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Sample records for probe amplification assay

  1. A signal amplification probe enhances sensitivity of antibodies and aptamers based Immuno-diagnostic assays.

    PubMed

    Nussbaum, Ofer; Bar Oz, Michal; Tilayov, Tal; Atiya, Helly; Dagan, Shlomo

    2017-09-01

    One major unmet need is improving the sensitivity of immune-diagnostic assays. This is particularly important in the field of biomarker discoveries and monitoring. We have established a novel signal amplification probe system enabling a highly sensitive target detection platform to be used in immuno-assays. The probe consists of a double stranded DNA that can carry a large number of signaling elements such as biotin or fluorescent molecules. The DNA probe anchors to the recognition unit, whether an antibody or an aptamer, by covalent conjugation or by a simple and rapid molecular association process. Binding curves obtained by using the DNA amplification probe are dose dependent and linear over a wide range of antigen concentration. The optimal slopes are characterized by high signals and low background increasing the assay sensitivity and reducing the limit of detection by up to 10-fold compared to biotinylated antibodies commonly used in ELISA systems. When using aptamers in combination with the amplification probe for antigen recognition, the limit of detection is comparable to that obtained by biotinylated antibodies. Biotin labeled aptamers practically cannot be used for detection of low target levels. The DNA amplification probe system enables to expand the range of diagnostic assays including clinical samples and meet research needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An exo probe-based recombinase polymerase amplification assay for the rapid detection of porcine parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Chang; Liu, Li-Bing; Han, Qing-An; Wang, Jin-Feng; Yuan, Wan-Zhe

    2017-10-01

    Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), an isothermal amplification technology, has been developed as an alternative to PCR in pathogen detection. A real-time RPA assay (rt-RPA) was developed to detect the porcine parvovirus (PPV) using primers and exo probe specific for the VP2 gene. The amplification was performed at 39°C for 20min. There was no cross-reaction with other pathogens tested. Using the recombinant plasmid pPPV-VP2 as template, the analytical sensitivity was 103 copies. The assay performance was evaluated by testing 115 field samples by rt-RPA and a real-time PCR assay. The diagnostic agreement between assays was 100%, and PPV DNA was detected in 94 samples. The R(2) value of rt-RPA and real-time PCR was 0.909 by linear regression analysis. The developed rt-RPA assay provides a useful alternative tool for rapid, simple and reliable detection of PPV in diagnostic laboratories and at point-of-care, especially in remote and rural areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Isothermal target and probe amplification assay for the real-time rapid detection of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyewon; Kim, Minhwan; Yoon, Eunju; Kang, Gyoungwon; Kim, Seungyu; Song, Aelee; Kim, Jeongsoon

    2015-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, the species most commonly associated with staphylococcal food poisoning, is one of the most prevalent causes of foodborne disease in Korea and other parts of the world, with much damage inflicted to the health of individuals and economic losses estimated at $120 million. To reduce food poisoning outbreaks by implementing prevention methods, rapid detection of S. aureus in foods is essential. Various types of detection methods for S. aureus are available. Although each method has advantages and disadvantages, high levels of sensitivity and specificity are key aspects of a robust detection method. Here, we describe a novel real-time isothermal target and probe amplification (iTPA) method that allows the rapid and simultaneous amplification of target DNA (the S. aureus nuc gene) and a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based signal probe under isothermal conditions at 61 °C or detection of S. aureus in real time. The assay was able to specifically detect all 91 S. aureus strains tested without nonspecific detection of 51 non-S. aureus strains. The real-time iTPA assay detected S. aureus at an initial level of 10(1) CFU in overnight cultures of preenriched food samples (kiwi dressing, soybean milk, and custard cream). The advantage of this detection system is that it does not require a thermal cycler, reducing the cost of the real-time PCR and its footprint. Combined with a miniaturized fluorescence detector, this system can be developed into a simplified quantitative hand-held real-time device, which is often required. The iTPA assay was highly reliable and therefore may be used as a rapid and sensitive means of identifying S. aureus in foods.

  4. Development of a fluorescent probe-based recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of Orf virus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Qin, Xiaodong; Wang, Guangxiang; Zhang, Yuen; Shang, Youjun; Zhang, Zhidong

    2015-12-02

    Orf virus (ORFV) is the causative agent of Orf (also known as contagious ecthyma or contagious papular dermatitis), a severe infectious skin disease in goats, sheep and other ruminants. The rapid detection of ORFV is of great importance in disease control and highly needed. A isothermal molecular diagnostic approach, termed recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), is considered as an novel and rapid alternative techonology to PCR assay. In the present study, a novel fluorescent probe based on RPA assay (ORFV exo RPA assay) was developed. The developed ORFV exo RPA assay was capable of as low as 100 copies of ORFV DNA /reaction and was highly specific, with no cross-reaction with closely related viruses (capripox virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus or peste des petits ruminants virus). Further assessment with clinical samples showed that the developed ORFV exo RPA assay has good correlation with qPCR assays for detection of ORFV. These results suggest that the developed ORFV exo RPA assay is suitable for rapid detection of ORFV.

  5. Evaluation of the Gen-Probe Chlamydia trachomatis transcription-mediated amplification assay with urine specimens from women.

