Science.gov

Sample records for proangiogenic peptide qk

  1. Electrospun PELCL membranes loaded with QK peptide for enhancement of vascular endothelial cell growth.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Yang, Qingmao; Zhou, Fang; Zhao, Yunhui; Jia, Xiaoling; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Fan, Yubo

    2016-06-01

    One of the major challenges in tissue engineering of small-diameter vascular grafts is to inhibit intimal hyperplasia and keep long-term patency after implantation. Rapid endothelialization of the grafts could be an effective approach. In this study, QK, a peptide mimicking vascular endothelial growth factor, was selected as the bioactive substrate and loaded in electrospun membranes for enhancement of vascular endothelial cell growth. In detail, QK peptide was firstly introduced with poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate into a thiolated chitosan solution that could transfer into hydrogel. Then, suspensions or emulsions of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PELCL) containing QK peptide (with or without chitosan hydrogel) were electrospun into fibrous membranes. For comparison, the electrospun PELCL membrane without QK was also fabricated. Results of release behaviors showed that the electrospun membranes, especially that contained chitosan hydrogel prepared by suspension electrospinning, could successfully encapsulate QK peptide and maintain its secondary structure after released. In vitro cell culture studies exhibited that the release of QK peptide could accelerate the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells in the 9 days. It was suggested that the electrospun PELCL membranes loaded with QK peptide might have potential applications in vascular tissue engineering.

  2. Depot-Based Delivery Systems for Pro-Angiogenic Peptides: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Van Hove, Amy H.; Benoit, Danielle S. W.

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient vascularization currently limits the size and complexity for all tissue engineering approaches. Additionally, increasing or re-initiating blood flow is the first step toward restoration of ischemic tissue homeostasis. However, no FDA-approved pro-angiogenic treatments exist, despite the many pre-clinical approaches that have been developed. The relatively small size of peptides gives advantages over protein-based treatments, specifically with respect to synthesis and stability. While many pro-angiogenic peptides have been identified and shown promising results in vitro and in vivo, the majority of biomaterials developed for pro-angiogenic drug delivery focus on protein delivery. This narrow focus limits pro-angiogenic therapeutics as peptides, similar to proteins, suffer from poor pharmacokinetics in vivo, necessitating the development of controlled release systems. This review discusses pro-angiogenic peptides and the biomaterials delivery systems that have been developed, or that could easily be adapted for peptide delivery, with a particular focus on depot-based delivery systems. PMID:26236708

  3. Enzymatically-responsive pro-angiogenic peptide-releasing poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels promote vascularization in vivo.

    PubMed

    Van Hove, Amy H; Burke, Kathleen; Antonienko, Erin; Brown, Edward; Benoit, Danielle S W

    2015-11-10

    Therapeutic angiogenesis holds great potential for a myriad of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches. While a number of peptides have been identified with pro-angiogenic behaviors, therapeutic efficacy is limited by poor tissue localization and persistence. Therefore, poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels providing sustained, enzymatically-responsive peptide release were exploited for peptide delivery. Two pro-angiogenic peptide drugs, SPARC113 and SPARC118, from the Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine, were incorporated into hydrogels as crosslinking peptides flanked by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) degradable substrates. In vitro testing confirmed peptide drug bioactivity requires sustained delivery. Furthermore, peptides retain bioactivity with residual MMP substrates present after hydrogel release. Incorporation into hydrogels achieved enzymatically-responsive bulk degradation, with peptide release in close agreement with hydrogel mass loss and released peptides retaining bioactivity. Interestingly, SPARC113 and SPARC118-releasing hydrogels had significantly different degradation time constants in vitro (1.16 and 8.77×10(-2) h(-1), respectively), despite identical MMP degradable substrates. However, upon subcutaneous implantation, both SPARC113 and SPARC118 hydrogels exhibited similar degradation constants of ~1.45×10(-2) h(-1), and resulted in significant ~1.65-fold increases in angiogenesis in vivo compared to controls. Thus, these hydrogels represent a promising pro-angiogenic approach for applications such as tissue engineering and ischemic tissue disorders.

  4. The para-HK/QK correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyckmanns, Malte; Vaughan, Owen

    2017-06-01

    We generalise the hyper-Kähler/quaternionic Kähler (HK/QK) correspondence to include para-geometries, and present a new concise proof that the target manifold of the HK/QK correspondence is quaternionic Kähler. As an application, we construct one-parameter deformations of the temporal and Euclidean supergravity c-map metrics and show that they are para-quaternionic Kähler.

  5. Chromogranin A Is Preferentially Cleaved into Proangiogenic Peptides in the Bone Marrow of Multiple Myeloma Patients.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Mimma; Gasparri, Anna Maria; Colombo, Barbara; Curnis, Flavio; Girlanda, Stefania; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Bertilaccio, Maria Teresa Sabrina; Calcinotto, Arianna; Sacchi, Angelina; Ferrero, Elisabetta; Ferrarini, Marina; Chesi, Marta; Bergsagel, P Leif; Bellone, Matteo; Tonon, Giovanni; Ciceri, Fabio; Marcatti, Magda; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico; Corti, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    Angiogenesis has been postulated to be critical for the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma, a neoplastic disease characterized by abnormal proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM). Cleavage of the N- and C-terminal regions of circulating chromogranin A (CgA, CHGA), classically an antiangiogenic protein, can activate latent antiangiogenic and proangiogenic sites, respectively. In this study, we investigated the distribution of CgA-derived polypeptides in multiple myeloma patients and the subsequent implications for disease progression. We show that the ratio of pro/antiangiogenic forms of CgA is altered in multiple myeloma patients compared with healthy subjects and that this ratio is higher in BM plasma compared with peripheral plasma, suggesting enhanced local cleavage of the CgA C-terminal region. Enhanced cleavage correlated with increased VEGF and FGF2 BM plasma levels and BM microvascular density. Using the Vk*MYC mouse model of multiple myeloma, we further demonstrate that exogenously administered CgA was cleaved in favor of the proangiogenic form and was associated with increased microvessel density. Mechanistic studies revealed that multiple myeloma and proliferating endothelial cells can promote CgA C-terminal cleavage by activating the plasminogen activator/plasmin system. Moreover, cleaved and full-length forms could also counter balance the pro/antiangiogenic activity of each other in in vitro angiogenesis assays. These findings suggest that the CgA-angiogenic switch is activated in the BM of multiple myeloma patients and prompt further investigation of this CgA imbalance as a prognostic or therapeutic target. Cancer Res; 76(7); 1781-91. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Subtilisin QK-2: secretory expression in Lactococcus lactis and surface display onto gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM) particles.

    PubMed

    Mao, Ruifeng; Zhou, Kangping; Han, Zhenwei; Wang, Yefu

    2016-05-12

    Purified from the supernatant of Bacillus subtilis QK02 culture broth, Subtilisin QK-2 is a type of effective thrombolytic reagent that has great exploitable potential. However, the unbearable flavor that occurs with fermentation and the complicated methods that are required to obtain pure products limit the application of this enzyme. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB)-based delivery vehicles are promising as cheap and safe options for medicinal compounds. The secretory expression and surface display using LAB may popularize Subtilisin QK-2 more easily and conveniently with minimal adverse effects. Subtilisin QK-2 was expressed successfully in two forms using lactic acid bacteria. For the secretory expression in Lactococcus lactis, Subtilisin QK-2 was efficiently secreted into the culture using the promoter P nisA and signal peptide SPUsp. The expression levels were not different in L. lactis NZ9000 and NZ3900 without the effect of different selection markers. However, leaky expression was only detected in L. lactis NZ3900. The biological activity of this secreted Subtilisin QK-2 was enhanced by modulating the pH of medium to slightly alkaline during induction and by codon optimization of either the entire gene sequence (qk') or only the propeptide gene sequence (qkpro'). For surface display onto gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM) particles, n LysM repeats from the C-terminal region of the major autolysin AcmA of L. lactis were fused to either the C-terminus (n = 1, 3, 5) or the N-terminus (n = 1) of the Subtilisin QK-2. These fusion proteins were secreted into the culture medium, and the QK-3LysM was able to bind to the surface of various LAB GEM particles without a loss of fibrinolytic activity. Furthermore, the binding capacity significantly increased with a higher concentration of QK-3LysM. Compared to the free-form Subtilisin QK-2, the QK-3LysM displayed on the surface of GEM particles was more stable in the simulated gastric juice. Combined with the safety and

  7. Development and in vitro assessment of enzymatically-responsive poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels for the delivery of therapeutic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Van Hove, Amy H.; Beltejar, Michael-John; Benoit, Danielle S. W.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent expansion of peptide drugs, delivery remains a challenge due to poor localization and rapid clearance. Therefore, a hydrogel-based platform technology was developed to control and sustain peptide drug release via matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. Specifically, hydrogels were composed of poly(ethylene glycol) and peptide drugs flanked by MMP substrates and terminal cysteine residues as crosslinkers. First, peptide drug bioactivity was investigated in expected released forms (e.g., with MMP substrate residues) in vitro prior to incorporation into hydrogels. Three peptides (Qk (from Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor), SPARC113, and SPARC118 (from Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine)) retained bioactivity and were used as hydrogel crosslinkers in full MMP degradable forms. Upon treatment with MMP2, hydrogels containing Qk, SPARC113, and SPARC118 degraded in 6.7, 6 and 1 days, and released 5, 8 and, 19% of peptide, respectively. Further investigation revealed peptide drug size controlled hydrogel swelling and degradation rate, while hydrophobicity impacted peptide release. Additionally, degraded Qk, SPARC113, and SPARC118 releasing hydrogels increased endothelial cell tube formation 3.1, 1.7, and 2.8-fold, respectively. While pro-angiogenic peptides were the focus of this study, the design parameters detailed allow for adaptation of hydrogels to control peptide release for a variety of therapeutic applications. PMID:25178558

  8. Long range Trp-Trp interaction initiates the folding pathway of a pro-angiogenic β-hairpin peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diana, Donatella; De Rosa, Lucia; Palmieri, Maddalena; Russomanno, Anna; Russo, Luigi; La Rosa, Carmelo; Milardi, Danilo; Colombo, Giorgio; D'Andrea, Luca D.; Fattorusso, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    HPLW, a designed VEGF (Vascular Endothelium Growth Factor) receptor-binding peptide, assumes a well folded β-hairpin conformation in water and is able to induce angiogenesis in vivo. In this study, we investigated at atomic resolution the thermal folding/unfolding pathway of HPLW by means of an original multi-technique approach combining DSC, NMR, MD and mutagenesis analyses. In particular, careful NMR investigation of the single proton melting temperatures together with DSC analysis accurately delineate the peptide folding mechanism, which is corroborated by computational folding/unfolding simulations. The HPLW folding process consists of two main events, which are successive but do not superimpose. The first folding step initiates at 320 K upon the hydrophobic collapse of the Trp5 and Trp13 side-chains which stabilizes the concurrent β-turn formation, whose COi-HNi + 3 hydrogen bond (Asp10 → Arg7) appears particularly stable. At 316 K, once the β-turn is completely formed, the two β-strands pair, very likely starting by Trp5 and Trp13, which thus play a key role also in the final step of the β-hairpin folding. Overall, here we describe a multi-state hierarchical folding pathway of a highly structured β-hairpin, which can be classified as a broken-zipper mechanism.

  9. Long range Trp-Trp interaction initiates the folding pathway of a pro-angiogenic β-hairpin peptide

    PubMed Central

    Diana, Donatella; De Rosa, Lucia; Palmieri, Maddalena; Russomanno, Anna; Russo, Luigi; La Rosa, Carmelo; Milardi, Danilo; Colombo, Giorgio; D’Andrea, Luca D.; Fattorusso, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    HPLW, a designed VEGF (Vascular Endothelium Growth Factor) receptor-binding peptide, assumes a well folded β-hairpin conformation in water and is able to induce angiogenesis in vivo. In this study, we investigated at atomic resolution the thermal folding/unfolding pathway of HPLW by means of an original multi-technique approach combining DSC, NMR, MD and mutagenesis analyses. In particular, careful NMR investigation of the single proton melting temperatures together with DSC analysis accurately delineate the peptide folding mechanism, which is corroborated by computational folding/unfolding simulations. The HPLW folding process consists of two main events, which are successive but do not superimpose. The first folding step initiates at 320 K upon the hydrophobic collapse of the Trp5 and Trp13 side-chains which stabilizes the concurrent β-turn formation, whose COi-HNi + 3 hydrogen bond (Asp10 → Arg7) appears particularly stable. At 316 K, once the β-turn is completely formed, the two β-strands pair, very likely starting by Trp5 and Trp13, which thus play a key role also in the final step of the β-hairpin folding. Overall, here we describe a multi-state hierarchical folding pathway of a highly structured β-hairpin, which can be classified as a broken-zipper mechanism. PMID:26602442

  10. "Click" immobilization of a VEGF-mimetic peptide on decellularized endothelial extracellular matrix to enhance angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Zhao, Meirong; Li, Siheng; Erasquin, Uriel J; Wang, Hao; Ren, Li; Chen, Changyi; Wang, Yingjun; Cai, Chengzhi

    2014-06-11

    We show that coating of decellularized extracellular matrix (DC-ECM) on substrate surfaces is an efficient way to generate a platform mimicking the native ECM environment. Moreover, the DC-ECM can be modified with a peptide (QK) mimicking vascular endothelial growth factor without apparently compromising its integrity. The modification was achieved through metabolic incorporation of a "clickable" handle to DC-ECM followed by rapid attachment of the QK peptide with an azido tag using copper-catalyzed click reaction. The attachment of the QK peptide on to DC-ECM in this way further enhanced the angiogenic responses (formation of branched tubular networks) of endothelial cells.

  11. Functional and pharmacological characterization of a VEGF mimetic peptide on reparative angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Finetti, Federica; Basile, Anna; Capasso, Domenica; Di Gaetano, Sonia; Di Stasi, Rossella; Pascale, Maria; Turco, Caterina Maria; Ziche, Marina; Morbidelli, Lucia; D'Andrea, Luca Domenico

    2012-08-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the main regulator of physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Low molecular weight molecules able to stimulate angiogenesis have interesting medical application for example in regenerative medicine, but at present none has reached the clinic. We reported that a VEGF mimetic helical peptide, QK, designed on the VEGF helix sequence 17-25, is able to bind and activate the VEGF receptors, producing angiogenesis. In this study we evaluate the pharmacological properties of peptide QK with the aim to propose it as a VEGF-mimetic drug to be employed in reparative angiogenesis. We show that the peptide QK is able to recapitulate all the biological activities of VEGF in vivo and on endothelial cells. In experiments evaluating sprouting from aortic ring and vessel formation in an in vivo angiogenesis model, the peptide QK showed biological effects comparable with VEGF. At endothelial level, the peptide up-regulates VEGF receptor expression, activates intracellular pathways depending on VEGFR2, and consistently it induces endothelial cell proliferation, survival and migration. When added to angiogenic factors (VEGF and/or FGF-2), QK produces an improved biological action, which resulted in reduced apoptosis and accelerated in vitro wound healing. The VEGF-like activity of the short peptide QK, characterized by lower cost of production and easier handling compared to the native glycoprotein, suggests that it is an attractive candidate to be further developed for application in therapeutic angiogenesis.

  12. Peptide-modified PELCL electrospun membranes for regulation of vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fang; Jia, Xiaoling; Yang, Yang; Yang, Qingmao; Gao, Chao; Zhao, Yunhui; Fan, Yubo; Yuan, Xiaoyan

    2016-11-01

    The efficiency of biomaterials used in small vascular repair depends greatly on their ability to interact with vascular endothelial cells (VECs). Rapid endothelialization of the vascular grafts is a promising way to prevent thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia. In this work, modification of electrospun membranes of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PELCL) by three different peptides for regulation of VECs were studied in order to obtain ideal bioactive biomaterials as small diameter vascular grafts. QK (a mimetic peptide to vascular endothelial growth factor), Arg-Glu-Asp-Val (REDV, a specific adhesive peptide to VECs) and Val-Ala-Pro-Gly (VAPG, a specific adhesive peptide to vascular smooth muscle cells) were investigated. Surface properties of the modified membranes and the response of VECs were verified. It was found that protein adsorption and platelet adhesion were effectively suppressed with the introduction of QK, REDV or VAPG peptides on the PELCL electrospun membranes. Both QK- and REDV-modified electrospun membranes could accelerate the proliferation of VECs in the first 9days, and the QK-modified electrospun membrane promoted cell proliferation more significantly than the REDV-modified one. The REDV-modified PELCL membrane was the most favorable for VECs adhesion than QK- and VAPG-modified membranes. It was suggested that QK- or REDV-modified PELCL electrospun membranes may have great potential applications in cardiovascular biomaterials for rapid endothelialization in situ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Pro-angiogenic cytokines in systemic sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Robak, Ewa; Gerlicz, Zofia

    2014-12-15

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multifactorial connective tissue disease characterized by excessive and progressive fibrosis along with microvasculopathy due to poor vascular formation and repair. Despite a general increase in many potent angiogenic factors, the vasculopathy compensatory angiogenesis and vasculogenesis are impaired. In this review, we discuss the role of proangiogenic factors--VEGF, PlGF, endoglin, PDGF, endothelin-1, angiopoietins, SDF-1, uPAR--and the paradoxical paucity of an inadequate angiogenic response in SSc.

  14. Adiponectinemia controls pro-angiogenic cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Eren, Philippe; Camus, Stéphane; Matrone, Gianfranco; Ebrahimian, Téni G; François, Delphine; Tedgui, Alain; Sébastien Silvestre, Jean; Blanc-Brude, Olivier P

    2009-11-01

    Angiogenic cell therapy with the transplantation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) or bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNC) receives considerable attention as an approach to revascularize ischemic tissues. Adiponectin is a circulating hormone produced by the apM1 gene in adipocytes. Adiponectin modulates lipid metabolism and obesity, and it was recently found to promote physiological angiogenesis in response to ischemia. Patients with multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors or myocardial infarction may benefit from progenitor cell therapy, but they display depressed adiponectinemia. We hypothesized that adiponectin stimulation of transplanted cells is critical for their pro-angiogenic function. We aimed to establish whether adiponectinemia in the cell donor or in the cell recipient determines the success of pro-angiogenic cell therapy. In vitro, we found that conditioned media derived from wild-type adipocytes (adipo-CM) or purified adiponectin strongly enhanced BM-MNC survival and proliferation and stimulated EPC differentiation, whereas adipo-CM from apM1-/- adipocytes was one-half less effective. On the other hand, wild-type and apM1-/- BM-MNC displayed similar resistance to apoptosis and proliferation rates. In vivo, wild-type, and apM1-/- BM-MNC induced similar angiogenic reactions in wild-type ischemic hindlimbs. In contrast, wild-type BM-MNC had much diminished effects in apM1-/- ischemic hindlimbs. We concluded that adiponectin enhances BM-MNC survival and proliferation, and adiponectinemia in the cell therapy recipient is essential for the pro-angiogenic benefits of cell therapy. These observations imply that progenitor cell transplantation might only induce angiogenesis in patients with high adiponectinemia.

  15. Collagen-gelatin mixtures as wound model, and substrates for VEGF-mimetic peptide binding and endothelial cell activation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tania R; Stahl, Patrick J; Li, Yang; Yu, S Michael

    2015-03-01

    In humans, high level of collagen remodeling is seen during normal physiological events such as bone renewal, as well as in pathological conditions, such as arthritis, tumor growth and other chronic wounds. Our lab recently discovered that collagen mimetic peptide (CMP) is able to hybridize with denatured collagens at these collagen remodeling sites with high affinity. Here, we show that the CMP's high binding affinity to denatured collagens can be utilized to deliver angiogenic signals to scaffolds composed of heat-denatured collagens (gelatins). We first demonstrate hybridization between denatured collagens and QKCMP, a CMP with pro-angiogenic QK domain. We show that high levels of QKCMP can be immobilized to a new artificial matrix containing both fibrous type I collagen and heat denatured collagen through triple helix hybridization, and that the QKCMP is able to stimulate early angiogenic response of endothelial cells (ECs). We also show that the QKCMP can bind to excised tissues from burn injuries in cutaneous mouse model, suggesting its potential for promoting neovascularization of burn wounds. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Collagen-Gelatin Mixtures as Wound Model, and Substrates for VEGF-Mimetic Peptide Binding and Endothelial Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Tania R.; Stahl, Patrick J.; Li, Yang; Yu, S. Michael

    2015-01-01

    In humans, high level of collagen remodeling is seen during normal physiological events such as bone renewal, as well as in pathological conditions, such as arthritis, tumor growth and other chronic wounds. Our lab recently discovered that collagen mimetic peptide (CMP) is able to hybridize with denatured collagens at these collagen remodeling sites with high affinity. Here, we show that the CMP's high binding affinity to denatured collagens can be utilized to deliver angiogenic signals to scaffolds composed of heat-denatured collagens (gelatins). We first demonstrate hybridization between denatured collagens and QKCMP, a CMP with pro-angiogenic QK domain. We show that high levels of QKCMP can be immobilized to a new artificial matrix containing both fibrous type I collagen and heat denatured collagen through triple helix hybridization, and that the QKCMP is able to stimulate early angiogenic response of endothelial cells (ECs). We also show that the QKCMP can bind to excised tissues from burn injuries in cutaneous mouse model, suggesting its potential for promoting neovascularization of burn wounds. PMID:25584990

  17. Pro-angiogenic properties of orosomucoid (ORM)

    SciTech Connect

    Irmak, Ster; Oliveira-Ferrer, Leticia; Erguen, Sueleyman; Tilki, Derya

    2009-11-01

    The acute phase protein orosomucoid (ORM), also known as alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), is found to be increased in infection, inflammation and cancer. Recently, we demonstrated that ORM is produced by endothelial cells and detectable in urine samples of patients with bladder cancer. However, it was not clarified yet whether ORM plays a role in new vessel formation. To this aim we performed overexpression and gene silencing for ORM in human microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs). ORM purified from human plasma was used individually or in combination with VEGF-A in endothelial tube formation, migration and proliferation assay. The in vivo effect of ORM in angiogenesis was studied using the chicken chorionallantois membrane (CAM) with subsequent counting of blood vessels on histological sections from the stimulated areas of CAM tissue. Our data show that ORM alone enhances migration but not proliferation of HDMECs. ORM alone does not induce endothelial tubes in vitro but simultaneous application of ORM with VEGF-A increases the number and the network of VEGF-A-induced endothelial tubes. Remarkably, ORM alone induces new vessel formation in vivo using CAM assay and supports the VEGF-A-induced new vessel formation in this assay. Taken together, our results let assume that ORM has pro-angiogenic properties and supports the angiogenic effect of VEGF-A. Thus, ORM seems to be involved in the regulation of angiogenesis.

  18. Collagen-binding VEGF mimetic peptide: Structure, matrix interaction, and endothelial cell activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Tania R.

    Long term survival of artificial tissue constructs depends greatly on proper vascularization. In nature, differentiation of endothelial cells and formation of vasculature are directed by dynamic spatio-temporal cues in the extracellular matrix that are difficult to reproduce in vitro. In this dissertation, we present a novel bifunctional peptide that mimics matrix-bound vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which can be used to encode spatially controlled angiogenic signals in collagen-based scaffolds. The peptide, QKCMP, contains a collagen mimetic domain (CMP) that binds to type I collagen by a unique triple helix hybridization mechanism and a VEGF mimetic domain (QK) with pro-angiogenic activity. We demonstrate QKCMP's ability to hybridize with native and heat denatured collagens through a series of binding studies on collagen and gelatin substrates. Circular dichroism experiments show that the peptide retains the triple helical structure vital for collagen binding, and surface plasmon resonance study confirms the molecular interaction between the peptide and collagen strands. Cell culture studies demonstrate QKCMP's ability to induce endothelial cell morphogenesis and network formation as a matrix-bound factor in 2D and 3D collagen scaffolds. We also show that the peptide can be used to spatially modify collagen-based substrates to promote localized endothelial cell activation and network formation. To probe the biological events that govern these angiogenic cellular responses, we investigated the cell signaling pathways activated by collagen-bound QKCMP and determined short and long-term endothelial cell response profiles for p38, ERK1/2, and Akt signal transduction cascades. Finally, we present our efforts to translate the peptide's in vitro bioactivity to an in vivo burn injury animal model. When implanted at the wound site, QKCMP functionalized biodegradable hydrogels induce enhanced neovascularization in the granulation tissue. The results show QKCMP

  19. Biology and Flow Cytometry of Proangiogenic Hematopoietic Progenitors Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Jonathan A.; Erzurum, Serpil; Asosingh, Kewal

    2015-01-01

    During development hematopoiesis and neovascularization are closely linked to each other via a common bipotent stem cell called the hemangioblast that gives rise to both hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. In postnatal life this functional connection between the vasculature and hematopoiesis is maintained by a subset of hematopoietic progenitor cells endowed with the capacity to differentiate into potent proangiogenic cells. These proangiogenic hematopoietic progenitors comprise a specific subset of bone marrow-derived cells that homes to sites of neovascularization and possess potent paracrine angiogenic activity. There is emerging evidence that this subpopulation of hematopoietic progenitors plays a critical role in vascular health and disease. Their angiogenic activity is distinct from putative “endothelial progenitor cells” that become structural cells of the endothelium by differentiation into endothelial cells. Proangiogenic hematopoietic progenitor cell research requires multi-disciplinary expertise in flow cytometry, hematology and vascular biology. This review provides a comprehensive overview of proangiogenic hematopoietic progenitor cell biology and flow cytometric methods to detect these cells in the peripheral blood circulation and bone marrow. PMID:25418030

  20. Control of the Immune Response by Pro-Angiogenic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Voron, Thibault; Marcheteau, Elie; Pernot, Simon; Colussi, Orianne; Tartour, Eric; Taieb, Julien; Terme, Magali

    2014-01-01

    The progressive conversion of normal cells into cancer cells is characterized by the acquisition of eight hallmarks. Among these criteria, the capability of the cancer cell to avoid the immune destruction has been noted. Thus, tumors develop mechanisms to become invisible to the immune system, such as the induction of immunosuppressive cells, which are able to inhibit the development of an efficient immune response. Molecules produced in the tumor microenvironment are involved in the occurrence of an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Recently, it has been shown that vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) exhibits immunosuppressive properties in addition to its pro-angiogenic activities. VEGF-A can induce the accumulation of immature dendritic cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, regulatory T cells, and inhibit the migration of T lymphocytes to the tumor. Other pro-angiogenic factors such as placental growth factor (PlGF) could also participate in tumor-induced immunosuppression, but only few works have been performed on this point. Here, we review the impact of pro-angiogenic factors (especially VEGF-A) on immune cells. Anti-angiogenic molecules, which target VEGF-A/VEGFR axis, have been developed in the last decades and are commonly used to treat cancer patients. These drugs have anti-angiogenic properties but can also counteract the tumor-induced immunosuppression. Based on these immunomodulatory properties, anti-angiogenic molecules could be efficiently associated with immunotherapeutic strategies in preclinical models. These combinations are currently under investigation in cancer patients. PMID:24765614

  1. Cobalt doped proangiogenic hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering application.

    PubMed

    Kulanthaivel, Senthilguru; Roy, Bibhas; Agarwal, Tarun; Giri, Supratim; Pramanik, Krishna; Pal, Kunal; Ray, Sirsendu S; Maiti, Tapas K; Banerjee, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    The present study delineates the synthesis and characterization of cobalt doped proangiogenic-osteogenic hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite samples, doped with varying concentrations of bivalent cobalt (Co(2+)) were prepared by the ammoniacal precipitation method and the extent of doping was measured by ICP-OES. The crystalline structure of the doped hydroxyapatite samples was confirmed by XRD and FTIR studies. Analysis pertaining to the effect of doped hydroxyapatite on cell cycle progression and proliferation of MG-63 cells revealed that the doping of cobalt supported the cell viability and proliferation up to a threshold limit. Furthermore, such level of doping also induced differentiation of the bone cells, which was evident from the higher expression of differentiation markers (Runx2 and Osterix) and better nodule formation (SEM study). Western blot analysis in conjugation with ELISA study confirmed that the doped HAp samples significantly increased the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF in MG-63 cells. The analysis described here confirms the proangiogenic-osteogenic properties of the cobalt doped hydroxyapatite and indicates its potential application in bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cyclooxygenase-derived proangiogenic metabolites of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids.

    PubMed

    Rand, Amy A; Barnych, Bogdan; Morisseau, Christophe; Cajka, Tomas; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Panigrahy, Dipak; Hammock, Bruce D

    2017-04-25

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) is metabolized by cyclooxygenase (COX) and cytochrome P450 to produce proangiogenic metabolites. Specifically, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) produced from the P450 pathway are angiogenic, inducing cancer tumor growth. A previous study showed that inhibiting soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) increased EET concentration and mildly promoted tumor growth. However, inhibiting both sEH and COX led to a dramatic decrease in tumor growth, suggesting that the contribution of EETs to angiogenesis and subsequent tumor growth may be attributed to downstream metabolites formed by COX. This study explores the fate of EETs with COX, the angiogenic activity of the primary metabolites formed, and their subsequent hydrolysis by sEH and microsomal EH. Three EET regioisomers were found to be substrates for COX, based on oxygen consumption and product formation. EET substrate preference for both COX-1 and COX-2 were estimated as 8,9-EET > 5,6-EET > 11,12-EET, whereas 14,15-EET was inactive. The structure of two major products formed from 8,9-EET in this COX pathway were confirmed by chemical synthesis: ct-8,9-epoxy-11-hydroxy-eicosatrienoic acid (ct-8,9-E-11-HET) and ct-8,9-epoxy-15-hydroxy-eicosatrienoic acid (ct-8,9-E-15-HET). ct-8,9-E-11-HET and ct-8,9-E-15-HET are further metabolized by sEH, with ct-8,9-E-11-HET being hydrolyzed much more slowly. Using an s.c. Matrigel assay, we showed that ct-8,9-E-11-HET is proangiogenic, whereas ct-8,9-E-15-HET is not active. This study identifies a functional link between EETs and COX and identifies ct-8,9-E-11-HET as an angiogenic lipid, suggesting a physiological role for COX metabolites of EETs.

  3. Pro-angiogenic Role of Insulin: From Physiology to Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Carlos A.; Herlitz, Kurt; Troncoso, Felipe; Guevara, Katherine; Acurio, Jesenia; Aguayo, Claudio; Godoy, Alejandro S.; González, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    The underlying molecular mechanisms involve in the regulation of the angiogenic process by insulin are not well understood. In this review article, we aim to describe the role of insulin and insulin receptor activation on the control of angiogenesis and how these mechanisms can be deregulated in human diseases. Functional expression of insulin receptors and their signaling pathways has been described on endothelial cells and pericytes, both of the main cells involved in vessel formation and maturation. Consequently, insulin has been shown to regulate endothelial cell migration, proliferation, and in vitro tubular structure formation through binding to its receptors and activation of intracellular phosphorylation cascades. Furthermore, insulin-mediated pro-angiogenic state is potentiated by generation of vascular growth factors, such as the vascular endothelial growth factor, produced by endothelial cells. Additionally, diseases such as insulin resistance, obesity, diabetes, and cancer may be associated with the deregulation of insulin-mediated angiogenesis. Despite this knowledge, the underlying molecular mechanisms need to be elucidated in order to provide new insights into the role of insulin on angiogenesis. PMID:28424632

  4. Pro-angiogenic Role of Insulin: From Physiology to Pathology.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Carlos A; Herlitz, Kurt; Troncoso, Felipe; Guevara, Katherine; Acurio, Jesenia; Aguayo, Claudio; Godoy, Alejandro S; González, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    The underlying molecular mechanisms involve in the regulation of the angiogenic process by insulin are not well understood. In this review article, we aim to describe the role of insulin and insulin receptor activation on the control of angiogenesis and how these mechanisms can be deregulated in human diseases. Functional expression of insulin receptors and their signaling pathways has been described on endothelial cells and pericytes, both of the main cells involved in vessel formation and maturation. Consequently, insulin has been shown to regulate endothelial cell migration, proliferation, and in vitro tubular structure formation through binding to its receptors and activation of intracellular phosphorylation cascades. Furthermore, insulin-mediated pro-angiogenic state is potentiated by generation of vascular growth factors, such as the vascular endothelial growth factor, produced by endothelial cells. Additionally, diseases such as insulin resistance, obesity, diabetes, and cancer may be associated with the deregulation of insulin-mediated angiogenesis. Despite this knowledge, the underlying molecular mechanisms need to be elucidated in order to provide new insights into the role of insulin on angiogenesis.

  5. NGR-TNF, a novel vascular-targeting agent, does not induce cytokine recruitment of proangiogenic bone marrow-derived cells

    PubMed Central

    Di Matteo, P; Hackl, C; Jedeszko, C; Valentinis, B; Bordignon, C; Traversari, C; Kerbel, R S; Rizzardi, G-P

    2013-01-01

    Background: Administration of certain chemotherapy drugs at the maximum tolerated dose, vascular-disrupting agents (VDAs) and irradiation can induce mobilisation and tumour homing of proangiogenic bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs). Increases in cytokines and chemokines contribute to such mobilisation that eventually promotes tumour (re)growth. NGR-TNF is a vascular-targeting agent in advanced clinical development, coupling the CNGRCG angiogenic vessel-homing peptide with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). We investigated whether NGR-TNF mobilises host BMDCs and growth factors. Methods: Blood was obtained from Lewis lung carcinoma and 4T1 tumour-bearing mice at different time points following NGR-TNF, VDA or anti-VEGFR2/flk-1 antibody treatment. Levels of circulating growth factors were assessed by ELISAs. BMDCs were characterised by FACS. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells were defined as CD45−/CD13+/flk-1+/CD117+/7AAD−, Tie2-expressing monocytes as CD45+/CD11b+/Tie2+ and myeloid-derived suppressor cells as CD45+/CD11b+/Gr1+ cells. Results: NGR-TNF decreases tumour blood vessel density-inducing apoptosis of tumour and tumour endothelial cells. Unlike VDAs, or high-dose NGR-TNF, lower doses of NGR-TNF, comparable to those used in clinical trials, neither mobilise nor recruit to the tumour site proangiogenic BMDCs or induce host growth factors. Conclusion: Low-dose NGR-TNF exerts antitumour activity without inducing proangiogenic host responses, conceivably important for preventing/overcoming resistance and designing combination therapeutic strategies. PMID:23828516

  6. Dying glioma cells establish a proangiogenic microenvironment through a caspase 3 dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiao; Yu, Yang; He, Sijia; Cheng, Jin; Gong, Yanping; Zhang, Zhengxiang; Yang, Xuguang; Xu, Bing; Liu, Xinjian; Li, Chuan-Yuan; Tian, Ling; Huang, Qian

    2017-01-28

    Vascular recovery or re-angiogenesis after radiotherapy plays a significant role in tumor recurrence, whereas molecular mechanisms of this process remain elusive. In this work, we found that dying glioma cells promoted post-irradiation angiogenesis through a caspase 3 dependent mechanism. Evidence in vitro and in vivo indicated that caspase 3 inhibition undermined proangiogenic effects of dying glioma cells. Proteolytic inactivation of caspase 3 in glioma cells reduced tumorigenicity. Importantly, we identified that NF-κB/COX-2/PGE2 axis acted as downstream signaling of caspase 3, mediating proangiogenic response after irradiation. Additionally, VEGF-A, regulated by caspase 3 possibly through phosphorylated eIF4E, was recognized as another downstream factor participating in the proangiogenic response. In conclusion, these data demonstrated that caspase 3 in dying glioma cells supported the proangiogenic response after irradiation by governing NF-κB/COX-2/PGE2 axis and p-eIF4E/VEGF-A signaling. While inducing caspase 3 activation has been a generally-adopted notion in cancer therapeutics, our study counterintuitively illustrated that caspase 3 activation in dying glioma cells unfavorably supported post-irradiation angiogenesis. This double-edged role of caspase 3 suggested that taming caspase 3 from the opposite side, not always activating it, may provide novel therapeutic strategies due to restricted post-irradiation angiogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Engineered Fibrin Gels for Parallel Stimulation of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proangiogenic and Osteogenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Kaitlin C.; Hughbanks, Marissa L.; Binder, Bernard Y.K.; Vissers, Caroline B.; Leach, J. Kent

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are under examination for use in cell therapies to repair bone defects resulting from trauma or disease. MSCs secrete proangiogenic cues and can be induced to differentiate into bone-forming osteoblasts, yet there is limited evidence that these events can be achieved in parallel. Manipulation of the cell delivery vehicle properties represents a candidate approach for directing MSC function in bone healing. We hypothesized that the biophysical properties of a fibrin gel could simultaneously regulate the proangiogenic and osteogenic potential of entrapped MSCs. Fibrin gels were formed by supplementation with NaCl (1.2, 2.3, and 3.9% w/v) to modulate gel biophysical properties without altering protein concentrations. MSCs entrapped in 1.2% w/v NaCl gels were the most proangiogenic in vitro, yet cells in 3.9% w/v gels exhibited the greatest osteogenic response. Compared to the other groups, MSCs entrapped in 2.3% w/v gels provided the best balance between proangiogenic potential, osteogenic potential, and gel contractility. The contribution of MSCs to bone repair was then examined when deployed in 2.3% w/v NaCl gels and implanted into an irradiated orthotopic bone defect. Compared to acellular gels after 3 weeks of implantation, defects treated with MSC-loaded fibrin gels exhibited significant increases in vessel density, early osteogenesis, superior morphology, and increased cellularity of repair tissue. Defects treated with MSC-loaded gels exhibited increased bone formation after 12 weeks compared to blank gels. These results confirm that fibrin gel properties can be modulated to simultaneously promote both the proangiogenic and osteogenic potential of MSCs, and fibrin gels modified by supplementation with NaCl are promising carriers for MSCs to stimulate bone repair in vivo. PMID:25527322

  8. Angiopoietin-2 regulates gene expression in TIE2-expressing monocytes and augments their inherent proangiogenic functions.

    PubMed

    Coffelt, Seth B; Tal, Andrea O; Scholz, Alexander; De Palma, Michele; Patel, Sunil; Urbich, Carmen; Biswas, Subhra K; Murdoch, Craig; Plate, Karl H; Reiss, Yvonne; Lewis, Claire E

    2010-07-01

    TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEM) are a highly proangiogenic subset of myeloid cells in tumors. Here, we show that circulating human TEMs are already preprogrammed in the circulation to be more angiogenic and express higher levels of such proangiogenic genes as matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), VEGFA, COX-2, and WNT5A than TIE2(-) monocytes. Additionally, angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) markedly enhanced the proangiogenic activity of TEMs and increased their expression of two proangiogenic enzymes: thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and cathepsin B (CTSB). Three "alternatively activated" (or M2-like) macrophage markers were also upregulated by ANG-2 in TEMs: interleukin-10, mannose receptor (MRC1), and CCL17. To investigate the effects of ANG-2 on the phenotype and function of TEMs in tumors, we used a double-transgenic (DT) mouse model in which ANG-2 was specifically overexpressed by endothelial cells. Syngeneic tumors grown in these ANG-2 DT mice were more vascularized and contained greater numbers of TEMs than those in wild-type (WT) mice. In both tumor types, expression of MMP-9 and MRC1 was mainly restricted to tumor TEMs rather than TIE2(-) macrophages. Furthermore, tumor TEMs expressed higher levels of MRC1, TP, and CTSB in ANG-2 DT tumors than WT tumors. Taken together, our data show that although circulating TEMs are innately proangiogenic, exposure to tumor-derived ANG-2 stimulates these cells to exhibit a broader, tumor-promoting phenotype. As such, the ANG-2-TEM axis may represent a new target for antiangiogenic cancer therapies.

  9. Scleroderma dermal microvascular endothelial cells exhibit defective response to pro-angiogenic chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Rabquer, Bradley J.; Ohara, Ray A.; Stinson, William A.; Campbell, Phillip L.; Amin, M. Asif; Balogh, Beatrix; Zakhem, George; Renauer, Paul A.; Lozier, Ann; Arasu, Eshwar; Haines, G. Kenneth; Kahaleh, Bashar; Schiopu, Elena; Khanna, Dinesh; Koch, Alisa E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Angiogenesis plays a critical role in SSc (scleroderma). The aim of this study was to examine the expression of growth-regulated protein-γ (Gro-γ/CXCL3), granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (GCP-2/CXCL6) and their receptor CXCR2 in endothelial cells (ECs) isolated from SSc skin and determine whether these cells mount an angiogenic response towards pro-angiogenic chemokines. The downstream signalling pathways as well as the pro-angiogenic transcription factor inhibitor of DNA-binding protein 1 (Id-1) were also examined. Methods. Skin biopsies were obtained from patients with dcSSc. ECs were isolated via magnetic positive selection. Angiogenesis was measured by EC chemotaxis assay. Results. Gro-γ/CXCL3 and GCP-2/CXCL6 were minimally expressed in both skin types but elevated in SSc serum. Pro-angiogenic chemokine mRNA was greater in SSc ECs than in normal ECs. SSc ECs did not migrate to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Gro-γ/CXCL3, GCP-2/CXCL6 or CXCL16. The signalling pathways stimulated by these chemokines were also dysregulated. Id-1 mRNA in SSc ECs was lower compared with normal ECs, and overexpression of Id-1 in SSc ECs increased their ability to migrate towards VEGF and CXCL16. Conclusion. Our results show that SSc ECs are unable to respond to pro-angiogenic chemokines despite their increased expression in serum and ECs. This might be due to the differences in the signalling pathways activated by these chemokines in normal vs SSc ECs. In addition, the lower expression of Id-1 also decreases the angiogenic response. The inability of pro-angiogenic chemokines to promote EC migration provides an additional mechanism for the impaired angiogenesis that characterizes SSc. PMID:26705326

  10. Transient and stable transfections of mouse myoblasts with genes coding for pro-angiogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Bialas, M; Krupka, M; Janeczek, A; Rozwadowska, N; Fraczek, M; Kotlinowski, J; Kucharzewska, P; Lackowska, B; Kurpisz, M

    2011-04-01

    Cardiomyocyte loss in the ischaemic heart can be the reason of many complications, eventually being even the cause of patient's death. Despite many promises, cell therapy with the use of skeletal muscle stem cells (SMSC) still remains to be modified and improved. Combined cell and gene therapy seems to be a promising strategy to heal damaged myocardium. In the present study we have investigated the influence of a simultaneous overexpression of two potent pro-angiogenic genes encoding the fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF-4) and the vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) on a myogenic murine C2C12 cell line. We have demonstrated in in vitro conditions that myoblasts which overexpressed these factors exhibited significant changes in the cell cycle and pro-angiogenic potential with only slight differences in the expression of the myogenic genes. There was not observed the influence of transient or stable overexpression of FGF-4 and VEGF on cell apoptosis/necrosis in standard or oxidative stress conditions comparing to non transfected controls. Overall, our results suggest that the possible transplantation of myoblasts overexpressing pro-angiogenic factors may potentially improve the functionality of the injured myocardium although the definite proof must originate from in situ conducted pre-clinical studies.

  11. A motif within the N-terminal domain of TSP-1 specifically promotes the proangiogenic activity of endothelial colony-forming cells.

    PubMed

    Dias, Juliana Vieira; Benslimane-Ahmim, Zahia; Egot, Marion; Lokajczyk, Anna; Grelac, Françoise; Galy-Fauroux, Isabelle; Juliano, Luiz; Le-Bonniec, Bernard; Takiya, Cristina Maeda; Fischer, Anne-Marie; Blanc-Brude, Olivier; Morandi, Verônica; Boisson-Vidal, Catherine

    2012-10-15

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) gives rise to fragments that have both pro- and anti-angiogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. The TSP-HepI peptide (2.3 kDa), located in the N-terminal domain of TSP-1, has proangiogenic effects on endothelial cells. We have previously shown that TSP-1 itself exhibits a dual effect on endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFC) by enhancing their adhesion through its TSP-HepI fragment while reducing their proliferation and differentiation into vascular tubes (tubulogenesis) in vitro. This effect is likely mediated through CD47 binding to the TSP-1 C-terminal domain. Here we investigated the effect of TSP-HepI peptide on the angiogenic properties of ECFC in vitro and in vivo. TSP-HepI peptide potentiated FGF-2-induced neovascularisation by enhancing ECFC chemotaxis and tubulogenesis in a Matrigel plug assay. ECFC exposure to 20 μg/mL of TSP-HepI peptide for 18 h enhanced cell migration (p < 0.001 versus VEGF exposure), upregulated alpha 6-integrin expression, and enhanced their cell adhesion to activated endothelium under physiological shear stress conditions at levels comparable to those of SDF-1α. The adhesion enhancement appeared to be mediated by the heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) syndecan-4, as ECFC adhesion was significantly reduced by a syndecan-4-neutralising antibody. ECFC migration and tubulogenesis were stimulated neither by a TSP-HepI peptide with a modified heparin-binding site (S/TSP-HepI) nor when the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) moieties were removed from the ECFC surface by enzymatic treatment. Ex vivo TSP-HepI priming could potentially serve to enhance the effectiveness of therapeutic neovascularisation with ECFC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. On the estimate of deviations of partial sums of a multiple Fourier-Walsh series of the form S2j,⋯,2jf (x ) of a function in the metric L1(Qk)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igenberlina, Alua; Matin, Dauren; Turgumbayev, Mendybay

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, deviations of the partial sums of a multiple Fourier-Walsh series of a function in the metric L1(Qk) on a dyadic group are investigated. This estimate plays an important role in the study of equivalent normalizations in this space by means of a difference, oscillation, and best approximation by polynomials in the Walsh system. The classical classical Besov space and its equivalent normalizations are set forth in the well-known monographs of Nikolsky S.M., Besov O.V., Ilyin V.P., Triebel H.; in the works of Kazakh scientists such as Amanov T.I., Mynbaev K.T., Otelbaev M.O., Smailov E.S.. The Besov spaces on the dyadic group and the Vilenkin groups in the one-dimensional case are considered in works by Ombe H., Bloom Walter R, Fournier J., Onneweer C.W., Weyi S., Jun Tateoka.

  13. Interleukin-3 greatly expands non-adherent endothelial forming cells with pro-angiogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Moldenhauer, Lachlan M; Cockshell, Michaelia P; Frost, Lachlan; Parham, Kate A; Tvorogov, Denis; Tan, Lih Y; Ebert, Lisa M; Tooley, Katie; Worthley, Stephen; Lopez, Angel F; Bonder, Claudine S

    2015-05-01

    Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) provide revascularisation for cardiovascular disease and the expansion of these cells opens up the possibility of their use as a cell therapy. Herein we show that interleukin-3 (IL3) strongly expands a population of human non-adherent endothelial forming cells (EXnaEFCs) with low immunogenicity as well as pro-angiogenic capabilities in vivo, making their therapeutic utilisation a realistic option. Non-adherent CD133(+) EFCs isolated from human umbilical cord blood and cultured under different conditions were maximally expanded by day 12 in the presence of IL3 at which time a 350-fold increase in cell number was obtained. Cell surface marker phenotyping confirmed expression of the hematopoietic progenitor cell markers CD133, CD117 and CD34, vascular cell markers VEGFR2 and CD31, dim expression of CD45 and absence of myeloid markers CD14 and CD11b. Functional experiments revealed that EXnaEFCs exhibited classical properties of endothelial cells (ECs), namely binding of Ulex europaeus lectin, up-take of acetylated-low density lipoprotein and contribution to EC tube formation in vitro. These EXnaEFCs demonstrated a pro-angiogenic phenotype within two independent in vivo rodent models. Firstly, a Matrigel plug assay showed increased vascularisation in mice. Secondly, a rat model of acute myocardial infarction demonstrated reduced heart damage as determined by lower levels of serum creatinine and a modest increase in heart functionality. Taken together, these studies show IL3 as a potent growth factor for human CD133(+) cell expansion with clear pro-angiogenic properties (in vitro and in vivo) and thus may provide clinical utility for humans in the future.

  14. Aspirin inhibits the production of proangiogenic 15(S)-HETE by platelet cyclooxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Rauzi, Francesca; Kirkby, Nicholas S.; Edin, Matthew L.; Whiteford, James; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Mitchell, Jane A.; Warner, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Regular consumption of low-dose aspirin reduces the occurrence of colorectal, esophageal, stomach, and gastrointestinal cancers. The underlying mechanism is unknown but may be linked to inhibition of angiogenesis. Because the effective doses of aspirin are consistent with the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 in platelets, we used liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry analyses and immunoassays of human platelet releasates coupled with angiogenesis assays to search for the mediators of these effects. Blood or platelet-rich plasma from healthy volunteers stimulated with platelet activators produced a broad range of eicosanoids. Notably, preincubation of platelets with aspirin, but not with a P2Y12 receptor antagonist, caused a marked reduction in the production of 11-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) and 15(S)-HETE, in addition to prostanoids such as thromboxane A2. Releasates from activated platelets caused cell migration and tube formation in cultured human endothelial cells and stimulated the sprouting of rat aortic rings in culture. These proangiogenic effects were absent when platelets were treated with aspirin but returned by coincubation with exogenous 15(S)-HETE. These results reveal 15(S)-HETE as a major platelet cyclooxygenase-1 product with strong proangiogenic effects. Thus, 15(S)-HETE represents a potential target for the development of novel antiangiogenic therapeutics, and blockade of its production may provide a mechanism for the anticancer effects of aspirin.—Rauzi, F., Kirkby, N. S., Edin, M. L., Whiteford, J. Zeldin, D. C., Mitchell, J. A., Warner, T. D. Aspirin inhibits the production of proangiogenic 15(S)-HETE by platelet cyclooxygenase-1. PMID:27633788

  15. Investigation of molecular mechanisms and regulatory pathways of pro-angiogenic nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nethi, Susheel Kumar; Veeriah, Vimal; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Rajendran, Saranya; Mattapally, Saidulu; Misra, Sanjay; Chatterjee, Suvro; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2015-05-01

    Angiogenesis, a process involving the growth of new blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature, plays a crucial role in various pathophysiological conditions. We have previously demonstrated that europium hydroxide [EuIII(OH)3] nanorods (EHNs) exhibit pro-angiogenic properties through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Considering the enormous implication of angiogenesis in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and cancer, it is essential to understand in-depth molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways in order to develop the most efficient and effective alternative treatment strategy for CVDs. However, the exact underlying mechanism and cascade signaling pathways behind the pro-angiogenic properties exhibited by EHNs still remain unclear. Herein, we report for the first time that the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a redox signaling molecule, generated by these EHNs activates the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) that promotes the nitric oxide (NO) production in a PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt dependent manner, eventually triggering angiogenesis. We intensely believe that the investigation and understanding of the in-depth molecular mechanism and signaling pathways of EHNs induced angiogenesis will help us in developing an effective alternative treatment strategy for cardiovascular related and ischemic diseases where angiogenesis plays an important role.Angiogenesis, a process involving the growth of new blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature, plays a crucial role in various pathophysiological conditions. We have previously demonstrated that europium hydroxide [EuIII(OH)3] nanorods (EHNs) exhibit pro-angiogenic properties through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Considering the enormous implication of angiogenesis in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and cancer, it is essential to understand in-depth molecular

  16. Eotaxin-rich Proangiogenic Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells and CCR3+ Endothelium in the Atopic Asthmatic Response

    PubMed Central

    Asosingh, Kewal; Vasanji, Amit; Tipton, Aaron; Queisser, Kimberly; Wanner, Nicholas; Janocha, Allison; Grandon, Deepa; Anand-Apte, Bela; Rothenberg, Marc. E.; Dweik, Raed; Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is closely linked to and precedes eosinophilic infiltration in asthma. Eosinophils are recruited into the airway by chemoattractant eotaxins, which are expressed by endothelial cells, smooth muscles cells, epithelial cells, and hematopoietic cells. We hypothesized that bone marrow-derived proangiogenic progenitor cells that contain eotaxins contribute to the initiation of angiogenesis and inflammation in asthma. Whole lung allergen challenge of atopic asthma patients revealed vascular activation occurs within hours of challenge, and prior to airway inflammation. The eotaxin receptor CCR3 was expressed at high levels on submucosal endothelial cells in patients and murine model of asthma. Exvivo exposure of murine endothelial cells to eotaxins induced migration and angiogenesis. In mechanistic studies, wildtype mice transplanted with eotaxin-1/2 deficient bone marrow had markedly less angiogenesis and inflammation in an atopic asthma model, while adoptive transfer of proangiogenic progenitor cells from wildtype mice in an atopic asthma model into the eotaxin-1/2 deficient mice led to angiogenesis and airway inflammation. The findings indicate that TH2-promoting hematopoietic progenitor cells are rapidly recruited to the lung upon allergen exposure and release eotaxins that coordinately activate endothelial cells, angiogenesis, and airway inflammation. PMID:26810221

  17. Influence of the oxygen microenvironment on the proangiogenic potential of human endothelial colony forming cells.

    PubMed

    Decaris, Martin L; Lee, Chang I; Yoder, Mervin C; Tarantal, Alice F; Leach, J Kent

    2009-01-01

    Therapeutic angiogenesis is a promising strategy to promote the formation of new or collateral vessels for tissue regeneration and repair. Since changes in tissue oxygen concentrations are known to stimulate numerous cell functions, these studies have focused on the oxygen microenvironment and its role on the angiogenic potential of endothelial cells. We analyzed the proangiogenic potential of human endothelial colony-forming cells (hECFCs), a highly proliferative population of circulating endothelial progenitor cells, and compared outcomes to human dermal microvascular cells (HMVECs) under oxygen tensions ranging from 1% to 21% O2, representative of ischemic or healthy tissues and standard culture conditions. Compared to HMVECs, hECFCs (1) exhibited significantly greater proliferation in both ischemic conditions and ambient air; (2) demonstrated increased migration compared to HMVECs when exposed to chemotactic gradients in reduced oxygen; and (3) exhibited comparable or superior proangiogenic potential in reduced oxygen conditions when assessed using a vessel-forming assay. These data demonstrate that the angiogenic potential of both endothelial populations is influenced by the local oxygen microenvironment. However, hECFCs exhibit a robust angiogenic potential in oxygen conditions representative of physiologic, ischemic, or ambient air conditions, and these findings suggest that hECFCs may be a superior cell source for use in cell-based approaches for the neovascularization of ischemic or engineered tissues.

  18. Eotaxin-Rich Proangiogenic Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells and CCR3+ Endothelium in the Atopic Asthmatic Response.

    PubMed

    Asosingh, Kewal; Vasanji, Amit; Tipton, Aaron; Queisser, Kimberly; Wanner, Nicholas; Janocha, Allison; Grandon, Deepa; Anand-Apte, Bela; Rothenberg, Marc E; Dweik, Raed; Erzurum, Serpil C

    2016-03-01

    Angiogenesis is closely linked to and precedes eosinophilic infiltration in asthma. Eosinophils are recruited into the airway by chemoattractant eotaxins, which are expressed by endothelial cells, smooth muscles cells, epithelial cells, and hematopoietic cells. We hypothesized that bone marrow-derived proangiogenic progenitor cells that contain eotaxins contribute to the initiation of angiogenesis and inflammation in asthma. Whole-lung allergen challenge of atopic asthma patients revealed vascular activation occurs within hours of challenge and before airway inflammation. The eotaxin receptor CCR3 was expressed at high levels on submucosal endothelial cells in patients and a murine model of asthma. Ex vivo exposure of murine endothelial cells to eotaxins induced migration and angiogenesis. In mechanistic studies, wild-type mice transplanted with eotaxin-1/2-deficient bone marrow had markedly less angiogenesis and inflammation in an atopic asthma model, whereas adoptive transfer of proangiogenic progenitor cells from wild-type mice in an atopic asthma model into the eotaxin-1/2-deficient mice led to angiogenesis and airway inflammation. The findings indicate that Th2-promoting hematopoietic progenitor cells are rapidly recruited to the lung upon allergen exposure and release eotaxins that coordinately activate endothelial cells, angiogenesis, and airway inflammation.

  19. Up-regulation of pro-angiogenic factors and establishment of tolerance in malignant pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Lieser, Elizabeth Ann T; Croghan, Gary A; Nevala, Wendy K; Bradshaw, Michael J; Markovic, Svetomir N; Mansfield, Aaron S

    2013-10-01

    Malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) are a significant source of cancer morbidity and mortality. Currently there is no cure for MPEs and treatments only palliate the symptoms. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are differences in markers of angiogenesis and immune phenotypes between adenocarcinoma-induced MPEs and benign pleural effusions (BPEs). Pleural effusions were collected from patients with MPEs and BPEs. Cells were isolated from effusions and characterized using fluorescent cell sorting (FACS). Pleural effusions were evaluated by ELISA for VEGF-A. An angiogenesis protein array was completed to compare protein expression in malignant and non-malignant effusions. FACS analysis demonstrated lower accumulation of cytotoxic T-cells and significantly higher accumulation of monocytes, dendritic cells, mesothelial and tumor cells in MPEs compared to benign pleural effusions. MPEs were found to have 77-fold higher VEGF-A levels compared to BPEs. The angiogenesis protein array demonstrated elevated levels of pro-angiogenic factors VEGF-A, CXCL4 and MMP-8, and low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8, MCP-1, and TGF-β1 in MPEs. MPE is biased toward a Th2 dominant state. There is an increase in expression of VEGF-A and other pro-angiogenic factors in MPE. These data suggest there is a role for anti-angiogenesis therapy in patients with MPEs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. CD200R signaling inhibits pro-angiogenic gene expression by macrophages and suppresses choroidal neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Horie, Shintaro; Robbie, Scott J.; Liu, Jian; Wu, Wei-Kang; Ali, Robin R.; Bainbridge, James W.; Nicholson, Lindsay B.; Mochizuki, Manabu; Dick, Andrew D.; Copland, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages are rapidly conditioned by cognate and soluble signals to acquire phenotypes that deliver specific functions during inflammation, wound healing and angiogenesis. Whether inhibitory CD200R signaling regulates pro-angiogenic macrophage phenotypes with the potential to suppress ocular neovascularization is unknown. CD200R-deficient bone marrow derived macrophages (BMMΦ) were used to demonstrate that macrophages lacking this inhibitory receptor exhibit enhanced levels of Vegfa, Arg-1 and Il-1β when stimulated with PGE2 or RPE-conditioned (PGE2-enriched) media. Endothelial tube formation in HUVECs was increased when co-cultured with PGE2-conditioned CD200R−/− BMMΦ, and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization was enhanced in CD200R-deficient mice. In corroboration, signaling through CD200R results in the down-regulation of BMMΦ angiogenic and pro-inflammatory phenotypes. Translational potential of this pathway was investigated in the laser-induced model of choroidal neovascularization. Local delivery of a CD200R agonist mAb to target myeloid infiltrate alters macrophage phenotype and inhibits pro-angiogenic gene expression, which suppresses pathological angiogenesis and CNV development. PMID:24170042

  1. Tumor-Derived Microvesicles Induce Proangiogenic Phenotype in Endothelial Cells via Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Taisuke; Ohga, Noritaka; Akiyama, Kosuke; Hirata, Naoya; Kitahara, Shuji; Maishi, Nako; Osawa, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Kazuyuki; Kondoh, Miyako; Shindoh, Masanobu; Hida, Yasuhiro; Hida, Kyoko

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence indicates that tumor endothelial cells (TEC) differ from normal endothelial cells (NEC). Our previous reports also showed that TEC were different from NEC. For example, TEC have chromosomal abnormality and proangiogenic properties such as high motility and proliferative activity. However, the mechanism by which TEC acquire a specific character remains unclear. To investigate this mechanism, we focused on tumor-derived microvesicles (TMV). Recent studies have shown that TMV contain numerous types of bioactive molecules and affect normal stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment. However, most of the functional mechanisms of TMV remain unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we showed that TMV isolated from tumor cells were taken up by NEC through endocytosis. In addition, we found that TMV promoted random motility and tube formation through the activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway in NEC. Moreover, the effects induced by TMV were inhibited by the endocytosis inhibitor dynasore. Our results indicate that TMV could confer proangiogenic properties to NEC partly via endocytosis. Conclusion We for the first time showed that endocytosis of TMV contributes to tumor angiogenesis. These findings offer new insights into cancer therapies and the crosstalk between tumor and endothelial cells mediated by TMV in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:22479517

  2. Investigation of molecular mechanisms and regulatory pathways of pro-angiogenic nanorods†

    PubMed Central

    Nethi, Susheel Kumar; Veeriah, Vimal; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Rajendran, Saranya; Mattapally, Saidulu; Misra, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis, a process involving the growth of new blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature, plays a crucial role in various pathophysiological conditions. We have previously demonstrated that europium hydroxide [EuIII(OH)3] nanorods (EHNs) exhibit pro-angiogenic properties through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Considering the enormous implication of angiogenesis in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and cancer, it is essential to understand in-depth molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways in order to develop the most efficient and effective alternative treatment strategy for CVDs. However, the exact underlying mechanism and cascade signaling pathways behind the pro-angiogenic properties exhibited by EHNs still remain unclear. Herein, we report for the first time that the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a redox signaling molecule, generated by these EHNs activates the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) that promotes the nitric oxide (NO) production in a PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt dependent manner, eventually triggering angiogenesis. We intensely believe that the investigation and understanding of the in-depth molecular mechanism and signaling pathways of EHNs induced angiogenesis will help us in developing an effective alternative treatment strategy for cardiovascular related and ischemic diseases where angiogenesis plays an important role. PMID:25963768

  3. Morphine decreases the pro-angiogenic interaction between breast cancer cells and macrophages in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Khabbazi, Samira; Nassar, Zeyad D.; Goumon, Yannick; Parat, Marie-Odile

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between the various cell types that constitute a solid tumour are essential to the biology of the tumour. We evaluated the effect of morphine on the proangiogenic interaction taking place between macrophages and breast cancer cells in vitro. The conditioned medium (CM) from breast cancer cells co-cultured with macrophages elicited endothelial cell proliferation and tube formation. This effect was inhibited if the co-culture occurred in the presence of morphine. The CM from breast cancer cells or macrophages grown individually, whether or not prepared in the presence of morphine, was ineffective in stimulating EC proliferation or tube formation. Using a mouse antibody array, we identified several angiogenesis-regulating factors differentially expressed in the CM of co-cultured cells prepared in the presence or absence of morphine, amongst which interleukin (IL)-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A. VEGF was induced in both cell types by the co-culture and this was prevented by morphine in a non-naloxone reversible fashion. The effect of CM from co-cultured cells on endothelial tube formation, but not proliferation, was prevented by anti-VEGF neutralizing antibody. Our results indicate that morphine prevents, in part via modulating VEGF-A expression, the pro-angiogenic interaction between macrophages and breast cancer cells. PMID:27514308

  4. Silibinin attenuates ionizing radiation-induced pro-angiogenic response and EMT in prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nambiar, Dhanya K.; Rajamani, Paulraj; Singh, Rana P.

    2015-01-02

    Graphical abstract: Potential model showing mechanism of silibinin-mediated attenuation of IR-induced angiogenic phenotype and EMT in tumor cells. Silibinin counters radiation induced invasive and migratory phenotype of cancer cells by down-regulating mitogenic pathways activated by IR, leading to inhibition of molecules including VEGF, iNOS, MMPs and N-cadherin. Silibinin also reverses IR mediated E-cadherin down-regulation, inhibiting EMT in tumor cells. Silibinin also radiosensitizes endothelial cells, reduces capillary tube formation by targeting various pro-angiogenic molecules. Further, silibinin may inhibit autocrine and paracrine signaling between tumor and endothelial cells by decreasing the levels of VEGF and other signaling molecules activated in response to IR. - Highlights: • Silibinin radiosensitizes endothelial cells. • Silibinin targets ionization radiation (IR)-induced EMT in PCa cells. • Silibinin is in phase II clinical trial in PCa patients, hence clinically relevant. - Abstract: Radiotherapy of is well established and frequently utilized in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. However, recurrence following therapy and distant metastases are commonly encountered problems. Previous studies underline that, in addition to its therapeutic effects, ionizing radiation (IR) increases the vascularity and invasiveness of surviving radioresistant cancer cells. This invasive phenotype of radioresistant cells is an upshot of IR-induced pro-survival and mitogenic signaling in cancer as well as endothelial cells. Here, we demonstrate that a plant flavonoid, silibinin can radiosensitize endothelial cells by inhibiting expression of pro-angiogenic factors. Combining silibinin with IR not only strongly down-regulated endothelial cell proliferation, clonogenicity and tube formation ability rather it strongly (p < 0.001) reduced migratory and invasive properties of PCa cells which were otherwise marginally affected by IR treatment alone. Most of the pro-angiogenic

  5. Extracellular Vesicle-functionalized Decalcified Bone Matrix Scaffolds with Enhanced Pro-angiogenic and Pro-bone Regeneration Activities

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hui; Wang, Zhenxing; Zhang, Liming; Lei, Qian; Zhao, Aiqi; Wang, Hongxiang; Li, Qiubai; Cao, Yilin; Jie Zhang, Wen; Chen, Zhichao

    2017-01-01

    Vascularization is crucial for bone regeneration after the transplantation of tissue-engineered bone grafts in the clinical setting. Growing evidence suggests that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are potently pro-angiogenic both in vitro and in vivo. In the current study, we fabricated a novel EV-functionalized scaffold with enhanced pro-angiogenic and pro-bone regeneration activities by coating decalcified bone matrix (DBM) with MSC-derived EVs. EVs were harvested from rat bone marrow-derived MSCs and the pro-angiogenic potential of EVs was investigated in vitro. DBM scaffolds were then coated with EVs, and the modification was verified by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. Next, the pro-angiogenic and pro-bone regeneration activities of EV-modified scaffolds were evaluated in a subcutaneous bone formation model in nude mice. Micro-computed tomography scanning analysis showed that EV-modified scaffolds with seeded cells enhanced bone formation. Enhanced bone formation was confirmed by histological analysis. Immunohistochemical staining for CD31 proved that EV-modified scaffolds promoted vascularization in the grafts, thereby enhancing bone regeneration. This novel scaffold modification method provides a promising way to promote vascularization, which is essential for bone tissue engineering. PMID:28367979

  6. PSGL-1-mediated activation of EphB4 increases the proangiogenic potential of endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Foubert, Philippe; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Souttou, Boussad; Barateau, Véronique; Martin, Coralie; Ebrahimian, Téni G; Leré-Déan, Carole; Contreres, Jean Olivier; Sulpice, Eric; Levy, Bernard I; Plouët, Jean; Tobelem, Gérard; Le Ricousse-Roussanne, Sophie

    2007-06-01

    Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) transplantation has beneficial effects for therapeutic neovascularization; however, only a small proportion of injected cells home to the lesion and incorporate into the neocapillaries. Consequently, this type of cell therapy requires substantial improvement to be of clinical value. Erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular carcinoma (Eph) receptors and their ephrin ligands are key regulators of vascular development. We postulated that activation of the EphB4/ephrin-B2 system may enhance EPC proangiogenic potential. In this report, we demonstrate in a nude mouse model of hind limb ischemia that EphB4 activation with an ephrin-B2-Fc chimeric protein increases the angiogenic potential of human EPCs. This effect was abolished by EphB4 siRNA, confirming that it is mediated by EphB4. EphB4 activation enhanced P selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) expression and EPC adhesion. Inhibition of PSGL-1 by siRNA reversed the proangiogenic and adhesive effects of EphB4 activation. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies to E selectin and P selectin blocked ephrin-B2-Fc-stimulated EPC adhesion properties. Thus, activation of EphB4 enhances EPC proangiogenic capacity through induction of PSGL-1 expression and adhesion to E selectin and P selectin. Therefore, activation of EphB4 is an innovative and potentially valuable therapeutic strategy for improving the recruitment of EPCs to sites of neovascularization and thereby the efficiency of cell-based proangiogenic therapy.

  7. Extracellular Vesicle-functionalized Decalcified Bone Matrix Scaffolds with Enhanced Pro-angiogenic and Pro-bone Regeneration Activities.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui; Wang, Zhenxing; Zhang, Liming; Lei, Qian; Zhao, Aiqi; Wang, Hongxiang; Li, Qiubai; Cao, Yilin; Jie Zhang, Wen; Chen, Zhichao

    2017-04-03

    Vascularization is crucial for bone regeneration after the transplantation of tissue-engineered bone grafts in the clinical setting. Growing evidence suggests that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are potently pro-angiogenic both in vitro and in vivo. In the current study, we fabricated a novel EV-functionalized scaffold with enhanced pro-angiogenic and pro-bone regeneration activities by coating decalcified bone matrix (DBM) with MSC-derived EVs. EVs were harvested from rat bone marrow-derived MSCs and the pro-angiogenic potential of EVs was investigated in vitro. DBM scaffolds were then coated with EVs, and the modification was verified by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. Next, the pro-angiogenic and pro-bone regeneration activities of EV-modified scaffolds were evaluated in a subcutaneous bone formation model in nude mice. Micro-computed tomography scanning analysis showed that EV-modified scaffolds with seeded cells enhanced bone formation. Enhanced bone formation was confirmed by histological analysis. Immunohistochemical staining for CD31 proved that EV-modified scaffolds promoted vascularization in the grafts, thereby enhancing bone regeneration. This novel scaffold modification method provides a promising way to promote vascularization, which is essential for bone tissue engineering.

  8. Preconditioning by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species improves the proangiogenic potential of adipose-derived cells-based therapy.

    PubMed

    Carrière, Audrey; Ebrahimian, Téni G; Dehez, Stéphanie; Augé, Nathalie; Joffre, Carine; André, Mireille; Arnal, Samuel; Duriez, Micheline; Barreau, Corinne; Arnaud, Emmanuelle; Fernandez, Yvette; Planat-Benard, Valérie; Lévy, Bernard; Pénicaud, Luc; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Casteilla, Louis

    2009-07-01

    Transplantation of adipose-derived stroma cells (ADSCs) stimulates neovascularization after experimental ischemic injury. ADSC proangiogenic potential is likely mediated by their ability to differentiate into endothelial cells and produce a wide array of angiogenic and antiapoptotic factors. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to control ADSC differentiation. We therefore hypothesized that mitochondrial ROS production may change the ADSC proangiogenic properties. The use of pharmacological strategies (mitochondrial inhibitors, antimycin, and rotenone, with or without antioxidants) allowed us to specifically and precisely modulate mitochondrial ROS generation in ADSCs. We showed that transient stimulation of mitochondrial ROS generation in ADSCs before their injection in ischemic hindlimb strongly improved revascularization and the number of ADSC-derived CD31-positive cells in ischemic area. Mitochondrial ROS generation increased the secretion of the proangiogenic and antiapoptotic factors, VEGF and HGF, but did not affect ADSC ability to differentiate into endothelial cells, in vitro. Moreover, mitochondrial ROS-induced ADSC preconditioning greatly protect ADSCs against oxidative stress-induced cell death. Our study demonstrates that in vitro preconditioning by moderate mitochondrial ROS generation strongly increases in vivo ADSC proangiogenic properties and emphasizes the crucial role of mitochondrial ROS in ADSC fate.

