, and increased cellular salicylic acid (SA) levels. These results suggest that the SA-dependent defence pathway is involved in cyclodipeptide-mediated pathogen resistance in N. benthamiana. We report the systemic resistance induced by cyclodipeptides, which sheds light on the potential of cyclodipeptides for the control of plant diseases. © 2016 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Placental expression of proBNP/NT-proBNP and plasma levels of NT-proBNP in early- and late-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Junus, Katja; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Larsson, Anders; Olovsson, Matts

    2014-09-01

    Levels of plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are elevated in preeclampsia. In this study, the possibility that the placenta produces and releases proBNP/NT-proBNP was explored. Plasma levels of NT-proBNP in early- and late-onset preeclampsia were also measured. Placental proBNP mRNA in early-onset preeclampsia (n = 7), late-onset preeclampsia (n = 8), and controls of similar gestational age (n = 10) was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. ProBNP/NT-proBNP protein was studied in placental samples with immunohistochemistry (n = 8) and tissue culture (n = 2). Plasma levels of NT-proBNP were measured in early-onset preeclampsia (n = 18), late-onset preeclampsia (n = 20), and relevant controls (n = 36). Transcripts of proBNP mRNA were found in 20 out of 25 samples, there were no differences in expression between the groups. ProBNP/NT-proBNP protein was observed in maternal spiral arteries and in syncytiotrophoblasts in all placental samples. After placental tissue culture, there were measurable amounts of NT-proBNP in the culture media. Women with both early- (365 [14-9815] pg/ml) and late-onset preeclampsia (176 [33-2547] pg/ml) had higher levels of NT-proBNP than their controls (P < 0.001). There was a tendency toward higher levels of NT-proBNP in women with early-onset preeclampsia than in women with late-onset preeclampsia (P = 0.057). The results indicate possible placental production and release of proBNP/NT-proBNP into the maternal circulation. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. #Proana: Pro-Eating Disorder Socialization on Twitter.

    PubMed

    Arseniev-Koehler, Alina; Lee, Hedwig; McCormick, Tyler; Moreno, Megan A

    2016-06-01

    Pro-eating disorder (ED) online movements support engagement with ED lifestyles and are associated with negative health consequences for adolescents with EDs. Twitter is a popular social media site among adolescents that provides a unique setting for Pro-ED content to be publicly exchanged. The purpose of this study was to investigate Pro-ED Twitter profiles' references to EDs and how their social connections (followers) reference EDs. A purposeful sample of 45 Pro-ED profiles was selected from Twitter. Profile information, all tweets, and a random sample of 100 of their followers' profile information were collected for content analysis using the Twitter Application Programming Interface. A codebook based on ED screening guidelines was applied to evaluate ED references. For each Pro-ED profile, proportion of tweets with ED references and proportion of followers with ED references in their own profile were evaluated. In total, our 45 Pro-ED profiles generated 4,245 tweets for analysis. A median of 36.4% of profiles' tweets contained ED references. Pro-ED profiles had a median of 173 followers, and a median of 44.5% of followers had ED references. Pro-ED profiles with more tweets with ED references also tended to have more followers with ED references (β = .37, p < .01). Findings suggest that profiles which self-identify as Pro-ED express disordered eating patterns through tweets and have an audience of followers, many of whom also reference ED in their own profiles. ED socialization on Twitter might provide social support, but in the Pro-ED context this activity might also reinforce an ED identity. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. A Pro-Family Income Tax.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Allan

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the Tax Reform Act of 1986, which doubled the personal exemption, increased the eligibility ceiling for the Earned Income Tax Credit, and reduced marginal income-tax rates. Compares the Act with the Acts of 1948 and 1969. Outlines criteria for a pro-family income tax policy. (BJV)

  12. Pocahontas: Problematizing the Pro-Social.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aidman, Amy; Reese, Debbie

    The Disney film "Pocahontas" appears to be an attempt to respond to growing cultural diversity, calls for multiculturalism, and strong female role models in the United States. This paper provides an analysis of the film, examining how Disney's claims to the creation of positive, pro-social representations of women and Native Americans in…

  13. A Pro-Family Income Tax.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Allan

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the Tax Reform Act of 1986, which doubled the personal exemption, increased the eligibility ceiling for the Earned Income Tax Credit, and reduced marginal income-tax rates. Compares the Act with the Acts of 1948 and 1969. Outlines criteria for a pro-family income tax policy. (BJV)

  14. Pro-Am Collaboration and the AAVSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henden, A.

    2006-04-01

    Professionals need to be aware that there is a valuable resource available and waiting to be used -- the amateur astronomy community. We give some examples of how pro-am collaborations have worked in the past, indicate the advantages and disadvantages of such collaborations, and suggest methods by which a professional can find and work effectively with amateur astronomers.

  15. Pro-inflammatory mechanisms in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Chong, Deborah L W; Sriskandan, Shiranee

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis is characterised by a hyper-inflammatory response due to microbial infection. We here review our current understanding of host mechanisms employed to mediate this hyper-inflammatory response, drawing together current knowledge pertaining to pathogen recognition and host pro-inflammatory response. Recognition of microbial derived ligands by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is a key step in initiating pro-inflammatory signalling pathways. Examples of PRRs linked to the aetiology of sepsis include Toll-like, C-type lectin, RIG-1-like and also Nod-like receptors, which are involved in the formation of the inflammasome, crucial for the maturation of some pro-inflammatory cytokines. Bacterial superantigens have evolved to exploit host MHC class II and T cell receptors (normally considered part of the adaptive immune response) as innate PRRs to propagate a so-called 'cytokine storm', while synergy between different microbial ligands and host-derived alarmins can augment the inflammatory response still further through as yet poorly understood interactions. The host pro-inflammatory response results in the characteristic features of inflammation: rubor, calor, dolor, and tumor. We will review herein the key mediators of inflammation in sepsis, identifying their overlapping and intersecting roles in vascular changes in tone, endothelial permeability, coagulation and contact activation, leukocyte mobilisation and activation. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. ANALYSIS OF THE REACTIVITY OF RADPRO SOLUTION WITH COTTON RAGS

    SciTech Connect

    MARUSICH RM

    2009-08-11

    Rags containing RadPro{reg_sign} solution will be generated during the decontamination of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Under normal conditions, the rags will be neutralized with sodium carbonate prior to placing in the drums. The concern with RadPro solutions and cotton rags is that some of the RadPro solutions contain nitric acid. Under the right conditions, nitric acid and cotton rags exothermically react. The concern is, will RadPro solutions react with cotton rags exothermically? The potential for a runaway reaction for any of the RadPro solutions used was studied in Section 5.2 of PNNL-15410, Thermal Stability Studies of Candidate Decontamination Agents for Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant Plutonium-Contaminated Gloveboxes. This report shows the thermal behavior of cotton rags having been saturated in one of the various neutralized and non-neutralized RadPro solutions. The thermal analysis was performed using thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Accelerating Rate Calorimetry (ARC).

  17. Thermodynamic assessment of the Pr-O system

    SciTech Connect

    McMurray, Jake W.

    2015-12-24

    We found that the Calphad method was used to perform a thermodynamic assessment of the Pr–O system. Compound energy formalism representations were developed for the fluorite α-PrO 2–x and bixbyite σ-Pr 3 O 5 ± x solid solutions while the two-sublattice liquid model was used to describe the binary melt. The series of phases between Pr 2 O 3 and PrO 2 were taken to be stoichiometric. Moreover, the equilibrium oxygen pressure, phase equilibria, and enthalpy data were used to optimize the adjustable parameters of the models for a self-consistent representation of the thermodynamic behavior of the Pr–O system from 298 K to melting.

  18. Pro-oxidative, genotoxic and cytotoxic properties of uranyl ions.

    PubMed

    Garmash, S A; Smirnova, V S; Karp, O E; Usacheva, A M; Berezhnov, A V; Ivanov, V E; Chernikov, A V; Bruskov, V I; Gudkov, S V

    2014-01-01

    It is demonstrated that hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide are formed under the action of uranyl ions in aqueous solutions containing no reducing agents. In the presence of uranyl ions, formation of 8-oxoguanine in DNA and long-lived protein radicals are observed in vitro. It is shown that the pro-oxidant properties of uranyl at micromolar concentrations mostly result from the physico-chemical nature of the compound rather than its radioactive decay. Uranyl ions lead to damage in DNA and proteins causing death of HEp-2 cells by necrotic pathway. It is revealed that the uranyl ions enhance radiation-induced oxidative stress and significantly increase a death rate of mice exposed to sublethal doses of X-rays.

  19. Thermodynamic assessment of the Pr-O system

    DOE PAGES

    McMurray, Jake W.

    2015-12-24

    We found that the Calphad method was used to perform a thermodynamic assessment of the Pr–O system. Compound energy formalism representations were developed for the fluorite α-PrO 2–x and bixbyite σ-Pr 3 O 5 ± x solid solutions while the two-sublattice liquid model was used to describe the binary melt. The series of phases between Pr 2 O 3 and PrO 2 were taken to be stoichiometric. Moreover, the equilibrium oxygen pressure, phase equilibria, and enthalpy data were used to optimize the adjustable parameters of the models for a self-consistent representation of the thermodynamic behavior of the Pr–O system frommore » 298 K to melting.« less

  20. Rapid diagnosis of MDR and XDR tuberculosis with the MeltPro TB assay in China.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yu; Dong, Haiyan; Tan, Yaoju; Deng, Yunfeng; Cai, Xingshan; Jing, Hui; Xia, Hui; Li, Qiang; Ou, Xichao; Su, Biyi; Li, Xuezheng; Zhang, Zhiying; Li, Junchen; Zhang, Jiankang; Huan, Shitong; Zhao, Yanlin

    2016-05-06

    New diagnostic methods have provided a promising solution for rapid and reliable detection of drug-resistant TB strains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the MeltPro TB assay in identifying multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) patients from sputum samples. The MeltPro TB assay was evaluated using sputum samples from 2057 smear-positive TB patients. Phenotypic Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960 drug susceptibility testing served as a reference standard. The sensitivity of the MeltPro TB assay was 94.2% for detecting resistance to rifampicin and 84.9% for detecting resistance to isoniazid. For second-line drugs, the assay showed a sensitivity of 83.3% for ofloxacin resistance, 75.0% for amikacin resistance, and 63.5% for kanamycin resistance. However, there was a significant difference for detecting kanamycin resistance between the two pilot sites in sensitivity, which was 53.2% in Guangdong and 81.5% in Shandong (P = 0.015). Overall, the MeltPro TB assay demonstrated good performance for the detection of MDR- and XDR-TB, with a sensitivity of 86.7% and 71.4%, respectively. The MeltPro TB assay is an excellent alternative for the detection of MDR- and XDR-TB cases in China, with high accuracy, short testing turn-around time, and low unit price compared with other tests.

  1. Crystal structure of the collagen triple helix model [(Pro-Pro-Gly)(10)](3).

    PubMed

    Berisio, Rita; Vitagliano, Luigi; Mazzarella, Lelio; Zagari, Adriana

    2002-02-01

    The first report of the full-length structure of the collagen-like polypeptide [(Pro-Pro-Gly)(10)](3) is given. This structure was obtained from crystals grown in a microgravity environment, which diffracted up to 1.3 A, using synchrotron radiation. The final model, which was refined to an R(factor) of 0.18, is the highest-resolution description of a collagen triple helix reported to date. This structure provides clues regarding a series of aspects related to collagen triple helix structure and assembly. The strict dependence of proline puckering on the position inside the Pro-Pro-Gly triplets and the correlation between backbone and side chain dihedral angles support the propensity-based mechanism of triple helix stabilization/destabilization induced by hydroxyproline. Furthermore, the analysis of [(Pro-Pro-Gly)(10)](3) packing, which is governed by electrostatic interactions, suggests that charges may act as locking features in the axial organization of triple helices in the collagen fibrils.

  2. Cryogenic system for BERLinPro

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, W.; Hellwig, A.; Knobloch, J.; Pflückhahn, D.; Rotterdam, S.

    2014-01-29

    In 2010 Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) received funding to design and build the Berlin Energy Recovery Linac Project BERLinPro. The goal of this compact Energy recovery linac (ERL) is to develop the accelerator physics and technology required to generate and accelerate a 100-mA, 1-mm mrad emittance electron beam. The BERLinPro know-how can then be transferred to various ERL-based applications. All accelerating RF cavities including the electron source are based on superconducting technology operated at 1.8 K. A Linde L700 helium liquefier is supplying 4.5 K helium. The subatmospheric pressure of 16 mbar of the helium bath of the cavities will be achieved by pumping with a set of cold compressors and warm vacuum pumps. While the L700 is already in operating, the 1.8 K system and the helium transfer system are in design phase.

  3. [Radiation Anticarcinogenesis by Thiazolidine Pro-drug

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warters, Raymond L.; Roberts, Jeanette C.; Fain, Heidi

    1999-01-01

    The original goal of this work was to determine the capacity of selected aminothiols to modulate radiation induced cytotoxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in a human mammary epithelial cell line. The conclusions from this work are that WR-1065 is the "gold standard" for protection against radiation induced cytotoxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. While a potent radiation protector, WR-1065 is cytotoxic in vitro and in vivo. Our rationale for a study of the thiazolidine pro-drugs was that these compounds are neither toxic in vitro or in vivo. The results obtained during this funding period indicate that the thiazolidine pro-drugs are as potent as WR-1065 as protectors against radiation induced mutation induction, and thus presumably against radiation induced carcinogenesis. Our results indicate that the thiazolidine prodrugs are excellent candidates to test as non-toxic anticarcinogens for protecting astronauts from cancer induction during space travel.

  4. [Radiation Anticarcinogenesis by Thiazolidine Pro-drug

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warters, Raymond L.; Roberts, Jeanette C.; Fain, Heidi

    1999-01-01

    The original goal of this work was to determine the capacity of selected aminothiols to modulate radiation induced cytotoxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in a human mammary epithelial cell line. The conclusions from this work are that WR-1065 is the "gold standard" for protection against radiation induced cytotoxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. While a potent radiation protector, WR-1065 is cytotoxic in vitro and in vivo. Our rationale for a study of the thiazolidine pro-drugs was that these compounds are neither toxic in vitro or in vivo. The results obtained during this funding period indicate that the thiazolidine pro-drugs are as potent as WR-1065 as protectors against radiation induced mutation induction, and thus presumably against radiation induced carcinogenesis. Our results indicate that the thiazolidine prodrugs are excellent candidates to test as non-toxic anticarcinogens for protecting astronauts from cancer induction during space travel.

  5. The pro-oxidant activity of aluminum.

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher

    2004-02-01

    Aluminum, a non-redox-active metal is, nevertheless, a pro-oxidant both in in vitro preparations and in vivo. It facilitates both superoxide- and iron-driven biological oxidation by mechanisms that remain to be resolved. More than 10 years ago Fridovich and colleagues suggested that the facilitation of superoxide-driven biological oxidation by aluminum was due to an interaction between the metal and the superoxide radical anion (Free Radic. Biol. Med. 13: 79-81; 1992). This thesis has been examined herein and it is concluded that much, if not all, of the pro-oxidant activity of aluminum might be explained by the formation of an aluminum superoxide semireduced radical ion.

  6. ProFit: Bayesian galaxy fitting tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robotham, A. S. G.; Taranu, D.; Tobar, R.

    2016-12-01

    ProFit is a Bayesian galaxy fitting tool that uses the fast C++ image generation library libprofit (ascl:1612.003) and a flexible R interface to a large number of likelihood samplers. It offers a fully featured Bayesian interface to galaxy model fitting (also called profiling), using mostly the same standard inputs as other popular codes (e.g. GALFIT ascl:1104.010), but it is also able to use complex priors and a number of likelihoods.

  7. The PRO nurse: advocate for quality care.

    PubMed

    Carroll, M; Maichele, J

    1993-01-01

    Since the inception of the Social Security Amendments of 1983, nurses have assumed expanded roles in ensuring the monitoring of the quality of care received by Medicare beneficiaries. This unique area of nursing practice offers new challenges and employment opportunities for the nurse as a patient advocate. Nurses who are interested in this role may contact state PRO directors or watch for specific recruitment advertisements in nursing magazines.

  8. Pro-Life nurses uniting for service.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, K

    1994-01-01

    The Missouri Pro-Life Nurses claim that nurses have lost the ethical basis of their profession. Nurses need to reexamine their attitudes at a time when 1 in 5 physician-members of the American Society of Internal Medicine admits to deliberately helping a patient end his or her life, and when many physicians and nurses favor euthanasia and abortion. Former Georgia nurse Joseph Dewey Akin was sentenced in October 1992 to life imprisonment for injecting Robert Price, a quadriplegic, with a lethal dose of lidocaine. Hospice nurse Darlene Leon of California is on trial for injecting 17 of her patients with lethal doses of morphine. A nurse from Georgia was indicted on one count of aggravated assault for attempting to kill her 87-year-old patient with an injection of potassium. Georgia nurse Jenny Serbes was charged with murder in the death of her husband with a lethal injection of insulin. The fierce argument about abortion and euthanasia now raging in America is this century's civil war. 20 years ago, in an effort to combat this tide, the National Association of Pro-Life Nurses (NAPN) was started, and its 1000 members want to demonstrate positive concern for all human life. NAPN attempts to educate nurses and the health care community on the legal and medical aspects of the ethical issues facing the profession. In October 1993 the first meeting of Illinois Pro-Life Nurses was held in suburban Chicago. The nurse-patient relationship can be viewed as a contract. Implicit in this relationship is the understanding that the nurse will do no harm. If the relationship is broken, the foundation on which nursing and medicine rest is shaken. Pro-life nursing organizations are trying to steer the nursing profession back on the right course.

  9. Calibrating the Prominence Magnetometer (ProMag)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Lewis; Casini, R.

    2013-07-01

    The Prominence Magnetometer (ProMag) is a dual-channel, dual-beam, slit-scanning, full Stokes spectro-polarimeter designed by the High Altitude Observatory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (HAO/NCAR) for the study of the magnetism of solar prominences and filaments. It was deployed in August 2009 at the 40 cm coronagraph of the Evans Solar Facility (ESF) of the National Solar Observatory on Sacramento Peak (NSO/SP). In its standard mode of operation it acquires spectro-polarimetric maps of solar targets simultaneously in the two chromospheric lines of He I at 587.6 nm and 1083.0 nm. Since August 2011 ProMag has operated in “patrol mode” with a dedicated observer. We aim to routinely measure the vector magnetic field in prominences. The electro-optic modulator and polarization analyzer are integrated into a single mechanical unit located at the coude feed of the telescope. This location was necessary for proper co-alignment of the dual beams, but complicates the precise polarimeter calibration necessary to achieve the sensitivity required for prominence measurements (< 10^-3). At this sensitivity, small variations in optical alignment can become significant. We present a calibration method for ProMag, using a polarizer and retarder at coronagraph prime focus. Calibrations are recorded before and after observations. We discuss the success of this method and its limitations.

  10. Some problems with pro-competition reforms.

    PubMed

    Agich, G J; Begley, C E

    1985-01-01

    As the search for effective cost-containment policies continues, health care reform along pro-competition lines has gained considerable backing in the United States. By offering market competition to achieve allocational efficiency and vouchers and tax credits to achieve distributional equity, pro-competition reforms appear to satisfy what many believed were incommensurable goals. A critical review of this strategy reveals two practical difficulties, however. The first concerns the ambiguity arising from the proposals' reliance on the concept of equal access to some basic level of health care as its distributional objective and the second concerns the ethical dilemma arising from the proposals' reliance on physicians as rationers of health care. In considering the distributional goal of guaranteeing access to a basic minimum of health care, we argue that, despite its theoretical attractiveness, there exists no acceptable way of determining or justifying its content, and without a clear definition of the basic minimum there is no guarantee that any equity objective will be achieved under the pro-competition strategy. With regard to the use of physicians and other providers as society's gatekeepers, we point out that this role is in direct conflict with traditional responsibilities that patients expect providers to assume. Requiring doctors to ration services in response to market incentives may further erode the trust relationship between physicians and patients, and clearly puts the more seriously ill at a disadvantage.

  11. ProUCL version 4.00.04 Documentation Downloads

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ProUCL Version 4.00.04 is an upgrade of ProUCL Version 4.0 (EPA, 2007). ProUCL 4.00.02 contains statistical methods to address various environmental issues for both full data sets without nondetects and for data sets with NDs (also known as left-censored d

  12. 26 CFR 1.1377-1 - Pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pro rata share. 1.1377-1 Section 1.1377-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1377-1 Pro rata share. (a) Computation of pro rata shares—(1) In general. For purposes of subchapter S of chapter 1 of the Internal...

  13. 26 CFR 1.1377-1 - Pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pro rata share. 1.1377-1 Section 1.1377-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1377-1 Pro rata share. (a) Computation of pro rata shares—(1) In general. For purposes of subchapter S of chapter 1 of the Internal...

  14. 26 CFR 1.1377-1 - Pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Pro rata share. 1.1377-1 Section 1.1377-1...) INCOME TAXES Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1377-1 Pro rata share. (a) Computation of pro rata shares—(1) In general. For purposes of subchapter S of chapter 1 of the Internal...

  15. 26 CFR 1.1377-1 - Pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pro rata share. 1.1377-1 Section 1.1377-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1377-1 Pro rata share. (a) Computation of pro rata shares—(1) In general. For purposes of subchapter S of chapter 1 of the Internal...

  16. 26 CFR 1.1377-1 - Pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pro rata share. 1.1377-1 Section 1.1377-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1377-1 Pro rata share. (a) Computation of pro rata shares—(1) In general. For purposes of subchapter S of chapter 1 of the Internal...

  17. Use of a high-resolution camera (GoPro) for the slit lamp.

    PubMed

    Lee, Graham A; Shah, Peter

    2017-09-19

    The slit lamp enables a well-illuminated and magnified view of the eye. There have been previous imaging devices used for recording, however the quality of the stills and video is limited by cost. We present a relatively lower cost solution for the Haag-Streit slit lamp (Haag Streit AG, Switzerland) using a high definition camera, Hero5 Black (GoPro Inc., USA). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Pro-sequence and Ca2+-binding: implications for folding and maturation of Ntn-hydrolase penicillin amidase from E. coli.

    PubMed

    Ignatova, Zoya; Wischnewski, Frank; Notbohm, Holger; Kasche, Volker

    2005-05-13

    Penicillin amidase (PA) is a bacterial periplasmic enzyme synthesized as a pre-pro-PA precursor. The pre-sequence mediates membrane translocation. The intramolecular pro-sequence is expressed along with the A and B chains but is rapidly removed in an autocatalytic manner. In extensive studies we show here that the pro-peptide is required for the correct folding of PA. Pro-PA and PA unfold via a biphasic transition that is more pronounced in the case of PA. According to size-exclusion chromatography and limited proteolysis experiments, the inflection observed in the equilibrium unfolding curves corresponds to an intermediate in which the N-terminal domain (A-chain) still possesses native-like topology, whereas the B-chain is unfolded to a large extent. In a series of in vitro experiments with a slow processing mutant pro-PA, we show that the pro-sequence in cis functions as a folding catalyst and accelerates the folding rate by seven orders of magnitude. In the absence of the pro-domain the PA refolds to a stable inactive molten globule intermediate that has native-like secondary but little tertiary structure. The pro-sequence of the homologous Alcaligenes faecalis PA can facilitate the folding of the hydrolase domain of Escherichia coli PA when added in trans (as a separate polypeptide chain). The isolated pro-sequence has a random structure in solution. However, difference circular dichroism spectra of native PA and native PA with pro-peptide added in trans suggest that the pro-sequence adopts an alpha-helical conformation in the context of the mature PA molecule. Furthermore, our results establish that Ca2+, found in the crystal structure, is not directly involved in the folding process. The cation shifts the equilibrium towards the native state and facilitates the autocatalytic processing of the pro-peptide.

  19. Finding correct protein–protein docking models using ProQDock

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sankar; Wallner, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Protein–protein interactions are a key in virtually all biological processes. For a detailed understanding of the biological processes, the structure of the protein complex is essential. Given the current experimental techniques for structure determination, the vast majority of all protein complexes will never be solved by experimental techniques. In lack of experimental data, computational docking methods can be used to predict the structure of the protein complex. A common strategy is to generate many alternative docking solutions (atomic models) and then use a scoring function to select the best. The success of the computational docking technique is, to a large degree, dependent on the ability of the scoring function to accurately rank and score the many alternative docking models. Results: Here, we present ProQDock, a scoring function that predicts the absolute quality of docking model measured by a novel protein docking quality score (DockQ). ProQDock uses support vector machines trained to predict the quality of protein docking models using features that can be calculated from the docking model itself. By combining different types of features describing both the protein–protein interface and the overall physical chemistry, it was possible to improve the correlation with DockQ from 0.25 for the best individual feature (electrostatic complementarity) to 0.49 for the final version of ProQDock. ProQDock performed better than the state-of-the-art methods ZRANK and ZRANK2 in terms of correlations, ranking and finding correct models on an independent test set. Finally, we also demonstrate that it is possible to combine ProQDock with ZRANK and ZRANK2 to improve performance even further. Availability and implementation: http://bioinfo.ifm.liu.se/ProQDock Contact: bjornw@ifm.liu.se Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27307625

  20. Approximations and Solution Estimates in Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-06

    Approximations and Solution Estimates in Optimization Johannes O. Royset Operations Research Department Naval Postgraduate School joroyset@nps.edu...Abstract. Approximation is central to many optimization problems and the supporting theory pro- vides insight as well as foundation for algorithms. In...functions quantifies epi-convergence, we are able to obtain estimates of optimal solutions and optimal values through estimates of that distance. In

  1. Perl Embedded in PTC's Pro/ENGINEER, Version 1

    SciTech Connect

    2003-12-22

    Pro-PERL (AKA Pro/PERL) is a Perl extension to the PTC Pro/TOOLKIT API to the PTC Pro/ENGINEER CAD application including an embedded interpreter. It can be used to automate and customize Pro/ENGINEER, create Vendor Neutral Archive (VNA) format files and re-create CAD models from the VNA files. This has applications in sanitizing classified CAD models created in a classified environment for transfer to an open environment, creating template models for modification to finished models by non-expert users, and transfer of design intent data to other modeling technologies.

  2. BDNF pro-peptide regulates dendritic spines via caspase-3

    PubMed Central

    Guo, J; Ji, Y; Ding, Y; Jiang, W; Sun, Y; Lu, B; Nagappan, G

    2016-01-01

    The precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (proBDNF) is enzymatically cleaved, by either intracellular (furin/PC1) or extracellular proteases (tPA/plasmin/MMP), to generate mature BDNF (mBDNF) and its pro-peptide (BDNF pro-peptide). Little is known about the function of BDNF pro-peptide. We have developed an antibody that specifically detects cleaved BDNF pro-peptide, but not proBDNF or mBDNF. Neuronal depolarization elicited a marked increase in extracellular BDNF pro-peptide, suggesting activity-dependent regulation of its extracellular levels. Exposure of BDNF pro-peptide to mature hippocampal neurons in culture dramatically reduced dendritic spine density. This effect was mediated by caspase-3, as revealed by studies with pharmacological inhibitors and genetic knockdown. BDNF pro-peptide also increased the number of ‘elongated' mitochondria and cytosolic cytochrome c, suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial-caspase-3 pathway. These results, along with BDNF pro-peptide effects recently reported on growth cones and long-term depression (LTD), suggest that BDNF pro-peptide is a negative regulator of neuronal structure and function. PMID:27310873

  3. BDNF pro-peptide regulates dendritic spines via caspase-3.

    PubMed

    Guo, J; Ji, Y; Ding, Y; Jiang, W; Sun, Y; Lu, B; Nagappan, G

    2016-06-16

    The precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (proBDNF) is enzymatically cleaved, by either intracellular (furin/PC1) or extracellular proteases (tPA/plasmin/MMP), to generate mature BDNF (mBDNF) and its pro-peptide (BDNF pro-peptide). Little is known about the function of BDNF pro-peptide. We have developed an antibody that specifically detects cleaved BDNF pro-peptide, but not proBDNF or mBDNF. Neuronal depolarization elicited a marked increase in extracellular BDNF pro-peptide, suggesting activity-dependent regulation of its extracellular levels. Exposure of BDNF pro-peptide to mature hippocampal neurons in culture dramatically reduced dendritic spine density. This effect was mediated by caspase-3, as revealed by studies with pharmacological inhibitors and genetic knockdown. BDNF pro-peptide also increased the number of 'elongated' mitochondria and cytosolic cytochrome c, suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial-caspase-3 pathway. These results, along with BDNF pro-peptide effects recently reported on growth cones and long-term depression (LTD), suggest that BDNF pro-peptide is a negative regulator of neuronal structure and function.

  4. The effectiveness of the directional microphone in the Oticon Medical Ponto Pro in participants with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Oeding, Kristi; Valente, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Current bone anchored hearing solutions (BAHSs) have incorporated automatic adaptive multichannel directional microphones (DMs). Previous fixed single-channel hypercardioid DMs in BAHSs have provided benefit in a diffuse listening environment, but little data are available on the performance of adaptive multichannel DMs in BAHSs for persons with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (USNHL). The primary goal was to determine if statistically significant differences existed in the mean Reception Threshold for Sentences (RTS in dB) in diffuse uncorrelated restaurant noise between unaided, an omnidirectional microphone (OM), split DM (SDM), and full DM (FDM) in the Oticon Medical Ponto Pro. A second goal was to assess subjective benefit using the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) comparing the Ponto Pro to the participant's current BAHS, and the Ponto Pro and participant's own BAHS to unaided. The third goal was to compare RTS data of the Ponto Pro to data from an identical study examining Cochlear Americas' Divino. A randomized repeated measures, single blind design was used to measure an RTS for each participant for unaided, OM, SDM, and FDM. Fifteen BAHS users with USNHL were recruited from Washington University in St. Louis and the surrounding area. The Ponto Pro was fit by measuring in-situ bone conduction thresholds and was worn for 4 wk. An RTS was obtained utilizing Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) sentences in uncorrelated restaurant noise from an eight loudspeaker array, and subjective benefit was determined utilizing the APHAB. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the results of the Ponto Pro HINT and APHAB data, and comparisons between the Ponto Pro and previous Divino data. No statistically significant differences existed in mean RTS between unaided, the Ponto Pro's OM, SDM, or FDM (p = 0.10). The Ponto Pro provided statistically significant benefit for the Background Noise (BN) (p < 0.01) and Reverberation (RV) (p < 0

  5. (Pro)renin and (pro)renin receptor expression during kidney development in neonates.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tomomasa; Urushihara, Maki; Saijo, Takahiko; Nakagawa, Ryuji; Kagami, Shoji

    2017-02-01

    Although a recent study demonstrated that the (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR) was highly expressed in the developing kidney during the mouse embryonic development, the mechanism by which (P)RR supports renal development in humans is not fully understood. In this study, we examined the plasma levels of (pro)renin and soluble (P)RR (s(P)RR) in cord blood and neonates as well as (P)RR expression in human kidney tissues. Samples were collected from 57 preterm and 67 full-term human neonates. (Pro)renin and s(P)RR levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Additionally, we performed an immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of kidney tissues from neonates and minor glomerular abnormalities in order to assess (P)RR expression in the kidney. Plasma (pro)renin and s(P)RR levels in cord blood were significantly higher in preterm neonates than in full-term neonates. Four weeks after birth, these differences were no longer evident for either plasma (pro)renin or s(P)RR levels between the two groups. Importantly, plasma (pro)renin and s(P)RR levels in cord blood were inversely correlated with gestational age. Furthermore, IHC indicated that renal expression levels of (P)RR in neonates were stronger than those in minor glomerular abnormalities. (P)RR may play a pivotal role in prenatal renal development in humans. What is Known: • Renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has several pathophysiologic functions not only in blood pressure regulation but also in pediatric renal disease. • Renal RAS activation plays a key role of renal development during gestation. What is New : • Plasma (pro)renin and soluble (pro)renin receptor (s(P)RR) levels in cord blood were significantly higher in preterm neonates than in full-term neonates. • Immunohistochemical analysis of kidney tissue indicated that renal expression levels of (P)RR in neonates were stronger than in minor glomerular abnormalities.

  6. Photoelectron spectrum of PrO-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafader, Jared O.; Ray, Manisha; Jarrold, Caroline Chick

    2015-08-01

    The photoelectron (PE) spectrum of PrO- exhibits a short 835 ± 20 cm-1 vibrational progression of doublets (210 ± 30 cm-1 splitting) assigned to transitions from the 4f2 [3H4] σ6s2 Ω = 4 anion ground state to the 4f2 [3H4] σ6s Ω = 3.5 and 4.5 neutral states. This assignment is analogous to that of the recently reported PE spectrum of CeO-, though the 82 cm-1 splitting between the 4f [2F2.5] σ6s Ω = 2 and Ω = 3 CeO neutral states could not be resolved [Ray et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 064305 (2015)]. The origin of the transition to the Ω = 3.5 neutral ground state is 0.96 ± 0.01 eV, which is the adiabatic electron affinity of PrO. Density functional theory calculations on the anion and neutral molecules support the assignment. The appearance of multiple, irregularly spaced and low-intensity features observed ca. 1 eV above the ground state cannot be reconciled with low-lying electronic states of PrO that are accessible via one-electron detachment. However, neutral states correlated with the 4f2 [3H4] 5d superconfiguration are predicted to be approximately 1 eV above the 4f2 [3H4] σ6s Ω = 3.5 neutral ground state, leading to the assignment of these features to shake-up transitions to the excited neutral states. Based on tentative hot band transition assignments, the term energy of the previously unobserved 4f2 [3H4] σ6s Ω = 2.5 neutral state is determined to be 1840 ± 110 cm-1.

  7. Educational Opportunities in Pro-Am Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fienberg, R. T.; Stencel, R. E.

    2006-08-01

    While many backyard stargazers take up the hobby just for fun, many others are attracted to it because of their keen interest in learning more about the universe. The best way to learn science is to do science. Happily, the technology available to today's amateur astronomers — including computer-controlled telescopes, CCD cameras, powerful astronomical software, and the Internet — gives them the potential to make real contributions to scientific research and to help support local educational objectives. Meanwhile, professional astronomers are losing access to small telescopes as funding is shifted to larger projects, including survey programs that will soon discover countless interesting objects needing follow-up observations. Clearly the field is ripe with opportunities for amateurs, professionals, and educators to collaborate. Amateurs will benefit from mentoring by expert professionals, pros will benefit from observations and data processing by increasingly knowledgeable amateurs, and educators will benefit from a larger pool of skilled talent to help them carry out astronomy-education initiatives. We will look at some successful pro-am collaborations that have already borne fruit and examine areas where the need and/or potential for new partnerships is especially large. In keeping with the theme of this special session, we will focus on how pro-am collaborations in astronomy can contribute to science education both inside and outside the classroom, not only for students of school age but also for adults who may not have enjoyed particularly good science education when they were younger. Because nighttime observations with sophisticated equipment are not always possible in formal educational settings, we will also mention other types of pro-am partnerships, including those involving remote observing, data mining, and/or distributed computing.

  8. Adiponectinemia controls pro-angiogenic cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Eren, Philippe; Camus, Stéphane; Matrone, Gianfranco; Ebrahimian, Téni G; François, Delphine; Tedgui, Alain; Sébastien Silvestre, Jean; Blanc-Brude, Olivier P

    2009-11-01

    Angiogenic cell therapy with the transplantation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) or bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNC) receives considerable attention as an approach to revascularize ischemic tissues. Adiponectin is a circulating hormone produced by the apM1 gene in adipocytes. Adiponectin modulates lipid metabolism and obesity, and it was recently found to promote physiological angiogenesis in response to ischemia. Patients with multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors or myocardial infarction may benefit from progenitor cell therapy, but they display depressed adiponectinemia. We hypothesized that adiponectin stimulation of transplanted cells is critical for their pro-angiogenic function. We aimed to establish whether adiponectinemia in the cell donor or in the cell recipient determines the success of pro-angiogenic cell therapy. In vitro, we found that conditioned media derived from wild-type adipocytes (adipo-CM) or purified adiponectin strongly enhanced BM-MNC survival and proliferation and stimulated EPC differentiation, whereas adipo-CM from apM1-/- adipocytes was one-half less effective. On the other hand, wild-type and apM1-/- BM-MNC displayed similar resistance to apoptosis and proliferation rates. In vivo, wild-type, and apM1-/- BM-MNC induced similar angiogenic reactions in wild-type ischemic hindlimbs. In contrast, wild-type BM-MNC had much diminished effects in apM1-/- ischemic hindlimbs. We concluded that adiponectin enhances BM-MNC survival and proliferation, and adiponectinemia in the cell therapy recipient is essential for the pro-angiogenic benefits of cell therapy. These observations imply that progenitor cell transplantation might only induce angiogenesis in patients with high adiponectinemia.

  9. The utility of Pro Forma Income Statements.

    PubMed

    Reiboldt, Max; Reiboldt, John

    2002-01-01

    Recent headlines surrounding the financial demise of the nation's seventh largest company, Enron, and its subsequent entanglements with its accounting and consulting firm, Arthur Andersen, have placed a cloud of suspicion upon many reasonable business practices that otherwise are considered standard procedure. The proforma income statement is one of those practices. An oft-used tool in financial management, pro formas play a useful role for projecting financial performance based on predictable forecasts or assumptions. Regardless of the current scrutiny, there is still a valid use for accurately prepared statements.

  10. Structure of the Escherichia coli ProQ RNA-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Grecia M; Hardwick, Steven W; Maslen, Sarah L; Skehel, J Mark; Holmqvist, Erik; Vogel, Jörg; Bateman, Alex; Luisi, Ben F; Broadhurst, R William

    2017-05-01

    The protein ProQ has recently been identified as a global small noncoding RNA-binding protein in Salmonella, and a similar role is anticipated for its numerous homologs in divergent bacterial species. We report the solution structure of Escherichia coli ProQ, revealing an N-terminal FinO-like domain, a C-terminal domain that unexpectedly has a Tudor domain fold commonly found in eukaryotes, and an elongated bridging intradomain linker that is flexible but nonetheless incompressible. Structure-based sequence analysis suggests that the Tudor domain was acquired through horizontal gene transfer and gene fusion to the ancestral FinO-like domain. Through a combination of biochemical and biophysical approaches, we have mapped putative RNA-binding surfaces on all three domains of ProQ and modeled the protein's conformation in the apo and RNA-bound forms. Taken together, these data suggest how the FinO, Tudor, and linker domains of ProQ cooperate to recognize complex RNA structures and serve to promote RNA-mediated regulation. © 2017 Gonzalez et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  11. Autophagy and the (Pro)renin Receptor.

    PubMed

    Binger, Katrina J; Muller, Dominik N

    2013-10-21

    The (pro)renin receptor (PRR) is a newly reported member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS); a hormonal cascade responsible for regulating blood pressure. Originally, identification of PRR was heralded as the next drug target of the RAS, of which such therapies would have increased benefits against target-organ damage and hypertension. However, in the years since its discovery, several conditional knockout mouse models of PRR have demonstrated an essential role for this receptor unrelated to the RAS and blood pressure. Specific deletion of PRR in podocytes or cardiomyocytes resulted in the rapid onset of organ failure and subsequently animal mortality after only a matter of weeks. In both cell types, loss of PRR resulted in the intracellular accumulation of autophagosomes and misfolded proteins, indicating a disturbance in autophagy. In light of the fact that the majority of PRR is located intracellularly, this molecular function appears to be more relevant than its ability to bind to high, non-physiological concentrations of (pro)renin. This review will focus on the role of PRR in autophagy and its importance in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Understanding the link between PRR, autophagy and how its loss results in cell death will be essential for deciphering its role in physiology and pathology.

  12. Pro-neurotrophins, sortilin, and nociception

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Gary R; Nykjaer, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) signaling is important in the development and functional maintenance of nociceptors, but it also plays a central role in initiating and sustaining heat and mechanical hyperalgesia following inflammation. NGF signaling in pain has traditionally been thought of as primarily engaging the classic high-affinity receptor tyrosine kinase receptor TrkA to initiate sensitization events. However, the discovery that secreted proforms of nerve NGF have biological functions distinct from the processed mature factors raised the possibility that these proneurotrophins (proNTs) may have distinct function in painful conditions. ProNTs engage a novel receptor system that is distinct from that of mature neurotrophins, consisting of sortilin, a type I membrane protein belonging to the VPS10p family, and its co-receptor, the classic low-affinity neurotrophin receptor p75NTR. Here, we review how this new receptor system may itself function with or independently of the classic TrkA system in regulating inflammatory or neuropathic pain. PMID:24494677

  13. Elevation of (Pro)Renin and (Pro)Renin Receptor in Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Thomason, Jessica; Reyes, Michelle; Allen, Steven R; Jones, Richard O; Beeram, Madhava R; Kuehl, Thomas J; Suzuki, Fumiaki; Uddin, Mohammad Nasir

    2015-10-01

    Preeclampsia (preE), a syndrome of hypertension, proteinuria, and edema, has many elusive triggers. The renin-angiotensin system has been implicated in preE pathogenesis. In this study, we test the hypothesis that (pro)renin levels are increased in preE patients and that levels of (pro)renin and (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR) are elevated in a rat model of preE. We recruited 30 preE and 43 normal pregnant consenting patients. We used normally pregnant rats (NP, n = 10) and pregnant rats receiving weekly injections of desoxycorticosterone acetate and whose drinking water was replaced with 0.9% saline (preE, n = 10). Plasma and placental levels of (pro)renin were assayed by ELISA. Placental and kidney (P)RR was measured both by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. The mean plasma (pro)renin of 27.1±5.2 in preE patients differs from that in patients without preE: 14.8±5.2 ng Ang I/ml/hour (P < 0.0001). In rats, both plasma (NP: 22.7±4.3 and preE: 49.2±10.0 ng Ang I/ml/hour) and placental (NP: 152±24 and preE: 302±39 ng/g tissue) levels of (pro)renin were higher (P < 0.001) in preE compared to NP rats. (P)RR expression was greater (P < 0.05) in placental tissue of preE rats, while kidney (P)RR expression was similar. Elevated levels of circulating (pro)renin have been observed in preE patients and in a rat model of preE. We also found the increased expression of placental (P)RR in preE rats. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. ProSAT+: visualizing sequence annotations on 3D structure.

    PubMed

    Stank, Antonia; Richter, Stefan; Wade, Rebecca C

    2016-08-01

    PRO: tein S: tructure A: nnotation T: ool-plus (ProSAT(+)) is a new web server for mapping protein sequence annotations onto a protein structure and visualizing them simultaneously with the structure. ProSAT(+) incorporates many of the features of the preceding ProSAT and ProSAT2 tools but also provides new options for the visualization and sharing of protein annotations. Data are extracted from the UniProt KnowledgeBase, the RCSB PDB and the PDBe SIFTS resource, and visualization is performed using JSmol. User-defined sequence annotations can be added directly to the URL, thus enabling visualization and easy data sharing. ProSAT(+) is available at http://prosat.h-its.org.

  15. Enhancements to Demilitarization Process Maps Program (ProMap)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-14

    map tool, ProMap, was improved by implementing new features, and sharing data with MIDAS and AMDIT databases. Specifically, process efficiency was...main effort of Task 1 was to add a new feature in ProMap to directly access the AMDIT information. As the maps are constructed, and later viewed...Figure 3 below illustrates the new feature (noted with red ellipse). Figure 3: Typical Process Map in ProMap with Part or NSN Number Notice Web

  16. Electromarking solution

    DOEpatents

    Bullock, Jonathan S.; Harper, William L.; Peck, Charles G.

    1976-06-22

    This invention is directed to an aqueous halogen-free electromarking solution which possesses the capacity for marking a broad spectrum of metals and alloys selected from different classes. The aqueous solution comprises basically the nitrate salt of an amphoteric metal, a chelating agent, and a corrosion-inhibiting agent.

  17. Pro-Anorexia and Anti-Pro-Anorexia Videos on YouTube: Sentiment Analysis of User Responses.

    PubMed

    Oksanen, Atte; Garcia, David; Sirola, Anu; Näsi, Matti; Kaakinen, Markus; Keipi, Teo; Räsänen, Pekka

    2015-11-12

    Pro-anorexia communities exist online and encourage harmful weight loss and weight control practices, often through emotional content that enforces social ties within these communities. User-generated responses to videos that directly oppose pro-anorexia communities have not yet been researched in depth. The aim was to study emotional reactions to pro-anorexia and anti-pro-anorexia online content on YouTube using sentiment analysis. Using the 50 most popular YouTube pro-anorexia and anti-pro-anorexia user channels as a starting point, we gathered data on users, their videos, and their commentators. A total of 395 anorexia videos and 12,161 comments were analyzed using positive and negative sentiments and ratings submitted by the viewers of the videos. The emotional information was automatically extracted with an automatic sentiment detection tool whose reliability was tested with human coders. Ordinary least squares regression models were used to estimate the strength of sentiments. The models controlled for the number of video views and comments, number of months the video had been on YouTube, duration of the video, uploader's activity as a video commentator, and uploader's physical location by country. The 395 videos had more than 6 million views and comments by almost 8000 users. Anti-pro-anorexia video comments expressed more positive sentiments on a scale of 1 to 5 (adjusted prediction [AP] 2.15, 95% CI 2.11-2.19) than did those of pro-anorexia videos (AP 2.02, 95% CI 1.98-2.06). Anti-pro-anorexia videos also received more likes (AP 181.02, 95% CI 155.19-206.85) than pro-anorexia videos (AP 31.22, 95% CI 31.22-37.81). Negative sentiments and video dislikes were equally distributed in responses to both pro-anorexia and anti-pro-anorexia videos. Despite pro-anorexia content being widespread on YouTube, videos promoting help for anorexia and opposing the pro-anorexia community were more popular, gaining more positive feedback and comments than pro-anorexia videos

  18. Pro-Anorexia and Anti-Pro-Anorexia Videos on YouTube: Sentiment Analysis of User Responses

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, David; Sirola, Anu; Näsi, Matti; Kaakinen, Markus; Keipi, Teo; Räsänen, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Background Pro-anorexia communities exist online and encourage harmful weight loss and weight control practices, often through emotional content that enforces social ties within these communities. User-generated responses to videos that directly oppose pro-anorexia communities have not yet been researched in depth. Objective The aim was to study emotional reactions to pro-anorexia and anti-pro-anorexia online content on YouTube using sentiment analysis. Methods Using the 50 most popular YouTube pro-anorexia and anti-pro-anorexia user channels as a starting point, we gathered data on users, their videos, and their commentators. A total of 395 anorexia videos and 12,161 comments were analyzed using positive and negative sentiments and ratings submitted by the viewers of the videos. The emotional information was automatically extracted with an automatic sentiment detection tool whose reliability was tested with human coders. Ordinary least squares regression models were used to estimate the strength of sentiments. The models controlled for the number of video views and comments, number of months the video had been on YouTube, duration of the video, uploader’s activity as a video commentator, and uploader’s physical location by country. Results The 395 videos had more than 6 million views and comments by almost 8000 users. Anti-pro-anorexia video comments expressed more positive sentiments on a scale of 1 to 5 (adjusted prediction [AP] 2.15, 95% CI 2.11-2.19) than did those of pro-anorexia videos (AP 2.02, 95% CI 1.98-2.06). Anti-pro-anorexia videos also received more likes (AP 181.02, 95% CI 155.19-206.85) than pro-anorexia videos (AP 31.22, 95% CI 31.22-37.81). Negative sentiments and video dislikes were equally distributed in responses to both pro-anorexia and anti-pro-anorexia videos. Conclusions Despite pro-anorexia content being widespread on YouTube, videos promoting help for anorexia and opposing the pro-anorexia community were more popular, gaining more

  19. Pro-sociality and strategic reasoning in economic decisions.

    PubMed

    Arruñada, Benito; Casari, Marco; Pancotto, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationship between pro-social preferences and strategic reasoning. These aspects are typically studied separately but little is known about their joint distribution. In an experiment, for each participant we elicit individual concerns toward pro-sociality-inequality aversion and efficiency-as well as the number of steps of reasoning through a guessing game. We report that self-regarding and pro-social participants exhibit similar levels of strategic reasoning, which supports the view that pro-sociality and strategic reasoning can be studied independently.

  20. Pro-sociality and strategic reasoning in economic decisions

    PubMed Central

    Arruñada, Benito; Casari, Marco; Pancotto, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationship between pro-social preferences and strategic reasoning. These aspects are typically studied separately but little is known about their joint distribution. In an experiment, for each participant we elicit individual concerns toward pro-sociality—inequality aversion and efficiency—as well as the number of steps of reasoning through a guessing game. We report that self-regarding and pro-social participants exhibit similar levels of strategic reasoning, which supports the view that pro-sociality and strategic reasoning can be studied independently. PMID:26074799

  1. Pro Computers and the Quality of Medical Care

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, George Ross

    1984-01-01

    The PRO program constitutes a role reversal for peer review because of the DRG system. When price per diagnosis is fixed, only quality can vary. Meager funding forces the PRO to rely on computer data, but the data set contains little that is useful in assessing quality. Furthermore, the PRO must depend on fiscal intermediaries, planning organizations and state welfare agencies to provide the data, check it for accuracy, and supply it in a timely fashion. Since the other organizations have been either indifferent or hostile to the peer review process, the PRO data program has more to do with organizational politics than with computers.

  2. French Pro/Am collaborations in exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santerne, A.; Moutou, C.; Vanhuysse, M.; Bouchy, F.; Buil, C.; Cochard, F.; Thizy, O.; Martinez, P.; Desnoux, V.; Pujol, M.; Colas, F.

    2011-10-01

    Amateur astronomers have access to huge telescope time and can reach photometric precision up to a few mmag as well as radial velocity precision up to ˜ 50m.s-1 on brightest stars. We will first present some results of french amateur astronomers in transit photometry and radial velocity and then, we will present an over-view of all the collaborations which can be done between professional and amateur astronomers in the competitive exoplanet domain, and especially the current collaboration between french Pro & Am astronomers which was used in publication in A&A. Finally, we will present a new internet wiki page which goal is to develop such collaboration in different countries.

  3. Autophagy as a pro-death pathway.

    PubMed

    Denton, Donna; Xu, Tianqi; Kumar, Sharad

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved catabolic process of autophagy involves the degradation of cytoplasmic components through lysosomal enzymes. Basal levels of autophagy maintain cellular homeostasis and under stress conditions high levels of autophagy are induced. It is often under such stress conditions that high levels of autophagy and cell death have been observed, leading to the idea that autophagy may act as an executioner of cell death. However the notion of autophagy as a cell death mechanism has been controversial and remains mechanistically undefined. There is now growing evidence that in specific contexts autophagy can indeed facilitate cell death. The pro-death role of autophagy is however complicated due to the extensive cross-talk between different signalling pathways. This review summarises the examples of where autophagy acts as a means of cell death and discusses the association of autophagy with the different cell death pathways.

  4. Solution preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results.

  5. Antithrombotic Protective Effects of Arg-Pro-Gly-Pro Peptide during Emotional Stress Provoked by Forced Swimming Test in Rats.

    PubMed

    Grigor'eva, M E; Lyapina, L A

    2017-01-01

    Blood coagulation was enhanced and all factors (total, enzyme, and non-enzyme) of the fibrinolytic system were suppressed in rats in 60 min after forced swimming test. Argininecontaining tetrapeptide glyproline Arg-Pro-Gly-Pro administered prior to this test activated fibrinolysis and prevented hypercoagulation. Administration of this peptide in 5 min after swimming test also enhanced anticoagulant, fibrinolytic, and antithrombotic activity of the blood. Therefore, glyproline Arg-Pro-Gly-Pro exerted both preventive and curative effects on the hemostasis system and prevented enhancement of blood coagulation provoked by emotional stress modeled by forced swimming test.

  6. High-resolution structures of collagen-like peptides [(Pro-Pro-Gly)4-Xaa-Yaa-Gly-(Pro-Pro-Gly)4]: implications for triple-helix hydration and Hyp(X) puckering.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, Kenji; Hongo, Chizuru; Wu, Guanghan; Mizuno, Kazunori; Noguchi, Keiichi; Ebisuzaki, Shutoku; Tanaka, Yuji; Nishino, Norikazu; Bächinger, Hans Peter

    2009-05-01

    Structures of (Pro-Pro-Gly)4-Xaa-Yaa-Gly-(Pro-Pro-Gly)4 (ppg9-XYG) where (Xaa, Yaa)=(Pro, Hyp), (Hyp, Pro) or (Hyp, Hyp) were analyzed at high resolution using synchrotron radiation. Molecular and crystal structures of these peptides are very similar to those of the (Pro-Pro-Gly)9 peptide. The results obtained in this study, together with those obtained from related compounds, indicated the puckering propensity of the Hyp in the X position: (1) Hyp(X) residues involved in the Hyp(X):Pro(Y) stacking pairs prefer the down-puckering conformation, as in ppg9-OPG, and ppg9-OOG; (2) Hyp(X) residues involved in the Hyp(X):Hyp(Y) stacking pairs prefer the up-puckering conformation if there is no specific reason to adopt the down-puckering conformation. Water molecules in these peptide crystals are classified into two groups, the 1st and 2nd hydration waters. Water molecules in the 1st hydration group have direct hydrogen bonds with peptide oxygen atoms, whereas those in the 2nd hydration group do not. Compared with globular proteins, the number of water molecules in the 2nd hydration shell of the ppg9-XYG peptides is very large, likely due to the unique rod-like molecular structure of collagen model peptides. In the collagen helix, the amino acid residues in the X and Y positions must protrude outside of the triple helix, which forces even the hydrophobic side chains, such as Pro, to be exposed to the surrounding water molecules. Therefore, most of the waters in the 2nd hydration shell are covering hydrophobic Pro side chains by forming clathrate structures.

  7. Pro-ELT; A Teacher Training Blended Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshtehardi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Pro-ELT is a blended teacher training course. The aim of Pro-ELT is to strengthen English teaching and learning through a blended training approach that includes; quality face to face delivery, supported distance learning and integrated proficiency and methodology training. It delivers quality language teaching and teacher development courses to…

  8. Pro-Cite: A Tool for Creating and Updating Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluri, Rao; Bosch, Steve

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Pro-Cite database management system and its uses in searching RLIN, OCLC, DIALOG, BRS, etc.; downloading results on a floppy or hard disk; converting downloaded records into Pro-Cite databases; and editing, selecting, indexing, and printing out the selected records in a variety of bibliographic styles. (DMM)

  9. 31 CFR 50.92 - Determination of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.92 Determination of pro rata share. (a) Pro rata loss... amount that would otherwise be paid by the insurer under the terms and conditions of an insurance policy providing property and casualty insurance under the Program if there were no cap on annual liability...

  10. 31 CFR 50.92 - Determination of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.92 Determination of pro rata share. (a) Pro rata loss... amount that would otherwise be paid by the insurer under the terms and conditions of an insurance policy providing property and casualty insurance under the Program if there were no cap on annual liability...

  11. 31 CFR 50.92 - Determination of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.92 Determination of pro rata share. (a) Pro rata loss... amount that would otherwise be paid by the insurer under the terms and conditions of an insurance policy providing property and casualty insurance under the Program if there were no cap on annual liability...

  12. 31 CFR 50.92 - Determination of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.92 Determination of pro rata share. (a) Pro rata loss... amount that would otherwise be paid by the insurer under the terms and conditions of an insurance policy providing property and casualty insurance under the Program if there were no cap on annual liability...