    PubMed Central

    Pasternack, R; Vuorinen, P; Miettinen, A

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the Gen-Probe Chlamydia trachomatis transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) assay with urine specimens for the detection of C. trachomatis infections in women. The novel test, based on the isothermal amplification of chlamydial RNA, was compared with the Roche Amplicor PCR with urine and cell culture with endocervical specimens. First-catch urine and endocervical swab specimens were collected from a total of 561 patients, of whom 70 (12.3%) were confirmed to have chlamydial infection. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of TMA with urine were 91.4 and 99.6%, respectively, and those of Amplicor PCR were 97.1 and 99.8%, respectively. By repeated analysis of the specimens with discrepant results, the sensitivity of TMA could be increased to 99%, indicating that some methodological improvements in the assay are still to be expected. The sensitivity of PCR could be increased to 100% by the elimination of DNA polymerase inhibitors in a repeated analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of cell culture with cervical specimens were 85.7 and 100%, respectively. The results indicate that TMA with urine specimens from women is a sensitive and specific assay for the detection of C. trachomatis, providing a new noninvasive technique for the screening of chlamydial infections in women. PMID:9041411

  6. Amplification and Temporal Filtering during Gradient Sensing by Nerve Growth Cones Probed with a Microfluidic Assay

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Mathieu; Shynkar, Vasyl; Galas, Jean-Christophe; Dupin, Isabelle; Bouzigues, Cedric; Studer, Vincent; Dahan, Maxime

    2012-01-01

    Nerve growth cones (GCs) are chemical sensors that convert graded extracellular cues into oriented axonal motion. To ensure a sensitive and robust response to directional signals in complex and dynamic chemical landscapes, GCs are presumably able to amplify and filter external information. How these processing tasks are performed remains however poorly known. Here, we probe the signal-processing capabilities of single GCs during γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) directional sensing with a shear-free microfluidic assay that enables systematic measurements of the GC output response to variable input gradients. By measuring at the single molecule level the polarization of GABAA chemoreceptors at the GC membrane, as a function of the external GABA gradient, we find that GCs act as i), signal amplifiers over a narrow range of concentrations, and ii), low-pass temporal filters with a cutoff frequency independent of stimuli conditions. With computational modeling, we determine that these systems-level properties arise at a molecular level from the saturable occupancy response and the lateral dynamics of GABAA receptors. PMID:23083707

  7. High frequency of ribosomal protein gene deletions in Italian Diamond-Blackfan anemia patients detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay

    PubMed Central

    Quarello, Paola; Garelli, Emanuela; Brusco, Alfredo; Carando, Adriana; Mancini, Cecilia; Pappi, Patrizia; Vinti, Luciana; Svahn, Johanna; Dianzani, Irma; Ramenghi, Ugo

    2012-01-01

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia is an autosomal dominant disease due to mutations in nine ribosomal protein encoding genes. Because most mutations are loss of function and detected by direct sequencing of coding exons, we reasoned that part of the approximately 50% mutation negative patients may have carried a copy number variant of ribosomal protein genes. As a proof of concept, we designed a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay targeted to screen the six genes that are most frequently mutated in Diamond-Blackfan anemia patients: RPS17, RPS19, RPS26, RPL5, RPL11, and RPL35A. Using this assay we showed that deletions represent approximately 20% of all mutations. The combination of sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis of these six genes allows the genetic characterization of approximately 65% of patients, showing that Diamond-Blackfan anemia is indisputably a ribosomopathy. PMID:22689679

  8. The allele-specific probe and primer amplification assay, a new real-time PCR method for fine quantification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in pooled DNA.

    PubMed

    Billard, A; Laval, V; Fillinger, S; Leroux, P; Lachaise, H; Beffa, R; Debieu, D

    2012-02-01

    The evolution of fungicide resistance within populations of plant pathogens must be monitored to develop management strategies. Such monitoring often is based on microbiological tests, such as microtiter plate assays. Molecular monitoring methods can be considered if the mutations responsible for resistance have been identified. Allele-specific real-time PCR approaches, such as amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) PCR and mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA) PCR, are, despite their moderate efficacy, among the most precise methods for refining SNP quantification. We describe here a new real-time PCR method, the allele-specific probe and primer amplification assay (ASPPAA PCR). This method makes use of mixtures of allele-specific minor groove binder (MGB) TaqMan probes and allele-specific primers for the fine quantification of SNPs from a pool of DNA extracted from a mixture of conidia. It was developed for a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that is responsible for resistance to the sterol biosynthesis inhibitor fungicide fenhexamid, resulting in the replacement of the phenylalanine residue (encoded by the TTC codon) in position 412 of the enzymatic target (3-ketoreductase) by a serine (TCC), valine (GTC), or isoleucine (ATC) residue. The levels of nonspecific amplification with the ASPPAA PCR were reduced at least four times below the level of currently available allele-specific real-time PCR approaches due to strong allele specificity in amplification cycles, including two allele selectors. This new method can be used to quantify a complex quadriallelic SNP in a DNA pool with a false discovery rate of less than 1%.

  9. Real-time colorimetric detection of target DNA using isothermal target and signaling probe amplification and gold nanoparticle cross-linking assay.