  9. Elusive Identities and Overlapping Phenotypes of Proangiogenic Myeloid Cells in Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Coffelt, Seth B.; Lewis, Claire E.; Naldini, Luigi; Brown, J. Martin; Ferrara, Napoleone; De Palma, Michele

    2010-01-01

    It is now established that bone marrow–derived myeloid cells regulate tumor angiogenesis. This was originally inferred from studies of human tumor biopsies in which a positive correlation was seen between the number of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells, such as macrophages and neutrophils, and tumor microvessel density. However, unequivocal evidence was only provided once mouse models were used to examine the effects on tumor angiogenesis by genetically or pharmacologically targeting myeloid cells. Since then, identifying the exact myeloid cell types involved in this process has proved challenging because of myeloid cell heterogeneity and the expression of overlapping phenotypic markers in tumors. As a result, investigators often simply refer to them now as “bone marrow–derived myeloid cells.” Here we review the findings of various attempts to phenotype the myeloid cells involved and discuss the therapeutic implications of correctly identifying—and thus being able to target—this proangiogenic force in tumors. PMID:20167863

  10. Elusive identities and overlapping phenotypes of proangiogenic myeloid cells in tumors.

    PubMed

    Coffelt, Seth B; Lewis, Claire E; Naldini, Luigi; Brown, J Martin; Ferrara, Napoleone; De Palma, Michele

    2010-04-01

    It is now established that bone marrow-derived myeloid cells regulate tumor angiogenesis. This was originally inferred from studies of human tumor biopsies in which a positive correlation was seen between the number of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells, such as macrophages and neutrophils, and tumor microvessel density. However, unequivocal evidence was only provided once mouse models were used to examine the effects on tumor angiogenesis by genetically or pharmacologically targeting myeloid cells. Since then, identifying the exact myeloid cell types involved in this process has proved challenging because of myeloid cell heterogeneity and the expression of overlapping phenotypic markers in tumors. As a result, investigators often simply refer to them now as "bone marrow-derived myeloid cells." Here we review the findings of various attempts to phenotype the myeloid cells involved and discuss the therapeutic implications of correctly identifying-and thus being able to target-this proangiogenic force in tumors.

  11. Avian area vasculosa and CAM as rapid in vivo pro-angiogenic and antiangiogenic models.

    PubMed

    Makanya, Andrew N; Styp-Rekowska, Beata; Dimova, Ivanka; Djonov, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the development of new blood vessels from preexisting ones, is driven by coordinated signaling pathways governed by specific molecules, hemodynamic forces, and endothelial and periendothelial cells. The processes involve adhesion, migration, and survival machinery within the target endothelial and periendothelial cells. Factors that interfere with any of these processes may therefore influence angiogenesis either positively (pro-angiogenesis) or negatively (antiangiogenesis). The avian area vasculosa (AV) and the avian chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) are two useful tools for studying both angiogenesis and antiangiogenesis since they are amenable to both intravascular and topical administration of target, agents, are relatively rapid assays, and can be adapted very easily to study angiogenesis-dependent processes, such as tumor growth. Both models provide a physiological setting that permits investigation of pro-angiogenic and antiangiogenic agent interactions in vivo.

  12. Molecular Imaging of the Paracrine Proangiogenic Effects of Progenitor Cell Therapy in Limb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jae Choon; Davidson, Brian P.; Xie, Aris; Qi, Yue; Zha, Daogang; Belcik, J. Todd; Caplan, Evan S.; Woda, Juliana M.; Hedrick, Catherine C.; Hanna, Richard N.; Lehman, Nicholas; Zhao, Yan; Ting, Anthony; Lindner, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Stem cells are thought to enhance vascular remodeling in ischemic tissue in part through paracrine effects. Using molecular imaging, we tested the hypothesis that treatment of limb ischemia with multipotential adult progenitor cells (MAPC) promotes recovery of blood flow through the recruitment of pro-angiogenic monocytes. Methods and Results Hindlimb ischemia was produced in mice by iliac artery ligation and MAPC were administered intramuscularly on day 1. Optical imaging of luciferase-transfected MAPC indicated that cells survived for 1 week. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound on day 3, 7 and 21 showed a more complete recovery of blood flow and greater expansion of microvascular blood volume in MAPC-treated mice than in controls. Fluorescent microangiography demonstrated more complete distribution of flow to microvascular units in MAPC-treated mice. On ultrasound molecular imaging, expression of endothelial P-selectin and intravascular recruitment of CX3CR-1-positive monocytes was significantly higher in MAPC-treated than control groups at day 3 and 7 after arterial ligation. Muscle immunohistology showed a >10-fold greater infiltration of monocytes in MAPC-treated than control-treated ischemic limbs at all time points. Intravital microscopy of ischemic or TNF-α-treated cremaster muscle demonstrated that MAPC migrate to peri-microvascular locations and potentiate selectin-dependent leukocyte rolling. In vitro migration of human CD14+ monocytes was 10-fold greater in response to MAPC-conditioned than basal media. Conclusions In limb ischemia, MAPC stimulate the recruitment of pro-angiogenic monocytes through endothelial activation and enhanced chemotaxis. These responses are sustained beyond MAPC lifespan suggesting that paracrine effects promote flow recovery by rebalancing the immune response toward a more regenerative phenotype. PMID:23307829

  13. The Biflavonoid Amentoflavone Inhibits Neovascularization Preventing the Activity of Proangiogenic Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors*

    PubMed Central

    Tarallo, Valeria; Lepore, Laura; Marcellini, Marcella; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Tudisco, Laura; Ponticelli, Salvatore; Lund, Frederik Wendelboe; Roepstorff, Peter; Orlandi, Augusto; Pisano, Claudio; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; De Falco, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    The proangiogenic members of VEGF family and related receptors play a central role in the modulation of pathological angiogenesis. Recent insights indicate that, due to the strict biochemical and functional relationship between VEGFs and related receptors, the development of a new generation of agents able to target contemporarily more than one member of VEGFs might amplify the antiangiogenic response representing an advantage in term of therapeutic outcome. To identify molecules that are able to prevent the interaction of VEGFs with related receptors, we have screened small molecule collections consisting of >100 plant extracts. Here, we report the isolation and identification from an extract of the Malian plant Chrozophora senegalensis of the biflavonoid amentoflavone as an antiangiogenic bioactive molecule. Amentoflavone can to bind VEGFs preventing the interaction and phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 1 and 2 (VEGFR-1,VEGFR-2) and to inhibit endothelial cell migration and capillary-like tube formation induced by VEGF-A or placental growth factor 1 (PlGF-1) at low μm concentration. In vivo, amentoflavone is able to inhibit VEGF-A-induced chorioallantoic membrane neovascularization as well as tumor growth and associated neovascularization, as assessed in orthotropic melanoma and xenograft colon carcinoma models. In addition structural studies performed on the amentoflavone·PlGF-1 complex have provided evidence that this biflavonoid effectively interacts with the growth factor area crucial for VEGFR-1 receptor recognition. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that amentoflavone represents an interesting new antiangiogenic molecule that is able to prevent the activity of proangiogenic VEGF family members and that the biflavonoid structure is a new chemical scaffold to develop powerful new antiangiogenic molecules. PMID:21471210

  14. Engineering vascularized bone: osteogenic and proangiogenic potential of murine periosteal cells.

    PubMed

    van Gastel, Nick; Torrekens, Sophie; Roberts, Scott J; Moermans, Karen; Schrooten, Jan; Carmeliet, Peter; Luttun, Aernout; Luyten, Frank P; Carmeliet, Geert

    2012-11-01

    One of the key challenges in bone tissue engineering is the timely formation of blood vessels that promote the survival of the implanted cells in the construct. Fracture healing largely depends on the presence of an intact periosteum but it is still unknown whether periosteum-derived cells (PDC) are critical for bone repair only by promoting bone formation or also by inducing neovascularization. We first established a protocol to specifically isolate murine PDC (mPDC) from long bones of adult mice. Mesenchymal stem cells were abundantly present in this cell population as more than 50% of the mPDC expressed mesenchymal markers (CD73, CD90, CD105, and stem cell antigen-1) and the cells exhibited trilineage differentiation potential (chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic). When transplanted on a collagen-calcium phosphate scaffold in vivo, mPDC attracted numerous blood vessels and formed mature bone which comprises a hematopoiesis-supportive stroma. We explored the proangiogenic properties of mPDC using in vitro culture systems and showed that mPDC promote the survival and proliferation of endothelial cells through the production of vascular endothelial growth factor. Coimplantation with endothelial cells demonstrated that mPDC can enhance vasculogenesis by adapting a pericyte-like phenotype, in addition to their ability to stimulate blood vessel ingrowth from the host. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that periosteal cells contribute to fracture repair, not only through their strong osteogenic potential but also through their proangiogenic features and thus provide an ideal cell source for bone regeneration therapies. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  15. Control of angiogenesis by galectins involves the release of platelet-derived proangiogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Etulain, Julia; Negrotto, Soledad; Tribulatti, María Virginia; Croci, Diego Omar; Carabelli, Julieta; Campetella, Oscar; Rabinovich, Gabriel Adrián; Schattner, Mirta

    2014-01-01

    Platelets contribute to vessel formation through the release of angiogenesis-modulating factors stored in their α-granules. Galectins, a family of lectins that bind β-galactoside residues, are up-regulated in inflammatory and cancerous tissues, trigger platelet activation and mediate vascularization processes. Here we aimed to elucidate whether the release of platelet-derived proangiogenic molecules could represent an alternative mechanism through which galectins promote neovascularization. We show that different members of the galectin family can selectively regulate the release of angiogenic molecules by human platelets. Whereas Galectin (Gal)-1, -3, and -8 triggered vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release, only Gal-8 induced endostatin secretion. Release of VEGF induced by Gal-8 was partially prevented by COX-1, PKC, p38 and Src kinases inhibitors, whereas Gal-1-induced VEGF secretion was inhibited by PKC and ERK blockade, and Gal-3 triggered VEGF release selectively through a PKC-dependent pathway. Regarding endostatin, Gal-8 failed to stimulate its release in the presence of PKC, Src and ERK inhibitors, whereas aspirin or p38 inhibitor had no effect on endostatin release. Despite VEGF or endostatin secretion, platelet releasates generated by stimulation with each galectin stimulated angiogenic responses in vitro including endothelial cell proliferation and tubulogenesis. The platelet angiogenic activity was independent of VEGF and was attributed to the concerted action of other proangiogenic molecules distinctly released by each galectin. Thus, secretion of platelet-derived angiogenic molecules may represent an alternative mechanism by which galectins promote angiogenic responses and its selective blockade may lead to the development of therapeutic strategies for angiogenesis-related diseases.

  16. Control of Angiogenesis by Galectins Involves the Release of Platelet-Derived Proangiogenic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Etulain, Julia; Negrotto, Soledad; Tribulatti, María Virginia; Croci, Diego Omar; Carabelli, Julieta; Campetella, Oscar; Rabinovich, Gabriel Adrián; Schattner, Mirta

    2014-01-01

    Platelets contribute to vessel formation through the release of angiogenesis-modulating factors stored in their α-granules. Galectins, a family of lectins that bind β-galactoside residues, are up-regulated in inflammatory and cancerous tissues, trigger platelet activation and mediate vascularization processes. Here we aimed to elucidate whether the release of platelet-derived proangiogenic molecules could represent an alternative mechanism through which galectins promote neovascularization. We show that different members of the galectin family can selectively regulate the release of angiogenic molecules by human platelets. Whereas Galectin (Gal)-1, -3, and -8 triggered vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release, only Gal-8 induced endostatin secretion. Release of VEGF induced by Gal-8 was partially prevented by COX-1, PKC, p38 and Src kinases inhibitors, whereas Gal-1-induced VEGF secretion was inhibited by PKC and ERK blockade, and Gal-3 triggered VEGF release selectively through a PKC-dependent pathway. Regarding endostatin, Gal-8 failed to stimulate its release in the presence of PKC, Src and ERK inhibitors, whereas aspirin or p38 inhibitor had no effect on endostatin release. Despite VEGF or endostatin secretion, platelet releasates generated by stimulation with each galectin stimulated angiogenic responses in vitro including endothelial cell proliferation and tubulogenesis. The platelet angiogenic activity was independent of VEGF and was attributed to the concerted action of other proangiogenic molecules distinctly released by each galectin. Thus, secretion of platelet-derived angiogenic molecules may represent an alternative mechanism by which galectins promote angiogenic responses and its selective blockade may lead to the development of therapeutic strategies for angiogenesis-related diseases. PMID:24788652

  17. Human Adult Vena Saphena Contains Perivascular Progenitor Cells Endowed With Clonogenic and Proangiogenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Campagnolo, Paola; Cesselli, Daniela; Zen, Ayman Al Haj; Beltrami, Antonio Paolo; Kränkel, Nicolle; Katare, Rajesh; Angelini, Gianni; Emanueli, Costanza; Madeddu, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinical trials in ischemic patients showed the safety and benefit of autologous bone marrow progenitor cell transplantation. Non–bone marrow progenitor cells with proangiogenic capacities have been described, yet they remain clinically unexploited owing to their scarcity, difficulty of access, and low ex vivo expansibility. We investigated the presence, antigenic profile, expansion capacity, and proangiogenic potential of progenitor cells from the saphenous vein of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. Methods and Results CD34-positive cells, negative for the endothelial marker von Willebrand factor, were localized around adventitial vasa vasorum. After dissection of the vein from surrounding tissues and enzymatic digestion, CD34-positive/CD31-negative cells were isolated by selective culture, immunomagnetic beads, or fluorescence-assisted cell sorting. In the presence of serum, CD34-positive/CD31-negative cells gave rise to a highly proliferative population that expressed pericyte/mesenchymal antigens together with the stem cell marker Sox2 and showed clonogenic and multilineage differentiation capacities. We called this population “saphenous vein–derived progenitor cells” (SVPs). In culture, SVPs integrated into networks formed by endothelial cells and supported angiogenesis through paracrine mechanisms. Reciprocally, endothelial cell–released factors facilitated SVP migration. These interactive responses were inhibited by Tie-2 or platelet-derived growth factor-BB blockade. Intramuscular injection of SVPs in ischemic limbs of immunodeficient mice improved neovascularization and blood flow recovery. At 14 days after transplantation, proliferating SVPs were still detectable in the recipient muscles, where they established N-cadherin–mediated physical contact with the capillary endothelium. Conclusions SVPs generated from human vein CD34-positive/CD31-negative progenitor cells might represent a new therapeutic tool for

  18. Palmitoylethanolamide Regulates Production of Pro-Angiogenic Mediators in a Model of β Amyloid-Induced Astrogliosis In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Cipriano, Mariateresa; Esposito, Giueseppe; Negro, Luana; Capoccia, Elena; Sarnelli, Giovanni; Scuderi, Caterina; De Filippis, Daniele; Steardo, Luca; Iuvone, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Aβ-induced astrogliosis can worsen the eziopathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) by the release of proinflammatory and pro-oxidant mediators. Activated glial cells may release also pro-angiogenic molecules. The role of angiogenesis in AD is still controversial: although angiogenesis brings oxygen and nutrients to injured tissue, it may also exacerbate reactive gliosis. Moreover, by altering blood-brain barrier permeability pro-angiogenic mediators promote passage of inflammatory/immune-competent cells into the brain, thereby exacerbating gliosis. The release of proangiogenic factors during astrogliosis may thus be a key-step in controlling AD progression. The endogenous fatty acid amide, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), is a pleiotropic mediator exerting anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antiangiogenic effects in several in vitro and in vivo models of chronic-degenerative disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of PEA in AD angiogenesis and neuroinflammation by using conditioned medium from untreated and Aβ-treated C6 rat astroglioma cells and HUVEC human endothelial cells. PEA (10-8-10-6 M) concentration-dependently reduced expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic markers in Aβ (1 μg/mL)-stimulated C6 cells. Moreover, culture medium from PEA-treated C6 cells reduced HUVEC cell proliferation as compared to cells treated with conditioned medium from Aβ-treated C6 cells. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that PEA treatment inhibited nuclear levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (the main pro-angiogenic pathway) and cytoplasmic vascular endothelial growth factor in HUVEC cells receiving C6 conditioned medium. Finally, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha inhibitor GW6471, added to Aβ-treated C6 cells blocked all PEA effects in this model, suggesting that PEA acts through a proliferator-activated receptor alpha-dependent mechanism on astroglial cells. Collectively, these data support the

  19. PSGL-1–mediated activation of EphB4 increases the proangiogenic potential of endothelial progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Foubert, Philippe; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Souttou, Boussad; Barateau, Véronique; Martin, Coralie; Ebrahimian, Téni G.; Leré-Déan, Carole; Contreres, Jean Olivier; Sulpice, Eric; Levy, Bernard I.; Plouët, Jean; Tobelem, Gérard; Le Ricousse-Roussanne, Sophie

    2007-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) transplantation has beneficial effects for therapeutic neovascularization; however, only a small proportion of injected cells home to the lesion and incorporate into the neocapillaries. Consequently, this type of cell therapy requires substantial improvement to be of clinical value. Erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular carcinoma (Eph) receptors and their ephrin ligands are key regulators of vascular development. We postulated that activation of the EphB4/ephrin-B2 system may enhance EPC proangiogenic potential. In this report, we demonstrate in a nude mouse model of hind limb ischemia that EphB4 activation with an ephrin-B2–Fc chimeric protein increases the angiogenic potential of human EPCs. This effect was abolished by EphB4 siRNA, confirming that it is mediated by EphB4. EphB4 activation enhanced P selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) expression and EPC adhesion. Inhibition of PSGL-1 by siRNA reversed the proangiogenic and adhesive effects of EphB4 activation. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies to E selectin and P selectin blocked ephrin-B2–Fc–stimulated EPC adhesion properties. Thus, activation of EphB4 enhances EPC proangiogenic capacity through induction of PSGL-1 expression and adhesion to E selectin and P selectin. Therefore, activation of EphB4 is an innovative and potentially valuable therapeutic strategy for improving the recruitment of EPCs to sites of neovascularization and thereby the efficiency of cell-based proangiogenic therapy. PMID:17510705

  20. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate-response element-binding protein mediates the proangiogenic or proinflammatory activity of gremlin.

    PubMed

    Corsini, Michela; Moroni, Emanuela; Ravelli, Cosetta; Andrés, Germán; Grillo, Elisabetta; Ali, Imran H; Brazil, Derek P; Presta, Marco; Mitola, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis and inflammation are closely related processes. Gremlin is a novel noncanonical vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) ligand that induces a proangiogenic response in endothelial cells (ECs). Here, we investigated the role of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate-response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB) in mediating the proinflammatory and proangiogenic responses of ECs to gremlin. Gremlin induces a proinflammatory response in ECs, leading to reactive oxygen species and cyclic adenosine monophosphate production and the upregulation of proinflammatory molecules involved in leukocyte extravasation, including chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-2 (Ccl2) and Ccl7, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand-1 (Cxcl1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Accordingly, gremlin induces the VEGFR2-dependent phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and transactivating activity of CREB in ECs. CREB activation mediates the early phases of the angiogenic response to gremlin, including stimulation of EC motility and permeability, and leads to monocyte/macrophage adhesion to ECs and their extravasation. All these effects are inhibited by EC transfection with a dominant-negative CREB mutant or with a CREB-binding protein-CREB interaction inhibitor that competes for CREB/CRE binding. Also, both recombinant gremlin and gremlin-expressing tumor cells induce proinflammatory/proangiogenic responses in vivo that are suppressed by the anti-inflammatory drug hydrocortisone. Similar effects were induced by the canonical VEGFR2 ligand VEGF-A165. Together, the results underline the tight cross-talk between angiogenesis and inflammation and demonstrate a crucial role of CREB activation in the modulation of the VEGFR2-mediated proinflammatory/proangiogenic response of ECs to gremlin.

  1. PAX2 expression by HHV-8-infected endothelial cells induced a proangiogenic and proinvasive phenotype.

    PubMed

    Fonsato, Valentina; Buttiglieri, Stefano; Deregibus, Maria Chiara; Bussolati, Benedetta; Caselli, Elisabetta; Di Luca, Dario; Camussi, Giovanni

    2008-03-01

    In the present study, we evaluated whether infection of microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) with HHV-8 can trigger the expression of PAX2 oncogene and whether PAX2 protein is involved in HHV-8-induced transformation of HMECs. We found that HHV-8 infection induced the expression of both the PAX2 gene and PAX2 protein in HMECs but failed to induce PAX2 protein in HMECs stably transfected with PAX2 antisense (HMEC-AS). HHV-8-infected HMECs but not HMEC-AS acquired proinvasive proadhesive properties, enhanced survival and in vitro angiogenesis, suggesting a correlation between PAX2 expression and the effects triggered by HHV-8 infection. When HMEC-expressing PAX2 by stable transfection with PAX2 sense gene or by HHV-8 infection were implanted in vivo in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, enhanced angiogenesis and proliferative lesions resembling KS were observed. HHV-8-infected HMEC-AS failed to induce angiogenesis and KS-like lesions. These results suggest that the expression of PAX2 is required for the proangiogenic and proinvasive changes induced by HHV-8 infection in HMECs. In conclusion, HHV-8 infection may activate an embryonic angiogenic program in HMECs by inducing the expression of PAX2 oncogene.

  2. New insights into the antiangiogenic and proangiogenic properties of dietary polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Carmen; Suliburska, Joanna; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2016-12-16

    Polyphenols can be found in natural products of plant origin, including vegetables, fruits, and beverages. A large number of these plant origin compounds are an integral part of the human diet and in the past decade evidence has shown their beneficial properties in human health, by acting in several cell signaling pathways. Among other beneficial effects, polyphenols have been associated with angiogenesis. Increasing evidence highlighting the ability of dietary polyphenols to influence angiogenesis by interfering with multiple signaling pathways is debated. Particular emphasis is given to the mechanisms that ultimately may induce the formation of capillary-like structures (by increasing endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and invasion) or, conversely, may inhibit the steps of angiogenesis leading to the inhibition/regress of vascular development. Dietary polyphenols can, therefore, be viewed as promising nutraceuticals but important aspects have still to be further investigated, to deep knowledge concerning their concentration-mediated effects, effect of specific polyphenols, and respective metabolites, to ensure their appropriate and effective usefulness as proangiogenic or antiangiogenic nutraceuticals.

  3. Intrinsic pro-angiogenic status of cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Verhaeghe, Catherine; Tabruyn, Sebastien P.; Oury, Cecile; Bours, Vincent . E-mail: vbours@ulg.ac.be; Griffioen, Arjan W.

    2007-05-11

    Cystic fibrosis is a common genetic disorder characterized by a severe lung inflammation and fibrosis leading to the patient's death. Enhanced angiogenesis in cystic fibrosis (CF) tissue has been suggested, probably caused by the process of inflammation, as similarly described in asthma and chronic bronchitis. The present study demonstrates an intrinsic pro-angiogenic status of cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells. Microarray experiments showed that CF airway epithelial cells expressed several angiogenic factors such as VEGF-A, VEGF-C, bFGF, and PLGF at higher levels than control cells. These data were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR and, at the protein level, by ELISA. Conditioned media of these cystic fibrosis cells were able to induce proliferation, migration and sprouting of cultured primary endothelial cells. This report describes for the first time that cystic fibrosis epithelial cells have an intrinsic angiogenic activity. Since excess of angiogenesis is correlated with more severe pulmonary disease, our results could lead to the development of new therapeutic applications.

  4. Bone marrow-derived cells serve as proangiogenic macrophages but not endothelial cells in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Yuji; Nakamura-Ishizu, Ayako; Kishi, Kazuo; Suda, Toshio; Kubota, Yoshiaki

    2011-05-12

    Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) contribute to postnatal vascular growth by differentiating into endothelial cells or secreting angiogenic factors. However, the extent of their endothelial differentiation highly varies according to the angiogenic models used. Wound healing is an intricate process in which the skin repairs itself after injury. As a process also observed in cancer progression, neoangiogenesis into wound tissues is profoundly involved in this healing process, suggesting the contribution of BMDCs. However, the extent of the differentiation of BMDCs to endothelial cells in wound healing is unclear. In this study, using the green fluorescent protein-bone marrow chim-eric experiment and high resolution confocal microscopy at a single cell level, we observed no endothelial differentiation of BMDCs in 2 acute wound healing models (dorsal excisional wound and ear punch) and a chronic wound healing model (decubitus ulcer). Instead, a major proportion of BMDCs were macrophages. Indeed, colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) inhibition depleted approximately 80% of the BMDCs at the wound healing site. CSF-1-mutant (CSF-1(op/op)) mice showed significantly reduced neoangiogenesis into the wound site, supporting the substantial role of BMDCs as macrophages. Our data show that the proangiogenic effects of macrophages, but not the endothelial differentiation, are the major contribution of BMDCs in wound healing.

  5. Insulin Downregulates the Transcriptional Coregulator CITED2, an Inhibitor of Proangiogenic Function in Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuanchun; Lockhart, Samuel M; Rathjen, Thomas; Albadawi, Hassan; Sørensen, Ditte; O'Neill, Brian T; Dwivedi, Nishant; Preil, Simone R; Beck, Hans Christian; Dunwoodie, Sally L; Watkins, Michael T; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Rask-Madsen, Christian

    2016-12-01

    In patients with atherosclerotic complications of diabetes, impaired neovascularization of ischemic tissue in the myocardium and lower limb limits the ability of these tissues to compensate for poor perfusion. We identified 10 novel insulin-regulated genes, among them Adm, Cited2, and Ctgf, which were downregulated in endothelial cells by insulin through FoxO1. CBP/p300-interacting transactivator with ED-rich tail 2 (CITED2), which was downregulated by insulin by up to 54%, is an important negative regulator of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and impaired HIF signaling is a key mechanism underlying the impairment of angiogenesis in diabetes. Consistent with impairment of vascular insulin action, CITED2 was increased in cardiac endothelial cells from mice with diet-induced obesity and from db/db mice and was 3.8-fold higher in arterial tissue from patients with type 2 diabetes than control subjects without diabetes. CITED2 knockdown promoted endothelial tube formation and endothelial cell proliferation, whereas CITED2 overexpression impaired HIF activity in vitro. After femoral artery ligation, induction of an endothelial-specific HIF target gene in hind limb muscle was markedly upregulated in mice with endothelial cell deletion of CITED2, suggesting that CITED2 can limit HIF activity in vivo. We conclude that vascular insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes contributes to the upregulation of CITED2, which impairs HIF signaling and endothelial proangiogenic function.

  6. Proangiogenic activity of plant extracts in accelerating wound healing - a new face of old phytomedicines.

    PubMed

    Majewska, Iwona; Gendaszewska-Darmach, Edyta

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new capillaries from pre-existing vascular network, plays an important role in physiological and pathological processes such as embryonic development, wound healing, and development of atherosclerosis. Extension of the circulatory network is also considered to be one the most important factors during cancerogenesis. Inhibition of angiogenesis may lead to inhibition of tumor growth whereas stimulation may improve wound healing. Research achievements suggest the use of plants and their extracts as potential therapeutic agents with pro- or antiangiogenic activity. Since the anticancer and antiangiogenic properties of many phytomedicines have been amply reviewed elsewhere this paper will focus on the treatment of vascular insufficiency in wound healing. Globally accepted herbal drugs are thought to be safe and effective, however, there is a need for more evidence-based confirmation in controlled and validated trials. Among the most frequently studied proangiogenic phytochemicals are ginsenosides from Panax ginseng, beta-sitosterol from Aloe vera, calycosin from Radix Astragali, and extracts from Hippophae rhamnoides L. and Angelica sinensis.

  7. IL-37 Is a Novel Proangiogenic Factor of Developmental and Pathological Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianshu; Lin, Qing; Zhao, Mengmeng; Hu, Yongguang; Yu, Ying; Jin, Jiayi; Zhou, Hongyan; Hu, Xiao; Wei, Rongbin; Zhang, Xuetao; Yang, Xiaoping; Liu, Gaoqin; Lu, Peirong; Xu, Guotong; Yang, Jianhua; Corry, David B; Su, Shao Bo; Liu, Shangfeng; Liu, Xialin

    2015-12-01

    Angiogenesis is tightly controlled by growth factors and cytokines in pathophysiological settings. Interleukin 37 (IL-37) is a newly identified cytokine of the IL-1 family, some members of which are important in inflammation and angiogenesis. However, the function of IL-37 in angiogenesis remains unknown. We aimed to explore the regulatory role of IL-37 in pathological and physiological angiogenesis. We found that IL-37 was expressed and secreted in endothelial cells and upregulated under hypoxic conditions. IL-37 enhanced endothelial cell proliferation, capillary formation, migration, and vessel sprouting from aortic rings with potency comparable with that of vascular endothelial growth factor. IL-37 activates survival signals including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and AKT in endothelial cells. IL-37 promoted vessel growth in implanted Matrigel plug in vivo in a dose-dependent manner with potency comparable with that of basic fibroblast growth factor. In the mouse model of retinal vascular development, neonatal mice administrated with IL-37 displayed increased neovascularization. We demonstrated further that IL-37 promoted pathological angiogenesis in the mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. Our findings suggest that IL-37 is a novel and potent proangiogenic cytokine with essential role in pathophy siological settings. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Cancer exosomes trigger mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into pro-angiogenic and pro-invasive myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Gurney, Mark; Mason, Malcolm D.; Tabi, Zsuzsanna; Clayton, Aled

    2015-01-01

    Stromal fibroblasts become altered in response to solid cancers, to exhibit myofibroblastic characteristics, with disease promoting influence. Infiltrating mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) may contribute towards these changes, but the factors secreted by cancer cells that impact MSC differentiation are poorly understood. We investigated the role of nano-metre sized vesicles (exosomes), secreted by prostate cancer cells, on the differentiation of bone-marrow MSC (BM-MSC), and the subsequent functional consequences of such changes. Purified exosomes impaired classical adipogenic differentiation, skewing differentiation towards alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) positive myofibroblastic cells. A single exosomes treatment generated myofibroblasts secreting high levels of VEGF-A, HGF and matrix regulating factors (MMP-1, −3 and −13). Differentiated MSC had pro-angiogenic functions and enhanced tumour proliferation and invasivity assessed in a 3D co-culture model. Differentiation was dependent on exosomal-TGFβ, but soluble TGFβ at matched dose could not generate the same phenotype. Exosomes present in the cancer cell secretome were the principal factors driving this phenotype. Prostate cancer exosomes dominantly dictate a programme of MSC differentiation generating myofibroblasts with functional properties consistent with disease promotion. PMID:25596732

  9. [Neovascularization in ocular tissues: mechanisms and role of proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Jerzy Z; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Blood vessel growth and stability are under precise control of an array of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors. Under physiological conditions, actions of particular regulatory factors, as well as their mutual interactions are harmonized and balanced. Disruption of the balance between these pro- and anti-angiogenic factors is characteristic of many vascular diseases, including those occurring within the eye. Functional dominancy of proangiogenic factors (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF) over antiangiogenic ones (e.g., pigment epithelium-derived growth factor, PEDF), which may occur under ischemic conditions, may initiate the process of retinal or choroidal neovascularization, representing a major threat to the eyesight. This article presents and discusses current ideas concerning molecular and cellular processes underlying aberrant growth on new blood vessels in ocular tissues, in relation to microvascular ocular complications associated mainly (but not only), with diabetes mellitus, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). This review also surveys latest achievements in the field of clinically more effective future therapeutic strategies, including gene therapy applicable to the neovascular eye diseases.

  10. Endothelial Jagged1 promotes solid tumor growth through both pro-angiogenic and angiocrine functions.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Ana-Rita; Trindade, Alexandre; Carvalho, Catarina; Graça, José; Carvalho, Sandra; Peleteiro, Maria C; Adams, Ralf H; Duarte, António

    2015-09-15

    Angiogenesis is an essential process required for tumor growth and progression. The Notch signaling pathway has been identified as a key regulator of the neo-angiogenic process. Jagged-1 (Jag1) is a Notch ligand required for embryonic and retinal vascular development, which direct contribution to the regulation of tumor angiogenesis remains to be fully characterized. The current study addresses the role of endothelial Jagged1-mediated Notch signaling in the context of tumoral angiogenesis in two different mouse tumor models: subcutaneous Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) tumor transplants and the autochthonous Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP). The role of endothelial Jagged1 in tumor growth and neo-angiogenesis was investigated with endothelial-specific Jag1 gain- and loss-of-function mouse mutants (eJag1OE and eJag1cKO). By modulating levels of endothelial Jag1, we observed that this ligand regulates tumor vessel density, branching, and perivascular maturation, thus affecting tumor vascular perfusion. The pro-angiogenic function is exerted by its ability to positively regulate levels of Vegfr-2 while negatively regulating Vegfr-1. Additionally, endothelial Jagged1 appears to exert an angiocrine function possibly by activating Notch3/Hey1 in tumor cells, promoting proliferation, survival and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), potentiating tumor development. These findings provide valuable mechanistic insights into the role of endothelial Jagged1 in promoting solid tumor development and support the notion that it may constitute a promising target for cancer therapy.

  11. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells display a proangiogenic phenotype on 3D scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Neofytou, Evgenios A; Chang, Edwin; Patlola, Bhagat; Joubert, Lydia-Marie; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Cheng, Zhen; Robbins, Robert C; Beygui, Ramin E

    2011-09-01

    Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Recent studies suggest that adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be used as a potential source for cardiovascular tissue engineering due to their ability to differentiate along the cardiovascular lineage and to adopt a proangiogenic phenotype. To understand better ASCs' biology, we used a novel 3D culture device. ASCs' and b.END-3 endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and vessel morphogenesis were significantly enhanced compared to 2D culturing techniques. ASCs were isolated from inguinal fat pads of 6-week-old GFP+/BLI+ mice. Early passage ASCs cells (P3-P4), PKH26-labeled murine b.END-3 cells or a co-culture of ASCs and b.END-3 cells were seeded at a density of 1 × 10(5) on three different surface configurations: (a) a 2D surface of tissue culture plastic, (b) Matrigel, and (c) a highly porous 3D scaffold fabricated from inert polystyrene. VEGF expression, cell proliferation, and tubulization, were assessed using optical microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, 3D confocal microscopy, and SEM imaging (n = 6). Increased VEGF levels were seen in conditioned media harvested from co-cultures of ASCs and b.END-3 on either Matrigel or a 3D matrix. Fluorescence, confocal, SEM, bioluminescence revealed improved cell, proliferation, and tubule formation for cells seeded on the 3D polystyrene matrix. Collectively, these data demonstrate that co-culturing ASCs with endothelial cells in a 3D matrix environment enable us to generate prevascularized tissue-engineered constructs. This can potentially help us to surpass the tissue thickness limitations faced by the tissue engineering community today.

  12. Tenascin-c renders a proangiogenic phenotype in macrophage via annexin II.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiyang; Wei, Qi; Han, Liang; Cao, Keqing; Lan, Tianfeng; Xu, Zhenjie; Wang, Yingjuan; Gao, Yuan; Xue, Jing; Shan, Fei; Feng, Jun; Xie, Xin

    2017-08-30

    Tenascin-c is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein, the expression of which relates to the progression of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and heart failure. Annexin II acts as a cell surface receptor of tenascin-c. This study aimed to delineate the role of tenascin-c and annexin II in macrophages presented in atherosclerotic plaque. Animal models with atherosclerotic lesions were established using ApoE-KO mice fed with high-cholesterol diet. The expression of tenascin-c and annexin II in atherosclerotic lesions was determined by qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis. Raw 264.7 macrophages and human primary macrophages were exposed to 5, 10 and 15 μg/ml tenascin-c for 12 hrs. Cell migration as well as the proangiogenic ability of macrophages was examined. Additionally, annexin II expression was delineated in raw 264.7 macrophages under normal condition (20% O2 ) for 12 hrs or hypoxic condition (1% O2 ) for 6-12 hrs. The expression of tenascin-c and annexin II was markedly augmented in lesion aorta. Tenascin-c positively regulated macrophage migration, which was dependent on the expression of annexin II in macrophages. VEGF release from macrophages and endothelial tube induction by macrophage were boosted by tenascin-c and attenuated by annexin II blocking. Furthermore, tenascin-c activated Akt/NF-κB and ERK signalling through annexin II. Lastly, hypoxia conditioning remarkably facilitates annexin II expression in macrophages through hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α but not HIF-2α. In conclusion, tenascin-c promoted macrophage migration and VEGF expression through annexin II, the expression of which was modulated by HIF-1α. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  13. ACE inhibition modifies exercise-induced pro-angiogenic and mitochondrial gene transcript expression.

    PubMed

    van Ginkel, S; Ruoss, S; Valdivieso, P; Degens, H; Waldron, S; de Haan, A; Flück, M

    2016-10-01

    Skeletal muscle responds to endurance exercise with an improvement of biochemical pathways that support substrate supply and oxygen-dependent metabolism. This is reflected by enhanced expression of associated factors after exercise and is specifically modulated by tissue perfusion and oxygenation. We hypothesized that transcript expression of pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF, tenascin-C, Angpt1, Angpt1R) and oxygen metabolism (COX4I1, COX4I2, HIF-1α) in human muscle after an endurance stimulus depends on vasoconstriction, and would be modulated through angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition by intake of lisinopril. Fourteen non-specifically trained, male Caucasians subjects, carried out a single bout of standardized one-legged bicycle exercise. Seven of the participants consumed lisinopril in the 3 days before exercise. Biopsies were collected pre- and 3 h post-exercise from the m. vastus lateralis. COX4I1 (P = 0.03), COX4I2 (P = 0.04) mRNA and HIF-1α (P = 0.05) mRNA and protein levels (P = 0.01) showed an exercise-induced increase in the group not consuming the ACE inhibitor. Conversely, there was a specific exercise-induced increase in VEGF transcript (P = 0.04) and protein levels (P = 0.03) and a trend for increased tenascin-c transcript levels (P = 0.09) for subjects consuming lisinopril. The observations indicate that exercise-induced expression of transcripts involved in angiogenesis and mitochondrial energy metabolism are to some extent regulated via a hypoxia-related ACE-dependent mechanism.

  14. Differential effects of a soluble or immobilized VEGFR-binding peptide

    PubMed Central

    Koepsel, Justin T.; Nguyen, Eric H.; Murphy, William L.

    2012-01-01

    Regulating endothelial cell behavior is a key step in understanding and controlling neovascularization for both pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic therapeutic strategies. Here, we characterized the effects of a covalently immobilized peptide mimic of vascular endothelial growth factor, herein referred to as VEGF receptor-binding peptide (VR-BP), on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) behavior. Self assembled monolayer arrays presenting varied densities of covalently immobilized VR-BP and varied densities of the fibronectin-derived cell adhesion peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro (GRGDSP) were used to probe for changes in HUVEC attachment, proliferation and tubulogenesis. In a soluble form, VR-BP exhibited pro-angiogenic effects in agreement with previous studies, indicated by increases in HUVEC proliferation. However, when presented to cells in an insoluble context, covalently immobilized VR-BP inhibited several pro-angiogenic HUVEC behaviors, including attachment and proliferation, and also inhibited HUVEC response to soluble recombinant VEGF protein. Furthermore, substrates with covalently immobilized VR-BP also modulated HUVEC tubulogenesis when a matrigel overlay assay was used to provide cells with a pseudo-three dimensional environment. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the context in which ligands are presented to cell surface receptors strongly influences their effects, and that the same ligand can be an agonist or an antagonist depending on the manner of presentation to the cell. PMID:22733256

  15. Multifactorial Experimental Design to Optimize the Anti-Inflammatory and Proangiogenic Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Spheroids.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kaitlin C; Whitehead, Jacklyn; Falahee, Patrick C; Zhou, Dejie; Simon, Scott I; Leach, J Kent

    2017-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell therapies promote wound healing by manipulating the local environment to enhance the function of host cells. Aggregation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into three-dimensional spheroids increases cell survival and augments their anti-inflammatory and proangiogenic potential, yet there is no consensus on the preferred conditions for maximizing spheroid function in this application. The objective of this study was to optimize conditions for forming MSC spheroids that simultaneously enhance their anti-inflammatory and proangiogenic nature. We applied a design of experiments (DOE) approach to determine the interaction between three input variables (number of cells per spheroid, oxygen tension, and inflammatory stimulus) on MSC spheroids by quantifying secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), two potent molecules in the MSC secretome. DOE results revealed that MSC spheroids formed with 40,000 cells per spheroid in 1% oxygen with an inflammatory stimulus (Spheroid 1) would exhibit enhanced PGE2 and VEGF production versus those formed with 10,000 cells per spheroid in 21% oxygen with no inflammatory stimulus (Spheroid 2). Compared to Spheroid 2, Spheroid 1 produced fivefold more PGE2 and fourfold more VEGF, providing the opportunity to simultaneously upregulate the secretion of these factors from the same spheroid. The spheroids induced macrophage polarization, sprout formation with endothelial cells, and keratinocyte migration in a human skin equivalent model-demonstrating efficacy on three key cell types that are dysfunctional in chronic non-healing wounds. We conclude that DOE-based analysis effectively identifies optimal culture conditions to enhance the anti-inflammatory and proangiogenic potential of MSC spheroids. Stem Cells 2017;35:1493-1504. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  16. Simultaneous application of bevacizumab and anti-CTGF antibody effectively suppresses proangiogenic and profibrotic factors in human RPE cells

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Abouzar; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Samiei, Shahram; Sheibani, Nader; Astaneh, Shamila Darvishalipour; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Mohammadian, Azam

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells play key roles in the development of choroidal neovascularization and subsequent fibrosis. We investigated the impact of bevacizumab, antihuman vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody, and anticonnective tissue growth factor (anti-CTGF) neutralizing antibody, individually or in combination, on proangiogenic and profibrotic properties of RPE cells. Methods Primary cultures of human RPE cells were incubated with different concentrations of bevacizumab (0.25, 0.5, and 0.8 mg/ml) and/or anti-CTGF (10 μg/ml), and cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined. Expression and activity of proangiogenic and profibrotic genes including matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and 9, VEGFA, CTGF, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), cathepsin D, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) −1 and −2, and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were assessed with slot blot, real-time RT–PCR, and zymography. Results Bevacizumab alone inhibited proliferation of RPE cells while anti-CTGF or bevacizumab and anti-CTGF combined had no inhibitory effect in this regard. Bevacizumab increased MMP-2, MMP-9, and cathepsin D but decreased VEGFA and VEGFR-1 expression. The CTGF level was increased by using 0.25 mg/ml bevacizumab but decreased at the 0.8 mg/ml concentration of bevacizumab. Treatment with anti-CTGF antibody decreased MMP-2 expression whereas combined treatment with bevacizumab and anti-CTGF resulted in decreased expression of MMP-2, TIMP-1, cathepsin D, VEGFA, CTGF, and α-SMA in the treated cultures. Conclusions Treatment of RPE cells with the combination of bevacizumab and anti-CTGF could effectively suppress the proangiogenic and profibrotic activity of RPE cells. PMID:25883524

  17. Evaluation of a Collagen-Chitosan Hydrogel for Potential Use as a Pro-Angiogenic Site for Islet Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    McBane, Joanne E.; Vulesevic, Branka; Padavan, Donna T.; McEwan, Kimberly A.; Korbutt, Gregory S.; Suuronen, Erik J.

    2013-01-01

    Islet transplantation to treat type 1 diabetes (T1D) has shown varied long-term success, due in part to insufficient blood supply to maintain the islets. In the current study, collagen and collagen:chitosan (10:1) hydrogels, +/- circulating angiogenic cells (CACs), were compared for their ability to produce a pro-angiogenic environment in a streptozotocin-induced mouse model of T1D. Initial characterization showed that collagen-chitosan gels were mechanically stronger than the collagen gels (0.7kPa vs. 0.4kPa elastic modulus, respectively), had more cross-links (9.2 vs. 7.4/µm2), and were degraded more slowly by collagenase. After gelation with CACs, live/dead staining showed greater CAC viability in the collagen-chitosan gels after 18h compared to collagen (79% vs. 69%). In vivo, collagen-chitosan gels, subcutaneously implanted for up to 6 weeks in a T1D mouse, showed increased levels of pro-angiogenic cytokines over time. By 6 weeks, anti-islet cytokine levels were decreased in all matrix formulations ± CACs. The 6-week implants demonstrated increased expression of VCAM-1 in collagen-chitosan implants. Despite this, infiltrating vWF+ and CXCR4+ angiogenic cell numbers were not different between the implant types, which may be due to a delayed and reduced cytokine response in a T1D versus non-diabetic setting. The mechanical, degradation and cytokine data all suggest that the collagen-chitosan gel may be a suitable candidate for use as a pro-angiogenic ectopic islet transplant site. PMID:24204863

  18. Identification of a Pro-Angiogenic Potential and Cellular Uptake Mechanism of a LMW Highly Sulfated Fraction of Fucoidan from Ascophyllum nodosum

    PubMed Central

    Marinval, Nicolas; Saboural, Pierre; Haddad, Oualid; Maire, Murielle; Bassand, Kevin; Geinguenaud, Frederic; Djaker, Nadia; Ben Akrout, Khadija; Lamy de la Chapelle, Marc; Robert, Romain; Oudar, Olivier; Guyot, Erwan; Laguillier-Morizot, Christelle; Sutton, Angela; Chauvierre, Cedric; Chaubet, Frederic; Charnaux, Nathalie; Hlawaty, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Herein we investigate the structure/function relationships of fucoidans from Ascophyllum nodosum to analyze their pro-angiogenic effect and cellular uptake in native and glycosaminoglycan-free (GAG-free) human endothelial cells (HUVECs). Fucoidans are marine sulfated polysaccharides, which act as glycosaminoglycans mimetics. We hypothesized that the size and sulfation rate of fucoidans influence their ability to induce pro-angiogenic processes independently of GAGs. We collected two fractions of fucoidans, Low and Medium Molecular Weight Fucoidan (LMWF and MMWF, respectively) by size exclusion chromatography and characterized their composition (sulfate, fucose and uronic acid) by colorimetric measurement and Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy. The high affinities of fractionated fucoidans to heparin binding proteins were confirmed by Surface Plasmon Resonance. We evidenced that LMWF has a higher pro-angiogenic (2D-angiogenesis on Matrigel) and pro-migratory (Boyden chamber) potential on HUVECs, compared to MMWF. Interestingly, in a GAG-free HUVECs model, LMWF kept a pro-angiogenic potential. Finally, to evaluate the association of LMWF-induced biological effects and its cellular uptake, we analyzed by confocal microscopy the GAGs involvement in the internalization of a fluorescent LMWF. The fluorescent LMWF was mainly internalized through HUVEC clathrin-dependent endocytosis in which GAGs were partially involved. In conclusion, a better characterization of the relationships between the fucoidan structure and its pro-angiogenic potential in GAG-free endothelial cells was required to identify an adapted fucoidan to enhance vascular repair in ischemia. PMID:27763505

  19. Development of a thermoresponsive chitosan gel combined with human mesenchymal stem cells and desferrioxamine as a multimodal pro-angiogenic therapeutic for the treatment of critical limb ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Conn L; Kelly, Helena M; Murphy, Mary J; Barry, Frank P; O'Brien, Fergal J; Duffy, Garry P

    2012-07-10

    Critical limb ischaemia (CLI) is a debilitating ischaemic disease caused by vascular occlusion. Pro-angiogenic therapeutics have the potential to produce collateral vasculature, delaying or negating the need for amputation or invasive revascularisation. Thermoresponsive hydrogels can provide an in situ depot for the sustained release of drugs and provide protection and cohesion for encapsulated cells. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have demonstrated strong angiogenic potential in vitro and angiogenic efficacy in vivo. Desferrioxamine (DFO), a pharmacological activator of the pro-angiogenic hypoxia inducible factor-1α pathway, has shown pro-angiogenic efficacy in vivo. This study combined hMSCs and DFO with a thermoresponsive chitosan/β-glycerophosphate (β-GP) gel, to function as an injectable, multimodal, pro-angiogenic therapeutic for the treatment of CLI. This gel underwent a thermogelation beginning at 33°C, and provided a sustained, biologically active release of DFO over the space of seven days, whilst permitting the survival, proliferation and migration of encapsulated hMSCs. hMSCs encapsulated in gel containing a 100μM concentration of DFO displayed an upregulation in VEGF expression. The combination of hMSCs and DFO within the gel resulted in a synergistic enhancement in bioactivity, as measured by increased VEGF expression in gel-exposed human umbilical vein endothelial cells. This formulation displays significant potential as an injectable pro-angiogenic therapeutic for the treatment of CLI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Platelet adhesion and degranulation induce pro-survival and pro-angiogenic signalling in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Egan, Karl; Crowley, Darragh; Smyth, Paul; O'Toole, Sharon; Spillane, Cathy; Martin, Cara; Gallagher, Michael; Canney, Aoife; Norris, Lucy; Conlon, Niamh; McEvoy, Lynda; Ffrench, Brendan; Stordal, Britta; Keegan, Helen; Finn, Stephen; McEneaney, Victoria; Laios, Alex; Ducrée, Jens; Dunne, Eimear; Smith, Leila; Berndt, Michael; Sheils, Orla; Kenny, Dermot; O'Leary, John

    2011-01-01

    Thrombosis is common in ovarian cancer. However, the interaction of platelets with ovarian cancer cells has not been critically examined. To address this, we investigated platelet interactions in a range of ovarian cancer cell lines with different metastatic potentials [HIO-80, 59M, SK-OV-3, A2780, A2780cis]. Platelets adhered to ovarian cancer cells with the most significant adhesion to the 59M cell line. Ovarian cancer cells induced platelet activation [P-selectin expression] in a dose dependent manner, with the most significant activation seen in response to the 59M cell line. The platelet antagonists [cangrelor, MRS2179, and apyrase] inhibited 59M cell induced activation suggesting a P2Y12 and P2Y1 receptor mediated mechanism of platelet activation dependent on the release of ADP by 59M cells. A2780 and 59M cells potentiated PAR-1, PAR-4, and TxA2 receptor mediated platelet activation, but had no effect on ADP, epinephrine, or collagen induced activation. Analysis of gene expression changes in ovarian cancer cells following treatment with washed platelets or platelet releasate showed a subtle but valid upregulation of anti-apoptotic, anti-autophagy pro-angiogenic, pro-cell cycle and metabolic genes. Thus, ovarian cancer cells with different metastatic potential adhere and activate platelets differentially while both platelets and platelet releasate mediate pro-survival and pro-angiogenic signals in ovarian cancer cells.

  1. Loss of endothelial-ARNT in adult mice contributes to dampened circulating proangiogenic cells and delayed wound healing.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu; Tao, Jiayi; Gomer, Alla; Ramirez-Bergeron, Diana L

    2014-12-01

    The recruitment and homing of circulating bone marrow-derived cells include endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) that are critical to neovascularization and tissue regeneration of various vascular pathologies. We report here that conditional inactivation of hypoxia-inducible factor's (HIF) transcriptional activity in the endothelium of adult mice (Arnt(ΔiEC) mice) results in a disturbance of infiltrating cells, a hallmark of neoangiogenesis, during the early phases of wound healing. Cutaneous biopsy punches show distinct migration of CD31(+) cells into wounds of control mice by 36 hours. However, a significant decline in numbers of infiltrating cells with immature vascular markers, as well as decreased transcript levels of genes associated with their expression and recruitment, were identified in wounds of Arnt(ΔiEC) mice. Matrigel plug assays further confirmed neoangiogenic deficiencies alongside a reduction in numbers of proangiogenic progenitor cells from bone marrow and peripheral blood samples of recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor-treated Arnt(ΔiEC) mice. In addition to HIF's autocrine requirements in endothelial cells, our data implicate that extrinsic microenvironmental cues provided by endothelial HIF are pivotal for early migration of proangiogenic cells, including those involved in wound healing.

  2. Role of angiogenesis in endodontics: contributions of stem cells and proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors to dental pulp regeneration.

    PubMed

    Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Asatourian, Armen; Sorenson, Christine M; Sheibani, Nader

    2015-06-01

    Dental pulp regeneration is a part of regenerative endodontics, which includes isolation, propagation, and re-transplantation of stem cells inside the prepared root canal space. The formation of new blood vessels through angiogenesis is mandatory to increase the survival rate of re-transplanted tissues. Angiogenesis is defined as the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting capillaries, which has great importance in pulp regeneration and homeostasis. Here the contribution of human dental pulp stem cells and proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors to angiogenesis process and regeneration of dental pulp is reviewed. A search was performed on the role of angiogenesis in dental pulp regeneration from January 2005 through April 2014. The recent aspects of the relationship between angiogenesis, human dental pulp stem cells, and proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors in regeneration of dental pulp were assessed. Many studies have indicated an intimate relationship between angiogenesis and dental pulp regeneration. The contribution of stem cells and mechanical and chemical factors to dental pulp regeneration has been previously discussed. Angiogenesis is an indispensable process during dental pulp regeneration. The survival of inflamed vital pulp and engineered transplanted pulp tissue are closely linked to the process of angiogenesis at sites of application. However, the detailed regulatory mechanisms involved in initiation and progression of angiogenesis in pulp tissue require investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Role of Angiogenesis in Endodontics: Contributions of Stem Cells and Proangiogenic and Antiangiogenic Factors to Dental Pulp Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Asatourian, Armen; Sorenson, Christine M.; Sheibani, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dental pulp regeneration is a part of regenerative endodontics, which includes isolation, propagation, and re-transplantation of stem cells inside the prepared root canal space. The formation of new blood vessels through angiogenesis is mandatory to increase the survival rate of re-transplanted tissues. Angiogenesis is defined as the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting capillaries, which has great importance in pulp regeneration and homeostasis. Here the contribution of human dental pulp stem cells and proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors to angiogenesis process and regeneration of dental pulp is reviewed. Methods A search was performed on the role of angiogenesis in dental pulp regeneration from January 2005 through April 2014. The recent aspects of the relationship between angiogenesis, human dental pulp stem cells, and proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors in regeneration of dental pulp were assessed. Results Many studies have indicated an intimate relationship between angiogenesis and dental pulp regeneration. The contribution of stem cells and mechanical and chemical factors to dental pulp regeneration has been previously discussed. Conclusions Angiogenesis is an indispensable process during dental pulp regeneration. The survival of inflamed vital pulp and engineered transplanted pulp tissue are closely linked to the process of angiogenesis at sites of application. However, the detailed regulatory mechanisms involved in initiation and progression of angiogenesis in pulp tissue require investigation. PMID:25649306

  4. Mechanical stimulation of the pro-angiogenic capacity of human fracture haematoma: involvement of VEGF mechano-regulation.

    PubMed

    Groothuis, Aline; Duda, Georg N; Wilson, Cameron J; Thompson, Mark S; Hunter, Morgan R; Simon, Paul; Bail, Hermann J; van Scherpenzeel, Karine M; Kasper, Grit

    2010-08-01

    Compromised angiogenesis appears to be a major limitation in various suboptimal bone healing situations. Appropriate mechanical stimuli support blood vessel formation in vivo and improve healing outcomes. However, the mechanisms responsible for this association are unclear. To address this question, the paracrine angiogenic potential of early human fracture haematoma and its responsiveness to mechanical loading, as well as angiogenic growth factors involved, were investigated in vitro. Human haematomas were collected from healthy patients undergoing surgery within 72 h after bone fracture. The haematomas were embedded in a fibrin matrix, and cultured in a bioreactor resembling the in vivo conditions of the early phase of bone healing (20% compression, 1 Hz) over 3 days. Conditioned medium (CM) from the bioreactor was then analyzed. The matrices were also incubated in fresh medium for a further 24 h to evaluate the persistence of the effects. Growth factor (GF) concentrations were measured in the CM by ELISAs. In vitro tube formation assays were conducted on Matrigel with the HMEC-1 cell line, with or without inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2). Cell numbers were quantified using an MTS test. In vitro endothelial tube formation was enhanced by CM from haematomas, compared to fibrin controls. The angiogenesis regulators, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), were released into the haematoma CM, but not angiopoietins 1 or 2 (Ang1, 2), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Mechanical stimulation of haematomas, but not fibrin controls, further increased the induction of tube formation by their CM. The mechanically stimulated haematoma matrices retained their elevated pro-angiogenic capacity for 24 h. The pro-angiogenic effect was cancelled by inhibition of VEGFR2 signalling. VEGF concentrations in CM tended to be elevated by mechanical

  5. Therapeutic potential of pro-angiogenic BPC157 is associated with VEGFR2 activation and up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Jer; Liu, Hsien-Ta; Wang, Chao-Nin; Huang, Hsiu-Yun; Lin, Yuling; Ko, Yu-Shien; Wang, Jong-Shyan; Chang, Vincent Hung-Shu; Pang, Jong-Hwei S

    2017-03-01

    BPC 157, a pentadecapeptide with extensive healing effects, has recently been suggested to contribute to angiogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism is not yet clear. The present study aimed to explore the potential therapeutic effect and pro-angiogenic mechanism of BPC 157. As demonstrated by the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and endothelial tube formation assay, BPC 157 could increase the vessel density both in vivo and in vitro, respectively. BPC 157 could also accelerate the recovery of blood flow in the ischemic muscle of the rat hind limb as detected by laser Doppler scanning, indicating the promotion of angiogenesis. Histological analysis of the hind limb muscle confirmed the increased number of vessels and the enhanced vascular expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) in rat with BPC 157 treatment. In vitro study using human vascular endothelial cells further confirmed the increased mRNA and protein expressions of VEGFR2 but not VEGF-A by BPC 157. In addition, BPC 157 could promote VEGFR2 internalization in vascular endothelial cells which was blocked in the presence of dynasore, an inhibitor of endocytosis. BPC 157 time dependently activated the VEGFR2-Akt-eNOS signaling pathway which could also be suppressed by dynasore. The increase of endothelial tube formation induced by BPC 157 was also inhibited by dynasore. This study demonstrates the pro-angiogenic effects of BPC 157 that is associated with the increased expression, internalization of VEGFR2, and the activation of VEGFR2-Akt-eNOS signaling pathway. BPC 157 promotes angiogenesis in CAM assay and tube formation assay. BPC 157 accelerates the blood flow recovery and vessel number in rats with hind limb ischemia. BPC 157 up-regulates VEGFR2 expression in rats with hind limb ischemia and endothelial cell culture. BPC 157 promotes VEGFR2 internalization in association with VEGFR2-Akt-eNOS activation.

  6. The Proangiogenic Phenotype of Natural Killer Cells in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer12

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Antonino; Focaccetti, Chiara; Pagani, Arianna; Imperatori, Andrea S; Spagnoletti, Marco; Rotolo, Nicola; Cantelmo, Anna Rita; Franzi, Francesca; Capella, Carlo; Ferlazzo, Guido; Mortara, Lorenzo; Albini, Adriana; Noonan, Douglas M

    2013-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment can polarize innate immune cells to a proangiogenic phenotype. Decidual natural killer (dNK) cells show an angiogenic phenotype, yet the role for NK innate lymphoid cells in tumor angiogenesis remains to be defined. We investigated NK cells from patients with surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and controls using flow cytometric and functional analyses. The CD56+CD16- NK subset in NSCLC patients, which represents the predominant NK subset in tumors and a minor subset in adjacent lung and peripheral blood, was associated with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor (PIGF), and interleukin-8 (IL-8)/CXCL8 production. Peripheral blood CD56+CD16- NK cells from patients with the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) subtype showed higher VEGF and PlGF production compared to those from patients with adenocarcinoma (AdC) and controls. Higher IL-8 production was found for both SCC and AdC compared to controls. Supernatants derived from NSCLC CD56+CD16- NK cells induced endothelial cell chemotaxis and formation of capillary-like structures in vitro, particularly evident in SCC patients and absent from controls. Finally, exposure to transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1), a cytokine associated with dNK polarization, upregulated VEGF and PlGF in peripheral blood CD56+CD16- NK cells from healthy subjects. Our data suggest that NK cells in NSCLC act as proangiogenic cells, particularly evident for SCC and in part mediated by TGFβ1. PMID:23441128

  7. Heterogeneity of proangiogenic features in mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbilical cord, and placenta.

    PubMed

    Du, Wen Jing; Chi, Ying; Yang, Zhou Xin; Li, Zong Jin; Cui, Jun Jie; Song, Bao Quan; Li, Xue; Yang, Shao Guang; Han, Zhi Bo; Han, Zhong Chao

    2016-11-10

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely proven effective for therapeutic angiogenesis in ischemia animal models as well as clinical vascular diseases. Because of the invasive method, limited resources, and aging problems of adult tissue-derived MSCs, more perinatal tissue-derived MSCs have been isolated and studied as promising substitutable MSCs for cell transplantation. However, fewer studies have comparatively studied the angiogenic efficacy of MSCs derived from different tissues sources. Here, we evaluated whether the in-situ environment would affect the angiogenic potential of MSCs. We harvested MSCs from adult bone marrow (BMSCs), adipose tissue (AMSCs), perinatal umbilical cord (UMSCs), and placental chorionic villi (PMSCs), and studied their "MSC identity" by flow cytometry and in-vitro trilineage differentiation assay. Then we comparatively studied their endothelial differentiation capabilities and paracrine actions side by side in vitro. Our data showed that UMSCs and PMSCs fitted well with the minimum standard of MSCs as well as BMSCs and AMSCs. Interestingly, we found that MSCs regardless of their tissue origins could develop similar endothelial-relevant functions in vitro, including producing eNOS and uptaking ac-LDL during endothelial differentiation in spite of their feeble expression of endothelial-related genes and proteins. Additionally, we surprisingly found that BMSCs and PMSCs could directly form tubular structures in vitro on Matrigel and their conditioned medium showed significant proangiogenic bioactivities on endothelial cells in vitro compared with those of AMSCs and UMSCs. Besides, several angiogenic genes were upregulated in BMSCs and PMSCs in comparison with AMSCs and UMSCs. Moreover, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay further confirmed that BMSCs secreted much more VEGF, and PMSCs secreted much more HGF and PGE2. Our study demonstrated the heterogeneous proangiogenic properties of MSCs derived from different tissue origins, and

  8. Influence of exercise training on proangiogenic TIE-2 monocytes and circulating angiogenic cells in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Dopheide, Jörn F; Geissler, Philipp; Rubrech, Jennifer; Trumpp, Amelie; Zeller, Geraldine C; Daiber, Andreas; Münzel, Thomas; Radsak, Markus P; Espinola-Klein, Christine

    2016-08-01

    Inflammation is the driving force in atherosclerosis. One central strategy in the treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is the promotion of angiogenesis. Here, proangiogenic Tie-2 expressing monocytes (TEM) and circulating angiogenic cells (CAC) play a crucial role. Exercise training (ET) is recommended in PAD patients at Fontaine stage II to promote angiogenesis. 40 patients with intermittend claudication (IC) [2 groups: supervised ET (SET) vs. non-supervised ET (nSET), each n = 20] and 20 healthy controls were included in the study. Analysis of TEM and CAC was performed from whole blood by flow-cytometry. TEM were identified via CD45, CD86, CD14, CD16 and analysed for the expression of Tie-2. CAC were identified via their expression of CD45 (CD45dim), CD34 and VEGF-R2 (CD309/KDR). Follow up was performed after mean of 7.65 ± 1.62 months. In comparison to healthy controls, we found increased proportions of CAC (p < 0.0001) and similar TEM numbers in both ET groups. At follow-up (FU) TEM poroportions increased (p < 0.001) and CAC proportions decreased (p < 0.01), but both more significantly in SET (p < 0.001) than nSET (p = 0.01). Only in SET fibrinogen levels decreased and VEGF-A increased (both p < 0.05). Finally, we found in both ET groups a significant increase in absolute walking distance but with a higher individual increase in SET (p < 0.01). TEM and CAC proportions correlated inversely with the absolute walking distance (CAC: r = -0.296, p = 0.02; TEM: r = -0.270, p = 0.04) as well as with ABI (CAC: r = -0.394, p < 0.01; TEM: r = -0.382, p < 0.01). ET influences the distribution of CAC and TEM proportions. nSET, although still effective in regard to an improved walking distance, is less effective in the influence of proangiogenic cells and inflammatory burden than SET. Our results indicate SET to be a more preferential exercise form, supporting the necessity to establish more SET programs.

  9. New proangiogenic activity on vascular endothelial cells for C-terminal mechano growth factor.

    PubMed

    Deng, Moyuan; Wang, Yuanliang; Zhang, Bingbing; Liu, Peng; Xiao, Hualiang; Zhao, Jianhua

    2012-04-01

    Angiogenesis is crucial in wound healing. The administration of the C-terminal 24-a.a. peptide of mechano growth factor (MGF24E) has been previously demonstrated to induce more blood vessels in regenerating bone around defective areas compared with the control. Accordingly, this study aims to determine whether MGF24E promotes bone defect healing through MGF24E-increased angiogenesis and whether MGF24E has positive effects on angiogenesis in vitro. The roles of MGF24E on angiogenesis and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. The cell proliferation, migration, and tubulogenesis of the human vascular endothelial EA.hy926 cells co-treated with 2% serum and MGF24E were determined to assess angiogenesis in comparison with 100 ng/ml of vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF(165))-positive control or vehicle control (phosphate-buffered saline). MGF24E treatment (10 ng/ml) significantly promoted the biological processes of angiogenesis on EA.hy926 cells compared with the vehicle control. The suppression of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-I expressions by 2% serum starvation was reversed by the addition of 10 ng/ml of MGF24E in 2% serum medium. This result suggests that MGF24E has a protective effect on angiogenesis. Moreover, the inhibition of ERK due to PD98050 pretreatment completely abolished and mostly blocked MGF24E-induced proliferation and migration, respectively, whereas the MGF24-induced tubulogenesis and the angiogenic factor expression were only partially inhibited. These new findings suggest that MGF24E promotes angiogenesis by enhancing the expression of angiogenic cytokines which involves the MAPK/ERK-signaling pathway.

  10. Aqueous Extraction of Citrus unshiu Peel Induces Proangiogenic Effects Through the FAK and ERK1/2 Signaling Pathway in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungwhoi; Yang, Dong-Shik; Han, Song-I; Yun, Jeong Hun; Kim, Il-Woong; Kim, Seung Jun; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Citrus unshiu peel has been used empirically as a traditional medicine to improve bronchial asthma and blood circulation in northeast Asian nations, including Korea, Japan, and China. In this study, we report the proangiogenic effects of the aqueous extract of Citrus unshiu peel (AECUP). In human umbilical vein endothelial cells, AECUP significantly induced cellular migration and capillary tube formation. We also demonstrated that AECUP markedly increased the phosphorylation of FAK and ERK1/2 through the integrin signaling pathway. Additionally, we identified that narirutin and hesperidin were major constituents of AECUP and both showed proangiogenic effects, but at different levels. Collectively, these results suggest that the AECUP may have potential as a therapeutic agent for improving angiogenic functions with reduced harmful side effects.

  11. Sesamin inhibits macrophage-induced vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and proangiogenic activity in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Chung; Liu, Ko-Jiunn; Wu, Yu-Chen; Lin, Sue-Jane; Chang, Ching-Chun; Huang, Tze-Sing

    2011-06-01

    Sesamin is a sesame component with antihypertensive and antioxidative activities and has recently aroused much interest in studying its potential anticancer application. Macrophage is one of the infiltrating inflammatory cells in solid tumor and may promote tumor progression via enhancement of tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we investigated whether sesamin inhibited macrophage-enhanced proangiogenic activity of breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Using vascular endothelial cell capillary tube and network formation assays, both breast cancer cell lines exhibited elevated proangiogenic activities after coculture with macrophages or pretreatment with macrophage-conditioned medium. This elevation of proangiogenic activity was drastically suppressed by sesamin. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) induced by macrophages in both cell lines were also inhibited by sesamin. Nuclear levels of HIF-1α and NF-κB, important transcription factors for VEGF and MMP-9 expression, respectively, were obviously reduced by sesamin. VEGF induction by macrophage in MCF-7 cells was shown to be via ERK, JNK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and NF-κB-mediated pathways. These signaling molecules and additional p38(MAPK) were also involved in macrophage-induced MMP-9 expression. Despite such diverse pathways were induced by macrophage, only Akt and p38(MAPK) activities were potently inhibited by sesamin. Expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α were substantially increased and involved in macrophage-induced VEGF and MMP-9 mRNA expression in MCF-7 cells. Sesamin effectively inhibited the expression of these cytokines to avoid the reinforced induction of VEGF and MMP-9. In conclusion, sesamin potently inhibited macrophage-enhanced proangiogenic activity of breast cancer cells via inhibition of VEGF and MMP-9 induction.

  12. Sialic acid associated with αvβ3 integrin mediates HIV-1 Tat protein interaction and endothelial cell proangiogenic activation.

    PubMed

    Chiodelli, Paola; Urbinati, Chiara; Mitola, Stefania; Tanghetti, Elena; Rusnati, Marco

    2012-06-08

    Sialic acid (NeuAc) is a major anion on endothelial cells (ECs) that regulates different biological processes including angiogenesis. NeuAc is present in the oligosaccharidic portion of integrins, receptors that interact with extracellular matrix components and growth factors regulating cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Tat is a cationic polypeptide that, once released by HIV-1(+) cells, accumulates in the extracellular matrix, promoting EC adhesion and proangiogenic activation by engaging α(v)β(3). By using two complementary approaches (NeuAc removal by neuraminidase or its masking by NeuAc-binding lectin from Maackia amurensis, MAA), we investigated the presence of NeuAc on endothelial α(v)β(3) and its role in Tat interaction, EC adhesion, and proangiogenic activation. α(v)β(3) immunoprecipitation with biotinylated MAA or Western blot analysis of neuraminidase-treated ECs demonstrated that NeuAc is associated with both the α(v) and the β(3) subunits. Surface plasmon resonance analysis demonstrated that the masking of α(v)β(3)-associated NeuAc by MAA prevents Tat/α(v)β(3) interaction. MAA and neuraminidase prevent α(v)β(3)-dependent EC adhesion to Tat, the consequent FAK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and EC proliferation, migration, and regeneration in a wound-healing assay. Finally, MAA inhibits Tat-induced neovascularization in the ex vivo human artery ring sprouting assay. The inhibitions are specific because the NeuAc-unrelated lectin from Ulex europaeus is ineffective on Tat. Also, MAA and neuraminidase affect only weakly integrin-dependent EC adhesion and proangiogenic activation by fibronectin. In conclusion, NeuAc is associated with endothelial α(v)β(3) and mediates Tat-dependent EC adhesion and proangiogenic activation. These data point to the possibility to target integrin glycosylation for the treatment of angiogenesis/AIDS-associated pathologies.