  13. Ethical Dilemmas of Providing Pro Bono Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Bruce L.

    2011-01-01

    This viewpoint addresses ethical questions regarding the provision of art therapy as a pro bono service, a term from Latin roots that mean "for the public good." Approaches to ethical reasoning are discussed using the case of pro bono art therapy in a residential treatment program for adolescents.

  14. Pro-Market Educational Governance: Is Argentina a Black Swan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beech, Jason; Barrenechea, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    In this article we explore ways in which pro-market discourses have been interpreted in policy initiatives in Argentina since the 1970s. Our argument is that even though pro-market discourses have guided reforms in many aspects of public policies in Argentina, the arena of education has overall been resistant to taking them up. The first part of…

  15. Peanuts & Crackerjacks: Economics of Pro Team Sports. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, MA.

    This teacher's guide presents instructional materials which examine issues in professional sports for students in high school economics and social studies classes. The issues include how the pro sports market evolved; how leagues gained market power; why athletes earn as much as they do; what are the sources of pro sports revenues; why tickets…

  16. The Limits of Quid Pro Quo Coupe Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsoi-Hoshmand, Lisa

    1975-01-01

    The strategy of quid pro quo negotiation as it is applied to couple therapy and taught as a problem solving method to couples with unsatisfactory relationships is examined and the theoretical basis for the clinical application of quid pro quo and its potentials as a therapeutic tool presented. (Author)

  17. The PRO Instructional Strategy in the Construction of Scientific Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Kok-Sing

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an instructional strategy called Premise-Reasoning-Outcome (PRO) designed to support students in the construction of scientific explanations. Informed by the philosophy of science and linguistic studies of science, the PRO strategy involves identifying three components of a scientific explanation: (i) premise--an accepted…

  18. German cockroach frass proteases cleave pro-matrix metalloproteinase-9.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Valerie S; Page, Kristen

    2007-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, secreted as pro-MMP-9, is cleaved by serine proteases at the N-terminus to generate active MMP-9. Pro-MMP-9 has been found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with asthma. Because many inhaled aeroallergens contain active proteases, the authors sought to determine whether German cockroach (GC) fecal remnants (frass) and house dust mite (HDM) were able to cleave pro-MMP-9. Treatment of recombinant human (rh) pro-MMP-9 with GC frass resulted in a dose- and time-dependent cleavage. This was abrogated by pretreating frass with an inhibitor of serine, but not cysteine protease activity. GC frass also induced cleavage of pro-MMP-9 from primary human neutrophils dependent on the active serine proteases in GC frass. HDM was less potent at cleaving pro-MMP-9. Alpha1-antitrypsin (A1AT), a naturally occurring protease inhibitor, attenuated GC frass-induced cleavage of pro-MMP-9. A1AT partially inactivated the serine protease activity in GC frass, while GC frass cleaved A1AT in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These data suggest that GC frass-derived serine proteases could regulate the activity of MMP-9 and that A1AT may play an important role in modulating GC frass activity in vivo. These data suggest a mechanism by which inhalation of GC frass could regulate airway remodeling through the activation of pro-MMP-9.

  19. Enhancing Civic Consciousness through Student Pro Bono in Legal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babacan, Alperhan; Babacan, Hurriyet

    2017-01-01

    A key aim of encouraging law students to participate in student pro bono, a form of experiential learning in legal education, is to develop their commitment to volunteer lawyering after graduation. This paper examines student pro bono in legal education in Australia and the United States. A critical review of the current approaches to student pro…

  20. The PRO Instructional Strategy in the Construction of Scientific Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Kok-Sing

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an instructional strategy called Premise-Reasoning-Outcome (PRO) designed to support students in the construction of scientific explanations. Informed by the philosophy of science and linguistic studies of science, the PRO strategy involves identifying three components of a scientific explanation: (i) premise--an accepted…

  1. 31 CFR 50.92 - Determination of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.92 Determination of pro rata share. (a) Pro rata loss... providing property and casualty insurance under the Program if there were no cap on annual liability under... estimates that aggregate insured losses may exceed the cap on annual liability for a Program Year, then...

  2. Legal Understanding of "Quid Pro Quo" Sexual Harassment in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahlangu, Vimbi Petrus

    2017-01-01

    This paper highlights legal understanding of quid pro quo sexual harassment in schools. Quid pro quo sexual harassment implies abuse of authority or position to gain something sexual. A duty of care rests on teachers, Schools Governing Bodies and the Department of Education to provide and maintain safe schools that are free from all forms of…

  3. 25 CFR 273.32 - Pro rata requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata requirement. 273.32 Section 273.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT PROGRAM EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT Funding Provisions § 273.32 Pro rata...

  4. Pro-Market Educational Governance: Is Argentina a Black Swan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beech, Jason; Barrenechea, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    In this article we explore ways in which pro-market discourses have been interpreted in policy initiatives in Argentina since the 1970s. Our argument is that even though pro-market discourses have guided reforms in many aspects of public policies in Argentina, the arena of education has overall been resistant to taking them up. The first part of…

  5. Ethical Dilemmas of Providing Pro Bono Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Bruce L.

    2011-01-01

    This viewpoint addresses ethical questions regarding the provision of art therapy as a pro bono service, a term from Latin roots that mean "for the public good." Approaches to ethical reasoning are discussed using the case of pro bono art therapy in a residential treatment program for adolescents.

  6. Pro-Cite: A Tool for Creating and Updating Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluri, Rao; Bosch, Steve

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Pro-Cite database management system and its uses in searching RLIN, OCLC, DIALOG, BRS, etc.; downloading results on a floppy or hard disk; converting downloaded records into Pro-Cite databases; and editing, selecting, indexing, and printing out the selected records in a variety of bibliographic styles. (DMM)

  7. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pro-Children Act. 352.237...-Children Act. As prescribed in 337.103-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also known as the...

  8. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pro-Children Act. 352.237...-Children Act. As prescribed in 337.103-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also known as the...

  9. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pro-Children Act. 352.237...-Children Act. As prescribed in 337.103-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also known as the...

  10. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pro-Children Act. 352.237...-Children Act. As prescribed in 337.103-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also known as the...

  11. Intracerebroventricular infusion of the (Pro)renin receptor antagonist PRO20 attenuates deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Li, Wencheng; Sullivan, Michelle N; Zhang, Sheng; Worker, Caleb J; Xiong, Zhenggang; Speth, Robert C; Feng, Yumei

    2015-02-01

    We previously reported that binding of prorenin to the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) plays a major role in brain angiotensin II formation and the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Here, we designed and developed an antagonistic peptide, PRO20, to block prorenin binding to the PRR. Fluorescently labeled PRO20 bound to both mouse and human brain tissues with dissociation constants of 4.4 and 1.8 nmol/L, respectively. This binding was blocked by coincubation with prorenin and was diminished in brains of neuron-specific PRR-knockout mice, indicating specificity of PRO20 for PRR. In cultured human neuroblastoma cells, PRO20 blocked prorenin-induced calcium influx in a concentration- and AT(1) receptor-dependent manner. Intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 dose-dependently inhibited prorenin-induced hypertension in C57Bl6/J mice. Furthermore, acute intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 reduced blood pressure in both DOCA-salt and genetically hypertensive mice. Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 attenuated the development of hypertension and the increase in brain hypothalamic angiotensin II levels induced by DOCA-salt. In addition, chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 improved autonomic function and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in mice treated with DOCA-salt. In summary, PRO20 binds to both mouse and human PRRs and decreases angiotensin II formation and hypertension induced by either prorenin or DOCA-salt. Our findings highlight the value of the novel PRR antagonist, PRO20, as a lead compound for a novel class of antihypertensive agents and as a research tool to establish the validity of brain PRR antagonism as a strategy for treating hypertension.

  12. Energy consumption of ProTaper Next X1 after glide path with PathFiles and ProGlider.

    PubMed

    Berutti, Elio; Alovisi, Mario; Pastorelli, Michele Angelo; Chiandussi, Giorgio; Scotti, Nicola; Pasqualini, Damiano

    2014-12-01

    Instrument failure caused by excessive torsional stress can be controlled by creating a manual or mechanical glide path. The ProGlider single-file system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) was recently introduced to perform a mechanical glide path. This study was designed to compare the effect of a glide path performed with PathFiles (Dentsply Maillefer) and ProGlider on torque, time, and pecking motion required for ProTaper Next X1 (Dentsply Maillefer) to reach the full working length in simulated root canals. Forty Endo Training Blocks (Dentsply Maillefer) were used. Twenty were prepared with a mechanical glide path using PathFiles 1 and 2 (the PathFile group), and 20 were prepared with a mechanical glide path using a ProGlider single file (the ProGlider group). All samples were shaped with ProTaper Next X1 driven by an endodontic motor connected to a digital wattmeter. The required torque for root canal instrumentation was analyzed by evaluating the electrical power consumption of the endodontic engine. Electric power consumption (mW/h), elapsed time (seconds), and number of pecking motions required to reach the full working length with ProTaper Next X1 were calculated. Differences among groups were analyzed with the parametric Student t test for independent data (P < .05). Elapsed time and electric power consumption were significantly different between groups (P = .0001 for both). ProGlider appears to perform more efficiently than PathFiles in decreasing electric power consumption of ProTaper Next X1 to reach the full working length. This study confirmed the ability of ProGlider to reduce stress in ProTaper Next X1 during shaping through a glide path and preliminary middle and coronal preflaring. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intracerebroventricular Infusion of the (Pro)renin Receptor Antagonist PRO20 Attenuates Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt–Induced Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wencheng; Sullivan, Michelle N.; Zhang, Sheng; Worker, Caleb J.; Xiong, Zhenggang; Speth, Robert C.; Feng, Yumei

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that binding of prorenin to the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) plays a major role in brain angiotensin II formation and the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Here, we designed and developed an antagonistic peptide, PRO20, to block prorenin binding to the PRR. Fluorescently labeled PRO20 bound to both mouse and human brain tissues with dissociation constants of 4.4 and 1.8 nmol/L, respectively. This binding was blocked by coincubation with prorenin and was diminished in brains of neuron-specific PRR-knockout mice, indicating specificity of PRO20 for PRR. In cultured human neuroblastoma cells, PRO20 blocked prorenin-induced calcium influx in a concentration- and AT1 receptor–dependent manner. Intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 dose-dependently inhibited prorenin-induced hypertension in C57Bl6/J mice. Furthermore, acute intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 reduced blood pressure in both DOCA-salt and genetically hypertensive mice. Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 attenuated the development of hypertension and the increase in brain hypothalamic angiotensin II levels induced by DOCA-salt. In addition, chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 improved autonomic function and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in mice treated with DOCA-salt. In summary, PRO20 binds to both mouse and human PRRs and decreases angiotensin II formation and hypertension induced by either prorenin or DOCA-salt. Our findings highlight the value of the novel PRR antagonist, PRO20, as a lead compound for a novel class of antihypertensive agents and as a research tool to establish the validity of brain PRR antagonism as a strategy for treating hypertension. PMID:25421983

  14. Spectral properties of pro-multimodal imaging agents derived from a NIR dye and a metal chelator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zongren; Achilefu, Samuel

    2005-01-01

    Monomolecular multimodal imaging agents (MOMIAs) are able to provide complementary diagnostic information of a target diseased tissue. We developed a convenient solid-phase approach to construct two pro-MOMIAs (before incorporating radiometal) derived from 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) and cypate, a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye analogous to indocyanine green (ICG). The possible interaction between d orbitals of transition metal DOTA complexes or free metals and the p orbitals of cypate chromophore could quench the fluorescence of pro-MOMIAs. However, we did not observe significant changes in the spectral properties of cypate upon conjugation with DOTA and subsequent chelation with metals. The fluorescence intensity of the chelated and nonmetal-chelated PRO-MOMIAs remained fairly the same in dilute 20% aqueous dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solution (1 x 10(-6) M). Significant reduction in the fluorescence intensity of pro-MOMIAs occurred in the presence of a large excess of metal ions (>1 molar ratio for indium and 20-fold for a copper relative to pro-MOMIA). This study suggests the feasibility of using MOMIAs for combined optical and radioisotope imaging.

  15. Kinetics of the helix/coil transition of the collagen-like peptide (Pro-Hyp-Gly)10.

    PubMed

    Miles, Christopher A

    2007-09-01

    This article measures the rates of folding and unfolding of the collagen-like peptide (Pro-Hyp-Gly)(10) over overlapping concentration and temperature ranges. The data allow calculation of the orders of the folding and the unfolding reactions, the effective Arrhenius activation energies, and numerical solution of the differential equation controlling the helix/coil transition during temperature scanning. The resulting predictions of helicity closely followed DSC measurements of the peptide in both up- and down-scanning modes, confirming the validity of the theoretical equations governing the kinetics of the folding/unfolding process. In both up- and down-scanning, three regions were apparent: "quasistatic," "rate," and "mixed." At very low scanning rates, a quasistatic region revealed a broad, short endotherm that was independent of scanning rate, but dependent on concentration and equal to the equilibrium endotherm. At high up-scanning rates, the "rate region" endotherm was sharp and tall and T(max) increased with scanning rate. In down-scanning, the "rate peak" was very broad and very short and T(max) decreased with scanning rate. The "mixed region" showed nascent "rate" and nascent "quasistatic" peaks, which were evident in the same up-scan under certain conditions. Comparison of (Pro-Hyp-Gly)(10) and (Pro-Pro-Gly)(10) showed that the higher temperature stability of (Pro-Hyp-Gly)(10) is due mainly to its slower rate of unfolding and higher activation energy. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  16. ProDy: protein dynamics inferred from theory and experiments.

    PubMed

    Bakan, Ahmet; Meireles, Lidio M; Bahar, Ivet

    2011-06-01

    We developed a Python package, ProDy, for structure-based analysis of protein dynamics. ProDy allows for quantitative characterization of structural variations in heterogeneous datasets of structures experimentally resolved for a given biomolecular system, and for comparison of these variations with the theoretically predicted equilibrium dynamics. Datasets include structural ensembles for a given family or subfamily of proteins, their mutants and sequence homologues, in the presence/absence of their substrates, ligands or inhibitors. Numerous helper functions enable comparative analysis of experimental and theoretical data, and visualization of the principal changes in conformations that are accessible in different functional states. ProDy application programming interface (API) has been designed so that users can easily extend the software and implement new methods. ProDy is open source and freely available under GNU General Public License from http://www.csb.pitt.edu/ProDy/.

  17. Profiling the ‘Pro-environmental Individual’: A Personality Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Ezra M.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Ashton, Michael C.; Lee, Kibeom

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable scientific interest in the psychological correlates of pro-environmental behaviors. Much research has focused on demographic and social-psychological characteristics of individuals who consistently perform such actions. Here, we report the results of two studies in which we explored relations between broad personality traits and pro-environmental actions. Using a wide variety of behavior and personality measures, we consistently found moderate positive relations between Openness to Experience and pro-environmental activities in both a community sample (Study 1: N = 778) and an undergraduate student sample (Study 2: N = 115). In Study 2 we showed that the effect of Openness on pro-environmental behaviors was fully mediated by individuals’ environmental attitudes and connection to nature. Our findings suggest that high levels of aesthetic appreciation, creativity, and inquisitiveness, but not personality traits associated with altruism, may have motivated the performance of pro-environmental actions among our respondents. Implications for intervention development are discussed. PMID:21241310

  18. Highly robust thin-film composite pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) hollow fiber membranes with high power densities for renewable salinity-gradient energy generation.

    PubMed

    Han, Gang; Wang, Peng; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2013-07-16

    The practical application of pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) technology for renewable blue energy (i.e., osmotic power generation) from salinity gradient is being hindered by the absence of effective membranes. Compared to flat-sheet membranes, membranes with a hollow fiber configuration are of great interest due to their high packing density and spacer-free module fabrication. However, the development of PRO hollow fiber membranes is still in its infancy. This study aims to open up new perspectives and design strategies to molecularly construct highly robust thin film composite (TFC) PRO hollow fiber membranes with high power densities. The newly developed TFC PRO membranes consist of a selective polyamide skin formed on the lumen side of well-constructed Matrimid hollow fiber supports via interfacial polymerization. For the first time, laboratory PRO power generation tests demonstrate that the newly developed PRO hollow fiber membranes can withstand trans-membrane pressures up to 16 bar and exhibit a peak power density as high as 14 W/m(2) using seawater brine (1.0 M NaCl) as the draw solution and deionized water as the feed. We believe that the developed TFC PRO hollow fiber membranes have great potential for osmotic power harvesting.

  19. Pro and contra IBR-eradication.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Mathias; Engels, Monika

    2006-03-31

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is the causative agent of respiratory and genital tract infections such as infectious rhinotracheitis (IBR), infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IPV, balanoposthitis (IBP), and abortion. Despite of a pronounced immune response, the virus is never eliminated from an infected host but establishes life-long latency and may be reactivated at intervals. Europe has a long history of fighting against BoHV-1 infections, yet, only a small number of countries has achieved IBR-eradication. Therefore, it seemed appropriate to review the reasoning pro and contra such a task. Clearly, the goal can indeed be achieved as has been demonstrated by a number of European countries. However, detection and stamping out of seemingly healthy virus carriers is inevitable in the process. Unfortunately, the use of vaccines is only of temporary and limited value. Therefore, there are numerous considerations to be put forward against such plans, including the high costs, the great risks, and the unsatisfactory quality of tools. If either control or eradication of IBR is nonetheless a goal, then better vaccines are needed as well as better companion tests. Moreover, better tools for the characterization of viral isolates are required. Collaborative actions to gather viral strains from as many countries as possible for inclusion into a newly created clustering library would be most advantageous.

  20. Pro-Am collaborations in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, G. M.

    2004-10-01

    The text of the Presidential Address delivered at The Geological Society, Burlington House, Piccadilly, London on 2003 October 29. In this second Presidential Address, I wish to discuss the very real opportunities that exist for collaboration between professional and amateur astronomers in a wide variety of fields. As the scope of research in astronomy grows by the day and some questions are answered, we are then often faced by even greater challenges. Professional astronomers naturally adjust their goals and areas of investigation. The result is that gaps are left in which the amateur can take over the role. Alternatively where there is a considerable technical challenge, the task can be shared by professional and amateurs with frequent exchanges of results and discussion. The main areas which are worthy of debate, involve whether the amateur is suitably equipped for the task, which naturally leads us to discuss the equipment available, and the observing techniques employed. It is also worth examining which classes of object are suited to the cause of Pro-Am.

  1. Organ donation and imminent death: pro position.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Paul E

    2017-04-01

    Donation after cardiac death is associated with many problems including ischemic injury, high rates of delayed allograft function, prolonged time to asystole, and frequent organ discard. Imminent death donation (IDD) has been proposed as a separate category of organ donation: distinct from living donation and donation after cardiac death. A protocol for IDD was developed at Rhode Island Hospital and published in the ethics literature. The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) Ethics Committee reviewed the protocol and stated that IDD was ethically appropriate in some cases. A wider review by a working group within UNOS concluded similarly, but felt that a myriad of policy revisions would be required and were concerned about a possible negative impact on public trust in organ donation. Nonetheless, IDD and other nontraditional strategies continue to be proposed, implemented in other countries and discussed by patients and donor families. This review, on the 'Pro' side of IDD, proposes that the medical community continue to work toward implementing IDD. Donor family's wishes are best met by organ donation, successful outcomes for the recipients, and a dignified death for their loved one. In some cases, IDD is the best strategy to meet these goals.

  2. ProPortal: A Database for Prochlorococcus

    DOE Data Explorer

    Huang, Katherine [Chisholm lab, MIT

    Prochlorococcus is a marine cyanobacterium that numerically dominates the mid-latitude oceans, and is the smallest known oxygenic phototroph. All isolates described thus far can be assigned to either a tightly clustered high-light (HL) adapted clade, or a more divergent low-light (LL) adapted group. They are closely related to, but distinct from, marine Synechococcus. The genomes of 12 strains have been sequenced and they range in size from 1.6 to 2.6 Mbp. They represent diverse lineages, spanning the rRNA diversity (97 to 99.93% similarity) of cultured representatives of this group. Our analyses of these genomes inform our understanding of how adaptation occurs in the oceans along gradients of light, nutrients, and other environmental factors, providing essential context for interpreting rapidly expanding metagenomic datasets. [Copied from http://proportal.mit.edu/project/prochlorococcus/] ProPortal allows users to browse and search genome date for not only Prochlorococcus, but Cyanophage and Synechococcus. Microarray data, environmental cell concentration data, and metagenome information are also available.

  3. Pro-angiogenic properties of orosomucoid (ORM)

    SciTech Connect

    Irmak, Ster; Oliveira-Ferrer, Leticia; Erguen, Sueleyman; Tilki, Derya

    2009-11-01

    The acute phase protein orosomucoid (ORM), also known as alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), is found to be increased in infection, inflammation and cancer. Recently, we demonstrated that ORM is produced by endothelial cells and detectable in urine samples of patients with bladder cancer. However, it was not clarified yet whether ORM plays a role in new vessel formation. To this aim we performed overexpression and gene silencing for ORM in human microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs). ORM purified from human plasma was used individually or in combination with VEGF-A in endothelial tube formation, migration and proliferation assay. The in vivo effect of ORM in angiogenesis was studied using the chicken chorionallantois membrane (CAM) with subsequent counting of blood vessels on histological sections from the stimulated areas of CAM tissue. Our data show that ORM alone enhances migration but not proliferation of HDMECs. ORM alone does not induce endothelial tubes in vitro but simultaneous application of ORM with VEGF-A increases the number and the network of VEGF-A-induced endothelial tubes. Remarkably, ORM alone induces new vessel formation in vivo using CAM assay and supports the VEGF-A-induced new vessel formation in this assay. Taken together, our results let assume that ORM has pro-angiogenic properties and supports the angiogenic effect of VEGF-A. Thus, ORM seems to be involved in the regulation of angiogenesis.

  4. The Interplay among Environmental Attitudes, Pro-Environmental Behavior, Social Identity, and Pro-Environmental Institutional Climate. A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prati, Gabriele; Albanesi, Cinzia; Pietrantoni, Luca

    2017-01-01

    By using a panel design in a sample of 298 undergraduate/master students at an Italian public university, the present study aimed to test longitudinally the interplay among environmental attitudes, pro-environmental behavior, social identity, and pro-environmental institutional climate. The relationships were tested with cross-lagged analysis…

  5. Test Reviews: Reynolds, C., & Voress, J. K. (2007). "Test of Memory and Learning: Second Edition." Austin, TX: PRO-ED

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Ara J.; Decker, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the Test of Memory and Learning: Second Edition (TOMAL-2), published by PRO-ED, which constitutes a recent revision of the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL; Reynolds & Bigler, 1994). Advertised as the "single most comprehensive memory battery available for the entire age range of 5 years through 59 years of age", the TOMAL-2…

  6. The Interplay among Environmental Attitudes, Pro-Environmental Behavior, Social Identity, and Pro-Environmental Institutional Climate. A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prati, Gabriele; Albanesi, Cinzia; Pietrantoni, Luca

    2017-01-01

    By using a panel design in a sample of 298 undergraduate/master students at an Italian public university, the present study aimed to test longitudinally the interplay among environmental attitudes, pro-environmental behavior, social identity, and pro-environmental institutional climate. The relationships were tested with cross-lagged analysis…

  7. Solid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Go-Eun; Kim, Il-Ho; Lim, Young Soo; Seo, Won-Seon; Choi, Byeong-Jun; Hwang, Chang-Won

    2014-06-01

    Since Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 have the same crystal structure, they form a homogeneous solid solution. Therefore, the thermal conductivity of the solid solution can be reduced by phonon scattering. The thermoelectric figure of merit can be improved by controlling the carrier concentration through doping. In this study, Bi2Te2.85Se0.15:D m (D: dopants such as I, Cu, Ag, Ni, Zn) solid solutions were prepared by encapsulated melting and hot pressing. All specimens exhibited n-type conduction in the measured temperature range (323 K to 523 K), and their electrical conductivities decreased slightly with increasing temperature. The undoped solid solution showed a carrier concentration of 7.37 × 1019 cm-3, power factor of 2.1 mW m-1 K-1, and figure of merit of 0.56 at 323 K. The figure of merit ( ZT) was improved due to the increased power factor by I, Cu, and Ag dopings, and maximum ZT values were obtained as 0.76 at 323 K for Bi2Te2.85Se0.15:Cu0.01 and 0.90 at 423 K for Bi2Te2.85Se0.15:I0.005. However, the thermoelectric properties of Ni- and Zn-doped solid solutions were not enhanced.

  8. Conformations of neurotensin in solution and in membrane environments studied by 2-D NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Xu, G Y; Deber, C M

    1991-06-01

    Two-dimensional HOHAHA and ROESY nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are used to obtain complete proton resonance assignments and to perform a conformational investigation of the neuropeptide neurotensin (pGlu-Leu-Tyr-Glu-Asn-Lys-Pro-Arg-Arg-Pro-Tyr-Ile-Leu) in aqueous solution, methanol, and membrane-mimetic [deuterated sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS)] environments. Results suggest the absence of discernible elements of secondary structure in water and methanol. ROESY spectra confirm that Lys-Pro and Arg-Pro peptide bonds are all-trans, but that a significant population of cis Arg-Pro bonds arises in aqueous solution, which increases in the environment of SDS micelles. The conformational ensemble of the peptide is observed to narrow as it becomes bound through its cationic mid-region to SDS micelles, with the accompanying advent of local extended structure. The overall results indicate the inherent conformational flexibility of neurotensin, and emphasize the environmental dependence of conformation in peptides of medium length.

  9. Polyelectrolyte Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colby, Ralph H.

    2008-03-01

    Pierre-Gilles de Gennes once described polyelectrolytes as the ``least understood form of condensed matter''. In this talk, I will describe the state of the polyelectrolyte field before and after de Gennes' seminal contributions published 1976-1980. De Gennes clearly explained why electrostatic interactions only stretch the polyelectrolyte chains on intermediate scales in semidilute solution (between the electrostatic blob size and the correlation length) and why the scattering function has a peak corresponding to the correlation length (the distance to the next chain). Despite many other ideas being suggested since then, the simple de Gennes scaling picture of polyelectrolyte conformation in solution has stood the test of time. How that model is used today, including consequences for dynamics in polyelectrolyte solutions, and what questions remain, will clarify the importance of de Gennes' ideas.

  10. The Experience of Bulimic College Students Who Use "Pro-Ana/Pro-Mia" Web Sites: A Two-Phase Mixed-Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Blair J.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are a serious problem in the U.S. due to their rise in prevalence during the 20th century and high morbidity and mortality rates. A relatively new, controversial phenomenon, "pro-Ana" (pro-anorexia) and "pro-Mia" (pro-bulimia) Web sites, came to the public's attention around 2000. These sites are created by and for people…

  11. The Experience of Bulimic College Students Who Use "Pro-Ana/Pro-Mia" Web Sites: A Two-Phase Mixed-Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Blair J.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are a serious problem in the U.S. due to their rise in prevalence during the 20th century and high morbidity and mortality rates. A relatively new, controversial phenomenon, "pro-Ana" (pro-anorexia) and "pro-Mia" (pro-bulimia) Web sites, came to the public's attention around 2000. These sites are created by and for people…

  12. Education for Humanism in a Pro-White, Anti-Black Society

    PubMed Central

    Butts, Hugh F.

    1979-01-01

    Humanism has been defined as “any system or way of thought or action concerned with the interests and ideals of people.” Racism has been defined as “pro-white, anti-black paranoia.” This paper treats the factors in the American racist society that serve to erode humanistic values. This erosion is especially pronounced in a racist, capitalistic society that subjugates blacks and engages in exploitation based on profit-making. The author poses six hypotheses that define the problems, implicit in which reside solutions. PMID:529313

  13. InPRO: Automated Indoor Construction Progress Monitoring Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamledari, Hesam

    In this research, an envisioned automated intelligent robotic solution for automated indoor data collection and inspection that employs a series of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), entitled "InPRO", is presented. InPRO consists of four stages, namely: 1) automated path planning; 2) autonomous UAV-based indoor inspection; 3) automated computer vision-based assessment of progress; and, 4) automated updating of 4D building information models (BIM). The works presented in this thesis address the third stage of InPRO. A series of computer vision-based methods that automate the assessment of construction progress using images captured at indoor sites are introduced. The proposed methods employ computer vision and machine learning techniques to detect the components of under-construction indoor partitions. In particular, framing (studs), insulation, electrical outlets, and different states of drywall sheets (installing, plastering, and painting) are automatically detected using digital images. High accuracy rates, real-time performance, and operation without a priori information are indicators of the methods' promising performance.

  14. OPTICON: Pro-Matlab software for large order controlled structure design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Lee D.

    1989-01-01

    A software package for large order controlled structure design is described and demonstrated. The primary program, called OPTICAN, uses both Pro-Matlab M-file routines and selected compiled FORTRAN routines linked into the Pro-Matlab structure. The program accepts structural model information in the form of state-space matrices and performs three basic design functions on the model: (1) open loop analyses; (2) closed loop reduced order controller synthesis; and (3) closed loop stability and performance assessment. The current controller synthesis methods which were implemented in this software are based on the Generalized Linear Quadratic Gaussian theory of Bernstein. In particular, a reduced order Optimal Projection synthesis algorithm based on a homotopy solution method was successfully applied to an experimental truss structure using a 58-state dynamic model. These results are presented and discussed. Current plans to expand the practical size of the design model to several hundred states and the intention to interface Pro-Matlab to a supercomputing environment are discussed.

  15. OPTICON: Pro-Matlab software for large order controlled structure design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Lee D.

    1989-01-01

    A software package for large order controlled structure design is described and demonstrated. The primary program, called OPTICAN, uses both Pro-Matlab M-file routines and selected compiled FORTRAN routines linked into the Pro-Matlab structure. The program accepts structural model information in the form of state-space matrices and performs three basic design functions on the model: (1) open loop analyses; (2) closed loop reduced order controller synthesis; and (3) closed loop stability and performance assessment. The current controller synthesis methods which were implemented in this software are based on the Generalized Linear Quadratic Gaussian theory of Bernstein. In particular, a reduced order Optimal Projection synthesis algorithm based on a homotopy solution method was successfully applied to an experimental truss structure using a 58-state dynamic model. These results are presented and discussed. Current plans to expand the practical size of the design model to several hundred states and the intention to interface Pro-Matlab to a supercomputing environment are discussed.

  16. The pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory effects of calprotectin on human periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yunfei; Hou, Jianxia; Peng, Lei; Zhang, Xin; Jia, Lingfei; Wang, Xian'e; Wei, Shicheng; Meng, Huanxin

    2014-01-01

    Calprotectin, a heterodimer of S100A8 and S100A9 subunits, is associated with inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and cystic fibrosis. Although calprotectin levels are increased significantly in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of periodontitis patients, its effects on periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate calprotectin levels in the GCF of generalized aggressive periodontitis (AgP) patients and to investigate the effects of recombinant human calprotectin (rhS100A8/A9) and its subunits (rhS100A8 and rhS100A9) in PDLCs. Both the concentration and amount of crevicular calprotectin were significantly higher in the AgP group compared with healthy controls. In addition, the GCF calprotectin levels were correlated positively with clinical periodontal parameters including bleeding index, probing depth, and clinical attachment loss. rhS100A8/A9 promoted cell apoptosis, whereas rhS100A8 and rhS100A9 individually exerted little effect on apoptosis in PDLCs. rhS100A9 and rhS100A8/A9 increased the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by promoting the nuclear translocation of p65 in PDLCs, subsequently inducing expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, and COX2. Treatment with an NF-κB inhibitor partially reversed the rhS100A9- and rhS100A8/A9-induced upregulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines. rhS100A9, and not rhS100A8, was mainly responsible for the pro-inflammatory role of calprotectin. Collectively, our results suggest that calprotectin promotes apoptosis and the inflammatory response in PDLCs via rhS100A9. These findings might help identify novel treatments for periodontitis.

  17. New developments in the InterPro database.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Nicola J; Apweiler, Rolf; Attwood, Teresa K; Bairoch, Amos; Bateman, Alex; Binns, David; Bork, Peer; Buillard, Virginie; Cerutti, Lorenzo; Copley, Richard; Courcelle, Emmanuel; Das, Ujjwal; Daugherty, Louise; Dibley, Mark; Finn, Robert; Fleischmann, Wolfgang; Gough, Julian; Haft, Daniel; Hulo, Nicolas; Hunter, Sarah; Kahn, Daniel; Kanapin, Alexander; Kejariwal, Anish; Labarga, Alberto; Langendijk-Genevaux, Petra S; Lonsdale, David; Lopez, Rodrigo; Letunic, Ivica; Madera, Martin; Maslen, John; McAnulla, Craig; McDowall, Jennifer; Mistry, Jaina; Mitchell, Alex; Nikolskaya, Anastasia N; Orchard, Sandra; Orengo, Christine; Petryszak, Robert; Selengut, Jeremy D; Sigrist, Christian J A; Thomas, Paul D; Valentin, Franck; Wilson, Derek; Wu, Cathy H; Yeats, Corin

    2007-01-01

    InterPro is an integrated resource for protein families, domains and functional sites, which integrates the following protein signature databases: PROSITE, PRINTS, ProDom, Pfam, SMART, TIGRFAMs, PIRSF, SUPERFAMILY, Gene3D and PANTHER. The latter two new member databases have been integrated since the last publication in this journal. There have been several new developments in InterPro, including an additional reading field, new database links, extensions to the web interface and additional match XML files. InterPro has always provided matches to UniProtKB proteins on the website and in the match XML file on the FTP site. Additional matches to proteins in UniParc (UniProt archive) are now available for download in the new match XML files only. The latest InterPro release (13.0) contains more than 13 000 entries, covering over 78% of all proteins in UniProtKB. The database is available for text- and sequence-based searches via a webserver (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro), and for download by anonymous FTP (ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/interpro). The InterProScan search tool is now also available via a web service at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/webservices/WSInterProScan.html.

  18. Polymer solutions

    DOEpatents

    Krawczyk, Gerhard Erich; Miller, Kevin Michael

    2011-07-26

    There is provided a method of making a polymer solution comprising polymerizing one or more monomer in a solvent, wherein said monomer comprises one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomer that is a multi-functional Michael donor, and wherein said solvent comprises 40% or more by weight, based on the weight of said solvent, one or more multi-functional Michael donor.

  19. -Saturated Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliyan, Faysal Fayez; Alfantazi, Akram

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents an electrochemical study on the corrosion behavior of API-X100 steel, heat-treated to have microstructures similar to those of the heat-affected zones (HAZs) of pipeline welding, in bicarbonate-CO2 saturated solutions. The corrosion reactions, onto the surface and through the passive films, are simulated by cyclic voltammetry. The interrelation between bicarbonate concentration and CO2 hydration is analyzed during the filming process at the open-circuit potentials. In dilute bicarbonate solutions, H2CO3 drives more dominantly the cathodic reduction and the passive films form slowly. In the concentrated solutions, bicarbonate catalyzes both the anodic and cathodic reactions, only initially, after which it drives a fast-forming thick passivation that inhibits the underlying dissolution and impedes the cathodic reduction. The significance of the substrate is as critical as that of passivation in controlling the course of the corrosion reactions in the dilute solutions. For fast-cooled (heat treatment) HAZs, its metallurgical significance becomes more comparable to that of slower-cooled HAZs as the bicarbonate concentration is higher.

  20. Sound Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkman, Neal

    2007-01-01

    Poor classroom acoustics are impairing students' hearing and their ability to learn. However, technology has come up with a solution: tools that focus voices in a way that minimizes intrusive ambient noise and gets to the intended receiver--not merely amplifying the sound, but also clarifying and directing it. One provider of classroom audio…

  1. Sound Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkman, Neal

    2007-01-01

    Poor classroom acoustics are impairing students' hearing and their ability to learn. However, technology has come up with a solution: tools that focus voices in a way that minimizes intrusive ambient noise and gets to the intended receiver--not merely amplifying the sound, but also clarifying and directing it. One provider of classroom audio…

  2. [Evaluation studies of "Pro-health Programme for 2013-2016" implemented in State Higher Vocational School in Suwalki].

    PubMed

    Andryszczyk, Małgorzata; Kleszczewski, Tomasz; Kleszczewska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation studies (evaluation) is an act of gathering, analyzing and assessing the data in order to supply knowledge necessary to take decisions about future actions. It is a process of systemic gathering of information on personnel, products as well as workings, characteristics and results of programmes. It is a systematized study, observation and interpretation of the data. The aim of the evaluation of Pro-health Programme implemented in State Higher Vocational School of Suwalki has been the assessment of students' attitudes and behaviours following the introduction of the programme. What we have been interested is whether the students got involved in the implementation of the programme and the manner in which activites conducted within the framework of the project have changed their lifestyle. These activities should be correlated with the students' participation in evaluation studies that make it possible to correct errors arising in the course of implementation of the pro-health programme and to diagnose problems as well as search for solutions adequately adjusted to the encountered ambiguities. In the academic year 2013/2014 in prof. E. Szczepanik State Higher Vocational School of Suwalki an authorial survey reasearch on pro-health attitudes of students of selected medical fields of study. They were planned as long-standing activities (2013-2016) aimed at verification of students' pro-health attitudes in the researched higher education institute. As essential role of evaluation studies, forecasting long-term effects and intended or unintended outcomes that transcend the time and site of the implementation of the programme were the reasons for undertaking the studies described hereinbelow. Less than half of the researched students is of the opinion that the pro-health programme implemented in State Higher Vocational School fulfils its objectives. Moreover, an overwhelming majority of the respondents think that tasks implemented within the framework of the pro

  3. P5CDH affects the pathways contributing to Pro synthesis after ProDH activation by biotic and abiotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, Yanina S; Monteoliva, Mariela I; Fabro, Georgina; Grosso, Carola L; Laróvere, Laura E; Alvarez, María E

    2015-01-01

    Plants facing adverse conditions usually alter proline (Pro) metabolism, generating changes that help restore the cellular homeostasis. These organisms synthesize Pro from glutamate (Glu) or ornithine (Orn) by two-step reactions that share Δ(1) pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) as intermediate. In the catabolic process, Pro is converted back to Glu using a different pathway that involves Pro dehydrogenase (ProDH), P5C dehydrogenase (P5CDH), and P5C as intermediate. Little is known about the coordination of the catabolic and biosynthetic routes under stress. To address this issue, we analyzed how P5CDH affects the activation of Pro synthesis, in Arabidopsis tissues that increase ProDH activity by transient exposure to exogenous Pro, or infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Wild-type (Col-0) and p5cdh mutant plants subjected to these treatments were used to monitor the Pro, Glu, and Orn levels, as well as the expression of genes from Pro metabolism. Col-0 and p5cdh tissues consecutively activated ProDH and Pro biosynthetic genes under both conditions. However, they manifested a different coordination between these routes. When external Pro supply was interrupted, wild-type leaves degraded Pro to basal levels at which point Pro synthesis, mainly via Glu, became activated. Under the same condition, p5cdh leaves sustained ProDH induction without reducing the Pro content but rather increasing it, apparently by stimulating the Orn pathway. In response to pathogen infection, both genotypes showed similar trends. While Col-0 plants seemed to induce both Pro biosynthetic routes, p5cdh mutant plants may primarily activate the Orn route. Our study contributes to the functional characterization of P5CDH in biotic and abiotic stress conditions, by revealing its capacity to modulate the fate of P5C, and prevalence of Orn or Glu as Pro precursors in tissues that initially consumed Pro.

  4. P5CDH affects the pathways contributing to Pro synthesis after ProDH activation by biotic and abiotic stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rizzi, Yanina S.; Monteoliva, Mariela I.; Fabro, Georgina; Grosso, Carola L.; Laróvere, Laura E.; Alvarez, María E.

    2015-01-01

    Plants facing adverse conditions usually alter proline (Pro) metabolism, generating changes that help restore the cellular homeostasis. These organisms synthesize Pro from glutamate (Glu) or ornithine (Orn) by two-step reactions that share Δ1 pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) as intermediate. In the catabolic process, Pro is converted back to Glu using a different pathway that involves Pro dehydrogenase (ProDH), P5C dehydrogenase (P5CDH), and P5C as intermediate. Little is known about the coordination of the catabolic and biosynthetic routes under stress. To address this issue, we analyzed how P5CDH affects the activation of Pro synthesis, in Arabidopsis tissues that increase ProDH activity by transient exposure to exogenous Pro, or infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Wild-type (Col-0) and p5cdh mutant plants subjected to these treatments were used to monitor the Pro, Glu, and Orn levels, as well as the expression of genes from Pro metabolism. Col-0 and p5cdh tissues consecutively activated ProDH and Pro biosynthetic genes under both conditions. However, they manifested a different coordination between these routes. When external Pro supply was interrupted, wild-type leaves degraded Pro to basal levels at which point Pro synthesis, mainly via Glu, became activated. Under the same condition, p5cdh leaves sustained ProDH induction without reducing the Pro content but rather increasing it, apparently by stimulating the Orn pathway. In response to pathogen infection, both genotypes showed similar trends. While Col-0 plants seemed to induce both Pro biosynthetic routes, p5cdh mutant plants may primarily activate the Orn route. Our study contributes to the functional characterization of P5CDH in biotic and abiotic stress conditions, by revealing its capacity to modulate the fate of P5C, and prevalence of Orn or Glu as Pro precursors in tissues that initially consumed Pro. PMID:26284090

  5. Pro-oxidative action of polyphenols as action mechanism for their pro-apoptotic activity.

    PubMed

    Lecci, Raffaella Marina; Logrieco, Antonio; Leone, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenols, secondary metabolites widely present in plant kingdom, are known for their positive effects on human health, such as treatments of degenerative disease and cancer. Many dietary polyphenols show anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties and they are proposed as chemopreventive agents for many skin disorders and cancer. Exposure to solar UV radiation is widely considered to cause skin cancer and a consistent carcinogenic dose derived from UVA causes several skin disorders as a consequence of free radicals generation and DNA damages. In this study, verbascoside, isoverbascoside and tyrosol were investigated for their effects on HEKa (Human Epidermal Keratinocytes adult) cell cultures challenged from UVA-rays. Non-toxic doses of each polyphenol were assayed on HEKa before, during and after the exposure to a damaging dose of UVA. Treatment with polyphenols before and after the UVA-irradiation exerted a pro-oxidant effect, while the simultaneous treatment caused a weak decrease of ROS production. The increasing of ROS levels was associated with a proapoptotic effect on HEKa, detected by AnnexinV/Propidiun Iodide, mainly evident in surviving cells treated with the polyphenols after the UVA-irradiation. The pro-apoptotic effect was confirmed by the immunodetection of significant changes in the Bax and Bcl-xL protein levels, leading to apoptotic events. The hypothesis that these polyphenols could trigger the apoptosis pathway mainly in UVA-damaged cells, via ROS increase, is here proposed as action mechanism behind their protective effect.

  6. Intensity modulated radiotherapy induces pro-inflammatory and pro-survival responses in prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    EL-SAGHIRE, HOUSSEIN; VANDEVOORDE, CHARLOT; OST, PIET; MONSIEURS, PIETER; MICHAUX, ARLETTE; DE MEERLEER, GERT; BAATOUT, SARAH; THIERENS, HUBERT

    2014-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is one of the modern conformal radiotherapies that is widely used within the context of cancer patient treatment. It uses multiple radiation beams targeted to the tumor, however, large volumes of the body receive low doses of irradiation. Using γ-H2AX and global genome expression analysis, we studied the biological responses induced by low doses of ionizing radiation in prostate cancer patients following IMRT. By means of different bioinformatics analyses, we report that IMRT induced an inflammatory response via the induction of viral, adaptive, and innate immune signaling. In response to growth factors and immune-stimulatory signaling, positive regulation in the progression of cell cycle and DNA replication were induced. This denotes pro-inflammatory and pro-survival responses. Furthermore, double strand DNA breaks were induced in every patient 30 min after the treatment and remaining DNA repair and damage signaling continued after 18–24 h. Nine genes belonging to inflammatory responses (TLR3, SH2D1A and IL18), cell cycle progression (ORC4, SMC2 and CCDC99) and DNA damage and repair (RAD17, SMC6 and MRE11A) were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. This study emphasizes that the risk assessment of health effects from the out-of-field low doses during IMRT should be of concern, as these may increase the risk of secondary cancers and/or systemic inflammation. PMID:24435511

  7. High Serum Levels of Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide (pro BNP) Identify Cardioembolic Origin in Undetermined Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Yáñez, Manuel; Sobrino, Tomás; Blanco, Miguel; de la Ossa, Natalia Pérez; Brea, David; Rodríguez-González, Raquel; Leira, Rogelio; Dávalos, Antonio; Castillo, José

    2009-01-01

    Background: Stroke subtype diagnosis leads to specific therapies to reduce recurrences. Because nearly one third of patients remain with unknown etiology after a complete screening workup, we aim to investigate whether molecular markers of myocardial damage were associated with cardioembolic stroke and if they were useful to reclassify strokes of undetermined etiology. Methods: We included 262 patients with first ischemic stroke within the first 12 hours. Stroke subtype was evaluated by TOAST criteria. Stroke of undetermined origin were reclassified into likely atherothrombotic or likely cardioembolic according to a predefined non-validated algorithm. Blood samples were obtained on admission to determine serum levels of molecular markers (pro-BNP, pro-ANP and CK-MB) of myocardial damage. Results: Patients with cardioembolic infarct showed higher levels of pro-BNP, pro-ANP and CK-MB. Pro-BNP > 360 pg/mL was independently associated with cardioembolic stroke (OR: 28.51, CI95%: 5.90–136.75, p < 0.0001). Stroke etiology was undetermined in 82 patients (31%); 34 were reclassified as likely cardioembolic, 22 as likely atherothrombotic, and 26 remained as undetermined. Pro-BNP > 360 pg/mL was the only factor independently associated with likely cardioembolic stroke. Conclusions: Pro-BNP levels higher than 360 pg/mL are associated with cardioembolic stroke and may be useful to reclassify undetermined strokes as of cardioembolic origin. PMID:19729800

  8. Development and analytical performance evaluation of an automated chemiluminescent immunoassay for pro-gastrin releasing peptide (ProGRP).

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Toru; Fujita, Kenju; Kinukawa, Hideki; Matsuoka, Yoshiharu; Patil, Rahul D; Beligere, Gangamani S; Chan, Sabrina S; Dowell, Barry L; Sokoll, Lori; Elliott, Debra; Chan, Daniel W; Scheuer, Cornelia; Hofmann, Karin; Stieber, Petra; Sakurai, Yousuke; Iizuka, Masayuki; Saegusa, Haruhisa; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Pro-gastrin releasing peptide (ProGRP) concentrations in blood play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). The automated quantitative ARCHITECT ProGRP assay was developed to aid in the differential diagnosis and in the management of SCLC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analytical performance of this chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay at multiple sites. ARCHITECT ProGRP measures ProGRP using a two-step sandwich using monoclonal anti-ProGRP antibodies coated on paramagnetic microparticles and labeled with acridinium. Analytical performance of the assay was evaluated at four sites: Abbott Japan, Denka Seiken, the Johns Hopkins University, and the University of Munich. Total precision (%CV) for nine analyte concentrations was between 2.2 and 5.7. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was between 0.20 pg/mL and 0.88 pg/mL. The functional sensitivity at 20% CV was between 0.66 pg/mL and 1.73 pg/mL. The assay was linear up to 50,000 pg/mL using a 1:10 autodilution protocol. The calibration curve was stable for 30 days. Comparison with the Fujirebio microtiter plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) ProGRP assay gave a slope of 0.93 and a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.99. These results demonstrate that the ARCHITECT ProGRP assay has excellent sensitivity, precision, and correlation to a reference method. This assay provides a convenient automated method for ProGRP measurement in serum and plasma in hospitals and clinical laboratories.

  9. Diagnostic and prognostic role of procalcitonin (PCT) and MR-pro-Adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Angeletti, Silvia; Spoto, Silvia; Fogolari, Marta; Cortigiani, Marco; Fioravanti, Marta; De Florio, Lucia; Curcio, Brunella; Cavalieri, Danilo; Costantino, Sebastiano; Dicuonzo, Giordano

    2015-09-01

    Rapid diagnosis of bacterial infections is crucial for adequate antibiotic treatment. Serum molecules such as Procalcitonin (PCT) have been used as biomarkers of infection. Recently, the mid-regional pro-Adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) has been evaluated in combination with PCT for sepsis diagnosis. The diagnostic role of PCT and MR-proADM both in sepsis and in localized infections together with their contribution to effective antibiotic therapy has been evaluated. One hundred and eighty-two patients with bacterial infection has been enrolled: PCT and MR-proADM were measured at admission (T = 0), at 12-24 h (T = 1) and in the third or fifth day of antibiotic therapy (T = 3-5). ROC curve (receiver operating characteristic) and post-test probability were calculated. MR-proADM increased with the severity of the infection. PCT resulted significantly higher in sepsis than localized infection. After antibiotic therapy, PCT significantly decreased in localized respiratory infections and in sepsis, while MR-proADM decreased significantly after antibiotic therapy only in patients with severe sepsis/septic shock. The threshold values of PCT and MR-proADM were >0.1 ng/mL and >0.8 nmol/L, respectively. The combined use of PCT and MR-proADM increased the post-test probability of the diagnosis of bacterial infections compared to PCT alone. In conclusion, PCT and MR-proADM combination improves the diagnosis of bacterial infection and contribute to prognosis and antibiotic therapy effectiveness.

  10. Recent advances in tissue (pro)renin imaging.

    PubMed

    Prokai, Agnes; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2010-06-01

    Due to its pivotal role in blood pressure control and renal pathologies there is renewed interest in renin and its precursor prorenin. Also, the newly discovered (pro)renin receptor is a new element of the ever broadening renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The complexity of RAS including the recently recognized collecting duct site of (pro)renin (a term denoting both renin and prorenin) synthesis requires the use of advanced research techniques such as multiphoton fluorescence microscopy. With the help of this technology we have pioneered an imaging approach to directly visualize (pro)renin content, release and tissue activity in the living kidney. The use of this technology is reviewed here and exemplified by the direct visualization of (pro)renin activity in the collecting duct. New pharmacological tools, the renin inhibitor aliskiren and the handle region peptide (decoy peptide) was used to further characterize the intra-renal, collecting duct RAS.

  11. Recent advances in tissue (pro)renin imaging

    PubMed Central

    Prokai, Agnes; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2010-01-01

    1. ABSTRACT Due to its pivotal role in blood pressure control and renal pathologies there is renewed interest in renin and its precursor prorenin. Also, the newly discovered (pro)renin receptor is a new element of the ever broadening renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The complexity of RAS including the recently recognized collecting duct site of (pro)renin (a term denoting both renin and prorenin) synthesis requires the use of advanced research techniques such as multiphoton fluorescence microscopy. With the help of this technology we have pioneered an imaging approach to directly visualize (pro)renin content, release and tissue activity in the living kidney. The use of this technology is reviewed here and exemplified by the direct visualization of (pro)renin activity in the collecting duct. New pharmacological tools, the renin inhibitor aliskiren and the handle region peptide (decoy peptide) was used to further characterize the intra-renal, collecting duct RAS. PMID:20515794

  12. ProUCL version 4.1.00 Documentation Downloads

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ProUCL version 4.1.00 represents a comprehensive statistical software package equipped with statistical methods and graphical tools needed to address many environmental sampling and statistical issues as described in various these guidance documents.

  13. ProUCL version 4.00.05 Documentation Downloads

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ProUCL 4.00.05 serves as a companion software package for Calculating Upper Confidence Limits for Exposure Point Concentrations at Hazardous Waste Sites and Guidance for Comparing Background and Chemical Concentrations in Soil for CERCLA Sites.

  14. Pro-Environmental Behavior and Adolescent Moral Development.

    PubMed

    Krettenauer, Tobias

    2017-09-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that children take a strong moral stance toward protecting the natural environment. However, the question of how this moralization of pro-environmental behavior develops in adolescence has been rarely investigated. This study investigated age-related differences in adolescents' pro-environmental behavior as it relates to moral judgments about environmental issues and emotions. The study was based on a cross-sectional sample of 325 Canadian adolescents from early, middle, and late adolescence. It was found that older adolescents engaged less in pro-environmental behaviors such as energy conservation and recycling. The effect of age was mediated by the prescriptiveness of moral judgment as well as emotional affinity for nature. The study calls for a systematic investigation of factors that suppress pro-environmentalism in adolescence. © 2017 The Author. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  15. LePaProGen—lepton pair production generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dydyshka, Ya. V.; Yermolchyk, V. L.; Suarez, J. H.; Shumeiko, N. M.

    2017-09-01

    A Monte Carlo generator "LePaProGen" for simulation of lepton pair production at hadron colliders is presented. Higher order electroweak radiative effects are implemented. A new algorithm for selection of the optimal phase space parameterization is applied.

  16. Poliovirus protease 3C(pro) kills cells by apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Barco, A; Feduchi, E; Carrasco, L

    2000-01-20

    The tetracycline-based Tet-Off expression system has been used to analyze the effects of poliovirus protease 3C(pro) on human cells. Stable HeLa cell clones that express this poliovirus protease under the control of an inducible, tightly regulated promoter were obtained. Tetracycline removal induces synthesis of 3C protease, followed by drastic morphological alterations and cellular death. Degradation of cellular DNA in nucleosomes and generation of apoptotic bodies are observed from the second day after 3C(pro) induction. The cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, an enzyme involved in DNA repair, occurs after induction of 3C(pro), indicating caspase activation by this poliovirus protease. The 3C(pro)-induced apoptosis is blocked by the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Our findings suggest that the protease 3C is responsible for triggering apoptosis in poliovirus-infected cells by a mechanism that involves caspase activation. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  17. ProSAT2—Protein Structure Annotation Server

    PubMed Central

    Gabdoulline, R. R.; Ulbrich, S.; Richter, S.; Wade, R. C.