    PubMed

    Jung, Cheulhee; Chung, Ji Won; Kim, Un Ok; Kim, Min Hwan; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2011-01-15

    We describe a facile gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-mediated colorimetric method for real-time detection of target DNA in conjugation with our unique isothermal target and signaling probe amplification (iTPA) method, comprising novel ICA (isothermal chain amplification) and CPT (cycling probe technology). Under isothermal conditions, the iTPA simultaneously amplifies the target and signaling probe through two displacement events induced by a combination of four specially designed primers, the strand displacement activity of DNA polymerase, and the RNA degrading activity of RNase H. The resulting target amplicons are hybridized with gold nanoparticle cross-linking assay (GCA) probes having a DNA-RNA-DNA chimeric form followed by RNA cleavage by RNase H in the CPT step. The intact GCA probes were designed to cross-link two sets of DNA-AuNPs conjugates in the absence of target DNA, inducing aggregation (blue color) of AuNPs. On the contrary, the presence of target DNA leads to cleavage of the GCA probes in proportion to the amount of amplified target DNA and the solution remains red in color without aggregation of AuNPs. Relying on this strategy, 10(2) copies of target Chlamydia trachomatis plasmid were successfully detected in a colorimetric manner. Importantly, all the procedures employed up to the final detection of the target DNA were performed under isothermal conditions without requiring any detection instruments. Therefore, this strategy would greatly benefit convenient, real-time monitoring technology of target DNA under restricted environments.

  10. Rapid detection of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by a fluorescent probe-based isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Qin, Xiaodong; Sun, Yingjun; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Zhidong

    2016-12-01

    A novel fluorescent probe-based real-time reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (real-time RT-RPA) assay was developed for rapid detection of highly pathogenic type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV). The sensitivity analysis showed that the detection limit of RPA was 70 copies of HP-PRRSV RNA/reaction. The real-time RT-RPA highly specific amplified HP-PRRSV with no cross-reaction with classic PRRSV, classic swine fever virus, pseudorabies virus, and foot-and-mouth disease virus. Assessment with 125 clinical samples showed that the developed real-time RT-RPA assay was well correlated with real-time RT-qPCR assays for detection of HP-PRRSV. These results suggest that the developed real-time RT-RPA assay is suitable for rapid detection of HP-PRRSV.

  11. Human papillomavirus multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay for the assessment of viral load, integration, and gain of telomerase-related genes in cervical malignancies.

    PubMed

    Theelen, Wendy; Litjens, Rogier J N T M; Vinokurova, Svetlana; Haesevoets, Annick; Reijans, Martin; Simons, Guus; Smedts, Frank; Herrington, C Simon; Ramaekers, Frans C S; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Speel, Ernst-Jan M; Hopman, Anton H N

    2013-11-01

    We evaluated the reliability of a novel multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay in detecting integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) based on the viral E2/E6 copy number ratio in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded cervical lesions. The MLPA results were compared with those of amplification of papillomavirus oncogene transcripts for RNA, detection of integrated papillomavirus sequences for DNA, and HPV fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). DNA was isolated from 41 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded HPV-positive cervical lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 lesions, squamous cell carcinomas, and adenocarcinomas) for MLPA analysis. From 13 matching frozen samples, DNA and RNA were isolated for the detection of integrated papillomavirus sequences and/or the amplification of papillomavirus oncogene transcripts, respectively. Integrated HPV16, HPV18, or both were identified. The MLPA assay detected viral integration in 12 of these 13 cases, and episomal copies also were detected in 7 cases. In 20 of the 24 cases with exclusive viral integration or episomal viral copies as detected by FISH, MLPA confirmed the physical status of the virus. In the cases classified as mixed by FISH, the presence of excess episomal copies complicated the recognition of viral integration by MLPA. Furthermore, the feasibility of detecting gain of the telomerase genes with the HPV MLPA assay was evaluated. The MLPA confirmed the FISH data in 12 of 13 cases in which the status of copy number gain for telomerase RNA component was known. In conclusion, the HPV MLPA assay can be performed on routinely processed cervical lesions for the detection of viral load and HPV integration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Simultaneous use of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay and flow cytometric DNA ploidy analysis in patients with acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Núñez, Virginia; Galo-Hooker, Evelyn; Pérez-Romano, Beatriz; Duque, Ricardo E; Ruiz-Arguelles, Alejandro; Garcés-Eisele, Javier

    2017-03-18

    The aim of this work was to simultaneously use multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay and flow cytometric DNA ploidy analysis (FPA) to detect aneuploidy in patients with newly diagnosed acute leukemia. MLPA assay and propidium iodide FPA were used to test samples from 53 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed acute leukemia referred to our laboratory for immunophenotyping. Results were compared by nonparametric statistics. The combined use of both methods significantly increased the rate of detection of aneuploidy as compared to that obtained by each method alone. The limitations of one method are somehow countervailed by the other and vice versa. MPLA and FPA yield different yet complementary information concerning aneuploidy in acute leukemia. The simultaneous use of both methods might be recommended in the clinical setting. © 2017 Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  13. A field based detection method for Rose rosette virus using isothermal probe-based Reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Babu, Binoy; Washburn, Brian K; Ertek, Tülin Sarigül; Miller, Steven H; Riddle, Charles B; Knox, Gary W; Ochoa-Corona, Francisco M; Olson, Jennifer; Katırcıoğlu, Yakup Zekai; Paret, Mathews L