  13. The Induction of Pro-Angiogenic Processes Within a Collagen Scaffold Via Exogenous Estradiol and Endometrial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pence, Jacquelyn C.; Clancy, Kathryn B. H.; Harley, Brendan A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient transport remains a major limitation in the design of biomaterials. One approach to overcome this constraint is to incorporate features to induce angiogenesis-mediated microvasculature formation. Angiogenesis requires a temporal presentation of both pro- and anti-angiogenic factors to achieve stable vasculature, leading to increasingly complex biomaterial design scheme. The endometrium, the lining of the uterus and site of embryo implantation, exemplifies a non-pathological model of rapid growth, shedding, and re-growth of dense vascular networks regulated by the dynamic actions of estradiol and progesterone. In this study, we examined the individual and combined response of endometrial epithelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells to exogenous estradiol within a three-dimensional collagen scaffold. While endothelial cells did not respond to exogenous estradiol, estradiol directly stimulated endometrial epithelial cell transduction pathways and resulted in dose-dependent increases in endogenous VEGF production. Co-culture experiments using conditioned media demonstrated estradiol stimulation of endometrial epithelial cells can induce functional changes in endothelial cells within the collagen biomaterial. We also report the effect of direct endometrial epithelial and endothelial co-culture as well as covalent immobilization of estradiol within the collagen biomaterial. These efforts establish the suitability of an endometrial-inspired model for promoting pro-angiogenic events within regenerative medicine applications. These results also suggest the potential for developing biomaterial-based models of the endometrium. PMID:25944769

  14. The induction of pro-angiogenic processes within a collagen scaffold via exogenous estradiol and endometrial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pence, Jacquelyn C; Clancy, Kathryn B H; Harley, Brendan A C

    2015-10-01

    Nutrient transport remains a major limitation in the design of biomaterials. One approach to overcome this constraint is to incorporate features to induce angiogenesis-mediated microvasculature formation. Angiogenesis requires a temporal presentation of both pro- and anti-angiogenic factors to achieve stable vasculature, leading to increasingly complex biomaterial design scheme. The endometrium, the lining of the uterus and site of embryo implantation, exemplifies a non-pathological model of rapid growth, shedding, and re-growth of dense vascular networks regulated by the dynamic actions of estradiol and progesterone. In this study, we examined the individual and combined response of endometrial epithelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells to exogenous estradiol within a three-dimensional collagen scaffold. While endothelial cells did not respond to exogenous estradiol, estradiol directly stimulated endometrial epithelial cell transduction pathways and resulted in dose-dependent increases in endogenous VEGF production. Co-culture experiments using conditioned media demonstrated estradiol stimulation of endometrial epithelial cells can induce functional changes in endothelial cells within the collagen biomaterial. We also report the effect of direct endometrial epithelial and endothelial co-culture as well as covalent immobilization of estradiol within the collagen biomaterial. These efforts establish the suitability of an endometrial-inspired model for promoting pro-angiogenic events within regenerative medicine applications. These results also suggest the potential for developing biomaterial-based models of the endometrium. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Computational drug repositioning for peripheral arterial disease: prediction of anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Liang-Hui; Annex, Brian H.; Popel, Aleksander S.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) results from atherosclerosis that leads to blocked arteries and reduced blood flow, most commonly in the arteries of the legs. PAD clinical trials to induce angiogenesis to improve blood flow conducted in the last decade have not succeeded. We have recently constructed PADPIN, protein-protein interaction network (PIN) of PAD, and here we combine it with the drug-target relations to identify potential drug targets for PAD. Specifically, the proteins in the PADPIN were classified as belonging to the angiome, immunome, and arteriome, characterizing the processes of angiogenesis, immune response/inflammation, and arteriogenesis, respectively. Using the network-based approach we predict the candidate drugs for repositioning that have potential applications to PAD. By compiling the drug information in two drug databases DrugBank and PharmGKB, we predict FDA-approved drugs whose targets are the proteins annotated as anti-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory, respectively. Examples of pro-angiogenic drugs are carvedilol and urokinase. Examples of anti-inflammatory drugs are ACE inhibitors and maraviroc. This is the first computational drug repositioning study for PAD. PMID:26379552

  16. Computational drug repositioning for peripheral arterial disease: prediction of anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Chu, Liang-Hui; Annex, Brian H; Popel, Aleksander S

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) results from atherosclerosis that leads to blocked arteries and reduced blood flow, most commonly in the arteries of the legs. PAD clinical trials to induce angiogenesis to improve blood flow conducted in the last decade have not succeeded. We have recently constructed PADPIN, protein-protein interaction network (PIN) of PAD, and here we combine it with the drug-target relations to identify potential drug targets for PAD. Specifically, the proteins in the PADPIN were classified as belonging to the angiome, immunome, and arteriome, characterizing the processes of angiogenesis, immune response/inflammation, and arteriogenesis, respectively. Using the network-based approach we predict the candidate drugs for repositioning that have potential applications to PAD. By compiling the drug information in two drug databases DrugBank and PharmGKB, we predict FDA-approved drugs whose targets are the proteins annotated as anti-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory, respectively. Examples of pro-angiogenic drugs are carvedilol and urokinase. Examples of anti-inflammatory drugs are ACE inhibitors and maraviroc. This is the first computational drug repositioning study for PAD.

  17. Continuous AMD3100 Treatment Worsens Renal Fibrosis through Regulation of Bone Marrow Derived Pro-Angiogenic Cells Homing and T-Cell-Related Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Juan; Zhu, Fengming; Wang, Xiaohui; Yao, Weiqi; Wang, Meng; Pei, Guangchang; Hu, Zhizhi; Guo, Yujiao; Zhao, Zhi; Wang, Pengge; Mou, Jingyi; Sun, Jie; Zeng, Rui; Xu, Gang; Liao, Wenhui; Yao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    AMD3100 is a small molecule inhibitor of chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), which is located in the cell membranes of CD34+ cells and a variety of inflammatory cells and has been reported to reduce organ fibrosis in the lung, liver and myocardium. However, the effect of AMD3100 on renal fibrosis is unknown. This study investigated the impact of AMD3100 on renal fibrosis. C57bl/6 mice were subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) surgery with or without AMD3100 administration. Tubular injury, collagen deposition and fibrosis were detected and analyzed by histological staining, immunocytochemistry and Western Blot. Bone marrow derived pro-angiogenic cells (CD45+, CD34+ and CD309+ cells) and capillary density (CD31+) were measured by flow cytometry (FACS) and immunofluorescence (IF). Inflammatory cells, chemotactic factors and T cell proliferation were characterized. We found that AMD3100 treatment did not alleviate renal fibrosis but, rather, increased tissue damage and renal fibrosis. Continuous AMD3100 administration did not improve bone marrow derived pro-angiogenic cells mobilization but, rather, inhibited the migration of bone marrow derived pro-angiogenic cells into the fibrotic kidney. Additionally, T cell infiltration was significantly increased in AMD3100-treated kidneys compared to un-treated kidneys. Thus, treatment of UUO mice with AMD3100 led to an increase in T cell infiltration, suggesting that AMD3100 aggravated renal fibrosis.

  18. Bioactive Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Daliri, Eric Banan-Mwine; Oh, Deog H.; Lee, Byong H.

    2017-01-01

    The increased consumer awareness of the health promoting effects of functional foods and nutraceuticals is the driving force of the functional food and nutraceutical market. Bioactive peptides are known for their high tissue affinity, specificity and efficiency in promoting health. For this reason, the search for food-derived bioactive peptides has increased exponentially. Over the years, many potential bioactive peptides from food have been documented; yet, obstacles such as the need to establish optimal conditions for industrial scale production and the absence of well-designed clinical trials to provide robust evidence for proving health claims continue to exist. Other important factors such as the possibility of allergenicity, cytotoxicity and the stability of the peptides during gastrointestinal digestion would need to be addressed. This review discusses our current knowledge on the health effects of food-derived bioactive peptides, their processing methods and challenges in their development. PMID:28445415

  19. Bioactive Peptides.

    PubMed

    Daliri, Eric Banan-Mwine; Oh, Deog H; Lee, Byong H

    2017-04-26

    The increased consumer awareness of the health promoting effects of functional foods and nutraceuticals is the driving force of the functional food and nutraceutical market. Bioactive peptides are known for their high tissue affinity, specificity and efficiency in promoting health. For this reason, the search for food-derived bioactive peptides has increased exponentially. Over the years, many potential bioactive peptides from food have been documented; yet, obstacles such as the need to establish optimal conditions for industrial scale production and the absence of well-designed clinical trials to provide robust evidence for proving health claims continue to exist. Other important factors such as the possibility of allergenicity, cytotoxicity and the stability of the peptides during gastrointestinal digestion would need to be addressed. This review discusses our current knowledge on the health effects of food-derived bioactive peptides, their processing methods and challenges in their development.

  20. Increased expression of pro-angiogenic factors and vascularization in thyroid hyperfunctioning adenomas with and without TSH receptor activating mutations.

    PubMed

    Celano, Marilena; Sponziello, Marialuisa; Tallini, Giovanni; Maggisano, Valentina; Bruno, Rocco; Dima, Mariavittoria; Di Oto, Enrico; Redler, Adriano; Durante, Cosimo; Sacco, Rosario; Filetti, Sebastiano; Russo, Diego

    2013-02-01

    Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTN) are known to receive an increased blood influx necessary to sustain their high rate of growth and hormone production. Here, we investigated the expression of hematic and lymphatic vases in a series of 20 AFTN compared with the contralateral non-tumor tissues of the same patients, and the transcript levels of proteins involved in the control of vascular proliferation, including the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factors (PDGF) and their receptors and the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). In parallel, the expression of the differentiation markers sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), thyroperoxidase (TPO), thyroglobulin (Tg), and TSH receptor (TSHR) was also investigated. The data were further analyzed comparing subgroups of tumors with or without mutations in the TSHR gene. Analysis by means of CD31 and D2-40 immunostaining showed in AFTN an increased number of hematic, but not lymphatic, vessels in parallel with an enhanced proliferation rate shown by increased Ki67 staining. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed an increase of VEGF, VEGFR1 and 2, PDGF-A, PDGF-B, and eNOS expression in tumor versus normal tissues. Also, higher transcript levels of NIS, TPO, and Tg were detected. Comparison of the two subgroups of samples revealed only few differences in the expression of the genes examined. In conclusion, these data demonstrate an increased expression of angiogenesis-related factors associated with an enhanced proliferation of hematic, but not lymphatic, vessels in AFTNs. In this context, the presence of TSHR mutations may only slightly influence the expression of pro-angiogenic growth factors.

  1. Histone Deacetylase 5 Is Overexpressed in Scleroderma Endothelial Cells and Impairs Angiogenesis via Repression of Proangiogenic Factors.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Pei-Suen; Wren, Jonathan D; Amin, M Asif; Schiopu, Elena; Fox, David A; Khanna, Dinesh; Sawalha, Amr H

    2016-12-01

    Vascular dysfunction represents a disease-initiating event in systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma). Results of recent studies suggest that epigenetic dysregulation impairs normal angiogenesis and can result in abnormal patterns of blood vessel growth. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) control endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and regulate EC migration. Specifically, HDAC-5 appears to be antiangiogenic. This study was undertaken to test whether HDAC-5 contributes to impaired angiogenesis in SSc by repressing proangiogenic factors in ECs. Dermal ECs were isolated from patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc and healthy controls. Angiogenesis was assessed using an in vitro Matrigel tube formation assay. An assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) was performed to assess and localize the genome-wide effects of HDAC5 knockdown on chromatin accessibility. The expression of HDAC5 was significantly increased in ECs from patients with SSc compared to healthy control ECs. Silencing of HDAC5 in SSc ECs restored normal angiogenesis. HDAC5 knockdown followed by ATAC-seq assay in SSc ECs identified key HDAC5-regulated genes involved in angiogenesis and fibrosis, such as CYR61, PVRL2, and FSTL1. Simultaneous knockdown of HDAC5 in conjunction with either CYR61, PVRL2, or FSTL1 inhibited angiogenesis in SSc ECs. Conversely, overexpression of these genes individually led to an increase in tube formation as assessed by Matrigel assay, suggesting that these genes play functional roles in the impairment of angiogenesis in SSc. Several novel HDAC5-regulated target genes associated with impaired angiogenesis were identified in SSc ECs by ATAC-seq. The results of this study provide a potential link between epigenetic regulation and impaired angiogenesis in SSc, and identify a novel mechanism for the dysregulated angiogenesis that characterizes this disease. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  2. Tumour-associated macrophages influence canine mammary cancer stem-like cells enhancing their pro-angiogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Rybicka, A; Eyileten, C; Taciak, B; Mucha, J; Majchrzak, K; Hellmen, E; Krol, M

    2016-08-01

    Cancer stem-like cells as cells with ability to self-renewal and potential to differentiate into various types of cells are known to be responsible for tumour initiation, recurrence and drug resistance. Hence a comprehensive research is concentrated on discovering cancer stem-like cells biology and interdependence between them and other cells. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of macrophages on cancer stem-like cells in canine mammary carcinomas. As recent studies indicated presence of macrophages in cancer environment stimulates cancer cells into more motile and invasive cells by acquisition of macrophage phenotypes. From two canine mammary tumour cell lines, CMT-U27 and P114 cancer stem-like cells were stained with Sca1, CD44 and EpCAM monoclonal antibodies and isolated. Those cells were next co-cultured with macrophages for 5 days and used for further experiments. Canine Gene Expression Microarray revealed 29 different expressed transcripts in cancer stem-like cells co-cultured with macrophages compared to those in mono-culture. Up-regulation of C-C motif chemokine 2 was considered as the most interesting for further investigation. Additionally, those cells showed overexpression of genes involved in non-canonical Wnt pathway. The results of 3D tubule formation in endothelial cells induced by cancer stem-like cells co-cultured with macrophages compared to cancer stem-like cells from mono-cultures and with addition of Recombinant Canine CCL2/MCP-1 revealed the same stimulating effect. Based on those results we can conclude that macrophages have an impact on cancer stem-like cells increasing secretion of pro-angiogenic factors.

  3. Targeting the pro-angiogenic forms of VEGF or inhibiting their expression as anti-cancer strategies.

    PubMed

    Guyot, Mélanie; Hilmi, Caroline; Ambrosetti, Damien; Merlano, Marco; Lo Nigro, Cristiana; Durivault, Jérôme; Grépin, Renaud; Pagès, Gilles

    2017-02-07

    Tumor growth relies on oxygen and blood supply depending on neo-vascularization. This process is mediated by the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) in many tumors. This paradigm has led to the development of specific therapeutic approaches targeting VEGF or its receptors. Despite their promising effects, these strategies have not improved overall survival of patients suffering from different cancers compared to standard therapies. We hypothesized that the existence of anti-angiogenic forms of VEGF VEGFxxxb which are still present in many tumors limit the therapeutic effects of the anti-VEGF antibodies bevacizumab/Avastin (BVZ). To test this hypothesis, we generated renal cell carcinoma cells (RCC) expressing VEGF165b. The incidence of tumors xenografts generated in nude mice and their growth were inferior to those obtained with control cells. Whereas BVZ had no effect on control tumors, it slowed-down the growth of tumor generated with VEGF165b expressing cells. A prophylactic immunization against the domain discriminating VEGF from VEGFxxxb isoforms inhibited the growth of tumor generated with two different syngenic tumor cell lines (melanoma (B16 cells) and RCC (RENCA cells)). Purified immunoglobulins from immunized mice also slowed-down tumor growth of human RCC xenografts in nude mice, producing a potent effect compared to BVZ in this model. Furthermore, down-regulating the serine-arginine-rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1) or masking SRSF1 binding sites by 2'O-Methyl RNA resulted in the increase of the VEGFxxxb/VEGF ratio. Therefore, a vaccine approach, specific antibodies against pro-angiogenic forms of VEGF, or increasing the VEGFxxxb/VEGF ratio may represent new prophylactic or pro-active anti-cancer strategies.

  4. Hypoxic Preconditioning Increases Survival and Pro-Angiogenic Capacity of Human Cord Blood Mesenchymal Stromal Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Andreas Matthäus; Klose, Kristin; Bieback, Karen; Korinth, Dirk; Schneider, Maria; Seifert, Martina; Choi, Yeong-Hoon; Kurtz, Andreas; Falk, Volkmar; Stamm, Christof

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxic preconditioning was shown to improve the therapeutic efficacy of bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) upon transplantation in ischemic tissue. Given the interest in clinical applications of umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs, we developed a specific hypoxic preconditioning protocol and investigated its anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic effects on cord blood MSCs undergoing simulated ischemia in vitro by subjecting them to hypoxia and nutrient deprivation with or without preceding hypoxic preconditioning. Cell number, metabolic activity, surface marker expression, chromosomal stability, apoptosis (caspases-3/7 activity) and necrosis were determined, and phosphorylation, mRNA expression and protein secretion of selected apoptosis and angiogenesis-regulating factors were quantified. Then, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were subjected to simulated ischemia in co-culture with hypoxically preconditioned or naïve cord blood MSCs, and HUVEC proliferation was measured. Migration, proliferation and nitric oxide production of HUVECs were determined in presence of cord blood MSC-conditioned medium. Cord blood MSCs proved least sensitive to simulated ischemia when they were preconditioned for 24 h, while their basic behavior, immunophenotype and karyotype in culture remained unchanged. Here, “post-ischemic” cell number and metabolic activity were enhanced and caspase-3/7 activity and lactate dehydrogenase release were reduced as compared to non-preconditioned cells. Phosphorylation of AKT and BAD, mRNA expression of BCL-XL, BAG1 and VEGF, and VEGF protein secretion were higher in preconditioned cells. Hypoxically preconditioned cord blood MSCs enhanced HUVEC proliferation and migration, while nitric oxide production remained unchanged. We conclude that hypoxic preconditioning protects cord blood MSCs by activation of anti-apoptotic signaling mechanisms and enhances their angiogenic potential. Hence, hypoxic preconditioning

  5. Peptide identification

    DOEpatents

    Jarman, Kristin H [Richland, WA; Cannon, William R [Richland, WA; Jarman, Kenneth D [Richland, WA; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro [Richland, WA

    2011-07-12

    Peptides are identified from a list of candidates using collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry data. A probabilistic model for the occurrence of spectral peaks corresponding to frequently observed partial peptide fragment ions is applied. As part of the identification procedure, a probability score is produced that indicates the likelihood of any given candidate being the correct match. The statistical significance of the score is known without necessarily having reference to the actual identity of the peptide. In one form of the invention, a genetic algorithm is applied to candidate peptides using an objective function that takes into account the number of shifted peaks appearing in the candidate spectrum relative to the test spectrum.

  6. Opposite Effects of Mechanical Action of Fluid Flow on Proangiogenic Factor Secretion From Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells With and Without Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Beatriz; García de Durango, Cira; González, Álvaro; Gortázar, Arancha R; Santos, Xavier; Forteza-Vila, Jerónimo; Vidal-Vanaclocha, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    Mechanical forces, hypoxia, and oxidative stress contribute to skin renewal, perfusion, and wound healing, but how are they regulating subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in the inflammatory microenvironment associated to skin repair and disorders is unknown. In this study, ASCs were isolated from lipoaspirate samples from plastic surgery patients, primary cultured and their differentiation and secretion of a panel of cytokines with pronounced effects on skin repair and angiogenesis were studied under mechanical stimulation by intermittent fluid flow, 1% hypoxia and oxidative stress by glutathione (GSH) depletion with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) treatment. Mechanical action of fluid flow did not alter mesenchymal phenotype of CD90(+) /CD29(+) /CD44(+) /CD34(-) /CD106(-) /CD45(-) ASCs; however, it remarkably induced ASC secretion of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) migration-stimulating factors. Multiplex Luminex assay further confirmed an increased secretion of VEGF, G-CSF, HGF, Leptin, IL-8, PDGF-BB, Angiopoietin-2, and Follistatin from mechanically-stimulated ASCs via cyclooxygenase-2. Consistent with this mechanism, GSH depletion and hypoxia also increased ASC secretion of VEGF, IL-8, leptin, Angiopoitein-2, and PDGF-BB. However, mechanical action of fluid flow abrogated VEGF and HUVEC migration-stimulating activity from GSH-depleted and hypoxic ASCs. Conversely, GSH depletion and hypoxia abrogated VEGF and HUVEC migration-stimulating activity from mechano-stimulated ASCs. Although mechanical action of fluid flow, hypoxia, and GSH-depletion had independent proangiogenic-stimulating activity on ASCs, mechanical stimulation had opposite effects on proangiogenic factor secretion from ASCs with and without oxidative stress. These data uncover the role of hypoxia and endogenous redox balance during the proangiogenic response of ASCs and other mesenchymal-derived cell types to mechanical action of interstitial fluid flow. J. Cell. Physiol. 232

  7. Biological and Pro-Angiogenic Properties of Genetically Modified Human Primary Myoblasts Overexpressing Placental Growth Factor in In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.

    PubMed

    Zimna, Agnieszka; Wiernicki, Bartosz; Kolanowski, Tomasz; Rozwadowska, Natalia; Malcher, Agnieszka; Labedz, Wojciech; Trzeciak, Tomasz; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Bednarek-Rajewska, Katarzyna; Majewski, Przemyslaw; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2017-09-26

    Cardiovascular diseases are a growing problem in developing countries; therefore, there is an ongoing intensive search for new approaches to treat these disorders. Currently, cellular therapies are focused on healing the damaged heart by implanting stem cells modified with pro-angiogenic factors. This approach ensures that the introduced cells are capable of fulfilling the complex requirements of the environment, including the replacement of the post-infarction scar with cells that are able to contract and promote the formation of new blood vessels that can supply the ischaemic region with nutrients and oxygen. This study focused on the genetic modification of human skeletal muscle cells (SkMCs). We chose myoblast cells due to their close biological resemblance to cardiomyocytes and the placental growth factor (PlGF) gene due to its pro-angiogenic potential. In our in vitro studies, we transfected SkMCs with the PlGF gene using electroporation, which has previously been proven to be efficient and generate robust overexpression of the PlGF gene and elevate PlGF protein secretion. Moreover, the functionality of the secreted pro-angiogenic proteins was confirmed using an in vitro capillary development assay. We have also examined the influence of PlGF overexpression on VEGF-A and VEGF-B, which are well-known factors described in the literature as the most potent activators of blood vessel formation. We were able to confirm the overexpression of VEGF-A in myoblasts transfected with the PlGF gene. The results obtained in this study were further verified in an animal model. These data were able to confirm the potential therapeutic effects of the applied treatments.

  8. TRAF6 inhibits proangiogenic signals in endothelial cells and regulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Bruneau, Sarah; Datta, Dipak; Flaxenburg, Jesse A.; Pal, Soumitro; Briscoe, David M.

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-receptor associated factors (TRAFs) function in the angiogenesis response. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRAF6 regulates basal and inducible expression of VEGF in endothelial cells (EC). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRAF6 is an endogenous inhibitor of EC proliferation and migration in EC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRAF6 inhibits VEGF expression in part via its ability to regulate Src signaling. -- Abstract: TNF-family molecules induce the expression Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) in endothelial cells (EC) and elicit signaling responses that result in angiogenesis. However, the role of TNF-receptor associated factors (TRAFs) as upstream regulators of VEGF expression or as mediators of angiogenesis is not known. In this study, HUVEC were cotransfected with a full-length VEGF promoter-luciferase construct and siRNAs to TRAF 1, -2, -3, -5, -6, and promoter activity was measured. Paradoxically, rather than inhibiting VEGF expression, we found that knockdown of TRAF6 resulted in a 4-6-fold increase in basal VEGF promoter activity compared to control siRNA-transfected EC (P < 0.0001). In addition, knockdown of TRAF 1, -2, -3 or -5 resulted in a slight increase or no change in VEGF promoter activation. Using [{sup 3}H]thymidine incorporation assays as well as the in vitro wound healing assay, we also found that basal rates of EC proliferation and migration were increased following TRAF6 knockdown; and this response was inhibited by the addition of a blocking anti-VEGF antibody into cell cultures. Using a limited protein array to gain insight into TRAF6-dependent intermediary signaling responses, we observed that TRAF6 knockdown resulted in an increase in the activity of Src family kinases. In addition, we found that treatment with AZD-0530, a pharmacological Src inhibitor, reduced the regulatory effect of TRAF6 knockdown on VEGF promoter activity. Collectively, these findings define a novel pro-angiogenic signaling

  9. Two dechlorinated chlordecone derivatives formed by in situ chemical reduction are devoid of genotoxicity and mutagenicity and have lower proangiogenic properties compared to the parent compound.

    PubMed

    Legeay, Samuel; Billat, Pierre-André; Clere, Nicolas; Nesslany, Fabrice; Bristeau, Sébastien; Faure, Sébastien; Mouvet, Christophe

    2017-02-16

    Chlordecone (CLD) is a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide, now classified as a persistent organic pollutant. Several studies have previously reported that chronic exposure to CLD leads to hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, raises early child development and pregnancy complications, and increases the risk of liver and prostate cancer. In situ chemical reduction (ISCR) has been identified as a possible way for the remediation of soils contaminated by CLD. In the present study, the objectives were (i) to evaluate the genotoxicity and the mutagenicity of two CLD metabolites formed by ISCR, CLD-5a-hydro, or CLD-5-hydro (5a- or 5- according to CAS nomenclature; CLD-1Cl) and tri-hydroCLD (CLD-3Cl), and (ii) to explore the angiogenic properties of these molecules. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity were investigated using the Ames's technique on Salmonella typhimurium and the in vitro micronucleus micromethod with TK6 human lymphoblastoid cells. The proangiogenic properties were evaluated on the in vitro capillary network formation of human primary endothelial cells. Like CLD, the dechlorinated derivatives of CLD studied were devoid of genotoxic and mutagenic activity. In the assay targeting angiogenic properties, significantly lower microvessel lengths formed by endothelial cells were observed for the CLD-3Cl-treated cells compared to the CLD-treated cells for two of the three tested concentrations. These results suggest that dechlorinated CLD derivatives are devoid of mutagenicity and genotoxicity and have lower proangiogenic properties than CLD.

  10. Treatment of hind limb ischemia using angiogenic peptide nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek A; Liu, Qi; Wickremasinghe, Navindee C; Shi, Siyu; Cornwright, Toya T; Deng, Yuxiao; Azares, Alon; Moore, Amanda N; Acevedo-Jake, Amanda M; Agudo, Noel R; Pan, Su; Woodside, Darren G; Vanderslice, Peter; Willerson, James T; Dixon, Richard A; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D

    2016-08-01

    For a proangiogenic therapy to be successful, it must promote the development of mature vasculature for rapid reperfusion of ischemic tissue. Whole growth factor, stem cell, and gene therapies have yet to achieve the clinical success needed to become FDA-approved revascularization therapies. Herein, we characterize a biodegradable peptide-based scaffold engineered to mimic VEGF and self-assemble into a nanofibrous, thixotropic hydrogel, SLanc. We found that this injectable hydrogel was rapidly infiltrated by host cells and could be degraded while promoting the generation of neovessels. In mice with induced hind limb ischemia, this synthetic peptide scaffold promoted angiogenesis and ischemic tissue recovery, as shown by Doppler-quantified limb perfusion and a treadmill endurance test. Thirteen-month-old mice showed significant recovery within 7 days of treatment. Biodistribution studies in healthy mice showed that the hydrogel is safe when administered intramuscularly, subcutaneously, or intravenously. These preclinical studies help establish the efficacy of this treatment for peripheral artery disease due to diminished microvascular perfusion, a necessary step before clinical translation. This peptide-based approach eliminates the need for cell transplantation or viral gene transfection (therapies currently being assessed in clinical trials) and could be a more effective regenerative medicine approach to microvascular tissue engineering.

  11. Human platelet-rich plasma- and extracellular matrix-derived peptides promote impaired cutaneous wound healing in vivo.

    PubMed

    Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N; Wolf, Lindsey; Deckenback, Jeffry; Hamblin, Michael R; Herman, Ira M

    2012-01-01

    Previous work in our laboratory has described several pro-angiogenic short peptides derived from endothelial extracellular matrices degraded by bacterial collagenase. Here we tested whether these peptides could stimulate wound healing in vivo. Our experiments demonstrated that a peptide created as combination of fragments of tenascin X and fibrillin 1 (comb1) applied into cranial dermal wounds created in mice treated with cyclophosphamide to impair wound healing, can improve the rate of wound closure. Furthermore, we identify and characterize a novel peptide (UN3) created and modified from two naturally-occurring peptides, which are present in human platelet-rich plasma. In vitro testing of UN3 demonstrates that it causes a 50% increase in endothelial proliferation, 250% increase in angiogenic response and a tripling of epithelial cell migration in response to injury. Results of in vivo experiments where comb1 and UN3 peptides were added together to cranial wounds in cyclophosphamide-treated mice leads to improvement of wound vascularization as shown by an increase of the number of blood vessels present in the wound beds. Application of the peptides markedly promotes cellular responses to injury and essentially restores wound healing dynamics to those of normal, acute wounds in the absence of cyclophosphamide impairment. Our current work is aimed at understanding the mechanisms underlying the stimulatory effects of these peptides as well as identification of the cellular receptors mediating these effects.

  12. Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Bahar, Ali Adem; Ren, Dacheng

    2013-01-01

    The rapid increase in drug-resistant infections has presented a serious challenge to antimicrobial therapies. The failure of the most potent antibiotics to kill “superbugs” emphasizes the urgent need to develop other control agents. Here we review the history and new development of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), a growing class of natural and synthetic peptides with a wide spectrum of targets including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. We summarize the major types of AMPs, their modes of action, and the common mechanisms of AMP resistance. In addition, we discuss the principles for designing effective AMPs and the potential of using AMPs to control biofilms (multicellular structures of bacteria embedded in extracellular matrixes) and persister cells (dormant phenotypic variants of bacterial cells that are highly tolerant to antibiotics). PMID:24287494

  13. HET0016, a Selective Inhibitor of 20-HETE Synthesis, Decreases Pro-Angiogenic Factors and Inhibits Growth of Triple Negative Breast Cancer in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Borin, Thaiz Ferraz; Zuccari, Debora A. P. C.; Jardim-Perassi, Bruna V.; Ferreira, Lívia C.; Iskander, A. S. M.; Varma, Nadimpalli Ravi S.; Shankar, Adarsh; Guo, Austin M.; Scicli, Guillermo; Arbab, Ali S.

    2014-01-01

    A selective inhibitor of 20-HETE synthesis, HET0016, has been reported to inhibit angiogenesis. 20-HETE has been known as a second mitogenic messenger of angiogenesis inducing growth factors. HET0016 effects were analyzed on MDA-MB-231 derived breast cancer in mouse and in vitro cell line. MDA-MB-231 tumor cells were implanted in animals’ right flank and randomly assigned to early (1 and 2), starting treatments on day 0, or delayed groups (3 and 4) on day 8 after implantation of tumor. Animals received HET0016 (10 mg/kg) treatment via intraperitoneal injection for 5 days/week for either 3 or 4 weeks. Control group received vehicle treatment. Tumor sizes were measured on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 and the animals were euthanized on day 22 and 29. Proteins were extracted from the whole tumor and from cells treated with 10 µM HET0016 for 4 and 24 hrs. Protein array kits of 20 different cytokines/factors were used. ELISA was performed to observe the HIF-1α and MMP-2 protein expression. Other markers were confirmed by IHC. HET0016 significantly inhibited tumor growth in all treatment groups at all-time points compared to control (p<0.05). Tumor growth was completely inhibited on three of ten animals on early treatment group. Treatment groups showed significantly lower expression of pro-angiogenic factors compared to control at 21 days; however, there was no significant difference in HIF-1α expression after treatments. Similar results were found in vitro at 24 hrs of HET0016 treatment. After 28 days, significant increase of angiogenin, angiopoietin-1/2, EGF-R and IGF-1 pro-angiogenic factors were found (p<0.05) compared to control, as well as an higher intensity of all factors were found when compared to that of 21 day’s data, suggesting a treatment resistance. HET0016 inhibited tumor growth by reducing expression of different set of pro-angiogenic factors; however, a resistance to treatment seemed to happen after 21 days. PMID:25549350

  14. HET0016, a selective inhibitor of 20-HETE synthesis, decreases pro-angiogenic factors and inhibits growth of triple negative breast cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Borin, Thaiz Ferraz; Zuccari, Debora A P C; Jardim-Perassi, Bruna V; Ferreira, Lívia C; Iskander, A S M; Varma, Nadimpalli Ravi S; Shankar, Adarsh; Guo, Austin M; Scicli, Guillermo; Arbab, Ali S

    2014-01-01

    A selective inhibitor of 20-HETE synthesis, HET0016, has been reported to inhibit angiogenesis. 20-HETE has been known as a second mitogenic messenger of angiogenesis inducing growth factors. HET0016 effects were analyzed on MDA-MB-231 derived breast cancer in mouse and in vitro cell line. MDA-MB-231 tumor cells were implanted in animals' right flank and randomly assigned to early (1 and 2), starting treatments on day 0, or delayed groups (3 and 4) on day 8 after implantation of tumor. Animals received HET0016 (10 mg/kg) treatment via intraperitoneal injection for 5 days/week for either 3 or 4 weeks. Control group received vehicle treatment. Tumor sizes were measured on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 and the animals were euthanized on day 22 and 29. Proteins were extracted from the whole tumor and from cells treated with 10 µM HET0016 for 4 and 24 hrs. Protein array kits of 20 different cytokines/factors were used. ELISA was performed to observe the HIF-1α and MMP-2 protein expression. Other markers were confirmed by IHC. HET0016 significantly inhibited tumor growth in all treatment groups at all-time points compared to control (p<0.05). Tumor growth was completely inhibited on three of ten animals on early treatment group. Treatment groups showed significantly lower expression of pro-angiogenic factors compared to control at 21 days; however, there was no significant difference in HIF-1α expression after treatments. Similar results were found in vitro at 24 hrs of HET0016 treatment. After 28 days, significant increase of angiogenin, angiopoietin-1/2, EGF-R and IGF-1 pro-angiogenic factors were found (p<0.05) compared to control, as well as an higher intensity of all factors were found when compared to that of 21 day's data, suggesting a treatment resistance. HET0016 inhibited tumor growth by reducing expression of different set of pro-angiogenic factors; however, a resistance to treatment seemed to happen after 21 days.

  15. Prolonged Incubation Time in Sheep with QK171 Genotype

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Sheep scrapie susceptibility or resistance is a function of genotype with polymorphisms at codon 171 playing a major role. Glutamine (Q) at 171 contributes to scrapie susceptibility while arginine (R) is associated with resistance. In some breeds, lysine (K) occurs at 171, but its affe...

  16. LY2109761 attenuates radiation-induced pulmonary murine fibrosis via reversal of TGF-β and BMP-associated proinflammatory and proangiogenic signals.

    PubMed

    Flechsig, Paul; Dadrich, Monika; Bickelhaupt, Sebastian; Jenne, Jürgen; Hauser, Kai; Timke, Carmen; Peschke, Peter; Hahn, Eric W; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Yingling, Jonathan; Lahn, Michael; Wirkner, Ute; Huber, Peter E

    2012-07-01

    Radiotherapy is used for the treatment of lung cancer, but at the same time induces acute pneumonitis and subsequent pulmonary fibrosis, where TGF-β signaling is considered to play an important role. We irradiated thoraces of C57BL/6 mice (single dose, 20 Gy) and administered them a novel small-molecule TGF-β receptor I serine/threonine kinase inhibitor (LY2109761) orally for 4 weeks before, during, or after radiation. Noninvasive lung imaging including volume computed tomography (VCT) and MRI was conducted 6, 16, and 20 weeks after irradiation and was correlated to histologic findings. Expression profiling analysis and protein analysis was conducted in human primary fibroblasts. Radiation alone induced acute pulmonary inflammation and lung fibrosis after 16 weeks associated with reduced life span. VCT, MRI, and histology showed that LY2109761 markedly reduced inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis resulting in prolonged survival. Mechanistically, we found that LY2109761 reduced p-SMAD2 and p-SMAD1 expression, and transcriptomics revealed that LY2109761 suppressed expression of genes involved in canonical and noncanonical TGF-β signaling and downstream signaling of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP). LY2109761 also suppressed radiation-induced inflammatory [e.g., interleukin (IL)-6, IL-7R, IL-8] and proangiogenic genes (e.g., ID1) indicating that LY2109761 achieves its antifibrotic effect by suppressing radiation-induced proinflammatory, proangiogenic, and profibrotic signals. Small-molecule inhibitors of the TGF-β receptor I kinase may offer a promising approach to treat or attenuate radiation-induced lung toxicity or other diseases associated with fibrosis. ©2012 AACR.

  17. Preliminary Analysis of the Expression of Selected Proangiogenic and Antioxidant Genes and MicroRNAs in Patients with Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kozakowska, Magdalena; Dobrowolska-Glazar, Barbara; Okoń, Krzysztof; Józkowicz, Alicja; Dobrowolski, Zygmunt; Dulak, Józef

    2016-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an enzyme contributing to the development and progression of different cancer types. HO-1 plays a role in pathological angiogenesis in bladder cancer and contributes to the resistance of this cancer to therapy. It also regulates the expression of microRNAs in rhabdomyosarcoma and non-small cell lung cancer. The expression of HO-1 may be regulated by hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) and Nrf2 transcription factor. The expression of HO-1 has not so far been examined in relation to Nrf2, HIF-1α, and potential mediators of angiogenesis in human bladder cancer. We measured the concentration of proinflammatory and proangiogenic cytokines and the expression of cytoprotective and proangiogenic mRNAs and miRNAs in healthy subjects and patients with bladder cancer. HO-1 expression was upregulated together with HIF-1α, HIF-2α, and Nrf2 in bladder cancer in comparison to healthy tissue. VEGF was elevated both at mRNA and protein level in the tumor and in sera, respectively. Additionally, IL-6 and IL-8 were increased in sera of patients affected with urothelial bladder cancer. Moreover, miR-155 was downregulated whereas miR-200c was elevated in cancer biopsies in comparison to healthy tissue. The results indicate that the increased expression of HO-1 in bladder cancer is paralleled by changes in the expression of other potentially interacting genes, like Nrf2, HIF-1α, HIF-2α, IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF. Further studies are necessary to also elucidate the potential links with miR-155 and miR-200c. PMID:26927195

  18. Colorectal resection is associated with persistent proangiogenic plasma protein changes: postoperative plasma stimulates in vitro endothelial cell growth, migration, and invasion.

    PubMed

    Kumara, H M C Shantha; Shantha Kumara, H M C; Feingold, Daniel; Kalady, Matthew; Dujovny, Nadav; Senagore, Anthony; Hyman, Neil; Cekic, Vesna; Whelan, Richard L

    2009-06-01

    Plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels are elevated for weeks after minimally invasive colorectal resection (MICR). Decreased plasma angiopoietin-(Ang) 1 and increased Ang-2 levels have been noted on postoperative days (POD) 1 and 3. These proangiogenic changes may stimulate tumor growth postoperatively (postop). This study's purpose was to track plasma VEGF, Ang-1, and Ang-2 levels for 4 to 8 weeks after MICR for cancer and to assess the impact of preoperative (preop) and postop plasma on in vitro endothelial cell (EC) behavior. Blood samples from 105 MICR patients were taken preop, on POD 5 and at varying time points for 2 months. Samples from 7 day time blocks after POD 5 were bundled to permit statistical analysis. Plasma protein levels were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In vitro EC branch point formation, EC invasion, and EC migration assays were carried out with preop, POD 7 to 13 and 14 to 20 plasma. The t test and Bonferonni correction was used. VEGF levels were significantly elevated on POD 5 and 7 to 13; lesser increases were noted on POD 14 to 20 and 21 to 27. Ang-2 levels were significantly increased at all time points postop. No significant Ang-1 changes were noted. When compared to preop EC culture results, there was significantly more EC branch point formation, EC invasion, and EC migration assays noted with POD 7 to 13 and POD 14 to 20 plasma. MICR is associated with proangiogenic plasma changes for 2 to 4 weeks and plasma from POD 7 to 13 and 14 to 20 stimulated EC growth, invasion, and migration. Postop plasma may stimulate the growth of residual tumor.

  19. The α7-nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor and MMP-2/-9 Pathway Mediate the Proangiogenic Effect of Nicotine in Human Retinal Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dom, Aaron M.; Buckley, Adam W.; Brown, Kathleen C.; Egleton, Richard D.; Marcelo, Aileen J.; Proper, Nancy A.; Weller, Donald E.; Shah, Yashoni H.; Lau, Jamie K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Nicotine, the active component of cigarette smoke, has been found to stimulate angiogenesis in several experimental systems. In this study, the Matrigel duplex assay (Matrigel; BD Biosciences, Franklin Lakes, NJ) and the rat retinal explant assay were used to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the proangiogenic effects of nicotine in endothelial cells. Methods. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes expressed on primary human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs). The angiogenic effect of nicotine in the retina was evaluated with the duplex assay. The results obtained from the assay were confirmed by the rat retinal explant angiogenesis assay. ELISAs were used to measure MMP-2, -9, and -13 levels in HRMEC culture supernatants. The role of α7-nAChRs in nicotine-induced angiogenesis was examined by siRNA techniques. Results. Nicotine-induced angiogenesis required nAChR function and was associated with the upregulation of MMP-2 and -9 in HRMECs. Specifically, α7-nAChRs mediated the stimulatory effects of nicotine on retinal angiogenesis and MMP levels. Treatment of HRMECs with α7-nAChR antagonists ablated nicotine-induced angiogenesis. The inhibitory actions of α7-nAChR antagonists correlated with the suppression of MMP-2 and -9 levels in HRMECs. Conclusions. The α7-nAChR is vital for the proangiogenic activity of nicotine. The α7-nAChRs expressed on HRMECs upregulate levels of MMP-2 and -9, which stimulate retinal angiogenesis. The data also suggest that α7-nAChR antagonists could be useful agents for the therapy of angiogenesis-related retinal diseases. PMID:20554619

  20. C-Peptide Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... vital for the body to use its main energy source, glucose . Since C-peptide and insulin are produced ... these cases, C-peptide measurement is a useful alternative to testing for insulin. C-peptide measurements can ...

  1. Uncoupling Angiogenesis and Inflammation in Peripheral Artery Disease with Therapeutic Peptide-loaded Microgels

    PubMed Central

    Zachman, Angela L.; Wang, Xintong; Tucker-Schwartz, Jason M.; Fitzpatrick, Sean T.; Lee, Sue H.; Guelcher, Scott A.; Skala, Melissa C.; Sung, Hak-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is characterized by vessel occlusion and ischemia in the limbs. Treatment for PAD with surgical interventions has been showing limited success. Moreover, recent clinical trials with treatment of angiogenic growth factors proved ineffective as increased angiogenesis triggered severe inflammation in a proportionally coupled fashion. Hence, the overarching goal of this research was to address this issue by developing a biomaterial system that enables controlled, dual delivery of pro-angiogenic C16 and anti-inflammatory Ac-SDKP peptides in a minimally-invasive way. To achieve the goal, a peptide-loaded injectable microgel system was developed and tested in a mouse model of PAD. When delivered through multiple, low volume injections, the combination of C16 and Ac-SDKP peptides promoted angiogenesis, muscle regeneration, and perfusion recovery, while minimizing detrimental inflammation. Additionally, this peptide combination regulated inflammatory TNF-α pathways independently of MMP-9 mediated pathways of angiogenesis in vitro, suggesting a potential mechanism by which angiogenic and inflammatory responses can be uncoupled in the context of PAD. This study demonstrates a translatable potential of the dual peptide-loaded injectable microgel system for PAD treatment. PMID:25154665

  2. [SYNTHETIC PEPTIDE VACCINES].

    PubMed

    Sergeyev, O V; Barinsky, I F

    2016-01-01

    An update on the development and trials of synthetic peptide vaccines is reviewed. The review considers the successful examples of specific protection as a result of immunization with synthetic peptides using various protocols. The importance of conformation for the immunogenicity of the peptide is pointed out. An alternative strategy of the protection of the organism against the infection using synthetic peptides is suggested.

  3. Obesity reduces the pro-angiogenic potential of adipose tissue stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) by impairing miR-126 content: impact on clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Togliatto, G; Dentelli, P; Gili, M; Gallo, S; Deregibus, C; Biglieri, E; Iavello, A; Santini, E; Rossi, C; Solini, A; Camussi, G; Brizzi, M F

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Soluble factors and cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are crucial tissue repair mediators in cell-based therapy. In the present study, we investigate the therapeutic impact of EVs released by adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) recovered from obese subjects' visceral and subcutaneous tissues. Methods: ASCs were recovered from 10 obese (oASCs) and 6 non-obese (nASCs) participants and characterized. In selected experiments, nASCs and oASCs were cultured with palmitic acid (PA) or high glucose (HG), respectively. EVs from obese (oEVs) and non-obese (nEVs) subjects' visceral and subcutaneous ASCs were collected after ultracentrifugation and analyzed for their cargo: microRNA-126 (miR-126), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), and for their biological effects on endothelial cells (ECs). Western blotting analysis and loss- and gain-of function experiments were performed. Results: oEVs show impaired angiogenic potential compared with nEVs. This effect depends on EV cargo: reduced content of VEGF, MMP-2 and, more importantly, miR-126. We demonstrate, using gain- and loss-of-function experiments, that this reduced miR-126 content leads to Spred1 upregulation and the inhibition of the extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in ECs. We also show that PA treatment of nASCs translates into the release of EVs that recapitulate oEV cargo. Moreover, HG treatment of oASCs further reduces miR-126 EV content and EV-mediated in vitro angiogenesis. Finally, impaired pro-angiogenic potential is also detected in EVs released from obese subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived ASCs. Conclusions: These results indicate that obesity impacts on EV pro-angiogenic potential and may raise concerns about the use of adipose tissue-derived EVs in cell-based therapy in the obese setting. PMID:26122028

  4. Retinal upregulation of inflammatory and proangiogenic markers in a model of neonatal diabetic rats fed on a high-fat-diet

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The contemporary peak of diabetes seems to be related to obesity, sedentary lifestyle and diet. Diabetic retinopathy is the most leading cause of blindness in adulthood in industrialized countries. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of a high-fat-diet (HFD) on the retina of diabetic rats. Methods Two groups of Wistar rats were injected with streptozotocin (STZ) two days after birth using 45 and 90 mg/kg, respectively. At 8 weeks the group on lower doses started to be fed on a HFD. Animals were sacrificed at 37 weeks of diabetes. A control group was made up of non-diabetic rats. Retinal flat mounts were examined using the trypsin digestion technique. Pericytes counts were compared between diabetic and control rats. Cross retinal sections were analyzed by histological techniques and immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescent technique. Primary antibodies against inflammatory and proangiogenic mediators such as RAGE, GFAP, 5-LO, VEGF and TNF-α were used for immunohistochemistry and Western Blot (WB) analyses. Results In the two diabetic groups we observed GFAP-positive cells with a morphology and spatial organization similar to those seen in Müller cells. Both diabetic groups had a significantly lower number of pericytes than non-diabetic animals.Increased retinal immunoreactivity of GFAP, RAGE, TNF-α, VEGF and 5-LO was seen in diabetic animals fed on HFD compared to the other groups of animals. WB analysis revealed a higher expression of 5-LO, VEGF, TNF-α and RAGE in the retina of diabetic rats on HFD than in controls and diabetics fed on a normal diet. The percentage of RAGE-stained ganglion cells and ganglion cells was found to be significantly lower in animals on a HFD than in the other animals. Conclusions Diabetic animals fed on a HFD showed an increased upregulation of inflammatory and proangiogenic markers. This animal model may be useful to study mechanisms of diabetic retinopathy and therapeutic targets. PMID:23587252

  5. Cell-Surface MMP-9 Protein Is a Novel Functional Marker to Identify and Separate Proangiogenic Cells from Early Endothelial Progenitor Cells Derived from CD133(+) Cells.

    PubMed

    Kanayasu-Toyoda, Toshie; Tanaka, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Yutaka; Uchida, Eriko; Matsuyama, Akifumi; Yamaguchi, Teruhide

    2016-05-01

    To develop cell therapies for ischemic diseases, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been expected to play a pivotal role in vascular regeneration. It is desirable to use a molecular marker that is related to the function of the cells. Here, a quantitative polymerase chain reaction array revealed that early EPCs derived from CD133(+) cells exhibited significant expression of MMP-9. Some populations of early EPCs expressed MMP-9 on the cell surface and others did not. We also attempted to separate the proangiogenic fraction from early EPCs derived from CD133(+) cells using a functional cell surface marker, and we then analyzed the MMP-9(+) and MMP-9(-) cell fractions. The MMP-9(+) cells not only revealed higher invasion ability but also produced a high amount of IL-8. Moreover, the stimulative effect of MMP-9(+) cells on angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo was prohibited by anti-IL-8 antibody. These data indicate that MMP-9 is one of the useful cell surface markers for the separation of angiogenic cells. Our treatment of early EPCs with hyaluronidase caused not only a downregulation of cell-surface MMP-9 but also a decrease in invasion ability, indicating that membrane-bound MMP-9, which is one of the useful markers for early EPCs, plays an important role in angiogenesis. Stem Cells 2016;34:1251-1262. © 2016 The Authors Stem Cells published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  6. Combined administration of G-CSF and GM-CSF stimulates monocyte-derived pro-angiogenic cells in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Stefania; Bussolati, Benedetta; Scacciatella, Paolo; Marra, Sebastiano; Sanavio, Fiorella; Tarella, Corrado; Camussi, Giovanni

    2006-04-01

    Mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells has been suggested to contribute to neo-vascularization of ischemic organs. Aim of this study was to investigate whether the combination of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-CSF may influence the expansion of circulating KDR+ cells in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). KDR+ cells significantly increased in peripheral blood of AMI patients treated with G-CSF and GM-CSF compared to untreated patients. This KDR+ cells population was CD14+ but not CD34+ or CD133+. CD14+/KDR+ cells were also obtained in vitro by culturing mononuclear cells from healthy donors in a Rotary Cell Culture System in the presence of G-CSF + GM-CSF, but not of the individual growth factors. CD14+/KDR+ cells, obtained from patients or from in vitro culture, co-expressed hematopoietic (CD45, CD14) and endothelial markers (CD31, CD105, and VE-cadherin). CD14+/KDR+, but not CD14+/KDR- cells, stimulated the organization of human microvascular endothelial cells into capillary-like structures on Matrigel both in vitro and in vivo. The combination of G-CSF and GM-CSF induced a CD14+/KDR+ cell population with potential pro-angiogenic properties.

  7. Topical simvastatin improves the pro-angiogenic and pro-osteogenic properties of bioglass putty in the rat calvaria critical-size model.

    PubMed

    Allon, Irit; Anavi, Yakir; Allon, Dror Michael

    2012-03-12

    Abstract Objective: To describe the effect of bioactive glass putty with and without topical simvastatin on new bone formation in critical-sized defects of rat calvaria. Study design: A calvarial bone defect was created in 20 male Wistar rats and filled with bioactive glass alone (n=10) or combined with simvastatin (n=10). After 4 weeks, the defects were histomorphometrically evaluated for volume fraction (Vv) of woven bone, vessel density, bioglass quantity, and inflammation. Results: Compared to the bioglass-only group, rats treated with simvastatin had greater Vv of blood vessels (3.3%+0.7 vs 1.6%+0.1, P=0.0002) and new bone (2.3%+0.2 vs 1.8%+2.5, P=0.003). The Vv of the bioglass remnants in the bioglass-only group was higher than in the group treated with simvastatin (2.4% +0.08 vs 1.7%+0.3, P<0.0004). Chronic inflammation was noted in one rat from each group. Conclusion: Topical simvastatin seems to improve the pro-angiogenic and pro-osteogenic properties of bioglass putty in rat calvaria critical-size defects without significant inflammation.

  8. Topical simvastatin improves the pro-angiogenic and pro-osteogenic properties of bioglass putty in the rat calvaria critical-size model.

    PubMed

    Allon, Irit; Anavi, Yakir; Allon, Dror M

    2014-06-01

    Objective was to describe the effect of bioactive glass putty with and without topical simvastatin on new bone formation in critical-sized defects of rat calvaria. A calvarial bone defect was created in 20 male Wistar rats and filled with bioactive glass alone (n = 10) or combined with simvastatin (n = 10). After 4 weeks, the defects were histomorphometrically evaluated for volume fraction (Vv) of woven bone, vessel density, bioglass quantity, and inflammation. Compared to the bioglass-only group, rats treated with simvastatin had greater Vv of blood vessels (3.3% ± 0.7 vs 1.6% ± 0.1, P = .0002) and new bone (2.3% ± 0.2 vs 1.8% ± 2.5, P = .003). The Vv of the bioglass remnants in the bioglass-only group was higher than in the group treated with simvastatin (2.4% ± 0.08 vs 1.7% ± 0.3, P < .0004). Chronic inflammation was noted in 1 rat from each group. Topical simvastatin seems to improve the pro-angiogenic and pro-osteogenic properties of bioglass putty in rat calvaria critical-size defects without significant inflammation.

  9. Proangiogenic stimulation of bone marrow endothelium engages mTOR and is inhibited by simultaneous blockade of mTOR and NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Lara F.; Balcells, Mercedes; Edelman, Elazer R.; Nadler, Lee M.; Cardoso, Angelo A.

    2006-01-01

    Most bone marrow (BM) malignancies develop in association with an angiogenic phenotype and increased numbers of endothelial cells. The molecular mechanisms involved in the modulation and recruitment of BM endothelium are largely unknown and may provide novel therapeutic targets for neoplastic diseases. We observed that angiogenic stimulation of BM endothelial cells activates mTOR and engages its downstream pathways 4E-BP1 and S6K1, which are inhibited by the mTOR-specific blockers rapamycin and CCI-779. Both mTOR blockers significantly inhibit growth factor- and leukemia-induced proliferation of BM endothelium by inducing G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest. This effect is associated with down-regulation of cyclin D1 and cdk2 phosphorylation, and up-regulation of the cdk inhibitors p27kip1 and p21cip1. Under conditions that reproduce the biomechanical fluidic environment of the BM, CCI-779 is equally effective in inhibiting BM endothelial-cell proliferation. Finally, simultaneous blockade of mTOR and NF-κB pathways synergize to significantly inhibit or abrogate the proliferative responses of BM endothelial cells to mitogenic stimuli. This study identifies mTOR as an important pathway for the proangiogenic stimulation of BM endothelium. Modulation of this pathway may serve as a valid therapeutic intervention in BM malignancies evolving in association with an angiogenic phenotype. PMID:16141350

  10. Macrophages are recruited to hypoxic tumor areas and acquire a Pro-Angiogenic M2-Polarized phenotype via hypoxic cancer cell derived cytokines Oncostatin M and Eotaxin

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Chakrapani; Tewari, Brij Nath; Kanchan, Ranjana Kumari; Baghel, Khemraj Singh; Nautiyal, Naveen; Shrivastava, Richa; Kaur, Harbeer; Bhatt, Madan Lal Bramha; Bhadauria, Smrati

    2014-01-01

    TAMs, a unique and distinct M2-skewed myeloid population of tumor stroma, exhibiting pro-tumor functions is fast emerging as a potential target for anti-cancer immunotherapy. Macrophage-recruitment and M2-polarization represent key TAMs-related phenomenon that are amenable to therapeutic intervention. However successful translation of these approaches into effective therapeutic regimen requires better characterization of tumor-microenvironment derived signals that regulate macrophage recruitment and their polarization. Owing to hypoxic milieu being a persistent feature of tumor-microenvironment and a major contributor to malignancy and treatment resistance, the current study was planned with an aim to decipher tumor cell responses to hypoxia vis-a-vis macrophage homing and phenotype switching. Here, we show that hypoxia-primed cancer cells chemoattract and polarize macrophages to pro-angiogenic M2-polarized subtype via Eotaxin and Oncostatin M. Concordantly, hypoxic regions of human breast-cancer specimen exhibited elevated Eotaxin and Oncostatin M levels with concurrently elevated M2-macrophage content. Blockade of Eotaxin/Oncostatin M not only prevented hypoxic breast-cancer cells from recruiting and polarizing macrophages towards an M2-polarized phenotype and retarded tumor progression in 4T1/BALB/c-syngenic-mice-model of breast-cancer but also enhanced the efficacy of anti-angiogenic Bevacizumab. The findings established these two cytokines as novel targets for devising effective anticancer therapy particularly for tumors that are refractory or develop resistance to anti-angiogenic therapeutics. PMID:25051364

  11. Regulatory Peptides in Plants.

    PubMed

    Vanyushin, B F; Ashapkin, V V; Aleksandrushkina, N I

    2017-02-01

    Many different peptides regulating cell differentiation, growth, and development are found in plants. Peptides participate in regulation of plant ontogenesis starting from pollination, pollen tube growth, and the very early stages of embryogenesis, including formation of embryo and endosperm. They direct differentiation of meristematic stem cells, formation of tissues and individual organs, take part in regulation of aging, fruit maturation, and abscission of plant parts associated with apoptosis. Biological activity of peptides is observed at very low concentrations, and it has mainly signal nature and hormonal character. "Mature" peptides appear mainly due to processing of protein precursors with (or without) additional enzymatic modifications. Plant peptides differ in origin, structure, and functional properties. Their specific action is due to binding with respective receptors and interactions with various proteins and other factors. Peptides can also regulate physiological functions by direct peptide-protein interactions. Peptide action is coordinated with the action of known phytohormones (auxins, cytokinins, and others); thus, peptides control phytohormonal signal pathways.

  12. TRH-like peptides.

    PubMed

    Bílek, R; Bičíková, M; Šafařík, L

    2011-01-01

    TRH-like peptides are characterized by substitution of basic amino acid histidine (related to authentic TRH) with neutral or acidic amino acid, like glutamic acid, phenylalanine, glutamine, tyrosine, leucin, valin, aspartic acid and asparagine. The presence of extrahypothalamic TRH-like peptides was reported in peripheral tissues including gastrointestinal tract, placenta, neural tissues, male reproductive system and certain endocrine tissues. Work deals with the biological function of TRH-like peptides in different parts of organisms where various mechanisms may serve for realisation of biological function of TRH-like peptides as negative feedback to the pituitary exerted by the TRH-like peptides, the role of pEEPam such as fertilization-promoting peptide, the mechanism influencing the proliferative ability of prostatic tissues, the neuroprotective and antidepressant function of TRH-like peptides in brain and the regulation of thyroid status by TRH-like peptides.

  13. Peptide Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Håvard; Hamill, Pamela; Hancock, Robert E. W.

    2006-01-01

    Antimicrobial host defense peptides are produced by all complex organisms as well as some microbes and have diverse and complex antimicrobial activities. Collectively these peptides demonstrate a broad range of antiviral and antibacterial activities and modes of action, and it is important to distinguish between direct microbicidal and indirect activities against such pathogens. The structural requirements of peptides for antiviral and antibacterial activities are evaluated in light of the diverse set of primary and secondary structures described for host defense peptides. Peptides with antifungal and antiparasitic activities are discussed in less detail, although the broad-spectrum activities of such peptides indicate that they are important host defense molecules. Knowledge regarding the relationship between peptide structure and function as well as their mechanism of action is being applied in the design of antimicrobial peptide variants as potential novel therapeutic agents. PMID:16847082

  14. The pro-inflammatory peptide LL-37 promotes ovarian tumor progression through recruitment of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Coffelt, Seth B.; Marini, Frank C.; Watson, Keri; Zwezdaryk, Kevin J.; Dembinski, Jennifer L.; LaMarca, Heather L.; Tomchuck, Suzanne L.; zu Bentrup, Kerstin Honer; Danka, Elizabeth S.; Henkle, Sarah L.; Scandurro, Aline B.

    2009-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells or multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to engraft into the stroma of several tumor types, where they contribute to tumor progression and metastasis. However, the chemotactic signals mediating MSC migration to tumors remain poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that LL-37 (leucine, leucine-37), the C-terminal peptide of human cationic antimicrobial protein 18, stimulates the migration of various cell types and is overexpressed in ovarian, breast, and lung cancers. Although there is evidence to support a pro-tumorigenic role for LL-37, the function of the peptide in tumors remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that neutralization of LL-37 in vivo significantly reduces the engraftment of MSCs into ovarian tumor xenografts, resulting in inhibition of tumor growth as well as disruption of the fibrovascular network. Migration and invasion experiments conducted in vitro indicated that the LL-37-mediated migration of MSCs to tumors likely occurs through formyl peptide receptor like-1. To assess the response of MSCs to the LL-37-rich tumor microenvironment, conditioned medium from LL-37-treated MSCs was assessed and found to contain increased levels of several cytokines and pro-angiogenic factors compared with controls, including IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-6, IL-10, CCL5, VEGF, and matrix metalloproteinase-2. Similarly, Matrigel mixed with LL-37, MSCs, or the combination of the two resulted in a significant number of vascular channels in nude mice. These data indicate that LL-37 facilitates ovarian tumor progression through recruitment of progenitor cell populations to serve as pro-angiogenic factor-expressing tumor stromal cells. PMID:19234121

  15. The pro-inflammatory peptide LL-37 promotes ovarian tumor progression through recruitment of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Coffelt, Seth B; Marini, Frank C; Watson, Keri; Zwezdaryk, Kevin J; Dembinski, Jennifer L; LaMarca, Heather L; Tomchuck, Suzanne L; Honer zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Danka, Elizabeth S; Henkle, Sarah L; Scandurro, Aline B

    2009-03-10

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells or multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to engraft into the stroma of several tumor types, where they contribute to tumor progression and metastasis. However, the chemotactic signals mediating MSC migration to tumors remain poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that LL-37 (leucine, leucine-37), the C-terminal peptide of human cationic antimicrobial protein 18, stimulates the migration of various cell types and is overexpressed in ovarian, breast, and lung cancers. Although there is evidence to support a pro-tumorigenic role for LL-37, the function of the peptide in tumors remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that neutralization of LL-37 in vivo significantly reduces the engraftment of MSCs into ovarian tumor xenografts, resulting in inhibition of tumor growth as well as disruption of the fibrovascular network. Migration and invasion experiments conducted in vitro indicated that the LL-37-mediated migration of MSCs to tumors likely occurs through formyl peptide receptor like-1. To assess the response of MSCs to the LL-37-rich tumor microenvironment, conditioned medium from LL-37-treated MSCs was assessed and found to contain increased levels of several cytokines and pro-angiogenic factors compared with controls, including IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-6, IL-10, CCL5, VEGF, and matrix metalloproteinase-2. Similarly, Matrigel mixed with LL-37, MSCs, or the combination of the two resulted in a significant number of vascular channels in nude mice. These data indicate that LL-37 facilitates ovarian tumor progression through recruitment of progenitor cell populations to serve as pro-angiogenic factor-expressing tumor stromal cells.

  16. PH dependent adhesive peptides

    DOEpatents

    Tomich, John; Iwamoto, Takeo; Shen, Xinchun; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan

    2010-06-29

    A novel peptide adhesive motif is described that requires no receptor or cross-links to achieve maximal adhesive strength. Several peptides with different degrees of adhesive strength have been designed and synthesized using solid phase chemistries. All peptides contain a common hydrophobic core sequence flanked by positively or negatively charged amino acids sequences.

  17. Antimicrobial Peptides in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangshun; Mishra, Biswajit; Lau, Kyle; Lushnikova, Tamara; Golla, Radha; Wang, Xiuqing

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights new members, novel mechanisms of action, new functions, and interesting applications of antimicrobial peptides reported in 2014. As of December 2014, over 100 new peptides were registered into the Antimicrobial Peptide Database, increasing the total number of entries to 2493. Unique antimicrobial peptides have been identified from marine bacteria, fungi, and plants. Environmental conditions clearly influence peptide activity or function. Human α-defensin HD-6 is only antimicrobial under reduced conditions. The pH-dependent oligomerization of human cathelicidin LL-37 is linked to double-stranded RNA delivery to endosomes, where the acidic pH triggers the dissociation of the peptide aggregate to release its cargo. Proline-rich peptides, previously known to bind to heat shock proteins, are shown to inhibit protein synthesis. A model antimicrobial peptide is demonstrated to have multiple hits on bacteria, including surface protein delocalization. While cell surface modification to decrease cationic peptide binding is a recognized resistance mechanism for pathogenic bacteria, it is also used as a survival strategy for commensal bacteria. The year 2014 also witnessed continued efforts in exploiting potential applications of antimicrobial peptides. We highlight 3D structure-based design of peptide antimicrobials and vaccines, surface coating, delivery systems, and microbial detection devices involving antimicrobial peptides. The 2014 results also support that combination therapy is preferred over monotherapy in treating biofilms. PMID:25806720

  18. Self-assembling nanoparticles encapsulating zoledronic acid inhibit mesenchymal stromal cells differentiation, migration and secretion of proangiogenic factors and their interactions with prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Pivetta, Eliana; Colombatti, Alfonso; Boccellino, Mariarosaria; Amler, Evzen; Normanno, Nicola; Caraglia, Michele; De Rosa, Giuseppe; Aldinucci, Donatella

    2017-01-01

    Zoledronic Acid (ZA) rapidly concentrates into the bone and reduces skeletal-related events and pain in bone metastatic prostate cancer (PCa), but exerts only a limited or absent impact as anti-cancer activity. Recently, we developed self-assembling nanoparticles (NPS) encapsulating zoledronic acid (NZ) that allowed a higher intratumor delivery of the drug compared with free zoledronic acid (ZA) in in vivo cancer models of PCa. Increasing evidence suggests that Bone Marrow (BM) Mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) are recruited into the stroma of developing tumors where they contribute to progression by enhancing tumor growth and metastasis. We demonstrated that treatment with NZ decreased migration and differentiation into adipocytes and osteoblasts of MSCs and inhibited osteoclastogenesis. Treatment with NZ reduced the capability of MSCs to promote the migration and the clonogenic growth of the prostate cancer cell lines PC3 and DU145. The levels of Interleukin-6 and of the pro-angiogenic factors VEGF and FGF-2 were significantly reduced in MSC-CM derived from MSCs treated with NZ, and CCL5 secretion was almost totally abolished. Moreover, treatment of MSCs with supernatants from PC3 cells, leading to tumor-educated MSCs (TE-MSCs), increased the secretion of IL-6, CCL5, VEGF and FGF-2 by MSCs and increased their capability to increase PC3 cells clonogenic growth. Treatment with NZ decreased cytokine secretion and the pro-tumorigenic effects also of TE-MSCS. In conclusion, demonstrating that NZ is capable to inhibit the cross talk between MSCs and PCa, this study provides a novel insight to explain the powerful anticancer activity of NZ on PCa. PMID:28477013

  19. Self-assembling nanoparticles encapsulating zoledronic acid inhibit mesenchymal stromal cells differentiation, migration and secretion of proangiogenic factors and their interactions with prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Borghese, Cinzia; Casagrande, Naike; Pivetta, Eliana; Colombatti, Alfonso; Boccellino, Mariarosaria; Amler, Evzen; Normanno, Nicola; Caraglia, Michele; De Rosa, Giuseppe; Aldinucci, Donatella

    2017-06-27

    Zoledronic Acid (ZA) rapidly concentrates into the bone and reduces skeletal-related events and pain in bone metastatic prostate cancer (PCa), but exerts only a limited or absent impact as anti-cancer activity. Recently, we developed self-assembling nanoparticles (NPS) encapsulating zoledronic acid (NZ) that allowed a higher intratumor delivery of the drug compared with free zoledronic acid (ZA) in in vivo cancer models of PCa. Increasing evidence suggests that Bone Marrow (BM) Mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) are recruited into the stroma of developing tumors where they contribute to progression by enhancing tumor growth and metastasis.We demonstrated that treatment with NZ decreased migration and differentiation into adipocytes and osteoblasts of MSCs and inhibited osteoclastogenesis. Treatment with NZ reduced the capability of MSCs to promote the migration and the clonogenic growth of the prostate cancer cell lines PC3 and DU145. The levels of Interleukin-6 and of the pro-angiogenic factors VEGF and FGF-2 were significantly reduced in MSC-CM derived from MSCs treated with NZ, and CCL5 secretion was almost totally abolished. Moreover, treatment of MSCs with supernatants from PC3 cells, leading to tumor-educated MSCs (TE-MSCs), increased the secretion of IL-6, CCL5, VEGF and FGF-2 by MSCs and increased their capability to increase PC3 cells clonogenic growth. Treatment with NZ decreased cytokine secretion and the pro-tumorigenic effects also of TE-MSCS. In conclusion, demonstrating that NZ is capable to inhibit the cross talk between MSCs and PCa, this study provides a novel insight to explain the powerful anticancer activity of NZ on PCa.