    2006-01-01

    ProSAT2 is a server to facilitate interactive visualization of sequence-based, residue-specific annotations mapped onto 3D protein structures. As the successor of ProSAT (Protein Structure Annotation Tool), it includes its features for visualizing SwissProt and PROSITE functional annotations. Currently, the ProSAT2 server can perform automated mapping of information on variants and mutations from the UniProt KnowledgeBase and the BRENDA enzyme information system onto protein structures. It also accepts and maps user-prepared annotations. By means of an annotation selector, the user can interactively select and group residue-based information according to criteria such as whether a mutation affects enzyme activity. The visualization of the protein structures is based on the WebMol Java molecular viewer and permits simultaneous highlighting of annotated residues and viewing of the corresponding descriptive texts. ProSAT2 is available at . PMID:16845114

  18. LeProT1, a transporter for proline, glycine betaine, and gamma-amino butyric acid in tomato pollen.

    PubMed Central

    Schwacke, R; Grallath, S; Breitkreuz, K E; Stransky, E; Stransky, H; Frommer, W B; Rentsch, D

    1999-01-01

    During maturation, pollen undergoes a period of dehydration accompanied by the accumulation of compatible solutes. Solute import across the pollen plasma membrane, which occurs via proteinaceous transporters, is required to support pollen development and also for subsequent germination and pollen tube growth. Analysis of the free amino acid composition of various tissues in tomato revealed that the proline content in flowers was 60 times higher than in any other organ analyzed. Within the floral organs, proline was confined predominantly to pollen, where it represented >70% of total free amino acids. Uptake experiments demonstrated that mature as well as germinated pollen rapidly take up proline. To identify proline transporters in tomato pollen, we isolated genes homologous to Arabidopsis proline transporters. LeProT1 was specifically expressed both in mature and germinating pollen, as demonstrated by RNA in situ hybridization. Expression in a yeast mutant demonstrated that LeProT1 transports proline and gamma-amino butyric acid with low affinity and glycine betaine with high affinity. Direct uptake and competition studies demonstrate that LeProT1 constitutes a general transporter for compatible solutes. PMID:10072398

  19. Dogs Do Not Show Pro-social Preferences towards Humans

    PubMed Central

    Quervel-Chaumette, Mylène; Mainix, Gaëlle; Range, Friederike; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Pro-social behaviors are defined as voluntary actions that benefit others. Comparative studies have mostly focused on investigating the presence of pro-sociality across species in an intraspecific context. Taken together, results on both primates and non-primate species indicate that reliance on cooperation may be at work in the selection and maintenance of pro-social sentiments. Dogs appear to be the ideal model when investigating a species’ propensity for pro-sociality in an interspecific context because it has been suggested that as a consequence of domestication, they evolved an underlying temperament encouraging greater propensity to cooperate with human partners. In a recent study, using a food delivery paradigm, dogs were shown to preferentially express pro-social choices toward familiar compared to unfamiliar conspecifics. Using the same set-up and methods in the current study, we investigated dogs’ pro-social preferences toward familiar and unfamiliar human partners. We found that dogs’ pro-social tendencies did not extend to humans and the identity of the human partners did not influence the rate of food delivery. Interestingly, dogs tested with their human partners spent more time gazing at humans, and did so for longer after food consumption had ended than dogs tested with conspecific partners in the initial study. To allow comparability between results from dogs tested with a conspecific and a human partner, the latter were asked not to communicate with dogs in any way. However, this lack of communication from the human may have been aversive to dogs, leading them to cease performing the task earlier compared to the dogs paired with familiar conspecifics in the prior study. This is in line with previous findings suggesting that human communication in such contexts highly affects dogs’ responses. Consequently, we encourage further studies to examine dogs’ pro-social behavior toward humans taking into consideration their potential responses

  20. Dogs Do Not Show Pro-social Preferences towards Humans.

    PubMed

    Quervel-Chaumette, Mylène; Mainix, Gaëlle; Range, Friederike; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Pro-social behaviors are defined as voluntary actions that benefit others. Comparative studies have mostly focused on investigating the presence of pro-sociality across species in an intraspecific context. Taken together, results on both primates and non-primate species indicate that reliance on cooperation may be at work in the selection and maintenance of pro-social sentiments. Dogs appear to be the ideal model when investigating a species' propensity for pro-sociality in an interspecific context because it has been suggested that as a consequence of domestication, they evolved an underlying temperament encouraging greater propensity to cooperate with human partners. In a recent study, using a food delivery paradigm, dogs were shown to preferentially express pro-social choices toward familiar compared to unfamiliar conspecifics. Using the same set-up and methods in the current study, we investigated dogs' pro-social preferences toward familiar and unfamiliar human partners. We found that dogs' pro-social tendencies did not extend to humans and the identity of the human partners did not influence the rate of food delivery. Interestingly, dogs tested with their human partners spent more time gazing at humans, and did so for longer after food consumption had ended than dogs tested with conspecific partners in the initial study. To allow comparability between results from dogs tested with a conspecific and a human partner, the latter were asked not to communicate with dogs in any way. However, this lack of communication from the human may have been aversive to dogs, leading them to cease performing the task earlier compared to the dogs paired with familiar conspecifics in the prior study. This is in line with previous findings suggesting that human communication in such contexts highly affects dogs' responses. Consequently, we encourage further studies to examine dogs' pro-social behavior toward humans taking into consideration their potential responses both with and

  1. [Comparison between Goldmann, Icare Pro and Corvis ST tonometry].

    PubMed

    Bañeros-Rojas, P; Martinez de la Casa, J M; Arribas-Pardo, P; Berrozpe-Villabona, C; Toro-Utrera, P; García-Feijoó, J

    2014-07-01

    To compare intraocular pressure (IOP) between the new non-contact tonometer Corvis ST (CST), the Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and Icare Pro rebound tonometer (PRO). A total of 178 eyes of 178 healthy subjects were selected for the study. Measurements of IOP were made in a random order with GAT, PRO and CST. Central corneal thickness (CCT) was determined by ultrasound pachymetry. The mean of three valid measurements of each variable was used in the statistical analysis. The relationship between the tonometers was established using Bland-Altman plots. Mean IOP was 15.5 ± 2.8 mmHg for GAT, 15.4 ± 2.8 mmHg for CST, and 14.6 ± 2.3 mmHg for PRO. The mean differences between pairs of tonometers were: GAT-PRO=0.9 ± 1.7 mmHg (P<.001), GAT-CST: 0.1 ± 2.2 (P=.398), and PRO-CST: -0.8 ±-0.7 mmHg, p<0.001. A positive relationship was detected between CCT and the three tonometers: GAT: r=0.325, P<.001; PRO: r = 0.385, P<.001, and CST: r = 0.428; P<.001. The differences found between PRO and GAT were significantly higher than those found between CST and GAT, which showed non-significant differences. The measurements of the three tonometers were affected by the CCT. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Preliminary evidence on the uptake, use and benefits of the CONSORT-PRO extension.

    PubMed

    Mercieca-Bebber, Rebecca; Rouette, Julie; Calvert, Melanie; King, Madeleine T; McLeod, Lori; Holch, Patricia; Palmer, Michael J; Brundage, Michael

    2017-06-01

    This study assessed the uptake of the CONsolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT)-Patient-Reported Outcomes (PRO) statement; determined if use of CONSORT-PRO was associated with more complete reporting of PRO endpoints in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and identified the extent to which high-impact journals publishing RCTs with PRO endpoints endorse CONSORT-PRO. CONSORT-PRO citations were identified by systematically searching Medline, EMBASE and Google from 2013 (year CONSORT-PRO released) to 17 December 2015. RCTs that cited CONSORT-PRO (cases) were compared to a comparable control sample of RCTs in terms of adherence to CONSORT-PRO using t tests. General linear models assessed the relationship between CONSORT-PRO score and key, pre-specified variables. The 100 highest-impact journals that published RCTs with PRO endpoints (2014-2015) were identified via a systematic Medline search. Instructions for authors were reviewed to determine whether journals endorsed CONSORT-PRO. Total CONSORT-PRO scores ranged from 47 to 100% for cases and 25-96% for controls. Cases had significantly higher total CONSORT-PRO scores compared to controls: t = 2.64, p = 0.01. 'Citing CONSORT-PRO', 'journal endorsing CONSORT-PRO' and 'dedicated PRO paper' were significant predictors of higher CONSORT-PRO adherence score: R (2) = 0.48, p < 0.001. 11/100 top-ranked journals endorsed CONSORT-PRO in their instructions to authors, seven of these journals published RCTs included as cases in this study. This study demonstrated improved PRO reporting associated with journal endorsement and author use of the CONSORT-PRO extension. Despite growing awareness, more work is needed to promote appropriate use of CONSORT-PRO to improve completeness of reporting; in particular, stronger journal endorsement of CONSORT-PRO.

  3. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System experiment (ProSEDS) will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether, basically a long, thin wire, for propulsion. An electrodynamic tether uses the same principles as electric motors in toys, appliances and computer disk drives, and generators in automobiles and power plants. When electrical current is flowing through the tether, a magnetic field is produced that pushes against the magnetic field of the Earth. For ProSEDS, the current in the tether results by virtue of the voltage generated when the tether moves through the Earth's magnetic field at more than 17,000 mph. This approach can produce drag thrust generating useable power. Since electrodynamic tethers require no propellant, they could substantially reduce the weight of the spacecraft and provide a cost-effective method of reboosting spacecraft. The initial flight of ProSEDS is scheduled to fly aboard an Air Force Delta II rocket in the summer of 2002. In orbit, ProSEDS will deploy from a Delta II second stage. It will be a 3.1-mile (5 kilometer) long, ultrathin base-wire cornected with a 6.2-mile (10 kilometer) long nonconducting tether. This photograph shows Less Johnson, a scientist at MSFC inspecting the nonconducting part of a tether as it exits a deployer similar to the one to be used in the ProSEDS experiment. The ProSEDS experiment is managed by the Space Transportation Directorate at MSFC.

  4. AdjudiPro{reg_sign} 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.; Connolly, J.; Simons, B.C.

    1996-12-31

    AdjudiPro, version 2.0, is the latest incarnation of United HealthCare`s patented physician claims adjudication expert system (US patent No. 5,359,509). Its core is an embedded expert system that contains the logic for processing 55% of all physician claim situations reviewed on United HealthCare`s managed care system. Certain physician services are reviewed as part of the claims adjudication process to ensure that submitted charges meet contractual, and other guidelines. In 1995, nearly $20 million in gross savings was realized through use of this system. Since its initial deployment in 1991-1992, there has been a steep increase in AdjudiPro`s processing volume. This increased demand created a number of issues that had to be addressed to ensure AdjudiPro`s continued viability and growth. As a result, much of the past three years was spent rearchitecting AdjudiPro to meet the increasing load placed on it, while achieving acceptable throughput. AdjudiPro is now an essentially real-time application, processing claims twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. This paper describes the current AdjudiPro application, and the key issues faced during the past three years.

  5. InterPro: the integrative protein signature database

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Sarah; Apweiler, Rolf; Attwood, Teresa K.; Bairoch, Amos; Bateman, Alex; Binns, David; Bork, Peer; Das, Ujjwal; Daugherty, Louise; Duquenne, Lauranne; Finn, Robert D.; Gough, Julian; Haft, Daniel; Hulo, Nicolas; Kahn, Daniel; Kelly, Elizabeth; Laugraud, Aurélie; Letunic, Ivica; Lonsdale, David; Lopez, Rodrigo; Madera, Martin; Maslen, John; McAnulla, Craig; McDowall, Jennifer; Mistry, Jaina; Mitchell, Alex; Mulder, Nicola; Natale, Darren; Orengo, Christine; Quinn, Antony F.; Selengut, Jeremy D.; Sigrist, Christian J. A.; Thimma, Manjula; Thomas, Paul D.; Valentin, Franck; Wilson, Derek; Wu, Cathy H.; Yeats, Corin

    2009-01-01

    The InterPro database (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/) integrates together predictive models or ‘signatures’ representing protein domains, families and functional sites from multiple, diverse source databases: Gene3D, PANTHER, Pfam, PIRSF, PRINTS, ProDom, PROSITE, SMART, SUPERFAMILY and TIGRFAMs. Integration is performed manually and approximately half of the total ∼58 000 signatures available in the source databases belong to an InterPro entry. Recently, we have started to also display the remaining un-integrated signatures via our web interface. Other developments include the provision of non-signature data, such as structural data, in new XML files on our FTP site, as well as the inclusion of matchless UniProtKB proteins in the existing match XML files. The web interface has been extended and now links out to the ADAN predicted protein–protein interaction database and the SPICE and Dasty viewers. The latest public release (v18.0) covers 79.8% of UniProtKB (v14.1) and consists of 16 549 entries. InterPro data may be accessed either via the web address above, via web services, by downloading files by anonymous FTP or by using the InterProScan search software (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/InterProScan/). PMID:18940856

  6. InterPro: the integrative protein signature database.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Sarah; Apweiler, Rolf; Attwood, Teresa K; Bairoch, Amos; Bateman, Alex; Binns, David; Bork, Peer; Das, Ujjwal; Daugherty, Louise; Duquenne, Lauranne; Finn, Robert D; Gough, Julian; Haft, Daniel; Hulo, Nicolas; Kahn, Daniel; Kelly, Elizabeth; Laugraud, Aurélie; Letunic, Ivica; Lonsdale, David; Lopez, Rodrigo; Madera, Martin; Maslen, John; McAnulla, Craig; McDowall, Jennifer; Mistry, Jaina; Mitchell, Alex; Mulder, Nicola; Natale, Darren; Orengo, Christine; Quinn, Antony F; Selengut, Jeremy D; Sigrist, Christian J A; Thimma, Manjula; Thomas, Paul D; Valentin, Franck; Wilson, Derek; Wu, Cathy H; Yeats, Corin

    2009-01-01

    The InterPro database (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/) integrates together predictive models or 'signatures' representing protein domains, families and functional sites from multiple, diverse source databases: Gene3D, PANTHER, Pfam, PIRSF, PRINTS, ProDom, PROSITE, SMART, SUPERFAMILY and TIGRFAMs. Integration is performed manually and approximately half of the total approximately 58,000 signatures available in the source databases belong to an InterPro entry. Recently, we have started to also display the remaining un-integrated signatures via our web interface. Other developments include the provision of non-signature data, such as structural data, in new XML files on our FTP site, as well as the inclusion of matchless UniProtKB proteins in the existing match XML files. The web interface has been extended and now links out to the ADAN predicted protein-protein interaction database and the SPICE and Dasty viewers. The latest public release (v18.0) covers 79.8% of UniProtKB (v14.1) and consists of 16 549 entries. InterPro data may be accessed either via the web address above, via web services, by downloading files by anonymous FTP or by using the InterProScan search software (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/InterProScan/).

  7. Commitment, pro-relationship behavior, and trust in close relationships.

    PubMed

    Wieselquist, J; Rusbult, C E; Foster, C A; Agnew, C R

    1999-11-01

    The present work advances and tests an interdependence-based model of the associations among commitment, pro-relationship behavior, and trust. Findings from two longitudinal studies revealed good support for model predictions. Commitment-inspired acts such as accommodation and willingness to sacrifice provide diagnostic information regarding a partner's pro-relationship motives. Individuals come to trust their partners when they perceive that their partners have enacted pro-relationship behaviors, departing from their direct self-interest for the good of the relationship. The results of mediation analyses are consistent with a model of mutual cyclical growth in which (a) dependence promotes strong commitment, (b) commitment promotes pro-relationship acts, (c) pro-relationship acts are perceived by the partner, (d) the perception of pro-relationship acts enhances the partner's trust, and (e) trust increases the partner's willingness to become dependent on the relationship. Auxiliary analyses revealed that self-reported attachment style does not account for substantial variance beyond the features of interdependence that form the basis for the present model.

  8. Extracellular Vesicle-functionalized Decalcified Bone Matrix Scaffolds with Enhanced Pro-angiogenic and Pro-bone Regeneration Activities

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hui; Wang, Zhenxing; Zhang, Liming; Lei, Qian; Zhao, Aiqi; Wang, Hongxiang; Li, Qiubai; Cao, Yilin; Jie Zhang, Wen; Chen, Zhichao

    2017-01-01

    Vascularization is crucial for bone regeneration after the transplantation of tissue-engineered bone grafts in the clinical setting. Growing evidence suggests that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are potently pro-angiogenic both in vitro and in vivo. In the current study, we fabricated a novel EV-functionalized scaffold with enhanced pro-angiogenic and pro-bone regeneration activities by coating decalcified bone matrix (DBM) with MSC-derived EVs. EVs were harvested from rat bone marrow-derived MSCs and the pro-angiogenic potential of EVs was investigated in vitro. DBM scaffolds were then coated with EVs, and the modification was verified by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. Next, the pro-angiogenic and pro-bone regeneration activities of EV-modified scaffolds were evaluated in a subcutaneous bone formation model in nude mice. Micro-computed tomography scanning analysis showed that EV-modified scaffolds with seeded cells enhanced bone formation. Enhanced bone formation was confirmed by histological analysis. Immunohistochemical staining for CD31 proved that EV-modified scaffolds promoted vascularization in the grafts, thereby enhancing bone regeneration. This novel scaffold modification method provides a promising way to promote vascularization, which is essential for bone tissue engineering. PMID:28367979

  9. Extracellular Vesicle-functionalized Decalcified Bone Matrix Scaffolds with Enhanced Pro-angiogenic and Pro-bone Regeneration Activities.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui; Wang, Zhenxing; Zhang, Liming; Lei, Qian; Zhao, Aiqi; Wang, Hongxiang; Li, Qiubai; Cao, Yilin; Jie Zhang, Wen; Chen, Zhichao

    2017-04-03

    Vascularization is crucial for bone regeneration after the transplantation of tissue-engineered bone grafts in the clinical setting. Growing evidence suggests that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are potently pro-angiogenic both in vitro and in vivo. In the current study, we fabricated a novel EV-functionalized scaffold with enhanced pro-angiogenic and pro-bone regeneration activities by coating decalcified bone matrix (DBM) with MSC-derived EVs. EVs were harvested from rat bone marrow-derived MSCs and the pro-angiogenic potential of EVs was investigated in vitro. DBM scaffolds were then coated with EVs, and the modification was verified by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. Next, the pro-angiogenic and pro-bone regeneration activities of EV-modified scaffolds were evaluated in a subcutaneous bone formation model in nude mice. Micro-computed tomography scanning analysis showed that EV-modified scaffolds with seeded cells enhanced bone formation. Enhanced bone formation was confirmed by histological analysis. Immunohistochemical staining for CD31 proved that EV-modified scaffolds promoted vascularization in the grafts, thereby enhancing bone regeneration. This novel scaffold modification method provides a promising way to promote vascularization, which is essential for bone tissue engineering.

  10. Using ProHits to store, annotate, and analyze affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS) data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guomin; Zhang, Jianping; Choi, Hyungwon; Lambert, Jean-Philippe; Srikumar, Tharan; Larsen, Brett; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I; Raught, Brian; Tyers, Mike; Gingras, Anne-Claude

    2012-09-01

    Affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (AP-MS) is a robust technique used to identify protein-protein interactions. With recent improvements in sample preparation, and dramatic advances in MS instrumentation speed and sensitivity, this technique is becoming more widely used throughout the scientific community. To meet the needs of research groups both large and small, we have developed software solutions for tracking, scoring and analyzing AP-MS data. Here, we provide details for the installation and utilization of ProHits, a Laboratory Information Management System designed specifically for AP-MS interaction proteomics. This protocol explains: (i) how to install the complete ProHits system, including modules for the management of mass spectrometry files and the analysis of interaction data, and (ii) alternative options for the use of pre-existing search results in simpler versions of ProHits, including a virtual machine implementation of our ProHits Lite software. We also describe how to use the main features of the software to analyze AP-MS data.

  11. Using ProHits to store, annotate and analyze affinity purification - mass spectrometry (AP-MS) data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guomin; Zhang, Jianping; Choi, Hyungwon; Lambert, Jean-Philippe; Srikumar, Tharan; Larsen, Brett; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I.; Raught, Brian; Tyers, Mike; Gingras, Anne-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (AP-MS) is a robust technique used to identify protein-protein interactions. With recent improvements in sample preparation, and dramatic advances in MS instrumentation speed and sensitivity, this technique is becoming more widely used throughout the scientific community. To meet the needs of research groups both large and small, we have developed software solutions for tracking, scoring and analyzing AP-MS data. Here, we provide details for the installation and utilization of ProHits, a Laboratory Information Management System designed specifically for AP-MS interaction proteomics. This protocol explains: (i) how to install the complete ProHits system, including modules for the management of mass spectrometry files and the analysis of interaction data, and (ii) alternative options for the use of pre-existing search results in simpler versions of ProHits, including a virtual machine implementation of our ProHits Lite software. We also describe how to use the main features of the software to analyze AP-MS data. PMID:22948730

  12. Differential control and function of Arabidopsis ProDH1 and ProDH2 genes on infection with biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, Yanina Soledad; Cecchini, Nicolás Miguel; Fabro, Georgina; Alvarez, María Elena

    2017-10-01

    Arabidopsis contains two proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) genes, ProDH1 and ProDH2, encoding for homologous and functional isoenzymes. Although ProDH1 has been studied extensively, especially under abiotic stress, ProDH2 has only started to be analysed in recent years. These genes display distinctive expression patterns and show weak transcriptional co-regulation, but are both activated in pathogen-infected tissues. We have demonstrated previously that Arabidopsis plants with silenced ProDH1/2 expression fail to trigger defences against the hemibiotrophic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato AvrRpm1 (Pst-AvrRpm1), and that ProDH1 and ProDH2 are differentially regulated by salicylic acid (SA). In the current work, we used prodh1 and prodh2 single-mutant plants to assess the particular contribution of each gene to resistance against Pst-AvrRpm1 and the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. In addition, we studied the sensitivity of ProDH1 and ProDH2 to the jasmonic acid (JA) defence pathway. We found that ProDH1 and ProDH2 are both necessary to achieve maximum resistance against Pst-AvrRpm1 and B. cinerea. However, ProDH2 has a major effect on early restriction of B. cinerea growth. Interestingly, ProDH1 is up-regulated by SA and JA, whereas ProDH2 is only activated by JA, and both genes display transcriptional inter-regulation at basal and infection conditions. These studies provide the first evidence of the contribution of ProDH2 to disease resistance, and describe the differential regulation and non-redundant but complementary function of both enzyme isoforms in infected tissues, providing support for a fundamental role of ProDH in the control of biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  13. GeoPro: Technology to Enable Scientific Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    C. Juan

    2004-02-09

    Development of the ground-water flow model for the Death Valley Regional Groundwater Flow System (DVRFS) required integration of numerous supporting hydrogeologic investigations. The results from recharge, discharge, hydraulic properties, water level, pumping, model boundaries, and geologic studies were integrated to develop the required conceptual and 3-D framework models, and the flow model itself. To support the complex modeling process and the needs of the multidisciplinary DVRFS team, a hardware and software system called GeoPro (Geoscience Knowledge Integration Protocol) was developed. A primary function of GeoPro is to manage the large volume of disparate data compiled for the 100,000-square-kilometer area of southern Nevada and California. The data are primarily from previous investigations and regional flow models developed for the Nevada Test Site and Yucca Mountain projects. GeoPro utilizes relational database technology (Microsoft SQL Server{trademark}) to store and manage these tabular point data, groundwater flow model ASCII data, 3-D hydrogeologic framework data, 2-D and 2.5-D GIS data, and text documents. Data management consists of versioning, tracking, and reporting data changes as multiple users access the centralized database. GeoPro also supports the modeling process by automating the routine data transformations required to integrate project software. This automation is also crucial to streamlining pre- and post-processing of model data during model calibration. Another function of GeoPro is to facilitate the dissemination and use of the model data and results through web-based documents by linking and allowing access to the underlying database and analysis tools. The intent is to convey to end-users the complex flow model product in a manner that is simple, flexible, and relevant to their needs. GeoPro is evolving from a prototype system to a production-level product. Currently the DVRFS pre- and post-processing modeling tools are being re

  14. Structure and activation of pro-activin A

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuelu; Fischer, Gerhard; Hyvönen, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Activins are growth factors with multiple roles in the development and homeostasis. Like all TGF-β family of growth factors, activins are synthesized as large precursors from which mature dimeric growth factors are released proteolytically. Here we have studied the activation of activin A and determined crystal structures of the unprocessed precursor and of the cleaved pro-mature complex. Replacing the natural furin cleavage site with a HRV 3C protease site, we show how the protein gains its bioactivity after proteolysis and is as active as the isolated mature domain. The complex remains associated in conditions used for biochemical analysis with a dissociation constant of 5 nM, but the pro-domain can be actively displaced from the complex by follistatin. Our high-resolution structures of pro-activin A share features seen in the pro-TGF-β1 and pro-BMP-9 structures, but reveal a new oligomeric arrangement, with a domain-swapped, cross-armed conformation for the protomers in the dimeric protein. PMID:27373274

  15. Development of the Flight Tether for ProSEDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Leslie; Vaughn, Jason; Welzyn, Ken; Carroll, Joe; Brown, Norman S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system to generate thrust in space by decreasing the orbital altitude of a Delta 11 Expendable Launch Vehicle second stage. ProSEDS will use the flight-proven Small Expendable Deployer System to deploy a newly designed and developed tether which will provide tether generated drag thrust of approx. 0.4 N. The development and production of very long tethers with specific properties for performance and survivability will be required to enable future tether missions. The ProSEDS tether design and the development process may provide some lessons learned for these future missions. The ProSEDS system requirements drove the design of the tether to have three different sections of tether each serving a specialized purpose. The tether is a total of 15 kilometers long: 10 kilometers of a non-conductive Dyneema lead tether; 5 km of CCOR conductive coated wire; and 220 meters of insulated wire with a protective Kevlar overbraid. Production and joining of long tether lengths involved many development efforts. Extensive testing of tether materials including ground deployment of the full-length ProSEDS tether was conducted to validate the tether design and performance before flight.

  16. ProServer: a simple, extensible Perl DAS server.

    PubMed

    Finn, Robert D; Stalker, James W; Jackson, David K; Kulesha, Eugene; Clements, Jody; Pettett, Roger

    2007-06-15

    The increasing size and complexity of biological databases has led to a growing trend to federate rather than duplicate them. In order to share data between federated databases, protocols for the exchange mechanism must be developed. One such data exchange protocol that is widely used is the Distributed Annotation System (DAS). For example, DAS has enabled small experimental groups to integrate their data into the Ensembl genome browser. We have developed ProServer, a simple, lightweight, Perl-based DAS server that does not depend on a separate HTTP server. The ProServer package is easily extensible, allowing data to be served from almost any underlying data model. Recent additions to the DAS protocol have enabled both structure and alignment (sequence and structural) data to be exchanged. ProServer allows both of these data types to be served. ProServer can be downloaded from http://www.sanger.ac.uk/proserver/ or CPAN http://search.cpan.org/~rpettett/. Details on the system requirements and installation of ProServer can be found at http://www.sanger.ac.uk/proserver/.

  17. Profiling the "pro-environmental individual": a personality perspective.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Ezra M; Goldberg, Lewis R; Ashton, Michael C; Lee, Kibeom

    2012-02-01

    There is considerable scientific interest in the psychological correlates of pro-environmental behaviors. Much research has focused on demographic and social-psychological characteristics of individuals who consistently perform such actions. Here, we report the results of 2 studies in which we explored relations between broad personality traits and pro-environmental actions. Using a wide variety of behavior and personality measures, we consistently found moderate positive relations between Openness to Experience and pro-environmental activities in both a community sample (Study 1: N = 778) and an undergraduate student sample (Study 2: N = 115). In Study 2, we showed that the effect of Openness on pro-environmental behaviors was fully mediated by individuals' environmental attitudes and connection to nature. Our findings suggest that high levels of aesthetic appreciation, creativity, and inquisitiveness, but not personality traits associated with altruism, may have motivated the performance of pro-environmental actions among our respondents. Implications for intervention development are discussed. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Cytosolic pro-apoptotic SPIKE induces mitochondrial apoptosis in cancer.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Ivana; Kastratovic, Tatjana; Zelen, Ivanka; Zivanovic, Aleksandar; Arsenijevic, Slobodan; Mitrovic, Marina

    2010-04-30

    Proteins of the BCL-2 family are important regulators of apoptosis. The BCL-2 family includes three main subgroups: the anti-apoptotic group, such as BCL-2, BCL-XL, BCL-W, and MCL-1; multi-domain pro-apoptotic BAX, BAK; and pro-apoptotic "BH3-only" BIK, PUMA, NOXA, BID, BAD, and SPIKE. SPIKE, a rare pro-apoptotic protein, is highly conserved throughout the evolution, including Caenorhabditis elegans, whose expression is downregulated in certain tumors, including kidney, lung, and breast. In the literature, SPIKE was proposed to interact with BAP31 and prevent BCL-XL from binding to BAP31. Here, we utilized the Position Weight Matrix method to identify SPIKE to be a BH3-only pro-apoptotic protein mainly localized in the cytosol of all cancer cell lines tested. Overexpression of SPIKE weakly induced apoptosis in comparison to the known BH3-only pro-apoptotic protein BIK. SPIKE promoted mitochondrial cytochrome c release, the activation of caspase 3, and the caspase cleavage of caspase's downstream substrates BAP31 and p130CAS. Although the informatics analysis of SPIKE implicates this protein as a member of the BH3-only BCL-2 subfamily, its role in apoptosis remains to be elucidated.

  19. Normal amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) values in amniotic fluid.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Jorge Andrés; Ferrer, Fernando Andrés; Araya, Francisca Isabel; Delpiano, Ana María

    2017-01-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is synthesized by human fetal membranes, both the amnion and chorion. This locally produced BNP inhibits the contraction of the human myometrium, contributing to the maintenance of myometrial quiescence during pregnancy. Reference values for NT-proBNP concentrations in amniotic fluid at different gestational ages have not been completely defined. We aimed to investigate the range of fetal NT-proBNP values in amniotic fluid in normal pregnancy between 17 and 41weeks of gestation. Samples of amniotic fluid were obtained from women meeting the following inclusion criteria: gestational age defined by early ultrasound, singleton gestation and not in labor. The exclusion criteria were as follows: multiple gestation, clinically evident chorioamnionitis, laboratory signs of infection in the amniotic fluid sample and fetal conditions that may alter NT Pro-BNP levels (anemia, hydrops, etc.). NT-proBNP concentrations in amniotic fluid were measured using the automated Elecsys® proBNP assay. We analyzed 218 samples of amniotic fluid at various gestational ages. Half of the samples were obtained by amniocentesis (118 samples), and the other half (100 samples) were obtained by direct puncture at the time of cesarean section. We found a significant decline in NT-proBNP concentrations with advancing gestational age. Gestational age has to be taken into consideration in the assessment of NT-proBNP values. Our data may be used as reference values in fetal medicine, as a possible predictor of preterm delivery risk using the inferior limit (0.5 multiples of the median (MoM)) of our normal curve. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Imbalance between pro-apoptotic and pro-survival factors in human retinal pericytes in diabetic-like conditions.

    PubMed

    Beltramo, Elena; Arroba, Ana I; Mazzeo, Aurora; Valverde, Angela M; Porta, Massimo

    2017-01-27

    Loss of pericytes is one the key events in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. We have previously demonstrated that human retinal pericytes (HRP) are more vulnerable to intermittent than stable high glucose concentrations, with an increase in apoptosis. Our aim was to explore the expression of molecules involved in pro-apoptotic and survival pathways in pericytes cultured in stable/intermittent high glucose and/or hypoxia, to clarify the mechanisms of action of these diabetic-like stressing stimuli. Human retinal pericytes (HRP) were exposed intermittently at 48-hr intervals to high/physiological glucose for 8 days (intHG) and/or hypoxia over the last 48 hr. Control cells were kept in stable physiological and high glucose. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed. The expression of pro-apoptotic and pro-survival molecules was evaluated by Western blotting. Caspase-8 translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus was checked by Western blotting of nuclear versus cytoplasmic fractions and immunofluorescence. Hypoxia, alone and combined with intHG, increased HRP apoptosis and decreased proliferation. Pro-apoptotic molecules increased in HRP cultured in these conditions, while some survival markers decreased. Conversely, in stable HG, pro-apoptotic molecules were stable or even decreased, and survival factors increased. Translocation of caspase-8 from cytoplasm into nucleus indicates a primary role for this molecule in inducing apoptosis. Diabetic-like conditions are able to stimulate pericyte apoptosis through activation of pro-apoptotic molecules, leading to an imbalance between pro-apoptotic and survival signalling pathways, with caspase-8 playing a pivotal role. Our identification of such intermediates could help finding new therapeutic approaches for the prevention of diabetic retinopathy. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. PRO 140--a novel CCR5 co-receptor inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Khatib, Nadia; Das, Satyajit

    2010-01-01

    Despite an increase in the variety of anti-retroviral agents in the market, there remains a need for novel agents to treat HIV 1 infected individuals, in order to overcome existing problems with adherence, toxicities, drug interactions and viral resistance. In this article, we will describe Pro 140, one of the recently developed class of anti-retroviral agent, the CCR5 co-receptor inhibitor. We will also describe several preclinical and clinical studies that have evaluated the efficacy, tolerability and toxicity profiles of Pro-140. We will also look at how its mechanism of action and mode of delivery may change the way patients take highly active anti-retroviral therapy. There are some promising patents discussed in this short review for the use of PRO 140 as CCR5 co-receptor Inhibitor.

  2. Presence of pro-tobacco messages on the Web.

    PubMed

    Hong, Traci; Cody, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    Ignored in the finalized Master Settlement Agreement (National Association of Attorneys General, 1998), the unmonitored, unregulated World Wide Web (Web) can operate as a major vehicle for delivering pro-tobacco messages, images, and products to millions of young consumers. A content analysis of 318 randomly sampled pro-tobacco Web sites revealed that tobacco has a pervasive presence on the Web, especially on e-commerce sites and sites featuring hobbies, recreation, and "fetishes." Products can be ordered online on nearly 50% of the sites, but only 23% of the sites included underage verification. Further, only 11% of these sites contain health warnings. Instead, pro-tobacco sites frequently associate smoking with "glamorous" and "alternative" lifestyles, and with images of young males and young (thin, attractive) females. Finally, many of the Web sites offered interactive site features that are potentially appealing to young Web users. Recommendations for future research and counterstrategies are discussed.

  3. ProCure21+ should speed scheme starts.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2010-11-01

    This October saw the launch of the new ProCure21+ National Framework under which, the Department of Health (DH) team behind the new scheme claims, the NHS can potentially save a further pound 200 million of public money on top of the substantial sums saved under predecessor, ProCure21, via faster, more streamlined procurement, design, planning, and construction, of publicly-funded healthcare schemes. HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie discussed, with the DH's senior responsible officer (SRO) and P21+ team leader Peter Sellars, the background to the new Framework's introduction, the success of its forerunner, and the additional benefits that ProCure21 + (which is backed by organisations incuding HM Treasury, the National Audit Office, and the Office of Government Commerce) should bring to the entire healthcare building supply chain.

  4. Pro-A-type natriuretic peptide and pro-adrenomedullin predict progression of chronic kidney disease: the MMKD Study.

    PubMed

    Dieplinger, Benjamin; Mueller, Thomas; Kollerits, Barbara; Struck, Joachim; Ritz, Eberhard; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Haltmayer, Meinhard; Kronenberg, Florian

    2009-02-01

    A-type natriuretic peptide (ANP) and adrenomedullin (ADM) are potent hypotensive, diuretic, and natriuretic peptides involved in maintaining cardiovascular and renal homeostasis. We conducted a prospective 7-year study of 177 nondiabetic patients with primary chronic kidney disease to see if ANP and ADM plasma concentrations predict the progression of their disease, using novel sandwich immunoassays covering the midregional epitopes of the stable prohormones (MRproANP and MR-proADM). Progression of chronic kidney disease was defined as doubling of baseline serum creatinine and/or terminal renal failure, which occurred in 65 patients. Analysis of the receiver operating characteristic curve for the prediction of renal endpoints showed similar areas under the curve for the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (0.838), MR-proANP (0.810), and MRproADM (0.876), respectively, as did the Kaplan-Meier curve analyses of the patients stratified according to the median of the respective markers. In separate multiple Cox-proportional hazard regression analyses, increased plasma concentrations of both peptides were each strongly predictive of the progression of chronic kidney disease after adjustments for age, gender, GFR, proteinuria and amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. Our study suggests that MR-proANP and MR-proADM are useful new markers of progression of primary nondiabetic chronic kidney disease.

  5. Role of NADPH Oxidase in Radiation-induced Pro-oxidative and Pro-inflammatory Pathways in Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyung Joon; Lee, Won Hee; Hwang, Olivia Min Ha; Sonntag, William E; Lee, Yong Woo

    2017-09-07

    The present study was designed to investigate our hypothesis that NADPH oxidase plays a role in radiation-induced pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory environments in brain. C57BL/6 mice received either fractionated whole brain irradiation or sham-irradiation. The mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α and MCP-1, were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The protein expression levels of TNF-α, MCP-1, NOX-2 and Iba1 were detected by immunofluorescence staining. The levels of ROS were visualized by in situ DHE fluorescence staining. A significant up-regulation of mRNA and protein expression levels of TNF-α and MCP-1 was observed in irradiated mouse brains. Additionally, immunofluorescence staining of Iba1 showed a marked increase of microglial activation in mouse brain after irradiation. Moreover, in situ DHE fluorescence staining revealed that fractionated whole brain irradiation significantly increased production of ROS. Furthermore, a significant increase in immunoreactivity of NOX-2 was detected in mouse brain after irradiation. On the other hand, an enhanced ROS generation in mouse brain after irradiation was markedly attenuated in the presence of NOX inhibitors or NOX-2 neutralizing antibody. These results suggest that NOX-2 may play a role in fractionated whole brain irradiation-induced pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory pathways in mouse brain.

  6. Cancer exosomes trigger mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into pro-angiogenic and pro-invasive myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Gurney, Mark; Mason, Malcolm D.; Tabi, Zsuzsanna; Clayton, Aled

    2015-01-01

    Stromal fibroblasts become altered in response to solid cancers, to exhibit myofibroblastic characteristics, with disease promoting influence. Infiltrating mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) may contribute towards these changes, but the factors secreted by cancer cells that impact MSC differentiation are poorly understood. We investigated the role of nano-metre sized vesicles (exosomes), secreted by prostate cancer cells, on the differentiation of bone-marrow MSC (BM-MSC), and the subsequent functional consequences of such changes. Purified exosomes impaired classical adipogenic differentiation, skewing differentiation towards alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) positive myofibroblastic cells. A single exosomes treatment generated myofibroblasts secreting high levels of VEGF-A, HGF and matrix regulating factors (MMP-1, −3 and −13). Differentiated MSC had pro-angiogenic functions and enhanced tumour proliferation and invasivity assessed in a 3D co-culture model. Differentiation was dependent on exosomal-TGFβ, but soluble TGFβ at matched dose could not generate the same phenotype. Exosomes present in the cancer cell secretome were the principal factors driving this phenotype. Prostate cancer exosomes dominantly dictate a programme of MSC differentiation generating myofibroblasts with functional properties consistent with disease promotion. PMID:25596732

  7. Alloy solution hardening with solute pairs

    DOEpatents

    Mitchell, John W.

    1976-08-24

    Solution hardened alloys are formed by using at least two solutes which form associated solute pairs in the solvent metal lattice. Copper containing equal atomic percentages of aluminum and palladium is an example.

  8. ProGolem: A System Based on Relative Minimal Generalisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggleton, Stephen; Santos, José; Tamaddoni-Nezhad, Alireza

    Over the last decade Inductive Logic Programming systems have been dominated by use of top-down refinement search techniques. In this paper we re-examine the use of bottom-up approaches to the construction of logic programs. In particular, we explore variants of Plotkin's Relative Least General Generalisation (RLGG) which are based on subsumption relative to a bottom clause. With Plotkin's RLGG, clause length grows exponentially in the number of examples. By contrast, in the Golem system, the length of ij-determinate RLGG clauses were shown to be polynomially bounded for given values of i and j. However, the determinacy restrictions made Golem inapplicable in many key application areas, including the learning of chemical properties from atom and bond descriptions. In this paper we show that with Asymmetric Relative Minimal Generalisations (or ARMGs) relative to a bottom clause, clause length is bounded by the length of the initial bottom clause. ARMGs, therefore do not need the determinacy restrictions used in Golem. An algorithm is described for constructing ARMGs and this has been implemented in an ILP system called ProGolem which combines bottom-clause construction in Progol with a Golem control strategy which uses ARMG in place of determinate RLGG. ProGolem has been evaluated on several well-known ILP datasets. It is shown that ProGolem has a similar or better predictive accuracy and learning time compared to Golem on two determinate real-world applications where Golem was originally tested. Moreover, ProGolem was also tested on several non-determinate real-world applications where Golem is inapplicable. In these applications, ProGolem and Aleph have comparable times and accuracies. The experimental results also suggest that ProGolem significantly outperforms Aleph in cases where clauses in the target theory are long and complex.

  9. [Pro-inflammatory serum cytokines in diabetic retinopathy].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Da Mota, Sergio Eustolio; Soto-Bahena, José Juan; Viveros-Sandoval, Martha Eva; Cardiel-Ríos, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines play an important role in diabetic retinopathy. There is conflicting evidence about their serum elevation in this condition and that they also may be possible serum inflammatory biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy. To evaluate the presence of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute phase reactants in the serum of patients with and without diabetic retinopathy. Comparative case series with 36 patients divided into three groups were included: 12 patients with diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy (group 1), 12 diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy (group 2), and 12 healthy patients as a control group. Serum levels of the following pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured in all patients: TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. Pro-inflammatory biomarkers measurements were also performed, such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein. The levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were higher in group 1 (TNF-α: 19.4 ± 10.9 pg/ml, IL-6: 5.75 ± 7 pg/ml) compared to the other two groups, although the difference was statistically significant only in the case of TNF-α (group 1: 19.4 ± 10.9 pg/ml, group 2: 14 ± 4.3 pg/ml and control: 8.49 ± 3.69 pg/ml, p = 0.001). There were no differences among pro-inflammatory biomarkers such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein. among the three groups (p > 0.05). Pro-- inflammatory serum cytokine levels were higher in the diabetes mellitus with diabetic retinopathy group. Larger studies are warranted to establish the real impact of this finding. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  10. Life's Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2004-11-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  11. Life's Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2003-09-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  12. Pro-2-PAM Therapy for Central and Peripheral Cholinesterases

    PubMed Central

    DeMar, James C.; Clarkson, Edward D.; Ratcliffe, Ruthie H.; Campbell, Amy J.; Thangavelu, Sonia G.; Herdman, Christine A.; Leader, Haim; Schulz, Susan M.; Marek, Elizabeth; Medynets, Marie A.; Ku, Theresa C.; Evans, Sarah A.; Khan, Farhat A.; Owens, Roberta R.; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P.; Gordon, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Novel therapeutics to overcome the toxic effects of organophosphorus (OP) chemical agents are needed due to the documented use of OPs in warfare (e.g. 1980–1988 Iran/Iraq war) and terrorism (e.g. 1995 Tokyo subway attacks). Standard OP exposure therapy in the United States consists of atropine sulfate (to block muscarinic receptors), the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivator (oxime) pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM), and a benzodiazepine anticonvulsant to ameliorate seizures. A major disadvantage is that quaternary nitrogen charged oximes, including 2-PAM, do not cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) to treat brain AChE. Therefore, we have synthesized and evaluated pro-2-PAM (a lipid permeable 2-PAM derivative) that can enter the brain and reactivate CNS AChE, preventing seizures in guinea pigs after exposure to OPs. The protective effects of the pro-2-PAM after OP exposure were shown using a) surgically-implanted radiotelemetry probes for electroencephalogram (EEG) b) neurohistopathology of brain, c) cholinesterase activities in the PNS and CNS, and d) survivability. The PNS oxime 2-PAM was ineffective at reducing seizures/status epilepticus (SE) in diisopropyl-fluorophosphate (DFP)-exposed animals. In contrast, pro-2-PAM significantly suppressed and then eliminated seizure activity. In OP-exposed guinea pigs, there was a significant reduction in neurological damage with pro-2-PAM, but not 2-PAM. Distinct regional areas of the brains showed significantly higher AChE activity 1.5 h after OP exposure in pro-2-PAM treated animals compared to the 2-PAM treated ones. However, blood and diaphragm showed similar AChE activities in animals treated with either oxime, as both 2-PAM and pro 2-PAM are PNS active oximes. In conclusion, pro-2-PAM can cross the BBB, is rapidly metabolized inside the brain to 2-PAM, and protects against OP-induced SE through restoration of brain AChE activity. Pro-2-PAM represents the first non-invasive means of administering a CNS therapeutic for

  13. ProADD: A database on Protein Aggregation Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shobana, Ramesh; Pandaranayaka, Eswari PJ

    2014-01-01

    ProADD, a database for protein aggregation diseases, is developed to organize the data under a single platform to facilitate easy access for researchers. Diseases caused due to protein aggregation and the proteins involved in each of these diseases are integrated. The database helps in classification of proteins involved in the protein aggregation diseases based on sequence and structural analysis. Analysis of proteins can be done to mine patterns prevailing among the aggregating proteins. Availability http://bicmku.in/ProADD PMID:25097386

  14. Pro-coagulant activity of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Christy, Barbara A; Herzig, Maryanne C; Montgomery, Robbie K; Delavan, Christopher; Bynum, James A; Reddoch, Kristin M; Cap, Andrew P

    2017-04-05

    Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show great potential for the treatment of military and civilian trauma, based on their reduced immunogenicity and ability to modulate inflammation and immune function in the recipient. Although generally considered to be safe, MSCs express tissue factor (TF), a potent activator of coagulation. In the current study, we evaluated multiple MSC populations for tissue factor expression and pro-coagulant activity in order to characterize safety considerations for systemic use of MSCs in trauma patients who may have altered coagulation homeostasis. Multiple MSC populations derived from either human adipose tissue or bone marrow were expanded in the recommended stem cell media. Stem cell identity was confirmed using a well-characterized panel of positive and negative markers. Tissue factor expression on the cell surface was evaluated by flow cytometry with anti-CD142 antibody. Effects on blood coagulation were determined by thromboelastography (TEG) and calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT) assays using platelet poor plasma or whole blood. MSCs express tissue factor on their surfaces and are pro-coagulant in the presence of blood or plasma. The adipose-derived MSCs (Ad-MSC) evaluated were more pro-coagulant and expressed more tissue factor than bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs), which showed a greater variability in TF expression. BM-MSCs were identified that exhibited low pro-coagulant activity, whereas all Ad-MSCs examined exhibited high pro-coagulant activity. The percentage of cells in a given population expressing surface tissue factor correlates roughly with functional pro-coagulant activity. MSC tissue factor expression and pro-coagulant activity change over time in culture. All MSC populations are not equivalent; care should be taken to select cells for clinical use that minimize potential safety problems and maximize chance of patient benefit. Adipose-derived MSCs appear more consistently pro-coagulant than BM-MSCs, presenting a

  15. Secretion of Streptomyces mobaraensis pro-transglutaminase by coryneform bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Itaya, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported on the secretion of Streptomyces mobaraensis transglutaminase by Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13869 (formerly classified as Brevibacterium lactofermentum). In the present work, we investigated whether any other coryneform bacteria showed higher productivity than C. glutamicum ATCC13869. We found that most coryneform species secreted pro-transglutaminase efficiently. Moreover, we confirmed that Corynebacterium ammoniagenes ATCC6872 produced about 2.5 g/l pro-transglutaminase over a 71-h period in a jar fermentor. Our findings suggest that some other coryneform bacteria, especially C. ammoniagenes ATCC6872, are potential hosts for industrial scale protein production. PMID:18219481

  16. The neuropsychology of infants’ pro-social preferences

    PubMed Central

    Gredebäck, Gustaf; Kaduk, Katharina; Bakker, Marta; Gottwald, Janna; Ekberg, Therese; Elsner, Claudia; Reid, Vincent; Kenward, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The current study is the first to investigate neural correlates of infants’ detection of pro- and antisocial agents. Differences in ERP component P400 over posterior temporal areas were found during 6-month-olds’ observation of helping and hindering agents (Experiment 1), but not during observation of identically moving agents that did not help or hinder (Experiment 2). The results demonstrate that the P400 component indexes activation of infants’ memories of previously perceived interactions between social agents. This leads to suggest that similar processes might be involved in infants’ processing of pro- and antisocial agents and other social perception processes (encoding gaze direction, goal directed grasping and pointing). PMID:25681955

  17. Conformation-independent structural comparison of macromolecules with ProSMART

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholls, Robert A.; Fischer, Marcus; McNicholas, Stuart; Murshudov, Garib N.

    2014-09-01

    The Procrustes Structural Matching Alignment and Restraints Tool (ProSMART) has been developed to allow local comparative structural analyses independent of the global conformations and sequence homology of the compared macromolecules. This allows quick and intuitive visualization of the conservation of backbone and side-chain conformations, providing complementary information to existing methods. The identification and exploration of (dis)similarities between macromolecular structures can help to gain biological insight, for instance when visualizing or quantifying the response of a protein to ligand binding. Obtaining a residue alignment between compared structures is often a prerequisite for such comparative analysis. If the conformational change of the protein is dramatic, conventional alignment methods may struggle to provide an intuitive solution for straightforward analysis. To make such analyses more accessible, the Procrustes Structural Matching Alignment and Restraints Tool (ProSMART) has been developed, which achieves a conformation-independent structural alignment, as well as providing such additional functionalities as the generation of restraints for use in the refinement of macromolecular models. Sensible comparison of protein (or DNA/RNA) structures in the presence of conformational changes is achieved by enforcing neither chain nor domain rigidity. The visualization of results is facilitated by popular molecular-graphics software such as CCP4mg and PyMOL, providing intuitive feedback regarding structural conservation and subtle dissimilarities between close homologues that can otherwise be hard to identify. Automatically generated colour schemes corresponding to various residue-based scores are provided, which allow the assessment of the conservation of backbone and side-chain conformations relative to the local coordinate frame. Structural comparison tools such as ProSMART can help to break the complexity that accompanies the constantly growing

  18. An ironic reductio for a 'pro-life' argument: Hurlbut's proposal for stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Kevin

    2007-02-01

    William Hurlbut, a Stanford University bioethicist and member of the President's Council on Bioethics, recently proposed a solution to the current impasse over human embryonic stem cell research in the United States. He suggested that researchers could use genetic engineering and somatic cell nuclear transfer (i.e. cloning) to develop human 'pseudo-embryos' that have no potential to develop fully into human persons. According to Hurlbut, even thinkers who typically ascribe high moral status to human embryos could approve of destroying these 'pseudo-embryos' for the sake of harvesting human embryonic stem cells. This essay argues, first, that an argument based on the 'paradox of the heap' (an argument that many 'pro-life' thinkers employ in order to defend the notion that human embryos have high moral value from the moment of conception) challenges the ethical legitimacy of Hurlbut's proposal. Second, the paper argues that this conflict may illustrate a reductio ad absurdum for this 'pro-life' argument itself rather than being a problem for Hurlbut's proposal. As a result, the paper challenges the 'pro-life'strategy of arguing that one should respond to uncertainty about the moral status of developing embryos by being morally 'cautious' and granting all human embryos full moral status from the moment of conception. It appears that one is faced with a complex series of choices (about where to draw the moral line between entities that are human persons and entities that are not), and a strict moral 'cautiousness' about this series of choices may ultimately lead to absurdity.

  19. Victimization and Exposure to Pro-Self-Harm and Pro-Suicide Websites: A Cross-National Study.

    PubMed

    Minkkinen, Jaana; Oksanen, Atte; Kaakinen, Markus; Keipi, Teo; Räsänen, Pekka

    2017-02-01

    The study of websites displaying methods of both physical self-harm and suicide has become an important aspect of deliberate self-injury and suicide research. However, little is known about contextual factors related to entering such sites. Using data from 3,567 respondents aged 15-30 in the US, UK, Germany, and Finland, we found that experiences of victimization are associated with entering pro-self-harm sites and pro-suicide sites. Also, the victimization context had relevance, as online victimization was particularly related to pro-self-harm behavior. The findings suggest a need to organize more specific online support for the victims of violence and online aggression.

  20. Next maSigPro: updating maSigPro bioconductor package for RNA-seq time series.

    PubMed

    Nueda, María José; Tarazona, Sonia; Conesa, Ana

    2014-09-15

    The widespread adoption of RNA-seq to quantitatively measure gene expression has increased the scope of sequencing experimental designs to include time-course experiments. maSigPro is an R package specifically suited for the analysis of time-course gene expression data, which was developed originally for microarrays and hence was limited in its application to count data. We have updated maSigPro to support RNA-seq time series analysis by introducing generalized linear models in the algorithm to support the modeling of count data while maintaining the traditional functionalities of the package. We show a good performance of the maSigPro-GLM method in several simulated time-course scenarios and in a real experimental dataset. The package is freely available under the LGPL license from the Bioconductor Web site (http://bioconductor.org). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Ionizing radiation modulates human macrophages towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype preserving their pro-invasive and pro-angiogenic capacities

    PubMed Central

    Teresa Pinto, Ana; Laranjeiro Pinto, Marta; Patrícia Cardoso, Ana; Monteiro, Cátia; Teixeira Pinto, Marta; Filipe Maia, André; Castro, Patrícia; Figueira, Rita; Monteiro, Armanda; Marques, Margarida; Mareel, Marc; dos Santos, Susana Gomes; Seruca, Raquel; Adolfo Barbosa, Mário; Rocha, Sónia; José Oliveira, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the efficacy of conventional radiotherapy, attention has been paid to immune cells, which not only modulate cancer cell response to therapy but are also highly recruited to tumours after irradiation. Particularly, the effect of ionizing radiation on macrophages, using therapeutically relevant doses, is not well understood. To evaluate how radiotherapy affects macrophage behaviour and macrophage-mediated cancer cell activity, human monocyte derived-macrophages were subjected, for a week, to cumulative ionizing radiation doses, as used during cancer treatment (2 Gy/fraction/day). Irradiated macrophages remained viable and metabolically active, despite DNA damage. NF-kappaB transcription activation and increased Bcl-xL expression evidenced the promotion of pro-survival activity. A significant increase of pro-inflammatory macrophage markers CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR, but not CCR7, TNF and IL1B was observed after 10 Gy cumulative doses, while anti-inflammatory markers CD163, MRC1, VCAN and IL-10 expression decreased, suggesting the modulation towards a more pro-inflammatory phenotype. Moreover, ionizing radiation induced macrophage morphological alterations and increased their phagocytic rate, without affecting matrix metalloproteases (MMP)2 and MMP9 activity. Importantly, irradiated macrophages promoted cancer cell-invasion and cancer cell-induced angiogenesis. Our work highlights macrophage ability to sustain cancer cell activities as a major concern that needs to be addressed to improve radiotherapy efficacy. PMID:26735768

  2. Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock Trials (ProCESS, ARISE, ProMISe): What is Optimal Resuscitation?

    PubMed

    Osborn, Tiffany M

    2017-04-01

    Between 2014 and 2015, 3 independent, multicenter, randomized controlled trials evaluated early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) in severe sepsis and septic shock: Protocolized Care for Early Septic Shock (ProCESS) from the United States; Australasian Resuscitation in Sepsis Evaluation (ARISE), and Protocolised Management in Sepsis (ProMISe) in the United Kingdom. All 3 trials confirmed that there was no survival benefit of EGDT compared to usual resuscitation. How should we define usual care for sepsis given these study findings? Furthermore, the definition of sepsis has now been updated. This article reviews key findings of these 3 trials and discusses these important issues in sepsis management.

  3. High-molecular-weight poly(Gly-Val-Gly-Val-Pro) synthesis through microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Goto, Mitsuaki; Endo, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we synthesized a polypeptide from its pentapeptide unit using microwave irradiation. Effective methods for polypeptide synthesis from unit peptides have not been reported. Here, we used a key elastin peptide, H-GlyValGlyValPro-OH (GVGVP), as the monomer peptide. It is difficult to obtain poly(Gly-Val-Gly-Val-Pro) (poly(GVGVP)) from the pentapeptide unit of elastin, GVGVP, via polycondensation. Poly(GVGVP) prepared from genetically recombinant Escherichia coli is a well-known temperature-sensitive polypeptide, and this temperature sensitivity is known as the lower critical solution temperature. When microwave irradiation was performed in the presence of various additives, the pentapeptide (GVGVP) polycondensation reaction proceeded smoothly, resulting in a product with a high molecular weight in a relatively good yield. The reaction conditions, like microwave irradiation, coupling agents, and solvents, were optimized to increase the reaction efficiency. The product exhibited a molecular weight greater than Mr 7000. Further, the product could be synthesized on a gram scale. The synthesized polypeptide exhibited a temperature sensitivity that was similar to that of poly(GVGVP) prepared from genetically recombinant E. coli. Therefore, this technique offers a facile and quick approach to prepare polypeptides in large amounts. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Conformation-independent structural comparison of macromolecules with ProSMART

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Robert A.; Fischer, Marcus; McNicholas, Stuart; Murshudov, Garib N.