    2017-09-01

    Rose rosette disease, caused by Rose rosette virus (RRV; genus Emaravirus) is a major threat to the rose industry in the U.S. The only strategy currently available for disease management is early detection and eradication of the infected plants, thereby limiting its potential spread. Current RT-PCR based diagnostic methods for RRV are time consuming and are inconsistent in detecting the virus from symptomatic plants. Real-time RT-qPCR assay is highly sensitive for detection of RRV, but it is expensive and requires well-equipped laboratories. Both the RT-PCR and RT-qPCR cannot be used in a field-based testing for RRV. Hence a novel probe based, isothermal reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-exoRPA) assay, using primer/probe designed based on the nucleocapsid gene of the RRV has been developed. The assay is highly specific and did not give a positive reaction to other viruses infecting roses belonging to both inclusive and exclusive genus. Dilution assays using the in vitro transcript showed that the primer/probe set is highly sensitive, with a detection limit of 1 fg/μl. In addition, a rapid technique for the extraction of viral RNA (<5min) has been standardized from RRV infected tissue sources, using PBS-T buffer (pH 7.4), which facilitates the virus adsorption onto the PCR tubes at 4°C for 2min, followed by denaturation to release the RNA. RT-exoRPA analysis of the infected plants using the primer/probe indicated that the virus could be detected from leaves, stems, petals, pollen, primary roots and secondary roots. In addition, the assay was efficiently used in the diagnosis of RRV from different rose varieties, collected from different states in the U.S. The entire process, including the extraction can be completed in 25min, with less sophisticated equipments. The developed assay can be used with high efficiency in large scale field testing for rapid detection of RRV in commercial nurseries and landscapes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  14. Rapid and sensitive detection of shrimp infectious myonecrosis virus using a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification and visual colorogenic nanogold hybridization probe assay.

    PubMed

    Arunrut, Narong; Kampeera, Jantana; Suebsing, Rungkarn; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika

    2013-11-01

    This study reports a novel strategy for the detection of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) products derived from infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), causes a serious myonecrosis in Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, by using a ssDNA-labeled with gold nanoparticle (AuNP) probe. This technique relies on a self-aggregation method, when the AuNP aggregation is induced by an increasing of salt concentrations with visual detection. The presence of IMNV-LAMP target prevented an AuNP aggregation and a solution remained as pink color of AuNP, while non-complementary targets cannot prevent AuNP aggregation, resulting in a visible color change to purple color after addition of salt. By using the combination of LAMP and AuNP probe system, the total assay interval required approximately 50 min (exclude RNA preparation). Detection limit was 10 copies of IMNV RNA in vitro transcript that comparable to that of LAMP followed by LFD and nested RT-PCR, but it was 100-times more sensitive than RT-PCR methods. This assay can be adapted easily for rapid detection of other shrimp infectious diseases agents at low-cost with robust reagents and using a simple colorimetric detection method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay identifies additional copy number changes compared with R-band karyotype and provide more accuracy prognostic information in myelodysplastic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zefeng; Zhang, Yue; Liu, Jinqin; Li, Bing; Fang, Liwei; Zhang, Hongli; Pan, Lijuan; Hu, Naibo; Qu, Shiqiang; Cai, Wenyu; Ru, Kun; Jia, Yujiao; Huang, Gang; Xiao, Zhijian

    2017-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis provides important diagnostic and prognostic information for patients with Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and plays an essential role in the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R). Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay is a recently developed technique to identify targeted cytogenetic aberrations in MDS patients. In the present study, we evaluated the results obtained using an MLPA assay in 437 patients with MDS to determine the efficacy of MLPA analysis. Using R-banding karyotyping, 45% (197/437) of MDS patients had chromosomal abnormalities, whereas MLPA analysis detected that 35% (153/437) of MDS cases contained at least one copy-number variations (CNVs) .2/5 individuals (40%) with R-band karyotype failures had trisomy 8 detected using only MLPA. Clonal cytogenetic abnormalities were detected in 20/235 (8.5%) MDS patients with a normal R-band karyotype, and 12/20 (60%) of those patients were reclassified into a higher-risk IPSS-R prognostic category. When sequencing and cytogenetics were combined, the fraction of patients with MDS-related oncogenic lesions increased to 87.3% (233/267 cases). MLPA analysis determined that the median OS of patients with a normal karyotype (n=218) was 65 months compared with 27 months in cases with an aberrant karyotype (P=0.002) in 240 patients with normal or failed karyotypes by R-banding karyotyping. The high-resolution MPLA assay is an efficient and reliable method that can be used in conjunction with R-band karyotyping to detect chromosomal abnormalities in patients with suspected MDS. MLPA may also provide more accurate prognostic information. PMID:27906673

  16. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay for the detection of CYP21A2 gene deletions/duplications in congenital adrenal hyperplasia: first technical report.