  20. Anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic effects of beta blockers in a canine model of chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy: comparison between carvedilol and metoprolol

    PubMed Central

    Le, D. Elizabeth; Pascotto, Marco; Leong-Poi, Howard; Sari, Ibrahim; Micari, Antonio; Kaul, Sanjiv

    2013-01-01

    There is controversy regarding the superiority of carvedilol (C) over metoprolol (M) in congestive heart failure. We hypothesized that C is superior to M in chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy because of its better anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic effects. In order to test our hypothesis we used a chronic canine model of multivessel ischemic cardiomyopathy where myocardial microcatheters were placed from which interstitial fluid was collected over time to measure leukocyte count and cytokine levels. After development of left ventricular dysfunction, the animals were randomized into four groups: sham (n = 7), placebo (n = 8), M (n = 11), and C (n = 10), and followed for 3 months after treatment initiation. Tissue was examined for immunohistochemistry, oxidative stress, and capillary density. At 3 months both rest and stress wall thickening were better in C compared to the other groups. At the end of 3 months of treatment endsystolic wall stress also decreased the most in C. Similarly resting myocardial blood flow (MBF) improved the most in C as did the stress endocardial/epicardial MBF. Myocardial interstitial fluid showed greater attenuation of leukocytosis with C compared to M, which was associated with less fibrosis and oxidative stress. C also had higher IL-10 level and capillary density. In conclusion, in a chronic canine model of multivessel ischemic cardiomyopathy we found 3 months of C treatment resulted in better resting global and regional function as well as better regional function at stress compared to M. These changes were associated with higher myocardial levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and less myocardial oxidative stress, leukocytosis, and fibrosis. Capillary density and MBF were almost normalized. Thus in the doses used in this study, C appears to be superior to M in a chronic canine model of ischemic cardiomyopathy from beneficial effects on inflammation and angiogenesis. Further studies are required for comparing additional doses

  1. Microparticles from Kidney-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Act as Carriers of Proangiogenic Signals and Contribute to Recovery from Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoon Young; Moon, Sung Jin; Ratliff, Brian B.; Ahn, Sun Hee; Jung, Ara; Lee, Mirae; Lee, Seol; Lim, Beom Jin; Kim, Beom Seok; Plotkin, Matthew D.; Ha, Sung Kyu; Park, Hyeong Cheon

    2014-01-01

    We recently demonstrated the use of in vitro expanded kidney-derived mesenchymal stem cells (KMSC) protected peritubular capillary endothelial cells in acute renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Herein, we isolated and characterized microparticles (MPs) from KMSC. We investigated their in vitro biologic effects on human endothelial cells and in vivo renoprotective effects in acute ischemia-reperfusion renal injury. MPs were isolated from the supernatants of KMSC cultured in anoxic conditions in serum-deprived media for 24 hours. KMSC-derived MPs demonstrated the presence of several adhesion molecules normally expressed on KMSC membranes, such as CD29, CD44, CD73, α4, 5, and 6 integrins. Quantitative real time PCR confirmed the presence of 3 splicing variants of VEGF-A (120, 164, 188), bFGF and IGF-1 in isolated MPs. MPs labeled with PKH26 red fluorescence dye were incorporated by cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) via surface molecules such as CD44, CD29, and α4, 5, and 6 integrins. MP dose dependently improved in vitro HUVEC proliferation and promoted endothelial tube formation on growth factor reduced Matrigel. Moreover, apoptosis of human microvascular endothelial cell was inhibited by MPs. Administration of KMSC-derived MPs into mice with acute renal ischemia was followed by selective engraftment in ischemic kidneys and significant improvement in renal function. This was achieved by improving proliferation, of peritubular capillary endothelial cell and amelioration of peritubular microvascular rarefaction. Our results support the hypothesis that KMSC-derived MPs may act as a source of proangiogenic signals and confer renoprotective effects in ischemic kidneys. PMID:24504266

  2. Semaphorin7A promotes tumor growth and exerts a pro-angiogenic effect in macrophages of mammary tumor-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Areas, Ramon; Libreros, Stephania; Amat, Samantha; Keating, Patricia; Carrio, Roberto; Robinson, Phillip; Blieden, Clifford; Iragavarapu-Charyulu, Vijaya

    2014-01-01

    Semaphorins are a large family of molecules involved in axonal guidance during the development of the nervous system and have been recently shown to have both angiogenic and anti-angiogenic properties. Specifically, semaphorin 7A (SEMA7A) has been reported to have a chemotactic activity in neurogenesis and to be an immune modulator through α1β1integrins. SEMA7A has been shown to promote monocyte chemotaxis and induce them to produce proinflammatory mediators. In this study we explored the role of SEMA7A in a murine model of breast cancer. We show that SEMA7A is highly expressed by DA-3 murine mammary tumor cells in comparison to normal mammary cells (EpH4), and that peritoneal elicited macrophages from mammary tumor-bearing mice also express SEMA7A at higher levels compared to those derived from normal mice. We also show that murine macrophages treated with recombinant murine SEMA7A significantly increased their expression of proangiogenic molecule CXCL2/MIP-2. Gene silencing of SEMA7A in peritoneal elicited macrophages from DA-3 tumor-bearing mice resulted in decreased CXCL2/MIP-2 expression. Mice implanted with SEMA7A silenced tumor cells showed decreased angiogenesis in the tumors compared to the wild type tumors. Furthermore, peritoneal elicited macrophages from mice bearing SEMA7A-silenced tumors produce significantly (p < 0.01) lower levels of angiogenic proteins, such as CXCL2/MIP-2, CXCL1, and MMP-9, compared to those from control DA-3 mammary tumors. We postulate that SEMA7A in mammary carcinomas may skew monocytes into a pro-tumorigenic phenotype to support tumor growth. SEMA7A could prove to be valuable in establishing new research avenues toward unraveling important tumor-host immune interactions in breast cancer patients. PMID:24550834

  3. Anisi stellati fructus extract attenuates the in vitro and in vivo metastatic and angiogenic potential of malignant cancer cells by downregulating proteolytic activity and pro-angiogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Aeyung; Im, Minju; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2014-11-01

    Anisi stellati fructus (ASF), commonly known as star anise, has long been used as a traditional Chinese medicine to treat inflammation, nervousness, insomnia and pain. In recent studies, it has been demonstrated that ASF possesses anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-oxidant activities, as well as exhibits inhibitory effects on capillary‑like tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). However, the effects of ASF extract on the metastatic potential of malignant tumor cells have not been examined. In this study, we found that daily oral administration of ASF (50 mg/kg) remarkably reduced the number of pulmonary metastatic colonies of B16F10 cells in C57BL/6J mice with no observed systemic toxicity. In an in vitro system, ASF inhibited metastatic properties, including anchorage‑independent colony formation, migration and invasion. Upon phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulation, the mRNA levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -9, -13, -14 and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) decreased in a dose-dependent manner with ASF treatment. Gelatinase, type I collagenase, and uPA activities were also suppressed efficiently by ASF treatment. In response to PMA, NF-κB and AP-1 activation as well as p38 phosphorylation, which are crucial for MMP activation, were significantly decreased by ASF. In particular, ASF considerably inhibited tumor-induced HUVEC migration and tube formation and suppressed in vivo tumor-induced angiogenesis via a reduction of pro-angiogenic factors in tumors. These results collectively indicate that ASF might be useful in the management of metastatic malignant tumors.

  4. Effects of Pleiotrophin on endothelial and inflammatory cells: Pro-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory properties and potential role for vascular bio-prosthesis endothelialization.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Daniela; Mura, Marzia; Mambrini, Simone; Palombo, Domenico

    2015-09-01

    One of the limitations emerged with both synthetic and degradable vascular grafts is the lack of endothelialization after implantation that is known to be the main reason leading to unfavourable outcomes. It emerges the need to find new strategies to promote a rapid endothelialization of the scaffold. Pleiotrophin is a growth/differentiation cytokine for various cell type. We here evaluated the effect of Pleiotrophin on endothelial cells (EC), monocytes and macrophages that have been shown as key cells promoting neovascularization. EA.hy926 endothelial cells, THP-1 monocytes and PMA-differentiated macrophages were treated with Pleiotrophin (10 and 100ng/ml). VEGF, Flk-1, Nrp-1, COX-2, ICAM-1 and TGFβ expression were detected by Western Blot, IL-10, MCP-1 and TNFα levels by ELISA. Chemotaxis was performed in Boyden chambers. Wound healing was performed by scratch wound assay. Pleiotrophin induces in EC the expression of VEGF and its receptors Flk-1 and Nrp-1 and improves the migratory capacity. In THP-1 monocytes, Pleiotrophin induces the expression of VEGF and its receptor Nrp-1 and decreases the levels of COX-2 and TNFα. In PMA-differentiated macrophages COX-2 expression was significantly reduced by Pleiotrophin, while IL-10 and TGFβ were increased. Pleiotrophin acts as an angiogenesis 'driver' by promoting the creation of a pro-angiogenic environment, a migratory behaviour in EC and a pro-regenerative alternative phenotype in macrophages. Our results suggest that Pleiotrophin might be considered for vascular prosthesis engineering. Copyright © 2015 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  5. Adenoviral mediated interferon-alpha 2b gene therapy suppresses the pro-angiogenic effect of vascular endothelial growth factor in superficial bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Adam, Liana; Black, Peter C; Kassouf, Wassim; Eve, Beryl; McConkey, David; Munsell, Mark F; Benedict, William F; Dinney, Colin P N

    2007-05-01

    Intravesical adenovirus mediated interferon-alpha gene transfer has a potent therapeutic effect against superficial human bladder carcinoma xenografts growing in the bladder of athymic nude mice. We determined whether the inhibition of angiogenesis might contribute to the antitumor effect. We treated several human urothelial carcinoma cells with adenovirus mediated interferon-alpha 2b and monitored its effects on the production of angiogenic factors using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical analysis and a gel shift based transcription factor array. To assess the role of adenovirus mediated interferon 2b in angiogenic activity we used in vitro invasion assays and evaluated the anti-angiogenic effects of adenovirus mediated interferon gene therapy in an orthotopic murine model of human superficial bladder cancer. In adenovirus mediated interferon-alpha infected 253J B-V cells vascular endothelial growth factor was decreased and anti-angiogenic interferon-gamma inducible protein 10 was up-regulated. In contrast, the addition of as much as 100,000 IU recombinant interferon had no apparent effect on vascular endothelial growth factor production. Conditioned medium derived from adenovirus mediated interferon 2b infected 253J B-V cells greatly decreased the invasive potential of human endothelial cells and down-regulated their matrix metalloproteinase 2 expression compared to controls. Furthermore, adenovirus mediated interferon 2b blocked pro-angiogenic nuclear signals, such as the transcription factors activating protein-1 and 2, stimulating protein-1, nuclear factor kappaB and c-myb. In vivo experiments revealed significant vascular endothelial growth factor down-regulation and decreased tumor vessel density in the adenovirus mediated interferon 2b treated group compared to controls. Treatment with adenovirus mediated interferon 2b increases the angiostatic activity of the bladder cancer microenvironment

  6. Peptide signaling in Hydra.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Toshitaka; Hayakawa, Eisuke

    2012-01-01

    Peptides play a number of crucial roles as signaling molecules in metazoans. In order to elaborate a more complete picture of the roles played by peptides in a single organism, we launched the "Hydra Peptide Project". For this project, we used Hydra magnipapillata, a species belonging to Cnidaria, one of the most basal metazoan phyla, and using a peptidomic approach, we systematically identified a number of peptide signaling molecules, their encoding genes and their functions. In this article, we report the peptides isolated from Hydra and other cnidarians, as well as their synthesis, processing and release from the cells to the target. Possible peptide signaling pathways are overviewed and finally we discuss the evolution of the peptide signaling system.

  7. A switchable stapled peptide.

    PubMed

    Kalistratova, Aleksandra; Legrand, Baptiste; Verdié, Pascal; Naydenova, Emilia; Amblard, Muriel; Martinez, Jean; Subra, Gilles

    2016-03-01

    The O-N acyl transfer reaction has gained significant popularity in peptide and medicinal chemistry. This reaction has been successfully applied to the synthesis of difficult sequence-containing peptides, cyclic peptides, epimerization-free fragment coupling and more recently, to switchable peptide polymers. Herein, we describe a related strategy to facilitate the synthesis and purification of a hydrophobic stapled peptide. The staple consists of a serine linked through an amide bond formed from its carboxylic acid function and the side chain amino group of diaminopropionic acid and through an ester bond formed from its amino group and the side chain carboxylic acid function of aspartic acid. The α-amino group of serine was protonated during purification. Interestingly, when the peptide was placed at physiological pH, the free amino group initiated the O-N shift reducing the staple length by one atom, leading to a more hydrophobic stapled peptide.

  8. Cell Penetrating Peptides and Cationic Antibacterial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez Plaza, Jonathan G.; Morales-Nava, Rosmarbel; Diener, Christian; Schreiber, Gabriele; Gonzalez, Zyanya D.; Lara Ortiz, Maria Teresa; Ortega Blake, Ivan; Pantoja, Omar; Volkmer, Rudolf; Klipp, Edda; Herrmann, Andreas; Del Rio, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPP) and cationic antibacterial peptides (CAP) have similar physicochemical properties and yet it is not understood how such similar peptides display different activities. To address this question, we used Iztli peptide 1 (IP-1) because it has both CPP and CAP activities. Combining experimental and computational modeling of the internalization of IP-1, we show it is not internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis, yet it permeates into many different cell types, including fungi and human cells. We also show that IP-1 makes pores in the presence of high electrical potential at the membrane, such as those found in bacteria and mitochondria. These results provide the basis to understand the functional redundancy of CPPs and CAPs. PMID:24706763

  9. Plant peptide hormone signalling.

    PubMed

    Motomitsu, Ayane; Sawa, Shinichiro; Ishida, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The ligand-receptor-based cell-to-cell communication system is one of the most important molecular bases for the establishment of complex multicellular organisms. Plants have evolved highly complex intercellular communication systems. Historical studies have identified several molecules, designated phytohormones, that function in these processes. Recent advances in molecular biological analyses have identified phytohormone receptors and signalling mediators, and have led to the discovery of numerous peptide-based signalling molecules. Subsequent analyses have revealed the involvement in and contribution of these peptides to multiple aspects of the plant life cycle, including development and environmental responses, similar to the functions of canonical phytohormones. On the basis of this knowledge, the view that these peptide hormones are pivotal regulators in plants is becoming increasingly accepted. Peptide hormones are transcribed from the genome and translated into peptides. However, these peptides generally undergo further post-translational modifications to enable them to exert their function. Peptide hormones are expressed in and secreted from specific cells or tissues. Apoplastic peptides are perceived by specialized receptors that are located at the surface of target cells. Peptide hormone-receptor complexes activate intracellular signalling through downstream molecules, including kinases and transcription factors, which then trigger cellular events. In this chapter we provide a comprehensive summary of the biological functions of peptide hormones, focusing on how they mature and the ways in which they modulate plant functions.

  10. SHORT PEDF-DERIVED PEPTIDE INHIBITS ANGIOGENESIS AND TUMOR GROWTH

    PubMed Central

    Mirochnik, Yelena; Aurora, Arin; Schulze-Hoepfner, Frank T.; Deabes, Ahmed; Shifrin, Victor; Beckmann, Richard; Polsky, Charles; Volpert, Olga V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF) is a potent angiogenesis inhibitor with multiple other functions, some of which enhance tumor growth. Our previous studies mapped PEDF anti-angiogenic and pro-survival activities to distinct epitopes. This study was aimed to determine the minimal fragment of PEDF, which maintains anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor efficacy. Experimental Design We analyzed antigenicity, hydrophilicity, and charge distribution of the angioinhibitory epitope (the 34-mer) and designed three peptides covering its C-terminus, P14, P18 and P23. We analyzed their ability to block endothelial cell (EC) chemotaxis and induce apoptosis in vitro and their anti-angiogenic activity in vivo. The selected peptide was tested for the anti-tumor activity against mildly aggressive xenografted prostate carcinoma and highly aggressive renal cell carcinoma. To verify that P18 acts in the same manner as PEDF, we used immunohistochemistry to measure PEDF targets, VEGFR2 and CD95L expression in P18-treated vasculature. Results P14 and P18 blocked endothelial cell chemotaxis; P18 and P23 induced apoptosis. P18 showed the highest IC50 and blocked angiogenesis in vivo: P23 was inactive and P14 was pro-angiogenic. P18 increased the production of CD95L and reduced the expression of VEGFR-2 by the endothelial cells in vivo. In tumor studies, P18 was more effective in blocking the angiogenesis and growth of the prostate cancer then parental 34-mer; in the renal cell carcinoma P18 strongly decreased angiogenesis and halted the progression of established tumors. Conclusions P18 is a novel and potent anti-angiogenic biotherapeutic agent, which has potential to be developed for the treatment of prostate and renal cancer. PMID:19223494

  11. Overexpression of the oncostatin M receptor in cervical squamous cell carcinoma cells is associated with a pro-angiogenic phenotype and increased cell motility and invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Winder, David M; Chattopadhyay, Anasuya; Muralidhar, Balaji; Bauer, Julien; English, William R; Zhang, Xiao; Karagavriilidou, Konstantina; Roberts, Ian; Pett, Mark R; Murphy, Gillian; Coleman, Nicholas

    2011-11-01

    Oncostatin M receptor (OSMR) shows frequent copy number gain and overexpression in advanced cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We used cell-based in vitro assays, RNA interference, and integrative gene expression profiling to investigate the functional significance of this observation. CaSki and SW756 were selected as representative cervical SCC cells that overexpressed OSMR, and ME180 and MS751 as cells that did not. The STAT-dependent pro-angiogenic factors VEGF-A and ID1 were rapidly induced by OSM in CaSki/SW756 but not in ME180/MS751. However, rapid induction did occur in MS751 following forced OSMR overexpression, while depleting OSMR in CaSki abrogated VEGF-A expression. Conditioned medium from both CaSki and SW756 stimulated endothelial tube formation in vitro, effects that were inhibited by depleting OSMR in the SCC cells. For both CaSki and SW756, migration in a wound healing assay and invasion through Matrigel were stimulated by OSM and consistently inhibited by OSMR depletion. The phenotype was rescued by transfection with OSMR containing a silent mutation that provided specific siRNA resistance. Overall, there was a positive correlation between OSMR levels and invasiveness. We used gene expression profiling to identify genes induced by OSM in CaSki/SW756 but not in ME180/MS751. The most prominent gene ontology category groups for the differentially expressed genes were cell motility/invasion, angiogenesis, signal transduction, and apoptosis. We also profiled 23 cervical SCC samples, identifying genes that were differentially expressed in cases with OSMR overexpression versus those without. Integration of the datasets identified 15 genes that showed consistent differential expression in association with OSMR levels in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that OSMR overexpression in cervical SCC cells provides increased sensitivity to OSM, which induces pro-malignant changes. OSMR is a potential prognostic and therapeutic target in cervical SCC. The genes

  12. Antimicrobial Peptides in Reptiles

    PubMed Central

    van Hoek, Monique L.

    2014-01-01

    Reptiles are among the oldest known amniotes and are highly diverse in their morphology and ecological niches. These animals have an evolutionarily ancient innate-immune system that is of great interest to scientists trying to identify new and useful antimicrobial peptides. Significant work in the last decade in the fields of biochemistry, proteomics and genomics has begun to reveal the complexity of reptilian antimicrobial peptides. Here, the current knowledge about antimicrobial peptides in reptiles is reviewed, with specific examples in each of the four orders: Testudines (turtles and tortosises), Sphenodontia (tuataras), Squamata (snakes and lizards), and Crocodilia (crocodilans). Examples are presented of the major classes of antimicrobial peptides expressed by reptiles including defensins, cathelicidins, liver-expressed peptides (hepcidin and LEAP-2), lysozyme, crotamine, and others. Some of these peptides have been identified and tested for their antibacterial or antiviral activity; others are only predicted as possible genes from genomic sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis of the reptile genomes is presented, revealing many predicted candidate antimicrobial peptides genes across this diverse class. The study of how these ancient creatures use antimicrobial peptides within their innate immune systems may reveal new understandings of our mammalian innate immune system and may also provide new and powerful antimicrobial peptides as scaffolds for potential therapeutic development. PMID:24918867

  13. Polycyclic peptide therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Baeriswyl, Vanessa; Heinis, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Owing to their excellent binding properties, high stability, and low off-target toxicity, polycyclic peptides are an attractive molecule format for the development of therapeutics. Currently, only a handful of polycyclic peptides are used in the clinic; examples include the antibiotic vancomycin, the anticancer drugs actinomycin D and romidepsin, and the analgesic agent ziconotide. All clinically used polycyclic peptide drugs are derived from natural sources, such as soil bacteria in the case of vancomycin, actinomycin D and romidepsin, or the venom of a fish-hunting coil snail in the case of ziconotide. Unfortunately, nature provides peptide macrocyclic ligands for only a small fraction of therapeutic targets. For the generation of ligands of targets of choice, researchers have inserted artificial binding sites into natural polycyclic peptide scaffolds, such as cystine knot proteins, using rational design or directed evolution approaches. More recently, large combinatorial libraries of genetically encoded bicyclic peptides have been generated de novo and screened by phage display. In this Minireview, the properties of existing polycyclic peptide drugs are discussed and related to their interesting molecular architectures. Furthermore, technologies that allow the development of unnatural polycyclic peptide ligands are discussed. Recent application of these technologies has generated promising results, suggesting that polycyclic peptide therapeutics could potentially be developed for a broad range of diseases. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Topical peptides as cosmeceuticals.

    PubMed

    Pai, Varadraj Vasant; Bhandari, Prasana; Shukla, Pankaj

    2017-01-01

    Peptides are known to have diverse biological roles, most prominently as signaling/regulatory molecules in a broad variety of physiological processes including defense, immunity, stress, growth, homeostasis and reproduction. These aspects have been used in the field of dermatology and cosmetology to produce short, stable and synthetic peptides for extracellular matrix synthesis, pigmentation, innate immunity and inflammation. The evolution of peptides over the century, which started with the discovery of penicillin, has now extended to their usage as cosmeceuticals in recent years. Cosmeceutical peptides may act as signal modulators of the extracellular matrix component, as structural peptides, carrier peptides and neurotransmitter function modulators. Transdermal delivery of peptides can be made more effective by penetration enhancers, chemical modification or encapsulation of peptides. The advantages of using peptides as cosmeceuticals include their involvement in many physiological functions of the skin, their selectivity, their lack of immunogenicity and absence of premarket regulatory requirements for their use. However, there are disadvantages: clinical evidence for efficacy is often weak, absorption may be poor due to low lipophilicity, high molecular weight and binding to other ingredients, and prices can be quite high.

  15. The natriuretic peptides.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Gary F

    2004-03-01

    The natriuretic peptides are a family of widely distributed, but evolutionarily conserved, polypeptide mediators that exert a range of actions throughout the body. In cardiovascular homeostasis, the endocrine roles of the cardiac-derived atrial and B-type natriuretic peptide (ANP and BNP) in regulating central fluid volume and blood pressure have been recognised for two decades. However, there is a growing realisation that natriuretic peptide actions go far beyond their volume regulating effects. These pleiotropic actions include local (autocrine/paracrine) regulatory actions of ANP and BNP within the heart, and of another natriuretic peptide, CNP, within the vessel wall. Effects on function and growth of the local tissue environment are likely to be of great importance, especially in disease states where tissue and circulating levels of ANP and BNP rise markedly. At present, the relevance of other natriuretic peptides (notably uroguanylin and DNP) to human physiology and pathology remain uncertain. Other articles in this issue of Basic Research in Cardiology review the molecular physiology of natriuretic peptide signalling, with a particular emphasis on the lessons from genetically targetted mice; the vascular activity of natriuretic peptides; the regulation and roles of natriuretic peptides in ischaemic myocardium; and the diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic roles of natriuretic peptides in heart failure.

  16. Assaying peptide translocation by the peptide transporter TAP.

    PubMed

    Jongsma, Marlieke L M; Neefjes, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    MHC class I molecules display peptides at the cell surface that are mostly derived from cytosolic or nuclear proteins. Since peptide loading of MHC class I molecules occurs in the ER lumen, cytosolic peptides have to pass the ER membrane. The peptide transporter TAP translocates peptides over this ER membrane which is critical for successful MHC class I antigen presentation. How peptide translocation by TAP can be assayed and inhibitors of chemical or viral origin can be identified, will be described here.

  17. Bacteriocin Inducer Peptides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Novel peptides produced by bacteriocin-producing bacteria stimulate the production of bacteriocins in vitro. The producer bacteria are cultured in the presence of a novel inducer bacteria and a peptide having a carboxy terminal sequence of VKGLT in order to achieve an increase in bacteriocin produc...

  18. Peptide bioregulators inhibit apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V K; Kvetnoii, I M

    2000-12-01

    The effects of peptide bioregulators epithalon and vilon on the dynamics of irradiation-induced apoptotic death of spleen lymphocytes in rats indicate that these agents inhibit physiologically programmed cell death. The antiapoptotic effect of vilon was more pronounced, which corroborates the concept on tissue-specific effect of peptide bioregulators.

  19. Antimicrobial Peptides from Fish

    PubMed Central

    Masso-Silva, Jorge A.; Diamond, Gill

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found widely distributed through Nature, and participate in the innate host defense of each species. Fish are a great source of these peptides, as they express all of the major classes of AMPs, including defensins, cathelicidins, hepcidins, histone-derived peptides, and a fish-specific class of the cecropin family, called piscidins. As with other species, the fish peptides exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, killing both fish and human pathogens. They are also immunomodulatory, and their genes are highly responsive to microbes and innate immuno-stimulatory molecules. Recent research has demonstrated that some of the unique properties of fish peptides, including their ability to act even in very high salt concentrations, make them good potential targets for development as therapeutic antimicrobials. Further, the stimulation of their gene expression by exogenous factors could be useful in preventing pathogenic microbes in aquaculture. PMID:24594555

  20. GASTRIN-RELEASING PEPTIDE RECEPTOR IN BREAST CANCER MEDIATES CELLULAR MIGRATION AND INTERLEUKIN-8 EXPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Celia; Ives, Kirk; Hellmich, Helen L.; Townsend, Courtney M.; Hellmich, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast cancers aberrantly express gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) hormone and its cognate receptor, gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R). Experimental evidence suggests that bombesin (BBS), the pharmacological homologue of GRP, promotes breast cancer growth and progression. The contribution of GRP-R to other poor prognostic indicators in breast cancer, such as the expression of the EGF-R family of growth factors, and hormone insensitivity is unknown. Materials and Methods Two estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer cell lines were used. MDA-MB-231 overexpress both EGFR and GRPR, whereas SK-BR-3 cells express EGF-R but lack GRP-R. Cellular proliferation was assessed by Coulter counter. Chemotactic migration was performed using Transwell chambers and the migrated cells were quantified. Northern blot and real-time PCR were used to evaluate if pro-angiogenic factor interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA expression. Results In MDA-MB-231 cells, GRP-R and EGF-R synergize to regulate cell migration, IL-8 expression, but not cell proliferation. In SK-BR-3 cells, ectopic expression of GRP-R was sufficient to increase migration and IL-8 mRNA. Conclusions These data suggest relevant roles for GRP-R in ER-negative breast cancer progression. Future mechanistic studies to define the molecular role of GRP-R in breast cancer metastasis provide novel targets for the treatment of ER-negative breast cancers. PMID:19631337

  1. Cyclic Opioid Peptides.

    PubMed

    Remesic, Michael; Lee, Yeon Sun; Hruby, Victor J

    2016-01-01

    For decades the opioid receptors have been an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of pain. Since the first discovery of enkephalin, approximately a dozen endogenous opioid peptides have been known to produce opioid activity and analgesia, but their therapeutics have been limited mainly due to low blood brain barrier penetration and poor resistance to proteolytic degradation. One versatile approach to overcome these drawbacks is the cyclization of linear peptides to cyclic peptides with constrained topographical structure. Compared to their linear parents, cyclic analogs exhibit better metabolic stability, lower offtarget toxicity, and improved bioavailability. Extensive structure-activity relationship studies have uncovered promising compounds for the treatment of pain as well as further elucidate structural elements required for selective opioid receptor activity. The benefits that come with employing cyclization can be further enhanced through the generation of polycyclic derivatives. Opioid ligands generally have a short peptide chain and thus the realm of polycyclic peptides has yet to be explored. In this review, a brief history of designing ligands for the opioid receptors, including classic linear and cyclic ligands, is discussed along with recent approaches and successes of cyclic peptide ligands for the receptors. Various scaffolds and approaches to improve bioavailability are elaborated and concluded with a discourse towards polycyclic peptides.

  2. Targeted Peptide Specificity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-31

    the conformation of small natural peptide ligands. In the last year two peptides were investigaýed by 2D-NMR,(j2.- conotoxin SI, which targets to the...targets. Although these venoms are very complex, we have focused on three groups of peptide toxins, the a, j and w- conotoxins which target to nicotinic...grant period are summarized below.) In addition, the 2D-NMR work is continuing and in addition to examining one of the conotoxins specific for the

  3. Expression of the pro-angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-8/CXCL8 by human breast carcinomas is responsive to nutrient deprivation and endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Marjon, Philip L; Bobrovnikova-Marjon, Ekaterina V; Abcouwer, Steve F

    2004-01-01

    Background The expression of pro-angiogenic cytokines, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-8/CXCL8 (IL-8), plays an important role in tumor growth and metastasis. Low oxygen tension within poorly-vascularized tumors is thought to be the prime stimulus causing the secretion of VEGF. The expression of IL-8 by solid tumors is thought to be primarily due to intrinsic influences, such as constitutive activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). However, VEGF expression is responsive to glucose deprivation, suggesting that low concentrations of nutrients other than oxygen may play a role in triggering the pro-angiogenic phenotype. Glucose deprivation causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and alters gene expression through the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway. A branch of the UPR, known as the ER overload response (EOR), can cause NF-κB activation. Thus, we hypothesized that treatments that cause ER stress and deprivation of other nutrients, such as amino acids, would trigger the expression of angiogenic cytokines by breast cancer cell lines. Results We found that glutamine deprivation and treatment with a chemical inducer of ER stress (tunicamycin) caused a marked induction of the secretion of both VEGF and IL-8 protein by a human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (TSE cells). Glutamine deprivation, glucose deprivation and several chemical inducers of ER stress increased VEGF and IL-8 mRNA expression in TSE and other breast cancer cell lines cultured under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions, though hypoxia generally diminished the effects of glucose deprivation. Of all amino acids tested, ambient glutamine availability had the largest effect on VEGF and IL-8 mRNA expression. The induction of VEGF mRNA expression, but not IL-8, was sustained and closely corresponded with the upregulated expression of the ER stress-responsive genes glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and growth arrest and DNA damage inducible gene 153

  4. Anti-antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Lloyd; Lamarre, Baptiste; Diu, Ting; Ravi, Jascindra; Judge, Peter J.; Temple, Adam; Carr, Matthew; Cerasoli, Eleonora; Su, Bo; Jenkinson, Howard F.; Martyna, Glenn; Crain, Jason; Watts, Anthony; Ryadnov, Maxim G.

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial or host defense peptides are innate immune regulators found in all multicellular organisms. Many of them fold into membrane-bound α-helices and function by causing cell wall disruption in microorganisms. Herein we probe the possibility and functional implications of antimicrobial antagonism mediated by complementary coiled-coil interactions between antimicrobial peptides and de novo designed antagonists: anti-antimicrobial peptides. Using sequences from native helical families such as cathelicidins, cecropins, and magainins we demonstrate that designed antagonists can co-fold with antimicrobial peptides into functionally inert helical oligomers. The properties and function of the resulting assemblies were studied in solution, membrane environments, and in bacterial culture by a combination of chiroptical and solid-state NMR spectroscopies, microscopy, bioassays, and molecular dynamics simulations. The findings offer a molecular rationale for anti-antimicrobial responses with potential implications for antimicrobial resistance. PMID:23737519

  5. Insulin C-peptide

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003701.htm Insulin C-peptide test To use the sharing features ... a product that is created when the hormone insulin is produced and released into the body. The ...

  6. Peptide Optical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Handelman, Amir; Apter, Boris; Shostak, Tamar; Rosenman, Gil

    2017-02-01

    Small-scale optical devices, designed and fabricated onto one dielectric substrate, create integrated optical chip like their microelectronic analogues. These photonic circuits, based on diverse physical phenomena such as light-matter interaction, propagation of electromagnetic waves in a thin dielectric material, nonlinear and electro-optical effects, allow transmission, distribution, modulation, and processing of optical signals in optical communication systems, chemical and biological sensors, and more. The key component of these optical circuits providing both optical processing and photonic interconnections is light waveguides. Optical confinement and transmitting of the optical waves inside the waveguide material are possible due to the higher refractive index of the waveguides in comparison with their surroundings. In this work, we propose a novel field of bionanophotonics based on a new concept of optical waveguiding in synthetic elongated peptide nanostructures composed of ordered peptide dipole biomolecules. New technology of controllable deposition of peptide optical waveguiding structures by nanofountain pen technique is developed. Experimental studies of refractive index, optical transparency, and linear and nonlinear waveguiding in out-of-plane and in-plane diphenylalanine peptide nanotubes have been conducted. Optical waveguiding phenomena in peptide structures are simulated by the finite difference time domain method. The advantages of this new class of bio-optical waveguides are high refractive index contrast, wide spectral range of optical transparency, large optical nonlinearity, and electro-optical effect, making them promising for new applications in integrated multifunctional photonic circuits. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Melanins from opioid peptides.

    PubMed

    Rosei, M A

    1996-12-01

    Opioid peptides and other Tyr-NH2-terminal peptides are substrates in vitro for mushroom and sepia tyrosine, giving rise to synthetic melanins retaining the peptide moiety (opiomelanins). The melanopeptides are characterized by a total solubility in hydrophylic solvents at neutral and basic pH. Opioid peptides (enkephalins, endorphins, and esorphins), if oxidized by tyrosinase in the presence of Dopa, are easily incorporated into Dopa-melanin, producing mixed-type pigments that can also be solubilized in hydrophylic solvents. Melanins derived from opioid peptides exhibit paramagnetism, as evidenced by an EPR spectrum identical to that of Dopa-melanin. However, the presence of the linked peptide chain is able to influence dramatically the electron transfer properties and the oxidizing behaviour of the melanopeptides, so that whereas Tyr-Gly-melanin appears to behave as Dopa-melanin, Enk-melanin does not exhibit any oxidizing activity. Opiomelanins are characterized by a peculiar UV-VIS spectrum; that is, by the presence of a distinct peak (330 nm) that disappears upon chemical treatment by acid hydrolysis. Opiomelanins are stable pigments at neutral and basic pH in the dark, whereas the addition of H2O2 leads to a 15% degradation. Under stimulated solar illumination, opiomelanins are more easily destroyed with respect to Dopa-melanin, with increasing degradation when exposed to increased hydrogen peroxide concentrations and more alkaline pH. Some speculations on the possible existence and role of opiomelanins have been outlined.

  8. Linear Peptides in Intracellular Applications.

    PubMed

    Zuconelli, Cristiane R; Brock, Roland; Adjobo-Hermans, Merel J W

    2017-01-01

    To this point, efforts to develop therapeutic peptides for intracellular applications were guided by the perception that unmodified linear peptides are highly unstable and therefore structural modifications are required to reduce proteolytic breakdown. Largely, this concept is a consequence of the fact that most research on intracellular peptides hitherto has focused on peptide degradation in the context of antigen processing, rather than on peptide stability. Interestingly, inside cells, endogenous peptides lacking any chemical modifications to enhance stability escape degradation to the point that they may even modulate intracellular signaling pathways. In addition, many unmodified synthetic peptides designed to interfere with intracellular signaling, following introduction into cells, have the expected activity demonstrating that biologically relevant concentrations can be reached. This review provides an overview of results and techniques relating to the exploration and application of linear, unmodified peptides. After an introduction to intracellular peptide turnover, the review mentions examples for synthetic peptides as modulators of intracellular signaling, introduces endogenous peptides with bioactivity, techniques to measure peptide stability, and peptide delivery. Future experiments should elucidate the rules needed to predict promising peptide candidates. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Electron transfer in peptides.

    PubMed

    Shah, Afzal; Adhikari, Bimalendu; Martic, Sanela; Munir, Azeema; Shahzad, Suniya; Ahmad, Khurshid; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2015-02-21

    In this review, we discuss the factors that influence electron transfer in peptides. We summarize experimental results from solution and surface studies and highlight the ongoing debate on the mechanistic aspects of this fundamental reaction. Here, we provide a balanced approach that remains unbiased and does not favor one mechanistic view over another. Support for a putative hopping mechanism in which an electron transfers in a stepwise manner is contrasted with experimental results that support electron tunneling or even some form of ballistic transfer or a pathway transfer for an electron between donor and acceptor sites. In some cases, experimental evidence suggests that a change in the electron transfer mechanism occurs as a result of donor-acceptor separation. However, this common understanding of the switch between tunneling and hopping as a function of chain length is not sufficient for explaining electron transfer in peptides. Apart from chain length, several other factors such as the extent of the secondary structure, backbone conformation, dipole orientation, the presence of special amino acids, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamic properties of a peptide also influence the rate and mode of electron transfer in peptides. Electron transfer plays a key role in physical, chemical and biological systems, so its control is a fundamental task in bioelectrochemical systems, the design of peptide based sensors and molecular junctions. Therefore, this topic is at the heart of a number of biological and technological processes and thus remains of vital interest.

  10. Cyclization in opioid peptides.

    PubMed

    Piekielna, Justyna; Perlikowska, Renata; Gach, Katarzyna; Janecka, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Endogenous opioid peptides have been studied extensively as potential therapeutics for the treatment of pain. The major problems of using natural opioid peptides as drug candidates are their poor receptor specificity, metabolic instability and inability to reach the brain after systemic administration. A lot of synthetic efforts have been made to opioid analogs with improved pharmacological properties. One important structural modification leading to such analogs is cyclization of linear sequences. Intramolecular cyclization has been shown to improve biological properties of various bioactive peptides. Cyclization reduces conformational freedom responsible for the simultaneous activation of two or more receptors, increases metabolic stability and lipophilicity which may result in a longer half-life and easier penetration across biological membranes. This review deals with various strategies that have been employed to synthesize cyclic analogs of opioid peptides. Discussed are such bridging bonds as amide and amine linkages, sulfur-containing bonds, including monosulfide, disulfide and dithioether bridges, bismethylene bonds, monosulfide bridges of lanthionine and, finally, carbonyl and guanidine linkages. Opioid affinities and activities of cyclic analogs are given and compared with linear opioid peptides. Analgesic activities of analogs evaluated in the in vivo pain tests are also discussed.

  11. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    PubMed Central

    Tam, James P.; Wang, Shujing; Wong, Ka H.; Tan, Wei Liang

    2015-01-01

    Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic), lipid transfer proteins, α-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms. PMID:26580629

  12. Peptides in oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Lucchese, Alberta; Guida, Agostino; Petruzzi, Massimo; Capone, Giovanni; Laino, Luigi; Serpico, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    The oral cavity is home to numerous viruses and micro-organisms recognized as having a role in various oral diseases as well as in infections in other parts of the body. Indeed, in general a microbial infection underlies or is believed to underlie the ample spectrum of oral diseases, from tooth enamel decay to periodontal lesions, from candidiasis to virus-induced oral squamous cell carcinomas, and bullous autoimmune oral disorders. This clinico-pathological context stresses the need of targeted therapies to specifically kill infectious agents in a complex environment such as the oral cavity, and explains the current interest in exploring peptide-based therapeutic approaches in oral and dental research. Here, we review the therapeutic potential of antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37, beta defensins, adrenomedullin, histatins, and of various peptides modulating gene expression and immuno-biological interaction(s) in oral diseases.

  13. Molecular modeling of peptides.

    PubMed

    Kuczera, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a review of the field of molecular modeling of peptides. The main focus is on atomistic modeling with molecular mechanics potentials. The description of peptide conformations and solvation through potentials is discussed. Several important computer simulation methods are briefly introduced, including molecular dynamics, accelerated sampling approaches such as replica-exchange and metadynamics, free energy simulations and kinetic network models like Milestoning. Examples of recent applications for predictions of structure, kinetics, and interactions of peptides with complex environments are described. The reliability of current simulation methods is analyzed by comparison of computational predictions obtained using different models with each other and with experimental data. A brief discussion of coarse-grained modeling and future directions is also presented.

  14. REGULATION OF ENDOTHELIAL CELL ACTIVATION AND ANGIOGENESIS BY INJECTABLE PEPTIDE NANOFIBERS

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hongkwan; Balaji, Swathi; Sheikh, Abdul Q.; Hurley, Jennifer R.; Tian, Ye F.; Collier, Joel H.; Crombleholme, Timothy M.; Narmoneva, Daria A.

    2011-01-01

    RAD16-II peptide nanofibers are promising for vascular tissue engineering and were shown to enhance angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, although the mechanism remains unknown. We hypothesized that the pro-angiogenic effect of RAD16-II results from low-affinity integrin-dependent interactions of microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) with RAD motifs. Mouse MVECs were cultured on RAD16-II with or without integrin and MAPK/ERK pathway inhibitors, and angiogenic responses were quantified. Results were validated in vivo using mouse diabetic wound healing model with impaired neovascularization. RAD16-II stimulated spontaneous capillary morphogenesis, increased β3 integrin phosphorylation and VEGF expression in MVECs. These responses were abrogated in the presence of β3 and MEK inhibitors or on the control peptide without RAD motifs. Wide-spectrum integrin inhibitor echistatin completely abolished RAD16-II-mediated capillary morphogenesis in vitro and neovascularization and VEGF expression in the wound in vivo. Addition of the RGD motif to RAD16-II did not change nanofiber architecture or mechanical properties, but resulted in significant decrease in capillary morphogenesis. Overall, these results suggest that low-affinity non-specific interactions between cells and RAD motifs can trigger angiogenic responses via phosphorylation of β3 integrin and MAPK/ERK pathway, indicating that low-affinity sequences can be used to functionalize bio-compatible materials for the regulation of cell migration and angiogenesis, thus expanding the current pool of available motifs that can be used for such functionalization. Incorporation of RAD or similar motifs into protein engineered or hybrid peptide scaffolds may represent a novel strategy for vascular tissue engineering and will further enhance design opportunities for new scaffolds materials. PMID:21925628

  15. Epitope peptides and immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Soichi

    2007-02-01

    Allergic diseases affect atopic individuals, who synthesize specific Immunoglobulins E (IgE) to environmental allergens, usually proteins or glycoproteins. These allergens include grass and tree pollens, indoor allergens such as house dust mites and animal dander, and various foods. Because allergen-specific IgE antibodies are the main effector molecules in the immune response to allergens, many studies have focused on the identification of IgE-binding epitopes (called B cell epitopes), specific and minimum regions of allergen molecules that binds to IgE. Our initial studies have provided evidence that only four to five amino acid residues are enough to comprise an epitope, since pentapeptide QQQPP in wheat glutenin is minimally required for IgE binding. Afterwards, various kinds of B cell epitope structures have been clarified. Such information contributes greatly not only to the elucidation of the etiology of allergy, but also to the development of strategies for the treatment and prevention of allergy. Allergen-specific T cells also play an important role in allergy and are obvious targets for intervention in the disease. Currently, the principle approach is to modify B cell epitopes to prevent IgE binding while preserving T cell epitopes to retain the capacity for immunotherapy. There is mounting evidence that the administration of peptide(s) containing immunodominant T cell epitopes from an allergen can induce T cell nonresponsiveness (immunotherapy). There have been clinical studies of peptide immunotherapy performed, the most promising being for bee venom sensitivity. Clinical trials of immunotherapy for cat allergen peptide have also received attention. An alternative strategy for the generation of an effective but hypoallergenic preparation for immunotherapy is to modify T cell epitope peptides by, for example, single amino acid substitution. In this article, I will present an overview of epitopes related to allergic disease, particularly stress on

  16. Multidimensional signatures in antimicrobial peptides

    PubMed Central

    Yount, Nannette Y.; Yeaman, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    Conventional analyses distinguish between antimicrobial peptides by differences in amino acid sequence. Yet structural paradigms common to broader classes of these molecules have not been established. The current analyses examined the potential conservation of structural themes in antimicrobial peptides from evolutionarily diverse organisms. Using proteomics, an antimicrobial peptide signature was discovered to integrate stereospecific sequence patterns and a hallmark three-dimensional motif. This striking multidimensional signature is conserved among disulfide-containing antimicrobial peptides spanning biological kingdoms, and it transcends motifs previously limited to defined peptide subclasses. Experimental data validating this model enabled the identification of previously unrecognized antimicrobial activity in peptides of known identity. The multidimensional signature model provides a unifying structural theme in broad classes of antimicrobial peptides, will facilitate discovery of antimicrobial peptides as yet unknown, and offers insights into the evolution of molecular determinants in these and related host defense effector molecules. PMID:15118082

  17. Related impurities in peptide medicines.

    PubMed

    D'Hondt, Matthias; Bracke, Nathalie; Taevernier, Lien; Gevaert, Bert; Verbeke, Frederick; Wynendaele, Evelien; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2014-12-01

    Peptides are an increasingly important group of pharmaceuticals, positioned between classic small organic molecules and larger bio-molecules such as proteins. Currently, the peptide drug market is growing twice as fast as other drug markets, illustrating the increasing clinical as well as economical impact of this medicine group. Most peptides today are manufactured by solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). This review will provide a structured overview of the most commonly observed peptide-related impurities in peptide medicines, encompassing the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API or drug substance) as well as the finished drug products. Not only is control of these peptide-related impurities and degradants critical for the already approved and clinically used peptide-drugs, these impurities also possess the capability of greatly influencing initial functionality studies during early drug discovery phases, possibly resulting in erroneous conclusions. The first group of peptide-related impurities is SPPS-related: deletion and insertion of amino acids are related to inefficient Fmoc-deprotection and excess use of amino acid reagents, respectively. Fmoc-deprotection can cause racemization of amino acid residues and thus diastereomeric impurities. Inefficient deprotection of amino acid side chains results into peptide-protection adducts. Furthermore, unprotected side chains can react with a variety of reagents used in the synthesis. Oxidation of amino acid side chains and dimeric-to-oligomeric impurities were also observed. Unwanted peptide counter ions such as trifluoroacetate, originating from the SPPS itself or from additional purification treatments, may also be present in the final peptide product. Contamination of the desired peptide product by other unrelated peptides was also seen, pointing out the lack of appropriate GMP. The second impurity group results from typical peptide degradation mechanisms such as β-elimination, diketopiperazine, pyroglutamate

  18. Brain Peptides and Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arehart-Treichel, Joan

    1976-01-01

    Proteins isolated from the brain and used as drugs can improve and apparently even transfer mental states and behavior. Much of the pioneering work and recent research with humans and animals is reviewed and crucial questions that are being posed about the psychologically active peptides are related. (BT)

  19. Peptide -- Silica Hybrid Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altunbas, Aysegul; Sharma, Nikhil; Nagarkar, Radhika; Schneider, Joel; Pochan, Darrin

    2010-03-01

    In this study, a bio-inspired route was used to fabricate scaffolds that display hierarchical organization of an inorganic layer around an organic self-assembled peptide fibril template. The 20 amino acid peptide used in this study intramolecular folds into a beta-hairpin conformation on addition of a desired solution stimulus. This intramolecular folding is followed by intermolecular self-assembly of the peptides into a three dimensional network of entangled fibrils rich in beta-sheet with a high density of lysine groups exposed on the fibril-surfaces. The lysine-rich surface chemistry was utilized to create a silica shell around the fibrils. The mineralization process of the fibrils results in a rigid, porous silica network that retains the microscale and nanoscale structure of the peptide fibril network. Structural characterization via Transmission Electron Microscopy, cryogenic-Scanning Electron Microscopy, mechanical characterization via oscillatory rheology, Small Angle X-ray and Neutron Scattering of the silicified hydrogels will be presented.

  20. Bioinformatic identification of plant peptides.

    PubMed

    Lease, Kevin A; Walker, John C

    2010-01-01

    Plant peptides play a number of important roles in defence, development and many other aspects of plant physiology. Identifying additional peptide sequences provides the starting point to investigate their function using molecular, genetic or biochemical techniques. Due to their small size, identifying peptide sequences may not succeed using the default bioinformatic approaches that work well for average-sized proteins. There are two general scenarios related to bioinformatic identification of peptides to be discussed in this paper. In the first scenario, one already has the sequence of a plant peptide and is trying to find more plant peptides with some sequence similarity to the starting peptide. To do this, the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) is employed, with the parameters adjusted to be more favourable for identifying potential peptide matches. A second scenario involves trying to identify plant peptides without using sequence similarity searches to known plant peptides. In this approach, features such as protein size and the presence of a cleavable amino-terminal signal peptide are used to screen annotated proteins. A variation of this method can be used to screen for unannotated peptides from genomic sequences. Bioinformatic resources related to Arabidopsis thaliana will be used to illustrate these approaches.

  1. Synthesis of peptide analogues using the multipin peptide synthesis method.

    PubMed

    Valerio, R M; Benstead, M; Bray, A M; Campbell, R A; Maeji, N J

    1991-08-15

    Modification of the multipin peptide synthesis method which allows the simultaneous synthesis of large numbers of different peptide analogues is described. Peptides were assembled on polyethylene pins derivatized with a 4-(beta-alanyloxymethyl)benzoate (beta-Ala-HMB) handle. For comparative purposes, peptides were also assembled on the diketopiperazine-forming handle N epsilon-(beta-alanyl)lysylprolyloxylactate. In model studies it was demonstrated that beta-Ala-HMB-linked peptides were cleaved from polyethylene pins with dilute sodium hydroxide or 4% methylamine/water to yield analogues with beta-Ala-free acid (beta-Ala-CO2H) and beta-Ala-methylamide (beta-Ala-CONHCH3), respectively. To assess the suitability of this approach for T-cell determinant analysis, analogues of a known T-cell determinant were synthesized with the various C-terminal endings. Peptides were characterized by amino acid analysis and fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry. HPLC of the crude cleaved peptides indicated that 22 of the 24 peptides were greater than 95% pure. These crude peptide solutions were nontoxic in sensitive cell culture assays without further purification. All three cleavage procedures gave comparable activities in T-cell proliferation assays. These results demonstrate the potential of the multipin peptide synthesis method for the production of large numbers of different peptide analogues.

  2. Biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes with phage displayed peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaminathan, Swathi; Cui, Yue

    2016-09-01

    The development of a general approach for the biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes (PNTs) could open up existing opportunities in both fundamental studies as well as a variety of applications. PNTs are spontaneously assembled organic nanostructures made from peptides. Phage display has emerged as a powerful approach for identifying selective peptide binding motifs. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the biochemical functionalization of PNTs via peptides identified from a phage display peptide library. The phage-displayed peptides are shown to recognize PNTs. These advances further allow for the development of bifunctional peptides for the capture of bacteria and the self-assembly of silver particles onto PNTs. We anticipate that these results could provide significant opportunities for using PNTs in both fundamental studies and practical applications, including sensors and biosensors nanoelectronics, energy storage devices, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  3. A Peptide Filtering Relation Quantifies MHC Class I Peptide Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Leonard D.; Howarth, Mark; Cardelli, Luca; Emmott, Stephen; Elliott, Tim; Werner, Joern M.

    2011-01-01

    Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I molecules enable cytotoxic T lymphocytes to destroy virus-infected or cancerous cells, thereby preventing disease progression. MHC class I molecules provide a snapshot of the contents of a cell by binding to protein fragments arising from intracellular protein turnover and presenting these fragments at the cell surface. Competing fragments (peptides) are selected for cell-surface presentation on the basis of their ability to form a stable complex with MHC class I, by a process known as peptide optimization. A better understanding of the optimization process is important for our understanding of immunodominance, the predominance of some T lymphocyte specificities over others, which can determine the efficacy of an immune response, the danger of immune evasion, and the success of vaccination strategies. In this paper we present a dynamical systems model of peptide optimization by MHC class I. We incorporate the chaperone molecule tapasin, which has been shown to enhance peptide optimization to different extents for different MHC class I alleles. Using a combination of published and novel experimental data to parameterize the model, we arrive at a relation of peptide filtering, which quantifies peptide optimization as a function of peptide supply and peptide unbinding rates. From this relation, we find that tapasin enhances peptide unbinding to improve peptide optimization without significantly delaying the transit of MHC to the cell surface, and differences in peptide optimization across MHC class I alleles can be explained by allele-specific differences in peptide binding. Importantly, our filtering relation may be used to dynamically predict the cell surface abundance of any number of competing peptides by MHC class I alleles, providing a quantitative basis to investigate viral infection or disease at the cellular level. We exemplify this by simulating optimization of the distribution of peptides derived from Human

  4. Preconditioning of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells with deferoxamine increases the production of pro-angiogenic, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory factors: Potential application in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Oses, Carolina; Olivares, Belén; Ezquer, Marcelo; Acosta, Cristian; Bosch, Paul; Donoso, Macarena; Léniz, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is one of the most frequent and troublesome complications of diabetes mellitus. Evidence from diabetic animal models and diabetic patients suggests that reduced availability of neuroprotective and pro-angiogenic factors in the nerves in combination with a chronic pro-inflammatory microenvironment and high level of oxidative stress, contribute to the pathogenesis of DN. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are of great interest as therapeutic agents for regenerative purposes, since they can secrete a broad range of cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory factors. Therefore, the use of the MSC secretome may represent a promising approach for DN treatment. Recent data indicate that the paracrine potential of MSCs could be boosted by preconditioning these cells with an environmental or pharmacological stimulus, enhancing their therapeutic efficacy. In the present study, we observed that the preconditioning of human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AD-MSCs) with 150μM or 400μM of the iron chelator deferoxamine (DFX) for 48 hours, increased the abundance of the hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) in a concentration dependent manner, without affecting MSC morphology and survival. Activation of HIF-1α led to the up-regulation of the mRNA levels of pro-angiogenic factors like vascular endothelial growth factor alpha and angiopoietin 1. Furthermore this preconditioning increased the expression of potent neuroprotective factors, including nerve growth factor, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3, and cytokines with anti-inflammatory activity like IL4 and IL5. Additionally, we observed that these molecules, which could also be used as therapeutics, were also increased in the secretome of MSCs preconditioned with DFX compared to the secretome obtained from non-preconditioned cells. Moreover, DFX preconditioning significantly increased the total antioxidant capacity of the MSC secretome and they showed neuroprotective effects when

  5. Preconditioning of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells with deferoxamine increases the production of pro-angiogenic, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory factors: Potential application in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Oses, Carolina; Olivares, Belén; Ezquer, Marcelo; Acosta, Cristian; Bosch, Paul; Donoso, Macarena; Léniz, Patricio; Ezquer, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is one of the most frequent and troublesome complications of diabetes mellitus. Evidence from diabetic animal models and diabetic patients suggests that reduced availability of neuroprotective and pro-angiogenic factors in the nerves in combination with a chronic pro-inflammatory microenvironment and high level of oxidative stress, contribute to the pathogenesis of DN. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are of great interest as therapeutic agents for regenerative purposes, since they can secrete a broad range of cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory factors. Therefore, the use of the MSC secretome may represent a promising approach for DN treatment. Recent data indicate that the paracrine potential of MSCs could be boosted by preconditioning these cells with an environmental or pharmacological stimulus, enhancing their therapeutic efficacy. In the present study, we observed that the preconditioning of human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AD-MSCs) with 150μM or 400μM of the iron chelator deferoxamine (DFX) for 48 hours, increased the abundance of the hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) in a concentration dependent manner, without affecting MSC morphology and survival. Activation of HIF-1α led to the up-regulation of the mRNA levels of pro-angiogenic factors like vascular endothelial growth factor alpha and angiopoietin 1. Furthermore this preconditioning increased the expression of potent neuroprotective factors, including nerve growth factor, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3, and cytokines with anti-inflammatory activity like IL4 and IL5. Additionally, we observed that these molecules, which could also be used as therapeutics, were also increased in the secretome of MSCs preconditioned with DFX compared to the secretome obtained from non-preconditioned cells. Moreover, DFX preconditioning significantly increased the total antioxidant capacity of the MSC secretome and they showed neuroprotective effects when

  6. Concepts for Biologically Active Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Kastin, Abba J.; Pan, Weihong

    2012-01-01

    Here we review a unique aspect of CNS research on biologically active peptides that started against a background of prevalent dogmas but ended by exerting considerable influence on the field. During the course of refuting some doctrines, we introduced several concepts that were unconventional and paradigm-shifting at the time. We showed that (1) hypothalamic peptides can act ‘up’ on the brain as well as ‘down’ on the pituitary, (2) peripheral peptides can affect the brain, (3) peptides can cross the blood-brain barrier, (4) the actions of peptides can persist longer than their half-lives in blood, (5) perinatal administration of peptides can exert actions persisting into adulthood, (6) a single peptide can have more than one action, (7) dose-response relationships of peptides need not be linear, (8) the brain produces antiopiate as well as opiate peptides, (9) there is a selective high affinity endogenous peptide ligand for the mu-opiate receptor, (10) a peptide’s name does not restrict its effects, and (11) astrocytes assume an active role in response to metabolic disturbance and hyperleptinemia. The evolving questions in our laboratories reflect the diligent effort of the neuropeptide community to identify the roles of peptides in the CNS. The next decade is expected to see greater progress in the following areas: (a) interactions of peptides with other molecules in the CNS; (b) peptide involvement in cell-cell interactions; and (c) peptides in neuropsychiatric, autoimmune, and neurodegenerative diseases. The development of peptidomics and gene silencing approaches will expedite the formation of many new concepts in a new era. PMID:20726835

  7. Avian host defense peptides.

    PubMed

    Cuperus, Tryntsje; Coorens, Maarten; van Dijk, Albert; Haagsman, Henk P

    2013-11-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are important effector molecules of the innate immune system of vertebrates. These antimicrobial peptides are also present in invertebrates, plants and fungi. HDPs display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and fulfill an important role in the first line of defense of many organisms. It is becoming increasingly clear that in the animal kingdom the functions of HDPs are not confined to direct antimicrobial actions. Research in mammals has indicated that HDPs have many immunomodulatory functions and are also involved in other physiological processes ranging from development to wound healing. During the past five years our knowledge about avian HDPs has increased considerably. This review addresses our current knowledge on the evolution, regulation and biological functions of HDPs of birds.

  8. Peptide mass fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Thiede, Bernd; Höhenwarter, Wolfgang; Krah, Alexander; Mattow, Jens; Schmid, Monika; Schmidt, Frank; Jungblut, Peter R

    2005-03-01

    Peptide mass fingerprinting by MALDI-MS and sequencing by tandem mass spectrometry have evolved into the major methods for identification of proteins following separation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE or liquid chromatography. One main technological goal of proteome analyses beside high sensitivity and automation was the comprehensive analysis of proteins. Therefore, the protein species level with the essential information on co- and post-translational modifications must be achieved. The power of peptide mass fingerprinting for protein identification was described here, as exemplified by the identification of protein species with high molecular masses (spectrin alpha and beta), low molecular masses (elongation factor EF-TU fragments), splice variants (alpha A crystallin), aggregates with disulfide bridges (alkylhydroperoxide reductase), and phosphorylated proteins (heat shock protein 27). Helpful tools for these analyses were the use of the minimal protein identifier concept and the software program MS-Screener to remove mass peaks assignable to contaminants and neighbor spots.

  9. Antimicrobial Peptides and Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Samantha; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Koon, Hon Wai

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important components of innate immunity. They are often expressed in response to colonic inflammation and infection. Over the last several years, the roles of several antimicrobial peptides have been explored. Gene expression of many AMPs (beta defensin HBD2-4 and cathelicidin) is induced in response to invasion of gut microbes into the mucosal barrier. Some AMPs are expressed in a constitutive manner (alpha defensin HD 5-6 and beta defensin HBD1), while others (defensin and bactericidal/permeability increasing protein BPI) are particularly associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) due to altered defensin expression or development of autoantibodies against Bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI). Various AMPs have different spectrum and strength of antimicrobial effects. Some may play important roles in modulating the colitis (cathelicidin) while others (lactoferrin, hepcidin) may represent biomarkers of disease activity. The use of AMPs for therapeutic purposes is still at an early stage of development. A few natural AMPs were shown to be able to modulate colitis when delivered intravenously or intracolonically (cathelicidin, elafin and SLPI) in mouse colitis models. New AMPs (synthetic or artificial non-human peptides) are being developed and may represent new therapeutic approaches against colitis. This review discusses the latest research developments in the AMP field with emphasis in innate immunity and pathophysiology of colitis. PMID:22950497

  10. Murine pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 23 induces the proangiogenic factors transforming-growth factor beta 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor a in cell types involved in vascular remodeling in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Julie A; Johnson, Briana L; Chen, Yongqing; Ha, Cam T; Dveksler, Gabriela S

    2008-12-01

    Haemochorial placentation is a unique physiological process in which the fetal trophoblast cells remodel the maternal decidual spiral arteries to establish the fetoplacental blood supply. Pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs) are members of the carcinoembryonic antigen family. PSGs are produced by the placenta of rodents and primates and are secreted into the bloodstream. PSG23 is one of 17 members of the murine PSG family (designated PSG16 to PSG32). Previous studies determined that PSGs have immunoregulatory functions due to their ability to modulate macrophage cytokine secretion. Here we show that recombinant PSG23 induces transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1, TGFB1, and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) in primary murine macrophages and the macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, we identified new cell types that responded to PSG23 treatment. Dendritic cells, endothelial cells, and trophoblasts, which are involved in maternal vasculature remodeling during pregnancy, secreted TGFB1 and VEGFA in response to PSG23. PSG23 showed cross-reactivity with human cells, including human monocytes and the trophoblast cell line, HTR-8/SVneo cells. We analyzed the binding of PSG23 to the tetraspanin CD9, the receptor for PSG17, and found that CD9 is not essential for PSG23 binding and activity in macrophages. Overall these studies show that PSGs can modulate the secretion of important proangiogenic factors, TGFB1 and VEGFA, by different cell types involved in the development of the placenta.

  11. [Hydrolysis of peptides by immobilized bacterial peptide hydrolases].

    PubMed

    Nekliudov, A D; Deniakina, E K

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of hydrolysis of a mixture of peptides with an enzyme from the bacterium Xanthomonas rubrilineans, displaying a peptidase activity and immobilized on aluminum oxide, was studied. Kinetic schemes and equations allowing for approaching quantitative description of peptide hydrolysis in complex mixtures containing free amino acids and peptides were obtained. It was demonstrated that as a result of hydrolysis, the content of free amino acids in hydrolysates decreased 2.5- to 3-fold and the molecular weight of the constituent peptides, 2-fold.

  12. Macrocyclization of Unprotected Peptide Isocyanates.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, Alexander A; Choo, Zi-Ning; Totaro, Kyle A; Pentelute, Bradley L

    2016-03-18

    A chemistry for the facile two-component macrocyclization of unprotected peptide isocyanates is described. Starting from peptides containing two glutamic acid γ-hydrazide residues, isocyanates can be readily accessed and cyclized with hydrazides of dicarboxylic acids. The choice of a nucleophilic linker allows for the facile modulation of biochemical properties of a macrocyclic peptide. Four cyclic NYAD-1 analogues were synthesized using the described method and displayed a range of biological activities.

  13. Antitumor Peptides from Marine Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Lan-Hong; Wang, Yue-Jun; Sheng, Jun; Wang, Fang; Zheng, Yuan; Lin, Xiu-Kun; Sun, Mi

    2011-01-01

    The biodiversity of the marine environment and the associated chemical diversity constitute a practically unlimited resource of new antitumor agents in the field of the development of marine bioactive substances. In this review, the progress on studies of antitumor peptides from marine sources is provided. The biological properties and mechanisms of action of different marine peptides are described; information about their molecular diversity is also presented. Novel peptides that induce apoptosis signal pathway, affect the tubulin-microtubule equilibrium and inhibit angiogenesis are presented in association with their pharmacological properties. It is intended to provide useful information for further research in the fields of marine antitumor peptides. PMID:22072999

  14. Improving Peptide Applications Using Nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Narayanaswamy, Radhika; Wang, Tao; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2016-01-01

    Peptides are being successfully used in various fields including therapy and drug delivery. With advancement in nanotechnology and targeted delivery carrier systems, suitable modification of peptides has enabled achievement of many desirable goals over-riding some of the major disadvantages associated with the delivery of peptides in vivo. Conjugation or physical encapsulation of peptides to various nanocarriers, such as liposomes, micelles and solid-lipid nanoparticles, has improved their in vivo performance multi-fold. The amenability of peptides to modification in chemistry and functionalization with suitable nanocarriers are very relevant aspects in their use and have led to the use of 'smart' nanoparticles with suitable linker chemistries that favor peptide targeting or release at the desired sites, minimizing off-target effects. This review focuses on how nanotechnology has been used to improve the number of peptide applications. The paper also focuses on the chemistry behind peptide conjugation to nanocarriers, the commonly employed linker chemistries and the several improvements that have already been achieved in the areas of peptide use with the help of nanotechnology.

  15. Peptides that influence membrane topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Gerard C. L.

    2014-03-01

    We examine the mechanism of a range of polypeptides that influence membrane topology, including antimicrobial peptides, cell penetrating peptides, viral fusion peptides, and apoptosis proteins, and show how a combination of geometry, coordination chemistry, and soft matter physics can be used to approach a unified understanding. We will also show how such peptides can impact biomedical problems such as auto-immune diseases (psoriasis, lupus), infectious diseases (viral and bacterial infections), and mitochondrial pathologies (under-regulated apoptosis leads to neurodegenerative diseases whereas over-regulated apoptosis leads to cancer.)

  16. The PeptideAtlas Project.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Eric W

    2010-01-01

    PeptideAtlas is a multi-species compendium of peptides observed with tandem mass spectrometry methods. Raw mass spectrometer output files are collected from the community and reprocessed through a uniform analysis and validation pipeline that continues to advance. The results are loaded into a database and the information derived from the raw data is returned to the community via several web-based data exploration tools. The PeptideAtlas resource is useful for experiment planning, improving genome annotation, and other data mining projects. PeptideAtlas has become especially useful for planning targeted proteomics experiments.

  17. Antitumor peptides from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lan-Hong; Wang, Yue-Jun; Sheng, Jun; Wang, Fang; Zheng, Yuan; Lin, Xiu-Kun; Sun, Mi

    2011-01-01

    The biodiversity of the marine environment and the associated chemical diversity constitute a practically unlimited resource of new antitumor agents in the field of the development of marine bioactive substances. In this review, the progress on studies of antitumor peptides from marine sources is provided. The biological properties and mechanisms of action of different marine peptides are described; information about their molecular diversity is also presented. Novel peptides that induce apoptosis signal pathway, affect the tubulin-microtubule equilibrium and inhibit angiogenesis are presented in association with their pharmacological properties. It is intended to provide useful information for further research in the fields of marine antitumor peptides.

  18. Biodiscovery of aluminum binding peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Bryn L.; Sarkes, Deborah A.; Finch, Amethist S.; Hurley, Margaret M.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra

    2013-05-01

    Cell surface peptide display systems are large and diverse libraries of peptides (7-15 amino acids) which are presented by a display scaffold hosted by a phage (virus), bacteria, or yeast cell. This allows the selfsustaining peptide libraries to be rapidly screened for high affinity binders to a given target of interest, and those binders quickly identified. Peptide display systems have traditionally been utilized in conjunction with organic-based targets, such as protein toxins or carbon nanotubes. However, this technology has been expanded for use with inorganic targets, such as metals, for biofabrication, hybrid material assembly and corrosion prevention. While most current peptide display systems employ viruses to host the display scaffold, we have recently shown that a bacterial host, Escherichia coli, displaying peptides in the ubiquitous, membrane protein scaffold eCPX can also provide specific peptide binders to an organic target. We have, for the first time, extended the use of this bacterial peptide display system for the biodiscovery of aluminum binding 15mer peptides. We will present the process of biopanning with macroscopic inorganic targets, binder enrichment, and binder isolation and discovery.

  19. Peptide Amyloid Surface Display

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Homomeric self-assembly of peptides into amyloid fibers is a feature of many diseases. A central role has been suggested for the lateral fiber surface affecting gains of toxic function. To investigate this, a protein scaffold that presents a discrete, parallel β-sheet surface for amyloid subdomains up to eight residues in length has been designed. Scaffolds that present the fiber surface of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) were prepared. The designs show sequence-specific surface effects apparent in that they gain the capacity to attenuate rates of IAPP self-assembly in solution and affect IAPP-induced toxicity in insulin-secreting cells. PMID:25541905

  20. Peptides and food intake.

    PubMed

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  1. Plant antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Nawrot, Robert; Barylski, Jakub; Nowicki, Grzegorz; Broniarczyk, Justyna; Buchwald, Waldemar; Goździcka-Józefiak, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a component of barrier defense system of plants. They have been isolated from roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves of a wide variety of species and have activities towards phytopathogens, as well as against bacteria pathogenic to humans. Thus, plant AMPs are considered as promising antibiotic compounds with important biotechnological applications. Plant AMPs are grouped into several families and share general features such as positive charge, the presence of disulfide bonds (which stabilize the structure), and the mechanism of action targeting outer membrane structures.

  2. Peptides and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  3. Recognition of Bacterial Signal Peptides by Mammalian Formyl Peptide Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bufe, Bernd; Schumann, Timo; Kappl, Reinhard; Bogeski, Ivan; Kummerow, Carsten; Podgórska, Marta; Smola, Sigrun; Hoth, Markus; Zufall, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are G-protein-coupled receptors that function as chemoattractant receptors in innate immune responses. Here we perform systematic structure-function analyses of FPRs from six mammalian species using structurally diverse FPR peptide agonists and identify a common set of conserved agonist properties with typical features of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Guided by these results, we discover that bacterial signal peptides, normally used to translocate proteins across cytoplasmic membranes, are a vast family of natural FPR agonists. N-terminally formylated signal peptide fragments with variable sequence and length activate human and mouse FPR1 and FPR2 at low nanomolar concentrations, thus establishing FPR1 and FPR2 as sensitive and broad signal peptide receptors. The vomeronasal receptor mFpr-rs1 and its sequence orthologue hFPR3 also react to signal peptides but are much more narrowly tuned in signal peptide recognition. Furthermore, all signal peptides examined here function as potent activators of the innate immune system. They elicit robust, FPR-dependent calcium mobilization in human and mouse leukocytes and trigger a range of classical innate defense mechanisms, such as the production of reactive oxygen species, metalloprotease release, and chemotaxis. Thus, bacterial signal peptides constitute a novel class of immune activators that are likely to contribute to mammalian immune defense against bacteria. This evolutionarily conserved detection mechanism combines structural promiscuity with high specificity and enables discrimination between bacterial and eukaryotic signal sequences. With at least 175,542 predicted sequences, bacterial signal peptides represent the largest and structurally most heterogeneous class of G-protein-coupled receptor agonists currently known for the innate immune system. PMID:25605714

  4. Urinary Peptides in Rett Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solaas, K. M.; Skjeldal, O.; Gardner, M. L. G.; Kase, B. F.; Reichelt, K. L.

    2002-01-01

    A study found a significantly higher level of peptides in the urine of 53 girls with Rett syndrome compared with controls. The elevation was similar to that in 35 girls with infantile autism. Levels of peptides were lower in girls with classic Rett syndrome than those with congenital Rett syndrome. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  5. Clinical uses of gut peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Geoghegan, J; Pappas, T N

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors review clinical applications of gut-derived peptides as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: An increasing number of gut peptides have been evaluated for clinical use. Earlier uses as diagnostic agents have been complemented more recently by increasing application of gut peptides as therapeutic agents. METHOD: The authors conducted a literature review. RESULTS: Current experience with clinical use of gut peptides is described. Initial clinical applications focused on using secretomotor effects of gut peptides in diagnostic tests, many of which have now fallen into disuse. More recently, attention has been directed toward harnessing these secretomotor effects for therapeutic use in a variety of disorders, and also using the trophic effects of gut peptides to modulate gut mucosal growth in benign and malignant disease. Gut peptides have been evaluated in a variety of other clinical situations including use as adjuncts to imaging techniques, and modification of behaviors such as feeding and panic disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Gut peptides have been used successfully in an increasing variety of clinical conditions. Further refinements in analogue and antagonist design are likely to lead to even more selective agents that may have important clinical applications. Further studies are needed to identity and evaluate these new agents. PMID:9065291

  6. Urinary Peptides in Rett Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solaas, K. M.; Skjeldal, O.; Gardner, M. L. G.; Kase, B. F.; Reichelt, K. L.