    2014-01-01

    The identification and exploration of (dis)similarities between macromolecular structures can help to gain biological insight, for instance when visualizing or quantifying the response of a protein to ligand binding. Obtaining a residue alignment between compared structures is often a prerequisite for such comparative analysis. If the conformational change of the protein is dramatic, conventional alignment methods may struggle to provide an intuitive solution for straightforward analysis. To make such analyses more accessible, the Procrustes Structural Matching Alignment and Restraints Tool (ProSMART) has been developed, which achieves a conformation-independent structural alignment, as well as providing such additional functionalities as the generation of restraints for use in the refinement of macromolecular models. Sensible comparison of protein (or DNA/RNA) structures in the presence of conformational changes is achieved by enforcing neither chain nor domain rigidity. The visualization of results is facilitated by popular molecular-graphics software such as CCP4mg and PyMOL, providing intuitive feedback regarding structural conservation and subtle dissimilarities between close homologues that can otherwise be hard to identify. Automatically generated colour schemes corresponding to various residue-based scores are provided, which allow the assessment of the conservation of backbone and side-chain conformations relative to the local coordinate frame. Structural comparison tools such as ProSMART can help to break the complexity that accompanies the constantly growing pool of structural data into a more readily accessible form, potentially offering biological insight or influencing subsequent experiments. PMID:25195761

  5. Putting the "Pro" into TESL/TEFL Professionalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edstam, Tina

    2001-01-01

    Offers seven steps practicing English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers can take to create a strong professional identity: become an articulate ESL spokesperson, collaborate with a mainstream teacher or content-area teacher, be a learner as well as a teacher, take a pro-active stance on ESL issues, become an active member of your state TESL…

  6. Do Null Subjects (Mis-)Trigger Pro-Drop Grammars?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Native speakers of English regularly hear sentences without overt subjects. Nevertheless, they maintain a [[superscript -]pro] grammar that requires sentences to have an overt subject. It is proposed that listeners of English recognize that speakers reduce predictable material and thus attribute null subjects to this process, rather than changing…

  7. The "Creation-Science" Case and Pro Bono Publico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Peggy L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes contributions and efforts of New York law firm (Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher, Flom) personnel in developing plaintiff's case in McLean v. Arkansas 590 (balanced treatment of creationism/evolution). Discusses aspects of "Pro Bono Publico" (unpaid public interest service) endeavors in general and those related to this law firm in…

  8. Mexican American Adolescents' Perceptions of a Pro-College Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Linda G.; Conoley, Collie W.; Cepeda, Lisa M.; Ivy, Karen K.; Archuleta, Debra J.

    2010-01-01

    Three focus groups of ninth-grade Mexican American students explored the factors contributing to a pro-college culture. The students participated in the federal initiative program called "Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs." Analysis revealed specific student, family, peer, and school personnel influences toward a…

  9. PRO development: rigorous qualitative research as the crucial foundation.

    PubMed

    Lasch, Kathryn Eilene; Marquis, Patrick; Vigneux, Marc; Abetz, Linda; Arnould, Benoit; Bayliss, Martha; Crawford, Bruce; Rosa, Kathleen

    2010-10-01

    Recently published articles have described criteria to assess qualitative research in the health field in general, but very few articles have delineated qualitative methods to be used in the development of Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs). In fact, how PROs are developed with subject input through focus groups and interviews has been given relatively short shrift in the PRO literature when compared to the plethora of quantitative articles on the psychometric properties of PROs. If documented at all, most PRO validation articles give little for the reader to evaluate the content validity of the measures and the credibility and trustworthiness of the methods used to develop them. Increasingly, however, scientists and authorities want to be assured that PRO items and scales have meaning and relevance to subjects. This article was developed by an international, interdisciplinary group of psychologists, psychometricians, regulatory experts, a physician, and a sociologist. It presents rigorous and appropriate qualitative research methods for developing PROs with content validity. The approach described combines an overarching phenomenological theoretical framework with grounded theory data collection and analysis methods to yield PRO items and scales that have content validity.

  10. Discovery of potential antipsychotic agents possessing pro-cognitive properties.

    PubMed

    Lameh, Jelveh; McFarland, Krista; Ohlsson, Jorgen; Ek, Fredrik; Piu, Fabrice; Burstein, Ethan S; Tabatabaei, Ali; Olsson, Roger; Bradley, Stefania Risso; Bonhaus, Douglas W

    2012-03-01

    Current antipsychotic drug therapies for schizophrenia have limited efficacy and are notably ineffective at addressing the cognitive deficits associated with this disorder. The present study was designed to develop effective antipsychotic agents that would also ameliorate the cognitive deficits associated with this disease. In vitro studies comprised of binding and functional assays were utilized to identify compounds with the receptor profile that could provide both antipsychotic and pro-cognitive features. Antipsychotic and cognitive models assessing in vivo activity of these compounds included locomotor activity assays and novel object recognition assays. We developed a series of potential antipsychotic agents with a novel receptor activity profile comprised of muscarinic M(1) receptor agonism in addition to dopamine D(2) antagonism and serotonin 5-HT(2A) inverse agonism. Like other antipsychotic agents, these compounds reverse both amphetamine and dizocilpine-induced hyperactivity in animals. In addition, unlike other antipsychotic drugs, these compounds demonstrate pro-cognitive actions in the novel object recognition assay. The dual attributes of antipsychotic and pro-cognitive actions distinguish these compounds from other antipsychotic drugs and suggest that these compounds are prototype molecules in the development of novel pro-cognitive antipsychotic agents.

  11. Affordance, Learning Opportunities, and the Lesson Plan Pro Forma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jason

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that the most commonly used lesson plan pro formas in language teacher education are inappropriately premised on an outcomes-based approach to teaching, one that is in conflict with what we know about how languages are learnt and how experienced teachers teach. It proposes an alternative, affordance-based approach to lesson…

  12. Inoculating against Pro-Plagiarism Justifications: Rational and Affective Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Josh; Pfau, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Student plagiarism continues to threaten academic integrity. This investigation assessed whether an inoculation message strategy could combat university plagiarism by protecting student attitudes against pro-plagiarism justification arguments. Additionally, we sought theoretical confirmation of previous findings on involvement and accessibility in…

  13. Putting the "Pro" into TESL/TEFL Professionalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edstam, Tina

    2001-01-01

    Offers seven steps practicing English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers can take to create a strong professional identity: become an articulate ESL spokesperson, collaborate with a mainstream teacher or content-area teacher, be a learner as well as a teacher, take a pro-active stance on ESL issues, become an active member of your state TESL…

  14. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie is of NASA's Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System experiment (ProSEDS). ProSEDS will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether, basically a long, thin wire, for propulsion. An electrodynamic tether uses the same principles as electric motors in toys, appliances and computer disk drives, and generators in automobiles and power plants. When electrical current is flowing through the tether, a magnetic field is produced that pushes against the magnetic field of the Earth. For ProSEDS, the current in the tether results by virtue of the voltage generated when the tether moves through the Earth's magnetic field at more than 17,000 mph. This approach can produce drag thrust generating useable power. Since electrodynamic tethers require no propellant, they could substantially reduce the weight of the spacecraft and provide a cost-effective method of reboosting spacecraft. The tether would be a 3.1-mile (5 kilometer) long, ultrathin base-wire tether connected with a 6.2-mile (10 kilometer) long nonconducting tether. The ProSEDS experiment is managed by the Space Transportation Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  15. Affecting Community Change: Involving "Pro Bono" Professionals as Extension Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Diane T.; Culp, Ken, III

    2013-01-01

    "Pro bono" volunteers provide an effective means for Extension professionals to expand limited financial and human resources. Volunteers recruited from business settings can provide skills, abilities, expertise, leadership, and resources to Extension programs. Allowing professional volunteers to meet their desired leadership goals while…

  16. 19 CFR 122.74 - Incomplete (pro forma) manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. 122.74 Section 122.74 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT...; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  17. Degradation of pro-insulin-receptor proteins by proteasomes.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Miguel; Velasco, Eduardo; Kumate, Jesús

    2004-01-01

    Type-2 diabetes is characterized by hyperinsulinemia, peripheral insulin resistance, and diminished tyrosine phosphorylation activity. It has been recently shown that proteasomes are implicated in the degradation of the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) but not in that of the insulin receptor (IR). However, it is unknown whether proteasomes are involved in pro-IR degradation. We used CHO-IR and the 3T3-L1 cells treated with insulin at different concentrations and compared the proteasome activity of IRS-1, IR, and pro-IR degradation either in presence or in absence of lactacystin. A total of 100 nM of insulin allowed degradation of IRS-1 after 6 h of incubation. At 1,000 nM of insulin, pro-IR degradation began at 1 h of incubation, similar to IRS-1 degradation. Surprisingly, at a higher concentration (10 microM) of insulin, a drastic decrease of proteins was observed from the first minute of incubation. This activity was blocked by lactacystin, a specific proteasome inhibitor. According to these results, we propose that pro-IR is degraded by proteasomes.

  18. PRO development: rigorous qualitative research as the crucial foundation

    PubMed Central

    Marquis, Patrick; Vigneux, Marc; Abetz, Linda; Arnould, Benoit; Bayliss, Martha; Crawford, Bruce; Rosa, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Recently published articles have described criteria to assess qualitative research in the health field in general, but very few articles have delineated qualitative methods to be used in the development of Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs). In fact, how PROs are developed with subject input through focus groups and interviews has been given relatively short shrift in the PRO literature when compared to the plethora of quantitative articles on the psychometric properties of PROs. If documented at all, most PRO validation articles give little for the reader to evaluate the content validity of the measures and the credibility and trustworthiness of the methods used to develop them. Increasingly, however, scientists and authorities want to be assured that PRO items and scales have meaning and relevance to subjects. This article was developed by an international, interdisciplinary group of psychologists, psychometricians, regulatory experts, a physician, and a sociologist. It presents rigorous and appropriate qualitative research methods for developing PROs with content validity. The approach described combines an overarching phenomenological theoretical framework with grounded theory data collection and analysis methods to yield PRO items and scales that have content validity. PMID:20512662

  19. 31 CFR 50.93 - Application of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of pro rata share. 50.93 Section 50.93 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE... from a subsequent act of terrorism....

  20. Inoculating against Pro-Plagiarism Justifications: Rational and Affective Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Josh; Pfau, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Student plagiarism continues to threaten academic integrity. This investigation assessed whether an inoculation message strategy could combat university plagiarism by protecting student attitudes against pro-plagiarism justification arguments. Additionally, we sought theoretical confirmation of previous findings on involvement and accessibility in…

  1. Do Null Subjects (Mis-)Trigger Pro-Drop Grammars?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Native speakers of English regularly hear sentences without overt subjects. Nevertheless, they maintain a [[superscript -]pro] grammar that requires sentences to have an overt subject. It is proposed that listeners of English recognize that speakers reduce predictable material and thus attribute null subjects to this process, rather than changing…

  2. The Role of Cyclo(His-Pro) in Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Grottelli, Silvia; Ferrari, Ilaria; Pietrini, Grazia; Peirce, Matthew J.; Minelli, Alba; Bellezza, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases may have distinct genetic etiologies and pathological manifestations, yet share common cellular mechanisms underpinning neuronal damage and dysfunction. These cellular mechanisms include excitotoxicity, calcium dysregulation, oxidative damage, ER stress and neuroinflammation. Recent data have identified a dual role in these events for glial cells, such as microglia and astrocytes, which are able both to induce and to protect against damage induced by diverse stresses. Cyclo(His-Pro), a cyclic dipeptide derived from the hydrolytic removal of the amino-terminal pyroglutamic acid residue of the hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone, may be important in regulating the nature of the glial cell contribution. Cyclo(His-Pro) is ubiquitous in the central nervous system and is a key substrate of organic cation transporters, which are strongly linked to neuroprotection. The cyclic dipeptide can also cross the brain-blood-barrier and, once in the brain, can affect diverse inflammatory and stress responses by modifying the Nrf2-NF-κB signaling axis. For these reasons, cyclo(His-Pro) has striking potential for therapeutic application by both parenteral and oral administration routes and may represent an important new tool in counteracting neuroinflammation-based degenerative pathologies. In this review, we discuss the chemistry and biology of cyclo(His-Pro), how it may interact with the biological mechanisms driving neurodegenerative disease, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and thereby act to preserve or restore neuronal function. PMID:27529240

  3. ProOpDB: Prokaryotic Operon DataBase.

    PubMed

    Taboada, Blanca; Ciria, Ricardo; Martinez-Guerrero, Cristian E; Merino, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The Prokaryotic Operon DataBase (ProOpDB, http://operons.ibt.unam.mx/OperonPredictor) constitutes one of the most precise and complete repositories of operon predictions now available. Using our novel and highly accurate operon identification algorithm, we have predicted the operon structures of more than 1200 prokaryotic genomes. ProOpDB offers diverse alternatives by which a set of operon predictions can be retrieved including: (i) organism name, (ii) metabolic pathways, as defined by the KEGG database, (iii) gene orthology, as defined by the COG database, (iv) conserved protein domains, as defined by the Pfam database, (v) reference gene and (vi) reference operon, among others. In order to limit the operon output to non-redundant organisms, ProOpDB offers an efficient method to select the most representative organisms based on a precompiled phylogenetic distances matrix. In addition, the ProOpDB operon predictions are used directly as the input data of our Gene Context Tool to visualize their genomic context and retrieve the sequence of their corresponding 5' regulatory regions, as well as the nucleotide or amino acid sequences of their genes.

  4. Pro-Forms as Projective Devices in Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keevallik, Leelo

    2011-01-01

    Cataphoric pronouns have been characterized as being co-referential with a word that comes later. Considering that talk is produced in real time, with little benefit of knowing what is yet to come, participants understand cataphoric pro-forms to be projecting more talk. Projection is a crucial interactive resource, as it enables speakers to align…

  5. Memory for Pro-Social Intentions: When Competing Motives Collide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandimonte, Maria A.; Ferrante, Donatella; Bianco, Carmela; Villani, Maria Grazia

    2010-01-01

    Memory for future actions, or "prospective memory" (PM), often involves remembering to do things "for others". The present article explores the motivational mechanisms underlying memory for pro-social intentions through the manipulation of the social relevance of goals and presence of material rewards during an activity-based PM task. Results…

  6. Variables Related to Pro-Choice Attitudes among Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Loyd S.; Rogers, Robyn R.

    1987-01-01

    Used self-administered questionnaires to assess pro-choice attitudes of 840 undergraduates just prior to the 1984 presidential election. Students were asked whether they would approve or disapprove of abortion under four different circumstances. Results indicated that the majority of both males and females were in favor of allowing abortion under…

  7. 17 CFR 210.8-05 - Pro forma financial information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Article 8 Financial... consummated during the most recent fiscal year or subsequent interim period, pro forma statements of income... (2) If consummation of the transaction has occurred or is probable after the date of the most recent...

  8. The "Creation-Science" Case and Pro Bono Publico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Peggy L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes contributions and efforts of New York law firm (Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher, Flom) personnel in developing plaintiff's case in McLean v. Arkansas 590 (balanced treatment of creationism/evolution). Discusses aspects of "Pro Bono Publico" (unpaid public interest service) endeavors in general and those related to this law firm in…

  9. Virtex-II Pro SEE Test Methods and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrick, David; Powell, Wesley; Howard, James W., Jr.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this coarse Single Event Effect (SEE) test is to determine the suitability of the commercial Virtex-II Pro family for use in spaceflight applications. To this end, this test is primarily intended to determine any Singe Event Latchup (SEL) susceptibilities for these devices. Secondly, this test is intended to measure the level of Single Event Upset (SEU) susceptibilities and in a general sense where they occur. The coarse SEE test was performed on a commercial XC2VP7 device, a relatively small single processor version of the Virtex-II Pro. As the XC2VP7 shares the same functional block design and fabrication process with the larger Virtex-II Pro devices, the results of this test should also be applicable to the larger devices. The XC2VP7 device was tested on a commercial Virtex-II Pro development board. The testing was performed at the Cyclotron laboratories at Texas A&M and Michigan State Universities using ions of varying energy levels and fluences.

  10. Affecting Community Change: Involving "Pro Bono" Professionals as Extension Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Diane T.; Culp, Ken, III

    2013-01-01

    "Pro bono" volunteers provide an effective means for Extension professionals to expand limited financial and human resources. Volunteers recruited from business settings can provide skills, abilities, expertise, leadership, and resources to Extension programs. Allowing professional volunteers to meet their desired leadership goals while…

  11. QSAR Study of Mosquito Repellents Using Codessa Pro

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    SciFinder catalog.21 Using Codessa Pro in the normal manner gave the 3-descriptor model for the vapor pressure shown in Table 3 with the follow- ing...20. Stone, M. J. R. Stat. Soc. B. 1977, 38, 44. 21. SciFinder Scholar, American Chemical Society, 2003. 22. Katritzky, A. R.; Wang, Y.; Sild, S.; Tamm

  12. Affordance, Learning Opportunities, and the Lesson Plan Pro Forma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jason

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that the most commonly used lesson plan pro formas in language teacher education are inappropriately premised on an outcomes-based approach to teaching, one that is in conflict with what we know about how languages are learnt and how experienced teachers teach. It proposes an alternative, affordance-based approach to lesson…

  13. HBpF-proBDNF: A New Tool for the Analysis of Pro-Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Receptor Signaling and Cell Biology.

    PubMed

    Gaub, Perrine; de Léon, Andrès; Gibon, Julien; Soubannier, Vincent; Dorval, Geneviève; Séguéla, Philippe; Barker, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    Neurotrophins activate intracellular signaling pathways necessary for neuronal survival, growth and apoptosis. The most abundant neurotrophin in the adult brain, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is first synthesized as a proBDNF precursor and recent studies have demonstrated that proBDNF can be secreted and that it functions as a ligand for a receptor complex containing p75NTR and sortilin. Activation of proBDNF receptors mediates growth cone collapse, reduces synaptic activity, and facilitates developmental apoptosis of motoneurons but the precise signaling cascades have been difficult to discern. To address this, we have engineered, expressed and purified HBpF-proBDNF, an expression construct containing a 6X-HIS tag, a biotin acceptor peptide (BAP) sequence, a PreScission™ Protease cleavage site and a FLAG-tag attached to the N-terminal part of murine proBDNF. Intact HBpF-proBDNF has activities indistinguishable from its wild-type counterpart and can be used to purify proBDNF signaling complexes or to monitor proBDNF endocytosis and retrograde transport. HBpF-proBDNF will be useful for characterizing proBDNF signaling complexes and for deciphering the role of proBDNF in neuronal development, synapse function and neurodegenerative disease.

  14. HBpF-proBDNF: A New Tool for the Analysis of Pro-Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Receptor Signaling and Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Gaub, Perrine; de Léon, Andrès; Gibon, Julien; Soubannier, Vincent; Dorval, Geneviève; Séguéla, Philippe; Barker, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    Neurotrophins activate intracellular signaling pathways necessary for neuronal survival, growth and apoptosis. The most abundant neurotrophin in the adult brain, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is first synthesized as a proBDNF precursor and recent studies have demonstrated that proBDNF can be secreted and that it functions as a ligand for a receptor complex containing p75NTR and sortilin. Activation of proBDNF receptors mediates growth cone collapse, reduces synaptic activity, and facilitates developmental apoptosis of motoneurons but the precise signaling cascades have been difficult to discern. To address this, we have engineered, expressed and purified HBpF-proBDNF, an expression construct containing a 6X-HIS tag, a biotin acceptor peptide (BAP) sequence, a PreScission™ Protease cleavage site and a FLAG-tag attached to the N-terminal part of murine proBDNF. Intact HBpF-proBDNF has activities indistinguishable from its wild-type counterpart and can be used to purify proBDNF signaling complexes or to monitor proBDNF endocytosis and retrograde transport. HBpF-proBDNF will be useful for characterizing proBDNF signaling complexes and for deciphering the role of proBDNF in neuronal development, synapse function and neurodegenerative disease. PMID:26950209

  15. Polymorphism of collagen triple helix revealed by 19F NMR of model peptide [Pro-4(R)-hydroxyprolyl-Gly]3-[Pro-4(R)-fluoroprolyl-Gly]-[Pro-4(R)-hydroxyprolyl-Gly]3.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Kazuki; Nemoto, Nobuaki; Motooka, Daisuke; Nishi, Yoshinori; Doi, Masamitsu; Uchiyama, Susumu; Nakazawa, Takashi; Nishiuchi, Yuji; Yoshida, Takuya; Ohkubo, Tadayasu; Kobayashi, Yuji

    2012-06-14

    We have characterized various structures of (Pro-Hyp(R)-Gly)(3)-Pro-fPro(R)-Gly-(Pro-Hyp(R)-Gly)(3) in the process of cis-trans isomerization and helix-coil transition by exploiting the sole (19)F NMR probe in 4(R)-fluoroproline (fPro(R)). Around the transition temperature (T(m)), we detected a species with a triple helical structure distinct from the ordinary one concerning the alignment of three strands. The (19)F-(19)F exchange spectroscopy showed that this misaligned and that the ordinary triple helices were interchangeable only indirectly via an extended monomer strand with all-trans peptide bonds at Pro-fPro(R), Pro-Hyp(R), and Gly-Pro in the central segment. This finding demonstrates that the helix-coil transition of collagen peptides is not described with a simple two-state model. We thus elaborated a scheme for the transition mechanism of (Pro-Hyp(R)-Gly)(n) that the most extended monomer strand can be the sole source both to the misaligned and correctly folded triple-helices. The staggered ends could help misaligned triple helices to self-assemble to higher-order structures. We have also discussed the possible relationship between the misaligned triple helix accumulating maximally at T(m) and the kinetic hysteresis associated with the helix-coil transition of collagen.

  16. Pro-ana versus Pro-recovery: A Content Analytic Comparison of Social Media Users’ Communication about Eating Disorders on Twitter and Tumblr

    PubMed Central

    Branley, Dawn B.; Covey, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To compare how people communicate about eating disorders on two popular social media platforms – Twitter and Tumblr. Materials and Methods: Thematic analysis was conducted to characterize the types of communications posted, and a content analysis was undertaken of between-platform differences. Results: Three types of content (pro-ana, anti-ana, and pro-recovery) were posted on each platform. Overall, across both platforms, extreme pro-ana posts were in the minority compared to anti-ana and pro-recovery. Pro-ana posts (including ‘thinspiration’) were more common on Twitter than Tumblr, whereas anti-ana and pro-recovery posts were more common on Tumblr. Conclusion: The findings have implications for future research and health care relating to the treatment and prevention of eating disorders. Developers of future interventions targeting negative pro-ana content should remain aware of the need to avoid any detrimental impact on positive online support. PMID:28848472

  17. Pro-ana versus Pro-recovery: A Content Analytic Comparison of Social Media Users' Communication about Eating Disorders on Twitter and Tumblr.

    PubMed

    Branley, Dawn B; Covey, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To compare how people communicate about eating disorders on two popular social media platforms - Twitter and Tumblr. Materials and Methods: Thematic analysis was conducted to characterize the types of communications posted, and a content analysis was undertaken of between-platform differences. Results: Three types of content (pro-ana, anti-ana, and pro-recovery) were posted on each platform. Overall, across both platforms, extreme pro-ana posts were in the minority compared to anti-ana and pro-recovery. Pro-ana posts (including 'thinspiration') were more common on Twitter than Tumblr, whereas anti-ana and pro-recovery posts were more common on Tumblr. Conclusion: The findings have implications for future research and health care relating to the treatment and prevention of eating disorders. Developers of future interventions targeting negative pro-ana content should remain aware of the need to avoid any detrimental impact on positive online support.

  18. Lack of association between serum adiponectin levels and the Pro12Ala polymorphism in Asian Indians.

    PubMed

    Radha, V; Vimaleswaran, K S; Babu, S; Deepa, R; Anjana, M; Ghosh, S; Majumder, P P; Rao, M R S; Mohan, V

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the association of serum adiponectin levels with the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARG) gene in Asian Indians. We selected 400 diabetic subjects, 200 with the Pro12Pro genotype (100 male and 100 female) and 200 with the Pro12Ala genotype (100 male and 100 female) and 400 age- and sex-matched normal glucose tolerance subjects with similar genotype profiles from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Fasting serum adiponection levels were measured using radioimmunoassay. The Pro12Ala polymorphism was genotyped by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism using BstUI. All clinical and biochemical parameters were similar in the subjects with the Pro12Pro and Pro12Ala genotypes. There was no significant difference in serum adiponectin values between subjects with the Pro12Pro and Pro12Ala genotypes (males 5.4 vs. 5.8 microg/ml, P = 0.546; females 6.9 vs. 7.2 microg/ml, P = 0.748). Adiponectin values did not differ among these two genotypes even when categorized based on their diabetes status (normal glucose tolerance Pro12Pro 7.9 vs. Pro12Ala 7.7 microg/ml, P = 0.994; diabetes Pro12Pro 4.7 vs. Pro12Ala 5.4 microg/ml, P = 0.622). The Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPARG gene is not associated with serum adiponectin levels in Asian Indians.

  19. Association between GPX1 Pro189Leu polymorphism and the occurrence of bladder cancer in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Hadami, K; Ameziane El Hassani, R; Ameur, A; Dakka, N; Abbar, M; Al Bouzidi, A; Attaleb, M; El Mzibri, M

    2016-12-30

    Worldwide, Bladder cancer is the most frequent male malignancy. It is the third most common male malignancy in Morocco. The risk factors for developing bladder cancer are multiples including dietary conditions, environmental exposure and oxidative stress. GPX1 gene encoding for the human cellular antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase1 is a key factor in the cell detoxification process. GPX1 Pro198Leu polymorphism is associated with a decrease of enzyme activity and may contribute to bladder cancer susceptibility. The present case-control study was planned to assess the presence of GPX1 Pro198Leu polymorphism in Moroccan population to determine whether it is associated with the risk of developing bladder cancer in Moroccan patients. A total of 32 patients with bladder cancer and 40 healthy controls were enrolled. Genotyping of the GPX1 Pro198Leu polymorphism was carried out by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. Pro198Leu polymorphism was observed in both bladder cancer patients and healthy controls. No significant association between the polymorphism and bladder cancer occurrence was found (Pro/Leu vs. Pro/Pro: p=0.425; Leu vs. Pro: p=0.435). For the analysis of Pro198Leu polymorphism and progression of bladder cancer, no association was observed neither for stages (Pro/Leu vs. Pro/Pro: p=0.500; Leu vs. Pro: p=0.500) nor grades (Pro/Leu vs. Pro/Pro: p=0.415; Leu vs. Pro: p=0.427). Our results clearly showed no significant association between Pro198Leu polymorphism and risk of bladder cancer in our population, suggesting that the effect of this polymorphism on bladder cancer development might be a result of a combination with other genetic alterations and/or non-genetic variables such as diet and lifestyle factors.

  20. Effect of Sialylated O-Glycans in Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide Stability

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jingjing; Pristera, Nicole; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xiumei; Wu, Qingyu

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Atrial-, brain- and C-type natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP, and CNP) are important in regulating a variety of cardiovascular and cellular functions. In cells, these peptides are made as pro-forms that are converted to mature forms. BNP and its related peptides are biomarkers for the diagnosis of heart failure. In this study, we examined glycosylation in pro-ANP, pro-BNP and pro-CNP, which may alter their biochemical and metabolic properties. METHODS Human pro-ANP, pro-BNP, and pro-CNP were expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and murine HL-1 cardiomyocytes, and analyzed by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. Deglycosylation enzymes were used to determine the carbohydrate content on these peptides. The effects of inhibiting O-glycosylation on cellular expression and stability of the peptides also were examined. RESULTS In HEK 293 and HL-1 cells, pro-BNP, but not pro-ANP and pro-CNP, from the culture medium had a greater molecular mass than that from cell lysate. Digestion with PNGase F, O-glycosidase and sialidase A indicated that pro-BNP contained O-glycans but not N-glycans. The O-glycans on pro-BNP had sialic acids at their termini, protecting it from O-glycosidase digestion. In contrast, pro-ANP and pro-CNP contained no detectable amounts of N- or O-glycans. Inhibition of O-glycosylation on pro-BNP did not prevent its expression in the cells. However, partially O-glycosylated pro-BNP was much less stable than fully O-glycosylated pro-BNP. CONCLUSIONS O-glycosylation is not necessary for pro-BNP expression but important for its stability. PMID:20348402

  1. Development of Polymer Coatings for the ProSEDS Tether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Kamenetsky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, Miria; Wright, Ken

    2000-01-01

    The ProSEDS mission is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta 11 unmanned, expendable booster. A 5 km conductive tether is attached to the deployer baseplate on the Delta 11 second stage and collects current from the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma to facilitate de-orbit of the Delta II second stage. The conductive tether is attached to a 10-15 km non-conductive tether, which in turn is attached to an endmass. A bare metal tether would have the best conductivity but thermal concerns preclude this design. A conductive polymer developed by Triton Systems has been optimized for optimum conductivity and thermo-optical properties. The current design for the ProSEDS conductive tether is seven individually coated strands of 28 AWG aluminum wire, coated with 12.7 micrometers (0.5 mil) atomic oxygen-resistant conductive polymer composed of a mixture of COR and PANi, wrapped around a braided Kevlar 29 core. Extensive testing has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center to qualify this material for flight on ProSEDS. Atomic oxygen exposure has been performed, with solar absorptance and infrared emittance measured before and after exposure. Plasma chamber tests have been completed, as well as tether deployment tests. Also developed for the ProSEDS mission was the insulating polymer TOR-BP. Approximately 200 meters of the conductive tether closest to the Delta II second stage is insulated to prevent any electron reconnection to the tether from the plasma contactor. The insulating material is TOR-BP with a dielectric strength of TBD.

  2. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Leslie; Johnson, Les; Brown, Norman S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system to generate thrust in space by decreasing the orbital altitude of a Delta 11 Expendable Launch Vehicle second stage. ProSEDS, which is planned on an Air Force GPS Satellite replacement mission in June 2002, will use the flight proven Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) to deploy a tether (5 km bare wire plus 10 km non-conducting Dyneema) from a Delta 11 second stage to achieve approx. 0.4N drag thrust. ProSEDS will utilize the tether-generated current to provide limited spacecraft power. The ProSEDS instrumentation includes Langmuir probes and Differential Ion Flux Probes, which will determine the characteristics of the ambient ionospheric plasma. Two Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers will be used (one on the Delta and one on the endmass) to help determine tether dynamics and to limit transmitter operations to occasions when the spacecraft is over selected ground stations. The flight experiment is a precursor to the more ambitious electrodynamic tether upper stage demonstration mission, which will be capable of orbit raising, lowering and inclination changes-all using electrodynamic thrust. An immediate application of ProSEDS technology is for the removal of spent satellites for orbital debris mitigation. In addition to the use of this technology to provide orbit transfer and debris mitigation it may also be an attractive option for future missions to Jupiter and any other planetary body with a magnetosphere.

  3. Development of Polymer Coatings for the ProSEDS Tether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Kamenetsky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, Miria; Wright, Ken

    2000-01-01

    The ProSEDS mission is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta 11 unmanned, expendable booster. A 5 km conductive tether is attached to the deployer baseplate on the Delta 11 second stage and collects current from the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma to facilitate de-orbit of the Delta II second stage. The conductive tether is attached to a 10-15 km non-conductive tether, which in turn is attached to an endmass. A bare metal tether would have the best conductivity but thermal concerns preclude this design. A conductive polymer developed by Triton Systems has been optimized for optimum conductivity and thermo-optical properties. The current design for the ProSEDS conductive tether is seven individually coated strands of 28 AWG aluminum wire, coated with 12.7 micrometers (0.5 mil) atomic oxygen-resistant conductive polymer composed of a mixture of COR and PANi, wrapped around a braided Kevlar 29 core. Extensive testing has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center to qualify this material for flight on ProSEDS. Atomic oxygen exposure has been performed, with solar absorptance and infrared emittance measured before and after exposure. Plasma chamber tests have been completed, as well as tether deployment tests. Also developed for the ProSEDS mission was the insulating polymer TOR-BP. Approximately 200 meters of the conductive tether closest to the Delta II second stage is insulated to prevent any electron reconnection to the tether from the plasma contactor. The insulating material is TOR-BP with a dielectric strength of TBD.

  4. [BNP or NT-proBNP: "that is the question"].

    PubMed

    Lebrun, C; Neuder, Y; Pison, C; Chouri, N; Barnoud, D; Belle, L; Beaune, G

    2007-01-01

    Blood measurements of BNP and NT-proBNP, its catabolite, improve diagnosis for patients admitted to emergency departments with dyspnoea. In this paper, we have compared the BNP to the NT-proBNP for 119 dyspnoeic patients using at random clear clinical status. Among the test group of 119 patients, 57 showed coherent biological results for the 2 markers. These results confirm the final clinical diagnosis. Nine patients with congestive heart failure had abnormally low BNP and NT-proBNP rates. Six of these patients experienced long delays (longer than 48 hours and less than 72 hours) between their admission in emergency and the biological measurement of the natriuretic biomarkers. Three of the other patients could be not only flash OAP cases with a fast growth and a fast normalisation of BNP but also could have existing genetical factors. These genetical factors leading to high variability in BNP synthesis are not related to physiological or cardiac factors. 43 patients showed a mismatch between BNP and NT-proBNP. BNP appeared to be unstable in vitro. The lack of stability in whole blood or plasma samples is increased by sampling in a glass EDTA collection tube and too long delays in transferring the samples from the emergency area and the laboratory in a big hospital. Ten patients showed a mismatch with abnormally high NT-proBNP or false positive results. Among these 10 patients, 5 had renal dysfunction with a high level of creatinine concentration. It is clear that all Diagnostics Manufacturers should now propose different cut-off for natriuretic peptides tests according to the degree of patients' renal impairment.

  5. Using Pro/ENGINEER`s{reg_sign} interface module

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, J.

    1994-06-01

    When the ACCORD Process introduced Pro/ENGINEER to Sandians several years ago, a new process for design/definition was implemented. Prior to ACCORD, engineers and draftsmen worked in the 2-D mode with a program caned ANVIL{reg_sign}, which had limited capabilities. Although the transition from 2-D modeling to 3-D modeling met with some resistance, most engineers have embraced this new concept with enthusiasm They are now able to work in the 3-D mode and at increased levels of productivity with appropriate time savings never achieved before. One area that Pro/ENGINEER is noted for that this report will concentrate on, is the powerful interface module with its wide selection of transfer file configurations. This allows the engineer to create parts or assemblies and transfer them to many different second party software packages whose vendors can provide the capability for stress analysis, rapid prototypes, virtual reality environments, or many other forms of advanced manufacturing modes of communication. The ACCORD Program has at its core, the Pro/ENGINEER program from Parametric Technology Inc. Included in the ACCORD program, are several supporting programs from other vendors to make this cooperation between software packages a reality. It is possible to create parts in Pro/ENG transfer those parts to another package that has the capability to analyze the parts for deficiencies, then optimize those parts, and allow for changes to be made. Also included in this report, are other packages closely tied to Pro/ENGINEER, but not necessarily supported under the ACCORD program. Some of these packages allow you to create very impressive video productions, or allow you to meander through a virtual reality scenario. All of these new software packages will give you a new perspective on performance. This report will show how some of these interfaces work, and how you can improve your productivity if you utilize the ACCORD program as it is implemented here at Sandia.

  6. Analysis of the role of the Cronobacter sakazakii ProP homologues in osmotolerance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria respond to elevated osmolality by the accumulation of a range of low molecular weight molecules, known as compatible solutes (owing to their compatibility with the cells' normal physiology at high internal concentrations). The neonatal pathogen Cronobacter sakazakii is uniquely osmotolerant, surviving in powdered infant formula (PIF) which typically has a water activity (aw) of 0.2 – inhospitable to most micro-organisms. Mortality rates of up to 80% in infected infants have been recorded making C. sakazakii a serious cause for concern. In silico analysis of the C. sakazakii BAA-894 genome revealed seven copies of the osmolyte uptake system ProP. Herein, we test the physiological role of each of these homologues following heterologous expression against an osmosensitive Escherichia coli host. PMID:24910715

  7. Microencapsulated drug delivery: a new approach to pro-inflammatory cytokine inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Oettinger, Carl W.; D'Souza, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Context: This article reviews the use of albumin microcapsules 3–4 mm in size containing cytokine inhibiting drugs which include neutralizing antibodies to TNF and IL1, CNI-1493, antisense oligonucleotides to TNF and NF-kappaB, and the antioxidant catalase. Objective: Describe the effects, cellular uptake and distribution of microencapsulated drugs and the effect in both a peritonitis model of infection and a model of adjuvant-induced arthritis. Methods: The studies performed by our group are reviewed, the only such studies available. Results: Microencapsulation of these compounds produced high intracellular drug concentrations due to rapid uptake by phagocytic cells, including endothelial cells, without toxicity. All compounds produced excellent inhibition of TNF and IL1 resulting in improved animal survival in a peritonitis model of septic shock and inflammation in an arthritis model. Conclusion: Albumin microencapsulated pro-inflammatory cytokine inhibiting compounds are superior to equivalent concentration of these compounds administered in solution form. PMID:22348221

  8. Harnessing the Power of SharePoint for Library Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Lisa A.; Tims, Randy S.

    2010-01-01

    Back in 2008, the authors were looking for a tool that would replace the library's Outlook folders and much of what the library had stored on shared network drives. So they were mainly looking for something that would hold their documents, allow them to better organize those documents, offer an easy way to search for those documents, and be easy…

  9. Harnessing the Power of SharePoint for Library Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Lisa A.; Tims, Randy S.

    2010-01-01

    Back in 2008, the authors were looking for a tool that would replace the library's Outlook folders and much of what the library had stored on shared network drives. So they were mainly looking for something that would hold their documents, allow them to better organize those documents, offer an easy way to search for those documents, and be easy…

  10. Diacerein inhibits the pro-atherogenic & pro-inflammatory effects of IL-1 on human keratinocytes & endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Lei; Many, Benjamin; Chan, Lawrence S.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated IL-1-induced regulation of genes related to inflammation and atherogenesis in human keratinocytes and endothelial cells, and if ‘diacerein’, an oral IL-1 inhibiting drug currently approved for use in osteoarthritis, would reverse IL-1’s effects on these cells. Primary human keratinocytes and coronary artery endothelial cells were treated with either IL-1α or IL-1β, with and without diacerein. Using PCR-array, we assessed differential gene-expression regulated by IL-1 and diacerein. We identified 34 pro-atherogenic genes in endothelial cells and 68 pro-inflammatory genes in keratinocytes significantly (p<0.05) regulated at least 2-fold by IL-1, in comparison to control. Diacerein completely or partially reversed this regulation on almost all genes. Using ELISA, we confirmed diacerein’s ability to reverse IL-1-driven gene-regulation of 11 selected factors, at the protein level. The results support a novel idea that diacerein acts as an inhibitor of the pro-atherogenic and pro-inflammatory effects of IL-1. Diacerein may have therapeutic applications to diminish IL-1-induced skin inflammation in psoriasis and attenuate IL-1-induced development of atherosclerosis. Further investigation into diacerein’s effect on skin inflammation, atherogenesis and cardiovascular risk in animal models or humans is warranted. PMID:28323859

  11. Nanomolar aluminum induces pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic gene expression in human brain cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Lukiw, Walter J; Percy, Maire E; Kruck, Theo P

    2005-09-01

    Aluminum, the most abundant neurotoxic metal in our biosphere, has been implicated in the etiology of several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). To further understand aluminum's influence on gene expression, we examined total messenger RNA levels in untransformed human neural cells exposed to 100 nanomolar aluminum sulfate using high density DNA microarrays that interrogate the expression of every human gene. Preliminary data indicate that of the most altered gene expression levels, 17/24 (70.8%) of aluminum-affected genes, and 7/8 (87.5%) of aluminum-induced genes exhibit expression patterns similar to those observed in AD. The seven genes found to be significantly up-regulated by aluminum encode pro-inflammatory or pro-apoptotic signaling elements, including NF-kappaB subunits, interleukin-1beta precursor, cytosolic phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase-2, beta-amyloid precursor protein and DAXX, a regulatory protein known to induce apoptosis and repress transcription. The promoters of genes up-regulated by aluminum are enriched in binding sites for the stress-inducible transcription factors HIF-1 and NF-kappaB, suggesting a role for aluminum, HIF-1 and NF-kappaB in driving atypical, pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic gene expression. The effect of aluminum on specific stress-related gene expression patterns in human brain cells clearly warrant further investigation.

  12. Platelet adhesion and degranulation induce pro-survival and pro-angiogenic signalling in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Egan, Karl; Crowley, Darragh; Smyth, Paul; O'Toole, Sharon; Spillane, Cathy; Martin, Cara; Gallagher, Michael; Canney, Aoife; Norris, Lucy; Conlon, Niamh; McEvoy, Lynda; Ffrench, Brendan; Stordal, Britta; Keegan, Helen; Finn, Stephen; McEneaney, Victoria; Laios, Alex; Ducrée, Jens; Dunne, Eimear; Smith, Leila; Berndt, Michael; Sheils, Orla; Kenny, Dermot; O'Leary, John

    2011-01-01

    Thrombosis is common in ovarian cancer. However, the interaction of platelets with ovarian cancer cells has not been critically examined. To address this, we investigated platelet interactions in a range of ovarian cancer cell lines with different metastatic potentials [HIO-80, 59M, SK-OV-3, A2780, A2780cis]. Platelets adhered to ovarian cancer cells with the most significant adhesion to the 59M cell line. Ovarian cancer cells induced platelet activation [P-selectin expression] in a dose dependent manner, with the most significant activation seen in response to the 59M cell line. The platelet antagonists [cangrelor, MRS2179, and apyrase] inhibited 59M cell induced activation suggesting a P2Y12 and P2Y1 receptor mediated mechanism of platelet activation dependent on the release of ADP by 59M cells. A2780 and 59M cells potentiated PAR-1, PAR-4, and TxA2 receptor mediated platelet activation, but had no effect on ADP, epinephrine, or collagen induced activation. Analysis of gene expression changes in ovarian cancer cells following treatment with washed platelets or platelet releasate showed a subtle but valid upregulation of anti-apoptotic, anti-autophagy pro-angiogenic, pro-cell cycle and metabolic genes. Thus, ovarian cancer cells with different metastatic potential adhere and activate platelets differentially while both platelets and platelet releasate mediate pro-survival and pro-angiogenic signals in ovarian cancer cells.

  13. The 2015-16 Pro-Kid Policy Agenda for California: A Guide to Pro-Kid Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The 2015-16 Pro-Kid Policy Agenda for California is the only comprehensive roadmap at the state level for policymakers, stakeholders, and others who want all children--especially children of color and children from low-income families--to have the opportunity to reach their full potential. A plethora of research shows that investments in quality…

  14. Pentium Pro inside. 1; A treecode at 430 Gigaflops on ASCI Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, M. S.; Becker, D. J.; Sterling, T.; Salmon, J. K.; Goda, M. P.

    1997-01-01

    As an entry for the 1997 Gordon Bell performance prize, we present results from two methods of solving the gravitational N-body problem on the Intel Teraflops system at Sandia National Laboratory (ASCI Red). The first method, an O(N2) algorithm, obtained 635 Gigaflops for a 1 million particle problem on 6800 Pentium Pro processors. The second solution method, a tree-code which scales as O(N log N), sustained 170 Gigaflops over a continuous 9.4 hour period on 4096 processors, integrating the motion of 322 million mutually interacting particles in a cosmology simulation, while saving over 100 Gigabytes of raw data. Additionally, the tree-code sustained 430 Gigaflops on 6800 processors for the first 5 time-steps of that simulation. This tree-code solution is approximately 105 times more efficient than the O(N2) algorithm for this problem. As an entry for the 1997 Gordon Bell price/performance prize, we present two calculations from the disciplines of astrophysics and fluid dynamics. The simulations were performed on two 16 Pentium Pro processor Beowulf-class computers (Loki and Hyglac) constructed entirely from commodity personal computer technology, at a cost of roughly $50k each in September, 1996. The price of an equivalent system in August 1997 is less than $30. At Los Alamos, Loki performed a gravitational tree-code N-body simulation of galaxy formation using 9.75 million particles, which sustained an average of 879 Mflops over a ten day period, and produced roughly 10 Gbytes of raw data.

  15. Pentium Pro inside. 1; A treecode at 430 Gigaflops on ASCI Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, M. S.; Becker, D. J.; Sterling, T.; Salmon, J. K.; Goda, M. P.

    1997-01-01

    As an entry for the 1997 Gordon Bell performance prize, we present results from two methods of solving the gravitational N-body problem on the Intel Teraflops system at Sandia National Laboratory (ASCI Red). The first method, an O(N2) algorithm, obtained 635 Gigaflops for a 1 million particle problem on 6800 Pentium Pro processors. The second solution method, a tree-code which scales as O(N log N), sustained 170 Gigaflops over a continuous 9.4 hour period on 4096 processors, integrating the motion of 322 million mutually interacting particles in a cosmology simulation, while saving over 100 Gigabytes of raw data. Additionally, the tree-code sustained 430 Gigaflops on 6800 processors for the first 5 time-steps of that simulation. This tree-code solution is approximately 105 times more efficient than the O(N2) algorithm for this problem. As an entry for the 1997 Gordon Bell price/performance prize, we present two calculations from the disciplines of astrophysics and fluid dynamics. The simulations were performed on two 16 Pentium Pro processor Beowulf-class computers (Loki and Hyglac) constructed entirely from commodity personal computer technology, at a cost of roughly $50k each in September, 1996. The price of an equivalent system in August 1997 is less than $30. At Los Alamos, Loki performed a gravitational tree-code N-body simulation of galaxy formation using 9.75 million particles, which sustained an average of 879 Mflops over a ten day period, and produced roughly 10 Gbytes of raw data.

  16. Cell surface chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan in melanoma: role in the activation of pro-MMP-2 (pro-gelatinase A).

    PubMed

    Iida, Joji; Wilhelmson, Krista L; Ng, Janet; Lee, Peter; Morrison, Charlotte; Tam, Eric; Overall, Christopher M; McCarthy, James B

    2007-05-01

    We previously reported that CS (chondroitin sulfate) GAG (glycosaminoglycan), expressed on MCSP (melanoma-specific CS proteoglycan), is important for regulating MT3-MMP [membrane-type 3 MMP (matrix metalloproteinase)]-mediated human melanoma invasion and gelatinolytic activity in vitro. In the present study, we sought to determine if CS can directly enhance MT3-MMP-mediated activation of pro-MMP-2. Co-immunoprecipitation studies suggest that MCSP forms a complex with MT3-MMP and MMP-2 on melanoma cell surface. When melanoma cells were treated with betaDX (p-nitro-beta-D-xylopyranoside) to inhibit coupling of CS on the core protein, both active form and proform of MMP-2 were no longer co-immunoprecipitated with either MCSP or MT3-MMP, suggesting a model in which CS directly binds to MMP-2 and presents the gelatinase to MT3-MMP to be activated. By using recombinant proteins, we determined that MT3-MMP directly activates pro-MMP-2 and that this activation requires the interaction of the C-terminal domain of pro-MMP-2 with MT3-MMP. Activation of pro-MMP-2 by suboptimal concentrations of MT3-MMP is also significantly enhanced in the presence of excess C4S (chondroitin 4-sulfate), whereas C6S (chondroitin 6-sulfate) or low-molecular-mass hyaluronan was ineffective. Affinity chromatography studies using CS isolated from aggrecan indicate that the catalytic domain of MT3-MMP and the C-terminal domain of MMP-2 directly bind to the GAG. Thus the direct binding of pro-MMP-2 with CS through the C-domain would present the catalytic domain of pro-MMP-2 to MT3-MMP, which facilitates the generation of the active form of MMP-2. These results suggest that C4S, which is expressed on tumour cell surface, can function to bind to pro-MMP-2 and facilitate its activation by MT3-MMP-expressing tumour cells to enhance invasion and metastasis.

  17. Pro-TRH and pro-CRF expression in paraventricular nucleus of small litter-reared fasted adult rats.

    PubMed

    Aréchiga-Ceballos, F; Alvarez-Salas, E; Matamoros-Trejo, G; Amaya, M I; García-Luna, C; de Gortari, P

    2014-04-01

    Neuroendocrine axes adapt to nutrient availability. During fasting, the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT) is reduced, whereas that of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is increased. Overfeeding-induced hyperleptinemia during lactation may alter the regulatory set point of neuroendocrine axes and their adaptability to fasting in adulthood. Hyperleptinemia is developed in rodents by litter size reduction during lactation; adult rats from small litters become overweight, but their paraventricular nucleus (PVN) TRH synthesis is unchanged. It is unclear whether peptide expression still responds to nutrient availability. PVN corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) expression has not been evaluated in this model. We analyzed adaptability of HPT and HPA axes to fasting-induced low leptin levels of reduced-litter adult rats. Offspring litters were reduced to 2-3/dam (early-overfed) or maintained at 8/dam (controls, C). At 10 weeks old, a subset of animals from each group was fasted for 48 h and leptin, corticosterone, and thyroid hormones serum levels were analyzed. In brain, expressions of leptin receptor, NPY and SOCS3, were evaluated in arcuate nucleus, and those of proTRH and proCRF in PVN by real-time PCR. ProTRH expression in anterior and medial PVN subcompartments was assayed by in situ hybridization. Early-overfed adults developed hyperphagia and excessive weight, together with decreased proTRH expression in anterior PVN, supporting the anorexigenic effects of TRH. Early-overfed rats presented low PVN proTRH synthesis, whereas fasting did not induce a further reduction. Fasting-induced stress was unable to increase corticosterone levels, contributing to reduced body weight loss in early-overfed rats. We concluded that early overfeeding impaired the adaptability of HPT and HPA axes to excess weight and fasting in adults.

  18. Systematic Evaluation of the Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Content of Clinical Trial Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Kyte, Derek; Duffy, Helen; Fletcher, Benjamin; Gheorghe, Adrian; Mercieca-Bebber, Rebecca; King, Madeleine; Draper, Heather; Ives, Jonathan; Brundage, Michael; Blazeby, Jane; Calvert, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Background Qualitative evidence suggests patient-reported outcome (PRO) information is frequently absent from clinical trial protocols, potentially leading to inconsistent PRO data collection and risking bias. Direct evidence regarding PRO trial protocol content is lacking. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the PRO-specific content of UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) programme trial protocols. Methods and Findings We conducted an electronic search of the NIHR HTA programme database (inception to August 2013) for protocols describing a randomised controlled trial including a primary/secondary PRO. Two investigators independently reviewed the content of each protocol, using a specially constructed PRO-specific protocol checklist, alongside the ‘Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials’ (SPIRIT) checklist. Disagreements were resolved through discussion with a third investigator. 75 trial protocols were included in the analysis. Protocols included a mean of 32/51 (63%) SPIRIT recommendations (range 16–41, SD 5.62) and 11/33 (33%) PRO-specific items (range 4–18, SD 3.56). Over half (61%) of the PRO items were incomplete. Protocols containing a primary PRO included slightly more PRO checklist items (mean 14/33 (43%)). PRO protocol content was not associated with general protocol completeness; thus, protocols judged as relatively ‘complete’ using SPIRIT were still likely to have omitted a large proportion of PRO checklist items. Conclusions The PRO components of HTA clinical trial protocols require improvement. Information on the PRO rationale/hypothesis, data collection methods, training and management was often absent. This low compliance is unsurprising; evidence shows existing PRO guidance for protocol developers remains difficult to access and lacks consistency. Study findings suggest there are a number of PRO protocol checklist items that are not fully

  19. The increase of serum Bcl-2 concentration in moderate head injury outcome: The role of ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10

    PubMed Central

    Indharty, Rr Suzy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the major causes of death and disability. Apoptosis after TBI contributes significantly to the final extent of tissue damage. The Bcl-2 family proteins are important apoptosis modulators which increased in injured neurons. Bcl-2 has shown an antiapoptotic effect in rats and mice. ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10 is a synthetic short fragment of ACTH devoid of hormonal effects and has neuromodulatory properties. ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10 has been shown to increase levels of Bcl-2 and BDNF in vitro as well as in vivo. It has been postulated that ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10 will result in improved clinical outcome and reduce hospital length of stay. The goal of this study is to compare the effect of standard therapy only with standard therapy and ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10, the increase of Bcl-2, and clinical outcome with reduction of hospital stay. Materials and Methods: Subjects of moderate head injury (MHI) with no indication of surgery were taken consecutively (n = 40) and separated into two groups: standard treatment only and standard treatment combined with ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10. Blood samples were taken on day 1 and day 5 from each subject for measurements of Bcl-2 concentration. Barthel Index and MMSE were measured, at discharge and hospital length of stay was noted. Results: Forty subjects have been involved in this study, three subjects died in the standard therapy group, and one subject in ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10 group. Bcl-2 serum level in standard therapy was 1.39 ± 0.75 ng/mL on day 1 and 1.48 ± 0.77 ng/mL on day 5. After treatment with ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10, Bcl-2 level was 1.39 ± 0.70 ng/mL on day 1 and 3.70 ± 1.02 ng/mL on day 5. The serum Bcl-2 concentration was significantly increased with ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10 therapy with shorter hospital length of stay (P < 0.05). Conclusion: ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10 increased serum Bcl-2 levels and reduced hospital length of stay significantly compared with standard

  20. Physicochemical basis for the rapid time-action of LysB28ProB29-insulin: dissociation of a protein-ligand complex.

    PubMed Central

    Bakaysa, D. L.; Radziuk, J.; Havel, H. A.; Brader, M. L.; Li, S.; Dodd, S. W.; Beals, J. M.; Pekar, A. H.; Brems, D. N.

    1996-01-01

    The rate-limiting step for the absorption of insulin solutions after subcutaneous injection is considered to be the dissociation of self-associated hexamers to monomers. To accelerate this absorption process, insulin analogues have been designed that possess full biological activity and yet have greatly diminished tendencies to self-associate. Sedimentation velocity and static light scattering results show that the presence of zinc and phenolic ligands (m-cresol and/or phenol) cause one such insulin analogue, LysB28ProB29-human insulin (LysPro), to associate into a hexameric complex. Most importantly, this ligand-bound hexamer retains its rapid-acting pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The dissociation of the stabilized hexameric analogue has been studied in vitro using static light scattering as well as in vivo using a female pig pharmacodynamic model. Retention of rapid time-action is hypothesized to be due to altered subunit packing within the hexamer. Evidence for modified monomer-monomer interactions has been observed in the X-ray crystal structure of a zinc LysPro hexamer (Ciszak E et al., 1995, Structure 3:615-622). The solution state behavior of LysPro, reported here, has been interpreted with respect to the crystal structure results. In addition, the phenolic ligand binding differences between LysPro and insulin have been compared using isothermal titrating calorimetry and visible absorption spectroscopy of cobalt-containing hexamers. These studies establish that rapid-acting insulin analogues of this type can be stabilized in solution via the formation of hexamer complexes with altered dissociation properties. PMID:8976561

  1. Investigations of inorganic and organic fouling behaviors, antifouling and cleaning strategies for pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) membrane using seawater desalination brine and wastewater.