    PubMed

    Concolino, Paola; Mello, Enrica; Toscano, Vincenzo; Ameglio, Franco; Zuppi, Cecilia; Capoluongo, Ettore

    2009-04-01

    More than 90% of the cases of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) are associated with mutations in 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21A2). Up to now, large CYP21A2 rearrangements have been mainly detected by Southern blot analysis, although more rapid methods have been alternatively proposed. In this paper, we report the use of a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) method for easy and rapid detection of deletions/duplications in the CYP21A2 gene. We collected 18 CAH Italian patients previously analyzed by gene sequencing and Southern blot technique. In addition, a prenatal diagnosis study was performed. Of the 7 known subjects with CYP21A2 deletions and 2 with gene duplications previously characterized in our laboratory, all were successfully identified by the MLPA analysis. In the prenatal diagnosis study, the MLPA assay was able to identify the presence of a CYP21A2 gene duplication in the fetus, as well in other two family members. MLPA analysis represents a simple, rapid and sensitive tool for the detection of CYP21A2/CYP21A1P deletions/duplications in CAH molecular diagnosis. Compared to Southern blot, MLPA may be considered a high throughput analysis, allowing the simultaneous study of several samples in the same experiment and the investigation of both gene (CYP21A2) and pseudogene (CYP21A1P) in each patient.

  17. Genetic and epigenetic states of the GNAS complex in pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib using methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Yuno, Akiko; Usui, Takeshi; Yambe, Yuko; Higashi, Kiichiro; Ugi, Satoshi; Shinoda, Junji; Mashio, Yasuo; Shimatsu, Akira

    2013-02-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP-Ib) is a rare disorder resulting from genetic and epigenetic aberrations in the GNAS complex. PHP-Ib, usually defined by renal resistance to parathyroid hormone, is due to a maternal loss of GNAS exon A/B methylation and leads to decreased expression of the stimulatory G protein α (Gsα) in specific tissues. To clarify the usefulness of methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA), we evaluated genetic and epigenetic changes of the GNAS locus in Japanese PHP-Ib patients. Retrospective case series. We studied 13 subjects with PHP-Ib (three families with eight affected members and one unaffected member and four sporadic cases). The methylation status of GNAS differentially methylated regions (DMRs) was evaluated using MS-MLPA. The main outcome measure was the presence of deletion mutations in the GNAS locus and STX16, which were assessed using MLPA. In all familial PHP-Ib cases, a ~3 kb deletion of STX16 and demethylation of the A/B domain were identified. In contrast, no deletion was detected throughout the entire GNAS locus region in the sporadic cases. Broad methylation abnormalities were observed in the GNAS DMRs. MS-MLPA allows for precise and rapid analysis of the methylation status in GNAS DMRs as well as the detection of microdeletion mutations in PHP-Ib. Results confirm the previous findings in this disorder and demonstrate that this method is valuable for the genetic evaluation and visualizing the methylation status. The MS-MLPA assay is a useful tool that may facilitate making the molecular diagnosis of PHP-Ib.

  18. Comparison of Gen-probe transcription-mediated amplification, Abbott PCR, and Roche PCR assays for detection of wild-type and mutant plasmid strains of Chlamydia trachomatis in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Pedersen, Lisbeth Nørum; Persson, Kenneth

    2008-12-01

    The clinical performance of two nucleic acid amplification assays targeting the cryptic plasmid and two assays targeting rRNA molecules in Chlamydia trachomatis was examined. First-catch urine samples from Malmoe, Sweden, were tested for C. trachomatis with the Abbott real-time PCR assay m2000 and an in-house PCR for the new variant strain of C. trachomatis with a deletion in the cryptic plasmid. Aliquots of the urine samples were sent to Aarhus, Denmark, and further examined with the Roche COBAS Amplicor CT (RCA) PCR, the Gen-Probe Aptima Combo 2 assay (AC2) targeting the C. trachomatis 23S rRNA, and the Aptima C. trachomatis assay (ACT) targeting the 16S rRNA molecule. A positive prevalence of 9% (163/1,808 urine samples examined) was detected according to the combined reference standard. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the four assays were as follows: for ACT, 100% (163/163) and 99.9% (1,643/1,645), respectively; for AC2, 100% (163/163) and 99.6% (1,640/1,645); for m2000, 68.7% (112/163) and 99.9% (1,644/1,645); for RCA, 63.8% (104/163) and 99.9% (1,643/1,645). The two Gen-Probe assays detected all mutant strains characterized by the in-house PCR as having the deletion in the cryptic plasmid, whereas the Roche and the Abbott PCRs targeting the plasmid were both unable to detect the plasmid mutant. The difference in clinical sensitivity between the plasmid PCR assays m2000 and RCA, on the one hand, and the rRNA assays AC2 and ACT, on the other, could be attributed almost exclusively to the presence of the plasmid mutant in about one-quarter of the Chlamydia-positive samples examined.