    2002-01-01

    A study found a significantly higher level of peptides in the urine of 53 girls with Rett syndrome compared with controls. The elevation was similar to that in 35 girls with infantile autism. Levels of peptides were lower in girls with classic Rett syndrome than those with congenital Rett syndrome. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  7. Systematic screening for bioactive peptides.

    PubMed

    Maeji, N J; Bray, A M; Valerio, R M; Seldon, M A; Wang, J X; Geysen, H M

    1991-01-01

    Using simultaneous multiple peptide synthesis by the multipin approach, the feasibility of systematic large-scale pharmacological screening of peptide ligands was investigated. The method involves the assembly of small quantities of peptides (ca. 50 nmol) on plastic pins derivatized with an ester linker based on glycolate and 4-(hydroxymethyl)benzoate. These esters are stable under peptide synthesis and side-chain deprotection conditions but cleave under relatively mild basic conditions to generate peptides having C-terminal acid, amide and methylamide. A two-step approach to side-chain deprotection and cleavage from the solid support allows potentially toxic reagents to be removed (washed) from the peptide prior to cleavage. Consequently, the resulting peptide solutions can be used in bioassays with minimal processing. A series of angiotensin II and substance P analogs were synthesized and evaluated in an in vivo rat model and in vitro radioreceptor assay, respectively. Structure-activity studies on analogs of these bioactive peptides are well documented. The data obtained were consistent with that reported in the literature.

  8. Microscopic characterization of peptide nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Mammadov, Rashad; Tekinay, Ayse B; Dana, Aykutlu; Guler, Mustafa O

    2012-02-01

    Peptide-based nanomaterials have been utilized for various applications from regenerative medicine to electronics since they provide several advantages including easy synthesis methods, numerous routes for functionalization and biomimicry of secondary structures of proteins which leads to design of self-assembling peptide molecules to form nanostructures. Microscopic characterization at nanoscale is critical to understand processes directing peptide molecules to self-assemble and identify structure-function relationship of the nanostructures. Here, fundamental studies in microscopic characterization of peptide nanostructures are discussed to provide insights in widely used microscopy tools. In this review, we will encompass characterization studies of peptide nanostructures with modern microscopes, such as TEM, SEM, AFM, and advanced optical microscopy techniques. We will also mention specimen preparation methods and describe interpretation of the images.

  9. Bioactive peptides derived from food.

    PubMed

    Rutherfurd-Markwick, Kay J; Moughan, Paul J

    2005-01-01

    As interest in the ability of functional foods to impact on human health has grown over the past decade, so has the volume of knowledge detailing the beneficial roles of food-derived bioactive peptides. Bioactive peptides from both plant and animal proteins have been discovered, with to date, by far the most being isolated from milk-based products. A wide range of activities has been described, including antimicrobial and antifungal properties, blood pressure-lowering effects, cholesterol-lowering ability, antithrombotic effects, enhancement of mineral absorption, immunomodulatory effects, and localized effects on the gut. Although there is still considerable research to be performed in the area of food-derived bioactive peptides, it is clear that the generation of bioactive peptides from dietary proteins during the normal digestive process is of importance. Therefore, it will become necessary when determining dietary protein quality to consider the potential effects of latent bioactive peptides that are released during digestion of the protein.

  10. Peptides and peptidomimetics as immunomodulators

    PubMed Central

    Gokhale, Ameya S; Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama

    2014-01-01

    Peptides and peptidomimetics can function as immunomodulating agents by either blocking the immune response or stimulating the immune response to generate tolerance. Knowledge of B- or T-cell epitopes along with conformational constraints is important in the design of peptide-based immunomodulating agents. Work on the conformational aspects of peptides, synthesis and modified amino acid side chains have contributed to the development of a new generation of therapeutic agents for autoimmune diseases and cancer. The design of peptides/peptidomimetics for immunomodulation in autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus and HIV infection is reviewed. In cancer therapy, peptide epitopes are used in such a way that the body is trained to recognize and fight the cancer cells locally as well as systemically. PMID:25186605

  11. Caloric restriction confers persistent anti-oxidative, pro-angiogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects and promotes anti-aging miRNA expression profile in cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells of aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Tripti; Sosnowska, Danuta; Tarantini, Stefano; Banki, Eszter; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Toth, Peter; Losonczy, Gyorgy; Koller, Akos; Reglodi, Dora; Giles, Cory B.; Wren, Jonathan D.; Sonntag, William E.; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2014-01-01

    In rodents, moderate caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition exerts significant cerebrovascular protective effects, improving cortical microvascular density and endothelium-dependent vasodilation, but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain elusive. To elucidate the persisting effects of CR on cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells (CMVECs), primary CMVECs were isolated from young (3 mo old) and aged (24 mo old) ad libitum-fed and aged CR F344xBN rats. We found an age-related increase in cellular and mitochondrial oxidative stress, which is prevented by CR. Expression and transcriptional activity of Nrf2 are both significantly reduced in aged CMVECs, whereas CR prevents age-related Nrf2 dysfunction. Expression of miR-144 was upregulated in aged CMVECs, and overexpression of miR-144 significantly decreased expression of Nrf2 in cells derived from both young animals and aged CR rats. Overexpression of a miR-144 antagomir in aged CMVECs significantly decreases expression of miR-144 and upregulates Nrf2. We found that CR prevents age-related impairment of angiogenic processes, including cell proliferation, adhesion to collagen, and formation of capillary-like structures and inhibits apoptosis in CMVECs. CR also exerts significant anti-inflammatory effects, preventing age-related increases in the transcriptional activity of NF-κB and age-associated pro-inflammatory shift in the endothelial secretome. Characterization of CR-induced changes in miRNA expression suggests that they likely affect several critical functions in endothelial cell homeostasis. The predicted regulatory effects of CR-related differentially expressed miRNAs in aged CMVECs are consistent with the anti-aging endothelial effects of CR observed in vivo. Collectively, we find that CR confers persisting anti-oxidative, pro-angiogenic, and anti-inflammatory cellular effects, preserving a youthful phenotype in rat cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells, suggesting that through these effects CR may

  12. Caloric restriction confers persistent anti-oxidative, pro-angiogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects and promotes anti-aging miRNA expression profile in cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Csiszar, Anna; Gautam, Tripti; Sosnowska, Danuta; Tarantini, Stefano; Banki, Eszter; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Toth, Peter; Losonczy, Gyorgy; Koller, Akos; Reglodi, Dora; Giles, Cory B; Wren, Jonathan D; Sonntag, William E; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2014-08-01

    In rodents, moderate caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition exerts significant cerebrovascular protective effects, improving cortical microvascular density and endothelium-dependent vasodilation, but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain elusive. To elucidate the persisting effects of CR on cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells (CMVECs), primary CMVECs were isolated from young (3 mo old) and aged (24 mo old) ad libitum-fed and aged CR F344xBN rats. We found an age-related increase in cellular and mitochondrial oxidative stress, which is prevented by CR. Expression and transcriptional activity of Nrf2 are both significantly reduced in aged CMVECs, whereas CR prevents age-related Nrf2 dysfunction. Expression of miR-144 was upregulated in aged CMVECs, and overexpression of miR-144 significantly decreased expression of Nrf2 in cells derived from both young animals and aged CR rats. Overexpression of a miR-144 antagomir in aged CMVECs significantly decreases expression of miR-144 and upregulates Nrf2. We found that CR prevents age-related impairment of angiogenic processes, including cell proliferation, adhesion to collagen, and formation of capillary-like structures and inhibits apoptosis in CMVECs. CR also exerts significant anti-inflammatory effects, preventing age-related increases in the transcriptional activity of NF-κB and age-associated pro-inflammatory shift in the endothelial secretome. Characterization of CR-induced changes in miRNA expression suggests that they likely affect several critical functions in endothelial cell homeostasis. The predicted regulatory effects of CR-related differentially expressed miRNAs in aged CMVECs are consistent with the anti-aging endothelial effects of CR observed in vivo. Collectively, we find that CR confers persisting anti-oxidative, pro-angiogenic, and anti-inflammatory cellular effects, preserving a youthful phenotype in rat cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells, suggesting that through these effects CR may

  13. Antimicrobial peptides: therapeutic potentials.

    PubMed

    Kang, Su-Jin; Park, Sung Jean; Mishig-Ochir, Tsogbadrakh; Lee, Bong-Jin

    2014-12-01

    The increasing appearance of multidrug-resistant pathogens has created an urgent need for suitable alternatives to current antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which act as defensive weapons against microbes, have received great attention because of broad-spectrum activities, unique action mechanisms and rare antibiotic-resistant variants. Despite desirable characteristics, they have shown limitations in pharmaceutical development due to toxicity, stability and manufacturing costs. Because of these drawbacks, only a few AMPs have been tested in Phase III clinical trials and no AMPs have been approved by the US FDA yet. However, these obstacles could be overcome by well-known methods such as changing physicochemical characteristics and introducing nonnatural amino acids, acetylation or amidation, as well as modern techniques like molecular targeted AMPs, liposomal formulations and drug delivery systems. Thus, the current challenge in this field is to develop therapeutic AMPs at a reasonable cost as well as to overcome the limitations.

  14. Asymmetric Peptide Nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhilin; Tantakitti, Faifan; Palmer, Liam C; Stupp, Samuel I

    2016-11-09

    Asymmetry in chemical structure or shape at molecular, nanoscale, or microscopic levels is essential to a vast number of functionalities in both natural and artificial systems. Bottom-up approaches to create asymmetric supramolecular nanostructures are considered promising but this strategy suffers from the potentially dynamic nature of noncovalent interactions. We report here on supramolecular self-assembly of asymmetric peptide amphiphiles consisting of two different molecularly linked domains. We found that strong noncovalent interactions and a high degree of internal order among the asymmetric amphiphiles lead to nanoribbons with asymmetric faces due to the preferential self-association of the two domains. The capture of gold nanoparticles on only one face of the nanoribbons demonstrates symmetry breaking in these supramolecular structures.

  15. Short Antimicrobial Peptides and Peptide Scaffolds as Promising Antibacterial Agents.

    PubMed

    Domalaon, Ronald; Zhanel, George G; Schweizer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides have recently garnered significant attention as an emerging source of potential antibiotics, due to the swift emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria and a dwindling antibiotic pipeline. The vast majority of antimicrobial peptides are long, comprised of more than 10 amino acids, resulting in significant production costs for their synthesis while simultaneously displaying metabolic instability and relatively poor pharmacological profiles. To counter these problems, efforts have been shifted to shorter molecules and the development of new peptidomimetic approaches. In this paper, we review promising short, naturally-isolated or synthetic, antimicrobial peptides, along with their mimics, and discuss their merits as potential antibacterial agents.

  16. Peptide-formation on cysteine-containing peptide scaffolds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, B. C.; Orgel, L. E.

    1999-01-01

    Monomeric cysteine residues attached to cysteine-containing peptides by disulfide bonds can be activated by carbonyldiimidazole. If two monomeric cysteine residues, attached to a 'scaffold' peptide Gly-Cys-Glyn-Cys-Glu10, (n = 0, 1, 2, 3) are activated, they react to form the dipeptide Cys-Cys. in 25-65% yield. Similarly, the activation of a cysteine residue attached to the 'scaffold' peptide Gly-Cys-Gly-Glu10 in the presence of Arg5 leads to the formation of Cys-Arg5 in 50% yield. The significance of these results for prebiotic chemistry is discussed.

  17. Wall-crossing, Rogers dilogarithm, and the QK/HK correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Sergei; Persson, Daniel; Pioline, Boris

    2011-12-01

    When formulated in twistor space, the D-instanton corrected hypermultiplet moduli space in mathcal{N} = {2} string vacua and the Coulomb branch of rigid mathcal{N} = {2} gauge theories on R3 × S 1 are strikingly similar and, to a large extent, dictated by consistency with wall-crossing. We elucidate this similarity by showing that these two spaces are related under a general duality between, on one hand, quaternion-Kähler manifolds with a quaternionic isometry and, on the other hand, hyperkähler manifolds with a rotational isometry, equipped with a canonical hyperholomorphic circle bundle and a connection. We show that the transition functions of the hyperholomorphic circle bundle relevant for the hypermultiplet moduli space are given by the Rogers dilogarithm function, and that consistency across walls of marginal stability is ensured by the motivic wall-crossing formula of Kontsevich and Soibelman. We illustrate the construction on some simple examples of wall-crossing related to cluster algebras for rank 2 Dynkin quivers. In an appendix we also provide a detailed discussion on the general relation between wall-crossing and cluster algebras.

  18. Inhibition of PlexA1-mediated brain tumor growth and tumor-associated angiogenesis using a transmembrane domain targeting peptide

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Laurent; Goetz, Jacky; Vermot, Julien; Fernandez, Aurore; Baumlin, Nadège; Aci-Sèche, Samia; Orend, Gertraud; Roussel, Guy; Crémel, Gérard; Genest, Monique; Hubert, Pierre; Bagnard, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    The neuropilin-plexin receptor complex regulates tumor cell migration and proliferation and thus is an interesting therapeutic target. High expression of neuropilin-1 is indeed associated with a bad prognosis in glioma patients. Q-RTPCR and tissue-array analyses showed here that Plexin-A1 is highly expressed in glioblastoma and that the highest level of expression correlates with the worse survival of patients. We next identified a developmental and tumor-associated pro-angiogenic role of Plexin-A1. Hence, by using molecular simulations and a two-hybrid like assay in parallel with biochemical and cellular assays we developed a specific Plexin-A1 peptidic antagonist disrupting transmembrane domain-mediated oligomerization of the receptor and subsequent signaling and functional activity. We found that this peptide exhibits anti-tumor activity in vivo on different human glioblastoma models including glioma cancer stem cells. Thus, screening Plexin-A1 expression and targeting Plexin-A1 in glioblastoma patients exhibit diagnostic and therapeutic value. PMID:27506939

  19. Inhibition of PlexA1-mediated brain tumor growth and tumor-associated angiogenesis using a transmembrane domain targeting peptide.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Laurent; Sawma, Paul; Garnier, Norbert; Meyer, Lionel A T; Fritz, Justine; Hussenet, Thomas; Spenlé, Caroline; Goetz, Jacky; Vermot, Julien; Fernandez, Aurore; Baumlin, Nadège; Aci-Sèche, Samia; Orend, Gertraud; Roussel, Guy; Crémel, Gérard; Genest, Monique; Hubert, Pierre; Bagnard, Dominique

    2016-09-06

    The neuropilin-plexin receptor complex regulates tumor cell migration and proliferation and thus is an interesting therapeutic target. High expression of neuropilin-1 is indeed associated with a bad prognosis in glioma patients. Q-RTPCR and tissue-array analyses showed here that Plexin-A1 is highly expressed in glioblastoma and that the highest level of expression correlates with the worse survival of patients. We next identified a developmental and tumor-associated pro-angiogenic role of Plexin-A1. Hence, by using molecular simulations and a two-hybrid like assay in parallel with biochemical and cellular assays we developed a specific Plexin-A1 peptidic antagonist disrupting transmembrane domain-mediated oligomerization of the receptor and subsequent signaling and functional activity. We found that this peptide exhibits anti-tumor activity in vivo on different human glioblastoma models including glioma cancer stem cells. Thus, screening Plexin-A1 expression and targeting Plexin-A1 in glioblastoma patients exhibit diagnostic and therapeutic value.

  20. Epimerization in peptide thioester condensation.

    PubMed

    Teruya, Kenta; Tanaka, Takeyuki; Kawakami, Toru; Akaji, Kenichi; Aimoto, Saburo

    2012-11-01

    Peptide segment couplings are now widely utilized in protein chemical synthesis. One of the key structures for the strategy is the peptide thioester. Peptide thioester condensation, in which a C-terminal peptide thioester is selectively activated by silver ions then condensed with an amino component, is a powerful tool. But the amino acid adjacent to the thioester is at risk of epimerization. During the preparation of peptide thioesters by the Boc solid-phase method, no substantial epimerization of the C-terminal amino acid was detected. Epimerization was, however, observed during a thioester-thiol exchange reaction and segment condensation in DMSO in the presence of a base. In contrast, thioester-thiol exchange reactions in aqueous solutions gave no epimerization. The epimerization during segment condensation was significantly suppressed with a less polar solvent that is applicable to segments in thioester peptide condensation. These results were applied to a longer peptide thioester condensation. The epimer content of the coupling product of 89 residues was reduced from 27% to 6% in a condensation between segments of 45 and 44 residues for the thioester and the amino component, respectively.

  1. Multidimensional peptide separations in proteomics.

    PubMed

    Link, Andrew J

    2002-12-01

    Multidimensional peptide separation will play an increasingly important role in the drive to identify and quantitate the proteome. By increasing the peak and load capacity, multidimensional approaches increase the number and dynamic range of peptides that can be analyzed in a complex biological organism. Separation methods using different physical properties of peptides have been combined with varying degrees of success. The ultimate goal is a rapid separation strategy that can be coupled with analytical methods, such as mass spectrometry, to provide comprehensive monitoring of the changing concentration, interactions, and structures of proteins in the proteome.

  2. Early peptidic enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brack, André; Barbier, Bernard

    Oligopeptides supposed to be essential to primitive living cells could not be obtained by a prebiotic organic chemistry working mainly at random. Selection pathways were required. Experimental evidence is given for selective condensation of amino-acids in water as well as for selective resistance to degradation. Polycationic polypeptides containing lysyl (or arginyl) and hydrophobic residues strongly accelerate the hydrolysis of oligoribonucleotides. A ionic complex is first formed and the polypeptides are particularly active when they adopt a stable conformation, β-sheet or α-helix, in the complex. Well-defined short peptides were synthesized in order to determine the critical chain-length required for chemical activity. In a contemporary cell, proteins represent about 40 % of the dry weight. They fulfil a structural role and they are particularly helpful as chemical catalysts (enzymes). They can be represented as long chains made of twenty different building blocks, the amino-acids NH2-CHR-COOH, which differ by the side-chain R. Proteins are remarkable in the sense that they use amino-acids having only one carbon atom between the -NH2 and -COOH functions. The central carbon atom has always the same spatial asymmetry (chirality) and always bears a hydrogen atom. When the side-chain R is a hydrocarbon, it is branched. When R contains a chemical function, the side functions do not participate to the peptide bond construction. The protein chain results from the condensation of amino-acids, i.e. water molecules are removed between molecules in a medium which is mainly aqueous (the cell contains 75 % of water). The protein chains adopt rigid asymmetric conformations (α-helices, β-sheet structures) which are essential for the protein functions. Proteins, even the smallest ones, are too sophisticated entities to be considered as the products of an organic chemistry working at random, without any chemical selection. The chemist has therefore to understand, with simple

  3. Marine Peptides: Bioactivities and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wong, Jack Ho

    2015-01-01

    Peptides are important bioactive natural products which are present in many marine species. These marine peptides have high potential nutraceutical and medicinal values because of their broad spectra of bioactivities. Their antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidative, cardioprotective (antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and anticoagulant), immunomodulatory, analgesic, anxiolytic anti-diabetic, appetite suppressing and neuroprotective activities have attracted the attention of the pharmaceutical industry, which attempts to design them for use in the treatment or prevention of various diseases. Some marine peptides or their derivatives have high commercial values and had reached the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. A large number of them are already in different phases of the clinical and preclinical pipeline. This review highlights the recent research in marine peptides and the trends and prospects for the future, with special emphasis on nutraceutical and pharmaceutical development into marketed products. PMID:26132844

  4. Moonlighting Peptides with Emerging Function

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez Plaza, Jonathan G.; Villalón Rojas, Amanda; Herrera, Sur; Garza-Ramos, Georgina; Torres Larios, Alfredo; Amero, Carlos; Zarraga Granados, Gabriela; Gutiérrez Aguilar, Manuel; Lara Ortiz, María Teresa; Polanco Gonzalez, Carlos; Uribe Carvajal, Salvador; Coria, Roberto; Peña Díaz, Antonio; Bredesen, Dale E.; Castro-Obregon, Susana; del Rio, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Hunter-killer peptides combine two activities in a single polypeptide that work in an independent fashion like many other multi-functional, multi-domain proteins. We hypothesize that emergent functions may result from the combination of two or more activities in a single protein domain and that could be a mechanism selected in nature to form moonlighting proteins. We designed moonlighting peptides using the two mechanisms proposed to be involved in the evolution of such molecules (i.e., to mutate non-functional residues and the use of natively unfolded peptides). We observed that our moonlighting peptides exhibited two activities that together rendered a new function that induces cell death in yeast. Thus, we propose that moonlighting in proteins promotes emergent properties providing a further level of complexity in living organisms so far unappreciated. PMID:22808104

  5. Peptide nanostructures in biomedical technology.

    PubMed

    Feyzizarnagh, Hamid; Yoon, Do-Young; Goltz, Mark; Kim, Dong-Shik

    2016-09-01

    Nanostructures of peptides have been investigated for biomedical applications due to their unique mechanical and electrical properties in addition to their excellent biocompatibility. Peptides may form fibrils, spheres and tubes in nanoscale depending on the formation conditions. These peptide nanostructures can be used in electrical, medical, dental, and environmental applications. Applications of these nanostructures include, but are not limited to, electronic devices, biosensing, medical imaging and diagnosis, drug delivery, tissue engineering and stem cell research. This review offers a discussion of basic synthesis methods, properties and application of these nanomaterials. The review concludes with recommendations and future directions for peptide nanostructures. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016, 8:730-743. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1393 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Marine Peptides: Bioactivities and Applications.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wong, Jack Ho

    2015-06-29

    Peptides are important bioactive natural products which are present in many marine species. These marine peptides have high potential nutraceutical and medicinal values because of their broad spectra of bioactivities. Their antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidative, cardioprotective (antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and anticoagulant), immunomodulatory, analgesic, anxiolytic anti-diabetic, appetite suppressing and neuroprotective activities have attracted the attention of the pharmaceutical industry, which attempts to design them for use in the treatment or prevention of various diseases. Some marine peptides or their derivatives have high commercial values and had reached the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. A large number of them are already in different phases of the clinical and preclinical pipeline. This review highlights the recent research in marine peptides and the trends and prospects for the future, with special emphasis on nutraceutical and pharmaceutical development into marketed products.

  7. Synthetic Peptides as Protein Mimics

    PubMed Central

    Groß, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Sticht, Heinrich; Eichler, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    The design and generation of molecules capable of mimicking the binding and/or functional sites of proteins represents a promising strategy for the exploration and modulation of protein function through controlled interference with the underlying molecular interactions. Synthetic peptides have proven an excellent type of molecule for the mimicry of protein sites because such peptides can be generated as exact copies of protein fragments, as well as in diverse chemical modifications, which includes the incorporation of a large range of non-proteinogenic amino acids as well as the modification of the peptide backbone. Apart from extending the chemical and structural diversity presented by peptides, such modifications also increase the proteolytic stability of the molecules, enhancing their utility for biological applications. This article reviews recent advances by this and other laboratories in the use of synthetic protein mimics to modulate protein function, as well as to provide building blocks for synthetic biology. PMID:26835447

  8. Antimicrobial peptides: properties and applicability.

    PubMed

    van 't Hof, W; Veerman, E C; Helmerhorst, E J; Amerongen, A V

    2001-04-01

    All organisms need protection against microorganisms, e. g. bacteria, viruses and fungi. For many years, attention has been focused on adaptive immunity as the main antimicrobial defense system. However, the adaptive immune system, with its network of humoral and cellular responses is only found in higher animals, while innate immunity is encountered in all living creatures. The turning point in the appreciation of the innate immunity was the discovery of antimicrobial peptides in the early eighties. In general these peptides act by disrupting the structural integrity of the microbial membranes. It has become clear that membrane-active peptides and proteins play a crucial role in both the innate and the adaptive immune system as antimicrobial agents. This review is focused on the functional and structural features of the naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides, and discusses their potential as therapeutics.

  9. Larger scale multipin peptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Maeji, N J; Bray, A M; Valerio, R M; Wang, W

    1995-01-01

    The multipin peptide synthesis approach originated as an immunological tool for epitope mapping. However, continuing evolution of the basic technology has allowed synthesis at scales up to 10 mumol per pin. At this loading, the methodology can no longer be considered just a screening tool. The overall synthesis efficiency of this approach was assessed by the synthesis of 2913 different peptides having little or no sequence homology and ranging up to a 46-mer in length. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of the crude peptides indicates overall quality of synthesis was high. The method is suitable for multi-milligram synthesis of peptides without sacrificing any of the inherent advantages of the 96-well format.

  10. Peptides and proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Bachovchin, W.W.; Unkefer, C.J.

    1994-12-01

    Advances in magnetic resonance and vibrational spectroscopy make it possible to derive detailed structural information about biomolecular structures in solution. These techniques are critically dependent on the availability of labeled compounds. For example, NMR techniques used today to derive peptide and protein structures require uniformity {sup 13}C-and {sup 15}N-labeled samples that are derived biosynthetically from (U-6-{sup 13}C) glucose. These experiments are possible now because, during the 1970s, the National Stable Isotope Resource developed algal methods for producing (U-6-{sup 13}C) glucose. If NMR techniques are to be used to study larger proteins, we will need sophisticated labelling patterns in amino acids that employ a combination of {sup 2}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 15}N labeling. The availability of these specifically labeled amino acids requires a renewed investment in new methods for chemical synthesis of labeled amino acids. The development of new magnetic resonance or vibrational techniques to elucidate biomolecular structure will be seriously impeded if we do not see rapid progress in labeling technology. Investment in labeling chemistry is as important as investment in the development of advanced spectroscopic tools.

  11. Biodegradable Peptide-Silica Nanodonuts.

    PubMed

    Maggini, Laura; Travaglini, Leana; Cabrera, Ingrid; Castro-Hartmann, Pablo; De Cola, Luisa

    2016-03-07

    We report hybrid organosilica toroidal particles containing a short peptide sequence as the organic component of the hybrid systems. Once internalised in cancer cells, the presence of the peptide allows for interaction with peptidase enzymes, which attack the nanocarrier effectively triggering its structural breakdown. Moreover, these biodegradable nanovectors are characterised by high cellular uptake and exocytosis, showing great potential as biodegradable drug carriers. To demonstrate this feature, doxorubicin was employed and its delivery in HeLa cells investigated.

  12. Peptide Arrays on Planar Supports.

    PubMed

    Tapia Mancilla, Victor Eduardo; Mancilla, Víctor Tapia; Volkmer, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    On a past volume of this monograph we have reviewed general aspects of the varied technologies available to generate peptide arrays. Hallmarks in the development of the technology and a main sketch of preparative steps and applications in binding assays were used to walk the reader through details of peptide arrays. In this occasion, we resume from that work and bring in some considerations on quantitative evaluation of measurements as well as on selected reports applying the technology.

  13. Borinic acid catalysed peptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    El Dine, Tharwat Mohy; Rouden, Jacques; Blanchet, Jérôme

    2015-11-18

    The catalytic synthesis of peptides is a major challenge in the modern organic chemistry hindered by the well-established use of stoichiometric coupling reagents. Herein, we describe for the first time that borinic acid is able to catalyse this reaction under mild conditions with an improved activity compared to our recently developed thiophene-based boronic acid. This catalyst is particularly efficient for peptide bond synthesis affording dipeptides in good yields without detectable racemization.

  14. Triiodothyronine and Brain Natriuretic Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Kozdag, Guliz; Ertas, Gokhan; Kilic, Teoman; Acar, Eser; Sahin, Tayfun; Ural, Dilek

    2010-01-01

    Although low levels of free triiodothyronine and high levels of brain natriuretic peptide have been shown as independent predictors of death in chronic heart failure patients, few studies have compared their prognostic values. The aim of this prospective study was to measure free triiodothyronine and brain natriuretic peptide levels and to compare their prognostic values among such patients. A total of 334 patients (mean age, 62 ± 13 yr; 218 men) with ischemic and nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy were included in the study. The primary endpoint was a major cardiac event. During the follow-up period, 92 patients (28%) experienced a major cardiac event. Mean free triiodothyronine levels were lower and median brain natriuretic peptide levels were higher in patients with major cardiac events than in those without. A significant negative correlation was found between free triiodothyronine and brain natriuretic peptide levels. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the predictive cutoff values were <2.12 pg/mL for free triiodothyronine and >686 pg/mL for brain natriuretic peptide. Cumulative survival was significantly lower among patients with free triiodothyronine <2.12 pg/mL and among patients with brain natriuretic peptide >686 pg/mL. In multivariate analysis, the significant independent predictors of major cardiac events were age, free triiodothyronine, and brain natriuretic peptide. In the present study, free triiodothyronine and brain natriuretic peptide had similar prognostic values for predicting long-term prognosis in chronic heart failure patients. These results also suggested that combining these biomarkers may provide an important risk indicator for patients with heart failure. PMID:20978564

  15. Antibiofilm peptides against oral biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhejun; Shen, Ya; Haapasalo, Markus

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The oral cavity is a major entry point for bacteria and other microorganisms. Oral biofilms are formed by mixed communities of microorganisms embedded in an exopolysaccharide matrix. Biofilms forming on dental hard or soft tissue are the major cause of caries and endodontic and periodontal disease. Human oral biofilms exhibit high resistance to antimicrobial agents. Antibiofilm peptides constitute a diverse class of host-defense molecules that act to combat invasion and infection with biofilms. Different in vitro and in vivo biofilm models with quantitative analysis have been established to provide predictable platforms for the evaluation of the antibiofilm effect of oral antibiofilm peptides. These peptides have engendered considerable interest in the past decades as potential alternatives to traditional disinfecting agents due to their ability to target bacterial biofilms specifically, leading to the prevention of biofilm formation and destruction of pre-existing biofilms by Gram-positive and -negative bacterial pathogens and fungi. At the same time, challenges associated with the application of these antibiofilm peptides in dental practice also exist. The production of effective, nontoxic, and stable antibiofilm peptides is desired in both academic and industrial fields. This review focuses on the antibiofilm properties of current synthetic peptides and their application in different areas of dentistry. PMID:28748031

  16. Peptide Aggregation in Finite Systems

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gurpreet; Brovchenko, Ivan; Oleinikova, Alla; Winter, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Universal features of the peptide aggregation process suggest a common mechanism, with a first-order phase transition in aqueous solutions of the peptides being the driving force. Small system sizes strongly affect the stability of the minor phase in the two-phase region. We show manifestations of this effect in aqueous solutions of fragments of the islet amyloid polypeptide, using computer simulation methods and invoking various approaches in characterizing clustering and aggregate formation. These systems with peptide concentrations deeply inside the immiscibility region show two distinct stable states, which interchange with time: one state contains a peptide aggregate; and the other state has an aggregate that is noticeably dissolved. The first state is relevant for macroscopic systems, whereas the second one is artificial. At a fixed concentration, the occurrence probability of the aggregate state vanishes upon decreasing the system size, thus indicating the necessity to apply a finite size-scaling for meaningful studies of peptide aggregation by simulations. The effect observed may be one of the factors responsible for the difference between intracellular and extracellular aggregation and fibrillization of polypeptides. The finite size of biological cells or their compartments may be playing a decisive role in hampering intracellular aggregation of highly insoluble amyloidogenic proteins, whereas aggregation is unavoidable in the extracellular space at the same peptide concentration. PMID:18621830

  17. Facile synthesis of peptide nucleic acids and peptide nucleic acid-peptide conjugates on an automated peptide synthesizer.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rajendra; Jha, Deepti; Su, Wu; Engelmann, Joern

    2011-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are DNA mimics with a neutral peptide backbone instead of the negatively charged sugar phosphates. PNAs exhibit several attractive features such as high chemical and thermal stability, resistance to enzymatic degradation, and stable binding to their RNA or DNA targets in a sequence-specific manner. Therefore, they are widely used in molecular diagnosis of antisense-targeted therapeutic drugs or probes and in pharmaceutical applications. However, the main hindrance to the effective use of PNAs is their poor uptake by cells as well as the difficult and laborious chemical synthesis. In order to achieve an efficient delivery of PNAs into cells, there are already many published reports of peptides being used for transport across the cell membrane. In this protocol, we describe the automated as well as cost-effective semi-automated synthesis of PNAs and PNA-peptide constructs on an automated peptide synthesizer. The facile synthesis of PNAs will be helpful in generating PNA libraries usable, e.g. for high-throughput screening in biomolecular studies. Efficient synthetic schemes, the automated procedure, the reduced consumption of costly reagents, and the high purity of the products are attractive features of the reported procedure. Copyright © 2010 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Insect gonadotropic peptide hormones: some recent developments.

    PubMed

    Kuczer, Mariola; Rosiński, Grzegorz; Konopińska, Danuta

    2007-01-01

    Gonadotropic peptides are a new generation of peptide hormone regulators of insect reproduction. They have been isolated from ovaries, oviducts, or brains of insects. The subject of this paper is insect peptides that exert stimulatory or inhibitory effects on ovarian development and oocyte maturation. On the basis of the literature data and the results of our investigations, the structure and biological properties of different groups of peptides are presented. (c) 2006 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Biomimetic hydrogels with pro-angiogenic properties

    PubMed Central

    Moon, James J.; Saik, Jennifer E.; Poche, Ross A.; Leslie-Barbick, Julia E.; Lee, Soo-Hong; Smith, April A.; Dickinson, Mary E.; West, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    To achieve the task of fabricating functional tissues, scaffold materials that can be sufficiently vascularized to mimic functionality and complexity of native tissues are yet to be developed. Here, we report development of synthetic, biomimetic hydrogels that allow the rapid formation of a stable and mature vascular network both in vitro and in vivo. Hydrogels were fabricated with integrin binding sites and protease-sensitive substrates to mimic the natural provisional extracellular matrices, and endothelial cells cultured in these hydrogels organized into stable, intricate network of capillary-like structures. The resulting structures were further stabilized by recruitment of mesenchymal progenitor cells that differentiated into smooth muscle cell lineage and deposited collagen IV and laminin in vitro. In addition, hydrogels transplanted into mouse cornea were infiltrated with host vasculature, resulting in extensive vascularization with functional blood vessels. These results indicate that these hydrogels may be useful for applications in basic biological research, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. PMID:20185173

  20. Three dimensionally flocculated proangiogenic microgels for neovascularization.

    PubMed

    DeVolder, Ross J; Kong, Hyun-Joon

    2010-09-01

    Microparticles encapsulating regenerative medicines have been used in tissue engineering because of their several advantages, including non-invasive drug delivery and controllable drug release rates. However, microparticles implanted in tissue defects are readily displaced by external mechanical forces, decreasing their regenerative efficacy. We hypothesized that a drug-encapsulated colloidal gel formed through colloidal attraction between microparticles would resist displacement at an implant site, and subsequently improve therapeutic efficacy. This hypothesis was examined using a colloidal gel formed from the mixing of negatively charged microgels composed of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(sodium acrylate), and positively charged microgels composed of PEG and poly(vinyl benzyl trimethyl ammonium chloride). The structural strength of the colloidal gel could be tuned with the zeta potential and volumetric ratios of the oppositely charged microgels. Furthermore, the implantation of the colloidal gel, encapsulating vascular endothelial growth factor, significantly increased the vascular density while limiting host inflammation, as compared with the implantation of unary microgel suspensions. This study demonstrates an enhancement in the efficacy of microparticle drug delivery systems by tuning rheological properties of suspensions, which should be useful for the design of a wide array of particulate systems for both tissue engineering and drug delivery. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Peptides controlling behavior in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Strumwasser, F; Kaczmarek, L K; Chiu, A Y; Heller, E; Jennings, K R; Viele, D P

    1980-01-01

    Figure 11 summarizes our present understanding of the relationships between the bag cells, the atrial gland, their respective peptides, the central nervous system, and reproductive behavior. There are some interesting aspects of the overall organization of the system. The three hormonal peptides (ELH and the two atrial gland peptides) have specific actions on the central nervous system not unlike what we are currently learning from mammalian systems (e.g., LHRH and TRH). ELH, in addition, has several specific peripheral targets, the details of which remain to be worked out. The fact that ELH and other hormones have multiple targets within the central nervous system as well as nonnervous peripheral targets raises the question of whether one or more different receptors exist for single hormone. We suggest that peptides larger than perhaps five residues may carry several "messages" or receptor binding sites encoded within the one molecule. Large peptides such as ELH could obviously have separate domains of charge distribution within the molecule, and these would have the advantage, over the classical small molecule transmitters, of activating a variety of very different targets. The atrial gland is a peripheral source of peptides with potent nervous system actions; this is reminiscent of peptides in mammals, e.g., substance P, gastrin, and somatostatin, all of which were initially isolated from the gut and which are now being found in and also have actions on the central nervous system. Such resemblances in the principles of organization between mammals and molluscs are constant reminders that neuropeptidergic systems are old tricks in the evolutionary bag and that what we learn from molluscs and other invertebrates about mechanisms and organization will likely apply to mammals.

  2. Perspectives and Peptides of the Next Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogden, Kim A.

    Shortly after their discovery, antimicrobial peptides from prokaryotes and eukaryotes were recognized as the next potential generation of pharmaceuticals to treat antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections and septic shock, to preserve food, or to sanitize surfaces. Initial research focused on identifying the spectrum of antimicrobial agents, determining the range of antimicrobial activities against bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens, and assessing the antimicrobial activity of synthetic peptides versus their natural counterparts. Subsequent research then focused on the mechanisms of antimicrobial peptide activity in model membrane systems not only to identify the mechanisms of antimicrobial peptide activity in microorganisms but also to discern differences in cytotoxicity for prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Recent, contemporary work now focuses on current and future efforts to construct hybrid peptides, peptide congeners, stabilized peptides, peptide conjugates, and immobilized peptides for unique and specific applications to control the growth of microorganisms in vitro and in vivo.

  3. Mechanisms and Strategies Shaping Plant Peptide Hormones.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Yuki; Torii, Keiko U; Uchida, Naoyuki

    2017-08-01

    Plant genomes encode a variety of short peptides acting as signaling molecules. Since the discovery of tomato systemin, a myriad of peptide signals, ranging in size, structure and modifications, have been found in plants. Moreover, new peptides are still being identified. Surprisingly, non-plant organisms, especially pathogens, also produce peptides which exert hormonal activities against host plants by hijacking their endogenous reception systems. In this review, we focus on short secretory peptides ranging from five to 20 amino acids. We first summarize recent advances in understanding relationships between the bioactivities and structures of plant peptide hormones. Subsequently, we introduce the topic of peptides produced by non-plant organisms. Lastly, we describe artificial peptides synthesized in laboratories, which possess intriguing bioactive properties beyond those of natural peptide hormones. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Cyclic peptide therapeutics: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Zorzi, Alessandro; Deyle, Kaycie; Heinis, Christian

    2017-02-26

    Cyclic peptides combine several favorable properties such as good binding affinity, target selectivity and low toxicity that make them an attractive modality for the development of therapeutics. Over 40 cyclic peptide drugs are currently in clinical use and around one new cyclic peptide drug enters the market every year on average. The vast majority of clinically approved cyclic peptides are derived from natural products, such as antimicrobials or human peptide hormones. New powerful techniques based on rational design and in vitro evolution have enabled the de novo development of cyclic peptide ligands to targets for which nature does not offer solutions. A look at the cyclic peptides currently under clinical evaluation shows that several have been developed using such techniques. This new source for cyclic peptide ligands introduces a freshness to the field, and it is likely that de novo developed cyclic peptides will be in clinical use in the near future.

  5. Exploration of the Medicinal Peptide Space.

    PubMed

    Gevaert, Bert; Stalmans, Sofie; Wynendaele, Evelien; Taevernier, Lien; Bracke, Nathalie; D'Hondt, Matthias; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2016-01-01

    The chemical properties of peptide medicines, known as the 'medicinal peptide space' is considered a multi-dimensional subset of the global peptide space, where each dimension represents a chemical descriptor. These descriptors can be linked to biofunctional, medicinal properties to varying degrees. Knowledge of this space can increase the efficiency of the peptide-drug discovery and development process, as well as advance our understanding and classification of peptide medicines. For 245 peptide drugs, already available on the market or in clinical development, multivariate dataexploration was performed using peptide relevant physicochemical descriptors, their specific peptidedrug target and their clinical use. Our retrospective analysis indicates that clusters in the medicinal peptide space are located in a relatively narrow range of the physicochemical space: dense and empty regions were found, which can be explored for the discovery of novel peptide drugs.

  6. Preparation of peptide microspheres using tumor antigen-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Santwana; Naqvi, Raza Ali; Ali, Riyasat; Rao, D N

    2014-01-01

    Due to its distinct biological attributes, poly(D,L lactide-co glycolide) (PLGA) is one of the most preferred methods for DNA/protein/peptide encapsulation for therapeutics. Importantly, PLGA acts as an adjuvant for weakly immunogenic antigens and mimics booster responses after a single dose of administration, thereby serving as a single-shot vaccine delivery vehicle. Efficient delivery of antigens to antigen-presenting cells (APC) has been made possible by the use of a PLGA particle-based vaccine delivery system. Also, the plasma half-life of the PLGA-encapsulated vaccine increases as it is protected from degradation, prior to its further release. PLGAs are reported to be catabolized into individual nontoxic units once inside the host and further degraded via normal metabolic pathways. In this chapter, we have described the preparation and characterization of tumor peptide encapsulated PLGA microparticles as a model for controlled-release peptide delivery system.

  7. Peptide Vaccine: Progress and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weidang; Joshi, Medha D.; Singhania, Smita; Ramsey, Kyle H.; Murthy, Ashlesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional vaccine strategies have been highly efficacious for several decades in reducing mortality and morbidity due to infectious diseases. The bane of conventional vaccines, such as those that include whole organisms or large proteins, appear to be the inclusion of unnecessary antigenic load that, not only contributes little to the protective immune response, but complicates the situation by inducing allergenic and/or reactogenic responses. Peptide vaccines are an attractive alternative strategy that relies on usage of short peptide fragments to engineer the induction of highly targeted immune responses, consequently avoiding allergenic and/or reactogenic sequences. Conversely, peptide vaccines used in isolation are often weakly immunogenic and require particulate carriers for delivery and adjuvanting. In this article, we discuss the specific advantages and considerations in targeted induction of immune responses by peptide vaccines and progresses in the development of such vaccines against various diseases. Additionally, we also discuss the development of particulate carrier strategies and the inherent challenges with regard to safety when combining such technologies with peptide vaccines. PMID:26344743

  8. Twilight reloaded: the peptide experience

    PubMed Central

    Weichenberger, Christian X.; Pozharski, Edwin; Rupp, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    The de facto commoditization of biomolecular crystallography as a result of almost disruptive instrumentation automation and continuing improvement of software allows any sensibly trained structural biologist to conduct crystallo­graphic studies of biomolecules with reasonably valid outcomes: that is, models based on properly interpreted electron density. Robust validation has led to major mistakes in the protein part of structure models becoming rare, but some depositions of protein–peptide complex structure models, which generally carry significant interest to the scientific community, still contain erroneous models of the bound peptide ligand. Here, the protein small-molecule ligand validation tool Twilight is updated to include peptide ligands. (i) The primary technical reasons and potential human factors leading to problems in ligand structure models are presented; (ii) a new method used to score peptide-ligand models is presented; (iii) a few instructive and specific examples, including an electron-density-based analysis of peptide-ligand structures that do not contain any ligands, are discussed in detail; (iv) means to avoid such mistakes and the implications for database integrity are discussed and (v) some suggestions as to how journal editors could help to expunge errors from the Protein Data Bank are provided. PMID:28291756

  9. Antimicrobial Peptides Under Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Greber, Katarzyna E; Dawgul, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Today microbial drug resistance has become a serious problem not only within inpatient setting but also within outpatient setting. Repeated intake and unnecessary usage of antibiotics as well as the transfer of resistance genes are the most important factors that make the microorganisms resistant to conventional antibiotics. A large number of antimicrobials successfully used for prophylaxis and therapeutic purposes have now become ineffective [1, 2]. Therefore, new molecules are being studied to be used in the treatment of various diseases. Some of these molecules are structural compounds based on a combination of peptides, for example, naturally occurring endogenous peptide antibiotics and their synthetic analogues or molecules designed de novo using QSAR (quantitative structureproperty relationships)-based methods [3]. Trying to exploit numerous advantages of antimicrobial peptides such as high potency and selectivity, broad range of targets, potentially low toxicity and low accumulation in tissues, pharmaceutical industry aims to develop them as commercially available drugs and appropriate clinical trials are being conducted [4]. In this paper we define clinical trials steps and describe current status of several antimicrobial peptides under clinical development as well as briefly depict peptide drug formulation.

  10. Natriuretic peptide metabolism, clearance and degradation.

    PubMed

    Potter, Lincoln R

    2011-06-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide, B-type natriuretic peptide and C-type natriuretic peptide constitute a family of three structurally related, but genetically distinct, signaling molecules that regulate the cardiovascular, skeletal, nervous, reproductive and other systems by activating transmembrane guanylyl cyclases and elevating intracellular cGMP concentrations. This review broadly discusses the general characteristics of natriuretic peptides and their cognate signaling receptors, and then specifically discusses the tissue-specific metabolism of natriuretic peptides and their degradation by neprilysin, insulin-degrading enzyme, and natriuretic peptide receptor-C.

  11. Natriuretic Peptide Metabolism, Clearance and Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Lincoln R.

    2015-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide, B-type natriuretic peptide and C-type natriuretic peptide compose a family of three structurally related, but genetically distinct, signaling molecules that regulate the cardiovascular, skeletal, nervous, reproductive and other systems by activating transmembrane guanylyl cyclases and elevating intracellular cGMP concentrations. This review broadly discusses the general characteristics of natriuretic peptides and their cognate signaling receptors, then specifically discusses the tissue specific metabolism of natriuretic peptides and their degradation by neprilysin, insulin-degrading enzyme and natriuretic peptide receptor-C. PMID:21375692

  12. Dietary bioactive peptides: Human studies.

    PubMed

    Bouglé, Dominique; Bouhallab, Saïd

    2017-01-22

    Current opinion strongly links nutrition and health. Among nutrients, proteins, and peptides which are encrypted in their sequences and released during digestion could play a key role in improving health. These peptides have been claimed to be active on a wide spectrum of biological functions or diseases, including blood pressure and metabolic risk factors (coagulation, obesity, lipoprotein metabolism, and peroxidation), gut and neurological functions, immunity, cancer, dental health, and mineral metabolism. A majority of studies involved dairy peptides, but the properties of vegetal, animal, and sea products were also assessed. However, these allegations are mainly based on in vitro and experimental studies which are seldom confirmed in humans. This review focused on molecules which were tested in humans, and on the mechanisms explaining discrepancies between experimental and human studies.

  13. Antiviral active peptide from oyster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Mingyong; Cui, Wenxuan; Zhao, Yuanhui; Liu, Zunying; Dong, Shiyuan; Guo, Yao

    2008-08-01

    An active peptide against herpes virus was isolated from the enzymic hydrolysate of oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) and purified with the definite direction hydrolysis technique in the order of alcalase and bromelin. The hydrolysate was fractioned into four ranges of molecular weight (>10 kDa, 10 5 kDa, 5 1 kDa and <1 kDa) using ultrafiltration membranes and dialysis. The fraction of 10 5 kDa was purified using consecutive chromatographic methods including DEAE Sephadex A-25 column, Sephadex G-25 column, and high performance liquid chromatogram (HPLC) by activity-guided isolation. The antiviral effect of the obtained peptide on herpetic virus was investigated in Vero cells by observing cytopathic effect (CPE). The result shows that the peptide has high inhibitory activity on herpetic virus.

  14. Peptide-based synthetic vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    Classically all vaccines were produced using live or attenuated microorganisms or parts of them. However, the use of whole organisms, their components or the biological process for vaccine production has several weaknesses. The presence of immunologically redundant biological components or biological impurities in such vaccines might cause major problems. All the disadvantageous of traditional vaccines might be overcome via the development of fully synthetic peptide-based vaccines. However, once minimal antigenic epitopes only are applied for immunisation, the immune responses are poor. The use of an adjuvant can overcome this obstacle; however, it may raise new glitches. Here we briefly summarise the current stand on peptide-based vaccines, discuss epitope and adjuvant design, and multi-epitope and nanoparticle-based vaccine approaches. This mini review discusses also the disadvantages and benefits associated with peptide-based vaccines. It proposes possible methods to overcome the weaknesses of the synthetic vaccine strategy and suggests future directions for its development. PMID:28791117

  15. Antimicrobial Peptides from Marine Proteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Desriac, Florie; Jégou, Camille; Balnois, Eric; Brillet, Benjamin; Le Chevalier, Patrick; Fleury, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    After years of inadequate use and the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains, the efficiency of “classical” antibiotics has decreased significantly. New drugs to fight MDR strains are urgently needed. Bacteria hold much promise as a source of unusual bioactive metabolites. However, the potential of marine bacteria, except for Actinomycetes and Cyanobacteria, has been largely underexplored. In the past two decades, the structures of several antimicrobial compounds have been elucidated in marine Proteobacteria. Of these compounds, polyketides (PKs), synthesised by condensation of malonyl-coenzyme A and/or acetyl-coenzyme A, and non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs), obtained through the linkage of (unusual) amino acids, have recently generated particular interest. NRPs are good examples of naturally modified peptides. Here, we review and compile the data on the antimicrobial peptides isolated from marine Proteobacteria, especially NRPs. PMID:24084784

  16. Antimicrobial peptides from marine proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Desriac, Florie; Jégou, Camille; Balnois, Eric; Brillet, Benjamin; Le Chevalier, Patrick; Fleury, Yannick

    2013-09-30

    After years of inadequate use and the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains, the efficiency of "classical" antibiotics has decreased significantly. New drugs to fight MDR strains are urgently needed. Bacteria hold much promise as a source of unusual bioactive metabolites. However, the potential of marine bacteria, except for Actinomycetes and Cyanobacteria, has been largely underexplored. In the past two decades, the structures of several antimicrobial compounds have been elucidated in marine Proteobacteria. Of these compounds, polyketides (PKs), synthesised by condensation of malonyl-coenzyme A and/or acetyl-coenzyme A, and non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs), obtained through the linkage of (unusual) amino acids, have recently generated particular interest. NRPs are good examples of naturally modified peptides. Here, we review and compile the data on the antimicrobial peptides isolated from marine Proteobacteria, especially NRPs.

  17. Membrane Perturbation Induced by Interfacially Adsorbed Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Zemel, Assaf; Ben-Shaul, Avinoam; May, Sylvio

    2004-01-01

    The structural and energetic characteristics of the interaction between interfacially adsorbed (partially inserted) α-helical, amphipathic peptides and the lipid bilayer substrate are studied using a molecular level theory of lipid chain packing in membranes. The peptides are modeled as “amphipathic cylinders” characterized by a well-defined polar angle. Assuming two-dimensional nematic order of the adsorbed peptides, the membrane perturbation free energy is evaluated using a cell-like model; the peptide axes are parallel to the membrane plane. The elastic and interfacial contributions to the perturbation free energy of the “peptide-dressed” membrane are evaluated as a function of: the peptide penetration depth into the bilayer's hydrophobic core, the membrane thickness, the polar angle, and the lipid/peptide ratio. The structural properties calculated include the shape and extent of the distorted (stretched and bent) lipid chains surrounding the adsorbed peptide, and their orientational (C-H) bond order parameter profiles. The changes in bond order parameters attendant upon peptide adsorption are in good agreement with magnetic resonance measurements. Also consistent with experiment, our model predicts that peptide adsorption results in membrane thinning. Our calculations reveal pronounced, membrane-mediated, attractive interactions between the adsorbed peptides, suggesting a possible mechanism for lateral aggregation of membrane-bound peptides. As a special case of interest, we have also investigated completely hydrophobic peptides, for which we find a strong energetic preference for the transmembrane (inserted) orientation over the horizontal (adsorbed) orientation. PMID:15189858

  18. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Carrasco, Letícia Dias de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy. PMID:25302615

  19. Novel formulations for antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria; de Melo Carrasco, Letícia Dias

    2014-10-09

    Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy.

  20. Peptides and the new endocrinology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwyzer, Robert

    1982-01-01

    The discovery of regulatory peptides common to the nervous and the endocrine systems (brain, gut, and skin) has brought about a revolution in our concepts of endocrinology and neurology. We are beginning to understand some of the complex interrelationships between soma and psyche that might, someday, be important for an integrated treatment of diseases. Examples of the actions of certain peptides in the periphery and in the central nervous system are given, and their biosynthesis and molecular anatomy as carriers for information are discussed.

  1. Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide binds to the natriuretic peptide clearance receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, Douglas G. . E-mail: Douglas.G.Johns@gsk.com; Ao, Zhaohui; Heidrich, Bradley J.; Hunsberger, Gerald E.; Graham, Taylor; Payne, Lisa; Elshourbagy, Nabil; Lu, Quinn; Aiyar, Nambi; Douglas, Stephen A.

    2007-06-22

    Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP) is a newly-described natriuretic peptide which lowers blood pressure via vasodilation. The natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPR-C) removes natriuretic peptides from the circulation, but whether DNP interacts with human NPR-C directly is unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that DNP binds to NPR-C. ANP, BNP, CNP, and the NPR-C ligands AP-811 and cANP(4-23) displaced [{sup 125}I]-ANP from NPR-C with pM-to-nM K {sub i} values. DNP displaced [{sup 125}I]-ANP from NPR-C with nM potency, which represents the first direct demonstration of binding of DNP to human NPR-C. DNP showed high pM affinity for the GC-A receptor and no affinity for GC-B (K {sub i} > 1000 nM). DNP was nearly 10-fold more potent than ANP at stimulating cGMP production in GC-A expressing cells. Blockade of NPR-C might represent a novel therapeutic approach in augmenting the known beneficial actions of DNP in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and heart failure.

  2. Role of peptide--peptide interactions in stabilizing peptide-wrapped single-walled carbon nanotubes: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chi-Cheng; Dieckmann, Gregg R; Nielsen, Steven O

    2009-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have unique properties and are projected to have a major impact in nanoscale electronics, materials science, and nanomedicine. Yet, these potential applications are hindered by the need for sample purification to separate SWNTs from each other and from metallic catalyst and amorphous carbon present in as-synthesized samples. Common purification strategies involve dispersing SWNTs as individual tubes in aqueous solution. Towards this end, a designed helical peptide was shown to be excellent at dispersing SWNTs. However, the molecular details of the peptide-SWNT and peptide-peptide interactions await elucidation. Here we explore these molecular interactions using fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of peptide-wrapped SWNTs. We characterize the interactions by measuring the aromatic residue-to-SWNT surface distance, the peptide amphiphilicity, the peptide-SWNT crossing angle, the peptide-SWNT contact area, the peptide helix axis-to-axis distance, and the inter-peptide hydrogen bonding. We find that the peptides collectively tilt with respect to the SWNT long axis, are alpha-helical, and form interpeptide hydrogen bonds through their lysine and glutamate residues, which helps to stabilize the multipeptide/SWNT complex. All hydrophobic residues interact with the SWNT and are sequestered from water. The picture that emerges from this study gives insight into subsequent peptide design. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Digesting New Elements in Peptide Transport.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Joseph A; Nissen, Poul

    2015-10-06

    In this issue of Structure, Beale et al. (2015) define structurally and functionally a large extracellular domain unique to mammalian peptide transporters and its implications for the transport of basic di- and tri-peptides (Beale et al., 2015).

  4. Carbohydrates in peptide and protein design.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Knud J; Brask, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    Monosaccharides and amino acids are fundamental building blocks in the assembly of nature's polymers. They have different structural aspects and, to a significant extent, different functional groups. Oligomerization gives rise to oligosaccharides and peptides, respectively. While carbohydrates and peptides can be found conjoined in nature, e.g., in glycopeptides, the aim of this review is the radical redesign of peptide structures using carbohydrates, particularly monosaccharides and cyclic oligosaccharides, to produce novel peptides, peptidomimetics, and abiotic proteins. These hybrid molecules, chimeras, have properties arising largely from the combination of structural characteristics of carbohydrates with the functional group diversity of peptides. This field includes de novo designed synthetic glycopeptides, sugar (carbohydrate) amino acids, carbohydrate scaffolds for nonpeptidal peptidomimetics of cyclic peptides, cyclodextrin functionalized peptides, and carboproteins, i.e., carbohydrate-based proteinmimetics. These successful applications demonstrate the general utility of carbohydrates in peptide and protein architecture.

  5. Investigating Endogenous Peptides and Peptidases using Peptidomics

    PubMed Central

    Tinoco, Arthur D.; Saghatelian, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Rather than simply being protein degradation products, peptides have proven to be important bioactive molecules. Bioactive peptides act as hormones, neurotransmitters and antimicrobial agents in vivo. The dysregulation of bioactive peptide signaling is also known to be involved in disease, and targeting peptide hormone pathways has been successful strategy in the development of novel therapeutics. The importance of bioactive peptides in biology has spurred research to elucidate the function and regulation of these molecules. Classical methods for peptide analysis have relied on targeted immunoassays, but certain scientific questions necessitated a broader and more detailed view of the peptidome–all the peptides in a cell, tissue or organism. In this review we discuss how peptidomics has emerged to fill this need through the application of advanced liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods that provide unique insights into peptide activity and regulation. PMID:21786763

  6. Stapled peptide induces cancer cell death.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Jo

    2004-11-01

    Hydrocarbon stapling could enable peptides from the key domains of natural proteins to be used therapeutically. Using the technique on a peptide involved in apoptosis, researchers have succeeded in destroying cancer cells in a mouse model of leukaemia.

  7. Membrane disruption mechanism of antimicrobial peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ka Yee

    2012-04-01

    Largely distributed among living organisms, antimicrobial peptides are a class of small (<100 residues) host defense peptides that induce selective membrane lytic activity against microbial pathogens. The permeabilizing behavior of these diverse peptides has been commonly attributed to the formation of pores, and such pore formation has been categorized as barrel-stave, toroidal, or carpet-like. With the continuing discovery of new peptide species, many are uncharacterized and the exact mechanism is unknown. Through the use of atomic force microscopy, the disruption of supported lipid bilayer patches by protegrin-1 is concentration-dependent. The intercalation of antimicrobial peptide into the bilayer results in structures beyond that of pore formation, but with the formation of worm-like micelles at high peptide concentration. Our results suggest that antimicrobial peptide acts to lower the interfacial energy of the bilayer in a way similar to detergents. Antimicrobial peptides with structural differences, magainin-1 and aurein 1.1, exhibit a mechanistic commonality.

  8. Strategic approaches to optimizing peptide ADME properties.

    PubMed

    Di, Li

    2015-01-01

    Development of peptide drugs is challenging but also quite rewarding. Five blockbuster peptide drugs are currently on the market, and six new peptides received first marketing approval as new molecular entities in 2012. Although peptides only represent 2% of the drug market, the market is growing twice as quickly and might soon occupy a larger niche. Natural peptides typically have poor absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties with rapid clearance, short half-life, low permeability, and sometimes low solubility. Strategies have been developed to improve peptide drugability through enhancing permeability, reducing proteolysis and renal clearance, and prolonging half-life. In vivo, in vitro, and in silico tools are available to evaluate ADME properties of peptides, and structural modification strategies are in place to improve peptide developability.

  9. Identification of tissue-specific targeting peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Eunkyoung; Lee, Nam Kyung; Kang, Sang-Kee; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Daejin; Park, Kisoo; Choi, Kihang; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Jung, Dong Hyun

    2012-11-01

    Using phage display technique, we identified tissue-targeting peptide sets that recognize specific tissues (bone-marrow dendritic cell, kidney, liver, lung, spleen and visceral adipose tissue). In order to rapidly evaluate tissue-specific targeting peptides, we performed machine learning studies for predicting the tissue-specific targeting activity of peptides on the basis of peptide sequence information using four machine learning models and isolated the groups of peptides capable of mediating selective targeting to specific tissues. As a representative liver-specific targeting sequence, the peptide "DKNLQLH" was selected by the sequence similarity analysis. This peptide has a high degree of homology with protein ligands which can interact with corresponding membrane counterparts. We anticipate that our models will be applicable to the prediction of tissue-specific targeting peptides which can recognize the endothelial markers of target tissues.

  10. Computational approach for designing tumor homing peptides

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arun; Kapoor, Pallavi; Gautam, Ankur; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Kumar, Rahul; Chauhan, Jagat Singh; Tyagi, Atul; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor homing peptides are small peptides that home specifically to tumor and tumor associated microenvironment i.e. tumor vasculature, after systemic delivery. Keeping in mind the huge therapeutic importance of these peptides, we have made an attempt to analyze and predict tumor homing peptides. It was observed that certain types of residues are preferred in tumor homing peptides. Therefore, we developed support vector machine based models for predicting tumor homing peptides using amino acid composition and binary profiles of peptides. Amino acid composition, dipeptide composition and binary profile-based models achieved a maximum accuracy of 86.56%, 82.03%, and 84.19% respectively. These methods have been implemented in a user-friendly web server, TumorHPD. We anticipate that this method will be helpful to design novel tumor homing peptides. TumorHPD web server is freely accessible at http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/tumorhpd/. PMID:23558316

  11. Streptavidin-binding peptides and uses thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szostak, Jack W. (Inventor); Wilson, David S. (Inventor); Keefe, Anthony D. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The invention provides peptides with high affinity for streptavidin. These peptides may be expressed as part of fusion proteins to facilitate the detection, quantitation, and purification of proteins of interest.

  12. Streptavidin-binding peptides and uses thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szostak, Jack W. (Inventor); Wilson, David S. (Inventor); Keefe, Anthony D. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention provides peptides with high affinity for streptavidin. These peptides may be expressed as part of fusion proteins to facilitate the detection, quantitation, and purification of proteins of interest.

  13. Peptide Antibodies: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Houen, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Peptide antibodies recognize epitopes with amino acid residues adjacent in sequence ("linear" epitopes). Such antibodies can be made to virtually any sequence and have been immensely important in all areas of molecular biology and diagnostics due to their versatility and to the rapid growth in protein sequence information. Today, peptide antibodies can be routinely and rapidly made to large numbers of peptides, including peptides with posttranslationally modified residues, and are used for immunoblotting, immunocytochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and immunoassays. In the future, peptide antibodies will continue to be immensely important for molecular biology, TCR- and MHC-like peptide antibodies may be produced routinely, peptide antibodies with predetermined conformational specificities may be designed, and peptide-based vaccines may become part of vaccination programs.

  14. Boosting production yield of biomedical peptides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manatt, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique is employed to monitor synthesis of biomedical peptides. Application of NMR technique may improve production yields of insulin, ACTH, and growth hormones, as well as other synthesized biomedical peptides.

  15. Insect peptides - perspectives in human diseases treatment.

    PubMed

    Chowański, Szymon; Adamski, Zbigniew; Lubawy, Jan; Marciniak, Paweł; Pacholska-Bogalska, Joanna; Słocińska, Małgorzata; Spochacz, Marta; Szymczak, Monika; Urbański, Arkadiusz; Walkowiak-Nowicka, Karolina; Rosiński, Grzegorz

    2017-05-26

    Insects are the largest and the most widely distributed group of animals in the world. Their diversity gives rise to an incredible variety of different mechanisms for the regulation of life processes. There are many agents that regulate immunology, reproduction, growth and development or metabolism. Hence, it seems that insects may be a source of numerous substances with utility for the treatment human diseases. Of particular importance in the regulation of insect physiology are peptides, including neuropeptides, peptide hormones and antimicrobial peptides. There are two main ways in which these peptides may be useful. 1) Peptides isolated from insects may become potential therapeutic drugs for different diseases. 2) Many insect peptide hormones show structural or functional homology to mammalian peptide hormones, and comparative studies may provide a new perspective on human disorders. In our review, we focused on three groups of insect-derived peptides: 1) immune-active peptides, 2) peptide hormones and 3) peptides present in venoms. In our review, we show the considerable potential of insect peptides in the search for new solutions for mammalian diseases treatment. We summarize knowledge about the properties of insect peptides against different virulent agents, and their anti-inflammatory or anti-nociceptive properties as well as compare the insect and mammalian/vertebrate peptide endocrine systems to determine the usefulness of knowledge about insect peptide hormones in drug design. The field of possible uses of insect-delivered peptides for the treatment of various human diseases has still not been sufficiently explored. Undoubtedly, more attention should be paid to insects in the search for new drugs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Free-living nematode peptides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    All nematodes employ a wide array of peptide messengers to control nearly all aspects of the life cycle, including hatching, locomotion, feeding, defense, mating, reproduction, and other behavioral and metabolic events. There are molecular and biological similarities, as well as significant differen...

  17. Acyclic peptide inhibitors of amylases.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Nicola

    2005-12-01

    In this issue of Chemistry and Biology, a library screening approach reveals a linear octapeptide inhibitor of alpha-amylases reached by de novo design . The selected molecule shares characteristics with naturally occurring protein inhibitors -- a result that suggests general rules for the design of peptide-based amylase inhibitors may be achievable.

  18. The evolution of peptide hormones.

    PubMed

    Niall, H D

    1982-01-01

    Despite limitations in our present knowledge it is already possible to discern the main features of peptide hormone evolution, since the same mechanisms (and indeed the same hormone molecules) function in many different ways. This underlying unity of organization has its basis in the tendency of biochemical networks, once established, to survive and diversify. The most surprising recent findings in endocrinology have been the discovery of vertebrate peptide hormones in multiple sites within the same organism, and the reports, persuasive but requiring confirmation, of vertebrate hormones in primitive unicellular organisms (20, 20a). Perhaps the major challenge for the future is to define the roles and interactions of the many peptide hormones identified in brain (18). The most primitive bacteria and the human brain, though an enormous evolutionary distance apart, may have more in common than we have recognized until now. As Axelrod & Hamilton have pointed out in a recent provocative article, "The Evolution of Cooperation" (1), bacteria, though lacking a brain, are capable of adaptive behavior that can be analysed in terms of game theory. It is clear that we can learn a great deal about the whole evolutionary process from a study of the versatile and durable peptide hormones molecules.

  19. Encoding physico-chemical cues in synthetic hydrogels by triple helix assembly of collagen mimetic peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Patrick

    patterns of cell-instructive cues across the PEGDA scaffold that mimic the distribution of insoluble bioactive factors in the natural ECM. Finally, we present a bifunctional CMP featuring a pro-angiogenic domain that can induce endothelial cells on synthetic scaffolds to organize into capillary-like networks. Application of this peptide to hydrogels photopatterned with CMP derivatives enables spatially directed angiogenic activation that shows great potential for microvasculature engineering.

  20. Calcitriol stimulates gene expression of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide in breast cancer cells with different phenotype.

    PubMed

    García-Quiroz, Janice; García-Becerra, Rocío; Santos-Martínez, Nancy; Avila, Euclides; Larrea, Fernando; Díaz, Lorenza

    2016-11-10

    In normal and neoplastic cells, growth-promoting, proangiogenic, cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects have all been attributed to cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP). Nevertheless, little is known about the factors regulating this peptide expression in breast cancer. Herein we asked if the well-known antineoplastic hormone calcitriol could differentially modulate CAMP gene expression in human breast cancer cells depending on the cell phenotype in terms of efficacy and potency. The established breast cancer cell lines MCF7, BT-474, HCC1806, HCC1937, SUM-229PE and a primary cell culture generated from invasive ductal breast carcinoma were used in this study. Calcitriol regulation of cathelicidin gene expression in vitro and in human breast cancer xenografts was studied by real time PCR. Tumorigenicity was evaluated for each cell line in athymic mice. Estrogen receptor (ER)α + breast cancer cells showed the highest basal CAMP gene expression. When incubated with calcitriol, CAMP gene expression was stimulated in a dose-dependent and cell phenotype-independent manner. Efficacy of calcitriol was lower in ERα + cells when compared to ERα- cells (<10 vs. >70 folds over control, respectively). Conversely, calcitriol lowest potency upon CAMP gene expression was observed in the ERα-/EGFR+ SUM-229PE cell line (EC50 = 70.8 nM), while the highest was in the basal-type/triple-negative cells HCC1806 (EC50 = 2.13 nM) followed by ERα + cells MCF7 and BT-474 (EC50 = 4.42 nM and 14.6 nM, respectively). In vivo, lower basal CAMP gene expression was related to increased tumorigenicity and lack of ERα expression. Xenografted triple-negative breast tumors of calcitriol-treated mice showed increased CAMP gene expression compared to vehicle-treated animals. Independently of the cell phenotype, calcitriol provoked a concentration-dependent stimulation on CAMP gene expression, showing greater potency in the triple negative HCC1806 cell line. Efficacy of

  1. Metabolism of Peptides by Rumen Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Wright, D. E.

    1967-01-01

    Rumen microorganisms utilize tryptic peptides from Chlorella protein, forming carbon dioxide, volatile fatty acids, and bacterial protein. Peptide carbon is more efficiently converted into bacterial protein than is amino acid carbon. A progressive degradation of the peptides was demonstrated by use of columns of Sephadex G-25. PMID:6035045

  2. Toxins and antimicrobial peptides: interactions with membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlamadinger, Diana E.; Gable, Jonathan E.; Kim, Judy E.

    2009-08-01

    The innate immunity to pathogenic invasion of organisms in the plant and animal kingdoms relies upon cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as the first line of defense. In addition to these natural peptide antibiotics, similar cationic peptides, such as the bee venom toxin melittin, act as nonspecific toxins. Molecular details of AMP and peptide toxin action are not known, but the universal function of these peptides to disrupt cell membranes of pathogenic bacteria (AMPs) or a diverse set of eukaryotes and prokaryotes (melittin) is widely accepted. Here, we have utilized spectroscopic techniques to elucidate peptide-membrane interactions of alpha-helical human and mouse AMPs of the cathelicidin family as well as the peptide toxin melittin. The activity of these natural peptides and their engineered analogs was studied on eukaryotic and prokaryotic membrane mimics consisting of <200-nm bilayer vesicles composed of anionic and neutral lipids as well as cholesterol. Vesicle disruption, or peptide potency, was monitored with a sensitive fluorescence leakage assay. Detailed molecular information on peptidemembrane interactions and peptide structure was further gained through vibrational spectroscopy combined with circular dichroism. Finally, steady-state fluorescence experiments yielded insight into the local environment of native or engineered tryptophan residues in melittin and human cathelicidin embedded in bilayer vesicles. Collectively, our results provide clues to the functional structures of the engineered and toxic peptides and may impact the design of synthetic antibiotic peptides that can be used against the growing number of antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

  3. Identification of multifunctional peptides from human milk.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Santi M; Bharti, Rashmi; Porto, William F; Gauri, Samiran S; Mandal, Mahitosh; Franco, Octavio L; Ghosh, Ananta K

    2014-06-01

    Pharmaceutical industries have renewed interest in screening multifunctional bioactive peptides as a marketable product in health care applications. In this context, several animal and plant peptides with potential bioactivity have been reported. Milk proteins and peptides have received much attention as a source of health-enhancing components to be incorporated into nutraceuticals and functional foods. By using this source, 24 peptides have been fractionated and purified from human milk using RP-HPLC. Multifunctional roles including antimicrobial, antioxidant and growth stimulating activity have been evaluated in all 24 fractions. Nevertheless, only four fractions show multiple combined activities among them. Using a proteomic approach, two of these four peptides have been identified as lactoferrin derived peptide and kappa casein short chain peptide. Lactoferrin derived peptide (f8) is arginine-rich and kappa casein derived (f12) peptide is proline-rich. Both peptides (f8 and f12) showed antimicrobial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Fraction 8 (f8) exhibits growth stimulating activity in 3T3 cell line and f12 shows higher free radical scavenging activity in comparison to other fractions. Finally, both peptides were in silico evaluated and some insights into their mechanism of action were provided. Thus, results indicate that these identified peptides have multiple biological activities which are valuable for the quick development of the neonate and may be considered as potential biotechnological products for nutraceutical industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Diverse CLE peptides from cyst nematode species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant CLAVATA3/ESR (CLE)-like peptides play diverse roles in plant growth and development including maintenance of the stem cell population in the root meristem. Small secreted peptides sharing similarity to plant CLE signaling peptides have been isolated from several cyst nematode species including...