    PubMed

    Han, Gang; Zhou, Jieliang; Wan, Chunfeng; Yang, Tianshi; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2016-10-15

    By employing seawater desalination brine (SWBr) and wastewater brine (WWBr) as the feed pair, membrane fouling behaviors as well as antifouling and cleaning strategies for the state-of-the-art thin-film composite polyethersulfone (TFC-PES) hollow fiber membrane have been systematically investigated under pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) operations. Fouling on the polyamide selective layer induced by the SWBr draw solution is relatively mild because of the outstanding membrane rejection and the hydration antifouling layer formed by the permeating water. However, using WWBr as the feed causes fast and severe internal concentration polarization (ICP) and fouling within the porous PES substrate, which result in dramatic flux and power density declines. In addition, the PRO fouling upon and within the porous substrate is highly irreversible. Experimental data show that both anti-scalant pretreatment and pH adjustment of WWBr could effectively mitigate inorganic fouling, while increasing feed flow velocity along the substrate surface is ineffective for fouling control. To clean the fouled membranes, hydraulic-pressure induced backwash and flushing with alkaline and NaOCl solutions on the fouled surface are effective strategies to remove foulants and regenerate membranes with a flux recovery of 83-90%. However, osmotic backwash shows low cleaning efficiency in PRO. In summary, a proper combination of feed pretreatment and membrane cleaning strategies has been demonstrated in this study to sustain PRO operations with a high water flux and power density. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential stability of the triple helix of (Pro-Pro-Gly)10 in H2O and D2O: thermodynamic and structural explanations.

    PubMed

    Gough, C A; Bhatnagar, R S

    1999-12-01

    (Pro-Pro-Gly)10 [(PPG10)], a collagen-like polypeptide, forms a triple-helical, polyproline-II structure in aqueous solution at temperatures somewhat lower than physiological, with a melting temperature of 24.5 degrees C. In this article, we present circular dichroism spectra that demonstrate an increase of the melting temperature with the addition of increasing amounts of D2O to an H2O solution of (PPG)10, with the melting temperature reaching 40 degrees C in pure D2O. A thermodynamic analysis of the data demonstrates that this result is due to an increasing enthalpy of unfolding in D2O vs. H2O. To provide a theoretical explanation for this result, we have used a model for hydration of (PPG)10 that we developed previously, in which inter-chain water bridges are formed between sterically crowded waters and peptide bond carbonyls. Energy minimizations were performed upon this model using hydrogen bond parameters for water, and altered hydrogen bond parameters that reproduced the differences in carbonyl oxygen-water oxygen distances found in small-molecule crystal structures containing oxygen-oxygen hydrogen bonds between organic molecules and H2O or D2O. It was found that using hydrogen bond parameters that reproduced the distance typical of hydrogen bonds to D2O resulted in a significant lowering of the potential energy of hydrated (PPG)10. This lowering of the energy involved energetic terms that were only indirectly related to the altered hydrogen bond parameters, and were therefore not artifactual; the intra-(PPG10) energy, plus the water-(PPG10) van der Waals energy (not including hydrogen bond interactions), were lowered enough to qualitatively account for the lower enthalpy of the triple-helical conformation, relative to the unfolded state, in D2O vs. H2O. This result indicates that the geometry of the carbonyl-D2O hydrogen bonds allows formation of good hydrogen bonds without making as much of an energetic sacrifice from other factors as in the case of

  3. PRO2000 vaginal gel for prevention of HIV-1 infection (Microbicides Development Programme 301): a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group trial.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Sheena; Ramjee, Gita; Kamali, Anatoli; Rees, Helen; Crook, Angela M; Gafos, Mitzy; Jentsch, Ute; Pool, Robert; Chisembele, Maureen; Kapiga, Saidi; Mutemwa, Richard; Vallely, Andrew; Palanee, Thesla; Sookrajh, Yuki; Lacey, Charles J; Darbyshire, Janet; Grosskurth, Heiner; Profy, Albert; Nunn, Andrew; Hayes, Richard; Weber, Jonathan

    2010-10-16

    ratio 1·05 [0·82-1·34], p=0·71), and at discontinuation (4·7 [3·8-5·8] for 2% PRO2000 gel, 3·9 [3·0-4·9] for 0·5% PRO2000 gel, and 3·9 [3·1-5·0] for placebo gel). Incidence of the primary safety endpoint at study end was 4·6 per 100 woman-years (95% CI 3·9-5·4) in the 0·5% PRO2000 group and 3·9 (3·2-4·6) in the placebo group; and was 4·5 (3·7-5·5) in the 2% PRO2000 group at discontinuation. Although safe, 0·5% PRO2000 and 2% PRO2000 are not efficacious against vaginal HIV-1 transmission and are not indicated for this use. UK Department for International Development, UK Medical Research Council, European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership, International Partnership for Microbicides, and Endo Pharmaceuticals Solutions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The PACA Project : Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2014-04-01

    The Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy (PACA) project is the next stage of evolution of the paradigm developed for the observational campaign of C/2012 S1 or C/ISON. Four different phases of collaboration are identified, and illustrate the integration of scientific investigations with amateur astronomer community via observations, and models; and the rapid dissemination of the results via a multitude of social media for rapid global access. The success of the paradigm shift in scientific research is now implemented in other comet observing campaigns. Both communities (scientific and amateur astronomers) benefit from these collective, collaborative partnerships; while outreach is the instantaneous deliverable that provides both a framework for future data analyses and the dissemination of the results. While PACA identifies a collaborative approach to pro-am collaborations, given the volume of data generated for each campaign, new ways of rapid data analysis, mining access and storage are needed.

  5. Online Stigma Resistance in the Pro-Ana Community.

    PubMed

    Yeshua-Katz, Daphna

    2015-10-01

    Media scholars often use concepts from Goffman's dramaturgical approach to study online communities of stigmatized individuals as "backstages," spaces where members take refuge from social disapproval. In this study, I extend this view through an examination of in-depth interviews with bloggers from the "pro-ana" community, an online community for people with eating disorders. To explore how this community uses an online environment that is both anonymous and public, I fuse Goffman's ideas about identity performance and stigma with more recent theories about boundary maintenance. In-depth interviews with "pro-ana" bloggers reveal that to protect this virtual group and resist stigmas associated both with their illness and with their online presence, they construct their own norms and rules in the online realm, and discipline and eject members deemed to be out-group.

  6. Psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Wayne W; Sagarin, Brad J

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on heterosexuals' attitudes toward gays is characterized by a focus on negative attitudes and minimal use of behavioral dependent variables. In an attempt to rectify this situation, the present study explored the psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior in an undergraduate sample using the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Findings suggest that intentions predict activism behavior (in the form of signing an online petition supporting the construction of a new lesbian, gay, and bisexual resource center on their campus). In addition, attitudes toward the possible outcomes of the behavior, attitudes toward the behavior itself, and self-identity were found to predict intentions. Directions for future research on pro-gay activism are discussed.

  7. ColorPro: PSF-corrected aperture-matched photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, Dan; Benitez, Narciso

    2015-08-01

    ColorPro automatically obtains robust colors across images of varied PSF. To correct for the flux lost in images with poorer PSF, the "detection image" is blurred to match the PSF of these other images, allowing observation of how much flux is lost. All photometry is performed in the highest resolution frame (images being aligned given WCS information in the FITS headers), and identical apertures are used in every image. Usually isophotal apertures are used, as determined by SExtractor (ascl:1010.064). Using SExSeg (ascl:1508.006), object aperture definitions can be pre-defined and object detections from different image filters can be combined automatically into a single comprehensive "segmentation map." After producing the final photometric catalog, ColorPro can automatically run BPZ (ascl:1108.011) to obtain Bayesian Photometric Redshifts.

  8. Sex education training: a Pro Familia pilot project.

    PubMed

    1979-07-01

    A Pro Familia (Saarbrucken) project has established a pilot sex education project to teach youth leaders happy sexual relationships, how relationships are formed and influenced, and the physiological and biological realities surrounding those relationships. The training is intended for two groups. Personnel involved in out-of-school activities will be trained in 5-10 sessions of 2-3 hours each. The basic course highlights the participants' attitudes towards sexuality, sex education, and conflicts arising in youth work. 6 months later a further course follows in which practical experiences are exchanged. Training in the field is also provided for personnel of youth clubs, centres. Personal attitudes are discussed and a discussion group, led by Pro Familia personnel, are formed. Future workers in out-of-school activities need further training. A 2 term course at the Technical High School for social workers and extra courses in sociology, psychology, and teacher training, are being considered.

  9. The neuropsychology of infants' pro-social preferences.

    PubMed

    Gredebäck, Gustaf; Kaduk, Katharina; Bakker, Marta; Gottwald, Janna; Ekberg, Therese; Elsner, Claudia; Reid, Vincent; Kenward, Ben

    2015-04-01

    The current study is the first to investigate neural correlates of infants' detection of pro- and antisocial agents. Differences in ERP component P400 over posterior temporal areas were found during 6-month-olds' observation of helping and hindering agents (Experiment 1), but not during observation of identically moving agents that did not help or hinder (Experiment 2). The results demonstrate that the P400 component indexes activation of infants' memories of previously perceived interactions between social agents. This leads to suggest that similar processes might be involved in infants' processing of pro- and antisocial agents and other social perception processes (encoding gaze direction, goal directed grasping and pointing). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Identifying Parents Who Are Amenable to Pro-Vaccination Conversations

    PubMed Central

    Brunson, Emily K.

    2015-01-01

    While health care providers are often cited as parents’ most trusted source for information and advice about vaccination, parents differ in their level of receptiveness to pro-vaccination conversations. The purpose of this research was to identify points in individual parents’ decision-making processes when parents are particularly open to receiving information and advice from their children’s health care providers. Interview data were collected from 20 mothers and 5 couples. Analysis of these data suggested 3 primary circumstances when parents were particularly open to receiving information and advice: during parents’ initial decision-making, as parents continued to assess vaccination options, and during particular circumstances that prompted parents to reconsider previously made vaccination choices. These results provide a mechanism for providers to identify parents who may be particularly receptive to pro-vaccination conversations. By prioritizing conversations with parents at one of these points, health care providers’ efforts at promoting vaccination may be more effective. PMID:27335987

  11. Pediatric oral solutions with propranolol hydrochloride for extemporaneous compounding: the formulation and stability study.

    PubMed

    Klovrzová, Sylva; Zahálka, Lukáš; Matysová, Ludmila; Horák, Petr; Sklubalová, Zdenka

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study is to formulate an extemporaneous pediatric oral solution of propranolol hydrochloride (PRO) 2 mg/ml for the therapy of infantile haemangioma or hypertension in a target age group of 1 month to school children and to evaluate its stability. A citric acid solution and/or a citrate-phosphate buffer solution, respectively, were used as the vehicles to achieve pH value of about 3, optimal for the stability of PRO. In order to mask the bitter taste of PRO, simple syrup was used as the sweetener. All solutions were stored in tightly closed brown glass bottles at 5 ± 3 °C and/or 25 ± 3 °C, respectively. The validated HPLC method was used to evaluate the concentration of PRO and a preservative, sodium benzoate, at time intervals of 0-180 days. All preparations were stable at both storage temperatures with pH values in the range of 2.8-3.2. According to pharmacopoeial requirements, the efficacy of sodium benzoate 0.05 % w/v was proved (Ph.Eur., 5.1.3). The preparation formulated with the citrate-phosphate buffer, in our experience, had better palatability than that formulated with the citric acid solution. propranolol hydrochloride pediatric preparation extemporaneous preparation solution stability testing HPLC.

  12. Construct validity of the ProMIS laparoscopic simulator.

    PubMed

    Pellen, Michael G C; Horgan, Liam F; Barton, J Roger; Attwood, Stephen E

    2009-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery challenges both the surgical novice and experienced open surgeon with unique psychomotor adaptations. Surgical skills assessment has historically relied on subjective opinion and case experience. Objective performance metrics have stimulated much interest in surgical education over the last decade and proficiency-based simulation has been proposed as a paradigm shift in surgical skills training. New assessment tools must be subjected to scientific validation. This study examined the construct validity of a hybrid laparoscopic simulator with in-built motion tracking technology. Volunteers were recruited from four experience groups (consultant surgeon, senior trainee, junior trainee, medical student). All subjects completed questionnaires and three tasks on the ProMIS laparoscopic simulator (laparoscope orientation, object positioning, sharp dissection). Motion analysis data was obtained via optical tracking of instrument movements. Objective metrics included time, path length (economy of movement), smoothness (controlled handling) and observer-recorded penalty scores. One hundred and sixty subjects completed at least one of the three tasks. Significant group differences were confirmed for number of years qualified, age and case experience. Significant differences were found between experts and novices in all three tasks. Sharp dissection was the strongest discriminator of four recognised laparoscopic skill groups: consultants outperformed students and juniors in all three performance metrics and objective penalty score (p < 0.05), and only accuracy of dissection did not distinguish them from senior trainees (p = 0.261). Seniors dissected faster, more efficiently and more accurately than juniors and students (p < 0.05). ProMIS provides a construct valid laparoscopic simulator and is a feasible tool to assess skills in a cross-section of surgical experience groups. ProMIS has the potential to objectively measure pre-theatre dexterity practice

  13. Cerebral Lateralization of Pro- and Anti-Social Tendencies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggest that the right-hemisphere (RH) has a relative advantage, over the left-hemisphere (LH), in mediating social intelligence - identifying social stimuli, understanding the intentions of other people, awareness of the dynamics in social relationships, and successful handling of social interactions. Furthermore, a review and synthesis of the literature suggest that pro-social attitudes and behaviors are associated with physiological activity in the RH, whereas unsocial and anti-social tendencies are mediated primarily by the LH. This hemispheric asymmetry is rooted in several neurobiological and functional differences between the two hemispheres. (I) Positive social interactions often require inhibiting one's immediate desires and considering the perspectives and needs of others. Given that self-control is mediated by the RH, pro-social emotions and behaviors are, therefore, inherently associated with the RH as it subserves the brain's self-restraint mechanisms. (II) The RH mediates experiences of vulnerability. It registers the relative clumsiness and motor weakness of the left limbs, and it is involved, more than the LH, in processing threats and mediating fear. Emotional states of vulnerability trigger the need for affiliation and sociality, therefore the RH has a greater role in mediating pro-social attitudes and behaviors. (III) The RH mediates a holistic mode of representing the world. Holistic perception emphasizes similarities rather than differences, takes a long-term perspective, is associated with divergent thinking and seeing other points-of-view, and it mediates a personal mode of relating to people. All these features of holistic perception facilitate a more empathetic attitude toward others and pro-social behaviors. PMID:24737936

  14. The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Cosmo, Mario L.; Curtis, Leslie (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The summary of activity during this reporting period, most of which was covered by a no-cost extension of the grant, is as follows: 1) Participation in remote and in-situ (at MSFC EDAC facility) mission operation simulations; 2) Analysis of the decay rate of ProSEDS when starting the mission at a lower altitude; 3) Analysis of the deployment control law performance when deploying at a lower altitude.

  15. Cerebral lateralization of pro- and anti-social tendencies.

    PubMed

    Hecht, David

    2014-03-01

    Mounting evidence suggest that the right-hemisphere (RH) has a relative advantage, over the left-hemisphere (LH), in mediating social intelligence - identifying social stimuli, understanding the intentions of other people, awareness of the dynamics in social relationships, and successful handling of social interactions. Furthermore, a review and synthesis of the literature suggest that pro-social attitudes and behaviors are associated with physiological activity in the RH, whereas unsocial and anti-social tendencies are mediated primarily by the LH. This hemispheric asymmetry is rooted in several neurobiological and functional differences between the two hemispheres. (I) Positive social interactions often require inhibiting one's immediate desires and considering the perspectives and needs of others. Given that self-control is mediated by the RH, pro-social emotions and behaviors are, therefore, inherently associated with the RH as it subserves the brain's self-restraint mechanisms. (II) The RH mediates experiences of vulnerability. It registers the relative clumsiness and motor weakness of the left limbs, and it is involved, more than the LH, in processing threats and mediating fear. Emotional states of vulnerability trigger the need for affiliation and sociality, therefore the RH has a greater role in mediating pro-social attitudes and behaviors. (III) The RH mediates a holistic mode of representing the world. Holistic perception emphasizes similarities rather than differences, takes a long-term perspective, is associated with divergent thinking and seeing other points-of-view, and it mediates a personal mode of relating to people. All these features of holistic perception facilitate a more empathetic attitude toward others and pro-social behaviors.

  16. Cavum Septum Pellucidum in Retired American Pro-Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Christopher P.; Brus-Ramer, Marcel; Possin, Katherine L.; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I.; Kramer, Joel H.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce; Rabinovici, Gil D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies report that cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is frequent among athletes with a history of repeated traumatic brain injury (TBI), such as boxers. Few studies of CSP in athletes, however, have assessed detailed features of the septum pellucidum in a case-control fashion. This is important because prevalence of CSP in the general population varies widely (2% to 85%) between studies. Further, rates of CSP among American pro-football players have not been described previously. We sought to characterize MRI features of the septum pellucidum in a series of retired pro-football players with a history of repeated concussive/subconcussive head traumas compared with controls. We retrospectively assessed retired American pro-football players presenting to our memory clinic with cognitive/behavioral symptoms in whom structural MRI was available with slice thickness ≤2 mm (n=17). Each player was matched to a memory clinic control patient with no history of TBI. Scans were interpreted by raters blinded to clinical information and TBI/football history, who measured CSP grade (0–absent, 1–equivocal, 2–mild, 3–moderate, 4–severe) and length according to a standard protocol. Sixteen of 17 (94%) players had a CSP graded ≥2 compared with 3 of 17 (18%) controls. CSP was significantly higher grade (p<0.001) and longer in players than controls (mean length±standard deviation: 10.6 mm±5.4 vs. 1.1 mm±1.3, p<0.001). Among patients presenting to a memory clinic, long high-grade CSP was more frequent in retired pro-football players compared with patients without a history of TBI. PMID:25970145

  17. Cavum Septum Pellucidum in Retired American Pro-Football Players.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Raquel C; Hess, Christopher P; Brus-Ramer, Marcel; Possin, Katherine L; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; Kramer, Joel H; Berger, Mitchel S; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies report that cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is frequent among athletes with a history of repeated traumatic brain injury (TBI), such as boxers. Few studies of CSP in athletes, however, have assessed detailed features of the septum pellucidum in a case-control fashion. This is important because prevalence of CSP in the general population varies widely (2% to 85%) between studies. Further, rates of CSP among American pro-football players have not been described previously. We sought to characterize MRI features of the septum pellucidum in a series of retired pro-football players with a history of repeated concussive/subconcussive head traumas compared with controls. We retrospectively assessed retired American pro-football players presenting to our memory clinic with cognitive/behavioral symptoms in whom structural MRI was available with slice thickness ≤2 mm (n=17). Each player was matched to a memory clinic control patient with no history of TBI. Scans were interpreted by raters blinded to clinical information and TBI/football history, who measured CSP grade (0-absent, 1-equivocal, 2-mild, 3-moderate, 4-severe) and length according to a standard protocol. Sixteen of 17 (94%) players had a CSP graded ≥2 compared with 3 of 17 (18%) controls. CSP was significantly higher grade (p<0.001) and longer in players than controls (mean length±standard deviation: 10.6 mm±5.4 vs. 1.1 mm±1.3, p<0.001). Among patients presenting to a memory clinic, long high-grade CSP was more frequent in retired pro-football players compared with patients without a history of TBI.

  18. AnClim and ProClimDB software for data quality control and homogenization of time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, Petr

    2015-04-01

    During the last decade, a software package consisting of AnClim, ProClimDB and LoadData for processing (mainly climatological) data has been created. This software offers a complex solution for processing of climatological time series, starting from loading the data from a central database (e.g. Oracle, software LoadData), through data duality control and homogenization to time series analysis, extreme value evaluations and RCM outputs verification and correction (ProClimDB and AnClim software). The detection of inhomogeneities is carried out on a monthly scale through the application of AnClim, or newly by R functions called from ProClimDB, while quality control, the preparation of reference series and the correction of found breaks is carried out by the ProClimDB software. The software combines many statistical tests, types of reference series and time scales (monthly, seasonal and annual, daily and sub-daily ones). These can be used to create an "ensemble" of solutions, which may be more reliable than any single method. AnClim software is suitable for educational purposes: e.g. for students getting acquainted with methods used in climatology. Built-in graphical tools and comparison of various statistical tests help in better understanding of a given method. ProClimDB is, on the contrary, tool aimed for processing of large climatological datasets. Recently, functions from R may be used within the software making it more efficient in data processing and capable of easy inclusion of new methods (when available under R). An example of usage is easy comparison of methods for correction of inhomogeneities in daily data (HOM of Paul Della-Marta, SPLIDHOM method of Olivier Mestre, DAP - own method, QM of Xiaolan Wang and others). The software is available together with further information on www.climahom.eu . Acknowledgement: this work was partially funded by the project "Building up a multidisciplinary scientific team focused on drought" No. CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0248.

  19. Role of pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) to mature BDNF conversion in activity-dependent competition at developing neuromuscular synapses.

    PubMed

    Je, H Shawn; Yang, Feng; Ji, Yuanyuan; Nagappan, Guhan; Hempstead, Barbara L; Lu, Bai

    2012-09-25

    Formation of specific neuronal connections often involves competition between adjacent axons, leading to stabilization of the active terminal, while retraction of the less active ones. The underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. We show that activity-dependent conversion of pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) to mature (m)BDNF mediates synaptic competition. Stimulation of motoneurons triggers proteolytic conversion of proBDNF to mBDNF at nerve terminals. In Xenopus nerve-muscle cocultures, in which two motoneurons innervate one myocyte, proBDNF-p75(NTR) signaling promotes retraction of the less active terminal, whereas mBDNF-tyrosine-related kinase B (TrkB) p75NTR (p75 neurotrophin receptor) facilitates stabilization of the active one. Thus, proBDNF and mBDNF may serve as potential "punishment" and "reward" signals for inactive and active terminals, respectively, and activity-dependent conversion of proBDNF to mBDNF may regulate synapse elimination.

  20. Increase in osmotolerance of Rhizobium fredii soybean isolate BD32 by the proB proA operon of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Neumivakin, L V; Solovjev, V P; Sokhansanj, A; Tilba, V A; Moseiko, N A; Shachbasian, R V; Piruzian, E S

    1995-12-26

    The proB proA operons (which are blocked by the feedback inhibition of proline production) of Escherichia coli wild type or with the mutation proBosm, blocking feedback inhibition effect of proline production, were cloned in a broad host range shuttle vector pVA 12-2. The hybrid plasmids pLVA(proB+A+) and pNSA(proBosm proA), were transferred into a low level osmotolerance Rhizobium fredii strain BD32. Both types of transconjugants were characterised by increased osmotolerance in a minimal medium supplied with 0.4-0.8 M NaCl but in the case of pNSA the effect was more significant. The strain BD32/pNSA had an increased level of intracellular proline concentration. Practical application of the increase in Rhizobium resistance to the stress factors is discussed.

  1. Anti-Inflammatory and Pro-Resolving Lipid Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Serhan, Charles N.; Yacoubian, Stephanie; Yang, Rong

    2009-01-01

    The popular view that all lipid mediators are pro-inflammatory arises largely from the finding that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs block the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. The resolution of inflammation was widely held to be a passive event until recently, with the characterization of novel biochemical pathways and lipid-derived mediators that are actively turned on in resolution possessing potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions. A lipid mediator informatics approach was employed to systematically identify new families of endogenous local-acting mediators from omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) in resolving exudates in addition to the lipoxins and aspirin-triggered lipoxins generated from arachidonic acid. These new chemical mediator families were coined resolvins and protectins, given their potent bioactions. In this annual review, we present recent advances on the biosynthesis and stereospecific actions of these new pro-resolving mediators, which have also proven to be organ protective and anti-fibrotic. PMID:18233953

  2. Inhibition of murine AIDS by pro-glutathione (GSH) molecules.

    PubMed

    Fraternale, A; Paoletti, M F; Casabianca, A; Orlandi, C; Schiavano, G F; Chiarantini, L; Clayette, P; Oiry, J; Vogel, J-U; Cinatl, J; Magnani, M

    2008-02-01

    Antioxidant molecules can be used both to replenish the depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) occurring during HIV infection, and to inhibit HIV replication. The purpose of this work was to assess the efficacy of two pro-GSH molecules able to cross the cell membrane more easily than GSH. We used an experimental animal model consisting of C57BL/6 mice infected with the LP-BM5 viral complex; the treatments were based on the intramuscular administration of I-152, a pro-drug of N-acetylcysteine and S-acetyl-beta-mercaptoethylamine, and S-acetylglutathione, an acetylated GSH derivative. The results show that I-152, at a concentration of 10.7 times lower than GSH, caused a reduction in lymph node and spleen weights of about 55% when compared to infected animals and an inhibition of about 66% in spleen and lymph node virus content. S-acetylglutathione, at half the concentration of GSH, caused a reduction in lymph node weight of about 17% and in spleen and lymph node virus content of about 70% and 30%, respectively. These results show that the administration of pro-GSH molecules may favorably substitute for the use of GSH as such.

  3. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Estes, Robert; Lorenzini, Enrico; Gilchrist, Brian

    1999-01-01

    ProSEDS is a secondary (i.e. piggyback) payload on a Delta-11 GPS 8 mission scheduled for launch in August 2000. It will test the feasibility of generating generate electrodynamic thrust without propellant using a 5 kilometer conducting wire (tether). The ProSEDS obtains thrust as the tether cuts across the magnetic field, a voltage is induced across the wire. Electrons are attracted to the positively based far end of the wire. Electrons flow downward through the conductive tether. Earth's magnetic field exerts a drag force on the current in the tether segments, that is mechanically transferred via the wire to the stage. The primary objective for the ProSEDs mission is to demonstrate that a significant, measurable electrodynamic thrust through a tether in space. The primary mission will last one day, as the primary battery assures at least three orbits of data will be collected, the remaining power will be provided by the secondary battery, which uses tether generated power to recharge. The extended mission begins using the power provided through the tether, and wil terminate when a system ceases to function; (i.e., either degradation of the tether,through Atomic Oxygen contact, a micrometeoroid or other debris impact, or another malfunction.) The technology has many potential applications. Amongst the applications, which are reviewed in detail, are: (1) satellite deorbit, (2) reboost of the International Space Station, (3) propellantless reusable Orbit Transfer Vehicles, (4) Propulsion and power generation for future Jovian missions.

  4. Pharmaceutical management in ProCare Health Limited.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, L; Barry, M; MacLean, I

    2001-06-22

    To review pharmaceutical budget holding and management in ProCare Health Limited by; describing budget holding strategies implemented in 1995/6, identifying prescribing savings achieved, analysing variation in prescribing behaviour and comparing the findings with experience elsewhere. With 340 members, ProCare is one of the largest and most progressive of New Zealand's independent practitioner associations (IPAs). Data were obtained for the three years 1994 to 1996 to determine pharmaceutical expenditure against budget and against national trends, by member and general medical services (GMS) consultations. ProCare has established a classical, quality focussed pharmaceutical management strategy. Savings against the agreed budget was 9.5% comparing 1996 with 1995 but 5.7% compared, with national trends. Wide variation in per capita and per consultation costs was not reduced and was entirely explained by prescribing volumes not drug prices. The most important finding is that general practitioners (GPs), working collaboratively, can establish a strategy of clinical and corporate governance which may be exerting a wide ranging influence over clinical behaviour. Although there may be doubts about the actual levels of saving these appeared to be well in excess of the financial investment in the strategy. Greater savings appear possible with a focus on addressing the large and apparently inappropriate per capita prescribing volume variation between practices. Understanding and successfully addressing this variation will be one of the key issues facing the implementation of the government's primary health care strategy.

  5. BH3 mimetics activate multiple pro-autophagic pathways.

    PubMed

    Malik, S A; Orhon, I; Morselli, E; Criollo, A; Shen, S; Mariño, G; BenYounes, A; Bénit, P; Rustin, P; Maiuri, M C; Kroemer, G

    2011-09-15

    The BH3 mimetic ABT737 induces autophagy by competitively disrupting the inhibitory interaction between the BH3 domain of Beclin 1 and the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L), thereby stimulating the Beclin 1-dependent allosteric activation of the pro-autophagic lipid kinase VPS34. Here, we examined whether ABT737 stimulates other pro-autophagic signal-transduction pathways. ABT737 caused the activating phosphorylation of AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) and of the AMPK substrate acetyl CoA carboxylase, the activating phosphorylation of several subunits of the inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) kinase (IKK) and the hyperphosphorylation of the IKK substrate IκB, inhibition of the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and consequent dephosphorylation of the mTOR substrate S6 kinase. In addition, ABT737 treatment dephosphorylates (and hence likewise inhibits) p53, glycogen synthase kinase-3 and Akt. All these effects were shared by ABT737 and another structurally unrelated BH3 mimetic, HA14-1. Functional experiments revealed that pharmacological or genetic inhibition of IKK, Sirtuin and the p53-depleting ubiquitin ligase MDM2 prevented ABT737-induced autophagy. These results point to unexpected and pleiotropic pro-autophagic effects of BH3 mimetics involving the modulation of multiple signalling pathways.

  6. PPARγ2Pro12Ala Polymorphism and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    He, Weimin

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is an important transcription factor regulating adipocyte differentiation, lipid and glucose homeostasis, and insulin sensitivity. Numerous genetic mutations of PPARγ have been identified and these mutations positively or negatively regulate insulin sensitivity. Among these, a relatively common polymorphism of PPARγ, Pro12Ala of PPARγ2, the isoform expressed only in adipose tissue has been shown to be associated with lower body mass index, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and resistance to the risk of type 2 diabetes in human subjects carrying this mutation. Subsequent studies in different ethnic populations, however, have revealed conflicting results, suggesting a complex interaction between the PPARγ2 Pro12Ala polymorphism and environmental factors such as the ratio of dietary unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids and/or between the PPARγ2 Pro12Ala polymorphism and genetic factors such as polymorphic mutations in other genes. In addition, this polymorphic mutation in PPARγ2 is associated with other aspects of human diseases, including cancers, polycystic ovary syndrome, Alzheimer disease and aging. This review will highlight findings from recent studies. PMID:19390629

  7. The Pro-inflammatory Effects of Glucocorticoids in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Duque, Erica de Almeida; Munhoz, Carolina Demarchi

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones derived from cholesterol. Their actions are mediated by the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors, members of the superfamily of nuclear receptors, which, once bound to their ligands, act as transcription factors that can directly modulate gene expression. Through protein–protein interactions with other transcription factors, they can also regulate the activity of many genes in a composite or tethering way. Rapid non-genomic signaling was also demonstrated since glucocorticoids can act through membrane receptors and activate signal transduction pathways, such as protein kinases cascades, to modulate other transcriptions factors and activate or repress various target genes. By all these different mechanisms, glucocorticoids regulate numerous important functions in a large variety of cells, not only in the peripheral organs but also in the central nervous system during development and adulthood. In general, glucocorticoids are considered anti-inflammatory and protective agents due to their ability to inhibit gene expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and other possible damaging molecules. Nonetheless, recent studies have uncovered situations in which these hormones can act as pro-inflammatory agents depending on the dose, chronicity of exposure, and the structure/organ analyzed. In this review, we will provide an overview of the conditions under which these phenomena occur, a discussion that will serve as a basis for exploring the mechanistic foundation of glucocorticoids pro-inflammatory gene regulation in the brain. PMID:27445981

  8. PRoNTo: pattern recognition for neuroimaging toolbox.

    PubMed

    Schrouff, J; Rosa, M J; Rondina, J M; Marquand, A F; Chu, C; Ashburner, J; Phillips, C; Richiardi, J; Mourão-Miranda, J

    2013-07-01

    In the past years, mass univariate statistical analyses of neuroimaging data have been complemented by the use of multivariate pattern analyses, especially based on machine learning models. While these allow an increased sensitivity for the detection of spatially distributed effects compared to univariate techniques, they lack an established and accessible software framework. The goal of this work was to build a toolbox comprising all the necessary functionalities for multivariate analyses of neuroimaging data, based on machine learning models. The "Pattern Recognition for Neuroimaging Toolbox" (PRoNTo) is open-source, cross-platform, MATLAB-based and SPM compatible, therefore being suitable for both cognitive and clinical neuroscience research. In addition, it is designed to facilitate novel contributions from developers, aiming to improve the interaction between the neuroimaging and machine learning communities. Here, we introduce PRoNTo by presenting examples of possible research questions that can be addressed with the machine learning framework implemented in PRoNTo, and cannot be easily investigated with mass univariate statistical analysis.

  9. Virtex-II Pro SEE Test Methods and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrick, David; Powell, Wesley; Howard, James

    2004-01-01

    The Xilinx Virtex-II Pro is a platform FPGA that embeds multiple microprocessors within the fabric of an SRAM-based reprogrammable FPGA. The variety and quantity of resources provided by this family of devices make them very attractive for spaceflight applications. However, these devices will be susceptible to single event effects (SEE), which must be mitigated. To use the Virtex-II Pro reliably in space applications, these devices must first be tested to determine if they are susceptible to single event latchup (SEL), the degree to which they are susceptible to single event upsets (SEU) and single event transients (SET), and how these effects are manifested in the device. With this information, mitigations schemes can be developed and tested that address the specific susceptiblities of these devices. This initial SEE test uses a commercial off the shelf Virtex-II Pro evaluation board, with a single processor XC2VP7 FPGA. The FPGA on this board is an acid etched device, which can be partially covered with a shield. The shield covers a portion of the logic, routing, and memory resources along with some of the RocketIO transceivers. The processor, along with a large portion of logic, routing, memory, and transceivers are left exposed. This test will be performed at the Cyclotron Laboratories at Texas A&M University and Michigan State University using ions of varying energy levels and fluencies.

  10. Control of the Immune Response by Pro-Angiogenic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Voron, Thibault; Marcheteau, Elie; Pernot, Simon; Colussi, Orianne; Tartour, Eric; Taieb, Julien; Terme, Magali

    2014-01-01

    The progressive conversion of normal cells into cancer cells is characterized by the acquisition of eight hallmarks. Among these criteria, the capability of the cancer cell to avoid the immune destruction has been noted. Thus, tumors develop mechanisms to become invisible to the immune system, such as the induction of immunosuppressive cells, which are able to inhibit the development of an efficient immune response. Molecules produced in the tumor microenvironment are involved in the occurrence of an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Recently, it has been shown that vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) exhibits immunosuppressive properties in addition to its pro-angiogenic activities. VEGF-A can induce the accumulation of immature dendritic cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, regulatory T cells, and inhibit the migration of T lymphocytes to the tumor. Other pro-angiogenic factors such as placental growth factor (PlGF) could also participate in tumor-induced immunosuppression, but only few works have been performed on this point. Here, we review the impact of pro-angiogenic factors (especially VEGF-A) on immune cells. Anti-angiogenic molecules, which target VEGF-A/VEGFR axis, have been developed in the last decades and are commonly used to treat cancer patients. These drugs have anti-angiogenic properties but can also counteract the tumor-induced immunosuppression. Based on these immunomodulatory properties, anti-angiogenic molecules could be efficiently associated with immunotherapeutic strategies in preclinical models. These combinations are currently under investigation in cancer patients. PMID:24765614

  11. Tenocytes, pro-inflammatory cytokines and leukocytes: a relationship?

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sadi, Onays; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula; Kohl, Benjamin; Lohan, Anke; Lemke, Marion; Ertel, Wolfgang; John, Thilo

    2011-01-01

    Summary Leukocyte derived pro-inflammatory mediators could be involved in tendon healing and scar formation. Hence, the effect of autologous leukocytes (PBMCs, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and neutrophils) on primary rabbit Achilles tenocytes gene expression was tested in insert assisted co-cultures. Subsequently, tenocytes gene expression of extra-cellular matrix (ECM) components (type I collagen, decorin, fibronectin), the cell-ECM receptor β1-integrin, the angiogenic factor myodulin, ECM degrading matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, tumour necrosis factor [TNFα] and IL-6) was analysed. The only significant effect of leukocytes on tenocytes ECM genes expression was a suppression of type I collagen by neutrophils combined with TNFα stimulation. The same effect could be observed analysing the β1-integrin and myodulin gene expression. However, PBMCs up-regulated significantly cytokine and MMP1 gene expression in tenocytes. These in vitro results suggest that mononuclear cells could present an exogenic stimulus for the induction of pro-inflammatory and catabolic mediators in tendon. PMID:23738251

  12. ProQ3: Improved model quality assessments using Rosetta energy terms

    PubMed Central

    Uziela, Karolis; Shu, Nanjiang; Wallner, Björn; Elofsson, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Quality assessment of protein models using no other information than the structure of the model itself has been shown to be useful for structure prediction. Here, we introduce two novel methods, ProQRosFA and ProQRosCen, inspired by the state-of-art method ProQ2, but using a completely different description of a protein model. ProQ2 uses contacts and other features calculated from a model, while the new predictors are based on Rosetta energies: ProQRosFA uses the full-atom energy function that takes into account all atoms, while ProQRosCen uses the coarse-grained centroid energy function. The two new predictors also include residue conservation and terms corresponding to the agreement of a model with predicted secondary structure and surface area, as in ProQ2. We show that the performance of these predictors is on par with ProQ2 and significantly better than all other model quality assessment programs. Furthermore, we show that combining the input features from all three predictors, the resulting predictor ProQ3 performs better than any of the individual methods. ProQ3, ProQRosFA and ProQRosCen are freely available both as a webserver and stand-alone programs at http://proq3.bioinfo.se/. PMID:27698390

  13. ProQ3: Improved model quality assessments using Rosetta energy terms.

    PubMed

    Uziela, Karolis; Shu, Nanjiang; Wallner, Björn; Elofsson, Arne

    2016-10-04

    Quality assessment of protein models using no other information than the structure of the model itself has been shown to be useful for structure prediction. Here, we introduce two novel methods, ProQRosFA and ProQRosCen, inspired by the state-of-art method ProQ2, but using a completely different description of a protein model. ProQ2 uses contacts and other features calculated from a model, while the new predictors are based on Rosetta energies: ProQRosFA uses the full-atom energy function that takes into account all atoms, while ProQRosCen uses the coarse-grained centroid energy function. The two new predictors also include residue conservation and terms corresponding to the agreement of a model with predicted secondary structure and surface area, as in ProQ2. We show that the performance of these predictors is on par with ProQ2 and significantly better than all other model quality assessment programs. Furthermore, we show that combining the input features from all three predictors, the resulting predictor ProQ3 performs better than any of the individual methods. ProQ3, ProQRosFA and ProQRosCen are freely available both as a webserver and stand-alone programs at http://proq3.bioinfo.se/.

  14. NetPro: Methodologies and Tools for Project Based Learning in Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markkanen, Hannu; Donzellini, Giuliano; Ponta, Domenico

    The mission of the NetPro European project is to develop project-based learning through the Internet. The NetPro project is creating tools and services to facilitate communication and collaboration between distant students, and to manage access and control of project deliverables. NetPro project teams form cross-institutional learning communities.…

  15. 24 CFR 266.608 - Mortgage insurance premium: Pro rata refund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premium: Pro... premium: Pro rata refund. If the Contract of Insurance is terminated by payment in full or is terminated... account. In computing the pro rata portion of the annual mortgage insurance premium, the date of...

  16. 78 FR 49740 - ProLiance Energy, LLC; Notice for Amendment of Petition for Temporary Waivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ProLiance Energy, LLC; Notice for Amendment of Petition for Temporary Waivers Take notice that on August 9, 2013, ProLiance Energy, LLC filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory...\\ \\1\\ ProLiance Energy, LLC, 144 FERC ] 61,075 (2013). Any person desiring to intervene or to protest...

  17. 24 CFR 232.825 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance... ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES Contract Rights and Obligations Premiums § 232.825 Pro rata refund of insurance..., the Commissioner shall refund to the lender for the account of the borrower an amount equal to the pro...

  18. 78 FR 49739 - ProLiance Energy, LLC; Notice for Amendment of Petition for Temporary Waivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ProLiance Energy, LLC; Notice for Amendment of Petition for Temporary Waivers Take notice that on August 8, 2013, ProLiance Energy, LLC filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory...\\ \\1\\ ProLiance Energy, LLC, 144 FERC ] 61,037 (2013). Any person desiring to intervene or to protest...

  19. 24 CFR 203.462 - Pro rata payment of premium before termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata payment of premium before... Pro rata payment of premium before termination. No contract of insurance shall be terminated until the lender has paid to the Commissioner the pro rata portion of the current annual insurance premium. ...

  20. 17 CFR 240.14d-8 - Exemption from statutory pro rata requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption from statutory pro... Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14d § 240.14d-8 Exemption from statutory pro rata requirements. Notwithstanding the pro rata provisions of section 14(d)(6) of the Act, if any...

  1. 24 CFR 241.825 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance... Projects Without a HUD-Insured or HUD-Held Mortgage Premiums § 241.825 Pro rata refund of insurance premium... Commissioner shall refund to the lender for the account of the borrower an amount equal to the pro rata portion...

  2. 26 CFR 1.355-4 - Non pro rata distributions, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non pro rata distributions, etc. 1.355-4 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Shareholders and Security Holders § 1.355-4 Non pro rata distributions... not (a) the distribution is pro rata with respect to all of the shareholders of the distributing...

  3. Water reclamation from emulsified oily wastewater via effective forward osmosis hollow fiber membranes under the PRO mode.

    PubMed

    Han, Gang; de Wit, Jos S; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-09-15

    By using a novel hydrophilic cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) as the membrane material for the hollow fiber substrate and modifying its outer surface by polydopamine (PDA) coating and inner surface by interfacial polymerization, we have demonstrated that the thin-film composite (TFC) membranes can be effectively used for sustainable water reclamation from emulsified oil/water streams via forward osmosis (FO) under the pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) mode. The newly developed TFC-FO hollow fiber membrane shows characteristics of high water flux, outstanding salt and oil rejection, and low fouling propensity. Under the PRO mode, the newly developed TFC-FO membrane exhibits a water flux of 37.1 L m(-2) h(-1) with an oil rejection of 99.9% using a 2000 ppm soybean oil/water emulsion as the feed and 1 M NaCl as the draw solution. Remarkable anti-fouling behaviors have also been observed. Under the PRO mode, the water flux decline is only 10% of the initial value even after a 12 h test for oil/water separation. The water flux of the fouled membrane can be effectively restored to 97% of the original value by water rinses on the fiber outer surface without using any chemicals. Furthermore, the flux declines are only 25% and 52% when the water recovery of a 2000 ppm soybean oil/water emulsion and a 2000 ppm petroleum oil/water emulsion containing 0.04 M NaCl reaches 82%, respectively. This study may not only provide insightful guidelines for the fabrication of effective TFC-FO membranes with high performance and low fouling behaviors for oily wastewater under the PRO mode but also add an alternative perspective to the design of new materials for water purification purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Increasing pro-survival factors within whole brain tissue of Sprague Dawley rats via intracerebral administration of modified valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Bates, Ryan C; Stith, Bradley J; Stevens, Karen E

    2015-08-01

    Neural tissue exposure to valproic acid (VPA) increases several pro-survival phospho-proteins that can be used as biomarkers for indicating a beneficial drug response (pAkt(Ser473), pGSK3β(Ser9), pErk1/2(Thr202/Tyr204)). Unfortunately, targeting VPA to neural tissue is a problem due to severe asymmetrical distribution, wherein the drug tends to remain in peripheral blood rather than localizing within the brain. Intracerebral delivery of an amide-linked VPA-PEG conjugate could address these issues by enhancing retention and promoting cerebro-global increases in pro-survival phospho-proteins. It is necessary to assay for the retained bioactivity of a PEGylated valproic acid molecule, along with locating an intracranial cannula placement that optimizes the increase of a known downstream biomarker for chronic VPA exposure. Here we show an acute injection of VPA-PEG conjugate within brain tissue increased virtually all of the assayed phospho-proteins, including well-known pro-survival factors. In contrast, an acute injection of VPA expectedly decreased signaling throughout the hour. Needle penetration into whole brain tissue is the intentional cause of trauma in this procedure. The trauma to brain tissue was observed to overcome known phospho-protein increases for unmodified VPA in the injected solution, while VPA-PEG conjugate appeared to induce significant increases in pro-survival phospho-proteins, despite the procedural trauma. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Quality of Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Reporting Across Cancer Randomized Controlled Trials According to the CONSORT PRO Extension: A Pooled Analysis of 557 Trials

    PubMed Central

    Efficace, Fabio; Fayers, Peter; Pusic, Andrea; Cemal, Yeliz; Yanagawa, Jane; Jacobs, Marc; la Sala, Andrea; Cafaro, Valentina; Whale, Katie; Rees, Jonathan; Blazeby, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background The main objectives of this study were to identify the number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have included a patient-reported outcome (PRO) endpoint across a wide range of cancer specialties and to evaluate completeness of PRO reporting according to the CONSORT PRO extension. Methods RCTs with a PRO endpoint, conducted across several cancer specialties and published between 2004 and 2013 were considered. Studies were evaluated based on previously defined criteria, including the CONSORT PRO extension and the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing RCT Risk of Bias. Analyses were also conducted by type of PRO endpoint (primary versus secondary) and by cancer disease site. Results A total of 56,696 potentially eligible records were scrutinized and 557 RCTs with a PRO evaluation, enrolling overall 254,677 patients, were identified. PROs were most frequently used in RCTs of breast (N=123), lung (N=85) and colorectal (N=66) cancer. Overall, PROs were secondary endpoint in 421 (76%) RCTs. Four out of six CONSORT PRO items evaluated were documented in less than 50% of the RCTs. Level of reporting was higher in RCTs with PRO as a primary endpoint. Presence of a supplementary report was the only statistically significant factor associated with greater completeness of reporting for both RCTs with PRO as primary (β=0.19; P=0.001) or secondary endpoint (β=0.30; P<0.001). Conclusion Implementation of the CONSORT PRO extension is equally important across all cancer specialties. Its use can also contribute in revealing the robust PRO design of some studies, which might be obscured by poor outcome reporting. PMID:26079197

  6. Binding of Pro-Gly-Pro at the active site of leukotriene A4 hydrolase/aminopeptidase and development of an epoxide hydrolase selective inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Stsiapanava, Alena; Olsson, Ulrika; Wan, Min; Kleinschmidt, Thea; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Zubarev, Roman A.; Samuelsson, Bengt; Rinaldo-Matthis, Agnes; Haeggström, Jesper Z.

    2014-01-01

    Leukotriene (LT) A4 hydrolase/aminopeptidase (LTA4H) is a bifunctional zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the committed step in the formation of the proinflammatory mediator LTB4. Recently, the chemotactic tripeptide Pro-Gly-Pro was identified as an endogenous aminopeptidase substrate for LTA4 hydrolase. Here, we determined the crystal structure of LTA4 hydrolase in complex with a Pro-Gly-Pro analog at 1.72 Å. From the structure, which includes the catalytic water, and mass spectrometric analysis of enzymatic hydrolysis products of Pro-Gly-Pro, it could be inferred that LTA4 hydrolase cleaves at the N terminus of the palindromic tripeptide. Furthermore, we designed a small molecule, 4-(4-benzylphenyl)thiazol-2-amine, denoted ARM1, that inhibits LTB4 synthesis in human neutrophils (IC50 of ∼0.5 μM) and conversion of LTA4 into LTB4 by purified LTA4H with a Ki of 2.3 μM. In contrast, 50- to 100-fold higher concentrations of ARM1 did not significantly affect hydrolysis of Pro-Gly-Pro. A 1.62-Å crystal structure of LTA4 hydrolase in a dual complex with ARM1 and the Pro-Gly-Pro analog revealed that ARM1 binds in the hydrophobic pocket that accommodates the ω-end of LTA4, distant from the aminopeptidase active site, thus providing a molecular basis for its inhibitory profile. Hence, ARM1 selectively blocks conversion of LTA4 into LTB4, although sparing the enzyme’s anti-inflammatory aminopeptidase activity (i.e., degradation and inactivation of Pro-Gly-Pro). ARM1 represents a new class of LTA4 hydrolase inhibitor that holds promise for improved anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:24591641

  7. Thermodynamics of Dilute Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancso, Gabor; Fenby, David V.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses principles and definitions related to the thermodynamics of dilute solutions. Topics considered include dilute solution, Gibbs-Duhem equation, reference systems (pure gases and gaseous mixtures, liquid mixtures, dilute solutions), real dilute solutions (focusing on solute and solvent), terminology, standard states, and reference systems.…

  8. Orally Available Collagen Tripeptide: Enzymatic Stability, Intestinal Permeability, and Absorption of Gly-Pro-Hyp and Pro-Hyp.

    PubMed

    Sontakke, Sneha B; Jung, Jin-Hee; Piao, Zhe; Chung, Hye Jin

    2016-09-28

    Collagen-derived small peptides, such as Gly-Pro-Hyp (GPH) and Pro-Hyp (PH), play a role in various physiological functions. Although collagen degrades in the gastrointestinal tract randomly and easily, it is not readily cleaved into bioactive peptides. To increase the bioavailability of bioactive peptides, a collagen tripeptide (CTP) was prepared from fish scales by the digestion method using collagenase from nonpathogenic Bacillus bacteria. It was demonstrated that Hyp-containing peptides-GPH and PH-were better absorbed and reached higher plasma levels after the oral administration of CTPs in rats compared to high molecular weight collagen peptide (H-CP). GPH and PH were stable in gastrointestinal fluid and rat plasma for 2 h, and GPH was able to be transported across the intestinal cell monolayer. These results suggest that the ingestion of CTP is an efficient method for taking bioactive peptides orally due to the enzymatic stability and intestinal permeability of GPH and PH.

  9. N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) -based score can predict in-hospital mortality in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Ting; Tseng, Yuan-Teng; Chu, Tung-Wei; Chen, John; Lai, Min-Yu; Tang, Woung-Ru; Shiao, Chih-Chung

    2016-07-14

    Serum N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) testing is recommended in the patients with heart failure (HF). We hypothesized that NT-pro-BNP, in combination with other clinical factors in terms of a novel NT-pro BNP-based score, may provide even better predictive power for in-hospital mortality among patients with HF. A retrospective study enrolled adult patients with hospitalization-requiring HF who fulfilled the predefined criteria during the period from January 2011 to December 2013. We proposed a novel scoring system consisting of several independent predictors including NT-pro-BNP for predicting in-hospital mortality, and then compared the prognosis-predictive power of the novel NT-pro BNP-based score with other prognosis-predictive scores. A total of 269 patients were enrolled in the current study. Factors such as "serum NT-pro-BNP level above 8100 mg/dl," "age above 79 years," "without taking angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blocker," "without taking beta-blocker," "without taking loop diuretics," "with mechanical ventilator support," "with non-invasive ventilator support," "with vasopressors use," and "experience of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation" were found as independent predictors. A novel NT-pro BNP-based score composed of these risk factors was proposed with excellent predictability for in-hospital mortality. The proposed novel NT-pro BNP-based score was extremely effective in predicting in-hospital mortality in HF patients.

  10. Analysis of Surface Characteristics of ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Next Instruments by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Jeffery; Chung, Kwok-Hung; Fong, Hanson; Johnson, James

    2017-01-01

    Background Many new rotary files systems have been introduced, however, limited research has been conducted related to the surface irregularities of these files and if these have any effects on the files themselves. Hence, the aim of the present study was to analyze surface irregularities of the ProTaper® Universal rotary files (PTU) and the ProTaper Next™ rotary files (PTN) before and after instrumentation in curved canals. The main objective was to investigate the nature of these irregularities and how they might influence the use and fracture of rotary files during root-canal treatments. Material and Methods The files were examined pre-operatively using a stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscopy(SEM) to analyze surface imperfections and the presence of particles. Mesial roots of forty extracted mandibular molars were selected. Each instrument was used to prepare one of the mesial canals. The files were then rinsed with alcohol, and autoclaved and analyzed again. Results Of the 80 files used in this study, five files fractured, five files unwound and seven files were curved or bent and they all belonged to the PTU group. Irregularities and debris could be visualized with the SEM on both unused PTU and PTN files. Most of the debris was found associated with deeper milling grooves and defects on the surface of the metal. Surface analysis of the files that were used and sterilized were performed and the SEM images demonstrated organic debris, metal flash, and crack formation and initiation of fractures for both file types. All files showed machining grooves, metal flash, debris, and defects on cutting edges. Conclusions These irregularities appear to be critical in the accumulation of debris and initiation of fatigue and crack propagation within the NiTi alloy. The accumulation of debris could be a concern due to the potential exchange of organic debris between patients. Key words:ProTaper® Universal, ProTaper Next™, surface characteristics, SEM. PMID

  11. Analysis of Surface Characteristics of ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Next Instruments by Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Jeffery; Chung, Kwok-Hung; Fong, Hanson; Johnson, James; Paranjpe, Avina

    2017-07-01

    Many new rotary files systems have been introduced, however, limited research has been conducted related to the surface irregularities of these files and if these have any effects on the files themselves. Hence, the aim of the present study was to analyze surface irregularities of the ProTaper® Universal rotary files (PTU) and the ProTaper Next™ rotary files (PTN) before and after instrumentation in curved canals. The main objective was to investigate the nature of these irregularities and how they might influence the use and fracture of rotary files during root-canal treatments. The files were examined pre-operatively using a stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscopy(SEM) to analyze surface imperfections and the presence of particles. Mesial roots of forty extracted mandibular molars were selected. Each instrument was used to prepare one of the mesial canals. The files were then rinsed with alcohol, and autoclaved and analyzed again. Of the 80 files used in this study, five files fractured, five files unwound and seven files were curved or bent and they all belonged to the PTU group. Irregularities and debris could be visualized with the SEM on both unused PTU and PTN files. Most of the debris was found associated with deeper milling grooves and defects on the surface of the metal. Surface analysis of the files that were used and sterilized were performed and the SEM images demonstrated organic debris, metal flash, and crack formation and initiation of fractures for both file types. All files showed machining grooves, metal flash, debris, and defects on cutting edges. These irregularities appear to be critical in the accumulation of debris and initiation of fatigue and crack propagation within the NiTi alloy. The accumulation of debris could be a concern due to the potential exchange of organic debris between patients. Key words:ProTaper® Universal, ProTaper Next™, surface characteristics, SEM.

  12. Influence of Temperature on Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of ProTaper Gold and ProTaper Universal Rotary Files.

    PubMed

    Plotino, Gianluca; Grande, Nicola M; Mercadé Bellido, Montse; Testarelli, Luca; Gambarini, Gianluca

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cyclic fatigue resistance of ProTaper Universal (PTU; Dentsply Maillefer, Baillagues, Switzerland) and ProTaper Gold (PTG, Dentsply Maillefer) nickel-titanium rotary files at room and intracanal temperatures. A total of 120 files were used to test the cyclic fatigue resistance of PTU (S1 and F2) and PTG (S1 and F2) in an artificial canal at room temperature (20°C) and at intracanal temperature (35°C). The number of cycles to failure and the fracture length of the fragment were recorded, and data were subjected to statistical analysis. PTG registered no differences in fatigue life between the 2 temperatures tested (P > .05), whereas PTU showed a statistically significant reduction in fatigue life at intracanal temperature compared with room temperature (P < .05). PTG instruments exhibited a statistically higher resistance to cyclic fatigue than PTU instruments both at room and intracanal temperatures (P < .05). There were no statistically significant differences among the fracture length of separated instruments (P > .05). Intracanal temperature influenced the cyclic fatigue resistance of instruments produced with traditional nickel-titanium, whereas it did not influence the fatigue life of instruments produced with gold heat treatment. Gold heating treatment enhances the resistance to cyclic fatigue of ProTaper instruments. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Usability test of the ImPRO, computer-based procedure system

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Y.; Lee, J.