  19. Practical Prediction of Ten Common Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes/Serogroups in One PCR Reaction by Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification and Melting Curve (MLPA-MC) Assay in Shenzhen, China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Lei; Zou, Jianhua; Jin, Ping; Hu, Yanwei; Kudinha, Timothy; Kong, Fanrong; Chen, Xu; Wang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae has more than 95 distinct serotypes described to date. However, only certain serotypes are more likely to cause pneumococcal diseases. Thus serotype surveillance is important for vaccine formula design as well as in post-vaccine serotype shift monitor. The goal of this study was to develop a practical screening assay for ten Shenzhen China common pneumococcal serotypes/serogroups in one molecular reaction. Methods A molecular assay, based on multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and melting curve (MC) analysis, was developed in an integrated approach (MLPA-MC) for the detection of ten capsular serotypes/serogroups 4, 6 (6A/6B/6C/6D), 9V/9A, 14, 15F/15A, 15B/15C, 18 (18F/18A/18B/18C), 19F, 19A and 23F. We designed serotype/serogroup-specific MLPA probes and fluorescent detection probes to discriminate the different serotypes/serogroups in one molecular reaction. The three steps of MLPA-MC assay are continuous reactions in one well detected by LightCycler 480. A total of 210 S. pneumoniae isolates from our local Maternity and Child Health Hospital were randomly chosen to evaluate the assay against published multiplex PCR assays. Results Our results showed that 198 (94.3%) of S. pneumoniae isolates were type-able by our assays and the results were in complete concordance with the published multiplex PCRs. Using the MLPA-MC assay, 96 S. pneumoniae isolates could be typed within 3 hours with limited hands-on time. This serotype/serogroup-screening assay can be easily modified or extended by modification of the serotype/serogroup-specific MLPA probes combinations according to the needs of different laboratories. Conclusions We recommend use of this assay as a starting point for screening serotype/serogroup frequencies. There is a need for this assay to be combined with other molecular typing assays, like published serotype specific PCRs, or even the Quellung reaction for serotype confirmation. PMID:26151828

  20. Validation of the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay and its application on the distribution study of the major alleles of 17 blood group systems in Chinese donors from Guangzhou.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yanli; Wen, Jizhi; Veldhuisen, Barbera; Haer-Wigman, Lonneke; Wang, Zhen; Lodén-van Straaten, Martin; Wei, Ling; Luo, Guangping; Fu, Yongshui; van der Schoot, C Ellen

    2017-02-01

    Genotyping platforms for common red blood cell (RBC) antigens have been successfully applied in Caucasian and black populations but not in Chinese populations. In this study, a genotyping assay based on multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technology was applied in a Chinese population to validate the MLPA probes. Subsequently, the comprehensive distribution of 17 blood group systems also was obtained. DNA samples from 200 Chinese donors were extracted and genotyped using the blood-MLPA assay. To confirm the MLPA results, a second independent genotyping assay (ID Core+) was conducted in 40 donors, and serological typing of 14 blood-group antigens was performed in 91 donors. In donors who had abnormal copy numbers of an allele (DI and GYPB) determined by MLPA, additional experiments were performed (polymerase chain reaction, sequencing, and flow cytometry analysis). The genotyping results obtained using the blood-MLPA and ID Core+ assays were consistent. Serological data were consistent with the genotyping results except for one donor who had a Lu(a-b-) phenotype. Of the 17 blood group systems, the distribution of the MNS, Duffy, Kidd, Diego, Yt, and Dombrock systems was polymorphic. The Mur and St(a) antigens of the MNS system were distributed with a frequency of 9% (18 of 200) and 2% (4 of 200), respectively. One donor with chimerism and one who carried a novel DI*02(A845V) allele, which predicts the depression of Di(b) antigen expression, were identified. The blood-MLPA assay could easily identify the common blood-group alleles and correctly predicted phenotype in the Chinese population. The Mur and St(a) antigens were distributed with high frequency in a Southern Chinese Han population. © 2016 AABB.

  1. Accurate Classification of Germinal Center B-Cell-Like/Activated B-Cell-Like Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Using a Simple and Rapid Reverse Transcriptase-Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification Assay: A CALYM Study.

    PubMed

    Mareschal, Sylvain; Ruminy, Philippe; Bagacean, Cristina; Marchand, Vinciane; Cornic, Marie; Jais, Jean-Philippe; Figeac, Martin; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Molina, Thierry Jo; Fest, Thierry; Salles, Gilles; Haioun, Corinne; Leroy, Karen; Tilly, Hervé; Jardin, Fabrice

    2015-04-09

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, the most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma, is subdivided into germinal center B-cell-like and activated B-cell-like subtypes. Unfortunately, these lymphomas are difficult to differentiate in routine diagnosis, impeding the development of treatments. Patients with these lymphomas can benefit from specific therapies. We therefore developed a simple and rapid classifier based on a reverse transcriptase multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay and 14 gene signatures. Compared with the Affymetrix U133+2 gold standard, all 46 samples (95% CI, 92%-100%) of a validation cohort classified by both techniques were attributed to the expected subtype. Similarly, 93% of the 55 samples (95% CI, 82%-98%) of a second independent series characterized with a mid-throughput gene expression profiling method were classified correctly. Unclassifiable sample proportions reached 13.2% and 13.8% in these cohorts, comparable with the frequency originally reported. The developed assay was also sensitive enough to obtain reliable results from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples and flexible enough to include prognostic factors such as MYC/BCL2 co-expression. Finally, in a series of 135 patients, both overall (P = 0.01) and progression-free (P = 0.004) survival differences between the two subtypes were confirmed. Because the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification method is already in use and requires only common instruments and reagents, it could easily be applied to clinical trial patient stratification to help in treatment decisions.