  5. Peptide array-based characterization and design of ZnO-high affinity peptides.

    PubMed

    Okochi, Mina; Sugita, Tomoya; Furusawa, Seiji; Umetsu, Mitsuo; Adschiri, Tadafumi; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2010-08-15

    Peptides with both an affinity for ZnO and the ability to generate ZnO nanoparticles have attracted attention for the self-assembly and templating of nanoscale building blocks under ambient conditions with compositional uniformity. In this study, we have analyzed the specific binding sites of the ZnO-binding peptide, EAHVMHKVAPRP, which was identified using a phage display peptide library. The peptide binding assay against ZnO nanoparticles was performed using peptides synthesized on a cellulose membrane using the spot method. Using randomized rotation of amino acids in the ZnO-binding peptide, 125 spot-synthesized peptides were assayed. The peptide binding activity against ZnO nanoparticles varied greatly. This indicates that ZnO binding does not depend on total hydrophobicity or other physical parameters of these peptides, but rather that ZnO recognizes the specific amino acid alignment of these peptides. In addition, several peptides were found to show higher binding ability compared with that of the original peptides. Identification of important binding sites in the EAHVMHKVAPRP peptide was investigated by shortened, stepwise sequence from both termini. Interestingly, two ZnO-binding sites were found as 6-mer peptides: HVMHKV and HKVAPR. The peptides identified by amino acid substitution of HKVAPR were found to show high affinity and specificity for ZnO nanoparticles.

  6. Fabrication of Odor Sensor Using Peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotokebuchi, Yuta; Hayashi, Kenshi; Toko, Kiyoshi; Chen, Ronggang; Ikezaki, Hidekazu

    We report fabrication of an odor sensor using peptides. Peptides were designed to acquire the specific reception for a target odor molecule. Au surface of the sensor electrode was coated by the designed peptide using the method of self assembled monolayers (SAMs). Functionalized Au surfaces by the peptides were confirmed by ellipsometry and cyclic voltammetry. The odorants of vanillin, phenethyl alcohol and hexanol were discriminated by QCM sensor with the peptide surface. Moreover, we verified specific interaction between amino acid (Trp) and vanillin by fluorescence assay.

  7. Isoelectric focusing of proteins and peptides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egen, N.

    1979-01-01

    Egg-white solution was chosen as the reference solution in order to assess the effects of operational parameters (voltage, flow rate, ampholine pH range and concentration, and protein concentration) of the RIEF apparatus on protein resolution. Topics of discussion include: (1) comparison of RIEF apparatus to conventional IEF techniques (column and PAG) with respect to resolution and throughput; (2) peptide and protein separation (AHF, Thymosin - Fraction 5, vasoactive peptide, L-asparaginase and ACP); and (3) detection of peptides - dansyl derivatives of amino acids and peptides, post-focusing fluorescent labeling of amino acids, peptides and proteins, and ampholine extraction from focused gels.

  8. Peptides and Peptidomimetics for Antimicrobial Drug Design

    PubMed Central

    Mojsoska, Biljana; Jenssen, Håvard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce and highlight a few classes of traditional antimicrobial peptides with a focus on structure-activity relationship studies. After first dissecting the important physiochemical properties that influence the antimicrobial and toxic properties of antimicrobial peptides, the contributions of individual amino acids with respect to the peptides antibacterial properties are presented. A brief discussion of the mechanisms of action of different antimicrobials as well as the development of bacterial resistance towards antimicrobial peptides follows. Finally, current efforts on novel design strategies and peptidomimetics are introduced to illustrate the importance of antimicrobial peptide research in the development of future antibiotics. PMID:26184232

  9. Future directions for peptide therapeutics development.

    PubMed

    Kaspar, Allan A; Reichert, Janice M

    2013-09-01

    The notable expansion of peptide therapeutics development in the late 1990s and the 2000s led to an unprecedented number of marketing approvals in 2012 and has provided a robust pipeline that should deliver numerous approvals during the remainder of the 2010s. To document the current status of the pipeline, we collected data for peptide therapeutics in clinical studies and regulatory review, as well as those recently approved. In this Foundation review, we provide an overview of the pipeline, including therapeutic area and molecular targets, with a focus on glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists. Areas for potential expansion, for example constrained peptides and peptide-drug conjugates, are profiled.

  10. Identification of peptide targets in neuromyelitis optica

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaoli; Green, Miyoko; Gilden, Don; Lam, Chiwah; Bautista, Katherine; Bennett, Jeffrey L

    2011-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that predominantly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. Recombinant antibodies (rAbs) generated from clonally expanded plasma cells in an NMO patient are specific to AQP4 and pathogenic. We screened phage-displayed peptide libraries with these rAbs, and identified 14 high affinity linear and conformational peptides. The linear peptides shared sequence homologies with NMO autoantigen AQP4 on the extracellular surface. Competitive inhibition ELISA and immunocytochemistry demonstrated that these peptides represent epitopes of NMO autoantigen AQP4. Peptide epitopes/mimotopes may have potential uses for disease prognosis, monitoring, and therapy. PMID:21621279

  11. Antimicrobial peptides in insects; structure and function.

    PubMed

    Bulet, P; Hetru, C; Dimarcq, J L; Hoffmann, D

    1999-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides appear to be ubiquitous and multipotent components of the innate immune defense arsenal used by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. During the past 15 years a multitude of these peptides have been isolated largely from insects. In spite of great differences in size, amino acid composition and structure, most of the antimicrobial peptides from insects can be grouped into one of three categories. The largest category in number contains peptides with intramolecular disulfide bonds forming hairpin-like beta-sheets or alpha-helical-beta-sheet mixed structures. The second most important group is composed of peptides forming amphipathic alpha-helices. The third group comprises peptides with an overrepresentation in proline and/or glycine residues. In general, the insect antimicrobial peptides have a broad range of activity and are not cytotoxic. Despite a wealth of information on structural requirements for their antimicrobial activity, the mode of action of these peptides is not yet fully understood. However, some data suggest the existence of two types of mode of action: 1. through peptide-lipid interaction or 2. through receptor-mediated recognition processes. This review presents the main results obtained during the last four years in the field of antimicrobial peptides from insects with a special focus on the proline-rich and cysteine-rich peptides.

  12. Therapeutic uses of gastrointestinal peptides.

    PubMed

    Redfern, J S; O'Dorisio, T M

    1993-12-01

    The GI tract is one of nature's great pharmacies. Most, if not all, biologically active peptides can be found there, and it is quite likely that others remain to be discovered. Our ability to exploit this resource has expanded considerably over the past two decades. Advances in analytical techniques have allowed investigators to rapidly isolate and purify new compounds from tissue extracts. Sequencing and de novo synthesis of newly discovered peptides are now routine, and the structural modifications required to alter activity and tailor a compound to a particular use are easily made. A number of gastrointestinal peptides or their analogues for use in clinical studies are available from commercial sources (see Table 7). Somatostatin is the first gut peptide to successfully complete development and yield a pharmaceutical compound with a broad range of action. Several of the peptides discussed in this article have similar potential. TRH stands out as a candidate because of its effectiveness in the treatment of experimental spinal cord injury and a variety of shock states. Such a broad range of action in critical fields may justify the intensive development required to yield potent, long-acting, and highly specific analogues. Similarly, the antimetastatic and immunostimulant properties of the enkephalins offer promise for new therapies in the treatment of AIDS, ARC, and cancer. Studies with amylin may lead to new and more precise regimens of blood sugar control in insulin-dependent diabetics and could in turn, prevent some of the worst long-term effects of the disease. The development of effective intranasal forms of GHRH could spare children with GH-GHRH deficiency the distress of repeated injections and help to prevent excessive GH blood levels. Secretin, glucagon, or CGRP might be used one day in cardiovascular emergencies, and VIP or its analogues could prove effective in the treatment of asthma. Although preliminary results with many of these peptides are

  13. The First Salamander Defensin Antimicrobial Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ke; Rong, Mingqiang; Lai, Ren

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides have been widely identified from amphibian skins except salamanders. A novel antimicrobial peptide (CFBD) was isolated and characterized from skin secretions of the salamander, Cynops fudingensis. The cDNA encoding CFBD precursor was cloned from the skin cDNA library of C. fudingensis. The precursor was composed of three domains: signal peptide of 17 residues, mature peptide of 41 residues and intervening propeptide of 3 residues. There are six cysteines in the sequence of mature CFBD peptide, which possibly form three disulfide-bridges. CFBD showed antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. This peptide could be classified into family of β-defensin based on its seqeuence similarity with β-defensins from other vertebrates. Evolution analysis indicated that CFBD was close to fish β-defensin. As far as we know, CFBD is the first β-defensin antimicrobial peptide from salamanders. PMID:24386139

  14. Effect of muramyl peptides on mitochondrial respiration.

    PubMed

    El-Jamal, N; Bahr, G M; Echtay, K S

    2009-01-01

    Muramyl peptides have been shown to exert several biological activities including potentiation of humoral and cell-mediated immunity and stimulation of natural resistance. The mode of action of muramyl peptides has not been elucidated fully and the immunological activities of some derivatives have been associated with toxic effects, including pyrogenicity and inflammatory reactions. Nevertheless, the impact of muramyl peptides on mitochondrial respiration has never been addressed. In this study, the in vitro effects of muramyl peptides on rat liver mitochondria were examined. Toxic muramyl peptides induced a significant decrease in respiratory control ratio versus non-toxic analogues. These results were confirmed by in vivo studies in mice and were extended to mitochondria isolated from spleens. Our data address, for the first time, the effect of muramyl peptides on mitochondrial bioenergetics. Further studies are required to reveal the mechanism of mitochondrial toxicity in relation to the damaging effects of toxic muramyl peptides.

  15. Biology of the CAPA peptides in insects.

    PubMed

    Predel, R; Wegener, C

    2006-11-01

    CAPA peptides have been isolated from a broad range of insect species as well as an arachnid, and can be grouped into the periviscerokinin and pyrokinin peptide families. In insects, CAPA peptides are the characteristic and most abundant neuropeptides in the abdominal neurohemal system. In many species, CAPA peptides exert potent myotropic effects on different muscles such as the heart. In others, including blood-sucking insects able to transmit serious diseases, CAPA peptides have strong diuretic or anti-diuretic effects and thus are potentially of medical importance. CAPA peptides undergo cell-type-specific sorting and packaging, and are the first insect neuropeptides shown to be differentially processed. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge on the structure, distribution, receptors and physiological actions of the CAPA peptides.

  16. The first salamander defensin antimicrobial peptide.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ping; Yang, Shilong; Shen, Chuanbin; Jiang, Ke; Rong, Mingqiang; Lai, Ren

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides have been widely identified from amphibian skins except salamanders. A novel antimicrobial peptide (CFBD) was isolated and characterized from skin secretions of the salamander, Cynops fudingensis. The cDNA encoding CFBD precursor was cloned from the skin cDNA library of C. fudingensis. The precursor was composed of three domains: signal peptide of 17 residues, mature peptide of 41 residues and intervening propeptide of 3 residues. There are six cysteines in the sequence of mature CFBD peptide, which possibly form three disulfide-bridges. CFBD showed antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. This peptide could be classified into family of β-defensin based on its sequence similarity with β-defensins from other vertebrates. Evolution analysis indicated that CFBD was close to fish β-defensin. As far as we know, CFBD is the first β-defensin antimicrobial peptide from salamanders.

  17. Anionic phospholipids modulate peptide insertion into membranes.

    PubMed

    Liu, L P; Deber, C M

    1997-05-06

    While the insertion of a hydrophobic peptide or membrane protein segment into the bilayer can be spontaneous and driven mainly by the hydrophobic effect, anionic lipids, which comprise ca. 20% of biological membranes, provide a source of electrostatic attractions for binding of proteins/peptides into membranes. To unravel the interplay of hydrophobicity and electrostatics in the binding of peptides into membranes, we designed peptides de novo which possess the typical sequence Lys-Lys-Ala-Ala-Ala-X-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-X-Ala-Ala-Trp-Ala-Ala-X-Ala-Al a-Ala-Lys-Lys-Lys-Lys-amide, where X residues correspond to "guest" residues which encompass a range of hydrophobicity (Leu, Ile, Gly, and Ser). Circular dichroism spectra demonstrated that peptides were partially (40-90%) random in aqueous buffer but were promoted to form 100% alpha-helical structures by anionic lipid micelles. In neutral lipid micelles, only the relatively hydrophobic peptides (X = L and I) spontaneously adopted the alpha-helical conformation, but when 25% of negatively charged lipids were mixed in to mimic the content of anionic lipids in biomembranes, the less hydrophobic (X = S and G) peptides then formed alpha-helical conformations. Consistent with these findings, fluorescence quenching by the aqueous-phase quencher iodide indicated that in anionic (dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol) vesicles, the peptide Trp residue was buried in the lipid vesicle hydrophobic core, while in neutral (dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine) vesicles, only hydrophobic (X = L and I) peptides were shielded from the aqueous solution. Trp emission spectra of peptides in the presence of phospholipids doxyl-labeled at the 5-, 7-, 10-, 12-, and 16-fatty acid positions implied not only a transbilayer orientation for inserted peptides but also that mixed peptide populations (transbilayer + surface-associated) may arise. Overall results suggest that for hydrophobic peptides with segmental threshold hydrophobicity below that which

  18. RFamide peptides in agnathans and basal chordates.

    PubMed

    Osugi, Tomohiro; Son, You Lee; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Satake, Honoo; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Since a peptide with a C-terminal Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide peptide) was first identified in the ganglia of the venus clam in 1977, RFamide peptides have been found in the nervous system of both invertebrates and vertebrates. In vertebrates, the RFamide peptide family includes gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), neuropeptide FF (NPFF), prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide/26RFamide peptide (QRFP/26RFa), and kisspeptins (kiss1 and kiss2). They are involved in important functions such as the release of hormones, regulation of sexual or social behavior, pain transmission, reproduction, and feeding. In contrast to tetrapods and jawed fish, the information available on RFamide peptides in agnathans and basal chordates is limited, thus preventing further insights into the evolution of RFamide peptides in vertebrates. In this review, we focus on the previous research and recent advances in the studies on RFamide peptides in agnathans and basal chordates. In agnathans, the genes encoding GnIH, NPFF, and PrRP precursors and the mature peptides have been identified in lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and hagfish (Paramyxine atami). Putative kiss1 and kiss2 genes have also been found in the genome database of lamprey. In basal chordates, namely, in amphioxus (Branchiostoma japonicum), a common ancestral form of GnIH and NPFF genes and their mature peptides, as well as the ortholog of the QRFP gene have been identified. The studies revealed that the number of orthologs of vertebrate RFamide peptides present in agnathans and basal chordates is greater than expected, suggesting that the vertebrate RFamide peptides might have emerged and expanded at an early stage of chordate evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Peptides and methods against diabetes

    DOEpatents

    Albertini, Richard J.; Falta, Michael T.

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to methods of preventing or reducing the severity of diabetes. In one embodiment, the method involves administering to the individual a peptide having substantially the sequence of a on-conserved region sequence of a T cell receptor present on the surface of T cells mediating diabetes or a fragment thereof, wherein the peptide or fragment is capable of causing an effect on the immune system to regulate the T cells. In particular, the T cell receptor has the V.beta. regional V.beta.6 or V.beta.14. In another embodiment, the method involves gene therapy. The invention also relates to methods of diagnosing diabetes by determining the presence of diabetes predominant T cell receptors.

  20. Analysis of peptide uptake and location of root hair-promoting peptide accumulation in plant roots.

    PubMed

    Matsumiya, Yoshiki; Taniguchi, Rikiya; Kubo, Motoki

    2012-03-01

    Peptide uptake by plant roots from degraded soybean-meal products was analyzed in Brassica rapa and Solanum lycopersicum. B. rapa absorbed about 40% of the initial water volume, whereas peptide concentration was decreased by 75% after 24 h. Analysis by reversed-phase HPLC showed that number of peptides was absorbed by the roots during soaking in degraded soybean-meal products for 24 h. Carboxyfluorescein-labeled root hair-promoting peptide was synthesized, and its localization, movement, and accumulation in roots were investigated. The peptide appeared to be absorbed by root hairs and then moved to trichoblasts. Furthermore, the peptide was moved from trichoblasts to atrichoblasts after 24 h. The peptide was accumulated in epidermal cells, suggesting that the peptide may have a function in both trichoblasts and atrichoblasts. Copyright © 2012 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Taylor Dispersion Analysis as a promising tool for assessment of peptide-peptide interactions.

    PubMed

    Høgstedt, Ulrich B; Schwach, Grégoire; van de Weert, Marco; Østergaard, Jesper

    2016-10-10

    Protein-protein and peptide-peptide (self-)interactions are of key importance in understanding the physiochemical behavior of proteins and peptides in solution. However, due to the small size of peptide molecules, characterization of these interactions is more challenging than for proteins. In this work, we show that protein-protein and peptide-peptide interactions can advantageously be investigated by measurement of the diffusion coefficient using Taylor Dispersion Analysis. Through comparison to Dynamic Light Scattering it was shown that Taylor Dispersion Analysis is well suited for the characterization of protein-protein interactions of solutions of α-lactalbumin and human serum albumin. The peptide-peptide interactions of three selected peptides were then investigated in a concentration range spanning from 0.5mg/ml up to 80mg/ml using Taylor Dispersion Analysis. The peptide-peptide interactions determination indicated that multibody interactions significantly affect the PPIs at concentration levels above 25mg/ml for the two charged peptides. Relative viscosity measurements, performed using the capillary based setup applied for Taylor Dispersion Analysis, showed that the viscosity of the peptide solutions increased with concentration. Our results indicate that a viscosity difference between run buffer and sample in Taylor Dispersion Analysis may result in overestimation of the measured diffusion coefficient. Thus, Taylor Dispersion Analysis provides a practical, but as yet primarily qualitative, approach to assessment of the colloidal stability of both peptide and protein formulations.

  2. Antimicrobial Peptides in Human Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lukas; van Meegern, Anne; Doemming, Sabine; Schuerholz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 100 years ago, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were identified as an important part of innate immunity. They exist in species from bacteria to mammals and can be isolated in body fluids and on surfaces constitutively or induced by inflammation. Defensins have anti-bacterial effects against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as anti-viral and anti-yeast effects. Human neutrophil peptides (HNP) 1–3 and human beta-defensins (HBDs) 1–3 are some of the most important defensins in humans. Recent studies have demonstrated higher levels of HNP 1–3 and HBD-2 in sepsis. The bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) attenuates local inflammatory response and decreases systemic toxicity of endotoxins. Moreover, BPI might reflect the severity of organ dysfunction in sepsis. Elevated plasma lactoferrin is detected in patients with organ failure. HNP 1–3, lactoferrin, BPI, and heparin-binding protein are increased in sepsis. Human lactoferrin peptide 1–11 (hLF 1–11) possesses antimicrobial activity and modulates inflammation. The recombinant form of lactoferrin [talactoferrin alpha (TLF)] has been shown to decrease mortality in critically ill patients. A phase II/III study with TLF in sepsis did not confirm this result. The growing number of multiresistant bacteria is an ongoing problem in sepsis therapy. Furthermore, antibiotics are known to promote the liberation of pro-inflammatory cell components and thus augment the severity of sepsis. Compared to antibiotics, AMPs kill bacteria but also neutralize pathogenic factors such as lipopolysaccharide. The obstacle to applying naturally occurring AMPs is their high nephro- and neurotoxicity. Therefore, the challenge is to develop peptides to treat septic patients effectively without causing harm. This overview focuses on natural and synthetic AMPs in human and experimental sepsis and their potential to provide significant improvements in the treatment of critically ill with severe infections

  3. Antihypertensive Peptides from Milk Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jäkälä, Pauliina; Vapaatalo, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    Dietary proteins possess a wide range of nutritional and functional properties. They are used as a source of energy and amino acids, which are needed for growth and development. Many dietary proteins, especially milk proteins, contain physiologically active peptides encrypted in the protein sequence. These peptides may be released during gastrointestinal digestion or food processing and once liberated, cause different physiological functions. Milk-derived bioactive peptides are shown to have antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, antioxidative and mineral-binding properties. During the fermentation of milk with certain lactobacilli, two interesting tripeptides Ile-Pro-Pro and Val-Pro-Pro are released from casein to the final product. These lactotripeptides have attenuated the development of hypertension in several animal models and lowered blood pressure in clinical studies. They inhibit ACE in vitro at micromolar concentrations, protect endothelial function in vitro and reduce arterial stiffness in humans. Thus, milk as a traditional food product can after certain processing serve as a functional food and carry specific health-promoting effects, providing an option to control blood pressure. PMID:27713251

  4. Biopharmaceuticals: From peptide to drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannappel, Margarete

    2017-08-01

    Biologics are therapeutic proteins or peptides that are produced by means of biological processes within living organisms and cells. They are highly specific molecules and play a crucial role as therapeutics for the treatment of severe and chronic diseases (e.g. cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, autoimmune disorders). The development of new biologics and biologics-based drugs gains more and more importance in the fight against various diseases. A short overview on biotherapeutical drug development is given. Cone snails are a large group of poisonous, predatory sea snails with more than 700 species. They use a very powerful venom which rapidly inactivates and paralyzes their prey. Most bioactive venom components are small peptides (conotoxins, conopeptides) which are precisely directed towards a specific target (e.g. ion channel, receptors). Due to their small size, their precision and speed of action, naturally occurring cone snail venom peptides represent an attractive source for the identification and design of novel biological drug entities. The Jagna cone snail project is an encouraging initiative to map the ecological variety of cone snails around the island of Bohol (Philippines) and to conserve the biological information for potential future application.

  5. Antimicrobial Peptides: Versatile Biological Properties

    PubMed Central

    Pushpanathan, Muthuirulan; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are diverse group of biologically active molecules with multidimensional properties. In recent past, a wide variety of AMPs with diverse structures have been reported from different sources such as plants, animals, mammals, and microorganisms. The presence of unusual amino acids and structural motifs in AMPs confers unique structural properties to the peptide that attribute for their specific mode of action. The ability of these active AMPs to act as multifunctional effector molecules such as signalling molecule, immune modulators, mitogen, antitumor, and contraceptive agent makes it an interesting candidate to study every aspect of their structural and biological properties for prophylactic and therapeutic applications. In addition, easy cloning and recombinant expression of AMPs in heterologous plant host systems provided a pipeline for production of disease resistant transgenic plants. Besides these properties, AMPs were also used as drug delivery vectors to deliver cell impermeable drugs to cell interior. The present review focuses on the diversity and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of AMPs along with its multidimensional properties that could be exploited for the application of these bioactive peptides as a potential and promising drug candidate in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23935642

  6. Recent Advances in Peptide Immunomodulators.

    PubMed

    Zerfas, Breanna L; Gao, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    With the continued rise in antibiotic-resistant bacteria, there is an immense need for the development of new therapeutic agents. Host-defense peptides (HDPs) offer a unique alternative to many of the current approved antibiotics. By targeting the host rather than the pathogen, HDPs offer several benefits over traditional small molecule drug treatments, such as a slower propensity towards resistance, broad-spectrum activity and lower risk of patients developing sepsis. However, natural peptide structures have many disadvantages as well, including susceptibility to proteolytic degradation, significant costs of synthesis and host toxicity. For this reason, much work has been done to examine peptidomimetic structures, in the hopes of finding a structure with all of the desired qualities of an antibiotic drug. Recently, this research has included synthetic constructs that mimic the behavior of HDPs but have no structural similarity to peptides. This review article focuses on the progression of this field of research, beginning with an analysis of a few prominent examples of natural HDPs and moving on to describe how the information learned by studying them have led to the current design platforms.

  7. Bioprospecting open reading frames for peptide effectors.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ling; Scott, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Recent successes in the development of small-molecule antagonists of protein-protein interactions designed based on co-crystal structures of peptides bound to their biological targets confirm that short peptides derived from interacting proteins can be high-value ligands for pharmacologic validation of targets and for identification of druggable sites. Evolved sequence space is likely to be enriched for interacting peptides, but identifying minimal peptide effectors within genomic sequence can be labor intensive. Here we describe the use of incremental truncation to diversify genetic material on the scale of open reading frames into comprehensive libraries of constituent peptides. The approach is capable of generating peptides derived from both continuous and discontinuous sequence elements, and is compatible with the expression of free linear or backbone cyclic peptides, with peptides tethered to amino- or carboxyl-terminal fusion partners or with the expression of peptides displayed within protein scaffolds (peptide aptamers). Incremental truncation affords a valuable source of molecular diversity to interrogate the druggable genome or evaluate the therapeutic potential of candidate genes.

  8. Stability of peptide drugs in the colon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Yadav, Vipul; Smart, Alice L; Tajiri, Shinichiro; Basit, Abdul W

    2015-10-12

    This study was the first to investigate the colonic stability of 17 peptide molecules (insulin, calcitonin, glucagon, secretin, somatostatin, desmopressin, oxytocin, Arg-vasopressin, octreotide, ciclosporin, leuprolide, nafarelin, buserelin, histrelin, [D-Ser(4)]-gonadorelin, deslorelin, and goserelin) in a model of the large intestine using mixed human faecal bacteria. Of these, the larger peptides - insulin, calcitonin, somatostatin, glucagon and secretin - were metabolized rapidly, with complete degradation observed within 5 min. In contrast, a number of the smaller peptides - Arg-vasopressin, desmopressin, oxytocin, gonadorelin, goserelin, buserelin, leuprolide, nafarelin and deslorelin - degraded more slowly, while octreotide, histrelin and ciclosporin were seen to be more stable as compared to the other small peptides under the same conditions. Peptide degradation rate was directly correlated to peptide lipophilicity (logP); those peptides with a higher logP were more stable in the colonic model (R(2)=0.94). In the absence of human faecal bacteria, all peptides were stable. This study highlights the impact of the colonic environment - in particular, the gut microbiota - on the metabolism of peptide drugs, and identifies potential peptide candidates for drug delivery to the colon.

  9. Pharmaceutical and pharmacological importance of peptide transporters.

    PubMed

    Brandsch, Matthias; Knütter, Ilka; Bosse-Doenecke, Eva

    2008-05-01

    Peptide transport is currently a prominent topic in membrane research. The transport proteins involved are under intense investigation because of their physiological importance in protein absorption and also because peptide transporters are possible vehicles for drug delivery. Moreover, in many tissues peptide carriers transduce peptidic signals across membranes that are relevant in information processing. The focus of this review is on the pharmaceutical relevance of the human peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2. In addition to their physiological substrates, both carriers transport many beta-lactam antibiotics, valaciclovir and other drugs and prodrugs because of their sterical resemblance to di- and tripeptides. The primary structure, tissue distribution and substrate specificity of PEPT1 and PEPT2 have been well characterized. However, there is a dearth of knowledge on the substrate binding sites and the three-dimensional structure of these proteins. Until this pivotal information becomes available by X-ray crystallography, the development of new drug substrates relies on classical transport studies combined with molecular modelling. In more than thirty years of research, data on the interaction of well over 700 di- and tripeptides, amino acid and peptide derivatives, drugs and prodrugs with peptide transporters have been gathered. The aim of this review is to put the reports on peptide transporter-mediated drug uptake into perspective. We also review the current knowledge on pharmacogenomics and clinical relevance of human peptide transporters. Finally, the reader's attention is drawn to other known or proposed human peptide-transporting proteins.

  10. Structure-function relationships of antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Hwang, P M; Vogel, H J

    1998-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are ubiquitously produced throughout nature. Many of these relatively short peptides (6-50 residues) are lethal towards bacteria and fungi, yet they display minimal toxicity towards mammalian cells. All of the peptides are highly cationic and hydrophobic. It is widely believed that they act through nonspecific binding to biological membranes, even though the exact nature of these interactions is presently unclear. High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has contributed greatly to knowledge in this field, providing insight about peptide structure in aqueous solution, in organic cosolvents, and in micellar systems. Solid-state NMR can provide additional information about peptide-membrane binding. Here we review our current knowledge about the structure of antimicrobial peptides. We also discuss studies pertaining to the mechanism of action. Despite the different three-dimensional structural motifs of the various classes, they all have similar amphiphilic surfaces that are well-suited for membrane binding. Many antimicrobial peptides bind in a membrane-parallel orientation, interacting only with one face of the bilayer. This may be sufficient for antimicrobial action. At higher concentrations, peptides and phospholipids translocate to form multimeric transmembrane channels that seem to contribute to the peptide's hemolytic activity. An understanding of the key features of the secondary and tertiary structures of the antimicrobial peptides and their effects on bactericidal and hemolytic activity can aid the rational design of improved analogs for clinical use.

  11. Hemolysis Affects C-Peptide Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-Qi; Lu, Ju; Xu, Hua-Guo

    2016-11-01

    C-peptide is used widely as a marker of insulin secretion, and it participates in the inflammatory response and contributes to the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Previous studies have reported that C-peptide measurement was unaffected by hemolysis. However, we found that hemolysis negatively affected C-peptide assay in routine laboratory practice. We further established and validated an individualized hemolysis correction equation to correct and report accurate serum C-peptide results for hemolyzed samples. We studied the effects of hemolysis on C-peptide assay by adding lysed self red blood cells (self-RBCs) to serum. An individualized correction equation was derived. Further, we evaluated the performance of this individualized correction equation by artificially hemolyzed samples. C-peptide concentration decreased with increasing degree and exposure time of hemolysis. The individualized hemolysis correction equation derived: C-Pcorr = C-Pmeas /(0.969-1.5Hbserum/plasma -5.394 ×10(-5) Time), which can correct bias in C-peptide measurement caused by hemolysis. Hemolysis negatively affects C-peptide measurement. We can correct and report accurate serum C-peptide results for a wide range of degrees of sample hemolysis by individualized hemolysis correction equation for C-peptide assay. This correction would improve diagnostic accuracy and reduce inappropriate therapeutic decisions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Predicting protein-peptide interactions from scratch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Chengfei; Xu, Xianjin; Zou, Xiaoqin; Zou lab Team

    Protein-peptide interactions play an important role in many cellular processes. The ability to predict protein-peptide complex structures is valuable for mechanistic investigation and therapeutic development. Due to the high flexibility of peptides and lack of templates for homologous modeling, predicting protein-peptide complex structures is extremely challenging. Recently, we have developed a novel docking framework for protein-peptide structure prediction. Specifically, given the sequence of a peptide and a 3D structure of the protein, initial conformations of the peptide are built through protein threading. Then, the peptide is globally and flexibly docked onto the protein using a novel iterative approach. Finally, the sampled modes are scored and ranked by a statistical potential-based energy scoring function that was derived for protein-peptide interactions from statistical mechanics principles. Our docking methodology has been tested on the Peptidb database and compared with other protein-peptide docking methods. Systematic analysis shows significantly improved results compared to the performances of the existing methods. Our method is computationally efficient and suitable for large-scale applications. Nsf CAREER Award 0953839 (XZ) NIH R01GM109980 (XZ).

  13. Human Antimicrobial Peptides and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangshun

    2014-01-01

    As the key components of innate immunity, human host defense antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs) play a critical role in warding off invading microbial pathogens. In addition, AMPs can possess other biological functions such as apoptosis, wound healing, and immune modulation. This article provides an overview on the identification, activity, 3D structure, and mechanism of action of human AMPs selected from the antimicrobial peptide database. Over 100 such peptides have been identified from a variety of tissues and epithelial surfaces, including skin, eyes, ears, mouths, gut, immune, nervous and urinary systems. These peptides vary from 10 to 150 amino acids with a net charge between −3 and +20 and a hydrophobic content below 60%. The sequence diversity enables human AMPs to adopt various 3D structures and to attack pathogens by different mechanisms. While α-defensin HD-6 can self-assemble on the bacterial surface into nanonets to entangle bacteria, both HNP-1 and β-defensin hBD-3 are able to block cell wall biosynthesis by binding to lipid II. Lysozyme is well-characterized to cleave bacterial cell wall polysaccharides but can also kill bacteria by a non-catalytic mechanism. The two hydrophobic domains in the long amphipathic α-helix of human cathelicidin LL-37 lays the basis for binding and disrupting the curved anionic bacterial membrane surfaces by forming pores or via the carpet model. Furthermore, dermcidin may serve as ion channel by forming a long helix-bundle structure. In addition, the C-type lectin RegIIIα can initially recognize bacterial peptidoglycans followed by pore formation in the membrane. Finally, histatin 5 and GAPDH(2-32) can enter microbial cells to exert their effects. It appears that granulysin enters cells and kills intracellular pathogens with the aid of pore-forming perforin. This arsenal of human defense proteins not only keeps us healthy but also inspires the development of a new generation of personalized medicine to

  14. A proposed bioactive conformation of Peptide T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centeno, Nuria B.; Perez, Juan J.

    1998-01-01

    The conformational profiles of Peptide T, (5-8)Peptide T, [Abu5](4-8)Peptide T and (4-8)Peptide T were computed independently to assess the geometrical characteristics of the bioactive conformation of Peptide T. The conformational profiles of the peptides were computed within the molecular mechanics framework using an effective dielectric constant of 80. The conformational space was thoroughly sampled using an iterative simulated annealing protocol. The bioactive conformation was assessed by pairwise cross comparisons of each of the unique low energy conformations found for each of the different analogs studied. After a putative bioactive conformation was selected, in order to further validate our hypothesis the conformational profile of the potent compound cyclo(Thr-Thr-Asn-Tyr-Thr-Asp) was computed and the putative bioactive conformation was found. The conformation exhibits a pseudo β-turn involving the side chain of Thr5 and the carbonyl oxygen of Tyr7 forming a C12 ring.

  15. Peptide YY receptors in the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Inui, A.; Oya, M.; Okita, M.; Inoue, T.; Sakatani, N.; Morioka, H.; Shii, K.; Yokono, K.; Mizuno, N.; Baba, S.

    1988-01-15

    Radiolabelled ligand binding studies demonstrated that specific receptors for peptide YY are present in the porcine as well as the canine brains. Peptide YY was bound to brain tissue membranes via high-affinity (dissociation constant, 1.39 X 10(-10)M) and low-affinity (dissociation constant, 3.72 X 10(-8)M) components. The binding sites showed a high specificity for peptide YY and neuropeptide Y, but not for pancreatic polypeptide or structurally unrelated peptides. The specific activity of peptide YY binding was highest in the hippocampus, followed by the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus, and the amygdala of the porcine brain, this pattern being similarly observed in the canine brain. The results suggest that peptide YY and neuropeptide Y may regulate the function of these regions of the brain through interaction with a common receptor site.

  16. Toward structure prediction of cyclic peptides.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongtao; Lin, Yu-Shan

    2015-02-14

    Cyclic peptides are a promising class of molecules that can be used to target specific protein-protein interactions. A computational method to accurately predict their structures would substantially advance the development of cyclic peptides as modulators of protein-protein interactions. Here, we develop a computational method that integrates bias-exchange metadynamics simulations, a Boltzmann reweighting scheme, dihedral principal component analysis and a modified density peak-based cluster analysis to provide a converged structural description for cyclic peptides. Using this method, we evaluate the performance of a number of popular protein force fields on a model cyclic peptide. All the tested force fields seem to over-stabilize the α-helix and PPII/β regions in the Ramachandran plot, commonly populated by linear peptides and proteins. Our findings suggest that re-parameterization of a force field that well describes the full Ramachandran plot is necessary to accurately model cyclic peptides.

  17. Genetic mechanisms of scorpion venom peptide diversification.

    PubMed

    Zhijian, Cao; Feng, Luo; Yingliang, Wu; Xin, Mao; Wenxin, Li

    2006-03-01

    The diversity of scorpion venom peptides is well shown by the presence of about 400 such polypeptides with or without disulfide bonds. Scorpion toxins with disulfide bonds present a variety of sequence features and pharmacological functions by affecting different ion channels, while the venom peptides without disulfide bonds represent a new subfamily, having much lower sequence homology among each other and different functions (e.g. bradykinin-potentiating, antimicrobial, molecular cell signal initiating and immune modulating). Interestingly, all scorpion venom peptides with divergent functions may have evolved from a common ancestor gene. Over the lengthy evolutionary time, the diversification of scorpion venom peptides evolved through polymorphism, duplication, trans-splicing, or alternative splicing at the gene level. In order to completely clarify the diversity of scorpion toxins and toxin-like peptides, toxinomics (genomics and proteomics of scorpion toxins and toxin-like peptides) are expected to greatly advance in the near future.

  18. Anti-angiogenic peptides for cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Rosca, Elena V.; Koskimaki, Jacob E.; Rivera, Corban G.; Pandey, Niranjan B.; Tamiz, Amir P.; Popel, Aleksander S.

    2011-01-01

    Peptides have emerged as important therapeutics that are being rigorously tested in angiogenesis-dependent diseases due to their low toxicity and high specificity. Since the discovery of endogenous proteins and protein fragments that inhibit microvessel formation (thrombospondin, endostatin) several peptides have shown promise in pre-clinical and clinical studies for cancer. Peptides have been derived from thrombospondin, collagens, chemokines, coagulation cascade proteins, growth factors, and other classes of proteins and target different receptors. Here we survey recent developments for anti-angiogenic peptides with length not exceeding 50 amino acid residues that have shown activity in pre-clinical models of cancer or have been tested in clinical trials; some of the peptides have been modified and optimized, e.g., through L-to-D and non-natural amino acid substitutions. We highlight technological advances in peptide discovery and optimization including computational and bioinformatics tools and novel experimental techniques. PMID:21470139

  19. Ribosomally encoded cyclic peptide toxins from mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Walton, Jonathan D; Luo, Hong; Hallen-Adams, Heather

    2012-01-01

    The cyclic peptide toxins of poisonous Amanita mushrooms are chemically unique among known natural products. Furthermore, they differ from other fungal cyclic peptides in being synthesized on ribosomes instead of by nonribosomal peptide synthetases. Because of their novel structures and biogenic origins, elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway of the Amanita cyclic peptides presents both challenges and opportunities. In particular, a full understanding of the pathway should lead to the ability to direct synthesis of a large number of novel cyclic peptides based on the Amanita toxin scaffold by genetic engineering of the encoding genes. Here, we highlight some of the principal methods for working with the Amanita cyclic peptides and the known steps in their biosynthesis.

  20. Formulation strategies to improve oral peptide delivery.

    PubMed

    Maher, Sam; Ryan, Ben; Duffy, Aoife; Brayden, David J

    2014-05-01

    Delivery of peptides by the oral route greatly appeals due to commercial, patient convenience and scientific arguments. While there are over 60 injectable peptides marketed worldwide, and many more in development, most delivery strategies do not yet adequately overcome the barriers to oral delivery. Peptides are sensitive to chemical and enzymatic degradation in the intestine, and are poorly permeable across the intestinal epithelium due to sub-optimal physicochemical properties. A successful oral peptide delivery technology should protect potent peptides from presystemic degradation and improve epithelial permeation to achieve a target oral bioavailability with acceptable intra-subject variability. This review provides a comprehensive up-to-date overview of the current status of oral peptide delivery with an emphasis on patented formulations that are yielding promising clinical data.

  1. Cryptic Peptides from Collagen: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Pradipta; Shanthi, C

    2016-01-01

    Collagen, a predominant structural protein in extracellular matrix (ECM), is now considered to have probable roles in many biological activities and hence, in different forms have found application as nutraceutical or pharmaceutical therapy option. Many of the biological properties are believed to be due to small hidden peptide residues in the collagen molecules, which come into play after the biodegradation or biosorption of the parent molecule. These peptide regions are called cryptic peptides or by some, as cryptides. The proteolytic hydrolysis of the ECM protein releases the cryptic peptides with many novel biological activities not exhibited directly by the parental protein which include angiogenic, antimicrobial, mitogenic and chemotactic properties. The research for understanding the role of these cryptic peptide regions and making use of them in medical field is very active. Such an understanding could lead to the development of peptide supplements for many biomedical applications. The prolific research in this area is reviewed in this paper.

  2. Synthesis of peptide .alpha.-thioesters

    DOEpatents

    Camarero, Julio A.; Mitchell, Alexander R.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2008-08-19

    Disclosed herein is a new method for the solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) of C-terminal peptide .alpha. thioesters using Fmoc/t-Bu chemistry. This method is based on the use of an aryl hydrazine linker, which is totally stable to conditions required for Fmoc-SPPS. When the peptide synthesis has been completed, activation of the linker is achieved by mild oxidation. The oxidation step converts the acyl-hydrazine group into a highly reactive acyl-diazene intermediate which reacts with an .alpha.-amino acid alkylthioester (H-AA-SR) to yield the corresponding peptide .alpha.-thioester in good yield. A variety of peptide thioesters, cyclic peptides and a fully functional Src homology 3 (SH3) protein domain have been successfully prepared.

  3. Methionine peptide formation under primordial earth conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Fitz, Daniel; Fraser, Donald G; Rode, Bernd M

    2008-01-01

    According to recent research on the origin of life it seems more and more likely that amino acids and peptides were among the first biomolecules formed on earth and that a peptide/protein world was thus a key starting point in evolution towards life. Salt-induced Peptide Formation (SIPF) has repeatedly been shown to be the most universal and plausible peptide-forming reaction currently known under prebiotic conditions and forms peptides from amino acids with the help of copper ions and sodium chloride. In this paper we present experimental results for salt-induced peptide formation from methionine. This is the first time that a sulphur-containing amino acid was investigated in this reaction. The possible catalytic effects of glycine and L-histidine in this reaction were also investigated and a possible distinction between the L- and D-forms of methionine was studied as well.

  4. Anti-angiogenic peptides for cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Rosca, Elena V; Koskimaki, Jacob E; Rivera, Corban G; Pandey, Niranjan B; Tamiz, Amir P; Popel, Aleksander S

    2011-08-01

    Peptides have emerged as important therapeutics that are being rigorously tested in angiogenesis-dependent diseases due to their low toxicity and high specificity. Since the discovery of endogenous proteins and protein fragments that inhibit microvessel formation (thrombospondin, endostatin) several peptides have shown promise in pre-clinical and clinical studies for cancer. Peptides have been derived from thrombospondin, collagens, chemokines, coagulation cascade proteins, growth factors, and other classes of proteins and target different receptors. Here we survey recent developments for anti-angiogenic peptides with length not exceeding 50 amino acid residues that have shown activity in pre-clinical models of cancer or have been tested in clinical trials; some of the peptides have been modified and optimized, e.g., through L-to-D and non-natural amino acid substitutions. We highlight technological advances in peptide discovery and optimization including computational and bioinformatics tools and novel experimental techniques.

  5. β Adrenergic Receptor Kinase C-Terminal Peptide Gene-Therapy Improves β2-Adrenergic Receptor-Dependent Neoangiogenesis after Hindlimb Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Cannavo, Alessandro; Liccardo, Daniela; Lymperopoulos, Anastasios; Gambino, Giuseppina; D'Amico, Maria Loreta; Rengo, Franco; Koch, Walter J; Leosco, Dario; Ferrara, Nicola; Rengo, Giuseppe

    2016-02-01

    After hindlimb ischemia (HI), increased catecholamine levels within the ischemic muscle can cause dysregulation of β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) signaling, leading to reduced revascularization. Indeed, in vivo β2AR overexpression via gene therapy enhances angiogenesis in a rat model of HI. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a key regulator of βAR signaling, and β adrenergic receptor kinase C-terminal peptide (βARKct), a peptide inhibitor of GRK2, has been shown to prevent βAR down-regulation and to protect cardiac myocytes and stem cells from ischemic injury through restoration of β2AR protective signaling (i.e., protein kinase B/endothelial nitric oxide synthase). Herein, we tested the potential therapeutic effects of adenoviral-mediated βARKct gene transfer in an experimental model of HI and its effects on βAR signaling and on endothelial cell (EC) function in vitro. Accordingly, in this study, we surgically induced HI in rats by femoral artery resection (FAR). Fifteen days of ischemia resulted in significant βAR down-regulation that was paralleled by an approximately 2-fold increase in GRK2 levels in the ischemic muscle. Importantly, in vivo gene transfer of the βARKct in the hindlimb of rats at the time of FAR resulted in a marked improvement of hindlimb perfusion, with increased capillary and βAR density in the ischemic muscle, compared with control groups. The effect of βARKct expression was also assessed in vitro in cultured ECs. Interestingly, ECs expressing the βARKct fenoterol, a β2AR-agonist, induced enhanced β2AR proangiogenic signaling and increased EC function. Our results suggest that βARKct gene therapy and subsequent GRK2 inhibition promotes angiogenesis in a model of HI by preventing ischemia-induced β2AR down-regulation.

  6. GAMPMS: Genetic algorithm managed peptide mutant screening.

    PubMed

    Long, Thomas; McDougal, Owen M; Andersen, Tim

    2015-06-30

    The prominence of endogenous peptide ligands targeted to receptors makes peptides with the desired binding activity good molecular scaffolds for drug development. Minor modifications to a peptide's primary sequence can significantly alter its binding properties with a receptor, and screening collections of peptide mutants is a useful technique for probing the receptor-ligand binding domain. Unfortunately, the combinatorial growth of such collections can limit the number of mutations which can be explored using structure-based molecular docking techniques. Genetic algorithm managed peptide mutant screening (GAMPMS) uses a genetic algorithm to conduct a heuristic search of the peptide's mutation space for peptides with optimal binding activity, significantly reducing the computational requirements of the virtual screening. The GAMPMS procedure was implemented and used to explore the binding domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α3β2-isoform with a library of 64,000 α-conotoxin (α-CTx) MII peptide mutants. To assess GAMPMS's performance, it was compared with a virtual screening procedure that used AutoDock to predict the binding affinity of each of the α-CTx MII peptide mutants with the α3β2-nAChR. The GAMPMS implementation performed AutoDock simulations for as few as 1140 of the 64,000 α-CTx MII peptide mutants and could consistently identify a set of 10 peptides with an aggregated binding energy that was at least 98% of the aggregated binding energy of the 10 top peptides from the exhaustive AutoDock screening.

  7. Tulane/Xavier Vaccine Peptide Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Flufirvitide-3 and other therapeutic peptides. Therapeutic peptides can be delivered in a non-invasive manner through the nasal mucosa and through the...explored through the fabrication of particles encapsulating the peptide that are specifically suited for nasal and pulmonary delivery. The micro- and...nanometer-sized silk particles. Nasal administration of soluble Flufirvitide-3 both pre- and post-exposure to influenza virus has been shown to be effective

  8. Insect inducible antimicrobial peptides and their applications.

    PubMed

    Ezzati-Tabrizi, Reyhaneh; Farrokhi, Naser; Talaei-Hassanloui, Reza; Alavi, Seyed Mehdi; Hosseininaveh, Vahid

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found as important components of the innate immune system (host defense) of all invertebrates. These peptides can be constitutively expressed or induced in response to microbial infections. Indeed, they vary in their amino acid sequences, potency and antimicrobial activity spectra. The smaller AMPs act greatly by disrupting the structure or function of microbial cell membranes. Here, the insect innate immune system with emphasis on inducible antimicrobial peptide properties against microbial invaders has been discussed.

  9. Identification of novel human immunodeficiency virus type 1-inhibitory peptides based on the antimicrobial peptide database.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangshun; Watson, Karen M; Peterkofsky, Alan; Buckheit, Robert W

    2010-03-01

    To identify novel anti-HIV-1 peptides based on the antimicrobial peptide database (APD; http://aps.unmc.edu/AP/main.php), we have screened 30 candidates and found 11 peptides with 50% effective concentrations (EC(50)) of <10 microM and therapeutic indices (TI) of up to 17. Furthermore, among the eight peptides (with identical amino acid compositions but different sequences) generated by shuffling the sequence of an aurein 1.2 analog, two had a TI twice that of the original sequence. Because antiviral peptides in the database have an arginine/lysine (R/K) ratio of >1, increases in the Arg contents of amphibian maximin H5 and dermaseptin S9 peptides and the database-derived GLK-19 peptide improved the TIs. These examples demonstrate that the APD is a rich resource and a useful tool for developing novel HIV-1-inhibitory peptides.

  10. Current scenario of peptide-based drugs: the key roles of cationic antitumor and antiviral peptides

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Kelly C. L.; Lima, Loiane A.; Miranda, Vivian J.; Dias, Simoni C.; Franco, Octávio L.

    2013-01-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and host defense peptides (HDPs) show vast potential as peptide-based drugs. Great effort has been made in order to exploit their mechanisms of action, aiming to identify their targets as well as to enhance their activity and bioavailability. In this review, we will focus on both naturally occurring and designed antiviral and antitumor cationic peptides, including those here called promiscuous, in which multiple targets are associated with a single peptide structure. Emphasis will be given to their biochemical features, selectivity against extra targets, and molecular mechanisms. Peptides which possess antitumor activity against different cancer cell lines will be discussed, as well as peptides which inhibit virus replication, focusing on their applications for human health, animal health and agriculture, and their potential as new therapeutic drugs. Moreover, the current scenario for production and the use of nanotechnology as delivery tool for both classes of cationic peptides, as well as the perspectives on improving them is considered. PMID:24198814

  11. Use of Galerina marginata genes and proteins for peptide production

    DOEpatents

    Hallen-Adams, Heather E.; Scott-Craig, John S.; Walton, Jonathan D.; Luo, Hong

    2017-03-21

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods comprising genes and peptides associated with cyclic peptides and cyclic peptide production in mushrooms. In particular, the present invention relates to using genes and proteins from Galerina species encoding peptides specifically relating to amatoxins in addition to proteins involved with processing cyclic peptide toxins. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention also relates to methods for making small peptides and small cyclic peptides including peptides similar to amanitin. Further, the present inventions relate to providing kits for making small peptides.

  12. Use of Galerina marginata genes and proteins for peptide production

    DOEpatents

    Hallen-Adams, Heather E.; Scott-Craig, John S.; Walton, Jonathan D.; Luo, Hong

    2016-03-01

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods comprising genes and peptides associated with cyclic peptides and cyclic peptide production in mushrooms. In particular, the present invention relates to using genes and proteins from Galerina species encoding peptides specifically relating to amatoxins in addition to proteins involved with processing cyclic peptide toxins. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention also relates to methods for making small peptides and small cyclic peptides including peptides similar to amanitin. Further, the present inventions relate to providing kits for making small peptides.

  13. A regularized method for peptide quantification.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Yang, Can; Yu, Weichuan

    2010-05-07

    Peptide abundance estimation is generally the first step in protein quantification. In peptide abundance estimation, peptide overlapping and peak intensity variation are two challenges. The main objective of this paper is to estimate peptide abundance by taking advantage of peptide isotopic distribution and smoothness of peptide elution profile. Our method proposes to solve the peptide overlapping problem and provides a way to control the variance of estimation. We compare our method with a commonly used method on simulated data sets and two real data sets of standard protein mixtures. The results show that our method achieves more accurate estimation of peptide abundance on different samples. In our method, there is a variance-related parameter. Considering the well-known trade-off between the variance and the bias of estimation, we should not only focus on reducing the variance in real applications. A suggestion about parameter selection is given based on the discussion of variance and bias. Matlab source codes and detailed experimental results are available at http://bioinformatics.ust.hk/PeptideQuant/peptidequant.htm.

  14. Bioactive peptides in plant-derived foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Maestri, Elena; Marmiroli, Marta; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2016-09-16

    A literature survey covering the presence of bioactive peptides in plant-derived foodstuffs is presented. Examples are given of plant peptides associated with a beneficial effect on human health. The main bioactive effects of these peptides are defined and their mechanism of action described, when known. Current understanding of the way in which these molecules are adsorbed, distributed, metabolized and finally excreted is discussed. A particular focus is given to potentially immunomodulatory peptides. The leading analytical assay methods used to evaluate their activity are outlined. Inspection of crop proteomic data revealed that at least 6000 proteins may harbour bioactive peptides. The analysis of these proteins using a Gene Ontology approach has provided a number of insights regarding their occurrence and relevance. The review reports an updated survey on bioactive peptides present in food crop plants, with a particular focus on immunomodulatory peptides which might be relevant for therapeutic applications. It employs a bioinformatic approach to search for proteins of crop plants potentially harboring bioactive peptides, summarising through Gene Ontology the main classes of peptide-containing proteins in food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis of stabilized alpha-helical peptides.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Federico; Katz, Samuel G

    2014-01-01

    Stabilized alpha-helical (SAH) peptides are valuable laboratory tools to explore important protein-protein interactions. Whereas most peptides lose their secondary structure when isolated from the host protein, stapled peptides incorporate an all-hydrocarbon "staple" that reinforces their natural alpha-helical structure. Thus, stapled peptides retain their functional ability to bind their native protein targets and serve multiple experimental uses. First, they are useful for structural studies such as NMR or crystal structures that map and better define binding sites. Second, they can be used to identify small molecules that specifically target that interaction site. Third, stapled peptides can be used to test the importance of specific amino acid residues or posttranslational modifications to the binding. Fourth, they can serve as structurally competent bait to identify novel binding partners to specific alpha-helical motifs. In addition to markedly improved alpha-helicity, stapled peptides also display resistance to protease cleavage and enhanced cell permeability. Most importantly, they are useful for intracellular experiments that explore the functional consequences of blocking particular protein interactions. Because of their remarkable stability, stapled peptides can be applied to whole-animal, in vivo studies. Here we describe a protocol for the synthesis of a peptide that incorporates an all-hydrocarbon "staple" employing a ring-closing olefin metathesis reaction. With proper optimization, stapled peptides can be a fundamental, accurate laboratory tool in the modern chemical biologist's armory.

  16. Metal-triggered collagen peptide disk formation.

    PubMed

    Przybyla, David E; Chmielewski, Jean

    2010-06-16

    A collagen peptide was designed for metal-triggered, hierarchical assembly through a radial growth mechanism. To achieve radial assembly, H-(byp)(2) containing Pro-Hyp-Gly repeating sequences and two staggered bipyridine ligands within the peptide was synthesized. Triple helix formation resulted in the placement of six bipyridine ligands along the triple helix, and the addition of metal ions resulted in the formation of nanometer-sized collagen peptide disks. These structures were found to disassemble upon the addition of EDTA, demonstrating that radial assembly of collagen peptide triple helices could be realized with the addition of metal ions.

  17. Application of capillary isotachophoresis in peptide analysis.

    PubMed

    Kasicka, V; Prusík, Z

    1991-09-13

    This paper gives a broad and detailed review of the applications of one of the modern high-performance electromigration separation techniques--capillary isotachophoresis (ITP)--in peptide analysis. Examples are presented of the utilization of capillary ITP for peptide analysis in the fields of chemistry, general and clinical biochemistry, biology, biotechnology, pharmacy and the food industry. The complete composition of all the electrolyte systems used for peptide ITP analyses in both cationic and anionic techniques is given in tabular form. According to the purpose of analysis the applications are divided into several sections: model studies, determination of physico-chemical characteristics, purity control of both intermediate and final peptide preparations, including the determination of low-molecular-mass ionogenic admixtures, and the analysis of peptides in biological fluids and tissue extracts. In addition to the main applications the theoretical and methodological aspects of peptide ITP analysis are discussed. The basic electromigration properties of peptides (their polyampholyte character, effective and absolute mobilities, acid-base equilibria) are explained and the selection of parameters for peptide ITP analysis is described in detail. The advantages and disadvantages of ITP compared with other electrophoretic and chromatographic methods used for peptide analysis are discussed.

  18. (Lipo)polysaccharide interactions of antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Schmidtchen, Artur; Malmsten, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Due to rapidly increasing resistance development against conventional antibiotics, as well as problems associated with diseases either triggered or deteriorated by infection, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory peptides have attracted considerable interest during the last few years. While there is an emerging understanding of the direct antimicrobial function of such peptides through bacterial membrane destabilization, the mechanisms of their anti-inflammatory function are less clear. We here summarize some recent results obtained from our own research on anti-inflammatory peptides, with focus on peptide-(lipo)polysaccharide interactions.

  19. Second harmonic generation from tyrosine containing peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, M. N.; Bergmann, E.; Benichou, E.; Russier-Antoine, I.; Lascoux, N.; Jonin, Ch.; Besson, F.; Brevet, P. F.

    2013-10-01

    The Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) response from Tyrosine-containing peptides at the air-water interface is presented. First, the quadratic hyperpolarizability of the aromatic amino acid Tyrosine obtained by Hyper Rayleigh Scattering is reported, demonstrating its potentiality as an endogenous molecular probe for SHG studies. Then, the single Tyrosine antimicrobial peptide Mycosubtilin is monitored at the air-water interface and compared to another peptide, Surfactin, lacking a Tyrosine residue. Adsorption kinetics and polarization analysis of the SHG intensity for the peptide monolayers clearly demonstrate that the SHG response from Mycosubtilin arises from Tyrosine. Besides, it confirms that indeed Tyrosine can be targeted as an endogenous molecular probe.

  20. Antimicrobial peptides: clinical relevance and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro da Silva, Fabiano; Machado, Marcel Cerqueira César

    2012-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are molecules that provide protection against environmental pathogens, acting against a large number of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, yeast, virus and others. Two major groups of antimicrobial peptides are found in humans: cathelicidins and defensins. Recently, several studies have furnished information that besides their role in infection diseases, antimicrobial peptides play a role in diseases as diverse as inflammatory disorders, autoimmunity and cancer. Here, we discuss the role of antimicrobial peptides and vitamin D have in such complex diseases and propose their use should be more explored in the diagnosis and treatment of such conditions.

  1. Manufacturing of peptides exhibiting biological activity.

    PubMed

    Zambrowicz, Aleksandra; Timmer, Monika; Polanowski, Antoni; Lubec, Gert; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2013-02-01

    Numerous studies have shown that food proteins may be a source of bioactive peptides. Those peptides are encrypted in the protein sequence. They stay inactive within the parental protein until release by proteolytic enzymes (Mine and Kovacs-Nolan in Worlds Poult Sci J 62(1):87-95, 2006; Hartman and Miesel in Curr Opin Biotechnol 18:163-169, 2007). Once released the bioactive peptides exhibit several biofunctionalities and may serve therapeutic roles in body systems. Opioid peptides, peptides lowering high blood pressure, inhibiting platelet aggregation as well as being carriers of metal ions and peptides with immunostimulatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities have been described (Hartman and Miesel in Curr Opin Biotechnol 18:163-169, 2007). The biofunctional abilities of the peptides have therefore aroused a lot of scientific, technological and consumer interest with respect to the role of dietary proteins in controlling and influencing health (Möller et al. in Eur J Nutr 47(4):171-182, 2008). Biopeptides may find wide application in food production, the cosmetics industry as well as in the prevention and treatment of various medical conditions. They are manufactured by chemical and biotechnological methods (Marx in Chem Eng News 83(11):17-24. 2005; Hancock and Sahl in Nat Biotechnol 24(12):1551-1557, 2006). Depending on specific needs (food or pharmaceutical industry) different degrees of peptide purifications are required. This paper discusses the practicability of manufacturing bioactive peptides, especially from food proteins.

  2. Turning peptides in comb silicone polymers.

    PubMed

    Jebors, Said; Pinese, Coline; Nottelet, Benjamin; Parra, Karine; Amblard, Muriel; Mehdi, Ahmad; Martinez, Jean; Subra, Gilles

    2015-03-01

    We have recently reported on a new class of silicone-peptide' biopolymers obtained by polymerization of di-functionalized chlorodimethylsilyl hybrid peptides. Herein, we describe a related strategy based on dichloromethylsilane-derived peptides, which yield novel polymers with a polysiloxane backbone, comparable with a silicone-bearing pendent peptide chains. Interestingly, polymerization is chemoselective toward amino acids side-chains and proceeds in a single step in very mild conditions (neutral pH, water, and room temperature). As potential application, a cationic sequence was polymerized and used for antibacterial coating.

  3. Novel Antimicrobial Peptides Derived from Flatfish Genes†

    PubMed Central

    Patrzykat, Aleksander; Gallant, Jeffrey W.; Seo, Jung-Kil; Pytyck, Jennifer; Douglas, Susan E.

    2003-01-01

    We report on the identification of active novel antimicrobials determined by screening both the genomic information and the mRNA transcripts from a number of different flatfish for sequences encoding antimicrobial peptides, predicting the sequences of active peptides from the genetic information, producing the predicted peptides chemically, and testing them for their activities. We amplified 35 sequences from various species of flatfish using primers whose sequences are based on conserved flanking regions of a known antimicrobial peptide from winter flounder, pleurocidin. We analyzed the sequences of the amplified products and predicted which sequences were likely to encode functional antimicrobial peptides on the basis of charge, hydrophobicity, relation to flanking sequences, and similarity to known active peptides. Twenty peptides were then produced synthetically and tested for their activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and the yeast Candida albicans. The most active peptide (with the carboxy-terminus amidated sequence GWRTLLKKAEVKTVGKLALKHYL, derived from American plaice) showed inhibitory activity over a concentration range of 1 to 8 μg/ml against a test panel of pathogens, including the intrinsically antibiotic-resistant organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and C. albicans. The methods described here will be useful for the identification of novel peptides with good antimicrobial activities. PMID:12878506

  4. Endomorphins and related opioid peptides.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yoshio; Tsuda, Yuko; Bryant, Sharon D; Lazarus, Lawrence H

    2002-01-01

    Opioid peptides and their G-protein-coupled receptors (delta, kappa, mu) are located in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. The opioid system has been studied to determine the intrinsic mechanism of modulation of pain and to develop uniquely effective pain-control substances with minimal abuse potential and side effects. Two types of endogenous opioid peptides exist, one containing Try-Gly-Gly-Phe as the message domain (enkephalins, endorphins, dynorphins) and the other containing the Tyr-Pro-Phe/Trp sequence (endomorphins-1 and -2). Endomorphin-1 (Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH2), which has high mu receptor affinity (Ki = 0.36 nM) and remarkable selectivity (4000- and 15,000-fold preference over the delta and kappa receptors, respectively), was isolated from bovine and human brain. In addition, endomorphin-2 (Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2), isolated from the same sources, exhibited high mu receptor affinity (Ki = 0.69 nM) and very high selectivity (13,000- and 7500-fold preference relative to delta and kappa receptors, respectively). Both opioids bind to mu-opioid receptors, thereby activating G-proteins, resulting in regulation of gastrointestinal motility, manifestation of antinociception, and effects on the vascular systems and memory. To develop novel analgesics with less addictive properties, evaluation of the structure-activity relationships of the endomorphins led to the design of more potent and stable analgesics. Opioidmimetics and opioid peptides containing the amino acid sequence of the message domain of endomorphins, Tyr-Pro-Phe/Trp, could exhibit unique binding activity and lead to the development of new therapeutic drugs for controlling pain.

  5. Multicanonical simulations of some peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkın, H.; Yaşar, F.; Çelik, T.; Berg, B. A.; Meirovitch, H.

    2002-08-01

    A brief discussion of the multicanonical simulation method is given and the results of our simulations of the peptides Leu-enkephalin and deltorphin (in vacuum) are presented. For Leu-enkephalin the determination of the a priori unknown multicanonical weight factors by a recursion is demonstrated, a comparison to the canonical simulations at fixed temperature is done and the effectiveness of the multicanonical simulation method is discussed. Ramachandran plots are shown for deltorphin and interpreted in favor of a funnel kind of picture.

  6. Peptide vaccines for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, Daniela; Peña, María J; Mijares, Michael; Martínez, Gricelis; Blanca, Isaac; De Sanctis, Juan B

    2015-01-01

    For around four decades, vaccines of different kinds have been developed to treat different types of cancer. However, promising results encountered in the early phase contrasted with the results recorded in clinical studies. Recent discoveries in the vaccine field, adjuvants and delivery systems, and antigen presentation have lead to new patented approaches. The current review is focused on general description of peptide vaccines involving cancer antigen presentation, specific immune response, cell death dependent pathways, and target therapy for modified or mutated oncogenes. A rapid evolving research in the area may evolve in fruitful outcomes in the near future.

  7. Biodiscovery of Aluminum Binding Peptides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    for an additional 35-45 min. After induction, 5 µL cells were added to 25µL 250 nM YPet-Mona for 45 min. on ice. Cells were then pelleted and...binding mechanism of phage particles displaying a constrained heptapeptide with specific affinity to SiO2 and TiO2 ," Anal. Chem. 78(14), 4872-4879 (2006...hydroxyapatite crystals," Langmuir 27(12), 7620-7628 (2011). [15] Dickerson, M. B. A., et al., Peptide-induced room temperature formation of nanostructured TiO2

  8. Antimicrobial Properties of Amyloid Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Kagan, Bruce L.; Jang, Hyunbum; Capone, Ricardo; Arce, Fernando Teran; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Lal, Ratnesh; Nussinov, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    More than two dozen clinical syndromes known as amyloid diseases are characterized by the buildup of extended insoluble fibrillar deposits in tissues. These amorphous Congo red staining deposits known as amyloids exhibit a characteristic green birefringence and cross-β structure. Substantial evidence implicates oligomeric intermediates of amyloids as toxic species in the pathogenesis of these chronic disease states. A growing body of data has suggested that these toxic species form ion channels in cellular membranes causing disruption of calcium homeostasis, membrane depolarization, energy drainage, and in some cases apoptosis. Amyloid peptide channels exhibit a number of common biological properties including the universal U-shape β-strand-turn-β-strand structure, irreversible and spontaneous insertion into membranes, production of large heterogeneous single-channel conductances, relatively poor ion selectivity, inhibition by Congo red, and channel blockade by zinc. Recent evidence has suggested that increased amounts of amyloids are not only toxic to its host target cells but also possess antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, at least one human antimicrobial peptide, protegrin-1, which kills microbes by a channel-forming mechanism, has been shown to possess the ability to form extended amyloid fibrils very similar to those of classic disease-forming amyloids. In this paper, we will review the reported antimicrobial properties of amyloids and the implications of these discoveries for our understanding of amyloid structure and function. PMID:22081976

  9. Small wonders: peptides for disease control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book is the result of the symposium “Small Wonders: Peptides for Disease Control” held at the 240th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society in Boston, MA, August 22-26, 2010. This is the first book that covers a broad range of peptide technology and its practical application in the ag...

  10. Ribonucleotides and RNA Promote Peptide Chain Growth.

    PubMed

    Griesser, Helmut; Tremmel, Peter; Kervio, Eric; Pfeffer, Camilla; Steiner, Ulrich E; Richert, Clemens

    2017-01-24

    All known forms of life use RNA-mediated polypeptide synthesis to produce the proteins encoded in their genes. Because the principal parts of the translational machinery consist of RNA, it is likely that peptide synthesis was achieved early in the prebiotic evolution of an RNA-dominated molecular world. How RNA attracted amino acids and then induced peptide formation in the absence of enzymes has been unclear. Herein, we show that covalent capture of an amino acid as a phosphoramidate favors peptide formation. Peptide coupling is a robust process that occurs with different condensation agents. Kinetics show that covalent capture can accelerate chain growth over oligomerization of the free amino acid by at least one order of magnitude, so that there is no need for enzymatic catalysis for peptide synthesis to begin. Peptide chain growth was also observed on phosphate-terminated RNA strands. Peptide coupling promoted by ribonucleotides or ribonucleotide residues may have been an important transitional form of peptide synthesis that set in when amino acids were first captured by RNA. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Secondary structure formation in peptide amphiphile micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirrell, Matthew

    2012-02-01

    Peptide amphiphiles (PAs) are capable of self-assembly into micelles for use in the targeted delivery of peptide therapeutics and diagnostics. PA micelles exhibit a structural resemblance to proteins by having folded bioactive peptides displayed on the exterior of a hydrophobic core. We have studied two factors that influence PA secondary structure in micellar assemblies: the length of the peptide headgroup and amino acids closest to the micelle core. Peptide length was systematically varied using a heptad repeat PA. For all PAs the addition of a C12 tail induced micellization and secondary structure. PAs with 9 amino acids formed beta-sheet interactions upon aggregation, whereas the 23 and 30 residue peptides were displayed in an apha-helical conformation. The 16 amino acid PA experienced a structural transition from helix to sheet, indicating that kinetics play a role in secondary structure formation. A p53 peptide was conjugated to a C16 tail via various linkers to study the effect of linker chemistry on PA headgroup conformation. With no linker the p53 headgroup was predominantly alpha helix and a four alanine linker drastically changed the structure of the peptide headgroup to beta-sheet, highlighting the importance of hydrogen boding potential near the micelle core.