    2006-07-01

    ImPRO is a computer based procedure in both flowchart and success logic tree. It is evaluated on the basis of computer based procedure guidelines. It satisfies most requirements such as presentations and functionalities. Besides, SGTR has been performed with ImPRO to evaluate reading comprehension and situation awareness. ImPRO is a software engine which can interpret procedure script language, so that ImPRO is reliable by nature and verified with formal method. One bug, however, had hidden one year after release, but it was fixed. Finally backup paper procedures can be prepared on the same format as VDU in case of ImPRO failure. (authors)

  14. Potato virus Y HC-Pro Reduces the ATPase Activity of NtMinD, Which Results in Enlarged Chloroplasts in HC-Pro Transgenic Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yayi; Zhang, Zhenqian; Li, Daofeng; Li, Heng; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is an important plant virus and causes great losses every year. Viral infection often leads to abnormal chloroplasts. The first step of chloroplast division is the formation of FtsZ ring (Z-ring), and the placement of Z-ring is coordinated by the Min system in both bacteria and plants. In our lab, the helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro) of PVY was previously found to interact with the chloroplast division protein NtMinD through a yeast two-hybrid screening assay and a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay in vivo. Here, we further investigated the biological significance of the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction. We purified the NtMinD and HC-Pro proteins using a prokaryotic protein purification system and tested the effect of HC-Pro on the ATPase activity of NtMinD in vitro. We found that the ATPase activity of NtMinD was reduced in the presence of HC-Pro. In addition, another important chloroplast division related protein, NtMinE, was cloned from the cDNA of Nicotiana tabacum. And the NtMinD/NtMinE interaction site was mapped to the C-terminus of NtMinD, which overlaps the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction site. Yeast three-hybrid assay demonstrated that HC-Pro competes with NtMinE for binding to NtMinD. HC-Pro was previously reported to accumulate in the chloroplasts of PVY-infected tobacco and we confirmed this result in our present work. The NtMinD/NtMinE interaction is very important in the regulation of chloroplast division. To demonstrate the influence of HC-Pro on chloroplast division, we generated HC-Pro transgenic tobacco with a transit peptide to retarget HC-Pro to the chloroplasts. The HC-Pro transgenic plants showed enlarged chloroplasts. Our present study demonstrated that the interaction between HC-Pro and NtMinD interfered with the function of NtMinD in chloroplast division, which results in enlarged chloroplasts in HC-Pro transgenic tobacco. The HC-Pro/NtMinD interaction may cause the formation of abnormal chloroplasts in PVY

  15. Potato virus Y HC-Pro Reduces the ATPase Activity of NtMinD, Which Results in Enlarged Chloroplasts in HC-Pro Transgenic Tobacco.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yayi; Zhang, Zhenqian; Li, Daofeng; Li, Heng; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is an important plant virus and causes great losses every year. Viral infection often leads to abnormal chloroplasts. The first step of chloroplast division is the formation of FtsZ ring (Z-ring), and the placement of Z-ring is coordinated by the Min system in both bacteria and plants. In our lab, the helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro) of PVY was previously found to interact with the chloroplast division protein NtMinD through a yeast two-hybrid screening assay and a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay in vivo. Here, we further investigated the biological significance of the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction. We purified the NtMinD and HC-Pro proteins using a prokaryotic protein purification system and tested the effect of HC-Pro on the ATPase activity of NtMinD in vitro. We found that the ATPase activity of NtMinD was reduced in the presence of HC-Pro. In addition, another important chloroplast division related protein, NtMinE, was cloned from the cDNA of Nicotiana tabacum. And the NtMinD/NtMinE interaction site was mapped to the C-terminus of NtMinD, which overlaps the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction site. Yeast three-hybrid assay demonstrated that HC-Pro competes with NtMinE for binding to NtMinD. HC-Pro was previously reported to accumulate in the chloroplasts of PVY-infected tobacco and we confirmed this result in our present work. The NtMinD/NtMinE interaction is very important in the regulation of chloroplast division. To demonstrate the influence of HC-Pro on chloroplast division, we generated HC-Pro transgenic tobacco with a transit peptide to retarget HC-Pro to the chloroplasts. The HC-Pro transgenic plants showed enlarged chloroplasts. Our present study demonstrated that the interaction between HC-Pro and NtMinD interfered with the function of NtMinD in chloroplast division, which results in enlarged chloroplasts in HC-Pro transgenic tobacco. The HC-Pro/NtMinD interaction may cause the formation of abnormal chloroplasts in PVY

  16. Association of protein S p.Pro667Pro dimorphism with plasma protein S levels in normal individuals and patients with inherited protein S deficiency.

    PubMed

    Castaman, G; Biguzzi, E; Razzari, C; Tosetto, A; Fontana, G; Asti, D; Brancaccio, V; Castori, D; Lane, D A; Faioni, E M

    2007-01-01

    A dimorphism in PROS1 gene (c.A2,001G, p.Pro667Pro) has been associated with significantly reduced levels of both free and total protein S in carriers of the GG genotype. It is not known how the GG genotype could influence PS levels in normals, whether it could influence the levels of protein S in carriers of mutations in PROS1 gene and whether this genotype acts as an isolated or additive risk factor for venous thrombosis. With this as background, we evaluated the association of p.Pro667Pro dimorphism with free and total protein S centrally measured in a panel of 119 normal controls, 222 individuals with low protein S and 137 individuals with normal PS levels belonging to 76 families with protein S deficiency enrolled in the ProSIT study. Transient expression of recombinant wild type protein S and p.Pro667Pro protein S was performed to evaluate the role of the A to G transition at position 2001 in vitro. The p.Pro667Pro polymorphism was also expressed together with a p.Glu67Ala variant to assess a possible influence on protein S levels in protein S deficient subjects. Free and total protein S levels were significantly lower in normal women. In normal women only was the GG genotype associated with significantly lower free protein S levels in comparison to AA and AG genotypes (P=0.032). No significant influence of GG genotype was observed in patients, either with known mutations or with low protein S levels. These data were confirmed by in vitro transient expression, showing no difference in secretion levels of the p.Pro667Pro variant (even in association with the p.Glu67Ala mutation), compared to the wild type protein S. The genotype in itself was neither a significant risk factor for venous thrombosis nor a risk modifier in patients with known mutations.

  17. An in vitro analysis of separation of multi-use ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Next instruments in extracted mandibular molar teeth.

    PubMed

    Ertas, Huseyin; Capar, Ismail Davut

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the separation incidence of reused ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Next rotary instruments and identified the location of separated fragments. The root canals of extracted human mandibular molars were prepared with 10 assorted sets of ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Next instruments. After each preparation, instrument sets were autoclaved. This arrangement was repeated until an instrument fractured. The number of prepared teeth until fracture occurred was recorded for each instrument set. Teeth in which the instruments fractured were analyzed to determine the separation grade, apical relation, and coronal position. Fracture surfaces of the instruments were examined with scanning electron microscope. ProTaper Universal instruments fractured after application to a mean of 7.3 teeth, and ProTaper Next instruments after application to a mean of 5.7 teeth (p > 0.05). In the ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Next groups, F2 and X1 were the most commonly fractured instruments, respectively. Torsional and cyclic failures were evenly distributed in both the groups. The mean lengths of the fractured fragments of the instruments showed no statistically significant difference. The distance between the tip of the fractured instruments and apical constriction was similar (p > 0.05). However, the mean distance between the root canal orifice and coronal part of the fractured instrument was shorter in the ProTaper Next group (p < 0.05). The life span of ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Next instruments was the same for preparation of mandibular molar teeth. None of the instruments were fractured in the first usage.

  18. Computer-assisted design of pro-drugs for antimalarial atovaquone.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Rafik; Hallak, Hussein

    2010-10-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) and ab initio calculation results for the proton transfer reaction in Kirby's enzyme models 1-6 reveal that the reaction rate is largely dependent on the existence of a hydrogen bonding net in the reactants and the corresponding transition states. Further, the distance between the two reacting centers and the angle of the hydrogen bonding formed along the reaction path has profound effects on the rate. Hence, the study on the systems reported herein could provide a good basis for designing antimalarial (atovaquone) pro-drug systems that can be used to release the parent drug in a controlled manner. For example, based on the calculated log EM, the cleavage process for pro-drug 1Pro may be predicted to be about 10¹¹ times faster than that for a pro-drug 4Pro and about 10⁴ times faster than pro-drug 2Pro: rate (1Pro) > rate (2Pro > rate (4Pro). Thus, the rate by which the pro-drug releases the antimalarial drug can be determined according to the nature of the linker (Kirby's enzyme model 1-6).

  19. Expression, purification and functional characterization of recombinant Zucchini yellow mosaic virus HC-Pro.

    PubMed

    Fuellgrabe, Marc W; Boonrod, Kajohn; Jamous, Rana; Moser, Mirko; Shiboleth, Yoel; Krczal, Gabi; Wassenegger, Michael

    2011-01-01

    HC-Pro is a helper component-proteinase which acts as a multifunctional protein in the potyviral life cycle. Apart from its proteolytic activity, HC-Pro has the capacity to bind duplex small RNAs (sRNAs). To investigate HC-Pro-mediated sRNA binding in vitro, high amounts of purified protein are required. For this purpose, the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) HC-Pro was expressed as a fusion with hexa-histidine (6xHis) or maltose-binding protein (MBP) in Escherichia coli. The expressed fusion proteins were purified by affinity chromatography. 6xHis:HC-Pro and MBP:HC-Pro were partially soluble. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays demonstrated that only MBP:HC-Pro exhibits the sRNA binding activity. The recombinant HC-Pro bound 21 bp siRNAs as well as 19 bp and 24 bp siRNAs. A point mutation in the highly conserved FRNK box produced the HC-Pro(FINK) protein, previously shown to be associated with reduced viral symptoms and weak sRNA binding. In this study, sRNA binding of the MBP:HA-HC-Pro(FINK) was not detectable. The high yield of purified HC-Pro offers the possibility to study the biochemistry of the protein in detail.

  20. Context of action of Proline Dehydrogenase (ProDH) in the Hypersensitive Response of Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Proline (Pro) dehydrogenase (ProDH) potentiates the oxidative burst and cell death of the plant Hypersensitive Response (HR) by mechanisms not yet elucidated. ProDH converts Pro into ∆1 pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) and can act together with P5C dehydrogenase (P5CDH) to produce Glu, or with P5C reductase (P5CR) to regenerate Pro and thus stimulate the Pro/P5C cycle. To better understand the effects of ProDH in HR, we studied the enzyme at three stages of the defense response differing in their ROS and cell death levels. In addition, we tested if ProDH requires P5CDH to potentiate HR. Results Control and infected leaves of wild type and p5cdh plants were used to monitor ProDH activity, in vivo Pro catabolism, amino acid content, and gene expression. Wild type plants activated ProDH at all HR stages. They did not consume Pro during maximal ROS accumulation, and maintained almost basal P5C levels at all conditions. p5cdh mutants activated ProDH as wild type plants. They achieved maximum oxidative burst and cell death levels producing normal HR lesions, but evidenced premature defense activation. Conclusion ProDH activation has different effects on HR. Before the oxidative burst it leads to Pro consumption involving the action of P5CDH. During the oxidative burst, ProDH becomes functionally uncoupled to P5CDH and apparently works with P5CR. The absence of P5CDH does not reduce ROS, cell death, or pathogen resistance, indicating this enzyme is not accompanying ProDH in the potentiation of these defense responses. In contrast, p5cdh infected plants displayed increased ROS burst and earlier initiation of HR cell death. In turn, our results suggest that ProDH may sustain HR by participating in the Pro/P5C cycle, whose action on HR must be formally evaluated in a future. PMID:24410747

  1. Aptamers Against Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines: A Review.

    PubMed

    Boshtam, Maryam; Asgary, Seddigheh; Kouhpayeh, Shirin; Shariati, Laleh; Khanahmad, Hossein

    2017-02-01

    Inflammatory disorders result from continuous inflammation in injured sites. Many molecules are involved in this process; the inhibition of which could prevent the inflammation. Chemokines are a group of these biological mediators which are categorized into pro-, anti-, and pro-/anti-inflammatory. Thus, targeting these essential molecules can be an effective way for prevention and control of inflammatory diseases. Various therapeutic agents have been developed for primary and secondary prevention of these disorders, but each of them has its own limitations. Aptamers, as novel therapeutic agents, are a new generation of drugs which could replace other medications even antibodies. Aptamer can bind to its target molecule to trap it and prohibit its function. Among large group of inflammatory cytokines, only 11 aptamers have been selected either against cytokines or their related receptors. These cytokines include interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-11, IL-17, IL-32, TGF-β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, CCL2, and IP-10. Most of the isolated aptamers are against pro-inflammatory or dual function cytokines, and it seems that they could be used for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of the related inflammatory diseases. Most of the aptamers have been tested in vitro, but so far, none of them has been approved for in vivo use. Given a vast number of inflammatory cytokines, more aptamers against this group of biological molecules will be selected in the near future. The available aptamers will also be tested in clinical trials. Therefore, a significant improvement is expected for the prevention and control of inflammatory disorders.

  2. ProCarDB: a database of bacterial carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Nupur, L N U; Vats, Asheema; Dhanda, Sandeep Kumar; Raghava, Gajendra P S; Pinnaka, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Ashwani

    2016-05-26

    Carotenoids have important functions in bacteria, ranging from harvesting light energy to neutralizing oxidants and acting as virulence factors. However, information pertaining to the carotenoids is scattered throughout the literature. Furthermore, information about the genes/proteins involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids has tremendously increased in the post-genomic era. A web server providing the information about microbial carotenoids in a structured manner is required and will be a valuable resource for the scientific community working with microbial carotenoids. Here, we have created a manually curated, open access, comprehensive compilation of bacterial carotenoids named as ProCarDB- Prokaryotic Carotenoid Database. ProCarDB includes 304 unique carotenoids arising from 50 biosynthetic pathways distributed among 611 prokaryotes. ProCarDB provides important information on carotenoids, such as 2D and 3D structures, molecular weight, molecular formula, SMILES, InChI, InChIKey, IUPAC name, KEGG Id, PubChem Id, and ChEBI Id. The database also provides NMR data, UV-vis absorption data, IR data, MS data and HPLC data that play key roles in the identification of carotenoids. An important feature of this database is the extension of biosynthetic pathways from the literature and through the presence of the genes/enzymes in different organisms. The information contained in the database was mined from published literature and databases such as KEGG, PubChem, ChEBI, LipidBank, LPSN, and Uniprot. The database integrates user-friendly browsing and searching with carotenoid analysis tools to help the user. We believe that this database will serve as a major information centre for researchers working on bacterial carotenoids.

  3. Flexibility of K3 and ProTaper universal instruments.

    PubMed

    Grazziotin-Soares, Renata; Barato Filho, Flares; Vanni, José Roberto; Almeida, Susimara; Oliveira, Elias Pandonor Motcy de; Barletta, Fernando Branco; Limongi, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    This study used a mechanical test to evaluate the flexibility of instruments from the K3 (conicity 0.04) and the ProTaper Universal systems when they were new and after 5 uses in simulated canals. Five sets of instruments of each system were tested: K3 (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45) and ProTaper Universal (S1, S2, F1, F2, F3, F4 and F5). Each set of instruments was used to prepare a simulated canal and the same set of instruments was used 5 times (50 canals). The number of each subgroup represented the number of uses: 0 (control), 1, 3 and 5 uses. Before and after each use, the instruments were submitted to a mechanical flexibility test performed in a Versat 502 universal testing machine. Interactions between the instrument and the number of uses were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test at a 5% level of significance. Instruments from both systems presented lower flexibility after the third use compared to the flexibility obtained after uses 0 and 1 (p<0.05), and maintained the same flexibility after the fifth use. The flexibility of instruments from the K3 system decreased with the increase of diameter, irrespective of the number of uses. Among the instruments from the ProTaper Universal system, the shaping files presented greater flexibility than the finishing files. F2 and F3 were the least flexible instruments, and F4 and F5 presented flexibility values similar to those of F1.

  4. Social well-being is associated with less pro-inflammatory and pro-metastatic leukocyte gene expression in women after surgery for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jutagir, Devika R; Blomberg, Bonnie B; Carver, Charles S; Lechner, Suzanne C; Timpano, Kiara R; Bouchard, Laura C; Gudenkauf, Lisa M; Jacobs, Jamie M; Diaz, Alain; Lutgendorf, Susan K; Cole, Steve W; Heller, Aaron S; Antoni, Michael H

    2017-08-01

    Satisfaction with social resources, or "social well-being," relates to better adaptation and longer survival after breast cancer diagnosis. Biobehavioral mechanisms linking social well-being (SWB) to mental and physical health may involve inflammatory signaling. We tested whether reports of greater SWB were associated with lower levels of pro-inflammatory and pro-metastatic leukocyte gene expression after surgery for non-metastatic breast cancer. Women (N = 50) diagnosed with non-metastatic (0-III) breast cancer were enrolled 2-8 weeks after surgery. SWB was assessed with the social/family well-being subscale of the FACT-B. Leukocyte gene expression for specific pro-inflammatory (cytokines, chemokines, and COX-2) and pro-metastatic genes (e.g., MMP9) was derived from microarray analysis. Multiple regression analyses controlling for age, stage of disease, days since surgery, education, and body mass index (BMI) found higher levels of SWB related to less leukocyte pro-inflammatory and pro-metastatic gene expression (p < 0.05). Emotional well-being, physical well-being, and functional well-being did not relate to leukocyte gene expression (p > 0.05). Greater SWB remained significantly associated with less leukocyte pro-inflammatory and pro-metastatic gene expression after controlling for depressive symptoms. Results have implications for understanding mechanisms linking social resources to health-relevant biological processes in breast cancer patients undergoing primary treatment. NCT01422551.

  5. Making Women the Subjects of the Abortion Debate: A Class Exercise that Moves beyond "Pro-Choice" and "Pro-Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Sara L.; Willman, Rebecca K.; Clark, Leisa; Walsh, Clare

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom exercise designed to put women (and children and men) back at the center of the abortion debate, avoiding the standard rhetoric and engaging reflection on how everyone might find common political goals among the so-called pro-life and pro-choice sides. The exercise the authors offer in this article…

  6. C-terminal Pro-Gly-Pro tripeptide in contrast to full-length neuropeptide semax exhibits no neuroprotective effect in experimental cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Fadyukova, O E; Kadi, A; Bai, Ou; Andzhusheva, G M; Koshelev, V B

    2005-04-01

    The C-terminal fragment Pro-Gly-Pro of semax does not modulate the development of symptoms of neurological deficiency and mortality in rats with incomplete global cerebral ischemia. Hence, previously revealed neuroprotective effects of semax are mainly determined by corticotropin ACTH4-7 fragment.

  7. Making Women the Subjects of the Abortion Debate: A Class Exercise that Moves beyond "Pro-Choice" and "Pro-Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Sara L.; Willman, Rebecca K.; Clark, Leisa; Walsh, Clare

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom exercise designed to put women (and children and men) back at the center of the abortion debate, avoiding the standard rhetoric and engaging reflection on how everyone might find common political goals among the so-called pro-life and pro-choice sides. The exercise the authors offer in this article…

  8. Rotation Manager Pro Version 1.0b1

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Thomas L.; Scotese, Christopher

    2002-02-01

    The Rotation Manager Pro Package maintains databases of instructions to replicate plate tectonic movements. The instructions are in the standard of tectonic plate rotations, including plate identification and location and angle of the rotation pole. Each database is accompanied by various metadata, including information about each rotation pole and the database itself. The package provides a range of tools to actively manage the database using methods specifically required for rotations: rotation pole addition and subtraction, viewing of a rotation chain through the rotation hierarchy, and the rotation of data points.

  9. The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Estes, Robert D.; Cosmo, Mario L.

    2001-01-01

    This is the Annual Report #2 entitled "The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)" prepared by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. This report covers the period of activity from 1 August 2000 through 30 July 2001. The topics include: 1) Updated System Performance; 2) Mission Analysis; 3) Updated Dynamics Reference Mission; 4) Updated Deployment Control Profiles and Simulations; 5) Comparison of ED tethers and electrical thrusters; 6) Kalman filters for mission estimation; and 7) Delivery of interactive software for ED tethers.

  10. Synteny between the pro+ marker and human glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase.

    PubMed

    Jones, C

    1975-10-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cells with a specific auxotrophy for proline were fused with human cells from a variety of sources and the resulting hybrids analyzed for human genetic markers. Of 63 hybrid clones examined, 27 possessed both proline and cytoplasmic glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase markers; 36 had neither; and no clones were found possessing one and not the other. These results constitute evidence that the proline and glutamate oxalocetate transaminase markers are syntenic. Evidence for absence of synteny between these and a variety of other human genes is presented. Biochemical tracer experiments established that the proline biosynthetic pathway through glutamate has been restored in the Pro+ hybrids.

  11. The International Reference Sphere of the Earth: PRO and CONTRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafarend, E. W.

    2003-04-01

    In Gravitostatics, Electrostatics and Magnetostatics the scalar-valued potential external to the Earth Reference Body is expanded in scalar-valued external spherical harmonics. Such a harmonic space L^2(S^2_R) with respect to the International Reference Sphere S^2_R is analyzed. We review the physical theory of how to determine the Mean Sphere of the Earth. In particular, we discuss the PRO and CONTRA of such a reference sphere which thanks to Earth rotation is physically not admissible. A physical admissible reference figure is the International Reference Ellipsoid, an equipotential surface in the Somigliana-Pizzetti reference potential field.

  12. ProTec Tear-Offs: A Preliminary Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D

    2005-09-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has conducted a series of ''scoping'' tests (referred to as Phase 1) to assess the potential use of a Mylar{reg_sign} tear-off system as a primary or secondary protective barrier to minimize acid etching (''frosting''), accidental scratching, and/or radiation damage for shielded cells windows. Conceptually, thin, multi-layered sheets of Mylar (referred to as a ''tear-off'' system) could be directly applied to the Lexan{reg_sign} sheet or glovebox/hood sash window to serve as a secondary (or primary) barrier. Upon degradation of visual clarity due to accidental scratching, spills/splatters, and/or radiation damage, the outer layer (or sheet) of Mylar could be removed ''refreshing'' or restoring the view. Due to the multi-layer aspect, the remaining Mylar layers would provide continued protection for the window from potential reoccurrences (which could be immediate or after some extended time period). Although the concept of using a tear-off system as a protective barrier was conceptually enticing, potential technical issues were identified and addressed as part of this Phase 1 feasibility study. These included resistance to: (1) acid(s) (concentrated (28.9 M) HF, concentrated (15.9M) HNO{sub 3}, 6M HCl, and 0.6M H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), (2) base (a simulated sludge with pH of 12.9), (3) gamma radiation (cumulative dose of {approx}200,000 rad), and (4) scratch resistance (simulating accidental scratching with the manipulators). Not only can these four factors play a significant role in determining the visual clarity of the integrated system, they can also contribute to the mechanical integrity issues which could dictate the ability to remove the outer layer when visual clarity has degraded. The results of the Phase 1 study clearly indicate that the Mylar tear-off concept (as a primary or secondary protective barrier) is a potential technical solution to prevent or retard excessive damage that would result from acid etching

  13. Regional differences in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pro-peptide, proBDNF and preproBDNF in the brain confer stress resilience.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bangkun; Yang, Chun; Ren, Qian; Zhang, Ji-Chun; Chen, Qian-Xue; Shirayama, Yukihiko; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    Using learned helplessness (LH) model of depression, we measured protein expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pro-peptide, BDNF precursors (proBDNF and preproBDNF) in the brain regions of LH (susceptible) and non-LH rats (resilience). Expression of preproBDNF, proBDNF and BDNF pro-peptide in the medial prefrontal cortex of LH rats, but not non-LH rats, was significantly higher than control rats, although expression of these proteins in the nucleus accumbens of LH rats was significantly lower than control rats. This study suggests that regional differences in conversion of BDNF precursors into BDNF and BDNF pro-peptide by proteolytic cleavage may contribute to stress resilience.

  14. LPS induces pro-inflammatory response in mastitis mice and mammary epithelial cells: Possible involvement of NF-κB signaling and OPN.

    PubMed

    Xiao, H-B; Wang, C-R; Liu, Z-K; Wang, J-Y

    2015-02-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has pro-inflammatory properties. This study was conducted to determine whether the LPS induced pro-inflammatory response in a model of mastitis and in mouse mammary epithelial cells (MEC). To investigate the effects of LPS in vivo, 50 μL of a solution of LPS (20 ng/μL) were infused into the mammary glands of mice. To study the effects of LPS in vitro, MEC were exposed to LPS (20 μg/mL) for 24h. Activation of nuclear factor kB (NF-κB) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were studied. Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL-6], tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-alpha], interleukin-1 beta [IL-1 beta]) and expression of osteopontin (OPN) were also evaluated. After LPS administration, route of NF-κB signaling is activated and the activity of MPO is increased. Furthermore, LPS increases the expression of OPN and production of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-1 beta. Present results demonstrate that LPS induces a pro-inflammatory response in a murine model of mastitis and suggest the involvement of the NF-κB pathway and OPN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Unification and Enhancement of Planetary Robotic Vision Ground Processing: The EC FP7 Project PRoVisG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paar, G.

    2009-04-01

    At present, mainly the US have realized planetary space missions with essential robotics background. Joining institutions, companies and universities from different established groups in Europe and two relevant players from the US, the EC FP7 Project PRoVisG started in autumn 2008 to demonstrate the European ability of realizing high-level processing of robotic vision image products from the surface of planetary bodies. PRoVisG will build a unified European framework for Robotic Vision Ground Processing. State-of-art computer vision technology will be collected inside and outside Europe to better exploit the image data gathered during past, present and future robotic space missions to the Moon and the Planets. This will lead to a significant enhancement of the scientific, technologic and educational outcome of such missions. We report on the main PRoVisG objectives and the development status: - Past, present and future planetary robotic mission profiles are analysed in terms of existing solutions and requirements for vision processing - The generic processing chain is based on unified vision sensor descriptions and processing interfaces. Processing components available at the PRoVisG Consortium Partners will be completed by and combined with modules collected within the international computer vision community in the form of Announcements of Opportunity (AOs). - A Web GIS is developed to integrate the processing results obtained with data from planetary surfaces into the global planetary context. - Towards the end of the 39 month project period, PRoVisG will address the public by means of a final robotic field test in representative terrain. The European tax payers will be able to monitor the imaging and vision processing in a Mars - similar environment, thus getting an insight into the complexity and methods of processing, the potential and decision making of scientific exploitation of such data and not least the elegancy and beauty of the resulting image products

  16. Capturing Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Data Electronically: The Past, Present, and Promise of ePRO Measurement in Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Coons, Stephen Joel; Eremenco, Sonya; Lundy, J Jason; O'Donohoe, Paul; O'Gorman, Hannah; Malizia, William

    2015-08-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are an important means of evaluating the treatment benefit of new medical products. It is recognized that PRO measures should be used when assessing concepts best known by the patient or best measured from the patient's perspective. As a result, there is growing emphasis on well defined and reliable PRO measures. In addition, advances in technology have significantly increased electronic PRO (ePRO) data collection capabilities and options in clinical trials. The movement from paper-based to ePRO data capture has enhanced the integrity and accuracy of clinical trial data and is encouraged by regulators. A primary distinction in the types of ePRO platforms is between telephone-based interactive voice response systems and screen-based systems. Handheld touchscreen-based devices have become the mainstay for remote (i.e., off-site, unsupervised) PRO data collection in clinical trials. The conventional approach is to provide study subjects with a handheld device with a device-based proprietary software program. However, an emerging alternative for clinical trials is called bring your own device (BYOD). Leveraging study subjects' own Internet-enabled mobile devices for remote PRO data collection (via a downloadable app or a Web-based data collection portal) has become possible due to the widespread use of personal smartphones and tablets. However, there are a number of scientific and operational issues that must be addressed before BYOD can be routinely considered as a practical alternative to conventional ePRO data collection methods. Nevertheless, the future for ePRO data collection is bright and the promise of BYOD opens a new chapter in its evolution.

  17. Occurrence of Dentinal Microcracks in Severely Curved Root Canals with ProTaper Universal, WaveOne, and ProTaper Next File Systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-hui; Lu, Ying; Song, Dongzhe; Zhou, Xuedong; Zheng, Qing-hua; Gao, Yuan; Huang, Ding-ming

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to compare the incidence of dentinal microcracks produced by the ProTaper Universal (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), WaveOne (Dentsply Maillefer), and ProTaper Next (Dentsply Maillefer) file systems during root canal procedures in severely curved canals using a dyeing technique. Sixty extracted human molars with 25° to 40° root curvatures were divided into 3 groups of 20 canals each. ProTaper Universal, WaveOne, and ProTaper Next file systems were used for root canal procedures. Untreated root canals of 60 molars served as negative controls. After preparation, all roots were stained with 1% methylene blue for 24 hours. Roots were then sectioned at the most curved plane and 2 mm below and above the most curved plane with a low-speed saw under cold water. A stereomicroscope was used to inspect dentinal microcracks at 60× magnification, and differences between these 3 instrument groups were analyzed using the chi-square test. The ProTaper Next system induced less complete and incomplete dentinal microcracks compared with the ProTaper Universal and WaveOne systems (P < .05), and there were no significant differences between the ProTaper Universal and WaveOne systems (P > .05). The ProTaper Universal and WaveOne systems induced significantly more complete cracks in the plane 2 mm above the most curved plane compared with either of the other 2 planes (P = .004). The ProTaper Next system induces less dentinal microcracks during root canal procedures in severely curved root canals compared with the ProTaper Universal and WaveOne systems. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A novel role of endothelium in activation of latent pro-membrane type 1 MMP and pro-MMP-2 in rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Otto, Sören; Deussen, Andreas; Zatschler, Birgit; Müller, Bianca; Neisser, Anja; Barth, Kathrin; Morawietz, Henning; Kopaliani, Irakli

    2016-03-01

    Aortic stiffness is an independent risk factor for progression of cardiovascular diseases. Degradation of elastic fibres in aorta due to angiotensin II (ANGII)-stimulated overactivation of latent membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1MMP) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) is regarded to represent an important cause of aortic stiffness. Therefore, clarification of the causal mechanisms triggering the overactivation of these MMPs is of utmost importance. This study addresses the endothelium as a novel key activator of latent pro-MT1MMP and pro-MMP2 in rat aorta. Using a co-culture model of rat aortic endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs), we found that ANGII stimulation resulted in activation of latent pro-MT1MMP and pro-MMP2 in SMCs exclusively when co-cultured with ECs (assessed with western blot and gelatin zymography, respectively). EC-specific AT1 receptor stimulation triggered endothelin-1 release and paracrine action on SMCs. Endothelin-1 increased expression and activity of pro-protein convertase furin in SMCs via endothelin receptor type A (assessed with qPCR and furin activity assay, respectively). Consequently, furin acted in two ways. First, it increased the activation of latent pro-MT1MMP and, second, it activated pro-αvβ3 integrin. Both pathways led to overactivation of latent pro-MMP2. In vitro findings in the co-culture model were fully consistent with the ex vivo findings obtained in isolated rat aorta. We propose that the endothelium under ANGII stimulation acts as a novel and key activator of latent pro-MT1MMP and pro-MMP2 in SMCs of rat aorta. Therefore, endothelium may critically contribute to pathophysiology of aortic stiffness. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. proBAMsuite, a Bioinformatics Framework for Genome-Based Representation and Analysis of Proteomics Data*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaojing; Slebos, Robbert J. C.; Chambers, Matthew C.; Tabb, David L.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate genome-based representation and analysis of proteomics data, we developed a new bioinformatics framework, proBAMsuite, in which a central component is the protein BAM (proBAM) file format for organizing peptide spectrum matches (PSMs)1 within the context of the genome. proBAMsuite also includes two R packages, proBAMr and proBAMtools, for generating and analyzing proBAM files, respectively. Applying proBAMsuite to three recently published proteomics datasets, we demonstrated its utility in facilitating efficient genome-based sharing, interpretation, and integration of proteomics data. First, the interpretation of proteomics data is significantly enhanced with the rich genomic annotation information. Second, PSMs can be easily reannotated using user-specified gene annotation schemes and assembled into both protein and gene identifications. Third, using the genome as a common reference, proBAMsuite facilitates seamless proteomics and proteogenomics data integration. Finally, proBAM files can be readily visualized in genome browsers and thus bring proteomics data analysis to a general audience beyond the proteomics community. Results from this study establish proBAMsuite as a useful bioinformatics framework for proteomics and proteogenomics research. PMID:26657539

  20. The propeptide precursor proSAAS is involved in fetal neuropeptide processing and body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Daniel J; Wei, Suwen; Gomes, Ivone; Czyzyk, Traci; Mzhavia, Nino; Pan, Hui; Devi, Lakshmi A; Fricker, Lloyd D; Pintar, John E

    2010-06-01

    Mice with a targeted mutation in proSAAS have been generated to investigate whether peptides derived from this precursor could function as an inhibitor of prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) in vivo as well as to determine any alternate roles for proSAAS in nervous and endocrine tissues. Fetal mice lacking proSAAS exhibit complete, adult-like processing of prodynorphin in the prenatal brain instead of the incomplete processing seen in the brains of wild-type fetal mice where inhibitory proSAAS intermediates are transiently accumulated. This study provides evidence that proSAAS is directly involved in the prenatal regulation of neuropeptide processing in vivo. However, adult mice lacking proSAAS have normal levels of all peptides detected using a peptidomics approach, suggesting that PC1/3 activity is not affected by the absence of proSAAS in adult mice. ProSAAS knockout mice exhibit decreased locomotion and a male-specific 10-15% decrease in body weight, but maintain normal fasting blood glucose levels and are able to efficiently clear glucose from the blood in response to a glucose challenge. This work suggests that proSAAS-derived peptides can inhibit PC1/3 in embryonic brain, but in the adult brain proSAAS peptides may function as neuropeptides that regulate body weight and potentially other behaviors.

  1. The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico C.

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report covers the following main topics: 1) Updated Reference Mission. The reference ProSEDS (Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System) mission is evaluated for an updated launch date in the Summer of 2002 and for the new 80-s current operating cycle. Simulations are run for nominal solar activity condition at the time of launch and for extreme conditions of dynamic forcing. Simulations include the dynamics of the system, the electrodynamics of the bare tether, the neutral atmosphere and the thermal response of the tether. 2) Evaluation of power delivered by the tether system. The power delivered by the tethered system during the battery charging mode is computed under the assumption of minimum solar activity for the new launch date. 3) Updated Deployment Control Profiles and Simulations. A number of new deployment profiles were derived based on the latest results of the deployment ground tests. The flight profile is then derived based on the friction characteristics obtained from the deployment tests of the F-1 tether. 4) Analysis/estimation of deployment flight data. A process was developed to estimate the deployment trajectory of the endmass with respect to the Delta and the final libration amplitude from the data of the deployer turn counters. This software was tested successfully during the ProSEDS mission simulation at MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) EDAC (Environments Data Analysis Center).

  2. Pro-Resolving Molecules—New Approaches to Treat Sepsis?

    PubMed Central

    Buechler, Christa; Pohl, Rebekka; Aslanidis, Charalampos

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation is a complex response of the body to exogenous and endogenous insults. Chronic and systemic diseases are attributed to uncontrolled inflammation. Molecules involved in the initiation of inflammation are very well studied while pathways regulating its resolution are insufficiently investigated. Approaches to down-modulate mediators relevant for the onset and duration of inflammation are successful in some chronic diseases, while all of them have failed in sepsis patients. Inflammation and immune suppression characterize sepsis, indicating that anti-inflammatory strategies alone are inappropriate for its therapy. Heme oxygenase 1 is a sensitive marker for oxidative stress and is upregulated in inflammation. Carbon monoxide, which is produced by this enzyme, initiates multiple anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving activities with higher production of omega-3 fatty acid-derived lipid metabolites being one of its protective actions. Pro-resolving lipids named maresins, resolvins and protectins originate from the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid while lipoxins are derived from arachidonic acid. These endogenously produced lipids do not simply limit inflammation but actively contribute to its resolution, and thus provide an opportunity to combat chronic inflammatory diseases and eventually sepsis. PMID:28241480

  3. Do Null Subjects (mis-)Trigger Pro-drop Grammars?

    PubMed

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-12-01

    Native speakers of English regularly hear sentences without overt subjects. Nevertheless, they maintain a [−pro] grammar that requires sentences to have an overt subject. It is proposed that listeners of English recognize that speakers reduce predictable material and thus attribute null subjects to this process, rather than changing their grammars to a [−pro] setting. Mack et al. (J Memory Lang 67(1):211-223, 2012) showed that sentences with noise covering the subject are analyzed as having null subjects more often with a first person pronoun and with a present tense--properties correlated with more predictable referents--compared to a third person pronoun and past tense. However, those results might in principle have been due to reporting null subjects for verbs that often occur with null subjects. An experiment is reported here in which comparable results are found for sentences containing nonsense verbs. Participants preferred a null subject more often for first person present tense sentences than for third person past tense sentences. The results are as expected if participants are responding to predictability, the likelihood of reduction, rather than to lexical statistics. The results are argued to be important in removing a class of mis-triggering examples from the language acquisition problem.

  4. The (pro)renin receptor and its interaction partners.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jörg

    2017-06-15

    The prorenin receptor was originally discovered as a receptor that binds renin and prorenin, thereby inducing pro-fibrotic intracellular signal cascades. These effects are partially mediated in vitro by angiotensin (ANG) and partially independent of ANG. Consequently, inhibitors of the interaction between the prorenin and the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) were designed hoping that they may prevent fibrotic tissue damage, for instance, in the kidney. However, this concept was challenged by the fact that overexpression of the PRR was not harmful at all, whereas depletion of the PRR was lethal or markedly detrimental. Furthermore, the high levels of prorenin needed to activate the PRR may not be reached in vivo. As it turned out, the PRR instead exhibited a variety of important functions that has nothing to do with the name given to the protein. Thus, the PRR was identified as an accessory subunit of vesicular (v)-ATPases, representing an essential chaperon for the assembly of v-ATPase subunits. In this respect, the gene encoding the PRR was also named ATP6AP2. Finally, the PRR is an essential component of the canonical and non-canonical PCP Wnt pathways. Thus, the PRR is essential for lysosomal functions, such as endocytosis, secretion, and autophagy as well as for cell division and differentiation, embryonic development, organogenesis, and stem cell biology.

  5. Development of novel cyclic peptides as pro-apoptotic agents.

    PubMed

    Brindisi, Margherita; Maramai, Samuele; Brogi, Simone; Fanigliulo, Emanuela; Butini, Stefania; Guarino, Egeria; Casagni, Alice; Lamponi, Stefania; Bonechi, Claudia; Nathwani, Seema M; Finetti, Federica; Ragonese, Francesco; Arcidiacono, Paola; Campiglia, Pietro; Valenti, Salvatore; Novellino, Ettore; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Morbidelli, Lucia; Zisterer, Daniela M; Williams, Clive D; Donati, Alessandro; Baldari, Cosima; Campiani, Giuseppe; Ulivieri, Cristina; Gemma, Sandra

    2016-07-19

    Our recent finding that paclitaxel behaves as a peptidomimetic of the endogenous protein Nur77 inspired the design of two peptides (PEP1 and PEP2) reproducing the effects of paclitaxel on Bcl-2 and tubulin, proving the peptidomimetic nature of paclitaxel. Starting from these peptide-hits, we herein describe the synthesis and the biological investigation of linear and cyclic peptides structurally related to PEP2. While linear peptides (2a,b, 3a,b, 4, 6a-f) were found inactive in cell-based assays, biological analysis revealed a pro-apoptotic effect for most of the cyclic peptides (5a-g). Cellular permeability of 5a (and also of 2a,b) on HL60 cells was assessed through confocal microscopy analysis. Further cellular studies on a panel of leukemic cell lines (HL60, Jurkat, MEC, EBVB) and solid tumor cell lines (breast cancer MCF-7 cells, human melanoma A375 and 501Mel cells, and murine melanoma B16F1 cells) confirmed the pro-apoptotic effect of the cyclic peptides. Cell cycle analysis revealed that treatment with 5a, 5c, 5d or 5f resulted in an increase in the number of cells in the sub-G0/G1 peak. Direct interaction with tubulin (turbidimetric assay) and with microtubules (immunostaining experiments) was assessed in vitro for the most promising compounds.

  6. The effects of Operation Rescue on pro-life support.

    PubMed

    Ansuini, C G; Fiddler-woite, J; Woitaszek, R S

    1994-12-01

    Operation Rescue is a militant anti-abortion group. The organization conveys its position against abortion by targeting a city in which it will mount speeches, rallies, pickets, and media barrages. Operation Rescue held activities in Greater Buffalo, New York, in 1992. The authors investigated the effect of the anti-abortion campaign upon a sample of non-activist university undergraduate students and the anti-abortion cause in general. 114 male and 195 female students of the State University of New York College at Buffalo participated. 60% were younger than age 22 years and 17% were 46 years of age or older. 87% were sexually active, but only 18% were married. 11% reported having an abortion themselves or dating someone who had. 150 subjects were surveyed each spring for three years with regard to their abortion-related attitudes and behaviors. 18% of the participants identified themselves as pro-life in 1991, 22% in 1992, and 12% in 1993, the year after the Operation Rescue campaign. 70% identified themselves as pro-choice in 1991, 60% in 1992, and 57% in 1993. The percentage of respondents reporting that they would not have an abortion themselves, but support a woman's right to free choice with regard to abortion steadily increased from 11% in 1991 to 19% in 1992 and 30% in 1993. In general, support for the anti-abortion camp increased during protest activities, but decreased overall over the long term. The campaign had a particularly negative effect upon males.

  7. Antioxidant, pro-oxidant and cytotoxic properties of parsley.

    PubMed

    Dorman, H J Damien; Lantto, Tiina A; Raasmaja, Atso; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2011-06-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) leaves were macerated with a mixture of methanol: water: acetic acid to produce a crude extract which was then defatted with (40°-60°) petrol. Antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated using a battery of in vitro assays, viz., iron(iii) reduction, iron(ii) chelation and free radical scavenging assays. Evaluation of the pro-oxidant activity of the extract was based upon its effects upon DNA fragmentation and protein carbonylation. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of the extract were determined in non-cancerous CV1-P fibroblast and cancerous A375 melanoma cells using MTT and LDH tests and caspase 3-like activity assay. The highest concentration, 2.0 mg ml(-1), decreased the viability of both cell lines, however, the cancerous melanoma cells were slightly susceptible to the effects. The observed cytotoxicity was not due to the caspase 3 activity. In conclusion, the toxicity might be explained by the pro-oxidative activity of components within the extract against proteins and/or DNA but it is not related to caspase 3-dependent apoptosis within cells.

  8. Pro-Tumoral Inflammatory Myeloid Cells as Emerging Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Szebeni, Gabor J.; Vizler, Csaba; Nagy, Lajos I.; Kitajka, Klara; Puskas, Laszlo G.

    2016-01-01

    Since the observation of Virchow, it has long been known that the tumor microenvironment constitutes the soil for the infiltration of inflammatory cells and for the release of inflammatory mediators. Under certain circumstances, inflammation remains unresolved and promotes cancer development. Here, we review some of these indisputable experimental and clinical evidences of cancer related smouldering inflammation. The most common myeloid infiltrate in solid tumors is composed of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). These cells promote tumor growth by several mechanisms, including their inherent immunosuppressive activity, promotion of neoangiogenesis, mediation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and alteration of cellular metabolism. The pro-tumoral functions of TAMs and MDSCs are further enhanced by their cross-talk offering a myriad of potential anti-cancer therapeutic targets. We highlight these main pro-tumoral mechanisms of myeloid cells and give a general overview of their phenotypical and functional diversity, offering examples of possible therapeutic targets. Pharmacological targeting of inflammatory cells and molecular mediators may result in therapies improving patient condition and prognosis. Here, we review experimental and clinical findings on cancer-related inflammation with a major focus on creating an inventory of current small molecule-based therapeutic interventions targeting cancer-related inflammatory cells: TAMs and MDSCs. PMID:27886105

  9. PRoViScout: a planetary scouting rover demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paar, Gerhard; Woods, Mark; Gimkiewicz, Christiane; Labrosse, Frédéric; Medina, Alberto; Tyler, Laurence; Barnes, David P.; Fritz, Gerald; Kapellos, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Mobile systems exploring Planetary surfaces in future will require more autonomy than today. The EU FP7-SPACE Project ProViScout (2010-2012) establishes the building blocks of such autonomous exploration systems in terms of robotics vision by a decision-based combination of navigation and scientific target selection, and integrates them into a framework ready for and exposed to field demonstration. The PRoViScout on-board system consists of mission management components such as an Executive, a Mars Mission On-Board Planner and Scheduler, a Science Assessment Module, and Navigation & Vision Processing modules. The platform hardware consists of the rover with the sensors and pointing devices. We report on the major building blocks and their functions & interfaces, emphasizing on the computer vision parts such as image acquisition (using a novel zoomed 3D-Time-of-Flight & RGB camera), mapping from 3D-TOF data, panoramic image & stereo reconstruction, hazard and slope maps, visual odometry and the recognition of potential scientifically interesting targets.

  10. idRHa+ProMod - Rail Hardening Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro, L.

    2016-03-01

    idRHa+ProMod is the process control system developed by Primetals Technologies to foresee the thermo-mechanical evolution and micro-structural composition of rail steels subjected to slack quenching into idRHa+ Rail Hardening equipments in a simulation environment. This tool can be used both off-line or in-line, giving the user the chance to test and study the best cooling strategies or letting the automatic control system free to adjust the proper cooling recipe. Optimization criteria have been tailored in order to determine the best cooling conditions according to the metallurgical requirements imposed by the main rail standards and also taking into account the elastoplastic bending phenomena occurring during all stages of the head hardening process. The computational core of idRHa+ProMod is a thermal finite element procedure coupled with special algorithms developed to work out the main thermo-physical properties of steel, to predict the non-isothermal austenite decomposition into all the relevant phases and subsequently to evaluate the amount of latent heat of transformation released, the compound thermal expansion coefficient and the amount of plastic deformation in the material. Air mist and air blades boundary conditions have been carefully investigated by means of pilot plant tests aimed to study the jet impingement on rail surfaces and the cooling efficiency at all working conditions. Heat transfer coefficients have been further checked and adjusted directly on field during commissioning. idRHa+ is a trademark of Primetals Technologies Italy Srl

  11. Effective production of Pro-Gly by mutagenesis of l-amino acid ligase.

    PubMed

    Kino, Haruka; Nakajima, Shota; Arai, Toshinobu; Kino, Kuniki

    2016-08-01

    l-Amino acid ligase (Lal) catalyzes dipeptide synthesis from unprotected l-amino acids by hydrolysis ATP to ADP. Each Lal displays unique substrate specificity, and many different dipeptides can be synthesized by selecting suitable Lal. We have already successfully synthesized Met-Gly selectively by replacing the Pro85 residues of Lal from Bacillus licheniformis (BL00235). From these results, we deduced that the amino acid residue at position 85 had a key role in enzyme activity, and applied these findings to other Lals. When Pro and Gly were used as substrates, TabS from Pseudomonas syringae, synthesized the salt taste enhancing dipeptide Pro-Gly and other three dipeptides (Gly-Pro, Pro-Pro, and Gly-Gly) was hardly synthesized from its substrate specificity. However, the amount of Pro-Gly was low. Therefore, to alter the substrate specificity and increase the amount of Pro-Gly, we selected amino acid residues that might affect the enzyme activity, Ser85 corresponding to Pro85 of BL00235, and His294 on the results from previous studies and the predicted structure of TabS. These residues were replaced with 20 proteogenic amino acids, and Pro-Gly synthesizing reactions were conducted. The S85T and the H294D mutants synthesized more Pro-Gly than wild-type. Furthermore, the S85T/H294D double mutant synthesized considerably more Pro-Gly than the single mutant did. These results showed that the amino acid position 85 of TabS affect the enzyme activity similarly to BL00235. In addition, replacing the amino acid residue positioning around the N-terminal substrate and constructing the double mutant led to increase the amount of Pro-Gly. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of collagen model peptides containing 4-fluoroproline; (4(S)-fluoroproline-pro-gly)10 forms a triple helix, but (4(R)-fluoroproline-pro-gly)10 does not.

    PubMed

    Doi, Masamitsu; Nishi, Yoshinori; Uchiyama, Susumu; Nishiuchi, Yuji; Nakazawa, Takashi; Ohkubo, Tadayasu; Kobayashi, Yuji

    2003-08-20

    Collagen model peptide (Pro-Pro-Gly)10 has a triple helical structure and undergoes a thermal transition to a single random coil structure. The transition temperature of the analogous model peptides depends largely on amino acid substitution. Substitution of Pro by 4-hydroxyproline (Hyp) or 4-fluoroproline (fPro) has especially attracted attention because the position of substitution and chirality of the hydroxyl group or fluorine atom affect the transition temperatures. Here, we demonstrated that (4(S)-fPro-Pro-Gly)10 takes a triple helical structure, but (4(R)-fPro-Pro-Gly)10 exists in a single chain structure. This is not consistent with the case of Hyp substitution in our previous report where both (4(S)-Hyp-Pro-Gly)10 and (4(R)-Hyp-Pro-Gly)10 are in a single random coil state.

  13. PRO-2-PAM: The First Therapeutic Drug for Reactivation of Organo-Phosphate-Inhibited Central (Brain) and Peripheral Cholinesterases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    1. Synthesis and Properties of 1-Methyl- 1,6- dihydropyridine -2-carbaldoxime, a Pro-Drug of N- Methylpyridinium-2-carbaldoxime Chloride, J. Med... Synthesis of pro-2-PAM (Fig. 1). We synthesized the pro-drug, pro-2-PAM, as previously described (Bodor, 1976). However, the final step, the E1

  14. NMR structure determination of a novel conotoxin, [Pro 7,13] alpha A-conotoxin PIVA.

    PubMed

    Han, K H; Hwang, K J; Kim, S M; Kim, S K; Gray, W R; Olivera, B M; Rivier, J; Shon, K J

    1997-02-18

    A high-resolution solution conformation of a novel conotoxin, [Pro 7,13] alpha A-conotoxin PIVA, GCCGSYPNAACHPCSCKDROSYCGQ-NH2, has been determined by two-dimensional 1H NMR methods and distance geometry calculations. The total of 324 NOE-derived interproton distance restraints including 33 long-range NOE restraints as well as 11 phi and 7 chi 1 torsion angle restraints was used for computation of structures. Back-calculation from the experimental NOE spectrum has provided 49 new NOE restraints and yielded the final R-factors of Ra = 0.641 and Rb = 0.157. The final RMSD values are 0.90 and 1.16 A for the backbone and the heavy atoms, respectively. The C-terminal half of the molecule involving the residues 12-24 is extremely well-defined with a backbone RMSD value of 0.56 A, whereas the N-terminal 3-11 disulfide loop is relatively flexible, possessing a backbone RMSD value of 1.09 A. The [Pro 7,13] alpha A-conotoxin PIVA does not contain any significant secondary structure although the 21S-24G nearly completes one turn of a 3(10) helix. The overall protein fold is largely maintained by the three disulfide bridges of 2-16, 3-11, and 14-23. The presence of the three disulfide bridges imposes geometric constraints that force the molecule to form six continuous bends involving the following residues: 3C-5S, 7P-10A, 12H-14C, 15S-17K, 17K-19R, and 21S-25Q. The overall shape of the [Pro 7,13] alpha A-conotoxin PIVA can be described as an "iron". Residues 15S-19R form a loop that protrudes out of the "bottom plate" formed by the rest of the protein and constitute the handle of the iron. The N-terminal tip of the molecule is relatively immobile due to attractive electrostatic interactions between the gamma-hydroxyl group of 20 Hyp and the phenolic hydroxyl group of 22Y. The flexible 3-11 disulfide loop consists mostly of hydrophobic residues, while the best-defined 14-23 disulfide loop contains the highly charged hydrophilic 15S-19R "handle" domain exposed to the exterior of

  15. Use of Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Measures at Group and Patient Levels: Experiences From the Generic Integrated PRO System, WestChronic

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Louise Pape; Biering, Karin; Johnsen, Soren Paaske; Riiskjær, Erik; Schougaard, Liv Marit

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures may be used at a group level for research and quality improvement and at the individual patient level to support clinical decision making and ensure efficient use of resources. The challenges involved in implementing PRO measures are mostly the same regardless of aims and diagnostic groups and include logistic feasibility, high response rates, robustness, and ability to adapt to the needs of patient groups and settings. If generic PRO systems can adapt to specific needs, advanced technology can be shared between medical specialties and for different aims. Objective We describe methodological, organizational, and practical experiences with a generic PRO system, WestChronic, which is in use among a range of diagnostic groups and for a range of purposes. Methods The WestChronic system supports PRO data collection, with integration of Web and paper PRO questionnaires (mixed-mode) and automated procedures that enable adherence to implementation-specific schedules for the collection of PRO. For analysis, we divided functionalities into four elements: basic PRO data collection and logistics, PRO-based clinical decision support, PRO-based automated decision algorithms, and other forms of communication. While the first element is ubiquitous, the others are optional and only applicable at a patient level. Methodological and organizational experiences were described according to each element. Results WestChronic has, to date, been implemented in 22 PRO projects within 18 diagnostic groups, including cardiology, neurology, rheumatology, nephrology, orthopedic surgery, gynecology, oncology, and psychiatry. The aims of the individual projects included epidemiological research, quality improvement, hospital evaluation, clinical decision support, efficient use of outpatient clinic resources, and screening for side effects and comorbidity. In total 30,174 patients have been included, and 59,232 PRO assessments have been collected

  16. Additive model for the second harmonic generation hyperpolarizability applied to a collagen-mimicking peptide (Pro-Pro-Gly)10.

    PubMed

    Loison, C; Simon, D

    2010-07-29

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) spectrometry has been recently applied to investigate the structure of proteins and sugars (collagen, myosin, starch, etc.). The interpretation of experimental data at the molecular length-scale remains often qualitative because of the difficulty to model the SHG signal of such large molecules. Simpson and co-workers proposed to estimate the hyperpolarizability of the peptide backbone as the sum of the individual hyperpolarizabilities of the peptide bonds. This article discusses the hyperpolarizabilities obtained using such an additive model for a peptide (Pro-Pro-Gly)(10) modeling collagen, for which experimental hyperpolarizabilities have been measured and modeled recently. To investigate possible parameters for the model, we performed time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations of the hyperpolarizability of a few molecules containing one peptide bond. In a second step, the additive model is applied. The results produced using different input parameters are compared to each other and to experimental data. For the chosen peptide, the additive model using N-methylacetamide as a building block agrees qualitatively with hyper-Rayleigh scattering data. The results emphasize the need for more reference data to test the additivity hypothesis and the transferability of the parameters to other secondary structure of proteins.