  2. Multiplexed Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay To Detect Intestinal Protozoa.

    PubMed

    Crannell, Zachary; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Nair, Gayatri; Mejia, Rojelio; White, A Clinton; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2016-02-02

    This work describes a proof-of-concept multiplex recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay with lateral flow readout that is capable of simultaneously detecting and differentiating DNA from any of the diarrhea-causing protozoa Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba. Together, these parasites contribute significantly to the global burden of diarrheal illness. Differential diagnosis of these parasites is traditionally accomplished via stool microscopy. However, microscopy is insensitive and can miss up to half of all cases. DNA-based diagnostics such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are far more sensitive; however, they rely on expensive thermal cycling equipment, limiting their availability to centralized reference laboratories. Isothermal DNA amplification platforms, such as the RPA platform used in this study, alleviate the need for thermal cycling equipment and have the potential to broaden access to more sensitive diagnostics. Until now, multiplex RPA assays have not been developed that are capable of simultaneously detecting and differentiating infections caused by different pathogens. We developed a multiplex RPA assay to detect the presence of DNA from Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba. The multiplex assay was characterized using synthetic DNA, where the limits-of-detection were calculated to be 403, 425, and 368 gene copies per reaction of the synthetic Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba targets, respectively (roughly 1.5 orders of magnitude higher than for the same targets in a singleplex RPA assay). The multiplex assay was also characterized using DNA extracted from live parasites spiked into stool samples where the limits-of-detection were calculated to be 444, 6, and 9 parasites per reaction for Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba parasites, respectively. This proof-of-concept assay may be reconfigured to detect a wide variety of targets by re-designing the primer and probe sequences.

  3. An efficient target-intermediate recycling amplification strategy for ultrasensitive fluorescence assay of intracellular lead ions.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhi-Bin; Liang, Wen-Bin; Zhuo, Ying; Xiong, Cheng-Yi; Zheng, Ying-Ning; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Ya-Qin

    2017-07-04

    An ultrasensitive fluorescence assay for intracellular Pb(2+) determination was proposed through target-intermediate recycling amplification based on metal-assisted DNAzyme catalysis and strand displacement reactions. Compared with only target recycling-based fluorescence assay with an M amplification ratio, the proposed assay could achieve an M × N amplification ratio to obtain an improved sensitivity by more than 10 times, in which M and N are the amplification ratios of target recycling and intermediate recycling, respectively. Remarkably, this proposed ultrasensitive fluorescence assay could be applied to the determination of various analytes with the well-designed detection probe, especially in intracellular assay, providing a promising tool for clinical diagnosis and biomedical detection.

  4. Non-instrumented nucleic acid amplification assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.; Domingo, Gonzalo; Gerlach, Jay; Tang, Dennis; Harvey, Darrel; Talwar, Nick; Fichtenholz, Alex; van Lew, Bill; LaBarre, Paul

    2008-02-01

    We have developed components of a diagnostic disposable platform that has the dual purpose of providing molecular diagnostics at the point of care (POC) as well as stabilizing specimens for further analysis via a centralized surveillance system. This diagnostic is targeted for use in low-resource settings by minimally trained health workers. The disposable device does not require any additional instrumentation and will be almost as rapid and simple to use as a lateral flow strip test - yet will offer the sensitivity and specificity of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). The low-cost integrated device is composed of three functional components: (1) a sample-processing subunit that generates clean and stabilized DNA from raw samples containing nucleic acids, (2) a NA amplification subunit, and (3) visual amplicon detection sub-unit. The device integrates chemical exothermic heating, temperature stabilization using phase-change materials, and isothermal nucleic acid amplification. The aim of developing this system is to provide pathogen detection with NAAT-level sensitivity in low-resource settings where there is no access to instrumentation. If a disease occurs, patients would be tested with the disposable in the field. A nucleic acid sample would be preserved within the spent disposable which could be sent to a central laboratory facility for further analysis if needed.

  5. Molecular beacon probes combined with amplification by NASBA enable homogeneous, real-time detection of RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Leone, G; van Schijndel, H; van Gemen, B; Kramer, F R; Schoen, C D

    1998-01-01

    Molecular beacon probes can be employed in a NASBA amplicon detection system to generate a specific fluorescent signal concomitantly with amplification. A molecular beacon, designed to hybridize within the target sequence, was introduced into NASBA reactions that amplify the genomic RNA of potato leafroll virus (PLRV). During amplification, the probe anneals to the antisense RNA amplicon generated by NASBA, producing a specific fluorescent signal that can be monitored in real-time. The assay is rapid, sensitive and specific. As RNA amplification and detection can be carried out in unopened vessels, it minimizes the risk of carry-over contaminations. Robustness has been verified on real-world samples. This homogeneous assay, called AmpliDet RNA, is a significant improvement over current detection methods for NASBA amplicons and is suitable for one-tube applications ranging from high-throughput diagnostics to in vivo studies of biological activities. PMID:9547273

  6. A dumbell probe-mediated rolling circle amplification strategy for highly sensitive transcription factor detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunxiang; Qiu, Xiyang; Hou, Zhaohui; Deng, Keqin

    2015-02-15

    Highly sensitive detection of transcription factors (TF) is essential to proteome and genomics research as well as clinical diagnosis. We describe herein a novel fluorescent-amplified strategy for ultrasensitive, quantitative, and inexpensive detection of TF. The strategy consists of a hairpin DNA probe containing a TF binding sequence for target TF, a dumbbell-shaped probe, a primer DNA probe designed partly complementary to hairpin DNA probe, and a dumbbell probe. In the presence of target TF, the binding of the TF with hairpin DNA probe will prohibit the hybridization of the primer DNA probe with the "stem" and "loop" region of the hairpin DNA probe, then the unhybridized region of the primer DNA will hybridize with dumbbell probe, subsequently promote the ligation reaction and the rolling circle amplification (RCA), finally, the RCA products are quantified via the fluorescent intensity of SYBR Green I (SG). Using TATA-binding protein (TBP) as a model transcription factor, the proposed assay system can specifically detect TBP with a detection limit as low as 40.7 fM, and with a linear range from 100 fM to 1 nM. Moreover, this assay related DNA probe does not involve any modification and the whole assay proceeds in one tube, which makes the assay simple and low cost. It is expected to become a powerful tool for bioanalysis and clinic diagnostic application.