  12. Hydrophobic peptide auxotrophy in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Brãnes, L V; Somers, J M; Kay, W W

    1981-01-01

    The growth of a pleiotropic membrane mutant of Salmonella typhimurium with modified lipopolysaccharide composition was found to be strictly dependent on the peptone component of complex media. Nutritional Shiftdown into minimal media allowed growth for three to four generations. Of 20 commercial peptones, only enzymatic digests supported growth to varying degrees. Neither trace cations, amino acids, vitamins, carbohydrates, lipids, glutathione, polyamines, carbodimides, nor synthetic peptides stimulated growth; however, cells still metabolized carbohydrates, and amino acid transport systems were shown to be functional. A tryptic digest of casein was fractionated into four electrophoretically different peptide fractions of 1,000 to 1,200 molecular weight which supported growth to varying degrees. The best of these was further fractionated to two highly hydrophopic peptides. N-terminal modifications eliminated biological activity. Fluorescein-conjugated goat antibody to rabbit immunoglobulin G was used as a probe to detect antipeptide antibody-peptide complexes on membrane preparations. Cells grown on peptone distributed the peptide into both inner and outer membranes. The peptide could be removed with chaotropic agents, and cells had to be pregrown in peptone-containing media to bind the hydrophobic peptide. The gene (hyp) responsible for peptide auxotrophy was mapped at 44 to 45 units by conjugation. Images PMID:7024254

  13. Constrained Peptides as Miniature Protein Structures

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hang

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the recent developments of protein engineering using both covalent and noncovalent bonds to constrain peptides, forcing them into designed protein secondary structures. These constrained peptides subsequently can be used as peptidomimetics for biological functions such as regulations of protein-protein interactions. PMID:25969758

  14. Biologically active peptides: prospects for drug development.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J

    1980-08-11

    Biologically active peptides aree typified by their unbiquity of distribution, their high receptor affinity and an almost infinite diversity of structure. For these reasons, considerable effort is now being expended to elucidate the possible role of peptides in brain function. This effort has been stimulated by the discovery of a number of new endogenous peptides, such as the enkephalins, endorphins, vasoactive intestinal peptide and neurotensin. At present, there is no clearly defined role for these peptides, although they may form an important basis for the chemical coding of various brain functions, including pain, mood and memory. At present, the potential for drug development of peptide agonists remains in fairly circumscribed areas such as analgesia, pituitary hormone control, and gastrointestinal motor and secretory control. Peptide antagonists may provide a vast field for future development, although only one area, that of antifertility drugs based on LHRH antagonists, shows any promise of immediate success. Industrial research approaches to new peptide agonists and antagonists mainly rely at present on rational drug design through structural analogies. Other fruitful approaches to be considered are the screening of natural microbial and plant products and the possible application of genetic engineering techniques.

  15. Insect Antimicrobial Peptides and Their Applications

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Hui-Yu; Chowdhury, Munmun; Huang, Ya-Dong; Yu, Xiao-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Insects are one of the major sources of antimicrobial peptides/proteins (AMPs). Since observation of antimicrobial activity in the hemolymph of pupae from the giant silk moths Samia Cynthia and Hyalophora cecropia in 1974 and purification of first insect AMP (cecropin) from H. cecropia pupae in 1980, over 150 insect AMPs have been purified or identified. Most insect AMPs are small and cationic, and they show activities against bacteria and/or fungi, as well as some parasites and viruses. Insect AMPs can be classified into four families based on their structures or unique sequences: the α-helical peptides (cecropin and moricin), cysteine-rich peptides (insect defensin and drosomycin), proline-rich peptides (apidaecin, drosocin and lebocin), and glycine-rich peptides/proteins (attacin and gloverin). Among insect AMPs, defensins, cecropins, proline-rich peptides and attacins are common, while gloverins and moricins have been identified only in Lepidoptera. Most active AMPs are small peptides of 20–50 residues, which are generated from larger inactive precursor proteins or pro-proteins, but gloverins (~14 kDa) and attacins (~20 kDa) are large antimicrobial proteins. In this mini-review, we will discuss current knowledge and recent progress in several classes of insect AMPs, including insect defensins, cecropins, attacins, lebocins and other proline-rich peptides, gloverins, and moricins, with a focus on structural-functional relationships and their potential applications. PMID:24811407

  16. Genetically Encoded Libraries of Nonstandard Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Takashi; Murakami, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The presence of a nonproteinogenic moiety in a nonstandard peptide often improves the biological properties of the peptide. Non-standard peptide libraries are therefore used to obtain valuable molecules for biological, therapeutic, and diagnostic applications. Highly diverse non-standard peptide libraries can be generated by chemically or enzymatically modifying standard peptide libraries synthesized by the ribosomal machinery, using posttranslational modifications. Alternatively, strategies for encoding non-proteinogenic amino acids into the genetic code have been developed for the direct ribosomal synthesis of non-standard peptide libraries. In the strategies for genetic code expansion, non-proteinogenic amino acids are assigned to the nonsense codons or 4-base codons in order to add these amino acids to the universal genetic code. In contrast, in the strategies for genetic code reprogramming, some proteinogenic amino acids are erased from the genetic code and non-proteinogenic amino acids are reassigned to the blank codons. Here, we discuss the generation of genetically encoded non-standard peptide libraries using these strategies and also review recent applications of these libraries to the selection of functional non-standard peptides. PMID:23097693

  17. C-peptide and diabetic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, N J

    2017-01-01

    Kidney disease is a serious development in diabetes mellitus and poses an increasing clinical problem. Despite increasing incidence and prevalence of diabetic kidney disease, there have been no new therapies for this condition in the last 20 years. Mounting evidence supports a biological role for C-peptide, and findings from multiple studies now suggest that C-peptide may beneficially affect the disturbed metabolic and pathophysiological pathways leading to the development of diabetic nephropathy. Studies of C-peptide in animal models and in humans with type 1 diabetes all suggest a renoprotective effect for this peptide. In diabetic rodents, C-peptide reduces glomerular hyperfiltration and albuminuria. Cohort studies of diabetic patients with combined islet and kidney transplants suggest that maintained C-peptide secretion is protective of renal graft function. Further, in short-term studies of patients with type 1 diabetes, administration of C-peptide is also associated with a lowered hyperfiltration rate and reduced microalbuminuria. Thus, the available information suggests that type 1 diabetes should be regarded as a dual hormone deficiency disease and that clinical trials of C-peptide in diabetic nephropathy are both justified and urgently required.

  18. B-Type allatostatins and sex peptides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In many species, mating induces a number of behavioral changes in the female. For Drosophila melanogaster, the sex peptide (SP) has been identified as the main molecular factor behind these responses. Recently, the sex peptide receptor (SPR), a GPCR activated by SP has also been characterized as res...

  19. Peptides and the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Banks, William A

    2015-10-01

    The demonstration that peptides and regulatory proteins can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is one of the major contributions of Dr. Abba J. Kastin. He was the first to propose that peptides could cross the BBB, the first to show that an endogenous peptide did so, and the first to describe a saturable transport system at the BBB for peptides. His work shows that in crossing the BBB, peptides and regulatory proteins act as informational molecules, informing the brain of peripheral events. Brain-to-blood passage helps to control levels of peptides with the brain and can deliver information in the brain-to-blood direction. He showed that the transporters for peptides and proteins are not static, but respond to developmental and physiological changes and are affected by disease states. As such, the BBB is adaptive to the needs of the CNS, but when that adaption goes awry, the BBB can be a cause of disease. The mechanisms by which peptides and proteins cross the BBB offer opportunities for drug delivery of these substances or their analogs to the brain in the treatment of diseases of the central nervous system.

  20. Peptide toxins from Conus geographus venom.

    PubMed

    Gray, W R; Luque, A; Olivera, B M; Barrett, J; Cruz, L J

    1981-05-25

    Three homologous toxic peptides which cause postsynaptic inhibition at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction have been purified from the venom of the marine snail Conus geographus. Their amino acid sequences are: (formula see text) The biologically active peptides are monomeric, with internal disulfide bonds.

  1. Peptide mimotopes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis carbohydrate immunodeterminants

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Cell-surface saccharides of Mycobacterium tuberculosis appear to be crucial factors in tuberculosis pathogenicity and could be useful antigens in tuberculosis immunodiagnosis. In the present study, we report the successful antigenic and immunogenic mimicry of mannose-containing cell-wall compounds of M. tuberculosis by dodecamer peptides identified by phage-display technology. Using a rabbit antiserum raised against M. tuberculosis cell-surface saccharides as a target for biopanning, peptides with three different consensus sequences were identified. Phage-displayed and chemically synthesized peptides bound to the anticarbohydrate antiserum. Rabbit antibodies elicited against the peptide QEPLMGTVPIRAGGGS recognize the mannosylated M. tuberculosis cell-wall antigens arabinomannan and lipoarabinomannan, and the glycosylated recombinant protein alanine/proline-rich antigen. Furthermore, antibodies were also able to react with mannan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but not with phosphatidylinositol dimannosides or arabinogalactan from mycobacteria. These results suggest that the immunogenic peptide mimics oligomannosidic epitopes. Interestingly, this report provides evidence that, in contrast with previously known carbohydrate mimotopes, no aromatic residues are necessary in a peptide sequence for mimicking unusual glycoconjugates synthesized by mycobacteria. The possible usefulness of the identified peptide mimotopes as surrogate reagents for immunodiagnosis and for the study of functional roles of the native non-peptide epitopes is discussed. PMID:15560754

  2. Peptide Mass Fingerprinting of Egg White Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alty, Lisa T.; LaRiviere, Frederick J.

    2016-01-01

    Use of advanced mass spectrometry techniques in the undergraduate setting has burgeoned in the past decade. However, relatively few undergraduate experiments examine the proteomics tools of protein digestion, peptide accurate mass determination, and database searching, also known as peptide mass fingerprinting. In this experiment, biochemistry…

  3. A femtomolar-acting neuroprotective peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Brenneman, D E; Gozes, I

    1996-01-01

    A novel 14-amino acid peptide, with stress-protein-like sequences, exhibiting neuroprotection at unprecedented concentrations, is revealed. This peptide prevented neuronal cell death associated with the envelope protein (GP 120) from HIV, with excitotoxicity (N-methyl d-aspartate), with the beta amyloid peptide (putative cytotoxin in Alzheimer's disease), and with tetrodotoxin (electrical blockade). The peptide was designed to contain a sequence derived from a new neuroprotective protein secreted by astroglial cells in the presence of vasoactive intestinal peptide. The neurotrophic protein was isolated by sequential chromatographic methods combining ion exchange, size separation, and hydrophobic interaction. The protein (mol mass, 14 kD and pI, 8.3 +/- 0.25) was named activity-dependent neurotrophic factor, as it protected neurons from death associated with electrical blockade. Peptide sequencing led to the synthesis of the novel 14-amino acid peptide that was homologous, but not identical, to an intracellular stress protein, heat shock protein 60. Neutralizing antiserum to heat shock protein 60 produced neuronal cell death that could be prevented by cotreatment with the novel protein, suggesting the existence of extracellular stress-like proteins with neuroprotective properties. These studies identify a potent neuroprotective glial protein and an active peptide that provide a basis for developing treatments of currently intractable neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:8636410

  4. Structure and Design of Multipotent Peptide Microbicides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    Project goal. ~$e goal of this project is to design novel peptide antibiotics using a naturally occurring family of peptides, known as defensins, as...coupling of taurine , glycinamide, and arginine amide. " 3. Solution Structures. in collaborative studies performed with Arthur Pardi, we have

  5. Manufacturing peptides as active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    PubMed

    Zompra, Aikaterini A; Galanis, Athanassios S; Werbitzky, Oleg; Albericio, Fernando

    2009-05-01

    Today, there are more than 40 peptides on the pharmaceutical world market and more than 100 in several clinical phases. Although in the past the pharmaceutical industries had reduced their interest in peptides research, in recent decades, they have rekindled their interest in peptides as a result of contemporary novel technological accomplishments, strategic developments, advances in the areas of formulation and enhanced drug delivery technology of peptides. Thus, eight new peptide drugs that could previously have been characterized as difficult to prepare on the large scale required by industry, have entered the pharmaceutical market at the new millennium. The manufacturing of most of these drugs has benefited from new technological advances. Traditional and most modern techniques have been applied to the manufacture of these new entries. Recent accomplishments, together with the traditional benefits of peptides (high biological activity, high specificity and low toxicity), have led pharmaceutical companies to re-focus their attention on peptide-based agents. Therefore, several serious diseases can be treated using the potential next generation of peptide drugs.

  6. Experimental validation of peptide immunohistochemistry controls.

    PubMed

    Bogen, Steven A; Vani, Kodela; McGraw, Brian; Federico, Vin; Habib, Iqbal; Zeheb, Ron; Luther, Ed; Tristram, Colin; Sompuram, Seshi R

    2009-05-01

    Peptide immunohistochemistry (IHC) controls are a new quality control format for verifying proper IHC assay performance, offering advantages in high throughput automated manufacture and standardization. We previously demonstrated that formalin-fixed peptide epitopes, covalently attached to glass microscope slides, behaved (immunochemically) in a similar fashion to the native protein in tissue sections. To convert this promising idea into a practical clinical laboratory quality control tool, we tested the hypothesis that the quality assurance information provided by peptide IHC controls accurately reflects IHC staining performance among a diverse group of clinical laboratories. To test the hypothesis, we first designed and built an instrument for reproducibly printing the controls on microscope slides and a simple software program to measure the color intensity of stained controls. Automated printing of peptide spots was reproducible, with coefficients of variation of 4% to 8%. Moreover, the peptide controls were stable at peptide controls to their ability in properly staining a 3+ HER-2 formalin-fixed tissue section mounted on the same slide (r=0.87). Therefore, peptide IHC controls accurately reflect the analytical component of an IHC stain, including antigen retrieval. Besides its use in proficiency survey testing, we also demonstrate the feasibility of applying peptide IHC controls for verifying intralaboratory IHC staining consistency, using Levy-Jennings charting.

  7. Natriuretic peptide drug leads from snake venom.

    PubMed

    Vink, S; Jin, A H; Poth, K J; Head, G A; Alewood, P F

    2012-03-15

    Natriuretic peptides are body fluid volume modulators, termed natriuretic peptides due to a role in natriuresis and diuresis. The three mammalian NPs, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain or b-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and c-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), have been extensively investigated for their use as therapeutic agents for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Although effective, short half-lives and renal side effects limit their use. In approximately 30 years of research, NPs have been discovered in many vertebrates including mammals, amphibians, reptiles and fish, with plants and, more recently, bacteria also being found to possess NPs. Reptiles have produced some of the more interesting NPs, with dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP), which was isolated from the venom of the green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps), having greater potency and increased stability as compared to the mammalian family members, and taipan natriuretic peptide c (TNPc), which was isolated from the venom of the inland taipan (Oxyuranus microlepidotus) displaying similar activity to ANP and DNP at rat natriuretic peptide receptor A. Although promising, more research is required in this field to develop therapeutics that overcome receptor-mediated clearance, and potential toxicity issues. This review investigates the use of snake venom NPs as therapeutic drug leads. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Peptides and the blood–brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Banks, William A.

    2016-01-01

    The demonstration that peptides and regulatory proteins can cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB) is one of the major contributions of Dr. Abba J. Kastin. He was the first to propose that peptides could cross the BBB, the first to show that an endogenous peptide did so, and the first to describe a saturable transport system at the BBB for peptides. His work shows that in crossing the BBB, peptides and regulatory proteins act as informational molecules, informing the brain of peripheral events. Brain-to-blood passage helps to control levels of peptides with the brain and can deliver information in the brain-to-blood direction. He showed that the transporters for peptides and proteins are not static, but respond to developmental and physiological changes and are affected by disease states. As such, the BBB is adaptive to the needs of the CNS, but when that adaption goes awry, the BBB can be a cause of disease. The mechanisms by which peptides and proteins cross the BBB offer opportunities for drug delivery of these substances or their analogs to the brain in the treatment of diseases of the central nervous system. PMID:25805003

  9. Peptide Mass Fingerprinting of Egg White Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alty, Lisa T.; LaRiviere, Frederick J.

    2016-01-01

    Use of advanced mass spectrometry techniques in the undergraduate setting has burgeoned in the past decade. However, relatively few undergraduate experiments examine the proteomics tools of protein digestion, peptide accurate mass determination, and database searching, also known as peptide mass fingerprinting. In this experiment, biochemistry…

  10. Exploring high-affinity binding properties of octamer peptides by principal component analysis of tetramer peptides.

    PubMed

    Kume, Akiko; Kawai, Shun; Kato, Ryuji; Iwata, Shinmei; Shimizu, Kazunori; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the binding properties of a peptide sequence, we conducted principal component analysis (PCA) of the physicochemical features of a tetramer peptide library comprised of 512 peptides, and the variables were reduced to two principal components. We selected IL-2 and IgG as model proteins and the binding affinity to these proteins was assayed using the 512 peptides mentioned above. PCA of binding affinity data showed that 16 and 18 variables were suitable for localizing IL-2 and IgG high-affinity binding peptides, respectively, into a restricted region of the PCA plot. We then investigated whether the binding affinity of octamer peptide libraries could be predicted using the identified region in the tetramer PCA. The results show that octamer high-affinity binding peptides were also concentrated in the tetramer high-affinity binding region of both IL-2 and IgG. The average fluorescence intensity of high-affinity binding peptides was 3.3- and 2.1-fold higher than that of low-affinity binding peptides for IL-2 and IgG, respectively. We conclude that PCA may be used to identify octamer peptides with high- or low-affinity binding properties from data from a tetramer peptide library. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of peptide bond in the realization of biological activity of short peptides.

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Tarnovskaya, S I; Lin'kova, N S; Chervyakova, N A; Nichik, T E; Elashkina, E V; Chalisova, N I

    2015-02-01

    We performed a comparative analysis of biological activity of Lys-Glu peptide and its amino acid constituents. It was established that Lys-Glu stimulated proliferation of splenic cells in organotypic culture, while the mixture of glutamic acid and lysine inhibited culture growth. Using the method of molecular docking, we showed that glutamic acid, lysine, and Lys-Glu peptide can interact with different DNA sequences. The energy of interaction and the most beneficial localization of glutamic acid, lysine, and Lys-Glu peptide in DNA molecule was calculated. We demonstrated the interaction of the peptide and amino acids with DNA along the minor groove. The energy of DNA interaction with the peptide is higher than with individual amino acids. The peptide bonds increase the interaction of Lys-Glu peptide with DNA, which potentiates the biological effect on cell proliferation in organotypic culture of splenic cells.

  12. Recruitment of opioid peptide-containing neutrophils is independent of formyl peptide receptors.

    PubMed

    Hackel, D; Stolz, A; Mousa, S A; Brack, A; Rittner, H L

    2011-01-01

    In complete Freund's adjuvants (CFA) inflammation opioid containing neutrophils release opioid peptides upon stimulation and mediate peripheral analgesia. Neutrophil migration is regulated partially by chemokines, but other mediators e.g. formyl peptides could also contribute. In vitro, formyl peptides but not Mycobacterium butyricum (CFA component) induced migration of neutrophils. In contrast, local formyl peptide injection did not induce leukocyte recruitment in vivo due to insufficient up-regulation of adhesion molecule expression. Furthermore, leukocyte recruitment and peripheral opioid-mediated analgesia were unaffected by systemic formyl peptide receptor blockade in CFA inflammation. Thus, while formyl peptides do not regulate migration they directly stimulate opioid peptide release. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of Peptide Libraries for Identification and Optimization of Novel Antimicrobial Peptides.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Martin; Petkova, Asya; Gani, Jurnorain; Mikut, Ralf; Hilpert, Kai

    2017-01-01

    The increasing rates of resistance among bacteria and to a lesser extent fungi have resulted in an urgent need to find new molecules that hold therapeutic promise against multidrug-resistant strains. Antimicrobial peptides have proven very effective against a variety of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Additionally, the low levels of resistance reported towards these molecules are an attractive feature for antimicrobial drug development. Here we summarise information on diverse peptide libraries used to discover or to optimize antimicrobial peptides. Chemical synthesized peptide libraries, for example split and mix method, tea bag method, multi-pin method and cellulose spot method are discussed. In addition biological peptide library screening methods are summarized, like phage display, bacterial display, mRNA-display and ribosomal display. A few examples are given for small peptide libraries, which almost exclusively follow a rational design of peptides of interest rather than a combinatorial approach.

  14. Periodic Patterns in Distributions of Peptide Masses

    PubMed Central

    Hubler, Shane L.; Craciun, Gheorghe

    2015-01-01

    We are investigating the distribution of the number of peptides for given masses, and especially the observation that peptide density reaches a local maximum approximately every 14 Daltons. This wave pattern exists across species (e.g. human or yeast) and enzyme digestion techniques. To analyze this phenomenon we have developed a mathematical method for computing the mass distributions of peptides, and we present both theoretical and empirical evidence that this 14-Dalton periodicity does not arise from species selection of peptides but from the number-theoretic properties of the masses of amino acid residues. We also describe other, more subtle periodic patterns in the distribution of peptide masses. We also show that these periodic patterns are robust under a variety of conditions, including the addition of amino acid modifications and selection of mass accuracy scale. The method used here is also applicable to any family of sequential molecules, such as linear hydrocarbons, RNA, single- and double-stranded DNA. PMID:22579741

  15. Chemical reactions directed Peptide self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Rasale, Dnyaneshwar B; Das, Apurba K

    2015-05-13

    Fabrication of self-assembled nanostructures is one of the important aspects in nanoscience and nanotechnology. The study of self-assembled soft materials remains an area of interest due to their potential applications in biomedicine. The versatile properties of soft materials can be tuned using a bottom up approach of small molecules. Peptide based self-assembly has significant impact in biology because of its unique features such as biocompatibility, straight peptide chain and the presence of different side chain functionality. These unique features explore peptides in various self-assembly process. In this review, we briefly introduce chemical reaction-mediated peptide self-assembly. Herein, we have emphasised enzymes, native chemical ligation and photochemical reactions in the exploration of peptide self-assembly.

  16. Harnessing supramolecular peptide nanotechnology in biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kiat Hwa; Lee, Wei Hao; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Ni, Ming

    2017-01-01

    The harnessing of peptides in biomedical applications is a recent hot topic. This arises mainly from the general biocompatibility of peptides, as well as from the ease of tunability of peptide structure to engineer desired properties. The ease of progression from laboratory testing to clinical trials is evident from the plethora of examples available. In this review, we compare and contrast how three distinct self-assembled peptide nanostructures possess different functions. We have 1) nanofibrils in biomaterials that can interact with cells, 2) nanoparticles that can traverse the bloodstream to deliver its payload and also be bioimaged, and 3) nanotubes that can serve as cross-membrane conduits and as a template for nanowire formation. Through this review, we aim to illustrate how various peptides, in their various self-assembled nanostructures, possess great promise in a wide range of biomedical applications and what more can be expected.

  17. Supramolecular Nanofibers of Peptide Amphiphiles for Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Matthew J.; Berns, Eric J.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2014-01-01

    Peptide nanostructures are an exciting class of supramolecular systems that can be designed for novel therapies with great potential in advanced medicine. This paper reviews progress on nanostructures based on peptide amphiphiles capable of forming one-dimensional assemblies that emulate in structure the nanofibers present in extracellular matrices. These systems are highly tunable using supramolecular chemistry, and can be designed to signal cells directly with bioactive peptides. Peptide amphiphile nanofibers can also be used to multiplex functions through co-assembly and designed to deliver proteins, nucleic acids, drugs, or cells. We illustrate here the functionality of these systems describing their use in regenerative medicine of bone, cartilage, the nervous system, the cardiovascular system, and other tissues. In addition, we highlight recent work on the use of peptide amphiphile assemblies to create hierarchical biomimetic structures with order beyond the nanoscale, and also discuss the future prospects of these supramolecular systems. PMID:24532851

  18. Review stapling peptides using cysteine crosslinking.

    PubMed

    Fairlie, David P; Dantas de Araujo, Aline

    2016-11-01

    Stapled peptides are an emerging class of cyclic peptide molecules with enhanced biophysical properties such as conformational and proteolytic stability, cellular uptake and elevated binding affinity and specificity for their biological targets. Among the limited number of chemistries available for their synthesis, the cysteine-based stapling strategy has received considerable development in the last few years driven by facile access from cysteine-functionalized peptide precursors. Here we present some recent advances in peptide and protein stapling where the side-chains of cysteine residues are covalently connected with a range of different crosslinkers affording bisthioether macrocyclic peptides of varying topology and biophysical properties. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 843-852, 2016.

  19. Peptide bioregulation of aging: results and prospects.

    PubMed

    Anisimov, Vladimir N; Khavinson, Vladimir Kh

    2010-04-01

    The review comprises the results of author's long-term investigation in the mechanisms of aging and a role of peptide bioregulators in prevention of age-related pathology. A number of small peptides have been isolated from different organs and tissues and their analogues (di-, tri-, tetrapeptides) were synthesized from the amino acids. It was shown that long-term treatment with some peptide preparations increased mean life span by 20-40%, slow down the age-related changes in the biomarkers of aging and suppressed development of spontaneous and induced by chemical or radiation carcinogens tumorigenesis in rodents. Possible mechanisms of the biological effects of small peptides are discussed in the paper. The results of clinical applications of peptide preparation during the period of 6-12 years are presented as well.

  20. Functional peptides derived from rice bran proteins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y Q; Strappe, P; Shang, W T; Zhou, Z K

    2017-09-08

    Rice bran has been predominantly used in the feed industry, and only recently it has attracted greater attention in terms of human nutrition with increasing knowledge of its bioactivity. A growing interest is the analysis of physiologically active peptides derived from rice bran proteins. In this paper, the bioactivities of rice bran proteins hydrolysates and peptides are reviewed based on recent studies. These enzymatic hydrolysates and peptides exert various biological activities including antioxidant, antidiabetic, anticancer and inhibitory activity for angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), which may ultimately prevent certain chronic diseases. Nevertheless, these functionalities can be highly associated with their corresponding structural characteristics, in particular specific sequences and molecular weight distribution. This article may facilitate the expansion of the prospective applications of the bioactive peptides in a number of fields and provide some clues of the relationship between peptides structure and functionality for future research.

  1. Antimicrobial peptides: an alternative for innovative medicines?

    PubMed

    da Costa, João Pinto; Cova, Marta; Ferreira, Rita; Vitorino, Rui

    2015-03-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are small molecules with activity against bacteria, yeasts, fungi, viruses, bacteria, and even tumor cells that make these molecules attractive as therapeutic agents. Due to the alarming increase of antimicrobial resistance, interest in alternative antimicrobial agents has led to the exploitation of antimicrobial peptides, both synthetic and from natural sources. Thus, many peptide-based drugs are currently commercially available for the treatment of numerous ailments, such as hepatitis C, myeloma, skin infections, and diabetes. Initial barriers are being increasingly overcome with the development of cost-effective, more stable peptides. Herein, we review the available strategies for their synthesis, bioinformatics tools for the rational design of antimicrobial peptides with enhanced therapeutic indices, hurdles and shortcomings limiting the large-scale production of AMPs, as well as the challenges that the pharmaceutical industry faces on their use as therapeutic agents.

  2. Current Trends and Perspectives of Bioactive Peptides.

    PubMed

    Daliri, Eric Banan-Mwine; Lee, Byong H; Oh, Deog H

    2017-06-12

    The remarkable growth of therapeutic peptide development in the past decade has led to a large number of market approvals and the market value is expected to hit $25 billion by 2018. This significant market increase is driven by the increasing incidences of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and technological advancements in peptide synthesis. For this reason, the search for bioactive peptides has also increased exponentially. Many bioactive peptides from food and nonfood sources have shown positive health effects yet, obstacles such as the need to implement efficient and cost-effective strategies for industrial scale production, good manufacturing practices as well as well-designed clinical trials to provide robust evidence for supporting health claims continue to exist. Several other factors such as the possibility of allergenicity, toxicity and the stability of biological functions of the peptides during gastrointestinal digestion would need to be addressed.

  3. Chemical Reactions Directed Peptide Self-Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Rasale, Dnyaneshwar B.; Das, Apurba K.

    2015-01-01

    Fabrication of self-assembled nanostructures is one of the important aspects in nanoscience and nanotechnology. The study of self-assembled soft materials remains an area of interest due to their potential applications in biomedicine. The versatile properties of soft materials can be tuned using a bottom up approach of small molecules. Peptide based self-assembly has significant impact in biology because of its unique features such as biocompatibility, straight peptide chain and the presence of different side chain functionality. These unique features explore peptides in various self-assembly process. In this review, we briefly introduce chemical reaction-mediated peptide self-assembly. Herein, we have emphasised enzymes, native chemical ligation and photochemical reactions in the exploration of peptide self-assembly. PMID:25984603

  4. Harnessing supramolecular peptide nanotechnology in biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kiat Hwa; Lee, Wei Hao; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Ni, Ming

    2017-01-01

    The harnessing of peptides in biomedical applications is a recent hot topic. This arises mainly from the general biocompatibility of peptides, as well as from the ease of tunability of peptide structure to engineer desired properties. The ease of progression from laboratory testing to clinical trials is evident from the plethora of examples available. In this review, we compare and contrast how three distinct self-assembled peptide nanostructures possess different functions. We have 1) nanofibrils in biomaterials that can interact with cells, 2) nanoparticles that can traverse the bloodstream to deliver its payload and also be bioimaged, and 3) nanotubes that can serve as cross-membrane conduits and as a template for nanowire formation. Through this review, we aim to illustrate how various peptides, in their various self-assembled nanostructures, possess great promise in a wide range of biomedical applications and what more can be expected. PMID:28223805

  5. Circulating elastin peptides, role in vascular pathology.

    PubMed

    Robert, L; Labat-Robert, J

    2014-12-01

    The atherosclerotic process starts with the degradation of elastic fibers. Their presence was demonstrated in the circulation as well as several of their biological properties elucidated. We described years ago a procedure to obtain large elastin peptides by organo-alkaline hydrolysis, κ-elastin. This method enabled also the preparation of specific antibodies used to determine elastin peptides, as well as anti-elastin antibodies in body fluids and tissue extracts. Elastin peptides were determined in a large number of human blood samples. Studies were carried out to explore their pharmacological properties. Similar recent studies by other laboratories confirmed our findings and arose new interest in circulating elastin peptides for their biological activities. This recent trend justified the publication of a review of the biological and pathological activities of elastin peptides demonstrated during our previous studies, subject of this article.

  6. Engineering short peptide sequences for uranyl binding.

    PubMed

    Lebrun, Colette; Starck, Matthieu; Gathu, Vicky; Chenavier, Yves; Delangle, Pascale

    2014-12-08

    Peptides are interesting tools to rationalize uranyl-protein interactions, which are relevant to uranium toxicity in vivo. Structured cyclic peptide scaffolds were chosen as promising candidates to coordinate uranyl thanks to four amino acid side chains pre-oriented towards the dioxo cation equatorial plane. The binding of uranyl by a series of decapeptides has been investigated with complementary analytical and spectroscopic methods to determine the key parameters for the formation of stable uranyl-peptide complexes. The molar ellipticity of the uranyl complex at 195 nm is directly correlated to its stability, which demonstrates that the β-sheet structure is optimal for high stability in the peptide series. Cyclodecapeptides with four glutamate residues exhibit the highest affinities for uranyl with log KC =8.0-8.4 and, therefore, appear as good starting points for the design of high-affinity uranyl-chelating peptides.

  7. [Bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins].

    PubMed

    Torres-Llanez, María de Jesús; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aaron Fernando

    2005-06-01

    Milk proteins are known for having a wide range of nutritional, functional and biological properties that make them important ingredients in functional or health promoting foods. These properties are partly attributed to bioactive peptides coded in the different milk proteins. Bioactive peptides are inactive within the protein sequence but may be released by the action of native proteolitic enzymes from milk, enzymes from lactic acid bacteria or from exogenous sources or may be produced during gastrointestinal digestion or processing of foods. Peptides derived from caseins and whey proteins were shown to present several bioactive properties such as opioid, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunodulatory, mineral carrier and antithrombotic. This overview presents a perspective of the importance of dairy proteins in the production of bioactive peptides and their biological activities, as well as the main analytical tecniques that have been used for the isolation and identification of these peptides.

  8. Chapter 14. Biosynthesis of nonribosomal peptide precursors.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Barrie; Micklefield, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Nonribosomal peptides are natural products typically of bacterial and fungal origin. These highly complex molecules display a broad spectrum of biological activities, and have been exploited for the development of immunosuppressant, antibiotic, anticancer, and other therapeutic agents. The nonribosomal peptides are assembled by nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) enzymes comprising repeating modules that are responsible for the sequential selection, activation, and condensation of precursor amino acids. In addition to this, fatty acids, alpha-keto acids and alpha-hydroxy acids, as well as polyketide derived units, can also be utilized by NRPS assembly lines. Final tailoring-steps, including glycosylation and prenylation, serve to further decorate the nonribosomal peptides produced. The wide range of experimental methods that are employed in the elucidation of nonribosomal peptide precursor biosynthesis will be discussed, with particularly emphasis on genomics based approaches which have become wide spread over the last 5 years.

  9. Novel bifunctional natriuretic peptides as potential therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Deborah M; Burnett, John C; Potter, Lincoln R

    2008-12-12

    Synthetic atrial natriuretic peptide (carperitide) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP; nesiritide) are used to treat congestive heart failure. However, despite beneficial cardiac unloading properties, reductions in renal perfusion pressures limit their clinical effectiveness. Recently, CD-NP, a chimeric peptide composed of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) fused to the C-terminal tail of Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP), was shown to be more glomerular filtration rate-enhancing than BNP in dogs. However, the molecular basis for the increased responsiveness was not determined. Here, we show that the DNP tail has a striking effect on CNP, converting it from a non-agonist to a partial agonist of natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-A while maintaining the ability to activate NPR-B. This effect is specific for human receptors because CD-NP was only a slightly better activator of rat NPR-A due to the promiscuous nature of CNP in this species. Interesting, the DNP tail alone had no effect on any NPR even though it is effective in vivo. To further increase the potency of CD-NP for NPR-A, we converted two different triplet sequences within the CNP ring to their corresponding residues in BNP. Both variants demonstrated increased affinity and full agonist activity for NPR-A, whereas one was as potent as any NPR-A activator known. In contrast to a previous report, we found that DNP binds the natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPR-C). However, none of the chimeric peptides bound NPR-C with significantly higher affinity than endogenous ligands. We suggest that bifunctional chimeric peptides represent a new generation of natriuretic peptide therapeutics.

  10. Modelling water molecules inside cyclic peptide nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiangtrong, Prangsai; Thamwattana, Ngamta; Baowan, Duangkamon

    2016-03-01

    Cyclic peptide nanotubes occur during the self-assembly process of cyclic peptides. Due to the ease of synthesis and ability to control the properties of outer surface and inner diameter by manipulating the functional side chains and the number of amino acids, cyclic peptide nanotubes have attracted much interest from many research areas. A potential application of peptide nanotubes is their use as artificial transmembrane channels for transporting ions, biomolecules and waters into cells. Here, we use the Lennard-Jones potential and a continuum approach to study the interaction of a water molecule in a cyclo[(- D-Ala- L-Ala)_4-] peptide nanotube. Assuming that each unit of a nanotube comprises an inner and an outer tube and that a water molecule is made up of a sphere of two hydrogen atoms uniformly distributed over its surface and a single oxygen atom at the centre, we determine analytically the interaction energy of the water molecule and the peptide nanotube. Using this energy, we find that, independent of the number of peptide units, the water molecule will be accepted inside the nanotube. Once inside the nanotube, we show that a water molecule prefers to be off-axis, closer to the surface of the inner nanotube. Furthermore, our study of two water molecules inside the peptide nanotube supports the finding that water molecules form an array of a 1-2-1-2 file inside peptide nanotubes. The theoretical study presented here can facilitate thorough understanding of the behaviour of water molecules inside peptide nanotubes for applications, such as artificial transmembrane channels.

  11. Encapsulation of Enzymes and Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meesters, Gabrie M. H.

    A large part of formulated peptides and proteins, e.g., enzymes used as food ingredients, are formulated in a liquid form. Often, they are dissolved in water to which glycerol or sorbitol is added to reduce the water activity of the liquid, thus reducing the change of microbial growth. Still, there are reasons to formulate them in a solid form. Often, these reasons are stability, since a dry formulation is often much better than liquid formulations, and less transportation cost, since less mass is transported if one gets rid of the liquid; however, most of the times, the reason is that the product is mixed with a solid powder. Here, a liquid addition would lead to lump formation.

  12. Antimicrobial peptides interact with peptidoglycan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neelay, Om P.; Peterson, Christian A.; Snavely, Mary E.; Brown, Taylor C.; TecleMariam, Ariam F.; Campbell, Jennifer A.; Blake, Allison M.; Schneider, Sydney C.; Cremeens, Matthew E.

    2017-10-01

    Traditional therapeutics are losing effectiveness as bacterial resistance increases, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) can serve as an alternative source for antimicrobial agents. Their mode of action is commonly hypothesized to involve pore formation in the lipid membrane, thereby leading to cell death. However, bacterial cell walls are much more complex than just the lipid membrane. A large portion of the wall is comprised of peptidoglycan, yet we did not find any report of AMP-peptidoglycan interactions. Consequently, this work evaluated AMP-peptidoglycan and AMP-phospholipid (multilamellar vesicles) interactions through tryptophan fluorescence. Given that peptidoglycan is insoluble and vesicles are large particles, we took advantage of the unique properties of Trp-fluorescence to use one technique for two very different systems. Interestingly, melittin and cecropin A interacted with peptidoglycan to a degree similar to vancomycin, a positive control. Whether these AMP-peptidoglycan interactions relate to a killing mode of action requires further study.

  13. Antimicrobial peptides of multicellular organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasloff, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Multicellular organisms live, by and large, harmoniously with microbes. The cornea of the eye of an animal is almost always free of signs of infection. The insect flourishes without lymphocytes or antibodies. A plant seed germinates successfully in the midst of soil microbes. How is this accomplished? Both animals and plants possess potent, broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides, which they use to fend off a wide range of microbes, including bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoa. What sorts of molecules are they? How are they employed by animals in their defence? As our need for new antibiotics becomes more pressing, could we design anti-infective drugs based on the design principles these molecules teach us?

  14. Peptide-Based Treatment: A Promising Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yu-Feng; Jie, Meng-Meng; Li, Bo-Sheng; Hu, Chang-Jiang; Xie, Rui; Tang, Bo; Yang, Shi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Many new therapies are currently being used to treat cancer. Among these new methods, chemotherapy based on peptides has been of great interest due to the unique advantages of peptides, such as a low molecular weight, the ability to specifically target tumor cells, and low toxicity in normal tissues. In treating cancer, peptide-based chemotherapy can be mainly divided into three types, peptide-alone therapy, peptide vaccines, and peptide-conjugated nanomaterials. Peptide-alone therapy may specifically enhance the immune system's response to kill tumor cells. Peptide-based vaccines have been used in advanced cancers to improve patients' overall survival. Additionally, the combination of peptides with nanomaterials expands the therapeutic ability of peptides to treat cancer by enhancing drug delivery and sensitivity. In this review, we mainly focus on the new advances in the application of peptides in treating cancer in recent years, including diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:26568964

  15. Peptide-Based Treatment: A Promising Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yu-Feng; Jie, Meng-Meng; Li, Bo-Sheng; Hu, Chang-Jiang; Xie, Rui; Tang, Bo; Yang, Shi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Many new therapies are currently being used to treat cancer. Among these new methods, chemotherapy based on peptides has been of great interest due to the unique advantages of peptides, such as a low molecular weight, the ability to specifically target tumor cells, and low toxicity in normal tissues. In treating cancer, peptide-based chemotherapy can be mainly divided into three types, peptide-alone therapy, peptide vaccines, and peptide-conjugated nanomaterials. Peptide-alone therapy may specifically enhance the immune system's response to kill tumor cells. Peptide-based vaccines have been used in advanced cancers to improve patients' overall survival. Additionally, the combination of peptides with nanomaterials expands the therapeutic ability of peptides to treat cancer by enhancing drug delivery and sensitivity. In this review, we mainly focus on the new advances in the application of peptides in treating cancer in recent years, including diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

  16. Positional scanning for peptide secondary structure by systematic solid-phase synthesis of amino lactam peptides.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Andrew G; Boutard, Nicolas; Beauregard, Kim; Bodas, Mandar S; Ong, Huy; Quiniou, Christiane; Chemtob, Sylvain; Lubell, William D

    2009-06-10

    Incorporation of amino lactams into biologically active peptides has been commonly used to restrict conformational mobility, enhance selectivity, and increase potency. A solid-phase method using a Fmoc-protection strategy has been developed for the systematic synthesis of peptides containing configurationally defined alpha- and beta-amino gamma-lactams. N-Alkylation of N-silyl peptides with five- and six-member cyclic sulfamidates 9 and 8 minimized bis-alkylation and provided N-alkyl peptides, which underwent lactam annulation under microwave heating. Employing this solid-phase protocol on the growth hormone secretagogue GHRP-6, as well as on the allosteric modulator of the IL-1 receptor 101.10, has furnished 16 lactam derivatives and validated the effectiveness of this approach on peptides bearing aliphatic, aromatic, branched, charged, and heteroatomic side chains. The binding affinity IC(50) values of the GHRP-6 lactam analogues on both the GHS-R1a and CD36 receptors are reported as well as inhibition of thymocyte proliferation measurements for the 101.10 lactam analogues. In these cases, lactam analogues were prepared exhibiting similar or improved properties compared with the parent peptide. Considering the potential for amino lactams to induce peptide turn conformations, the effective method described herein for their supported construction on growing peptides, and for the systematical amino lactam scan of peptides, has proven useful for the rapid identification of the secondary structure necessary for peptide biological activity.

  17. Formation of peptide radical ions through dissociative electron transfer in ternary metal-ligand-peptide complexes.

    PubMed

    Chu, Ivan K; Laskin, Julia

    2011-01-01

    The formation and fragmentation of odd-electron ions of peptides and proteins is of interest to applications in biological mass spectrometry. Gas-phase redox chemistry occurring during collision-induced dissociation of ternary metal-ligand-peptide complexes enables the formation of a variety of peptide radicals, including the canonical radical cations, M(+•), radical dications, [M+H](2+•), radical anions, [M-2H](-•) and phosphorylated radical cations. In addition, odd-electron peptide ions with well-defined initial location of the radical site are produced through side-chain losses from the radical ions. Subsequent fragmentation of these species provides information regarding the role of charge and location of the radical site on the competition between radical-induced and proton-driven fragmentation of odd-electron peptide ions. This account summarizes current understanding of the factors that control the efficiency of the intramolecular electron transfer (ET) in ternary metal-ligand-peptide complexes resulting in formation of odd-electron peptide ions. Specifically, we discuss the effect of the metal center, the ligand and the peptide structure on the competition between the ET, proton transfer (PT) and loss of neutral peptide and neutral peptide fragments from the complex. Fundamental studies of the structures, stabilities and the energetics and dynamics of fragmentation of these complexes are also important for detailed molecular-level understanding of photosynthesis and respiration in biological systems.

  18. Identification of a novel skin penetration enhancement peptide by phage display peptide library screening.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunny; Sahdev, Preety; Perumal, Omathanu; Tummala, Hemachand

    2012-05-07

    Skin is an important site for local or systemic application of drugs. However, a majority of drugs have poor permeability through the skin's topmost layer, stratum corneum (SC). The aim of this study was to identify safe and smaller peptides that could enhance the skin penetration of drug molecules. By screening phage display peptide library, we have identified a T2 peptide (LVGVFH), which enhanced the penetration of bacteriophages (~800 nm long bacterial viruses) across porcine and mouse skin. Pretreating the skin with synthetic T2 peptide at pH 4.5 resulted in significant penetration enhancement of hydrophilic drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) across skin. FTIR spectroscopy showed that the T2 peptide interacted with skin lipids to enhance the skin penetration. Pretreating the skin with T2 peptide enhanced the partitioning of small molecules with different lipophilicities (5-FU, fluorescein isothiocyanate, and rhodamine 123 hydrochloride) into skin. Fluorescence studies showed that T2 peptide enhanced the diffusion of these molecules into intercellular lipids of SC and thus enhanced the penetration into the skin. Histidine at the c-terminus of T2 peptide was identified to be critical for the skin penetration enhancement. T2 peptide interacted with skin lipids to cause skin penetration enhancement. The study identified a novel, safe, and noninvasive peptide to improve the skin penetration of drugs without chemical conjugation.

  19. Determinants of recombinant production of antimicrobial cationic peptides and creation of peptide variants in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Falla, T; Wu, M; Fidai, S; Burian, J; Kay, W; Hancock, R E

    1998-06-29

    Cationic peptides possessing antibacterial activity are virtually ubiquitous in nature, and offer exciting prospects as new therapeutic agents. We had previously demonstrated that such peptides could be produced by fusion protein technology in bacteria and several carrier proteins had been tested as fusion partners including glutathione-S-transferase, S. aureus protein A, IgG binding protein and P. aeruginosa outer membrane protein OprF. However these fusion partners, while successfully employed in peptide expression, were not optimized for high level production of cationic peptides (Piers, K., Brow, M. L., and Hancock, R. E. W. 1993, Gene 137, 7-13). In this paper we took advantage of a small replication protein RepA from E. coli and used its truncated version to construct fusion partners. The minimal elements required for high level expression of cationic peptide were defined as a DNA sequence encoding a fusion protein comprising, from the N-terminus, a 68 amino acid carrier region, an anionic prepro domain, a single methionine and the peptide of interest. The 68 amino acid carrier region was a block of three polypeptides consisting of a truncated RepA, a synthetic cellulose binding domain and a hexa histidine domain. The improved system showed high level expression and simplified downstream purification. The active peptide could be yielded by CNBr cleavage of the fusion protein. This novel vector was used to express three classes of cationic peptides including the alpha-helical peptide CEMA, the looped peptide bactenecin and the extended peptide indolicidin. In addition, mutagenesis of the peptide gene to produce peptide variants of CEMA and indolicidin using the improved vector system was shown to be successful.

  20. Multiplex De Novo Sequencing of Peptide Antibiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohimani, Hosein; Liu, Wei-Ting; Yang, Yu-Liang; Gaudêncio, Susana P.; Fenical, William; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    Proliferation of drug-resistant diseases raises the challenge of searching for new, more efficient antibiotics. Currently, some of the most effective antibiotics (i.e., Vancomycin and Daptomycin) are cyclic peptides produced by non-ribosomal biosynthetic pathways. The isolation and sequencing of cyclic peptide antibiotics, unlike the same activity with linear peptides, is time-consuming and error-prone. The dominant technique for sequencing cyclic peptides is NMR-based and requires large amounts (milligrams) of purified materials that, for most compounds, are not possible to obtain. Given these facts, there is a need for new tools to sequence cyclic NRPs using picograms of material. Since nearly all cyclic NRPs are produced along with related analogs, we develop a mass spectrometry approach for sequencing all related peptides at once (in contrast to the existing approach that analyzes individual peptides). Our results suggest that instead of attempting to isolate and NMR-sequence the most abundant compound, one should acquire spectra of many related compounds and sequence all of them simultaneously using tandem mass spectrometry. We illustrate applications of this approach by sequencing new variants of cyclic peptide antibiotics from Bacillus brevis, as well as sequencing a previously unknown familiy of cyclic NRPs produced by marine bacteria.

  1. Peptide therapeutics for treating ocular surface infections.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Curtis R

    2014-11-01

    Microbial pathogens-bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites-are significant causes of blindness, particularly in developing countries. For bacterial and some viral infections a number of antimicrobial drugs are available for therapy but there are fewer available for use in treating fungal and parasitic keratitis. There are also problems with current antimicrobials, such as limited efficacy and the presence of drug-resistant microbes. Thus, there is a need to develop additional drugs. Nature has given us an example of 1 potential source of new antimicrobials: antimicrobial peptides and proteins that are either present in bodily fluids and tissues constitutively or are induced upon infection. Given the nature of peptides, topical applications are the most likely use to be successful and this is ideal for treating keratitis. Such peptides would also be active against drug-resistant pathogens and might act synergistically if used in combination therapy. Hundreds of peptides with antimicrobial properties have been isolated or synthesized but only a handful have been tested against ocular pathogens and even fewer have been tested in animal models. This review summarizes the currently available information on the use of peptides to treat keratitis, outlines some of the problems that have been identified, and discusses future studies that will be needed. Most of the peptides that have been tested have shown activity at concentrations that do not warrant further development, but 1 or 2 have promising activity raising the possibility that peptides can be developed to treat keratitis.

  2. Thrombin inhibition by cyclic peptides from thrombomodulin.

    PubMed Central

    Lougheed, J. C.; Bowman, C. L.; Meininger, D. P.; Komives, E. A.

    1995-01-01

    Peptides corresponding to the loop regions of the fourth, fifth, and sixth epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains of thrombomodulin (TM) have been synthesized and assayed for thrombin inhibition, as indicated by both inhibition of thrombin-mediated fibrinogen clotting and inhibition of the association of thrombin with TM that results in protein C activation. Peptides from the fifth EGF-like domain showed significant inhibition of fibrinogen clotting and protein C activation, whereas peptides from the fourth and sixth EGF-like domains were weak inhibitors in both assays. Two structural features were important for inhibitory potency of the peptides from the fifth EGF-like domain: cyclization by a disulfide bond and attachment of the "tail" amino acids C-terminal to the disulfide loop. Linear control peptides did not significantly inhibit clotting or protein C activation. The C-terminal loop alone, the "tail" peptide, or a mixture of the two were at least 10-fold less potent inhibitors of clotting or protein C activation. A more constrained peptide analog was designed by deletion of an isoleucine within the C5-C6 disulfide loop, TM52-1 + 5C. This analog was a better inhibitor in both assay systems, having a Ki for protein C activation of 26 microM. PMID:7613475

  3. Chemotactic peptide receptor modulation in polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    The binding of the chemotactic peptide N- formylnorleucylleucylphenylalanine (FNLLP) to its receptor on rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) modulates the number of available peptide receptors. Incubation with FNLLP decreases subsequent binding capacity, a phenomenon that has been termed receptor down regulation. Down regulation of the chemotactic peptide receptor is concentration dependent in both the rate and extent of receptor loss. The dose response parallels that of FNLLP binding to the recptor. The time- course is rapid; even at concentrations of FNLLP as low as 3 x 10(-9) M, the new equilibrium concentration of receptors is reached within 15 min. Down regulation is temperature dependent, but does occur even at 4 degrees C. Concomitant with down regulation, some of the peptide becomes irreversibly cell associated. At 4 degrees C, there is a small accumulation of nondissociable peptide that rapidly reaches a plateau. At higher temperatures, accumulation of nondissociable peptide continues after the rceptor number has reached equilibrium, and the amount accumulated can exceed the initial number of receptors by as much as 300%. The dose response of peptide uptake at 37 degrees C reflects that of binding, suggesting that it is receptor mediated. This uptake may occur via a pinocytosis mechanism. Although PMNs have not been considered to be pinocytic, the addition of FNLLP causes a fourfold stimulation of the rate of pinocytosis as measured by the uptake of [3H]sucrose. PMID:7391138

  4. Synthetic Multivalent Antifungal Peptides Effective against Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianguo; Nandhakumar, Muruganantham; Aung, Thet Tun; Goh, Eunice; Chang, Jamie Ya Ting; Saraswathi, Padhmanaban; Tang, Charles; Safie, Siti Radiah Binte; Lin, Lim Yih; Riezman, Howard; Lei, Zhou; Verma, Chandra S.; Beuerman, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    Taking advantage of the cluster effect observed in multivalent peptides, this work describes antifungal activity and possible mechanism of action of tetravalent peptide (B4010) which carries 4 copies of the sequence RGRKVVRR through a branched lysine core. B4010 displayed better antifungal properties than natamycin and amphotericin B. The peptide retained significant activity in the presence of monovalent/divalent cations, trypsin and serum and tear fluid. Moreover, B4010 is non-haemolytic and non-toxic to mice by intraperitoneal (200 mg/kg) or intravenous (100 mg/kg) routes. S. cerevisiae mutant strains with altered membrane sterol structures and composition showed hyper senstivity to B4010. The peptide had no affinity for cell wall polysaccharides and caused rapid dissipation of membrane potential and release of vital ions and ATP when treated with C. albicans. We demonstrate that additives which alter the membrane potential or membrane rigidity protect C. albicans from B4010-induced lethality. Calcein release assay and molecular dynamics simulations showed that the peptide preferentially binds to mixed bilayer containing ergosterol over phophotidylcholine-cholesterol bilayers. The studies further suggested that the first arginine is important for mediating peptide-bilayer interactions. Replacing the first arginine led to a 2–4 fold decrease in antifungal activities and reduced membrane disruption properties. The combined in silico and in vitro approach should facilitate rational design of new tetravalent antifungal peptides. PMID:24498363

  5. Controlled delivery of peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Degim, I Tuncer; Celebi, Nevin

    2007-01-01

    The final aim/target of Pharmaceutical Sciences is to design successful dosage forms for effective therapy, considering individual patient needs and compliance. Development of new drug entities, particularly using peptides and proteins, is growing in importance and attracting increased interest, as they are specifically effective at a comparably low dose. These very potent and specific peptides and proteins can now be produced in large quantities due to increased knowledge and advancements in biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications. A number of peptide and protein products are now available on the market, and numerous studies investigating them have been published in the literature. Although many peptide/protein like products are generally designed for parenteral administration, some other noninvasive routes have also been used. For example, desmopressin is delivered nasally and deoxyribonuclease by inhalation. Although peptides and proteins are generally orally inactive, cyclosporine is an exception. In order to design and develop long-acting, more effective peptide/protein drugs, the controlled release mechanisms and effective parameters need to be understood and clarified. Therefore, we review herein various peptide/protein delivery systems, including biodegradable and nondegradable microspheres, microcapsules, nanocapsules, injectable implants, diffusion-controlled hydrogels and other hydrophilic systems, microemulsions and multiple emulsions, and the use of iontophoresis or electroporation, and discuss the results of recent researches.

  6. Hydroxyapatite surface-induced peptide folding.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Lisa A; Beebe, Thomas P; Schneider, Joel P

    2007-04-25

    Herein, we describe the design and surface-binding characterization of a de novo designed peptide, JAK1, which undergoes surface-induced folding at the hydroxyapatite (HA)-solution interface. JAK1 is designed to be unstructured in buffered saline solution, yet undergo HA-induced folding that is largely governed by the periodic positioning of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues within the primary sequence of the peptide. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation indicate that the peptide remains unfolded and monomeric in solution under normal physiological conditions; however, CD spectroscopy indicates that in the presence of hydroxyapatite, the peptide avidly binds to the mineral surface adopting a helical structure. Adsorption isotherms indicate nearly quantitative surface coverage and Kd = 310 nM for the peptide-surface binding event. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) coupled with the adsorption isotherm data suggests that JAK1 binds to HA, forming a self-limiting monolayer. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using HA surfaces to trigger the intramolecular folding of designed peptides and represents the initial stages of defining the design rules that allow HA-induced peptide folding.

  7. Novel pH-Sensitive Cyclic Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Weerakkody, Dhammika; Moshnikova, Anna; El-Sayed, Naglaa Salem; Adochite, Ramona-Cosmina; Slaybaugh, Gregory; Golijanin, Jovana; Tiwari, Rakesh K.; Andreev, Oleg A.; Parang, Keykavous; Reshetnyak, Yana K.

    2016-01-01

    A series of cyclic peptides containing a number of tryptophan (W) and glutamic acid (E) residues were synthesized and evaluated as pH-sensitive agents for targeting of acidic tissue and pH-dependent cytoplasmic delivery of molecules. Biophysical studies revealed the molecular mechanism of peptides action and localization within the lipid bilayer of the membrane at high and low pHs. The symmetric, c[(WE)4WC], and asymmetric, c[E4W5C], cyclic peptides translocated amanitin, a polar cargo molecule of similar size, across the lipid bilayer and induced cell death in a pH- and concentration-dependent manner. Fluorescently-labelled peptides were evaluated for targeting of acidic 4T1 mammary tumors in mice. The highest tumor to muscle ratio (5.6) was established for asymmetric cyclic peptide, c[E4W5C], at 24 hours after intravenous administration. pH-insensitive cyclic peptide c[R4W5C], where glutamic acid residues (E) were replaced by positively charged arginine residues (R), did not exhibit tumor targeting. We have introduced a novel class of cyclic peptides, which can be utilized as a new pH-sensitive tool in investigation or targeting of acidic tissue. PMID:27515582

  8. Immunoreactive opioid peptides in human breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Scopsi, L.; Balslev, E.; Brünner, N.; Poulsen, H. S.; Andersen, J.; Rank, F.; Larsson, L. I.

    1989-01-01

    Opioid peptides have a variety of actions on inter alia pituitary hormone secretion and the immune system. Release of endogenous opioids has been found to stimulate growth of experimental breast cancers and opiate receptor blockers have reduced the growth of chemically induced rat breast tumors. Opioid peptides may therefore play a role in human breast cancer. Invasive ductal carcinomas from 61 premenopausal women were immunocytochemically analyzed for the presence of opioid peptide immunoreactivity. Positive staining was unambiguously identified in 34 of the tumors (56%). In addition, a medullary carcinoma was positive. In a smaller series of tumors, opioid peptide immunoreactive cells were detected in both primary tumors and metastases. Positive tumor cells were usually few and scattered. Therefore, underestimates of their true frequency of occurrence are likely to have occurred, making accurate correlations with clinical behavior and estrogen receptor status difficult. No correlations with estrogen receptors were established for the unambiguously opioid peptide-positive tumors. Many of the positive tumors also stained with antibodies to gamma-endorphin and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, suggesting the presence of proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides in them. However, peptides derived from other opioid precursors also may be present in breast cancer. Images Figure 1 PMID:2464945

  9. Multifunctional Prenylated Peptides for Live Cell Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wollack, James W.; Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Mullen, Daniel G.; Amundson, Gregg; Geier, Suzanne; Falkum, Stacy; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.; Barany, George; Distefano, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    Protein prenylation is a common post-translational modification present in eukaryotic cells. Many key proteins involved in signal transduction pathways are prenylated and inhibition of prenylation can be useful as a therapeutic intervention. While significant progress has been made in understanding protein prenylation in vitro, we have been interested in studying this process in living cells, including the question of where prenylated molecules localize. Here, we describe the synthesis and live cell analysis of a series of fluorescently labeled multifunctional peptides, based on the C-terminus of the naturally prenylated protein CDC42. A synthetic route was developed that features a key Acm to Scm protecting group conversion. This strategy was compatible with acid-sensitive isoprenoid moieties, and allowed incorporation of an appropriate fluorophore as well as a cell-penetrating sequence (penetratin). These peptides are able to enter cells through different mechanisms, depending on the presence or absence of the penetratin vehicle and the nature of the prenyl group attached. Interestingly, prenylated peptides lacking penetratin are able to enter cells freely through an energy-independent process, and localize in a perinuclear fashion. This effect extends to a prenylated peptide that includes a full “CAAX box” sequence (specifically, CVLL). Hence, these peptides open the door for studies of protein prenylation in living cells, including enzymatic processing and intracellular peptide trafficking. Moreover, the synthetic strategy developed here should be useful for the assembly of other types of peptides that contain acid sensitive functionalities. PMID:19425596

  10. Peptide Therapeutics for Treating Ocular Surface Infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Microbial pathogens—bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites—are significant causes of blindness, particularly in developing countries. For bacterial and some viral infections a number of antimicrobial drugs are available for therapy but there are fewer available for use in treating fungal and parasitic keratitis. There are also problems with current antimicrobials, such as limited efficacy and the presence of drug-resistant microbes. Thus, there is a need to develop additional drugs. Nature has given us an example of 1 potential source of new antimicrobials: antimicrobial peptides and proteins that are either present in bodily fluids and tissues constitutively or are induced upon infection. Given the nature of peptides, topical applications are the most likely use to be successful and this is ideal for treating keratitis. Such peptides would also be active against drug-resistant pathogens and might act synergistically if used in combination therapy. Hundreds of peptides with antimicrobial properties have been isolated or synthesized but only a handful have been tested against ocular pathogens and even fewer have been tested in animal models. This review summarizes the currently available information on the use of peptides to treat keratitis, outlines some of the problems that have been identified, and discusses future studies that will be needed. Most of the peptides that have been tested have shown activity at concentrations that do not warrant further development, but 1 or 2 have promising activity raising the possibility that peptides can be developed to treat keratitis. PMID:25250986

  11. Measurement of environmental formylmethionyl-peptides.

    PubMed

    Siegel, P D; Ronk, E A; Clark, P R; Shahan, T A; Castranova, V

    1994-07-01

    Formylmethionyl-peptides are naturally occurring, biologically active ligands produced by bacteria. They produce a variety of biological effects including neutrophil chemotaxis, cellular degranulation, oxygen-free radical production, and smooth muscle contraction. Our studies have demonstrated that oxidized and reduced forms of formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) can be detected in bulk environmental organic dust samples. Organic dust fMLP content may not reflect total formylmethionyl-peptide content and pathological sequelae. Attempts to develop a total formylmethionyl-peptide assay that would reflect its pathological potential have thus far been unsuccessful. Information has been derived concerning the biology of formylmethionyl-peptides from these studies. Chromatographic, radioenzymatic, and radioreceptor-ligand binding studies were performed. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of synthetic and environmental fMLP demonstrated that fMLP is labile, forming three oxidation products. HPLC is limited by inadequate sensitivity for air sample analysis and the probability of the presence of multiple formylmethionyl-peptides. Deformylases were isolated from Escherichia coli, but their usefulness in a competitive assay to detect formylmethionyl-peptides was limited by specificity differences from that for biological receptors. Receptor binding studies were conducted in an attempt to replace the deformylase with a biological receptor. The receptor binding patterns noted were consistent with the existence of three distinct formylmethionyl-peptide receptor subsets in neutrophils and alveolar macrophages. The plurality of fMLP receptor subtypes interfered with formylmethionyl-peptide measurement in a competitive assay. Formylmethionyl-peptides may contribute to organic dust-induced disease, but better techniques for the assessment of exposure to these agents are needed to properly assess their health impact.

  12. Bioactive proteins and peptides in foods.

    PubMed

    Walther, Barbara; Sieber, Robert

    2011-03-01

    Increasing amounts of data demonstrate a bioactive role of proteins and peptides above and beyond their nutritional impact. The focus of the investigations has mainly been on vitamin- and mineral-binding proteins, on antimicrobial, immunosuppressing/-modulatory proteins, and on proteins with enzyme inhibitory activity as well as on hormones and growth factors from different food proteins; most research has been performed on milk proteins. Because of their molecular size, intact absorption of proteins in the human gastrointestinal tract is limited. Therefore, most of the proteins with biological functions show physiological activity in the gastrointestinal tract by enhancing nutrient absorption, inhibiting enzymes, and modulating the immune system to defend against pathogens. Peptides are released during fermentation or digestion from food proteins by proteolytic enzymes; such peptides have been found mainly in milk. Some of these released peptides exert biological activities such as opiate-like, antihypertensive, mineral-binding, antioxidative, antimicrobial, immuno-, and cytomodulating activity. Intact absorption of these smaller peptides is more likely than that of the larger proteins. Consequently, other organs than the gastrointestinal tract are possible targets for their biological functions. Bioactive proteins as well as bioactive peptides are part of a balanced diet. It is possible to accumulate bioactive peptides in food, for example by using specific microorganisms in fermented dairy products. Although bioactive peptides have been the subject of several studies in vitro and in vivo, their health potential is still under investigation. Up to now, the Commission of European Communities has not (yet) authorized any health claims for bioactive proteins and peptides from food.

  13. Novel cell-penetrating peptide targeting mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Cerrato, Carmine Pasquale; Pirisinu, Marco; Vlachos, Efstathios Nikolaos; Langel, Ülo

    2015-11-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short, nontoxic peptides with cationic and/or amphipathic properties able to cross the cellular membrane. CPPs are used for the delivery of a wide variety of cargoes, such as proteins, oligonucleotides, and therapeutic molecules. The aim of the present study was to synthesize unusually small novel CPPs targeting mitochondria based on the Szeto-Schiller peptide (SS-31) to influence intramitochondrial processes and to improve the biologic effects. All the peptides used were synthesized manually using 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chemistry. In the first part of the study, HeLa 705, U87, and bEnd.3 cells were used as in vitro delivery model. Cells were incubated for 24 h at 37°C and 5% CO2 with different concentrations of our peptides. Cell proliferation assay was performed to evaluate cell viability. Biologic effects such as mitochondrial membrane potential and antioxidant activity were evaluated. H2O2 was used as positive control. Uptake studies were performed using peptides conjugated with 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (FAM). Fluorescent microscopy was used to determine presence and localization of peptides into the cells. Isolated mitochondria from pretreated cells and mitochondria treated after isolation were used to confirm the targeting ability of the peptide. Uptake of FAM alone was used as negative control. Microscopy studies confirmed the ability of peptides to penetrate cell. Localization analysis showed increase in uptake by 35% compared with SS-31. Mitochondrial CPP 1 (mtCPP-1) had no effect on mitochondrial membrane potential and prevented reactive oxygen species formation in bEnd.3 cells by 2-fold compared with SS-31. No cytotoxicity was observed even at high concentration (100 µM). These data suggest that mtCPP-1 is a mitochondrial CPP and protect mitochondria from oxidative damage due to its own antioxidant activities. © FASEB.

  14. Cysteine-containing peptides having antioxidant properties

    DOEpatents

    Bielicki, John K.

    2009-10-13

    Cysteine containing amphipathic alpha helices of the exchangeable apolipoproteins, as exemplified by apolipoprotein (apo) A-I.sub.Milano (R173C) and apoA-I.sub.Paris, (R151C) were found to exhibit potent antioxidant activity on phospholipid surfaces. The addition of a free thiol, at the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface of an amphipathic alpha helix of synthetic peptides that mimic HDL-related proteins, imparts a unique antioxidant activity to these peptides which inhibits lipid peroxidation and protects phospholipids from water-soluble free radical initiators. These peptides can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, ischemia, bone disease and other inflammatory related diseases.

  15. Cysteine-containing peptides having antioxidant properties

    DOEpatents

    Bielicki, John K.

    2008-10-21

    Cysteine containing amphipathic alpha helices of the exchangeable apolipoproteins, as exemplified by apolipoprotein (apo) A-I.sub.Milano (R173C) and apoA-I.sub.Paris, (R151C) were found to exhibit potent antioxidant activity on phospholipid surfaces. The addition of a free thiol, at the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface of an amphipathic alpha helix of synthetic peptides that mimic HDL-related proteins, imparts a unique antioxidant activity to these peptides which inhibits lipid peroxidation and protects phospholipids from water-soluble free radical initiators. These peptides can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, ischemia, bone disease and other inflammatory related diseases.

  16. How Nature Morphs Peptide Scaffolds into Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Elizabeth M.; Walsh, Christopher T.

    2010-01-01

    The conventional notion that peptides are poor candidates for orally available drugs because of protease-sensitive peptide bonds, intrinsic hydrophilicity, and ionic charges contrasts with the diversity of antibiotic natural products with peptide-based frameworks that are synthesized and utilized by Nature. Several of these antibiotics, including penicillin and vancomycin, are employed to treat bacterial infections in humans and have been best-selling therapeutics for decades. Others might provide new platforms for the design of novel therapeutics to combat emerging antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens. PMID:19058272

  17. Clickable Polymeric Coating for Oriented Peptide Immobilization.

    PubMed

    Sola, Laura; Gori, Alessandro; Cretich, Marina; Finetti, Chiara; Zilio, Caterina; Chiari, Marcella

    2016-01-01

    A new methodology for the fabrication of an high-performance peptide microarray is reported, combining the higher sensitivity of a layered Si-SiO2 substrate with the oriented immobilization of peptides using a N,N-dimethylacrylamide-based polymeric coating that contains alkyne monomers as functional groups. This clickable polymer allows the oriented attachment of azido-modified peptides via a copper-mediated azide/alkyne cycloaddition. A similar coating that does not contain the alkyne functionality has been used as comparison, to demonstrate the importance of a proper orientation for facilitating the probe recognition and interaction with the target antibody.

  18. The Potential of Antimicrobial Peptides as Biocides

    PubMed Central

    Laverty, Garry; Gorman, Sean P.; Gilmore, Brendan F.

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides constitute a diverse class of naturally occurring antimicrobial molecules which have activity against a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms. Antimicrobial peptides are exciting leads in the development of novel biocidal agents at a time when classical antibiotics are under intense pressure from emerging resistance, and the global industry in antibiotic research and development stagnates. This review will examine the potential of antimicrobial peptides, both natural and synthetic, as novel biocidal agents in the battle against multi-drug resistant pathogen infections. PMID:22072905

  19. SICLOPPS cyclic peptide libraries in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli, Ali

    2017-02-28

    Cyclic peptide libraries have demonstrated significant potential when employed against challenging targets such as protein-protein interactions. While a variety of methods for library generation exist, genetically encoded libraries hold several advantages over their chemically synthesized counterparts; they are more readily accessible and allow straightforward hit deconvolution. One method for the intracellular generation of such libraries is split-intein circular ligation of peptides and proteins (SICLOPPS). Here we detail and discuss the deployment of SICLOPPS libraries for the identification of cyclic peptide inhibitors of a variety of targets.

  20. Asymmetric catalysis with short-chain peptides.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Bartosz; Wennemers, Helma

    2014-10-01

    Within this review article we describe recent developments in asymmetric catalysis with peptides. Numerous peptides have been established in the past two decades that catalyze a wide variety of transformations with high stereoselectivities and yields, as well as broad substrate scope. We highlight here catalytically active peptides, which have addressed challenges that had thus far remained elusive in asymmetric catalysis: enantioselective synthesis of atropoisomers and quaternary stereogenic centers, regioselective transformations of polyfunctional substrates, chemoselective transformations, catalysis in-flow and reactions in aqueous environments.

  1. Discovering and improving novel peptide therapeutics.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Duncan Patrick

    2008-10-01

    Peptides have a number of advantages over small molecules in terms of specificity and affinity for targets, and over antibodies in terms of size. However, sensitivity to serum and tissue proteases coupled with short serum half-life has resulted in few recombinant library derived peptides, making the transition from lead to drug on the market. Recently, a series of technologies have been developed to address both these issues: selection methodologies addressing protease resistance have been developed that when combined with methods such as pegylation antibody Fc attachment and binding to serum albumin look likely to finally turn therapeutic peptides into a widely accepted drug class.

  2. Immunocytochemical and Immunohistochemical Staining with Peptide Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Friis, Tina; Pedersen, Klaus Boberg; Hougaard, David; Houen, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Peptide antibodies are particularly useful for immunocytochemistry (ICC) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), where antigens may denature due to fixation of tissues and cells. Peptide antibodies can be made to any defined sequence, including unknown putative proteins and posttranslationally modified sequences. Moreover, the availability of large amounts of the antigen (peptide) allows inhibition/adsorption controls, which are important in ICC/IHC, due to the many possibilities for false-positive reactions caused by immunoglobulin Fc receptors, nonspecific reactions, and cross-reactivity of primary and secondary antibodies with other antigens and endogenous immunoglobulins, respectively. Here, simple protocols for ICC and IHC are described together with recommendations for appropriate controls.

  3. Photolytic control of peptide self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Bosques, Carlos J; Imperiali, Barbara

    2003-06-25

    Herein, we present a methodology that allows for the temporal control of fibrillization of amyloidogenic peptides. This general approach implements a photolabile linker that connects the amyloidogenic peptide to a fibril-inhibitory unit, in this case, a pentamer of amino acids modified with the solubilizing N,N-dimethylethylenediamine (DMDA) units. Upon photolysis, the linker can be dissociated to afford the intact and native amyloidogenic peptide. This methodology should be of value in a variety of studies where spatial and temporal control of supramolecular association processes is desired.