  17. Comparison of canal transportation in simulated curved canals prepared with ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Gold systems

    PubMed Central

    Muniz, Brenda Leite; Pires, Frederico; Belladonna, Felipe Gonçalves; Neves, Aline Almeida; Souza, Erick Miranda; De-Deus, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of ProTaper Gold (PTG, Dentsply Maillefer) in maintaining the original profile of root canal anatomy. For that, ProTaper Universal (PTU, Dentsply Maillefer) was used as reference techniques for comparison. Materials and Methods Twenty simulated curved canals manufactured in clear resin blocks were randomly assigned to 2 groups (n = 10) according to the system used for canal instrumentation: PTU and PTG groups, upto F2 files (25/0.08). Color stereomicroscopic images from each block were taken exactly at the same position before and after instrumentation. All image processing and data analysis were performed with an open source program (FIJI). Evaluation of canal transportation was obtained for two independent canal regions: straight and curved levels. Student's t test was used with a cut-off for significance set at α = 5%. Results Instrumentation systems significantly influenced canal transportation (p < 0.0001). A significant interaction between instrumentation system and root canal level (p < 0.0001) was found. PTU and PTG systems produced similar canal transportation at the straight part, while PTG system resulted in lower canal transportation than PTU system at the curved part. Canal transportation was higher at the curved canal portion (p < 0.0001). Conclusions PTG system produced overall less canal transportation in the curved portion when compared to PTU system. PMID:26877984

  18. The beta 2-adrenergic receptor activates pro-migratory and pro-proliferative pathways in dermal fibroblasts via divergent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pullar, Christine E; Isseroff, R Rivkah

    2006-02-01

    Dermal fibroblasts are required for skin wound repair; they migrate into the wound bed, proliferate, synthesize extracellular matrix components and contract the wound. Although fibroblasts express beta2-adrenergic receptors (beta2-AR) and cutaneous keratinocytes can synthesize beta-AR agonists (catecholamines), the functional significance of this hormonal mediator network in the skin has not been addressed. Emerging studies from our laboratory demonstrate that beta2-AR activation modulates keratinocyte migration, essential for wound re-epithelialization. Here we describe an investigation of the effects of beta2-AR activation on the dermal component of wound healing. We examined beta2-AR-mediated regulation of biological processes in dermal fibroblasts that are critical for wound repair: migration, proliferation, contractile ability and cytoskeletal conformation. We provide evidence for the activation of at least two divergent beta2-AR-mediated signaling pathways in dermal fibroblasts, a Src-dependent pro-migratory pathway, transduced through the epidermal growth factor receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and a PKA-dependent pro-proliferative pathway. beta2-AR activation attenuates collagen gel contraction and alters the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion distribution through PKA-dependent mechanisms. Our work uncovers a previously unrecognized role for the adrenergic hormonal mediator network in the cutaneous wound repair process. Exploiting these divergent beta2-AR agonist responses in cutaneous cells may generate novel therapeutic approaches for the control of wound healing.

  19. An imbalance between specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators and pro-inflammatory leukotrienes promotes instability of atherosclerotic plaques

    PubMed Central

    Fredman, Gabrielle; Hellmann, Jason; Proto, Jonathan D.; Kuriakose, George; Colas, Romain A.; Dorweiler, Bernhard; Connolly, E. Sander; Solomon, Robert; Jones, David M.; Heyer, Eric J.; Spite, Matthew; Tabas, Ira

    2016-01-01

    Chronic unresolved inflammation plays a causal role in the development of advanced atherosclerosis, but the mechanisms that prevent resolution in atherosclerosis remain unclear. Here, we use targeted mass spectrometry to identify specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPM) in histologically-defined stable and vulnerable regions of human carotid atherosclerotic plaques. The levels of SPMs, particularly resolvin D1 (RvD1), and the ratio of SPMs to pro-inflammatory leukotriene B4 (LTB4), are significantly decreased in the vulnerable regions. SPMs are also decreased in advanced plaques of fat-fed Ldlr−/− mice. Administration of RvD1 to these mice during plaque progression restores the RvD1:LTB4 ratio to that of less advanced lesions and promotes plaque stability, including decreased lesional oxidative stress and necrosis, improved lesional efferocytosis, and thicker fibrous caps. These findings provide molecular support for the concept that defective inflammation resolution contributes to the formation of clinically dangerous plaques and offer a mechanistic rationale for SPM therapy to promote plaque stability. PMID:27659679

  20. Glucose Promotes a Pro-Oxidant and Pro-Inflammatory Stromal Microenvironment Which Favors Motile Properties in Breast Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Kallens, Violeta; Tobar, Nicolás; Molina, Jessica; Bidegain, Arantzazú; Smith, Patricio C; Porras, Omar; Martínez, Jorge

    2017-05-01

    Chronic inflammation and metabolic reprogramming have been proposed as hallmarks of cancer development. Currently, many of the functional clues between these two phenomena are studied under the integrative view of functional stroma-epithelia interaction. It has been proposed that stromal cells, due to their abundance and avidity for glucose, are able to modify the metabolic behavior of an entire solid tumor. In the present study, using a mammary stromal cell line derived from healthy tissue subjected to long-term culture in low (5 mM) or high (25 mM) glucose, we found that the hyperglycemic condition favors the establishment of a pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant environment characterized by the induction of the COX-2/PGE2 axis. In this condition, epithelial migration was stimulated. Moreover, we also found that stromal-derived PGE2, acting as a stimulator of IL-1 epithelial expression was one of the factors that promote the acquisition of motile properties by epithelial cells and the maintenance of a COX-2/PGE2-dependent inflammatory condition. Overall, our work provides experimental evidence that glucose stimulates a tumor inflammatory environment that, as a result of a functional cross-talk between stroma and epithelia, may be responsible for tumor progression. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 994-1002, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Pro-Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (proBDNF)-Mediated p75NTR Activation Promotes Depolarizing Actions of GABA and Increases Susceptibility to Epileptic Seizures.

    PubMed

    Riffault, Baptiste; Kourdougli, Nazim; Dumon, Camille; Ferrand, Nadine; Buhler, Emmanuelle; Schaller, Fabienne; Chambon, Caroline; Rivera, Claudio; Gaiarsa, Jean-Luc; Porcher, Christophe

    2016-12-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is synthesized as a precursor, namely proBDNF, which can be processed into mature BDNF (mBDNF). Evidences suggest that proBDNF signaling through p75(NTR) may account for the emergence of neurological disorders. These findings support the view that the relative availability of mBDNF and proBDNF forms is an important mechanism underlying brain circuit formation and cognitive functions. Here we describe novel insights into the proBDNF/p75(NTR) mechanisms and function in vivo in modulating neuronal circuit and synaptic plasticity during the first postnatal weeks in rats. Our results showed that increased proBDNF/p75(NTR) signaling during development maintains a depolarizing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) response in a KCC2-dependent manner in mature neuronal cells. This resulted in altered excitation/inhibition balance and enhanced neuronal network activity. The enhanced proBDNF/p75(NTR) signaling ultimately led to increased seizure susceptibility that was abolished by in vivo injection of function blocking p75(NTR) antibody. Altogether, our study shed new light on how proBDNF/p75(NTR) signaling can orchestrate the GABA excitatory/inhibitory developmental sequence leading to depolarizing and excitatory actions of GABA in adulthood and subsequent epileptic disorders.

  2. Association of PPARγ2 (Pro12Ala) and neuropeptide Y (Leu7Pro) gene polymorphisms with obstructive sleep apnea in obese Asian Indians.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Bharat; Guleria, Randeep; Misra, Anoop; Luthra, Kalpana; Kumar, Guresh

    2011-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is prevalent in 7.5% in urban Asian Indians. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma2 (PPARγ2) has been implicated in adipocyte differentiation. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is also considered as a candidate gene for excess body fat accumulation. The association of PPARγ2 (Pro12Ala)} and NPY (Leu7Pro) gene polymorphisms with OSA has not been studied in Asian Indians. To study the distribution of PPARγ2 (Pro12Ala) and NPY (Leu7Pro) polymorphism in Asian Indians with and without OSA. This study was carried out in 252 obese subjects [(body mass index (BMI > 25 kg/m2]; 142 with OSA and 110 without OSA. Measurements included anthropometric and biochemical parameters (fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, various circumferences and skin-fold thicknesses). PPARγ2 (Pro12Ala) and NPY (Leu7Pro) gene} polymorphisms were studied in all subjects. The frequency of the variant allele (Ala12) of PPARγ2 gene was significantly higher in subjects with OSA (14.4%) when compared with subjects without OSA (5.5%; χ2= 9.7; p = 0.001). The distribution of the variant allele (Pro7) of NPY gene was comparable in subjects with OSA (3.5%) and without OSA (3.6%; χ2= 0.001, p = 0.94). This study reveals a significantly higher frequency of PPARγ2 (Ala12) allele in obese Asian Indians with OSA when compared to obese Asian Indians without OSA.

  3. Effects of amaranth addition on the pro-vitamin A content, and physical and antioxidant properties of extruded pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize snacks.

    PubMed

    Beswa, Daniso; Dlamini, Nomusa R; Amonsou, Eric O; Siwela, Muthulisi; Derera, John

    2016-01-15

    Pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize snacks with added leafy vegetable may have a potential as nutritious and health-promoting products, especially in addressing vitamin A deficiency, which is prevalent in developing regions. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of adding amaranth leaf powder on the physical, antioxidant properties and pro-vitamin A content of extruded pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize snacks. Extruded snacks were processed using four pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize varieties that were composited with amaranth leaf powder at 0%, 1% and 3% (w/w) substitution levels. At higher amaranth concentration, the expansion ratio of the snacks decreased, while their hardness increased by as much as 93%. The physical quality of the snacks may therefore need improvement. As amaranth was increased, the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the snacks increased as well as the pro-vitamin A content. Pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize with added amaranth has a potential for use in nutritious and healthy extruded snacks. There are limited studies reporting on processing pro-vitamin A maize with complementary plant foods, which is common with white maize in southern Africa; thus the current study serves as a baseline. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Seasonal variability of NT-proBNP in Swedish primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Khezri, Banafsheh Seyyed; Cederblad, Maria; Helmersson-Karlqvist, Johanna; Karlsson, Bo; Melhus, Håkan; Larsson, Anders

    2017-09-14

    The aim of this study was to determine if there is a seasonal variation in the widely used heart failure marker NT-proBNP. The study included all primary care requests for NT-proBNP in the county of Uppsala, Sweden, between January 2007 and December 2015. For seasonal variation, the NT-proBNP results for individual months were compared. The NT-proBNP values were highest in July to September, but there was also a minor peak in December-January. In conclusion, a seasonal periodicity for NT-proBNP was demonstrated in primary care patients. The data could be useful for practitioners for evaluation of NT-proBNP results and monitoring of patients with heart failure.

  5. ProQ3D: improved model quality assessments using deep learning.

    PubMed

    Uziela, Karolis; Menéndez Hurtado, David; Shu, Nanjiang; Wallner, Björn; Elofsson, Arne

    2017-01-03

    Protein quality assessment is a long-standing problem in bioinformatics. For more than a decade we have developed state-of-art predictors by carefully selecting and optimising inputs to a machine learning method. The correlation has increased from 0.60 in ProQ to 0.81 in ProQ2 and 0.85 in ProQ3 mainly by adding a large set of carefully tuned descriptions of a protein. Here, we show that a substantial improvement can be obtained using exactly the same inputs as in ProQ2 or ProQ3 but replacing the support vector machine by a deep neural network. This improves the Pearson correlation to 0.90 (0.85 using ProQ2 input features).

  6. Midregional pro-adrenomedullin plasma concentrations are blunted in severe preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Matson, Brooke C.; Corty, Robert W.; Karpinich, Natalie O.; Murtha, Amy P.; Valdar, William; Grotegut, Chad A.; Caron, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Levels of the peptide hormone adrenomedullin (AM) are elevated during normal pregnancy, but whether this differs during complications of pregnancy remains unresolved. AM can be quantified by measuring its preprohormone byproduct, midregional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM). MR-pro ADM has shown prognostic value as a biomarker of heart failure, sepsis, and community-acquired pneumonia. Given the relevance of AM to pregnancy, we tested the hypothesis that MR-proADM provides a biomarker for preeclampsia. We find that MR-proADM plasma concentrations are blunted in severe preeclampsia and that MR-proADM is similarly effective as established biomarkers endoglin and placental growth factor at discriminating patients with severe preeclampsia from controls. PMID:25043691

  7. N-terminal pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) and mortality risk in early inflammatory polyarthritis: results from the Norfolk Arthritis Registry (NOAR)

    PubMed Central

    Mirjafari, Hoda; Welsh, Paul; Verstappen, Suzanne M M; Wilson, Paddy; Marshall, Tarnya; Edlin, Helena; Bunn, Diane; Chipping, Jacqueline; Lunt, Mark; Symmons, Deborah P M; Sattar, Naveed; Bruce, Ian N

    2014-01-01

    Background We measured N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP), a marker of cardiac dysfunction, in an inception cohort with early inflammatory polyarthritis (IP) and assessed its association with disease phenotype, cardiovascular disease (CVD), all-cause and CVD related mortality. Methods Subjects with early IP were recruited to the Norfolk Arthritis Register from January 2000 to December 2008 and followed up to death or until March 2010 including any data from the national death register. The associations of baseline NT-pro-BNP with IP related factors and CVD were assessed by linear regression. Cox proportional hazards models examined the independent association of baseline NT-pro-BNP with all-cause and CVD mortality. Results We studied 960 early IP subjects; 163 (17%) had prior CVD. 373 (39%) patients had a baseline NT-pro-BNP levels ≥100 pg/ml. NT-pro-BNP was associated with age, female gender, HAQ score, CRP, current smoking, history of hypertension, prior CVD and the presence of carotid plaque. 92 (10%) IP subjects died including 31 (3%) from CVD. In an age and gender adjusted analysis, having a raised NT-pro-BNP level (≥100 pg/ml) was associated with both all-cause and CVD mortality (adjusted HR (95% CI) 2.36 (1.42 to 3.94) and 3.40 (1.28 to 9.03), respectively). These findings were robust to adjustment for conventional CVD risk factors and prevalent CVD. Conclusions In early IP patients, elevated NT-pro-BNP is related to HAQ and CRP and predicts all-cause and CVD mortality independently of conventional CVD risk factors. Further study is required to identify whether NT-pro-BNP may be clinically useful in targeting intensive interventions to IP patients at greatest risk of CVD. PMID:23511225

  8. N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) –based score can predict in-hospital mortality in patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ya-Ting; Tseng, Yuan-Teng; Chu, Tung-Wei; Chen, John; Lai, Min-Yu; Tang, Woung-Ru; Shiao, Chih-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Serum N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) testing is recommended in the patients with heart failure (HF). We hypothesized that NT-pro-BNP, in combination with other clinical factors in terms of a novel NT-pro BNP-based score, may provide even better predictive power for in-hospital mortality among patients with HF. A retrospective study enrolled adult patients with hospitalization-requiring HF who fulfilled the predefined criteria during the period from January 2011 to December 2013. We proposed a novel scoring system consisting of several independent predictors including NT-pro-BNP for predicting in-hospital mortality, and then compared the prognosis-predictive power of the novel NT-pro BNP-based score with other prognosis-predictive scores. A total of 269 patients were enrolled in the current study. Factors such as “serum NT-pro-BNP level above 8100 mg/dl,” “age above 79 years,” “without taking angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blocker,” “without taking beta-blocker,” “without taking loop diuretics,” “with mechanical ventilator support,” “with non-invasive ventilator support,” “with vasopressors use,” and “experience of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation” were found as independent predictors. A novel NT-pro BNP-based score composed of these risk factors was proposed with excellent predictability for in-hospital mortality. The proposed novel NT-pro BNP-based score was extremely effective in predicting in-hospital mortality in HF patients. PMID:27411951

  9. 78 FR 57796 - Safety Zone; Pro Hydro-X Tour, Atlantic Ocean, Islamorada, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Pro Hydro-X Tour, Atlantic Ocean... Hydro- X Tour. The Pro Hydro-X Tour is a series of Jet Ski races. The race course is in an oval configuration. There will be 7 Jet Skis on the course for each race. The Pro Hydro-X Tour is scheduled to take...

  10. Computational Thermodynamics Characterization of 7075, 7039, and 7020 Aluminum Alloys Using JMatPro

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Computational Thermodynamics Characterization of 7075, 7039, and 7020 Aluminum Alloys Using JMatPro by John F. Chinella and Zhanli Guo...ARL-TR-5660 September 2011 Computational Thermodynamics Characterization of 7075, 7039, and 7020 Aluminum Alloys Using JMatPro John F...Computational Thermodynamics Characterization of 7075, 7039, and 7020 Aluminum Alloys Using JMatPro 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  11. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of pro-drugs of VLA-4 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Huryn, Donna M; Ashwell, Susan; Baudy, Reinhardt; Dressen, Darren B; Gallaway, William; Grant, Francine S; Konradi, Andrei; Ley, Robert W; Petusky, Susan; Pleiss, Michael A; Sarantakis, Dimitri; Semko, Christopher M; Sherman, Mary M; Tio, Cesar; Zhang, Lu

    2004-04-05

    A pro-drug strategy to identify orally efficacious VLA-4 antagonists is described. Potential pro-drugs were evaluated for their physical chemical characteristics and in vitro properties, including solubility, stability, permeability and plasma stability. Based on this characterization, promising compounds were identified for in vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation. These studies resulted in the identification of a pro-drug that exhibited desirable blood levels in PK studies in several different species.

  12. 26 CFR 1.1059(e)-1 - Non-pro rata redemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Non-pro rata redemptions. 1.1059(e)-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Special Rules § 1.1059(e)-1 Non-pro rata redemptions. (a) In general. Section 1059(d... 1059(e)(1). For example, if a redemption of stock is not pro rata as to all shareholders, any amount...

  13. ProBiS: a web server for detection of structurally similar protein binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Konc, Janez; Janežič, Dušanka

    2010-01-01

    A web server, ProBiS, freely available at http://probis.cmm.ki.si, is presented. This provides access to the program ProBiS (Protein Binding Sites), which detects protein binding sites based on local structural alignments. Detailed instructions and user guidelines for use of ProBiS are available at the server under ‘HELP’ and selected examples are provided under ‘EXAMPLES’. PMID:20504855

  14. FTY720/Fingolimod Reduces Synucleinopathy and Improves Gut Motility in A53T Mice: CONTRIBUTIONS OF PRO-BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR (PRO-BDNF) AND MATURE BDNF.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Martínez, Guadalupe; Vargas-Medrano, Javier; Gil-Tommee, Carolina; Medina, David; Garza, Nathan T; Yang, Barbara; Segura-Ulate, Ismael; Dominguez, Samantha J; Perez, Ruth G

    2016-09-23

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often have aggregated α-synuclein (aSyn) in enteric nervous system (ENS) neurons, which may be associated with the development of constipation. This occurs well before the onset of classic PD motor symptoms. We previously found that aging A53T transgenic (Tg) mice closely model PD-like ENS aSyn pathology, making them appropriate for testing potential PD therapies. Here we show that Tg mice overexpressing mutant human aSyn develop ENS pathology by 4 months. We then evaluated the responses of Tg mice and their WT littermates to the Food and Drug Administration-approved drug FTY720 (fingolimod, Gilenya) or vehicle control solution from 5 months of age. Long term oral FTY720 in Tg mice reduced ENS aSyn aggregation and constipation, enhanced gut motility, and increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) but produced no significant change in WT littermates. A role for BDNF was directly assessed in a cohort of young A53T mice given vehicle, FTY720, the Trk-B receptor inhibitor ANA-12, or FTY720 + ANA-12 from 1 to 4 months of age. ANA-12-treated Tg mice developed more gut aSyn aggregation as well as constipation, whereas FTY720-treated Tg mice had reduced aSyn aggregation and less constipation, occurring in part by increasing both pro-BDNF and mature BDNF levels. The data from young and old Tg mice revealed FTY720-associated neuroprotection and reduced aSyn pathology, suggesting that FTY720 may also benefit PD patients and others with synucleinopathy. Another finding was a loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in gut neurons with aggregated aSyn, comparable with our prior findings in the CNS.

  15. Cloning and characterization of prophenoloxidase A3 (proPOA3) from Culex pipiens pallens

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dan; Sun, Yan; Hao, Shunhua; Chen, Lin; Xiong, Chunrong; Ma, Lei; Zhang, Donghui; Hong, Shanchao; Shi, Linna; Gong, Maoqing; Zhou, Huayun; Yu, Xinyou; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

    2012-01-01

    The prophenoloxidase subunit A3 (proPOA3) gene was cloned from Culex pipiens pallens, which had an open reading frame of 2,061 bp encoding a putative 686 amino acid protein. The deduced amino acid sequence shares 98% with proPOA3 from Cx. quinquefasciatus. ProPOA3 is expressed at all developmental stages of Cx. pipiens pallens. Significant negative correlation was observed between proPOA3 expression and deltamethrin resistance in resistant Cx. pipiens pallens. Furthermore, proPOA3 expression levels were significantly lower in deltamethrin-resistant mosquitoes than in susceptible mosquitoes collected at four locations in Eastern China. However, we did not find any substantial change in proPOA3 expression in field-collected resistant Anopheles mosquitoes. Moreover, overexpressing proPOA3 in C6/36 cells led to more sensitivity to deltamethrin treatment. In laboratory and field-collected resistant Cx. pipiens pallens, a valine to isoleucine mutation (769G>A) and two synonymous mutations (1116G>C and 1116G>A) were identified in proPOA3. In addition, the mutation frequency of 769G>A and 1116G>C increased gradually, which corresponded with raised deltamethrin resistance levels. Taken together, our study provides the first evidence that proPOA3 may play a role in the regulation of deltamethrin-resistance in Cx. pipiens pallens. PMID:22561195

  16. Evidence for ProTα-TLR4/MD-2 binding: molecular dynamics and gravimetric assay studies.

    PubMed

    Omotuyi, Olaposi; Matsunaga, Hayato; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    During preconditioning, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) selectively activates TLR4/MD-2/Toll/IL-1 receptor-domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β (TRIF) pathway instead of pro-inflammatory myeloid differentiation protein-88 (MyD88)/MyD88-adaptor-like protein (MAL) pathway. Extracellular prothymosin alpha (ProTα) is also known to selectively activate the TLR4/MD2/TRIF-IRF3 pathway in certain diseased conditions. In the current study, biophysical evidence for ProTα/TLR4/MD-2 complex formation and its interaction dynamics have been studied. Gravimetric assay was used to investigate ProTα/TLR4/MD-2 complex formation while molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was used to study its interaction dynamics. Through electrostatic interaction, full-length ProTα (F-ProTα) C-terminal peptide (aa 91 - 111) superficially interacts with similar TLR4/MD-2 (KD = 273.36 nm vs 16.07 μg/ml [LPS]) conformation with LPS at an overlapping three-dimensional space while F-ProTα is hinged to the TLR4 scaffold by one-amino acid shift-Mosoian domain (aa-51 - 90). Comparatively, F-ProTα better stabilizes MD-2 metastable states transition and mediates higher TLR4/MD-2 interaction than LPS. ProTα via its C-terminal peptide (aa 91 - 111) exhibits in vitro biophysical contact with TLR4/MD-2 complex conformation recognized by LPS at overlapping LPS-binding positions.

  17. Inhibitory properties of cysteine protease pro-peptides from barley confer resistance to spider mite feeding.

    PubMed

    Santamaria, M Estrella; Arnaiz, Ana; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Martinez, Manuel; Diaz, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    C1A plant cysteine proteases are synthesized as pre-pro-enzymes that need to be processed to become active by the pro-peptide claves off from its cognate enzyme. These pro-sequences play multifunctional roles including the capacity to specifically inhibit their own as well as other C1A protease activities from diverse origin. In this study, it is analysed the potential role of C1A pro-regions from barley as regulators of cysteine proteases in target phytophagous arthropods (coleopteran and acari). The in vitro inhibitory action of these pro-sequences, purified as recombinant proteins, is demonstrated. Moreover, transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing different fragments of HvPap-1 barley gene containing the pro-peptide sequence were generated and the acaricide function was confirmed by bioassays conducted with the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Feeding trials resulted in a significant reduction of leaf damage in the transgenic lines expressing the pro-peptide in comparison to non-transformed control and strongly correlated with an increase in mite mortality. Additionally, the analysis of the expression levels of a selection of potential mite targets (proteases and protease inhibitors) revealed a mite strategy to counteract the inhibitory activity produced by the C1A barley pro-prodomain. These findings demonstrate that pro-peptides can control mite pests and could be applied as defence proteins in biotechnological systems.

  18. Inhibitory Properties of Cysteine Protease Pro-Peptides from Barley Confer Resistance to Spider Mite Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Martinez, Manuel; Diaz, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    C1A plant cysteine proteases are synthesized as pre-pro-enzymes that need to be processed to become active by the pro-peptide claves off from its cognate enzyme. These pro-sequences play multifunctional roles including the capacity to specifically inhibit their own as well as other C1A protease activities from diverse origin. In this study, it is analysed the potential role of C1A pro-regions from barley as regulators of cysteine proteases in target phytophagous arthropods (coleopteran and acari). The in vitro inhibitory action of these pro-sequences, purified as recombinant proteins, is demonstrated. Moreover, transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing different fragments of HvPap-1 barley gene containing the pro-peptide sequence were generated and the acaricide function was confirmed by bioassays conducted with the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Feeding trials resulted in a significant reduction of leaf damage in the transgenic lines expressing the pro-peptide in comparison to non-transformed control and strongly correlated with an increase in mite mortality. Additionally, the analysis of the expression levels of a selection of potential mite targets (proteases and protease inhibitors) revealed a mite strategy to counteract the inhibitory activity produced by the C1A barley pro-prodomain. These findings demonstrate that pro-peptides can control mite pests and could be applied as defence proteins in biotechnological systems. PMID:26039069

  19. Human IGF1 pro-forms induce breast cancer cell proliferation via the IGF1 receptor.

    PubMed

    De Santi, Mauro; Annibalini, Giosuè; Barbieri, Elena; Villarini, Anna; Vallorani, Luciana; Contarelli, Serena; Berrino, Franco; Stocchi, Vilberto; Brandi, Giorgio

    2016-04-01

    IGF1 is a key regulator of tissue growth and development and has been implicated in the initiation and progression of various cancers, including breast cancer. Through IGF1 mRNA splicing different precursor pro-peptides, i.e., the IGF1Ea, IGF1Eb and IGF1Ec pro-forms, are formed whose biological roles in the pathogenesis of breast cancer have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to assess the biological activity of the IGF1 pro-forms in human breast cancer-derived cells. The different IGF1 pro-forms were generated through transient transfection of HEK293 cells with the respective vector constructs. The resulting conditioned media were applied in vitro to MCF7, T47D and ZR751 breast cancer-derived cell cultures. The recombinant human IGF1 pro-forms were also tested for their binding affinity to an anti-IGF1 specific antibody by immunoprecipitation. To determine whether the IGF1 pro-forms induce cell proliferation, mature IGF1 was neutralised in HEK293-derived conditioned media. We found that the IGF1 pro-forms were the only forms that were produced intra-cellularly, whereas both mature IGF1 and the IGF1 pro-forms were detected extra-cellularly. We also found that E peptides can impair the IGF1 pro-form binding affinity for the anti-IGF1 antibody and, thus, hamper an accurate measurement of the IGF1 pro-forms. Additionally, we found that the IGF1 antibody can completely inhibit IGF1-induced breast cancer cell proliferation and IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) phosphorylation, wheras the same antibody was found to only partially inhibit the biological activity of the pro-forms. Moreover, we found that the IGF1 pro-form activities can completely be inhibited by neutralising the IGF1R. Finally, we compared the bioactivity of the IGF1 pro-forms to that of mature IGF1, and found that the IGF1 pro-forms were less capable of phosphorylating the IGF1R in the breast cancer-derived cells tested. Our data indicate that IGF1 pro-forms can induce breast cancer cell

  20. The limits to pride: A test of the pro-anorexia hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Talea; Blanton, Hart

    2016-01-01

    Many social psychological models propose that positive self-conceptions promote self-esteem. An extreme version of this hypothesis is advanced in "pro-anorexia" communities: identifying with anorexia, in conjunction with disordered eating, can lead to higher self-esteem. The current study empirically tested this hypothesis. Results challenge the pro-anorexia hypothesis. Although those with higher levels of pro-anorexia identification trended towards higher self-esteem with increased disordered eating, this did not overcome the strong negative main effect of pro-anorexia identification. These data suggest a more effective strategy for promoting self-esteem is to encourage rejection of disordered eating and an anorexic identity.

  1. Quantitative comparison of calcium hydroxide removal by EndoActivator, ultrasonic and ProTaper file agitation techniques: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Khaleel, Huda Yasir; Al-Ashaw, Ahmed Jawad; Yang, Yan; Pang, Ai-hui; Ma, Jing-zhi

    2013-02-01

    Calcium hydroxide (CH) dressing residues can compromise endodontic sealing. This study aimed to evaluate the amount of remaining CH in root canals after mechanical removal by four groups of irrigation techniques including needle irrigation only, ProTaper file, EndoActivator, and ultrasonic file. Fifteen extracted single-rooted teeth were collected and used for all four groups. The samples were firstly prepared by ProTaper rotary instruments, and then sectioned longitudinally through the long axis of the root canals, followed by final reassembling by wires. CH was kept in the canals for 7 days setting. The removal procedure began with 5 mL of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) followed by 1 mL of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and a final irrigation with 5 mL of 2.5% NaOCl solution for all groups. No additional agitation of the irrigant was performed in group 1, while agitation for 20 s between irrigants was done with F2 ProTaper rotary file in group 2, EndoActivator with tip size 25/.04 in group 3 and by an ultrasonic file 25/.02 in group 4. The total activation time was 60 s. The roots were then disassembled and captured by digital camera. The ratio of CH coated surface area to the surface area of the whole canal as well as each third of the canal was calculated. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA using post hoc Tukey test. Results showed that none of the four techniques could remove all CH. No significant difference was found between EndoActivator and ultrasonic techniques. However, they both removed significantly more CH than ProTaper and needle irrigation (P=0.0001). In conclusion, the sonic and ultrasonic agitation techniques were more effective in removing intracanal medicaments than the ProTaper rotary file and needle irrigation in all thirds of the canal.

  2. Effect of Laser-Activated Irrigation on the Push-Out Bond Strength of ProRoot Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Biodentine in Furcal Perforations.

    PubMed

    Nagas, Emre; Kucukkaya, Selen; Eymirli, Ayhan; Uyanik, Mehmet Ozgur; Cehreli, Zafer Cavit

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of erbium, chromium: yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser-activated irrigation (LAI) of NaOCl on the push-out bond strength of furcal perforations repaired with ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Biodentine. Several studies investigated the adhesion of calcium silicate-based cements after exposure to endodontic irrigants, while effect of LAI on bond strength remains to be elucidated. Bur-cut furcal perforations with standard dimensions were created in 100 extracted human mandibular molars. Teeth were randomly distributed into two groups (n = 50/group) according to the repair material applied: (1) ProRoot MTA or (2) Biodentine. The specimens were further assigned into five subgroups according to the irrigation regimens used over the set materials: (a) distilled water with needle irrigation; (b) 5.25% NaOCl with needle irrigation; (c) distilled water with LAI; (d) 5.25% NaOCl with LAI; and (e) no irrigation (control). Bond strengths of the test materials were assessed by using push-out bond strength test. Biodentine showed significantly higher dislocation resistance than ProRoot MTA (p < 0.05). Laser activation of 5.25% NaOCl and distilled water did not significantly affect the push-out bond strength results (p > 0.05). Biodentine showed higher dislocation resistance than ProRoot MTA as a perforation repair material. Er,Cr:YSGG laser activation of irrigation aqueous solutions had no adverse effect on push-out bond strength of Biodentine and ProRoot MTA.

  3. The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Cosmo, Mario L.; Estes, Robert D.; Sanmartin, Juan; Pelaez, Jesus; Ruiz, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    This Final Report covers the following main topics: 1) Brief Description of ProSEDS; 2) Mission Analysis; 3) Dynamics Reference Mission; 4) Dynamics Stability; 5) Deployment Control; 6) Updated System Performance; 7) Updated Mission Analysis; 8) Updated Dynamics Reference Mission; 9) Updated Deployment Control Profiles and Simulations; 10) Updated Reference Mission; 11) Evaluation of Power Delivered by the Tether; 12) Deployment Control Profile Ref. #78 and Simulations; 13) Kalman Filters for Mission Estimation; 14) Analysis/Estimation of Deployment Flight Data; 15) Comparison of ED Tethers and Electrical Thrusters; 16) Dynamics Analysis for Mission Starting at a Lower Altitude; 17) Deployment Performance at a Lower Altitude; 18) Satellite Orbit after a Tether Cut; 19) Deployment with Shorter Dyneema Tether Length; 20) Interactive Software for ED Tethers.

  4. Variables related to pro-choice attitudes among undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Wright, L S; Rogers, R R

    1987-01-01

    Pro-choice attitudes among undergraduates were assessed to determine the extent of anti-abortion sentiments during President Reagan's first term in office, which was marked by his support of the anti-abortion issue as well as by increased media coverage of the right-to-life movement. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 840 participants enrolled in introductory psychology classes at a university in central Texas during the week prior to the presidential election of 1984. Students were asked if they would approve or disapprove of abortion under four different circumstances. Results indicated that the majority of both males and females were in favor of allowing abortion under all four conditions.

  5. Pro-environmental behavior: rational choice meets moral motivation.

    PubMed

    Turaga, Rama Mohana R; Howarth, Richard B; Borsuk, Mark E

    2010-01-01

    The determinants of individual behaviors that provide shared environmental benefits are a longstanding theme in social science research. Alternative behavioral models yield markedly different predictions and policy recommendations. This paper reviews and compares the literatures from two disciplines that appear to be moving toward a degree of convergence. In social psychology, moral theories of pro-environmental behavior have focused on the influence of personal moral norms while recognizing that external factors, such as costs and incentives, ultimately limit the strength of the norm-behavior relationship. Rational choice models, such as the theory of planned behavior in social psychology and the theories of voluntary provision of public goods in economics, have sought to incorporate the effects of personal norms and to measure their importance in explaining behaviors, such as recycling and the demand for green products. This paper explores the relationship between these approaches and their implications for the theory and practice of ecological economics.

  6. The nephron (pro)renin receptor: function and significance.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Nirupama; Kohan, Donald E

    2016-12-01

    The (pro)renin receptor (PRR) is a multifunctional protein that is part of the renin-angiotensin system and is an important accessory molecule for the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase. The PRR is widely expressed in the kidney with relatively high abundance in the distal nephron. Determining the physiological relevance of the PRR has been challenging due to early lethality in whole animal and cell-specific PRR knockout models. Recently, viable renal cell-specific PRR knockout mice have been developed; these studies suggest that PRR in the nephron can modulate renal function via angiotensin II (ANG II)-dependent and -independent cell signaling pathways. In this mini-review, we highlight new developments in nephron PRR function in health and in pathophysiological conditions.

  7. Influence of pro-algesic foods on chronic pain conditions.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Brian Edwin

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines current knowledge about putative "pro-algesic" dietary components, and discusses whether limiting the intake of these substances can help improve chronic pain. Although there is a common impression that numerous food components, natural and synthetic, can cause or worsen pain symptoms, very few of these substances have been investigated. This article focuses on four substances, monosodium glutamate, aspartame, arachidonic acid, and caffeine, where research shows that overconsumption may induce or worsen pain. For each substance, the mechanism whereby it may act to induce pain is examined, and any clinical trials examining the effectiveness of reducing the intake of the substance discussed. While all four substances are associated with pain, decreased consumption of them does not consistently reduce pain.

  8. A Methodological Critique of the ProPublica Surgeon Scorecard

    PubMed Central

    Friedberg, Mark W.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Shahian, David M.; Safran, Dana Gelb; Bilimoria, Karl Y.; Elliott, Marc N.; Damberg, Cheryl L.; Dimick, Justin B.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract On July 14, 2015, ProPublica published its Surgeon Scorecard, which displays “Adjusted Complication Rates” for individual, named surgeons for eight surgical procedures performed in hospitals. Public reports of provider performance have the potential to improve the quality of health care that patients receive. A valid performance report can drive quality improvement and usefully inform patients' choices of providers. However, performance reports with poor validity and reliability are potentially damaging to all involved. This article critiques the methods underlying the Scorecard and identifies opportunities for improvement. Until these opportunities are addressed, the authors advise users of the Scorecard—most notably, patients who might be choosing their surgeons—not to consider the Scorecard a valid or reliable predictor of the health outcomes any individual surgeon is likely to provide. The authors hope that this methodological critique will contribute to the development of more-valid and more-reliable performance reports in the future. PMID:28083411

  9. A Methodological Critique of the ProPublica Surgeon Scorecard.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Mark W; Pronovost, Peter J; Shahian, David M; Safran, Dana Gelb; Bilimoria, Karl Y; Elliott, Marc N; Damberg, Cheryl L; Dimick, Justin B; Zaslavsky, Alan M

    2016-05-09

    On July 14, 2015, ProPublica published its Surgeon Scorecard, which displays "Adjusted Complication Rates" for individual, named surgeons for eight surgical procedures performed in hospitals. Public reports of provider performance have the potential to improve the quality of health care that patients receive. A valid performance report can drive quality improvement and usefully inform patients' choices of providers. However, performance reports with poor validity and reliability are potentially damaging to all involved. This article critiques the methods underlying the Scorecard and identifies opportunities for improvement. Until these opportunities are addressed, the authors advise users of the Scorecard-most notably, patients who might be choosing their surgeons-not to consider the Scorecard a valid or reliable predictor of the health outcomes any individual surgeon is likely to provide. The authors hope that this methodological critique will contribute to the development of more-valid and more-reliable performance reports in the future.

  10. ProRaman: a program to classify Raman spectra.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Alderico Rodrigues; Silveira, Landulfo; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares

    2009-06-01

    The program ProRaman, developed for the Matlab platform, provides an interactive and flexible graphic interface to develop efficient algorithms to classify Raman spectra into two or three different classes. A set of preprocessing algorithms to decrease the variable dimensionality and to extract the main features which improve the correct classification ratio was implemented. The implemented classification algorithms were based on the Mahalanobis distance and neural network. To verify the functionality of the developed program, 72 spectra from human artery samples, 36 of which had been histopathologically diagnosed as non-diseased and 36 as having an atherosclerotic lesion, were processed using a combination of different preprocessing and classification techniques. The best result was accomplished when the variables were selected from the Raman spectrum shift range from 1200 to 1700 cm(-1), then preprocessed using wavelets for compression and principal component analysis for feature extraction and, finally, classified by a multilayer perceptron with one hidden layer with eight neurons.

  11. Using JMatPro to model materials properties and behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, N.; Guo, U. K. Z.; Li, X.; Miodownik, A. P.; Schillé, J.-Ph.

    2003-12-01

    This article describes the development of a new multi-platform software program called JMatPro for calculating the properties and behavior of multi-component alloys. These properties are wide ranging, including thermophysical and physical properties (from room temperature to the liquid state), time-temperature-transformation/continuous-cooling transformation diagrams, stress/strain diagrams, proof and tensile stress, hardness, coarsening of γ' and γ″, and creep. A feature of the new program is that the calculations are based on sound physical principles rather than purely statistical methods. Thus, many of the shortcomings of methods such as regression analysis can be overcome. With this program, sensitivity to microstructure can be included for many of the properties and the true inter-relationship between properties can be developed, for example in the modeling of creep and precipitation hardening.

  12. Pro-oxidant and antioxidant processes in aquatic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Canesi, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Most aquatic organisms behave as conformers with respect to environmental variables, including changes in O2 availability. Aquatic species that show tolerance to hypoxia/anoxia or hyperoxia can be excellent models for investigating physiological and biochemical adaptations that deal with changing O2 and consequent changes in metabolic rate and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, I summarize selected data on ROS production and antioxidant defenses in a model marine invertebrate, the bivalve Mytilus, under different environmental and physiological conditions. An example of other bivalves adapted to particular environments (the Antarctic Sea) is also reported. These studies contributed to the knowledge on pro-oxidant and antioxidant processes in aquatic invertebrates from comparative and environmental perspectives. A common role for metallothioneins in antioxidant protection in mammals and aquatic invertebrates is underlined in different conditions, from human disease to responses to environmental exposure to heavy metals.

  13. Further evidence for direct pro-resorptive actions of FSH.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Peng, Yuanzhen; Liu, Xuan; Li, Jianhua; Agrawal, Manasi; Robinson, Lisa J; Iqbal, Jameel; Blair, Harry C; Zaidi, Mone

    2010-03-26

    We confirm that FSH stimulates osteoclast formation, function and survival to enhance bone resorption. It does so via the activation of a pertussis toxin-sensitive G(i)-coupled FSH receptor that we and others have identified on murine and human osteoclast precursors and mature osteoclasts. FSH additionally enhances the production of several osteoclastogenic cytokines, importantly TNFalpha, likely within the bone marrow microenvironment, to augment its pro-resorptive action. FSH levels in humans rise before estrogen falls, and this hormonal change coincides with the most rapid rates of bone loss. On the basis of accumulating evidence, we reaffirm that FSH contributes to the rapid peri-menopausal and early post-menopausal bone loss, which might thus be amenable to FSH blockade.

  14. Parallel Ab initio quantum chemistry on pentium-pro networks

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, E.; Janssen, C.; Colvin, M.

    1997-12-31

    As the performance of inexpensive PCS approaches that of the fastest single processor supercomputers, high-end computing is increasingly dominated by massively parallel computers with hundreds or thousands of CPUs. Although such systems are essential for many applications, smaller parallel computers can achieve much lower price/performance ratios using commodity processors and interconnections. To investigate the feasibility of this approach for parallel quantum chemistry we have constructed a 56 processor parallel computer from fourteen 4-processor shared memory Pentium-Pro motherboards. These are interconnected by a 100 Mbit/sec. fast ethernet switch and each motherboard has 256 Mbytes of RAM and 1 Gbyte of disk. The system runs the LINUX operating system which supports symmetric multiprocessing on each four processor motherboard. Although some bottlenecks still exist in the inter-system communication, we have achieved very reasonable speedups running our massively parallel quantum chemistry program (MPQC).

  15. Renin, (pro)renin and receptor: an update.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Genevieve

    2011-03-01

    PRR [(pro)renin receptor] was named after its biological characteristics, namely the binding of renin and of its inactive precursor prorenin, that triggers intracellular signalling involving ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) 1/2. However the gene encoding for PRR is named ATP6ap2 (ATPase 6 accessory protein 2) because PRR was initially found as a truncated form co-purifying with V-ATPase (vacuolar H+-ATPase). There are now data showing that this interaction is not only physical, but also functional in the kidney and the heart. However, the newest and most fascinating development of PRR is its involvement in both the canonical Wnt/β-catenin and non-canonical Wnt/PCP (planar cell polarity) pathways, which are essential for adult and embryonic stem cell biology, embryonic development and disease, including cancer. In the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, it has been shown that PRR acts as an adaptor between the Wnt receptor LRP5/6 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5/6) and Fz (frizzled) and that the proton gradient generated by the V-ATPase in endosomes is necessary for LRP5/6 phosphorylation and β-catenin activation. In the Wnt/PCP pathway, PRR binds to Fz and controls its asymetrical subcellular distribution and therefore the polarization of the cells in a plane of a tissue. These essential cellular functions of PRR are independent of renin and open new avenues on the pathophysiological role of PRR. The present review will summarize our knowledge of (pro)renin-dependent functions of PRR and will discuss the newly recognized functions of PRR related to the V-ATPase and to Wnt signalling.

  16. Potential pro-arrhythmic effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tayeh, Osama; Farouk, Waleed; ElAzab, Abdo; Khald, Hassan; Curnis, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    A decline in mortality due to pump failure has been clearly documented after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), however the impact on sudden cardiac death and the development of malignant ventricular arrhythmias remains questionable. Our study aims to investigate this alleged pro-arrhythmic effect of CRT using surface electrocardiogram (ECG) markers of pro-arrhythmia. Methods Seventy five patients, who received CRT were included in this study. Manual measurement of corrected QT interval (QTc), Tpeak-end (Tp-e) interval, QT dispersion (QTd) and Tpeak-end dispersion during baseline 12 lead surface ECG and after applying atrial-biventricular pacing were done. Arrhythmias post CRT was recorded from ECG, 24 h holter monitoring or pacemaker programmer event recorder. Results QTc interval showed significant prolongation after CRT (498.9 ± 50.8 vs. 476.2 ± 41.6 msec, P = 0.0001). Comparing patients with major arrhythmogenic events (MAE) and increased frequency of premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) post CRT pacing to those patients without arrhythmias, there was a significant prolongation of the QTc interval (527 ± 63.29 vs. 496.95 ± 45.2 msec, P = 0.043) and Tp-e interval (94.16 ± 9 vs. 87.41 ± 16.37 msec, P = 0.049). While in the arrhythmogenic group, there was an insignificant decrease in QTd and Tpeak-end dispersion. Conclusion QTc and Tp-e intervals are a potential predictor of occurrence of MAE and PVCs. On the other hand, Tp-e dispersion and QTd did not show a predictive potential for arrhythmia. PMID:24174858

  17. Pro-poor health policies in poverty reduction strategies.

    PubMed

    Laterveer, Leontien; Niessen, Louis W; Yazbeck, Abdo S

    2003-06-01

    Since 1999, the International Monetary Fund and World Bank have required low-income countries soliciting for debt relief and financial support to prepare a Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP). The objective of this study is to arrive at a systematic assessment of the extent to which the first batch of interim PRSPs actually addresses the health of the poor and vulnerable. A literature study was used to design and test a semi-quantitative approach to assess the pro-poor focus of health policies in national documents. The approach was applied to the existing interim proposals for 23 Highly Indebted Poor Countries. Results show that a majority of proposals lack country-specific data on the distribution and composition of the burden of disease, a clear identification of health system constraints and an assessment of the impact of health services on the population. More importantly, they make little effort to analyze these issues in relation to the poor. Furthermore, only a small group explicitly includes the interests of the poor in health policy design. Attention to policies aiming at enhancing equity in public health spending is even more limited. Few papers that include expenditure proposals also show pro-poor focused health budgets. We conclude that our systematic assessment of a new international development policy instrument, PRSP, raises strong concerns about the attributed role of health in development and the limited emphasis on the poor, the supposed primary beneficiaries of this instrument. There is a need and an opportunity for the international development community to provide assistance and inputs as poor countries shift their policy thinking from an interim stage to fully developed national policies. This paper presents a menu of analytical and policy options that can be pursued.

  18. Infrared Spectroscopy of Mobility-Selected H+-Gly-Pro-Gly-Gly (GPGG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Antoine; Kamrath, Michael Z.; Perez, Marta A. S.; Glover, Matthew S.; Rothlisberger, U.; Clemmer, David E.; Rizzo, Thomas R.

    2015-09-01

    We report the first results from a new instrument capable of acquiring infrared spectra of mobility-selected ions. This demonstration involves using ion mobility to first separate the protonated peptide Gly-Pro-Gly-Gly (GPGG) into two conformational families with collisional cross-sections of 93.8 and 96.8 Å2. After separation, each family is independently analyzed by acquiring the infrared predissociation spectrum of the H2-tagged molecules. The ion mobility and spectroscopic data combined with density functional theory (DFT) based molecular dynamics simulations confirm the presence of one major conformer per family, which arises from cis/ trans isomerization about the proline residue. We induce isomerization between the two conformers by using collisional activation in the drift tube and monitor the evolution of the ion distribution with ion mobility and infrared spectroscopy. While the cis-proline species is the preferred gas-phase structure, its relative population is smaller than that of the trans-proline species in the initial ion mobility drift distribution. This suggests that a portion of the trans-proline ion population is kinetically trapped as a higher energy conformer and may retain structural elements from solution.

  19. Infrared Spectroscopy of Mobility-Selected H+-Gly-Pro-Gly-Gly (GPGG).

    PubMed

    Masson, Antoine; Kamrath, Michael Z; Perez, Marta A S; Glover, Matthew S; Rothlisberger, U; Clemmer, David E; Rizzo, Thomas R

    2015-09-01

    We report the first results from a new instrument capable of acquiring infrared spectra of mobility-selected ions. This demonstration involves using ion mobility to first separate the protonated peptide Gly-Pro-Gly-Gly (GPGG) into two conformational families with collisional cross-sections of 93.8 and 96.8 Å(2). After separation, each family is independently analyzed by acquiring the infrared predissociation spectrum of the H(2)-tagged molecules. The ion mobility and spectroscopic data combined with density functional theory (DFT) based molecular dynamics simulations confirm the presence of one major conformer per family, which arises from cis/trans isomerization about the proline residue. We induce isomerization between the two conformers by using collisional activation in the drift tube and monitor the evolution of the ion distribution with ion mobility and infrared spectroscopy. While the cis-proline species is the preferred gas-phase structure, its relative population is smaller than that of the trans-proline species in the initial ion mobility drift distribution. This suggests that a portion of the trans-proline ion population is kinetically trapped as a higher energy conformer and may retain structural elements from solution.

  20. Induction and characterization of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) pro-embryogenic masses.

    PubMed

    Pádua, Marlúcia S; Paiva, Luciano V; Labory, Claúdia R G; Alves, Eduardo; Stein, Vanessa C

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm is one of the most economically valuable oil seed plants, but the expansion of plantations has been limited by availability of seedlings, as the conventional propagation is through seeds, which have low germination rates. One possible solution for the large-scale production is the use of somatic embryogenesis. The aim of this study was evaluate the effects auxins 2,4-D and picloram on the induction of pro-embryogenic masses in E.guineenesis hybrid leaf explants and characterize, regarding embryogenic characteristics, with cytochemical and ultrastructural analysis. Specifically, in vitro plantlets leaves fragments were inoculated in Y3 culture medium supplemented by 2.4-D or picloram at different concentrations (0.0, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0 and 9.0 mg l⁻¹). After 90 days the presence/ absence of cell masses were evaluated. Both growth regulators efficiently induced cellular masses regardless of the concentrations applied. As the cell masses were not homogeneously formed, they were classified according to color and shape into four types: TYPE 1--elongated and translucent, TYPE 2--uneven and translucent, TYPE 3--globular and beige, TYPE 4--globular and white. Based on the anatomical and ultrastructural features, TYPE 2, 3 and 4 cell masses were considered to have the highest embryogenic potential and therefore may be most suited to large-scale vegetative propagation of oil palm.

  1. Pro-bullying attitudes among incarcerated juvenile delinquents: antisocial behavior, psychopathic tendencies and violent crime.

    PubMed

    Wiklund, Gunnar; Ruchkin, Vladislav V; Koposov, Roman A; Af Klinteberg, Britt

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate a new scale aimed at assessing antisocial attitudes, the Pro-bullying Attitude Scale (PAS), on a group of 259 voluntarily-recruited male juvenile delinquents from a juvenile correctional institution in Arkhangelsk, North-western Russia. Exploratory factor analysis gave a two-factor solution: Factor 1 denoted Callous/Dominance and Factor 2 denoted Manipulativeness/Impulsiveness. Subjects with complete data on PAS and Childhood Psychopathy Scale (CPS) (n=171) were divided into extreme groups (first and fourth quartiles) according to their total scores on PAS and the two factor scores, respectively. The extreme groups of total PAS and PAS Factor 1 differed in CPS ratings and in violent behavior as assessed by the Antisocial Behavior Checklist (ABC). They also differed in the personality dimension Harm Avoidance as measured by use of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and in delinquent and aggressive behavior as assessed by the Youth Self Report (YSR). The extreme groups of PAS Factor 2, in turn, differed in aggressive behavior as assessed by the YSR, and in the TCI scale Self-Directedness. When PAS was used as a continuous variable, total PAS and PAS Factor 1 (Callous/Dominance) were significantly positively related to registered violent crime. The possible usefulness of PAS in identifying high-risk individuals for bullying tendencies among incarcerated delinquents is discussed.

  2. Distinguishing Isomeric Peptides: The Unimolecular Reactivity and Structures of (LeuPro)M(+) and (ProLeu)M(+) (M = Alkali Metal).

    PubMed

    Jami-Alahmadi, Yasaman; Linford, Bryan D; Fridgen, Travis D

    2016-12-29

    The unimolecular chemistries and structures of gas-phase (ProLeu)M(+) and (LeuPro)M(+) complexes when M = Li, Na, Rb, and Cs have been explored using a combination of SORI-CID, IRMPD spectroscopy, and computational methods. CID of both (LeuPro)M(+) and (ProLeu)M(+) showed identical fragmentation pathways and could not be differentiated. Two of the fragmentation routes of both peptides produced ions at the same nominal mass as (Pro)M(+) and (Leu)M(+), respectively. For the litiated peptides, experiments revealed identical IRMPD spectra for each of the m/z 122 and 138 ions coming from both peptides. Comparison with computed IR spectra identified them as the (Pro)Li(+) and (Leu)Li(+), and it is concluded that both zwitterionic and canonical forms of (Pro)Li(+) exist in the ion population from CID of both (ProLeu)Li(+) and (LeuPro)Li(+). The two isomeric peptide complexes could be distinguished using IRMPD spectroscopy in both the fingerprint and the CH/NH/OH regions. The computed IR spectra for the lowest energy structures of each charge solvated complexes are consistent with the IRMPD spectra in both regions for all metal cation complexes. Through comparison between the experimental spectra, it was determined that in lithiated and sodiated ProLeu, metal cation is bound to both carbonyl oxygens and the amine nitrogen. In contrast, the larger metal cations are bound to the two carbonyls, while the amine nitrogen is hydrogen bonded to the amide hydrogen. In the lithiated and sodiated LeuPro complexes, the metal cation is bound to the amide carbonyl and the amine nitrogen while the amine nitrogen is hydrogen bonded to the carboxylic acid carbonyl. However, there is no hydrogen bond in the rubidiated and cesiated complexes; the metal cation is bound to both carbonyl oxygens and the amine nitrogen. Details of the position of the carboxylic acid C═O stretch were especially informative in the spectroscopic confirmation of the lowest energy computed structures.

  3. Solute atmospheres at dislocations

    DOE PAGES

    Hirth, John P.; Barnett, David M.; Hoagland, Richard G.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, a two-dimensional plane strain elastic solution is determined for the Cottrell solute atmosphere around an edge dislocation in an infinitely long cylinder of finite radius (the matrix), in which rows of solutes are represented by cylindrical rods with in-plane hydrostatic misfit (axial misfit is also considered). The periphery of the matrix is traction-free, thus introducing an image solute field which generates a solute-solute interaction energy that has not been considered previously. The relevant energy for the field of any distribution of solutes coexistent with a single edge dislocation along the (matrix) cylinder axis is determined, and coherencymore » effects are discussed and studied. Monte Carlo simulations accounting for all pertinent interactions over a range of temperatures are found to yield solute distributions different from classical results, namely, (1) Fermi-Dirac condensations at low temperatures at the free surface, (2) the majority of the atmosphere lying within an unexpectedly large non-linear interaction region near the dislocation core, and (3) temperature-dependent asymmetrical solute arrangements that promote bending. The solute distributions at intermediate temperatures show a 1/r dependence in agreement with previous linearized approximations. With a standard state of solute corresponding to a mean concentration, c0, the relevant interaction energy expression presented in this work is valid when extended to large concentrations for which Henry's Law and Vegard's Law do not apply.« less

  4. Association between the p53 codon 72 Arg/Pro polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma risk.

    PubMed

    Lv, Long; Wang, Ping; Zhou, Xiaoqing; Sun, Beicheng

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies regarding the association of p53 codon 72 Arg/Pro polymorphism with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk have provided conflicting and inconclusive findings. Thus, a meta-analysis of all currently available publications was performed to address this issue. Eleven individual case-control studies involving a total of 2,718 cases and 3,752 controls were identified after a systematic search of the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Wanfang databases. The strength of the association of p53 codon 72 Arg/Pro polymorphism with HCC risk was estimated by the pooled odds ratio (OR) with its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI). Subgroup analyses stratified by ethnicity, source of controls, gender, hepatitis virus infection status, and family history of HCC were also conducted to assess the association. Overall, significantly increased risk of HCC was identified among carriers of the homozygous genotype ProPro (ORProPro vs. ArgArg=1.38 (95 % CI, 1.03-1.85), P OR=0.033; ORProPro vs. ArgArg + ArgPro =1.28 (95 % CI, 1.03-1.59), P OR=0.026). In subgroup analysis by ethnicity, the pooled results suggested that the p53 codon 72 Arg/Pro polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of HCC in Asians and Caucasians (for Asians, ORProPro vs. ArgArg + ArgPro=1.17 (95 % CI, 1.02-1.34), P OR=0.025; for Caucasians, ORProPro vs. ArgArg = 1.65 (95 % CI, 1.07-2.56), P OR=0.025; ORProPro vs. ArgArg + ArgPro=1.74 (95 % CI, 1.14-2.66), P OR=0.010). Subgroup analyses by source of controls and hepatitis virus infection status further demonstrated the significant association, whereas stratification factors involving gender and family history of HCC did not modify the association between p53 codon 72 Arg/Pro polymorphism and HCC risk. This meta-analysis suggests that the p53 codon 72 Arg/Pro polymorphism may play a critical role in the development of HCC, and gender and family history of HCC may not modulate the effect of p53 codon 72 Arg/Pro in HCC risk.

  5. Microleakage of CEM Cement and ProRoot MTA as Furcal Perforation Repair Materials in Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Haghgoo, Roza; Arfa, Sara; Asgary, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Iatrogenic furcal perforation is a procedural accident in endodontic treatments of primary/permanent teeth; prognosis may be favorable if a complete seal with biomaterial is immediately established. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate microleakage of calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement and ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) for sealing primary molar furcal perforations. Materials and Methods This study was conducted on 38 extracted human primary molars. Furcation perforations were created in the pulp chamber floor. The teeth were divided randomly in two experimental groups (n=17) and two positive and negative controls (n=2). Perforations were then repaired with biomaterials. After 72 h, the teeth were submerged in 2% fuchsin dye solution for 24h. The samples were sectioned longitudinally and evaluated for dye leakage. Data analyzed statistically using ANOVA test. Results: The negative and positive controls behaved as expected. Dye microleakage was observed in all experimental samples; however, there was no statistically significant difference between the microleakage of MTA (4.411±2.042 mm) and CEM (3.647±1.040 mm) groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Based on the findings of this in vitro study, CEM and tooth-colored ProRoot MTA have similar sealing ability for furcal perforation repair of primary molar teeth. PMID:24171027

  6. Comparison of the pro-postoperative analgesia of intraoperative dexmedetomidine with and without loading dose following general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Wei; Yang, Haikou; Sun, Yong; Zhang, Jun; Li, Guangming; Zheng, Ying; Liu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Intraoperative dexemdetomidine (DEX) with or without loading dose is well-established to improve postoperative pain control in patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). This study was designed to compare the pro-analgesia effect between the 2 in patients received general anesthesia. Seventy patients shceduced abdominal surgery under general anesthesia were randomly assigned into 3 groups which were maintained using propofol/remifentanil/Ringer solution (PRR), propofol/remifentanil/dexmedetomidine with (PRDw) or without (PRDo) a loading dose of dexmedetomidine before induction. PRDw/o patients displayed a greater Romsay sedation score measured immediately after surgery. When compared with PRR patients, those from the PRDw/o group had an increased time to first request of postoperative morphine and decreased 24 hours total morphine consumption. No significant difference was observed between patients from the PRDw and PRDo groups with respect to these parameters. The present study suggests that the administration of a DEX loading dose does not affect the pro-analgesic effect of intraoperative use of DEX on morphine-based PCA. PMID:28207529

  7. 4S-Hydroxylation of Insulin at ProB28 Accelerates Hexamer Dissociation and Delays Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Lieblich, Seth A; Fang, Katharine Y; Cahn, Jackson K B; Rawson, Jeffrey; LeBon, Jeanne; Ku, H Teresa; Tirrell, David A

    2017-06-28

    Daily injections of insulin provide lifesaving benefits to millions of diabetics. But currently available prandial insulins are suboptimal: The onset of action is delayed by slow dissociation of the insulin hexamer in the subcutaneous space, and insulin forms amyloid fibrils upon storage in solution. Here we show, through the use of noncanonical amino acid mutagenesis, that replacement of the proline residue at position 28 of the insulin B-chain (ProB28) by (4S)-hydroxyproline (Hzp) yields an active form of insulin that dissociates more rapidly, and fibrillates more slowly, than the wild-type protein. Crystal structures of dimeric and hexameric insulin preparations suggest that a hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl group of Hzp and a backbone amide carbonyl positioned across the dimer interface may be responsible for the altered behavior. The effects of hydroxylation are stereospecific; replacement of ProB28 by (4R)-hydroxyproline (Hyp) causes little change in the rates of fibrillation and hexamer disassociation. These results demonstrate a new approach that fuses the concepts of medicinal chemistry and protein design, and paves the way to further engineering of insulin and other therapeutic proteins.

  8. Association between PPAR-γ2 Pro12Ala polymorphism and obesity: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ying-Shui; Li, Jie; Jin, Yue-Long; Chen, Yan; He, Lian-Ping

    2015-06-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ2 (PPAR-γ2) gene has been reported in the pathogeny of obesity. However, the results have been inconsistent. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to acquire a more accurate assessment of the association between PPAR-γ2 Pro12Ala polymorphism and obesity. PubMed, Wan Fang (Chinese) databases, Chinese Biomedical Medical databases, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched to identify eligible studies. Finally, 25 studies (6491 cases and 8242 controls) were enrolled in this meta-analysis. The effect summary odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence interval (CI) was applied. Random-effects or fixed-effects model was performed based on the heterogeneity. STATA 12.0 was applied for this meta-analysis. The combined results showed that PPAR-γ Pro12Ala polymorphism was associated with the obesity risk (Ala vs. Pro: OR = 1.55, 95 % CI 1.34-1.80; Pro/Ala vs. Pro/Pro: OR = 1.54, 95 % CI 1.31-1.82; Ala/Ala + Pro/Ala vs. Pro/Pro: OR = 1.61, 95 % CI 1.36-1.90). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed that there were significant associations between PPAR-γ Pro12Ala polymorphism and obesity risk in Caucasians, Asians, and Mixed population. Subgroup analysis by obesity's cutoff points showed that the associations were found among the patients with the cutoff point of BMI ≥24 and BMI ≥30 but not among the patients with the cutoff point of BMI ≥95th percentile. These results suggested that PPAR-γ Pro12Ala polymorphism might be a risk factor for obesity susceptibility.

  9. p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism confers the susceptibility to endometriosis among Asian and Caucasian populations.

    PubMed

    Lao, Xianjun; Chen, Zhiping; Qin, Aiping

    2016-05-01

    Findings from studies on the association between the p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism and endometriosis susceptibility have so far been inconsistent. Therefore, we undertook a meta-analysis to clarify the association of p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism with the risk of endometriosis. Relevant studies were chosen by searching PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library databases, CNKI, Wanfang database, and CBM for articles published before and up to April 30, 2015. Two independent reviewers performed the eligibility evaluation and data extraction. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for the overall risk estimate. Eleven case-control studies involving 1834 endometriosis cases and 2331 controls were included. Pooled data analysis suggested that the p53 72Pro variant is a significant endometriosis risk factors in comparison to the 72Arg variant (Pro vs. Arg: OR = 1.298, 95 % CI 1.082-1.558; Pro/Pro vs. Arg/Arg: OR = 1.751, 95 % CI 1.130-2.711; Pro/Arg vs. Arg/Arg: OR = 1.530, 95 % CI 1.174-1.994), which was strengthened in the dominant model (Pro/Pro + Arg/Pro vs. Arg/Arg: OR = 1.570, 95 % CI = 1.181-2.087). In the stratified analysis by ethnicity and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) in the controls, we found strong associations in Asians and in studies that were consistent with HWE. However, the analyses of the revised American Fertility Society (rAFS) stage and the menopausal status subgroup did not reveal any significant associations. In conclusion, the p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism was closely related to the risk of endometriosis, especially in Asian populations.

  10. Validation of the LupusPRO in Chinese patients from Hong Kong with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Mok, Chi Chiu; Kosinski, Mark; Ho, Ling Yin; Chan, Kar Li; Jolly, Meenakshi

    2015-02-01

    LupusPRO is a disease-targeted, patient-reported outcome (PRO) measure that was developed and validated for assessment of quality of life in US patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We present results of adapting the LupusPRO into Chinese and testing its psychometric properties in Chinese patients with SLE. LupusPRO was translated into "traditional" Chinese, followed by pretesting among native Cantonese Chinese speakers. The translation version was revised based on the feedback obtained. The Chinese language LupusPRO tool was administered along with a generic PRO tool (the Short Form 36 health survey [SF-36]) to ethnic Chinese SLE patients. At the same time, demographic information, clinical data, disease activity (Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment [SELENA] version of the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index [SLEDAI]), and damage (Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index [SDI]) were obtained. We performed confirmatory factor analysis of the Chinese LupusPRO and evaluated internal consistency reliability, as well as convergent and criterion validity. Among the 463 SLE patients (95% women) with a mean ± SD age of 42.3 ± 13.5 years, the mean ± SD physician global assessment score was 0.48 ± 0.45, the mean ± SD SELENA-SLEDAI score was 2.9 ± 3.0, and the mean ± SD SDI score was 0.7 ± 1.2. Results of factor analysis conformed to the original LupusPRO model with only minor modifications. The reliability of the LupusPRO domains ranged from 0.60-0.94. LupusPRO domains had correlations as expected with the corresponding SF-36 domains. A significant but weak correlation with disease activity was noted for criterion validity as expected. The Chinese language LupusPRO has fair psychometric properties and may be used in SLE clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  11. Pro-nerve growth factor in the ovary and human granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Meinel, Sabine; Blohberger, Jan; Berg, Dieter; Berg, Ulrike; Dissen, Gregory A.; Ojeda, Sergio R.; Mayerhofer, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Background Pro-nerve growth factor must be cleaved to generate mature NGF, which was suggested to be a factor involved in ovarian physiology and pathology. Extracellular proNGF can induce cell death in many tissues. Whether extracellular proNGF exists in the ovary and may play a role in the death of follicular cells or atresia was unknown. Material and Methods Immunohistochemistry of human and Rhesus monkey ovarian sections was performed. IVF-derived follicular fluid and human granulosa cells were studied by RT-PCR, qPCR, Western blotting, ATP- and caspase-assays. Results and Conclusions Immunohistochemistry of ovarian sections identified proNGF in granulosa cells and Western blotting of human isolated granulosa cells confirmed the presence of proNGF. Ovarian granulosa cells thus produce proNGF. Recombinant human proNGF even at high concentrations did not affect the levels of ATP or the activity of caspase 3/7, indicating that in granulosa cells proNGF does not induce death. In contrast, mature NGF, which was detected previously in follicular fluid, may be a trophic molecule for granulosa cells with unexpected functions. We found that in contrast to proNGF, NGF increased the levels of the transcription factor early growth response 1 and of the enzyme choline acetyl-transferase. A mechanism for the generation of mature NGF from proNGF in the follicular fluid may be extracellular enzymatic cleavage. The enzyme MMP7 is known to cleave proNGF and was identified in follicular fluid and as a product of granulosa cells. Thus the generation of NGF in the ovarian follicle may depend on MMP7. PMID:26457789

  12. Effects of semax and its Pro-Gly-Pro fragment on calcium homeostasis of neurons and their survival under conditions of glutamate toxicity.

    PubMed

    Storozhevykh, T P; Tukhbatova, G R; Senilova, Ya E; Pinelis, V G; Andreeva, L A; Myasoyedov, N F

    2007-05-01

    Semax (100 microM) and its Pro-Gly-Pro fragment (20 and 100 microM) delayed the development of calcium dysregulation and reduction of the mitochondrial potential in cultured cerebellar granule cells under conditions of glutamate neurotoxicity. Incubation with these peptides improved neuronal survival by on average 30%. The neuroprotective effect of semax in cerebral ischemia/hypoxia can be due to improvement of mitochondrial resistance to "calcium" stress.

  13. Geological interpretation and analysis of surface based, spatially referenced planetary imagery data using PRoGIS 2.0 and Pro3D.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R.; Gupta, S.; Giordano, M.; Morley, J. G.; Muller, J. P.; Tao, Y.; Sprinks, J.; Traxler, C.; Hesina, G.; Ortner, T.; Sander, K.; Nauschnegg, B.; Paar, G.; Willner, K.; Pajdla, T.

    2015-10-01

    We apply the capabilities of the geospatial environment PRoGIS 2.0 and the real time rendering viewer PRo3D to geological analysis of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover-B (MER-B Opportunity rover) and Mars Science Laboratory (MSL Curiosity rover) datasets. Short baseline and serendipitous long baseline stereo Pancam rover imagery are used to create 3D point clouds which can be combined with super-resolution images derived from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter HiRISE orbital data, andsuper-resolution outcrop images derived from MER Pancam, as well as hand-lens scale images for geology and outcrop characterization at all scales. Data within the PRoViDE database are presented and accessed through the PRoGIS interface. Simple geological measurement tools are implemented within the PRoGIS and PRo3D web software to accurately measure the dip and strike of bedding in outcrops, create detailed stratigraphic logs for correlation between the areas investigated, and to develop realistic 3D models for the characterization of planetary surface processes. Annotation tools are being developed to aid discussion and dissemination of the observations within the planetary science community.

  14. Graphical displays of patient-reported outcomes (PRO) for use in clinical practice: What makes a pro picture worth a thousand words?

    PubMed

    Bantug, Elissa T; Coles, Theresa; Smith, Katherine C; Snyder, Claire F; Rouette, Julie; Brundage, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) report patients' assessments of the impact of a health condition and its treatment, and can promote patient-centered care. To address the effectiveness of graphic display of PRO data in clinical practice by reviewing existing literature, and current recommendations, regarding graphic presentations of PROs. We performed an integrated literature review to identify themes and emerging principles guiding effective graphic display of PRO data. The findings were placed in the context of the literature informing graphical presentation of other clinical data. Although a large body of literature informs graphical presentation of clinical data, only nine empirical studies addressed presentation of PROs. Four major themes emerged: many patients and most clinicians can accurately interpret some PRO graphs; interpretation accuracy, personal preference, and perceived level of understanding are sometimes discordant; patient age and education may predict PRO graph comprehension; patients tend to prefer simpler graphs than do clinicians. Little empirical research specifically addresses graphic representation of PRO data. A single format may not work optimally for both clinicians and patients. Patients and clinicians may or may not comprehend PRO data when graphically presented. Further research to determine best practices for presenting PROs optimally is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. NT-proBNP in severe chronic heart failure: rationale, design and preliminary results of the COPERNICUS NT-proBNP substudy.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Franz; Packer, Milton; Coats, Andrew J S; Fowler, Michael B; Krum, Henry; Mohacsi, Paul; Rouleau, Jean L; Tendera, Michal; Castaigne, Alain; Trawinski, Jürgen; Amann-Zalan, Ildiko; Hoersch, Silke; Katus, Hugo A

    2004-03-15

    Neither profiles nor prognostic value of cardiac N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) have been prospectively evaluated in a sufficient number of patients with severe chronic heart failure (CHF) treated with carvedilol or placebo. Baseline and follow-up plasma concentrations of NT-proBNP were measured in the European part of the COPERNICUS Trial. This study enrolled patients with an ejection fraction <25% and symptoms of CHF at rest or on minimal exertion, equally randomized to placebo or carvedilol. NT-proBNP concentrations were increased at baseline (mean+/-S.D.=579+/-822 pmol/l, median=322.5 pmol/l) with a marked decrease during follow-up in the carvedilol, but not in the placebo group. One-year mortality rates were 3.9, 12 and 27.9% in the lower, middle and upper tertiles of NT-proBNP, respectively. When mortality was calculated separately in the placebo and carvedilol group, rates were 0.8, 6.3 and 19.1% in the carvedilol treated but 6.7, 17.9 and 36.9% in the placebo treated patients. NT-proBNP was a powerful predictor of subsequent all-cause mortality in patients with severe CHF. This marker should therefore be further evaluated for risk stratification and monitoring of therapy in CHF.

  16. Comparison of debris extruded apically and working time used by ProTaper Universal rotary and ProTaper retreatment system during gutta-percha removal

    PubMed Central

    UEZU, Mary Kinue Nakamune; BRITTO, Maria Leticia Borges; NABESHIMA, Cleber K.; PALLOTTA, Raul Capp

    2010-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro action of ProTaper retreatment files and ProTaper Universal in the retreatment of mandibular premolars. Material and methods The amount of debris extruded apically was measured and the time to reach the working length and to complete the removal of gutta-percha was observed. Thirty teeth had their canals prepared using ProTaper Universal files and were obturated by the single cone technique. The teeth were then stored at 37ºC in a humid environment for 7 days. During the use of the rotary instruments for root canal filling removal, the apical portions of the teeth were attached to the open end of a resin tube to collect the apically extruded debris. Results ProTaper Universal files were significantly faster (p=0.0011) than the ProTaper retreatment files to perform gutta-percha removal, but no significant difference was found between the files regarding the time to reach the working length or the amount of apical extrusion. Conclusions ProTaper Universal rotary had better results for endodontic retreatment, and both techniques promote similar apical extrusion of debris. PMID:21308282

  17. Tribenuron-methyl resistance and mutation diversity of Pro197 in flixweed (Descurainia Sophia L.) accessions from China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei; Liu, Ming Jie; Yang, Qian; Mei, Yu; Li, Xue Feng; Zheng, Ming Qi

    2015-01-01

    Flixweed (Descurainia Sophia L.) is a problematic weed in winter wheat fields in China, which causes great loss of wheat yield. A total of 46 flixweed accessions from winter wheat-planting areas were collected and used for the survey of resistance to tribenuron-methyl and Pro197 mutation diversity. According to the "R" resistance rating system, 16 flixweed accessions have evolved resistance to tribenuron-methyl, 13 accessions have high risk of developing resistance to this herbicide and 17 accessions are susceptible. The mutation of Pro197 codon (CCT) changed proline (Pro) into leucine (Leu) (homozygous, RR), serine (Ser, RR), histidine (His, RR), threonine (Thr, RR), Pro/Leu (heterozygous, RS), Pro/Ser (RS), Pro/His, Pro/Thr (RS) and Pro/Tyr (RS). Among these amino acid changes, a Pro197-Pro/Tyr (heterozygous, RS) substitution caused by the mutation of two successive nucleotides was identified for the first time in resistant weed species. In addition, the Pro197-His and Pro197-Pro/His mutations have not been reported previously in flixweed. Finally, a CPAS marker was developed to identify flixweed plants with or without Pro197 mutation.

  18. The novel ER membrane protein PRO41 is essential for sexual development in the filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora

    PubMed Central

    Nowrousian, Minou; Frank, Sandra; Koers, Sandra; Strauch, Peter; Weitner, Thomas; Ringelberg, Carol; Dunlap, Jay C.; Loros, Jennifer J.; Kück, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Summary The filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora develops complex fruiting bodies (perithecia) to propagate its sexual spores. Here, we present an analysis of the sterile mutant pro41 that is unable to produce mature fruiting bodies. The mutant carries a deletion of 4 kb and is complemented by the pro41 open reading frame that is contained within the region deleted in the mutant. In silico analyses predict PRO41 to be an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein, and a PRO41–EGFP fusion protein colocalizes with ER-targeted DsRED. Furthermore, Western blot analysis shows that the PRO41–EGFP fusion protein is present in the membrane fraction. A fusion of the predicted N-terminal signal sequence of PRO41 with EGFP is secreted out of the cell, indicating that the signal sequence is functional. pro41 transcript levels are upregulated during sexual development. This increase in transcript levels was not observed in the sterile mutant pro1 that lacks a transcription factor gene. Moreover, microarray analysis of gene expression in the mutants pro1, pro41 and the pro1/41 double mutant showed that pro41 is partly epistatic to pro1. Taken together, these data show that PRO41 is a novel ER membrane protein essential for fruiting body formation in filamentous fungi. PMID:17501918

  19. The novel ER membrane protein PRO41 is essential for sexual development in the filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Nowrousian, Minou; Frank, Sandra; Koers, Sandra; Strauch, Peter; Weitner, Thomas; Ringelberg, Carol; Dunlap, Jay C; Loros, Jennifer J; Kück, Ulrich

    2007-05-01

    The filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora develops complex fruiting bodies (perithecia) to propagate its sexual spores. Here, we present an analysis of the sterile mutant pro41 that is unable to produce mature fruiting bodies. The mutant carries a deletion of 4 kb and is complemented by the pro41 open reading frame that is contained within the region deleted in the mutant. In silico analyses predict PRO41 to be an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein, and a PRO41-EGFP fusion protein colocalizes with ER-targeted DsRED. Furthermore, Western blot analysis shows that the PRO41-EGFP fusion protein is present in the membrane fraction. A fusion of the predicted N-terminal signal sequence of PRO41 with EGFP is secreted out of the cell, indicating that the signal sequence is functional. pro41 transcript levels are upregulated during sexual development. This increase in transcript levels was not observed in the sterile mutant pro1 that lacks a transcription factor gene. Moreover, microarray analysis of gene expression in the mutants pro1, pro41 and the pro1/41 double mutant showed that pro41 is partly epistatic to pro1. Taken together, these data show that PRO41 is a novel ER membrane protein essential for fruiting body formation in filamentous fungi.

  20. New strategy for specific activation of recombinant microbial pro-transglutaminase by introducing an enterokinase cleavage site.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Wang, Bin; Yang, Hui-Lin; Pan, Li

    2013-03-01

    Recombinant microbial transglutaminase (rMTG) is usually expressed as a soluble zymogen (pro-rMTG) in heterologous expression systems but proteolytic activation of the inactive pro-rMTG is essential. Instead of screening proteases for activating pro-rMTG, we examined an alternative method by introducing a specific cleavage site of enterokinase between the pro-peptide and mature rMTG, generating three pro-rMTG variants (Pro-mrMTG, Pro-m-rMTG and mPro-rMTG). Pro-mrMTG and Pro-m-rMTG were activated by enterokinase without degrading mature rMTG. The activation productivity of Pro-m-rMTG by enterokinase reached 92 % after 22 h activation, while the activation productivity of Pro-rMTG activated by trypsin was 47 %. MALDI-MS analysis revealed that the pro-peptide including the cleavage site was specifically removed from Pro-m-rMTG after activation. This methodology has the potential to be applied in rMTG production by incorporating highly specific cleavage sites of other proteases.

  1. 78 FR 34570 - Special Local Regulations; Pro Hydro-X Tour, Lake Dora; Tavares, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Pro Hydro-X Tour, Lake Dora... establishing a special local regulation on the waters of Lake Dora in Tavares, Florida, during the Pro Hydro-X... of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information On April 17, 2013, the Coast Guard...

  2. Extending the Human Life Span: An Exploratory Study of Pro- and Anti-Longevity Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Nathan; Tucker, Jennifer; Porter, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Successful efforts by biologists to substantially increase the life span of non-human animals has raised the possibility of extrapolation to humans, which in turn has given rise to bioethical argumentation, pro and con. The present study converts these arguments into pro- and anti-longevity items on a questionnaire and examines the structure and…

  3. MyPro: A seamless pipeline for automated prokaryotic genome assembly and annotation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Sabharwal, Amarpreet; Haase, Elaine M.; Scannapieco, Frank A.

    2016-01-01

    MyPro is a software pipeline for high-quality prokaryotic genome assembly and annotation. It was validated on 18 oral streptococcal strains to produce submission-ready, annotated draft genomes. MyPro installed as a virtual machine and supported by updated databases will enable biologists to perform quality prokaryotic genome assembly and annotation with ease. PMID:25911337

  4. Pro-apoptotic gene regulation in the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transcriptional activation of pro-apoptotic genes in response to cytotoxic stimuli is a conserved feature of the cell death pathway proposed for metazoans. However, understanding the extent of this conservation in insects, as well as other organisms, has been limited by the lack of known pro-apoptot...

  5. MyPro: A seamless pipeline for automated prokaryotic genome assembly and annotation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Sabharwal, Amarpreet; Haase, Elaine M; Scannapieco, Frank A

    2015-06-01

    MyPro is a software pipeline for high-quality prokaryotic genome assembly and annotation. It was validated on 18 oral streptococcal strains to produce submission-ready, annotated draft genomes. MyPro installed as a virtual machine and supported by updated databases will enable biologists to perform quality prokaryotic genome assembly and annotation with ease.

  6. GoPro as an Ethnographic Tool: A Wayfinding Study in an Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsley, Kirsten M.; Schoonover, Dan; Spitler, Jasmine

    2016-01-01

    In this study, researchers sought to capture students' authentic experience of finding books in the main library using a GoPro camera and the think-aloud protocol. The GoPro provided a first-person perspective and was an effective ethnographic tool for observing a student's individual experience, while also demonstrating what tools they use to…

  7. Striving for Sustainable Development in Higher Education: ProSPER.Net Members Meet in Shanghai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabucanon, Mario T.; Tanaka, Aurea Christine; Aipanjiguly, Sampreethi

    2011-01-01

    To celebrate the two-year anniversary of the founding of ProSPER.Net--the Promotion of Sustainability in Postgraduate Education and Research Network--members convened on 5-9 July 2010 in Shanghai, China, at a meeting hosted by Tongji University, a founding member. ProSPER.Net is an alliance of 21 higher education institutions in the Asia-Pacific…

  8. Extending the Human Life Span: An Exploratory Study of Pro- and Anti-Longevity Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Nathan; Tucker, Jennifer; Porter, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Successful efforts by biologists to substantially increase the life span of non-human animals has raised the possibility of extrapolation to humans, which in turn has given rise to bioethical argumentation, pro and con. The present study converts these arguments into pro- and anti-longevity items on a questionnaire and examines the structure and…

  9. Striving for Sustainable Development in Higher Education: ProSPER.Net Members Meet in Shanghai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabucanon, Mario T.; Tanaka, Aurea Christine; Aipanjiguly, Sampreethi

    2011-01-01

    To celebrate the two-year anniversary of the founding of ProSPER.Net--the Promotion of Sustainability in Postgraduate Education and Research Network--members convened on 5-9 July 2010 in Shanghai, China, at a meeting hosted by Tongji University, a founding member. ProSPER.Net is an alliance of 21 higher education institutions in the Asia-Pacific…

  10. 77 FR 75819 - Death of Senator Daniel K. Inouye, President Pro Tempore of the Senate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Vol. 77 Friday, No. 246 December 21, 2012 Part VI The President Proclamation 8919--Death of Senator Daniel K. Inouye, President Pro... ] Proclamation 8919 of December 18, 2012 Death of Senator Daniel K. Inouye, President Pro Tempore of the Senate...

  11. Portrayals of Pro-Beijing Workers' Night Schools in Hong Kong from 1946 to Post-1997

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Chui Shan

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the transformation of pro-Beijing labour education in the socio-political context of Hong Kong. It explores the reasons that Hong Kong pro-Beijing educators initiated Workers' Night Schools for adults; the organisation of schools in many locales and the transformation of labour education that workers received in these…

  12. Portrayals of Pro-Beijing Workers' Night Schools in Hong Kong from 1946 to Post-1997

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Chui Shan

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the transformation of pro-Beijing labour education in the socio-political context of Hong Kong. It explores the reasons that Hong Kong pro-Beijing educators initiated Workers' Night Schools for adults; the organisation of schools in many locales and the transformation of labour education that workers received in these…

  13. GoPro as an Ethnographic Tool: A Wayfinding Study in an Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsley, Kirsten M.; Schoonover, Dan; Spitler, Jasmine

    2016-01-01

    In this study, researchers sought to capture students' authentic experience of finding books in the main library using a GoPro camera and the think-aloud protocol. The GoPro provided a first-person perspective and was an effective ethnographic tool for observing a student's individual experience, while also demonstrating what tools they use to…

  14. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or contrivance...

  15. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or contrivance...

  16. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or contrivance...

  17. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or contrivance...

  18. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or contrivance...

  19. P53 codon 72 Arg/Pro polymorphism and glioma risk: an updated meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    He, Fang; Xia, Yi; Liu, Huafeng; Li, Jin; Wang, Chao

    2013-10-01

    P53 codon 72 Arg/Pro is a C/G variation upstream of the p53 gene on human chromosome 17p13. Many case-control studies have investigated the association between p53 codon 72 Arg/Pro polymorphism and glioma risk but provided inconsistent findings. To better understand the pathogenesis of glioma, we performed the current meta-analysis by pooling data from all available individual studies. According to the inclusion criteria, ten independent publications with 11 case-control studies were included into this meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) was calculated to estimate the effect of p53 codon 72 Arg/Pro variant on the development of glioma. Overall, no appreciable correlation was observed among the total studies in all gene models (ORPro allele vs. Arg allele = 1.04, 95 % CI = 0.90-1.20, P OR = 0.581; ORPro/Pro vs. Arg/Arg = 0.95, 95 % CI = 0.80-1.14, P OR = 0.614; ORPro/Arg vs. Arg/Arg = 1.01, 95 % CI = 0.79-1.29, P OR = 0.993; ORPro/Arg + Pro/Pro vs. Arg/Arg = 1.03, 95 % CI = 0.82-1.29, P OR = 0.799; ORPro/Pro vs. Arg/Arg + Pro/Arg = 1.02, 95 % CI = 0.86-1.22, P OR = 0.785). In stratified analyses by ethnicity, source of controls, and glioma subtypes, the p53 codon 72 Arg/Pro polymorphism did not alter the risk for glioma in population-based, hospital-based, astrocytoma, and oligodendroglioma studies among Caucasian. Interestingly, the Pro/Pro genotype seemed to be negatively associated with the glioma risk among patients with glioblastoma (ORPro/Pro vs. Arg/Arg = 0.68, 95 % CI = 0.48-0.95, P OR = 0.026). Our study suggests that the polymorphism of p53 codon 72 Arg/Pro may play a protective role in the development of glioblastoma. The relationship of p53 codon 72 Arg/Pro polymorphism with the susceptibility to glioma needs further estimation by more individual studies with high quality across ethnicities.

  20. Pro-oxidant activity of polyphenols and its implication on cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    León-González, Antonio J; Auger, Cyril; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2015-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a major role in carcinogenesis: pro-oxidant agents like tobacco smoke, asbestos or N-nitrosamines, are known as mutagenic and carcinogenic, and cancer cells show increased levels of ROS and redox deregulation. However, pro-oxidant molecules can also act as selective cytotoxic agents against cancer cells by achieving toxic levels of ROS. Although polyphenols are well-known as potent antioxidants, a pro-oxidant effect has been associated with their pro-apoptotic effect in various types of tumor cells. The aim of the present review is to present the main evidences of the pro-oxidant-related cytotoxic activity of naturally occurring polyphenols and their underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. InterPro in 2017—beyond protein family and domain annotations

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Robert D.; Attwood, Teresa K.; Babbitt, Patricia C.; Bateman, Alex; Bork, Peer; Bridge, Alan J.; Chang, Hsin-Yu; Dosztányi, Zsuzsanna; El-Gebali, Sara; Fraser, Matthew; Gough, Julian; Haft, David; Holliday, Gemma L.; Huang, Hongzhan; Huang, Xiaosong; Letunic, Ivica; Lopez, Rodrigo; Lu, Shennan; Marchler-Bauer, Aron; Mi, Huaiyu; Mistry, Jaina; Natale, Darren A.; Necci, Marco; Nuka, Gift; Orengo, Christine A.; Park, Youngmi; Pesseat, Sebastien; Piovesan, Damiano; Potter, Simon C.; Rawlings, Neil D.; Redaschi, Nicole; Richardson, Lorna; Rivoire, Catherine; Sangrador-Vegas, Amaia; Sigrist, Christian; Sillitoe, Ian; Smithers, Ben; Squizzato, Silvano; Sutton, Granger; Thanki, Narmada; Thomas, Paul D; Tosatto, Silvio C. E.; Wu, Cathy H.; Xenarios, Ioannis; Yeh, Lai-Su; Young, Siew-Yit; Mitchell, Alex L.

    2017-01-01

    InterPro (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/) is a freely available database used to classify protein sequences into families and to predict the presence of important domains and sites. InterProScan is the underlying software that allows both protein and nucleic acid sequences to be searched against InterPro's predictive models, which are provided by its member databases. Here, we report recent developments with InterPro and its associated software, including the addition of two new databases (SFLD and CDD), and the functionality to include residue-level annotation and prediction of intrinsic disorder. These developments enrich the annotations provided by InterPro, increase the overall number of residues annotated and allow more specific functional inferences. PMID:27899635

  2. The process for the activation of frog epidermis pro-tyrosinase.

    PubMed Central

    Peñafiel, R; Galindo, J D; Pedreño, E; Lozano, J A

    1982-01-01

    1. Purified pro-tyrosinase from epidermis of the frog Rana esculenta ridibunda can be activated in vitro by several proteinases (trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, Pronase) and by light. 2. Both pro-tyrosinase and tyrosinase are composed of a single type of subunit having pI 7.2 and approximate molecular weights 68000 and 62000 respectively. A peptide of low molecular weight is released as a consequence of the proteolytic activation. Pro-tyrosinase and tyrosinase have different quaternary structures, the proenzyme being a dimer of Mr approx. 115000 and the enzyme a tetramer of Mr approx. 210 000. 3. The activation process was affected by several agents (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, urea, formamide) that prevented, partially or totally, the activation of pro-tyrosinase. 4. The activation of pro-tyrosinase seems to be the result of a cleavage of the polypeptide chain that determines changes in tertiary or quaternary structure. PMID:6814426

  3. (Pro)cambium formation and proliferation: two sides of the same coin?

    PubMed

    Jouannet, Virginie; Brackmann, Klaus; Greb, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    The body of higher plants is usually pervaded by the (pro)cambium, a reticulate system of meristematic cells harboring the potential for producing vascular tissues at critical times and places. The (pro)cambium thereby provides the basis for the differential modulation of long-distance transport capacities and plant body stability. Distinct regulatory networks responsible for the initiation and proliferation of (pro)cambium cells have been identified. However, although a tight interaction between these networks can be expected, connections have been established only sporadically. Here we highlight recent discoveries of how (pro)cambium development is regulated and discuss possible interfaces between networks regulating two processes: (pro)cambium formation and cambium proliferation.

  4. Aberrant Expression of proPTPRN2 in Cancer Cells Confers Resistance to Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Alexey V; Nair, Binoj C; Wei, Yongkun; Aziz, Kathryn E; Evdokimova, Valentina; Hung, Mien-Chie; Chen, Junjie

    2015-05-01

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor PTPRN2 is expressed predominantly in endocrine and neuronal cells, where it functions in exocytosis. We found that its immature isoform proPTPRN2 is overexpressed in various cancers, including breast cancer. High proPTPRN2 expression was associated strongly with lymph node-positive breast cancer and poor clinical outcome. Loss of proPTPRN2 in breast cancer cells promoted apoptosis and blocked tumor formation in mice, whereas enforced expression of proPTPRN2 in nontransformed human mammary epithelial cells exerted a converse effect. Mechanistic investigations suggested that ProPTPRN2 elicited these effects through direct interaction with TRAF2, a hub scaffold protein for multiple kinase cascades, including ones that activate NF-κB. Overall, our results suggest PTPRN2 as a novel candidate biomarker and therapeutic target in breast cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. HiC-Pro: an optimized and flexible pipeline for Hi-C data processing.

    PubMed

    Servant, Nicolas; Varoquaux, Nelle; Lajoie, Bryan R; Viara, Eric; Chen, Chong-Jian; Vert, Jean-Philippe; Heard, Edith; Dekker, Job; Barillot, Emmanuel

    2015-12-01

    HiC-Pro is an optimized and flexible pipeline for processing Hi-C data from raw reads to normalized contact maps. HiC-Pro maps reads, detects valid ligation products, performs quality controls and generates intra- and inter-chromosomal contact maps. It includes a fast implementation of the iterative correction method and is based on a memory-efficient data format for Hi-C contact maps. In addition, HiC-Pro can use phased genotype data to build allele-specific contact maps. We applied HiC-Pro to different Hi-C datasets, demonstrating its ability to easily process large data in a reasonable time. Source code and documentation are available at http://github.com/nservant/HiC-Pro .

  6. Drive for muscularity and drive for thinness: the impact of pro-anorexia websites.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Lilia; Soto, Ernesto; Pritchard, Mary E

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, websites that stress the message of thinness as the ideal and only choice have surfaced on the internet. The possibility that pro-anorexia websites may reinforce restrictive eating and exercise behaviors is an area of concern. In addition, friends may be influencing one another to view these websites, further contributing to drive for thinness in women and drive for muscularity in men. Three hundred male and female undergraduate psychology students responded to questionnaires assessing: internalization of pro-anorexia website content, internalization of general media content, influence of friends to view pro-anorexia websites, peer influence, drive for muscularity, and drive for thinness. Results showed internalization of pro-anorexia website content was positively correlated with drive for thinness in women, and negatively correlated with drive for muscularity in men. Internalization of pro-anorexia website content was found to be related to both drive for thinness in women and drive for muscularity in men.

  7. Crystal structures of Boc-D- and L-Iva-L-Pro-OBzl: unturned conformation of Aib-Pro sequence unaffected by replacement of Me with Et in Aib.

    PubMed

    Kawai, M; Omori, Y; Yamamura, H; Butsugan, Y; Taga, T; Miwa, Y

    1993-08-01

    The crystal structures of the isovaline (Iva) containing dipeptides, Boc-D-Iva-L-Pro-OBzl and Boc-L-Iva-L-Pro-OBzl, were determined by x-ray diffraction. The diastereomeric peptides were shown to adopt unturned conformations closely similar to each other (phi Iva 52 degrees, psi Iva 46 degrees, phi Pro -65 degrees, and psi Pro 143 degrees for D-Iva-L-Pro sequence and phi Iva 52 degrees, psi Iva 44 degrees, phi Pro -63 degrees, and psi Pro 148 degrees for L-Iva-L-Pro sequence). The Pro ring of each peptide was in C gamma-endo conformation. The unusually large angle CIva-NPro-C delta Pro values (131 degrees in both peptides) were observed, that was due to steric repulsion between the delta-methylene of Pro and the alkyl side chain of Iva residue. These conformations were essentially the same as that of the corresponding alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib)-containing peptide Boc-Aib-L-Pro-OBzl. The result has demonstrated that replacement of either one of the two methyl groups of the Aib residue in Boc-Aib-L-Pro-OBzl with an ethyl group does not cause any significant change in the unturned conformation of the dipeptide.

  8. Solution deposition assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Roussillon, Yann; Scholz, Jeremy H; Shelton, Addison; Green, Geoff T; Utthachoo, Piyaphant

    2014-01-21

    Methods and devices are provided for improved deposition systems. In one embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system is provided for use with a solution and a substrate. The system comprises of a solution deposition apparatus; at least one heating chamber, at least one assembly for holding a solution over the substrate; and a substrate curling apparatus for curling at least one edge of the substrate to define a zone capable of containing a volume of the solution over the substrate. In another embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system for use with a substrate, the system comprising a solution deposition apparatus; at heating chamber; and at least assembly for holding solution over the substrate to allow for a depth of at least about 0.5 microns to 10 mm.

  9. ATUS-PRO: A FEM-based solver for the time-dependent and stationary Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marojević, Želimir; Göklü, Ertan; Lämmerzahl, Claus

    2016-05-01

    ATUS-PRO is a solver-package written in C++ designed for the calculation of numerical solutions of the stationary- and the time dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation for local two-particle contact interaction utilising finite element methods. These are implemented by means of the deal.II library (Bangerth et al., 0000) [1], (Bangerth et al., 2007) [2]. The code can be used in order to perform simulations of Bose-Einstein condensates in gravito-optical surface traps, isotropic and full anisotropic harmonic traps, as well as for arbitrary trap geometries. A special feature of this package is the possibility to calculate non-ground state solutions (topological modes, excited states) (Marojević et al., 2013), (Yukalov et al., 1997, 2004) [3,4] for an arbitrarily high non-linearity term. The solver-package is designed to run on parallel distributed machines and can be applied to problems in one, two, or three spatial dimensions with axial symmetry or in Cartesian coordinates. The time dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation is solved by means of the fully implicit Crank-Nicolson method, whereas stationary states are obtained with a modified version based on our own constrained Newton method (Marojević et al., 2013). The latter method enables to find the excited state solutions.

  10. Autocatalytic activity and substrate specificity of the pestivirus N-terminal protease N{sup pro}

    SciTech Connect

    Gottipati, Keerthi; Acholi, Sudheer; Ruggli, Nicolas; Choi, Kyung H.

    2014-03-15

    Pestivirus N{sup pro} is the first protein translated in the viral polypeptide, and cleaves itself off co-translationally generating the N-terminus of the core protein. Once released, N{sup pro} blocks the host's interferon response by inducing degradation of interferon regulatory factor-3. N{sup pro'}s intracellular autocatalytic activity and lack of trans-activity have hampered in vitro cleavage studies to establish its substrate specificity and the roles of individual residues. We constructed N{sup pro}-GFP fusion proteins that carry the authentic cleavage site and determined the autoproteolytic activities of N{sup pro} proteins containing substitutions at the predicted catalytic sites Glu22 and Cys69, at Arg100 that forms a salt bridge with Glu22, and at the cleavage site Cys168. Contrary to previous reports, we show that N{sup pro'}s catalytic activity does not involve Glu22, which may instead be involved in protein stability. Furthermore, N{sup pro} does not have specificity for Cys168 at the cleavage site even though this residue is conserved throughout the pestivirus genus. - Highlights: • N{sup pro'}s autoproteolysis is studied using N{sup pro}-GFP fusion proteins. • N-terminal 17 amino acids are dispensable without loss of protease activity. • The putative catalytic residue Glu22 is not involved in protease catalysis. • No specificity for Cys168 at the cleavage site despite evolutionary conservation. • N{sup pro} prefers small amino acids with non-branched beta carbons at the P1 position.

  11. Channelling urban modernity to sustainable pro-poor tourism development in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetyanti, R.

    2017-06-01

    Sustainable urban planning and development requires not only a fast-growing economic growth and modernity, but also social equity and environmental sustainability. Meanwhile, the global goals of sustainable development have fascinatingly set a promising urban development future by enhancing ecology based pro-poor policy program. Apparently, pro-poor development agenda has led to the notion of pro-poor tourism as part of urban development strategies on poverty alleviation. This research presents Jakarta Hidden Tour and Kampung Warna-warni as certain cases of pro-poor tourism in Indonesia. By the emergence of criticism on “pro-growth” paradigm, the critical analysis of this research focuses on the scenario of sustainable pro-poor tourism through eco-cultural based Kampung-Tour development. In accordance, debates and dilemma have been continuously arising as pros and cons regarding the ethical issues of poverty alleviation based Kampung-Tour development. Nevertheless, this paper tries to redefine Slum Kampung as potential; the writer wildly offers a concept of poverty alleviation by reinventing pro-poor tourism strategy; revitalizing slum site to eco-cultural based pro-poor tourism development as an embodiment of a sustainable urban development. By holding system thinking analysis as research method, sustainable pro-poor tourism highlights the urgency community based tourism and eco-tourism so that poverty alleviation based tourism can be tangibly perceived by the poor. In this sense, good local governance and public private partnership must be enhanced, it is due to, like any other development projects; sustainable pro-poor tourism needs a strong political commitment to alleviate urban poverty, as well as to pursue a better future of sustainable nation.

  12. Brain-Targeted (Pro)Renin Receptor Knockdown attenuates Angiotensin II-Dependent Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wencheng; Peng, Hua; Cao, Theresa; Sato, Ryosuke; McDaniels, Sarah. J.; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Navar, L. Gabriel; Feng, Yumei

    2012-01-01

    The (pro)renin receptor is a newly discovered member of the brain renin-angiotensin system. To investigate the role of brain (pro)renin receptor in hypertension, adeno-associated virus-mediated (pro)renin receptor shRNA was used to knockdown (pro)renin receptor expression in the brain of non-transgenic normotensive and human renin-angiotensinogen double transgenic hypertensive mice. Blood pressure was monitored using implanted telemetric probes in conscious animals. Real-time PCR and immunostaining were performed to determine (pro)renin receptor, angiotensin II type 1 receptor and vasopressin mRNA levels. Plasma vasopressin levels were determined by Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay. Double transgenic mice exhibited higher blood pressure, elevated cardiac and vascular sympathetic tone, and impaired spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity. Intracerebroventricular delivery of (pro)renin receptor shRNA significantly reduced blood pressure, cardiac and vasomotor sympathetic tone, and improved baroreflex sensitivity compared to the control virus treatment in double transgenic mice. (Pro)renin receptor knockdown significantly reduced angiotensin II type 1 receptor and vasopressin levels in double transgenic mice. These data indicate that (pro)renin receptor knockdown in the brain attenuates angiotensin II-dependent hypertension and is associated with a decrease insympathetic tone and an improvement of the baroreflex sensitivity. In addition, brain-targeted (pro)renin receptor knockdown is associated with down-regulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and vasopressin levels. We conclude that central (pro)renin receptor contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension in human renin-angiotensinogen transgenic mice. PMID:22526255

  13. Association of [-2]proPSA with Biopsy Reclassification During Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J.; Loeb, Stacy; Feng, Zhaoyong; Isharwal, Sumit; Landis, Patricia; Elliot, Debra J.; Veltri, Robert; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Partin, Alan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Trock, Bruce; Sokoll, Lori J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies have suggested an association between [-2]proPSA expression and prostate cancer detection. Less is known about the utility of this marker in following prostate cancer patients on active surveillance. Thus, our objective was to examine the relationship between [-2]proPSA and biopsy results in men enrolled in an active surveillance program. Materials and Methods In 167 men from our institutional active surveillance program, we used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the relationship between [-2]proPSA and annual surveillance biopsy results. The outcome of interest was biopsy reclassification (Gleason score ≥7, or >2 positive biopsy cores, or >50% involvement of any core with cancer). We also examined the association of biopsy results with total PSA, %fPSA, [-2]proPSA/%fPSA, and the Beckman Coulter Prostate Health Index [phi=([-2]proPSA/fPSA) x (tPSA)½]. Results While on active surveillance (median time from diagnosis 4.3 years), 63 (37.7%) men demonstrated biopsy reclassification based on the above criteria, including 28 (16.7%) of whom had reclassification based on Gleason score upgrading (Gleason score≥7). Baseline and longitudinal %fPSA, %[-2]proPSA, [-2]proPSA/%fPSA, and phi measurements were significantly associated with biopsy reclassification, and %[-2]proPSA and phi provided the greatest predictive accuracy for high-grade cancer. Conclusions In men on active surveillance, measures based on [-2]proPSA such as phi, appear to provide improved prediction of biopsy reclassification during follow-up. Additional validation is warranted to determine whether clinically useful thresholds can be defined, and to better characterize the role of %[-2]proPSA and phi in conjunction with other markers in monitoring patients enrolled in active surveillance. PMID:22901577

  14. Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) in ovarian cancer clinical trials-lost opportunities and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, M; Mercieca-Bebber, R L; King, M T

    2016-04-01

    Despite increased recognition of the value of including patient-reported outcomes (PROs) as important end points in phase III clinical trials, there has been a lack of pre-specified PRO hypotheses and shortcomings with the analyses and interpretation of PROs in many ovarian cancer trials. This paper discusses and provides examples of the so-called lost opportunities in ovarian cancer trials. These include: (i) no clear pre-specified PRO hypotheses; (ii) PRO end points not included; (iii) insensitive PRO end point selection; (iv) collection of poor-quality PRO data not suitable for analysis; (v) differences in PROs between treatment arms ignored; and (vi) poor reporting quality. We can learn from the past and with relatively little additional effort, improve the collection and interpretation of PRO data in future ovarian cancer trials. The importance of doing so is underpinned by recent initiatives to improve the standard and usefulness of PRO data in clinical trials. These include the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Guidance for PROs to support labelling claims, the European Society for Medical Oncology Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (ESMO MCBS), the International Society for Quality-of-Life Research PRO reporting guidance and the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Clinical Trials (CONSORT)-PRO-extension statement which includes a checklist of recommended items to include in PRO sections of trial protocols. Promoting the importance of hypothesis-driven PROs in ovarian cancer clinical trials will lead to improvements in the design of these trials and the interpretation of their results. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Soluble (Pro) Renin Receptor is a predictor of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bonakdaran, Shokoufeh; Azami, Ghazaleh; Tara, Fatemeh; Poorali, Leila

    2016-09-19

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common endocrine complication in pregnancy. While it has been established that age, family history of diabetes, insulin resistance and several biomarkers are associated with GDM but significant gaps remain in understanding risk factors for GDM. Soluble pro-renin receptor (s [Pro] RR) as a biomarker reflects the activation of renin- angiotensin system in tissues which may be related to insulin resistance Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the role of (s [pro] RR) in predicting GDM. one hundred -eighty singleton pregnant women in first trimester were enrolled. We excluded women with previous history of GDM, hypertension and consumption of drugs affected renin-angiotensin system. A fasting blood glucose and s (pro) RR level were obtained during first trimester and OGTT was performed at 24-28 weeks of gestation. We used ROC curves to identify s (pro)RR cutoff points for detecting GDM and the difference in s (pro)RR level was assessed in GDM and non- GDM women. Among 180 women, 24 (13.33%) had GDM. There was no significant difference between age and body mass index in subjects with GDM compared to non- GDM. The concentration of s (pro) RR was significantly higher in GDM subjects rather than non- GDM [29.27(24.60-35.92) vs 22.89(19.46-24.27), P<0.001]. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association of s(pro)RR with GDM (odd ratio: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.17-1.48, P=0.04). A cut-off point 24.52 ng/ml of s(pro)RR had 75% sensitivity and 80% specificity for predicting GDM. Increased level of s (pro)RR in first trimester may be a marker for predicting GDM.

  16. Treatment of advanced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 disease with the viral entry inhibitor PRO 542.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Jeffrey M; Israel, Robert J; Lowy, Israel; Ostrow, Nancy A; Vassilatos, Linda S; Barish, Melanie; Tran, Diep N H; Sullivan, Brian M; Ketas, Thomas J; O'Neill, Tobias J; Nagashima, Kirsten A; Huang, Wei; Petropoulos, Christos J; Moore, John P; Maddon, Paul J; Olson, William C

    2004-02-01

    Viral entry inhibitors represent an emerging mode of therapy for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. PRO 542 (CD4-immunoglobulin G2) is a tetravalent CD4-immunoglobulin fusion protein that broadly neutralizes primary HIV-1 isolates. PRO 542 binds to the viral surface glycoprotein gp120 and blocks attachment and entry of virus into CD4(+) cells. Previously, PRO 542 demonstrated antiviral activity without significant toxicity when tested at single doses ranging to 10 mg/kg. In this study, 12 HIV-infected individuals were treated with 25-mg/kg single-dose PRO 542 and then monitored for safety, antiviral effects, and PRO 542 pharmacokinetics for 6 weeks. The study examined two treatment cohorts that differed in the extent of HIV-1 disease progression. PRO 542 at 25 mg/kg was well tolerated and demonstrated a serum half-life of 3 days. Statistically significant acute reductions in HIV-1 RNA levels were observed across all study patients, and greater antiviral effects were observed in the cohort of patients with more advanced HIV-1 disease. In advanced disease (HIV-1 RNA > 100,000 copies/ml; CD4 lymphocytes < 200 cells/mm(3)), PRO 542 mediated an 80% response rate and statistically significant approximately 0.5 log(10) mean reductions in viral load for 4 to 6 weeks posttreatment. Similar findings were obtained in an analysis of all (n = 11) advanced disease patients treated to date with single doses of PRO 542 ranging from 1 to 25 mg/kg. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between antiviral effects observed in vivo and viral susceptibility to PRO 542 in vitro. The findings support continued development of PRO 542 for salvage therapy of advanced HIV-1 disease.

  17. USN Manpower Determination Decision Making: A Case Study Using Imprint Pro to Validate the LCS Core Crew Manning Solution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    watch is an issue that ship crews encounter on a regular basis. If only a small number of personal are qualified to stand watch, the number of watch...a circadian rhythm of insulin sensitivity in patients with NIDDM caused by cyclic changes in hepatic glucose production. Diabetes, 45(8), 1044–1050

  18. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Magno, Scott; Wang, Ruiping; Derouane, Eric

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  19. Impact of the cosmetic mouthwash "Jack Pro Spülung plus" ("rheodol-Spülung plus") on the oral cavity flora, tested in a monocentric, controlled, randomized, blind, cross-over comparative study.

    PubMed

    Göhring, Jana; Müller, Gerald; Biffar, Reiner; Kramer, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Jack Pro Spülung Plus (also available as "rheodol-Spülung plus") is recommended to mechanically maintain oral hygiene as part of an overall oral hygiene concept. Because Jack Pro Spülung Plus contains the active agents polihexanide and tosylchloramide sodium in concentrations below microbicidal efficacy, this study tested the hypothesis that the combination of mechanical rinsing and bacteriostatic effect surpasses the effect of mechanical rinsing alone. The study was performed with 30 volunteers as a monocentric, controlled, randomized, blind, cross-over comparative study. The efficacy of the test product (active agents polihexanide 0.02-0.03% and tosylchloramide sodium 0.004-0.006%) was compared to an aqueous solution of polihexanide (0.02-0.03%) and to Ringer solution as negative control. The efficacy was measured as the reduction of colony forming units (cfu) on buccal mucosa after aerobic and anaerobic cultivation. After determination of pre-values, the volunteers performed mouthrinsing for 30 sec with each of the 3 tested solutions. After 1, 10 and 60 minutes, cfu numbers were determined again. The reduction factor was calculated as the difference between log10 of the measured cfu before and after mouthrinsing with the test solution. The sampling was performed using a template with a smear area of 1 x 1 cm. Using Ringer solution led to a slight mechanically-induced reduction of cfu in the oral cavity 1 min after rinsing the mouth cavity with the solution. After 10 min and 60 min, no influence on the cfu number could be detected. Using Jack pro Spülung Plus led to a bacteriostatic effect up to 60 min after mouthrinsing; 10 min and 60 min after rinsing the efficacy of Ringer solution was also significantly surpassed. The aqueous solution of polihexanide was less effective than Jack pro Spülung Plus after 10 and 60 min. Based on these observations, we conclude that Jack pro Spülung Plus is suitable for improvement of oral hygiene if patients have sensitive

  20. Quid pro quo: tobacco companies and the black press.

    PubMed

    McCandless, Phyra M; Yerger, Valerie B; Malone, Ruth E

    2012-04-01

    We explored the relationship between tobacco companies and the Black press, which plays an important role in conveying information and opinions to Black communities. In this archival case study, we analyzed data from internal tobacco industry documents and archives of the National Newspaper Publishers Association (NNPA), the trade association of the Black press. In exchange for advertising dollars and other support, the tobacco industry expected and received support from Black newspapers for tobacco industry policy positions. Beginning in the 1990s, resistance from within the Black community and reduced advertising budgets created counterpressures. The tobacco industry, however, continued to sustain NNPA support. The quid pro quo between tobacco companies and the Black press violated journalistic standards and represented an unequal trade. Although numerous factors explain today's tobacco-related health disparities, the Black press's service to tobacco companies is problematic because of the trust that the community placed in such media. Understanding the relationship between the tobacco industry and the NNPA provides insight into strategies that the tobacco industry may use in other communities and countries.