  4. Novel anti-inflammatory peptides as cosmeceutical peptides.

    PubMed

    Kang, Youn-A; Na, Jung-Im; Choi, Hye-Ryung; Choi, Jee-Woong; Kang, Hee-Young; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2011-10-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induced inflammation plays an important role in the aging of human skin. Prostaglandin (PG) E(2) is the primary mediator of UVB induced photoinflammation. We screened an internal library for dipeptides that inhibited UVB induced PGE(2) synthesis but showed no cytotoxicity toward human keratinocytes. We identified three highly active inhibitory sequences, LE (Leu+Glu), MW (Met+Trp) and MY (Met+Tyr). To evaluate their efficacy in human skin, 24 sites of abdomen skin were irradiated with a 308 nm excimer laser (300 mJ/cm(2)), after which 2% LE, MW, MY or a control were applied to the irradiated sites for 24h. The erythema index (EI) was measured before and 24h after treatment. The results showed that LE and MW significantly decreased UVB induced erythema (p=0.041 and p=0.036, respectively), but ME did not. Overall, LE and MW are candidate cosmeceutical peptides that can protect skin from UVB induced photoinflammation.

  5. Structural similarities of the staphylococcin-like peptide Pep-5 to the peptide antibiotic nisin.

    PubMed Central

    Sahl, H G; Grossgarten, M; Widger, W R; Cramer, W A; Brandis, H

    1985-01-01

    The staphylococcin-like peptide Pep-5 was shown to be a complex mixture of closely related and strongly basic peptides. Five peptides were purified by high-pressure liquid chromatography on reversed-phase and gel filtration columns and further characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and amino acid analysis. Four peptides have molecular weights of ca. 3,500, whereas one is of double size. All contain the thioether amino acid lanthionine and a large number of lysine residues per molecule. The amino terminus of the main active peptide is blocked; the carboxy-terminal end is formed by a lysine residue. The data obtained for Pep-5 suggest striking structural similarities to the peptide antibiotics nisin and subtilin. Images PMID:4015073

  6. Analysis of residue conformations in peptides in Cambridge structural database and protein-peptide structural complexes.

    PubMed

    Raghavender, Upadhyayula Surya

    2017-03-01

    A comprehensive statistical analysis of the geometric parameters of peptide chains in a reduced dataset of protein-peptide complexes in Protein Data Bank (PDB) is presented. The angular variables describing the backbone conformations of amino acid residues in peptide chains shed insights into the conformational preferences of peptide residues interacting with protein partners. Nonparametric statistical approaches are employed to evaluate the interrelationships and associations in structural variables. Grouping of residues based on their structure into chemical classes reveals characteristic trends in parameter relationships. A comparison of canonical amino acid residues in free peptide structures in Cambridge structural database (CSD) with identical residues in PDB complexes, suggests that the information can be integrated from both the structural repositories enabling efficient and accurate modeling of biologically active peptides. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Copper-Aβ Peptides and Oxidation of Catecholic Substrates: Reactivity and Endogenous Peptide Damage.

    PubMed

    Pirota, Valentina; Dell'Acqua, Simone; Monzani, Enrico; Nicolis, Stefania; Casella, Luigi

    2016-11-14

    The oxidative reactivity of copper complexes with Aβ peptides 1-16 and 1-28 (Aβ16 and Aβ28) against dopamine and related catechols under physiological conditions has been investigated in parallel with the competitive oxidative modification undergone by the peptides. It was found that both Aβ16 and Aβ28 markedly increase the oxidative reactivity of copper(II) towards the catechol compounds, up to a molar ratio of about 4:1 of peptide/copper(II). Copper redox cycling during the catalytic activity induces the competitive modification of the peptide at selected amino acid residues. The main modifications consist of oxidation of His13/14 to 2-oxohistidine and Phe19/20 to ortho-tyrosine, and the formation of a covalent His6-catechol adduct. Competition by the endogenous peptide is rather efficient, as approximately one peptide molecule is oxidized every 10 molecules of 4-methylcatechol.

  8. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of quorum sensing peptides and Peptide analogues against oral biofilm bacteria.

    PubMed

    LoVetri, Karen; Madhyastha, Srinivasa

    2010-01-01

    Widespread antibiotic resistance is a major incentive for the investigation of novel ways to treat or prevent infections. Much effort has been put into the discovery of peptides in nature accompanied by manipulation of natural peptides to improve activity and decrease toxicity. The ever increasing knowledge about bacteria and the discovery of quorum sensing have presented itself as another mechanism to disrupt the infection process. We have shown that the natural quorum sensing (QS) peptide, competence-stimulating peptide (CSP), used by the caries causing bacteria Streptococcus mutans when used in higher than normally present concentrations can actually contribute to cell death in S. mutans. Using an analogue of this quorum sensing peptide (KBI-3221), we have shown it to be beneficial at decreasing biofilm of various Streptococcus species. This chapter looks at a number of assay methods to test the inhibitory effects of quorum sensing peptides and their analogues on the growth and biofilm formation of oral bacteria.

  9. Peptide synthesis in aqueous environments: the role of extreme conditions on peptide bond formation and peptide hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Eduard; Nair, Nisanth N; Marx, Dominik

    2009-09-30

    The mechanisms and free energetics underlying the formation of peptides from alpha-amino acids and alpha-amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs) in bulk water at both ambient and extreme temperature and pressure conditions were investigated using accelerated ab initio molecular dynamics. In particular, peptide bond formation using an activated amino acid in form of its NCA, subsequent decarboxylation, as well as hydrolysis of the formed peptide were studied using glycine. It is shown to what extent thermodynamic conditions affect the reaction mechanisms qualitatively and the energetics quantitatively in solution. In particular, the zwitterionic intermediate in the peptidization step found in ambient water degenerates into a transient species in hot-pressurized water, whereas the hydrolysis reaction is found to follow qualitatively different pathways at ambient and extreme conditions. The work also quantifies the impact of extreme solvent conditions on both peptide bond formation and peptide hydrolysis in aqueous media. Beyond the specific case, the results provide important insights into how elevated temperatures and increased pressures affect organic reactions in aqueous solutions.

  10. Membrane-active peptides from marine organisms--antimicrobials, cell-penetrating peptides and peptide toxins: applications and prospects.

    PubMed

    Ponnappan, Nisha; Budagavi, Deepthi Poornima; Yadav, Bhoopesh Kumar; Chugh, Archana

    2015-03-01

    Marine organisms are known to be a rich and unique source of bioactive compounds as they are exposed to extreme conditions in the oceans. The present study is an attempt to briefly describe some of the important membrane-active peptides (MAPs) such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and peptide toxins from marine organisms. Since both AMPs and CPPs play a role in membrane perturbation and exhibit interchangeable role, they can speculatively fall under the broad umbrella of MAPs. The study focuses on the structural and functional characteristics of different classes of marine MAPs. Further, AMPs are considered as a potential remedy to antibiotic resistance acquired by several pathogens. Peptides from marine organisms show novel post-translational modifications such as cysteine knots, halogenation and histidino-alanine bridge that enable these peptides to withstand harsh marine environmental conditions. These unusual modifications of AMPs from marine organisms are expected to increase their half-life in living systems, contributing to their increased bioavailability and stability when administered as drug in in vivo systems. Apart from AMPs, marine toxins with membrane-perturbing properties could be essentially investigated for their cytotoxic effect on various pathogens and their cell-penetrating activity across various mammalian cells. The current review will help in identifying the MAPs from marine organisms with crucial post-translational modifications that can be used as template for designing novel therapeutic agents and drug-delivery vehicles for treatment of human diseases.

  11. On the hydrophobicity of peptides: Comparing empirical predictions of peptide log P values

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Sarah J; Hattotuwagama, Channa K; Holliday, John D; Flower, Darren R

    2006-01-01

    Peptides are of great therapeutic potential as vaccines and drugs. Knowledge of physicochemical descriptors, including the partition coefficient logP, is useful for the development of predictive Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs). We have investigated the accuracy of available programs for the prediction of logP values for peptides with known experimental values obtained from the literature. Eight prediction programs were tested, of which seven programs were fragment-based methods: XLogP, LogKow, PLogP, ACDLogP, AlogP, Interactive Analysis's LogP and MlogP; and one program used a whole molecule approach: QikProp. The predictive accuracy of the programs was assessed using r2 values, with ALogP being the most effective (r 2 = 0.822) and MLogP the least (r2 = 0.090). We also examined three distinct types of peptide structure: blocked, unblocked, and cyclic. For each study (all peptides, blocked, unblocked and cyclic peptides) the performance of programs rated from best to worse is as follows: all peptides – ALogP, QikProp, PLogP, XLogP, IALogP, LogKow, ACDLogP, and MlogP; blocked peptides ­ PLogP, XLogP, ACDLogP, IALogP, LogKow, QikProp, ALogP, and MLogP; unblocked peptides ­ QikProp, IALogP, ALogP, ACDLogP, MLogP, XLogP, LogKow and PLogP; cyclic peptides ­ LogKow, ALogP, XLogP, MLogP, QikProp, ACDLogP, IALogP. In summary, all programs gave better predictions for blocked peptides, while, in general, logP values for cyclic peptides were under-predicted and those of unblocked peptides were over-predicted PMID:17597897

  12. A new way to silicone-based peptide polymers.

    PubMed

    Jebors, Said; Ciccione, Jeremie; Al-Halifa, Soultan; Nottelet, Benjamin; Enjalbal, Christine; M'Kadmi, Céline; Amblard, Muriel; Mehdi, Ahmad; Martinez, Jean; Subra, Gilles

    2015-03-16

    We describe a new class of silicone-containing peptide polymers obtained by a straightforward polymerization in water using tailored chlorodimethylsilyl peptide blocks as monomeric units. This general strategy is applicable to any type of peptide sequences, yielding linear or branched polymer chains composed of well-defined peptide sequences.

  13. Polymer-Peptide Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, He; Shu, Jessica Y.; Xu, Ting

    2010-03-01

    Conjugation of synthetic polymers to peptides offers an efficient way to produce novel supramolecular structures. Herein, we report an attempt to prepare synthetic micellar nanoparticles using amphiphilic peptide-polymer conjugates as molecular building blocks. Spherical nanoparticles were formed upon dissolution of peptides in PBS buffer through the segregation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments. Both molecular and nano- structures were thoroughly investigated by a variety of biophysical techniques, including circular dichroism (CD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), size exclusion chromatography (SEC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The results demonstrate that structural properties of these biohybrid materials depend on both the geometry of the hydrophobic domain and the size of synthetic polymers. Given the diversity of functional peptide sequences, hydrophilic polymers and hydrophobic moieties, these materials would be expected to self-assemble into various types of nanostructures to cover a wide range of biological applications.

  14. Advances in synthetic peptides reagent discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Bryn L.; Sarkes, Deborah A.; Finch, Amethist S.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.

    2013-05-01

    Bacterial display technology offers a number of advantages over competing display technologies (e.g, phage) for the rapid discovery and development of peptides with interaction targeted to materials ranging from biological hazards through inorganic metals. We have previously shown that discovery of synthetic peptide reagents utilizing bacterial display technology is relatively simple and rapid to make laboratory automation possible. This included extensive study of the protective antigen system of Bacillus anthracis, including development of discovery, characterization, and computational biology capabilities for in-silico optimization. Although the benefits towards CBD goals are evident, the impact is far-reaching due to our ability to understand and harness peptide interactions that are ultimately extendable to the hybrid biomaterials of the future. In this paper, we describe advances in peptide discovery including, new target systems (e.g. non-biological materials), advanced library development and clone analysis including integrated reporting.

  15. An antifungal peptide from baby lima bean.

    PubMed

    Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2006-12-01

    A 6-kDa antifungal peptide with inhibitory activity on mycelial growth in Fusarium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, and Physalospora piricola was isolated from baby lima beans. The peptide suppressed growth in M. arachidicola with an IC(50) of 0.87 muM and inhibited activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 4 muM. The peptide exhibited an N-terminal amino acid sequence similar to those of leguminous defensins. The isolation procedure comprised ion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on carboxymethyl (CM)-cellulose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The peptide was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and Affi-gel blue gel but was adsorbed on CM-cellulose.

  16. Peptide regulators of peripheral taste function

    PubMed Central

    Dotson, Cedrick D.; Geraedts, Maartje C.P.; Munger, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    The peripheral sensory organ of the gustatory system, the taste bud, contains a heterogeneous collection of sensory cells. These taste cells can differ in the stimuli to which they respond and the receptors and other signaling molecules they employ to transduce and encode gustatory stimuli. This molecular diversity extends to the expression of a varied repertoire of bioactive peptides that appear to play important functional roles in signaling taste information between the taste cells and afferent sensory nerves and/or in processing sensory signals within the taste bud itself. Here, we review studies that examine the expression of bioactive peptides in the taste bud and the impact of those peptides on taste functions. Many of these peptides produced in taste buds are known to affect appetite, satiety or metabolism through their actions in the brain, pancreas and other organs, suggesting a functional link between the gustatory system and the neural and endocrine systems that regulate feeding and nutrient utilization. PMID:23348523

  17. Bioactive Proteins and Peptides from Soybeans.

    PubMed

    Agyei, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Dietary proteins from soybeans have been shown to offer health benefits in vivo and/or in vitro either as intact proteins or in partially digested forms also called bioactive peptides. Upon oral administration and absorption, soy-derived bioactive peptides may induce several physiological responses such as antioxidative, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, anticancer and immunomodulatory effects. There has therefore been a mounting research interest in the therapeutic potential of soy protein hydrolysates and their subsequent incorporation in functional foods and 'Food for Specified Health Uses' (FOSHU) related products where their biological activities may assist in the promotion of good health or in the control and prevention of diseases. This mini review discusses relevant patents and gives an overview on bioactive proteins and peptides obtainable from soybeans. Processes for the production and formulation of these peptides are given, together with specific examples of their therapeutic potential and possible areas of application.

  18. Biologically active and antimicrobial peptides from plants.

    PubMed

    Salas, Carlos E; Badillo-Corona, Jesus A; Ramírez-Sotelo, Guadalupe; Oliver-Salvador, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides are part of an innate response elicited by most living forms. In plants, they are produced ubiquitously in roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, highlighting their physiological importance. While most of the bioactive peptides produced in plants possess microbicide properties, there is evidence that they are also involved in cellular signaling. Structurally, there is an overall similarity when comparing them with those derived from animal or insect sources. The biological action of bioactive peptides initiates with the binding to the target membrane followed in most cases by membrane permeabilization and rupture. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about bioactive peptides from plants, focusing on their antimicrobial activity and their role in the plant signaling network and offering perspectives on their potential application.

  19. Simulation of Peptides at Aqueous Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, M.; Chipot, C.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Behavior of peptides at water-membrane interfaces is of great interest in studies on cellular transport and signaling, membrane fusion, and the action of toxins and antibiotics. Many peptides, which exist in water only as random coils, can form sequence-dependent, ordered structures at aqueous interfaces, incorporate into membranes and self-assembly into functional units, such as simple ion channels. Multi -nanosecond molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to study the mechanism and energetics of interfacial folding of both non-polar and amphiphilic peptides, their insertion into membranes and association into higher-order structures. The simulations indicate that peptides fold non-sequentially, often through a series of amphiphilic intermediates. They further incorporate into the membrane in a preferred direction as folded monomers, and only then aggregate into dimers and, possibly, further into "dimers of dimers".

  20. Marine bioactive peptides as potential antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-05-01

    Bioactive peptides derived from marine organisms are the focus of current studies because of their numerous health beneficial effects. They exert various biological roles, one of the most crucial of which is the antioxidant effect. Reverse relationship between antioxidant intake and diseases has been approved through plenty of studies. Antioxidant activity of marine peptides can be attributed to in vitro and in vivo free radical scavenging activities. Antioxidant peptides isolated from marine sources may be used as functional ingredients in food formulations to promote consumer health and improve the shelf life of food products. This chapter presents an overview of the antioxidant peptides derived marine resources with the potential utilization in the food as well as pharmaceutical industries.

  1. Peptide Seems to Boost Human Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1981

    1981-01-01

    This article discusses recent studies which have shown that the peptide hormone vasopressin apparently can stimulate memory and learning in healthy human volunteers and in certain mentally disturbed patients. (ECO)

  2. Biologically Active and Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Carlos E.; Badillo-Corona, Jesus A.; Ramírez-Sotelo, Guadalupe; Oliver-Salvador, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides are part of an innate response elicited by most living forms. In plants, they are produced ubiquitously in roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, highlighting their physiological importance. While most of the bioactive peptides produced in plants possess microbicide properties, there is evidence that they are also involved in cellular signaling. Structurally, there is an overall similarity when comparing them with those derived from animal or insect sources. The biological action of bioactive peptides initiates with the binding to the target membrane followed in most cases by membrane permeabilization and rupture. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about bioactive peptides from plants, focusing on their antimicrobial activity and their role in the plant signaling network and offering perspectives on their potential application. PMID:25815307

  3. Large-scale synthesis of peptides.

    PubMed

    Andersson, L; Blomberg, L; Flegel, M; Lepsa, L; Nilsson, B; Verlander, M

    2000-01-01

    Recent advances in the areas of formulation and delivery have rekindled the interest of the pharmaceutical community in peptides as drug candidates, which, in turn, has provided a challenge to the peptide industry to develop efficient methods for the manufacture of relatively complex peptides on scales of up to metric tons per year. This article focuses on chemical synthesis approaches for peptides, and presents an overview of the methods available and in use currently, together with a discussion of scale-up strategies. Examples of the different methods are discussed, together with solutions to some specific problems encountered during scale-up development. Finally, an overview is presented of issues common to all manufacturing methods, i.e., methods used for the large-scale purification and isolation of final bulk products and regulatory considerations to be addressed during scale-up of processes to commercial levels. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 55: 227-250, 2000

  4. Peptide platforms for metal ion sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imperiali, Barbara; Pearce, Dierdre A.; Sohna Sohna, Jean-Ernest; Walkup, Grant; Torrado, Alicia

    1999-12-01

    Naturally occurring motifs have been redesigned to product fluorescent peptidyl-chemosensors that sensitively and selectively recognize Cu(II) or Fe(III). The modular nature of peptide architecture allows preparation and evaluation of potential sensors on solid supports.

  5. Electron Transport in Short Peptide Single Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jing; Brisendine, Joseph; Ng, Fay; Nuckolls, Colin; Koder, Ronald; Venkarataman, Latha

    We present a study of the electron transport through a series of short peptides using scanning tunneling microscope-based break junction method. Our work is motivated by the need to gain a better understanding of how various levels of protein structure contribute to the remarkable capacity of proteins to transport charge in biophysical processes such as respiration and photosynthesis. We focus here on short mono, di and tri-peptides, and probe their conductance when bound to gold electrodes in a native buffer environment. We first show that these peptides can bind to gold through amine, carboxyl, thiol and methyl-sulfide termini. We then focus on two systems (glycine and alanine) and show that their conductance decays faster than alkanes terminated by the same linkers. Importantly, our results show that the peptide bond is less conductive than a sigma carbon-carbon bond. This work was supported in part by NSF-DMR 1507440.

  6. Lipid-based nanoformulations for peptide delivery.

    PubMed

    Matougui, Nada; Boge, Lukas; Groo, Anne-Claire; Umerska, Anita; Ringstad, Lovisa; Bysell, Helena; Saulnier, Patrick

    2016-04-11

    Nanoformulations have attracted a lot of attention because of their size-dependent properties. Among the array of nanoformulations, lipid nanoformulations (LNFs) have evoked increasing interest because of the advantages of their high degree of biocompatibility and versatility. The performance of lipid nanoformulations is greatly influenced by their composition and structure. Therapeutic peptides represent a growing share of the pharmaceutical market. However, the main challenge for their development into commercial products is their inherent physicochemical and biological instability. Important peptides such as insulin, calcitonin and cyclosporin A have been incorporated into LNFs. The association or encapsulation of peptides within lipid-based carriers has shown to protect the labile molecules against enzymatic degradation. This review describes strategies used for the formulation of peptides and some methods used for the assessment of association efficiency. The advantages and drawbacks of such carriers are also described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Self-Assembly of Peptides to Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Dindyal; Shirazi, Amir Nasrolahi; Parang, Keykavous

    2014-01-01

    The formation of well-ordered nanostructures through self-assembly of diverse organic and inorganic building blocks has drawn much attention owing to their potential applications in biology and chemistry. Among all organic building blocks, peptides are one of the most promising platforms due to their biocompatibility, chemical diversity, and resemblance with proteins. Inspired from the protein assembly in biological systems, various self-assembled peptide structures have been constructed using several amino acids and sequences. This review focuses on this emerging area, the recent advances in peptide self-assembly, and formation of different nanostructures, such as tubular, fibers, vesicles, spherical, and rod coil structures. While different peptide nanostructures are discovered, potential applications will be explored in drug delivery, tissue engineering, wound healing, and surfactants. PMID:24756480

  8. Asymmetry of calmodulin revealed by peptide binding.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, E; Leclerc, L; Marden, M C

    1993-03-01

    The binding of amphiphilic peptides to calmodulin has been studied using fluorescence energy transfer techniques. Calmodulin has no tryptophan residues but possesses two tyrosines (at positions 99 and 138) in the C-terminal half of the protein. The peptides have a single tryptophan which serves as energy acceptor for the protein tyrosine fluorescence. For the binding of mastoparan or peptide Baa17, with a tryptophan at position 3, the observed quenching of the tyrosine fluorescence of over a factor of 2 corresponds to an average tyrosine-trytophan distance of less than 14 Å. These results indicate that the peptides binds preferentially with the tryptophan in the C-terminal half of the protein.

  9. Peptide mediated cancer targeting of nanoconjugates

    PubMed Central

    Raha, Sumita; Paunesku, Tatjana; Woloschak, Gayle

    2013-01-01

    Targeted use of nanoparticles in vitro, in cells and in vivo requires nanoparticle surface functionalization. Moieties that can be used for such a purpose include small molecules as well as polymers made of different biological and organic materials. Short amino acid polymers--peptides can often rival target binding avidity of much larger molecules. At the same time, peptides are smaller than most nanoparticles and thus allow for multiple nanoparticle modifications and creation of pluripotent nanoparticles. Most nanoparticles provide multiple binding sites for different cargo and targeting peptides which can be used for development of novel approaches for cancer targeting, diagnostics and therapy. In this review, we will focus on peptides which have been used for preparation of different nanoparticles designed for cancer research. PMID:21046660

  10. Peptides and receptors controlling root development.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Yvonne; Simon, Rüdiger

    2012-06-05

    The growth of a plant's root system depends on the continued activity of the root meristem, and the generation of new meristems when lateral roots are initiated. Plants have developed intricate signalling systems that employ secreted peptides and plasma membrane-localized receptor kinases for short- and long-range communication. Studies on growth of the vascular system, the generation of lateral roots, the control of cell differentiation in the root meristem and the interaction with invading pathogens or symbionts has unravelled a network of peptides and receptor systems with occasionally shared functions. A common theme is the employment of conserved modules, consisting of a short signalling peptide, a receptor-like kinase and a target transcription factor, that control the fate and proliferation of stem cells during root development. This review intends to give an overview of the recent advances in receptor and peptide ligand-mediated signalling involved in root development.

  11. Tailoring elastase inhibition with synthetic peptides.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Andreia; Azoia, Nuno G; Carvalho, Ana C; Gomes, Andreia C; Güebitz, Georg; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2011-09-01

    Chronic wounds are the result of excessive amounts of tissue destructive proteases such as human neutrophil elastase (HNE). The high levels of this enzyme found on those types of wounds inactivate the endogenous inhibitor barrier thus, the search for new HNE inhibitors is required. This work presents two new HNE inhibitor peptides, which were synthesized based on the reactive-site loop of the Bowman-Birk inhibitor protein. The results obtained indicated that these new peptides are competitive inhibitors for HNE and, the inhibitory activity can be modulated by modifications introduced at the N- and C-terminal of the peptides. Furthermore, these peptides were also able to inhibit elastase from a human wound exudate while showing no cytotoxicity against human skin fibroblasts in vitro, greatly supporting their potential application in chronic wound treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel Peptide-specific QSAR Analysis Applied to Collagen IV Peptides with Antiangiogenic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Corban G.; Rosca, Elena V.; Pandey, Niranjan B.; Koskimaki, Jacob E.; Bader, Joel S.; Popel, Aleksander S.

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the growth of new blood vessels from existing vasculature. Excessive vascularization is associated with a number of diseases including cancer. Anti-angiogenic therapies have the potential to stunt cancer progression. Peptides derived from type IV collagen are potent inhibitors of angiogenesis. We wanted to gain a better understanding of collagen IV structure-activity relationships using a ligand-based approach. We developed novel peptide-specific QSAR models to study the activity of the peptides in endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and adhesion inhibition assays. We found that the models produced quantitatively accurate predictions of activity and provided insight into collagen IV derived peptide structure-activity relationships. PMID:21866962

  13. Investigating peptide sequence variations for 'double-click' stapled p53 peptides.

    PubMed

    Lau, Yu Heng; de Andrade, Peterson; Sköld, Niklas; McKenzie, Grahame J; Venkitaraman, Ashok R; Verma, Chandra; Lane, David P; Spring, David R

    2014-06-28

    Stapling peptides for inhibiting the p53/MDM2 interaction is a promising strategy for developing anti-cancer therapeutic leads. We evaluate double-click stapled peptides formed from p53-based diazidopeptides with different staple positions and azido amino acid side-chain lengths, determining the impact of these variations on MDM2 binding and cellular activity. We also demonstrate a K24R mutation, necessary for cellular activity in hydrocarbon-stapled p53 peptides, is not required for analogous 'double-click' peptides.

  14. CART peptide in the nucleus accumbens regulates psychostimulants: Correlations between psychostimulant and CART peptide effects.

    PubMed

    Job, Martin O; Kuhar, Michael J

    2017-02-16

    In this study, we reexamined the effect of Cocaine-and-Amphetamine-Regulated-Transcript (CART) peptide on psychostimulant (PS)-induced locomotor activity (LMA) in individual rats. The Methods utilized were as previously published. The PS-induced LMA was defined as the distance traveled after PS administration (intraperitoneal), and the CART peptide effect was defined as the change in the PS-induced activity after bilateral intra-NAc administration of CART peptide. The experiments included both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, and varying the CART peptide dose and the PS dose. While the average effect of CART peptide was to inhibit PS-induced LMA, the effect of CART peptide on individual PS-treated animals was not always inhibitory and sometimes even produced an increase or no change in PS-induced LMA. Upon further analysis, we observed a linear correlation, reported for the first time, between the magnitude of PS-induced LMA and the CART peptide effect. Because CART peptide inhibits PS-induced LMA when it is large, and increases PS-induced LMA when it is small, the peptide can be considered a homeostatic regulator of dopamine (DA)-induced LMA, which supports our earlier homeostatic hypothesis.

  15. Evolution of Antimicrobial Peptides to Self-Assembled Peptides for Biomaterial Applications

    PubMed Central

    McCloskey, Alice P.; Gilmore, Brendan F.; Laverty, Garry

    2014-01-01

    Biomaterial-related infections are a persistent burden on patient health, recovery, mortality and healthcare budgets. Self-assembled antimicrobial peptides have evolved from the area of antimicrobial peptides. Peptides serve as important weapons in nature, and increasingly medicine, for combating microbial infection and biofilms. Self-assembled peptides harness a “bottom-up” approach, whereby the primary peptide sequence may be modified with natural and unnatural amino acids to produce an inherently antimicrobial hydrogel. Gelation may be tailored to occur in the presence of physiological and infective indicators (e.g. pH, enzymes) and therefore allow local, targeted antimicrobial therapy at the site of infection. Peptides demonstrate inherent biocompatibility, antimicrobial activity, biodegradability and numerous functional groups. They are therefore prime candidates for the production of polymeric molecules that have the potential to be conjugated to biomaterials with precision. Non-native chemistries and functional groups are easily incorporated into the peptide backbone allowing peptide hydrogels to be tailored to specific functional requirements. This article reviews an area of increasing interest, namely self-assembled peptides and their potential therapeutic applications as innovative hydrogels and biomaterials in the prevention of biofilm-related infection. PMID:25436505

  16. cis-Peptide Bonds: A Key for Intestinal Permeability of Peptides? .

    PubMed

    Marelli, Udaya Kiran; Ovadia, Oded; Frank, Andreas Oliver; Chatterjee, Jayanta; Gilon, Chaim; Hoffman, Amnon; Kessler, Horst

    2015-10-19

    Recent structural studies on libraries of cyclic hexapeptides led to the identification of common backbone conformations that may be instrumental to the oral availability of peptides. Furthermore, the observation of differential Caco-2 permeabilities of enantiomeric pairs of some of these peptides strongly supports the concept of conformational specificity driven uptake and also suggests a pivotal role of carrier-mediated pathways for peptide transport, especially for scaffolds of polar nature. This work presents investigations on the Caco-2 and PAMPA permeability profiles of 13 selected N-methylated cyclic pentaalanine peptides derived from the basic cyclo(-D-Ala-Ala4 -) template. These molecules generally showed moderate to low transport in intestinal epithelia with a few of them exhibiting a Caco-2 permeability equal to or slightly higher than that of mannitol, a marker for paracellular permeability. We identified that the majority of the permeable cyclic penta- and hexapeptides possess an N-methylated cis-peptide bond, a structural feature that is also present in the orally available peptides cyclosporine A and the tri-N-methylated analogue of the Veber-Hirschmann peptide. Based on these observations it appears that the presence of N-methylated cis-peptide bonds at certain locations may promote the intestinal permeability of peptides through a suitable conformational preorganization. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Plasticity in protein-peptide recognition: crystal structures of two different peptides bound to concanavalin A.

    PubMed Central

    Jain, D; Kaur, K J; Salunke, D M

    2001-01-01

    The structures of concanavalin A (ConA) in complex with two carbohydrate-mimicking peptides, 10-mer (MYWYPYASGS) and 15-mer (RVWYPYGSYLTASGS) have been determined at 2.75 A resolution. In both crystal structures four independent peptide molecules bind to each of the crystallographically independent subunits of ConA tetramer. The peptides exhibit small but significant variability in conformations and interactions while binding to ConA. The crystal structure of another similar peptide, 12-mer (DVFYPYPYASGS), in complex with ConA has been determined (Jain, D., K. J. Kaur, B. Sundaravadivel, and D. M. Salunke. 2000. Structural and functional consequences of peptide-carbohydrate mimicry. J. Biol. Chem. 275:16098-16102). Comparison of the three complexes shows that the peptides bind to ConA at a common binding site, using different contacting residues and interactions depending on their sequence and the local environment at the binding site. The binding is also optimized by corresponding plasticity of the peptide binding site on ConA. The diversity in conformation and interactions observed here are in agreement with the structural leeway concerning plasticity of specific molecular recognition in biological processes. The adaptability of peptide-ConA interactions may also be correlated with the carbohydrate-mimicking property of these peptides. PMID:11371463

  18. Systematic Errors in Peptide and Protein Identification and Quantification by Modified Peptides*

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanow, Boris; Zauber, Henrik; Selbach, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The principle of shotgun proteomics is to use peptide mass spectra in order to identify corresponding sequences in a protein database. The quality of peptide and protein identification and quantification critically depends on the sensitivity and specificity of this assignment process. Many peptides in proteomic samples carry biochemical modifications, and a large fraction of unassigned spectra arise from modified peptides. Spectra derived from modified peptides can erroneously be assigned to wrong amino acid sequences. However, the impact of this problem on proteomic data has not yet been investigated systematically. Here we use combinations of different database searches to show that modified peptides can be responsible for 20–50% of false positive identifications in deep proteomic data sets. These false positive hits are particularly problematic as they have significantly higher scores and higher intensities than other false positive matches. Furthermore, these wrong peptide assignments lead to hundreds of false protein identifications and systematic biases in protein quantification. We devise a “cleaned search” strategy to address this problem and show that this considerably improves the sensitivity and specificity of proteomic data. In summary, we show that modified peptides cause systematic errors in peptide and protein identification and quantification and should therefore be considered to further improve the quality of proteomic data annotation. PMID:27215553

  19. Encapsulation of bioactive whey peptides in soy lecithin-derived nanoliposomes: Influence of peptide molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Aishwarya; McClements, David Julian; Udenigwe, Chibuike C

    2016-12-15

    Encapsulation of peptides can be used to enhance their stability, delivery and bioavailability. This study focused on the effect of the molecular weight range of whey peptides on their encapsulation within soy lecithin-derived nanoliposomes. Peptide molecular weight did not have a major impact on encapsulation efficiency or liposome size. However, it influenced peptide distribution amongst the surface, core, and bilayer regions of the liposomes, as determined by electrical charge (ζ-potential) and FTIR analysis. The liposome ζ-potential depended on peptide molecular weight, suggesting that the peptide charged groups were in different locations relative to the liposome surfaces. FTIR analysis indicated that the least hydrophobic peptide fractions interacted more strongly with choline on the liposome surfaces. The results suggested that the peptides were unequally distributed within the liposomes, even at the same encapsulation efficiency. These findings are important for designing delivery systems for commercial production of encapsulated peptides with improved functional attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Improvements to the TMSBr method of peptide resin deprotection and cleavage: application to large peptides.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, J T; Monera, O D

    1996-01-01

    The original trimethylsilyl bromide (TMSBr) method of peptide resin deprotection and cleavage has been modified for convenience and applicability to larger peptides. Equal amounts of a 66-residue test peptide resin were cleaved by the standard hydrogen fluoride (HF) procedure, the original TMSBr method and the modified TMSBr method. The peptide profile from the original TMSBr cleavage procedure showed multiple products and a lower overall yield. In contrast, the modified TMSBr procedure gave high yields of crude products comparable in purity to those obtained by HF cleavage.

  1. Bachem - insights into peptide chemistry achievements by the world's leading independent manufacturer of peptides.

    PubMed

    Mergler, Monika; Loidl, Günther; Diekmann, Martina; Dick, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    The Swiss fine chemicals company Bachem, pioneer and specialist in the chemical synthesis of peptides, has also become an internationally leading manufacturer of peptide active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). In response to increasing demands in scale and purity, Bachem's research efforts centered on the chemistry involved in solid-phase peptide synthesis and the production of the required amino acid derivatives with the aim of a continuous improvement of the technology. The resulting optimized protocols together with high-throughput equipment enabled us to manufacture long peptide APIs and, more recently, even pharma-grade glycoproteins in industrial scale.

  2. Development of peptide and protein nanotherapeutics by nanoencapsulation and nanobioconjugation.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Subhash Chandra; Kumari, Avnesh; Yadav, Ramdhan

    2011-01-01

    The targeted delivery of therapeutic peptide by nanocarriers systems requires the knowledge of interactions of nanomaterials with the biological environment, peptide release, and stability of therapeutic peptides. Therapeutic application of nanoencapsulated peptides are increasing exponentially and >1000 peptides in nanoencapsulated form are in different clinical/trial phase. This review covers current scenario of therapeutic protein and peptides encapsulation on polymer to metallic nanocarriers including methods of protein encapsulation, peptide bioconjugation on nanoparticles, stability enhancement of encapsulated proteins and its biomedical applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthetic peptide antagonists of glucagon.

    PubMed Central

    Unson, C G; Andreu, D; Gurzenda, E M; Merrifield, R B

    1987-01-01

    Several glucagon analogs were synthesized in an effort to find derivatives that would bind with high affinity to the glucagon receptor of rat liver membranes but would not activate membrane-bound adenylate cyclase and, therefore, would serve as antagonists of the hormone. Measurements on a series of glucagon/secretin hybrids indicated that replacement of Asp9 in glucagon by Glu9, found in secretin, was the important sequence difference in the N terminus of the two hormones. Further deletion of His1 and introduction of a C-terminal amide resulted in des-His1-[Glu9]glucagon amide, which had a 40% binding affinity relative to that of native glucagon but caused no detectable adenylate cyclase activation in the rat liver membrane. This antagonist completely inhibited the effect of a concentration of glucagon that alone gave a full agonist response. It had an inhibition index of 12. The pA2 was 7.2. An attempt was made to relate conformation with receptor binding. The peptides were synthesized by solid-phase methods and purified to homogeneity by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on C18-silica columns. PMID:3035568

  4. Bacterial sensing of antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Otto, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) form a crucial part of human innate host defense, especially in neutrophil phagosomes and on epithelial surfaces. Bacteria have a variety of efficient resistance mechanisms to human AMPs, such as efflux pumps, secreted proteases, and alterations of the bacterial cell surface that are aimed to minimize attraction of the typically cationic AMPs. In addition, bacteria have specific sensors that activate AMP resistance mechanisms when AMPs are present. The prototypical Gram-negative PhoP/PhoQ and the Gram-positive Aps AMP-sensing systems were first described and investigated in Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus epidermidis, respectively. Both include a classical bacterial two-component sensor/regulator system, but show many structural, mechanistic, and functional differences. The PhoP/PhoQ regulon controls a variety of genes not necessarily limited to AMP resistance mechanisms, but apparently aimed to combat innate host defense on a broad scale. In contrast, the staphylococcal Aps system predominantly upregulates AMP resistance mechanisms, namely the D-alanylation of teichoic acids, inclusion of lysyl-phosphati-dylglycerol in the cytoplasmic membrane, and expression of the putative VraFG AMP efflux pump. Notably, both systems are crucial for virulence and represent possible targets for antimicrobial therapy. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Antimicrobial peptide action on parasites.

    PubMed

    Torrent, Marc; Pulido, David; Rivas, Luis; Andreu, David

    2012-08-01

    Diseases caused by protozoan parasites can pose a severe thread to human health and are behind some serious neglected tropical diseases like malaria and leishmaniasis. Though several different drugs have been developed in order to eradicate these diseases, a successful candidate has not yet been discovered. Among the most active compounds tested, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are particularly appealing because of their wide spectrum of action. AMPs have been described to perturb protozoan homeostasis by disrupting the cellular membranes but also by interfering with key processes in the parasite metabolism. In this review we describe the diverse mechanisms of action of AMPs on protozoan targets and how they can be exploited to treat diseases. Moreover, we describe with detail the antimicrobial action of AMPs on two major parasitical infections: leishmaniasis and malaria. All the features reviewed here show that AMPs are promising drugs to target protozoan parasites and that further understanding of the mechanism of action of these compounds will lead to improved drugs that could be worth to test in a clinical phase.

  6. T-cell epitope peptide vaccines.

    PubMed

    Elsawa, Sherine F; Rodeberg, David A; Celis, Esteban

    2004-10-01

    T-cell immunotherapy is a promising treatment option for cancer. The identification of tumor antigens that are recognized by the immune system has allowed for the generation of vaccines for various malignancies. Due to the ease of manufacturing and characterizating peptide-based vaccines they have been used to stimulate antitumor T-cells. This article will review the use of peptide-based vaccines for the treatment of cancer by inducing antitumor T-lymphocyte responses.

  7. Mechanisms of fragmentation of cationic peptide ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong; Adams, Jeanette

    1993-06-01

    Fragmentation mechanisms for formation of several commonly occurring product ions in high-energy collision-induced induced decomposition spectra of either (M + Cat2+ - H)+ ions of peptides cationized with alkaline earth metal ions, (M + Ca+)+ ions cationized with alkali metal ions, or (M + H)+ ions are evaluated by using deuterium-labelled peptides. The different sources of hydrogen transferred in the reactions are identified. Our study supports some previously proposed mechanisms but also provides evidence for others.

  8. [Defensins - natural peptide antibiotics of higher eukaryotes].

    PubMed

    Grishin, D V; Sokolov, N N

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this review is to characterize defensins representing an evolutionary the most ancient family of antimicrobial peptides. It gives general information on functional and structural features of defensins as the main components of the first-line defense of higher eukaryote organisms against infectious agents. The review considers not only current situation in the defensin research but also perspectives of creation of recombinant antimicrobial peptides of biomedical application.

  9. Peptide regulation of Maize defense reponses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ZmPEP1 is a peptide signal encoded by a previously uncharacterized maize gene that we have named ZmPROPEP1. The ZmPROPEP1 gene was identified by homology to the Arabidopsis AtPROPEP1 gene that encodes the precursor protein to the peptide signal AtPEP1. Together with its receptors, AtPEPR1 and AtPEP...

  10. De Novo Design of Potent Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Frecer, V.; Ho, B.; Ding, J. L.

    2004-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), shed by gram-negative bacteria during infection and antimicrobial therapy, may lead to lethal endotoxic shock syndrome. A rational design strategy based on the presumed mechanism of antibacterial effect was adopted to design cationic antimicrobial peptides capable of binding to LPS through tandemly repeated sequences of alternating cationic and nonpolar residues. The peptides were designed to achieve enhanced antimicrobial potency due to initial bacterial membrane binding with a reduced risk of endotoxic shock. The peptides designed displayed binding affinities to LPS and lipid A (LA) in the low micromolar range and by molecular modeling were predicted to form amphipathic β-hairpin-like structures when they bind to LPS or LA. They also exhibited strong effects against gram-negative bacteria, with MICs in the nanomolar range, and low cytotoxic and hemolytic activities at concentrations significantly exceeding their MICs. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis of peptide sequences and their antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and hemolytic activities revealed that site-directed substitutions of residues in the hydrophobic face of the amphipathic peptides with less lipophilic residues selectively decrease the hemolytic effect without significantly affecting the antimicrobial or cytotoxic activity. On the other hand, the antimicrobial effect can be enhanced by substitutions in the polar face with more polar residues, which increase the amphipathicity of the peptide. On the basis of the QSARs, new analogs that have strong antimicrobial effects but that lack hemolytic activity can be proposed. The findings highlight the importance of peptide amphipathicity and allow a rational method that can be used to dissociate the antimicrobial and hemolytic effects of cationic peptides, which have potent antimicrobial properties, to be proposed. PMID:15328096

  11. Peptide signalling during angiosperm seed development.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Gwyneth; Gutierrez-Marcos, Jose

    2015-08-01

    Cell-cell communication is pivotal for the coordination of various features of plant development. Recent studies in plants have revealed that, as in animals, secreted signal peptides play critical roles during reproduction. However, the precise signalling mechanisms in plants are not well understood. In this review, we discuss the known and putative roles of secreted peptides present in the seeds of angiosperms as key signalling factors involved in coordinating different aspects of seed development.

  12. Nanofiber-based delivery of therapeutic peptides to the brain.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Mariarosa; Notman, Rebecca; Anwar, Jamshed; Rodger, Alison; Hicks, Matthew; Parkinson, Gary; McCarthy, Dave; Daviter, Tina; Moger, Julian; Garrett, Natalie; Mead, Tania; Briggs, Michael; Schätzlein, Andreas G; Uchegbu, Ijeoma F

    2013-02-26

    The delivery of therapeutic peptides and proteins to the central nervous system is the biggest challenge when developing effective neuropharmaceuticals. The central issue is that the blood-brain barrier is impermeable to most molecules. Here we demonstrate the concept of employing an amphiphilic derivative of a peptide to deliver the peptide into the brain. The key to success is that the amphiphilic peptide should by design self-assemble into nanofibers wherein the active peptide epitope is tightly wrapped around the nanofiber core. The nanofiber form appears to protect the amphiphilic peptide from degradation while in the plasma, and the amphiphilic nature of the peptide promotes its transport across the blood-brain barrier. Therapeutic brain levels of the amphiphilic peptide are achieved with this strategy, compared with the absence of detectable peptide in the brain and the consequent lack of a therapeutic response when the underivatized peptide is administered.

  13. In Silico Models for Designing and Discovering Novel Anticancer Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Atul; Kapoor, Pallavi; Kumar, Rahul; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Gautam, Ankur; Raghava, G. P. S.

    2013-10-01

    Use of therapeutic peptides in cancer therapy has been receiving considerable attention in the recent years. Present study describes the development of computational models for predicting and discovering novel anticancer peptides. Preliminary analysis revealed that Cys, Gly, Ile, Lys, and Trp are dominated at various positions in anticancer peptides. Support vector machine models were developed using amino acid composition and binary profiles as input features on main dataset that contains experimentally validated anticancer peptides and random peptides derived from SwissProt database. In addition, models were developed on alternate dataset that contains antimicrobial peptides instead of random peptides. Binary profiles-based model achieved maximum accuracy 91.44% with MCC 0.83. We have developed a webserver, which would be helpful in: (i) predicting minimum mutations required for improving anticancer potency; (ii) virtual screening of peptides for discovering novel anticancer peptides, and (iii) scanning natural proteins for identification of anticancer peptides (http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/anticp/).

  14. Neutron diffraction studies of viral fusion peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Jeremy P.; J. M. Darkes, Malcolm; Katsaras, John; Epand, Richard M.

    2000-03-01

    Membrane fusion plays a vital role in a large and diverse number of essential biological processes. Despite this fact, the precise molecular events that occur during fusion are still not known. We are currently engaged on a study of membrane fusion as mediated by viral fusion peptides. These peptides are the N-terminal regions of certain viral envelope proteins that mediate the process of fusion between the viral envelope and the membranes of the host cell during the infection process. As part of this study, we have carried out neutron diffraction measurements at the ILL, BeNSC and Chalk River, on a range of viral fusion peptides. The peptides, from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), influenza A and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV), were incorporated into stacked phospholipid bilayers. Some of the peptides had been specifically deuterated at key amino acids. Lamellar diffraction data were collected and analysed to yield information on the peptide conformation, location and orientation relative to the bilayer.

  15. Peptide conversations in Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Monnet, Véronique; Juillard, Vincent; Gardan, Rozenn

    2016-05-01

    Within Gram-positive bacteria, the expression of target genes is controlled at the population level via signaling peptides, also known as pheromones. Pheromones control a wide range of functions, including competence, virulence, and others that remain unknown. Until now, their role in bacterial gene regulation has probably been underestimated; indeed, bacteria are able to produce, by ribosomal synthesis or surface protein degradation, an extraordinary variety of peptides which are released outside bacteria and among which, some are pheromones that mediate cell-to-cell communication. The review aims at giving an updated overview of these peptide-dependant communication pathways. More specifically, it follows the whole peptide circuit from the peptide production and secretion in the extracellular medium to its interaction with sensors at bacterial surface or re-import into the bacteria where it plays its regulation role. In recent years, as we have accumulated more knowledge about these systems, it has become apparent that they are more complex than they first appeared. For this reason, more research on peptide-dependant pathways is needed to develop new strategies for controlling functions of interest in Gram-positive bacteria. In particular, such research could lead to alternatives to the use of antibiotics against pathogenic bacteria. In perspective, the review identifies new research questions that emerge in this field and that have to be addressed.

  16. Ubiquitin fusion technology: bioprocessing of peptides.

    PubMed

    Pilon, A; Yost, P; Chase, T E; Lohnas, G; Burkett, T; Roberts, S; Bentley, W E

    1997-01-01

    Ubiquitin fusion technology represents an emerging method for economically producing peptides and small proteins in the bacterium Escherichia coli. Our focus is on peptide production where the need for cost-effective, scaleable processes has recently been highlighted by Kelley (1996). There are two principal features: (1) the expression system consists of a suitable E. coli host strain paired with a plasmid that encodes the ubiquitin fusion and (2) an ubiquitin-specific protease, UCH-L3, which cleaves only C-terminal extensions from ubiquitin. In this work, multigram yields were obtained of four ubiquitin fusions derived from cell paste generated in single 10-L fermentations. All were expressed intracellularly and remained soluble at extremely high levels of expression. Bacterial freeze--thaw lysates contained over 95% pure ubiquitin fusion protein. All four fusions were efficiently cleaved to ubiquitin and the peptide products. In one case, the final yield of peptide was 1.08 g from 3 L of low cell density bacterial culture. The combination of exceptional overexpression of the ubiquitin--peptide fusion proteins and a robust and specific protease are unique advantages contributing to a cost-effective, scaleable, and generic bioprocess for peptide production.

  17. Update of peptides with antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Vila-Farrés, X; Giralt, E; Vila, J

    2012-01-01

    For many years a battle has been going on between bacteria and humans, with bacteria trying to survive against the antibiotics used by humans. Bacteria are found to be dominant in this battle since they can develop resistance. In fact, in the last decade multi-, extended- and pan-drug resistant bacteria have been isolated. On the other hand, the number of new antibiotics approved by the FDA has dramatically decreased during the last 20 years. Therefore, there is a desperate need for developing new types of antibacterial agents, where antimicrobial peptides may play an important role. This review provides an update of the recently identified antimicrobial peptides. Three valid approaches for developing a future antibacterial agent, as are the mechanisms of action as well as the in vitro and in vivo assays have been described in depth. In comparison to the antibacterial agents available at present, the targets for most of the antimicrobial peptides are not well known. However several proposals having been introduced for many antimicrobial peptides of different mechanisms of action, there still lies some uncertainty about their utility. Hundreds of antimicrobial peptides have been tested in vitro against all types of bacteria, but in this review we will highlight only those which have been tested against the most important Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The last step to get a potential antibiotic includes studies with an in vivo model. Therefore only antimicrobial peptides with good activity are tested that have been described in this review.

  18. T lymphocyte recognition of insolubilized peptide antigen.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D W; Solvay, M J

    1986-12-01

    To study the role of antigen-presenting cells (APC) in T lymphocyte responses, the stimulation requirements of a murine T cell hybridoma specific for the peptide antigen human fibrinopeptide B (hFPB)/I-Ak was examined. The fine specificity of T cell recognition of this peptide was determined by using several hFPB homologs and analogs, which indicated that the intact 14-amino acid peptide must remain intact to preserve the antigenic determinant, and that the carboxyl terminal Arg14 was important for T cell responses. Of particular interest was the finding that APC-associated hFPB failed to stimulate the T cells, and that activation was only observed with soluble peptide or by brief hFPB treatment of the T cells and APC mixed together. In addition, hFPB covalently bound to agarose beads was able to cause T cell activation, provided that I-Ak+ APC were also present in the culture. A number of control experiments were performed that showed that hFPB was not released from the bead and that the antigenic peptide involved in T cell responses remained bound to the beads. These results indicate that the form of the hFPB peptide antigen recognized by this T cell can be provided separately from APC.

  19. Antihypertensive peptides of animal origin: A review.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Zuhaib Fayaz; Kumar, Sunil; Bhat, Hina Fayaz

    2017-02-11

    Many bioactive peptides trigger certain useful antihypertensive activities in the living body system and there is a mounting worldwide interest in the therapeutic potential of these bioactive peptides for exploitation in vivo against the hypertension. Studies suggest the antihypertensive properties for many bioactive peptides of animal origin with underlying mechanisms ranging from inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme to additional mechanisms to lower blood pressure such as opioid-like activities and mineral-binding and antithrombotic properties. Antihypertensive peptides are the most extensively studied of all the bioactivities induced by food protein hydrolysates, highlighting their importance in human health and disease prevention and treatment. There exist enormous opportunities for the production of novel peptide-based products in biopharmaceutical manufacturing industries for the treatment, prevention, and mitigation of hypertension. Numerous products have already struck on the global market and many more are in process. This article focuses on antihypertensive peptides identified in the meat, fish, blood, milk, dairy products, and egg and their probable application as novel ingredients in the development of functional food products as dietary treatment of hypertension.

  20. Bioactive peptides of animal origin: a review.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Z F; Kumar, Sunil; Bhat, Hina Fayaz

    2015-09-01

    Bioactive peptides are specific protein fragments which, above and beyond their nutritional capabilities, have a positive impact on the body's function or condition which may ultimately influence health. Although, inactive within the sequence of the parent proteins, these peptides can be released during proteolysis or fermentation and play an important role in human health by affecting the digestive, endocrine, cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems. Several peptides that are released in vitro or in vivo from animal proteins have been attributed to different health effects, including antimicrobial properties, blood pressure-lowering (ACE inhibitory) effects, cholesterol-lowering ability, antithrombotic and antioxidant activities, opioid activities, enhancement of mineral absorption and/or bioavailability, cytomodulatory and immunomodulatory effects, antiobesity, and anti-genotoxic activity. Several functional foods based on the bioactivities of these peptides with scientifically evidenced health claims are already on the market or under development by food companies. Consumer's increasing interest in these products has given an impetus to the food industry and scientific sector who are continuously exploring the possibilities for the development of new functional products based on these peptides. In this review, we describe above stated properties of bioactive peptides of animal origin.

  1. Non-opioid actions of opioid peptides.

    PubMed

    Wollemann, Mária; Benyhe, Sándor

    2004-06-04

    Beside the well known actions of opioid peptides on mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors, increasing amount of pharmacological and biochemical evidence has recently been published about non-opioid actions of various opioid peptides. These effects are not abolished by naloxone treatments. Such non-opioid effects are observed both in nervous tissues and in the cellular elements of the immune system. Peptides exhibiting non-opioid effects include beta-endorphin, dynorphin A, nociceptin/OFQ, endomorphins, hemorphins and a number of Proenkephalin A derived peptides, such as Met-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe (MERF) and bovine adrenal medullary peptide (BAM22). Non-opioid actions are exerted through different neuronal receptors, e.g., dynorphin hyperalgesia through NMDA receptor, Met-enkephalin induced regulation of cell growth through zeta receptors, pain modulation by nociceptin through ORL-1 or NOP receptors, while BAM22 acts through sensory neuron specific G protein-coupled receptors (SNSR). We have investigated Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe (MERF) and its analogues by the means of direct and indirect radioligand binding assays. It has been found that in addition to kappa(2) and delta-opioid receptors, MERF can act also through sigma(2)- or probably via FMRF-NH(2) receptors in rat cerebellum. A role of functionally assembling heterodimer receptors in mediating the non-conventional actions of these peptide ligands can not be excluded as well.

  2. Confinement-Dependent Friction in Peptide Bundles

    PubMed Central

    Erbaş, Aykut; Netz, Roland R.

    2013-01-01

    Friction within globular proteins or between adhering macromolecules crucially determines the kinetics of protein folding, the formation, and the relaxation of self-assembled molecular systems. One fundamental question is how these friction effects depend on the local environment and in particular on the presence of water. In this model study, we use fully atomistic MD simulations with explicit water to obtain friction forces as a single polyglycine peptide chain is pulled out of a bundle of k adhering parallel polyglycine peptide chains. The whole system is periodically replicated along the peptide axes, so a stationary state at prescribed mean sliding velocity V is achieved. The aggregation number is varied between k = 2 (two peptide chains adhering to each other with plenty of water present at the adhesion sites) and k = 7 (one peptide chain pulled out from a close-packed cylindrical array of six neighboring peptide chains with no water inside the bundle). The friction coefficient per hydrogen bond, extrapolated to the viscous limit of vanishing pulling velocity V → 0, exhibits an increase by five orders of magnitude when going from k = 2 to k = 7. This dramatic confinement-induced friction enhancement we argue to be due to a combination of water depletion and increased hydrogen-bond cooperativity. PMID:23528088

  3. [Peptide phage display in biotechnology and biomedicine].

    PubMed

    Kuzmicheva, G A; Belyavskaya, V A

    2016-07-01

    To date peptide phage display is one of the most common combinatorial methods used for identifying specific peptide ligands. Phage display peptide libraries containing billions different clones successfully used for selection of ligands with high affinity and selectivity toward wide range of targets including individual proteins, bacteria, viruses, spores, different kind of cancer cells and variety of nonorganic targets (metals, alloys, semiconductors etc.) Success of using filamentous phage in phage display technologies relays on the robustness of phage particles and a possibility to genetically modify its DNA to construct new phage variants with novel properties. In this review we are discussing characteristics of the most known non-commercial peptide phage display libraries of different formats (landscape libraries in particular) and their successful applications in several fields of biotechnology and biomedicine: discovery of peptides with diagnostic values against different pathogens, discovery and using of peptides recognizing cancer cells, trends in using of phage display technologies in human interactome studies, application of phage display technologies in construction of novel nano materials.

  4. Peptides with Dual Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felício, Mário R.; Silva, Osmar N.; Gonçalves, Sônia; Santos, Nuno C.; Franco, Octávio L.

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, the number of people suffering from cancer and multi-resistant infections has increased, such that both diseases are already seen as current and future major causes of death. Moreover, chronic infections are one of the main causes of cancer, due to the instability in the immune system that allows cancer cells to proliferate. Likewise, the physical debility associated with cancer or with anticancer therapy itself often paves the way for opportunistic infections. It is urgent to develop new therapeutic methods, with higher efficiency and lower side effects. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found in the innate immune system of a wide range of organisms. Identified as the most promising alternative to conventional molecules used nowadays against infections, some of them have been shown to have dual activity, both as antimicrobial and anticancer peptides (ACPs). Highly cationic and amphipathic, they have demonstrated efficacy against both conditions, with the number of nature-driven or synthetically designed peptides increasing year by year. With similar properties, AMPs that can also act as ACPs are viewed as future chemotherapeutic drugs, with the advantage of low propensity to resistance, which started this paradigm in the pharmaceutical market. These peptides have already been described as molecules presenting killing mechanisms at the membrane level, but also acting towards intracellular targets, which increases their success comparatively to specific one-target drugs. This review will approach the desirable characteristics of small peptides that demonstrated dual activity against microbial infections and cancer, as well as the peptides engaged in clinical trials.

  5. Effects of opioid peptides on thermoregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, W.G.

    1981-11-01

    In a given species, injected opioid peptides usually cause changes in temperature similar to those caused by nonpeptide opioids. The main effect in those species most studied, the cat, rat, and mouse, is an increase in the level about which body temperature is regulated; there is a coordinated change in the activity of thermoregulatory effectors such that hyperthermia is produced in both hot and cold environments. Larger doses may depress thermoregulation, thereby causing body temperature to decrease in the cold. Elicitation of different patterns of response over a range of environmental temperatures and studies with naloxone and naltrexone indicate that stimulation of a number of different receptors by both peptide and nonpeptide opioids can evoke thermoregulatory responses. ..beta..-Endorphin is readily antagonized by naloxone whereas methionine-enkephalin can act on naloxone-insensitive receptors. Moreover, synthetic peptide analogs do not necessarily evoke the same response as does the related endogenous peptide. The lack of effect of naloxone on body temperature of subjects housed at usual laboratory temperature or on pyrogen-induced increases in body temperature indicates that an action of endogenous peptides on naloxone-sensitive receptors plays little, if any, role in normal thermoregulation or in fever. However, there is some evidence that such an action may be involved in responses to restraint or ambient temperature-induced stress. Further evaluation of possible physiological roles of endogenous opioid peptides will be facilitated when specific antagonists at other types of opioid receptors become available.

  6. Biomathematical Description of Synthetic Peptide Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Trepel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Libraries of randomised peptides displayed on phages or viral particles are essential tools in a wide spectrum of applications. However, there is only limited understanding of a library's fundamental dynamics and the influences of encoding schemes and sizes on their quality. Numeric properties of libraries, such as the expected number of different peptides and the library's coverage, have long been in use as measures of a library's quality. Here, we present a graphical framework of these measures together with a library's relative efficiency to help to describe libraries in enough detail for researchers to plan new experiments in a more informed manner. In particular, these values allow us to answer-in a probabilistic fashion-the question of whether a specific library does indeed contain one of the "best" possible peptides. The framework is implemented in a web-interface based on two packages, discreteRV and peptider, to the statistical software environment R. We further provide a user-friendly web-interface called PeLiCa (Peptide Library Calculator, http://www.pelica.org), allowing scientists to plan and analyse their peptide libraries. PMID:26042419

  7. Peptide Toxins in Solitary Wasp Venoms

    PubMed Central

    Konno, Katsuhiro; Kazuma, Kohei; Nihei, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Solitary wasps paralyze insects or spiders with stinging venom and feed the paralyzed preys to their larva. Accordingly, the venoms should contain a variety of constituents acting on nervous systems. However, only a few solitary wasp venoms have been chemically studied despite thousands of species inhabiting the planet. We have surveyed bioactive substances in solitary wasp venoms found in Japan and discovered a variety of novel bioactive peptides. Pompilidotoxins (PMTXs), in the venoms of the pompilid wasps Anoplius samariensis and Batozonellus maculifrons, are small peptides consisting of 13 amino acids without a disulfide bond. PMTXs slowed Na+ channel inactivation, in particular against neuronal type Na+ channels, and were rather selective to the Nav1.6 channel. Mastoparan-like cytolytic and antimicrobial peptides are the major components of eumenine wasp venoms. They are rich in hydrophobic and basic amino acids, adopting a α-helical secondary structure, and showing mast cell degranulating, antimicrobial and hemolytic activities. The venom of the spider wasp Cyphononyx fulvognathus contained four bradykinin-related peptides. They are hyperalgesic and, dependent on the structure, differently associated with B1 or B2 receptors. Further survey led to the isolation of leucomyosuppressin-like FMRFamide peptides from the venoms of the digger wasps Sphex argentatus and Isodontia harmandi. These results of peptide toxins in solitary wasp venoms from our studies are summarized. PMID:27096870

  8. Antimicrobial Cyclic Peptides for Plant Disease Control

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Wan; Kim, Beom Seok

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial cyclic peptides derived from microbes bind stably with target sites, have a tolerance to hydrolysis by proteases, and a favorable degradability under field conditions, which make them an attractive proposition for use as agricultural fungicides. Antimicrobial cyclic peptides are classified according to the types of bonds within the ring structure; homodetic, heterodetic, and complex cyclic peptides, which in turn reflect diverse physicochemical features. Most antimicrobial cyclic peptides affect the integrity of the cell envelope. This is achieved through direct interaction with the cell membrane or disturbance of the cell wall and membrane component biosynthesis such as chitin, glucan, and sphingolipid. These are specific and selective targets providing reliable activity and safety for non-target organisms. Synthetic cyclic peptides produced through combinatorial chemistry offer an alternative approach to develop antimicrobials for agricultural uses. Those synthesized so far have been studied for antibacterial activity, however, the recent advancements in powerful technologies now promise to provide novel antimicrobial cyclic peptides that are yet to be discovered from natural resources. PMID:25774105

  9. Peptide pheromone signaling in Streptococcus and Enterococcus.

    PubMed

    Cook, Laura C; Federle, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Intercellular chemical signaling in bacteria, commonly referred to as quorum sensing (QS), relies on the production and detection of compounds known as pheromones to elicit coordinated responses among members of a community. Pheromones produced by Gram-positive bacteria are comprised of small peptides. Based on both peptide structure and sensory system architectures, Gram-positive bacterial signaling pathways may be classified into one of four groups with a defining hallmark: cyclical peptides of the Agr type, peptides that contain Gly-Gly processing motifs, sensory systems of the RNPP family, or the recently characterized Rgg-like regulatory family. The recent discovery that Rgg family members respond to peptide pheromones increases substantially the number of species in which QS is likely a key regulatory component. These pathways control a variety of fundamental behaviors including conjugation, natural competence for transformation, biofilm development, and virulence factor regulation. Overlapping QS pathways found in multiple species and pathways that utilize conserved peptide pheromones provide opportunities for interspecies communication. Here we review pheromone signaling identified in the genera Enterococcus and Streptococcus, providing examples of all four types of pathways. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Protein quantification using a cleavable reporter peptide.

    PubMed

    Duriez, Elodie; Trevisiol, Stephane; Domon, Bruno

    2015-02-06

    Peptide and protein quantification based on isotope dilution and mass spectrometry analysis are widely employed for the measurement of biomarkers and in system biology applications. The accuracy and reliability of such quantitative assays depend on the quality of the stable-isotope labeled standards. Although the quantification using stable-isotope labeled peptides is precise, the accuracy of the results can be severely biased by the purity of the internal standards, their stability and formulation, and the determination of their concentration. Here we describe a rapid and cost-efficient method to recalibrate stable isotope labeled peptides in a single LC-MS analysis. The method is based on the equimolar release of a protein reference peptide (used as surrogate for the protein of interest) and a universal reporter peptide during the trypsinization of a concatenated polypeptide standard. The quality and accuracy of data generated with such concatenated polypeptide standards are highlighted by the quantification of two clinically important proteins in urine samples and compared with results obtained with conventional stable isotope labeled reference peptides. Furthermore, the application of the UCRP standards in complex samples is described.

  11. Evolutionary pressures on apicoplast transit peptides.

    PubMed

    Ralph, Stuart A; Foth, Bernardo J; Hall, Neil; McFadden, Geoffrey I

    2004-12-01

    Malaria parasites (species of the genus Plasmodium) harbor a relict chloroplast (the apicoplast) that is the target of novel antimalarials. Numerous nuclear-encoded proteins are translocated into the apicoplast courtesy of a bipartite N-terminal extension. The first component of the bipartite leader resembles a standard signal peptide present at the N-terminus of secreted proteins that enter the endomembrane system. Analysis of the second portion of the bipartite leaders of P. falciparum, the so-called transit peptide, indicates similarities to plant transit peptides, although the amino acid composition of P. falciparum transit peptides shows a strong bias, which we rationalize by the extraordinarily high AT content of P. falciparum DNA. 786 plastid transit peptides were also examined from several other apicomplexan parasites, as well as from angiosperm plants. In each case, amino acid biases were correlated with nucleotide AT content. A comparison of a spectrum of organisms containing primary and secondary plastids also revealed features unique to secondary plastid transit peptides. These unusual features are explained in the context of secondary plastid trafficking via the endomembrane system.

  12. Laminin-111-derived peptides and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kikkawa, Yamato; Hozumi, Kentaro; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Nomizu, Motoyoshi; Kleinman, Hynda K.; Koblinski, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    Laminin-111 is a large trimeric basement membrane glycoprotein with many active sites. In particular, four peptides active in tumor malignancy studies have been identified in laminin-111 using a systematic peptide screening method followed by various assays. Two of the peptides (IKVAV and AG73) are found on the α1 chain, one (YIGSR) of the β1 chain and one (C16) on the γ1 chain. The four peptides have distinct activities and receptors. Since three of the peptides (IKVAV, AG73 and C16) strongly promote tumor growth, this may explain the potent effects laminin-111 has on malignant cells. The peptide, YIGSR, decreases tumor growth and experimental metastasis via a 32/67 kD receptor while IKVAV increases tumor growth, angiogenesis and protease activity via integrin receptors. AG73 increases tumor growth and metastases via syndecan receptors. C16 increases tumor growth and angiogenesis via integrins. Identification of such sites on laminin-111 will have use in defining strategies to develop therapeutics for cancer. PMID:23263633

  13. Administration strategies for proteins and peptides.

    PubMed

    Ibraheem, D; Elaissari, A; Fessi, H

    2014-12-30

    Proteins are a vital constituent of the body as they perform many of its major physiological and biological processes. Recently, proteins and peptides have attracted much attention as potential treatments for various dangerous and traditionally incurable diseases such as cancer, AIDS, dwarfism and autoimmune disorders. Furthermore, proteins could be used for diagnostics. At present, most therapeutic proteins are administered via parenteral routes that have many drawbacks, for example, they are painful, expensive and may cause toxicity. Finding more effective, easier and safer alternative routes for administering proteins and peptides is the key to therapeutic and commercial success. In this context, much research has been focused on non-invasive routes such as nasal, pulmonary, oral, ocular, and rectal for administering proteins and peptides. Unfortunately, the widespread use of proteins and peptides as drugs is still faced by many obstacles such as low bioavailability, short half-life in the blood stream, in vivo instability and numerous other problems. In order to overcome these hurdled and improve protein/peptide drug efficacy, various strategies have been developed such as permeability enhancement, enzyme inhibition, protein structure modification and protection by encapsulation. This review provides a detailed description of all the previous points in order to highlight the importance and potential of proteins and peptides as drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-Assembly of Tetraphenylalanine Peptides.

    PubMed

    Mayans, Enric; Ballano, Gema; Casanovas, Jordi; Díaz, Angélica; Pérez-Madrigal, Maria M; Estrany, Francesc; Puiggalí, Jordi; Cativiela, Carlos; Alemán, Carlos

    2015-11-16

    Three different tetraphenylalanine (FFFF) based peptides that differ at the N- and C-termini have been synthesized by using standard procedures to study their ability to form different nanoassemblies under a variety of conditions. The FFFF peptide assembles into nanotubes that show more structural imperfections at the surface than those formed by the diphenylalanine (FF) peptide under the same conditions. Periodic DFT calculations (M06L functional) were used to propose a model that consists of three FFFF molecules defining a ring through head-to-tail NH3(+)⋅⋅⋅(-)OOC interactions, which in turn stack to produce deformed channels with internal diameters between 12 and 16 Å. Depending on the experimental conditions used for the peptide incubation, N-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) protected FFFF self-assembles into a variety of polymorphs: ultra-thin nanoplates, fibrils, and star-like submicrometric aggregates. DFT calculations indicate that Fmoc-FFFF prefers a parallel rather than an antiparallel β-sheet assembly. Finally, coexisting multiple assemblies (up to three) were observed for Fmoc-FFFF-OBzl (OBzl = benzyl ester), which incorporates aromatic protecting groups at the two peptide terminals. This unusual and noticeable feature is attributed to the fact that the assemblies obtained by combining the Fmoc and OBzl groups contained in the peptide are isoenergetic. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Peptide pheromone signaling in Streptococcus and Enterococcus

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Laura C.; Federle, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Intercellular chemical signaling in bacteria, commonly referred to as quorum sensing (QS), relies on the production and detection of compounds known as pheromones to elicit coordinated responses among members of a community. Pheromones produced by Gram-positive bacteria are comprised of small peptides. Based on both peptide structure and sensory system architectures, Gram-positive bacterial signaling pathways may be classified into one of four groups with a defining hallmark: cyclical peptides of the Agr type, peptides that contain Gly-Gly processing motifs, sensory systems of the RNPP family, or the recently characterized Rgg-like regulatory family. The recent discovery that Rgg family members respond to peptide pheromones increases substantially the number of species in which QS is likely a key regulatory component. These pathways control a variety of fundamental behaviors including conjugation, natural competence for transformation, biofilm development, and virulence factor regulation. Overlapping QS pathways found in multiple species and pathways that utilize conserved peptide pheromones provide opportunities for interspecies communication. Here we review pheromone signaling identified in the genera Enterococcus and Streptococcus, providing examples of all four types of pathways. PMID:24118108

  16. Liquid-phase synthesis of bridged peptides using olefin metathesis of a protected peptide with a long aliphatic chain anchor.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Keisuke; Komiya, Chiaki; Shigenaga, Akira; Inokuma, Tsubasa; Takahashi, Daisuke; Otaka, Akira

    2015-02-06

    Bridged peptides including stapled peptides are attractive tools for regulating protein-protein interactions (PPIs). An effective synthetic methodology in a heterogeneous system for the preparation of these peptides using olefin metathesis and hydrogenation of protected peptides with a long aliphatic chain anchor is reported.

  17. Active Antitoxic Immunization against Ricin Using Synthetic Peptides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    Asn and Gln, active ester (2-nitro- phenyl) couplings were performed. All the couplings were monitored by the ninhydrin test . Couplings were repeated...Antisera from the •eptides were tested by ELISA for their binding to correspcnding immobilized peptides, - corresponding ricin subunit, and intact ricin.