  7. Rapid amplification of the RM-Yplex assay.

    PubMed

    Abuidrees, Aqeela S; Alghafri, Rashed H; Hadi, Sibte

    2016-10-01

    A multiplex PCR assay consisting of 13 Rapidly Mutating Y STR loci called RM-Yplex was previously developed. Platinum(®) Taq DNA polymerase was used to amplify the 13 Y STR loci in a single reaction at an amplification time of approximately 2.5 h. In order to shorten the process with reliable results, two DNA polymerases were tested with the multiplex. Phusion(®) Flash High Fidelity, TAKARA Z-taq(TM) , and Platinum(®) Taq DNA polymerases were investigated for conducting RM-Yplex assay at various PCR cycling conditions. Rapid, robust, and efficient amplification of all the markers within the multiplex were achieved. The amplification time was reduced from 2.5 h to less than 28 min with Phusion(®) Flash High Fidelity DNA polymerase using Veriti(®) PCR thermal cycler.

  8. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Francisella tularensis

    PubMed Central

    Euler, Milena; Wang, Yongjie; Otto, Peter; Tomaso, Herbert; Escudero, Raquel; Anda, Pedro; Hufert, Frank T.

    2012-01-01

    Several real-time PCR approaches to develop field detection for Francisella tularensis, the infectious agent causing tularemia, have been explored. We report the development of a novel qualitative real-time isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay for use on a small ESEQuant Tube Scanner device. The analytical sensitivity and specificity were tested using a plasmid standard and DNA extracts from infected rabbit tissues. The assay showed a performance comparable to real-time PCR but reduced the assay time to 10 min. The rapid RPA method has great application potential for field use or point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:22518861

  9. Recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of Francisella tularensis.

    PubMed

    Euler, Milena; Wang, Yongjie; Otto, Peter; Tomaso, Herbert; Escudero, Raquel; Anda, Pedro; Hufert, Frank T; Weidmann, Manfred

    2012-07-01

    Several real-time PCR approaches to develop field detection for Francisella tularensis, the infectious agent causing tularemia, have been explored. We report the development of a novel qualitative real-time isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay for use on a small ESEQuant Tube Scanner device. The analytical sensitivity and specificity were tested using a plasmid standard and DNA extracts from infected rabbit tissues. The assay showed a performance comparable to real-time PCR but reduced the assay time to 10 min. The rapid RPA method has great application potential for field use or point-of-care diagnostics.

  10. Hyperpolarized NMR Probes for Biological Assays

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Sebastian; Jensen, Pernille R.; Karlsson, Magnus; Lerche, Mathilde H.

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, the development of nuclear spin polarization enhanced (hyperpolarized) molecular probes has opened up new opportunities for studying the inner workings of living cells in real time. The hyperpolarized probes are produced ex situ, introduced into biological systems and detected with high sensitivity and contrast against background signals using high resolution NMR spectroscopy. A variety of natural, derivatized and designed hyperpolarized probes has emerged for diverse biological studies including assays of intracellular reaction progression, pathway kinetics, probe uptake and export, pH, redox state, reactive oxygen species, ion concentrations, drug efficacy or oncogenic signaling. These probes are readily used directly under natural conditions in biofluids and are often directly developed and optimized for cellular assays, thus leaving little doubt about their specificity and utility under biologically relevant conditions. Hyperpolarized molecular probes for biological NMR spectroscopy enable the unbiased detection of complex processes by virtue of the high spectral resolution, structural specificity and quantifiability of NMR signals. Here, we provide a survey of strategies used for the selection, design and use of hyperpolarized NMR probes in biological assays, and describe current limitations and developments. PMID:24441771

  11. Development of Rapid Isothermal Amplification Assays for Detection of Phytophthora spp. in Plant Tissue.

    PubMed

    Miles, Timothy D; Martin, Frank N; Coffey, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    Several isothermal amplification techniques recently have been developed that are tolerant of inhibitors present in many plant extracts, which can reduce the need for obtaining purified DNA for running diagnostic assays. One such commercially available technique that has similarities with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for designing primers and a labeled probe is recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). This technology was used to develop two simple and rapid approaches for detection of Phytophthora spp.: one genus-specific assay multiplexed with a plant internal control and the other species-specific assays for Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae. All assays were tested for sensitivity (ranging from 3 ng to 1 fg of DNA) and specificity using DNA extracted from more than 136 Phytophthora taxa, 21 Pythium spp., 1 Phytopythium sp., and a wide range of plant species. The lower limit of linear detection using purified DNA was 200 to 300 fg of DNA in all pathogen RPA assays. Six different extraction buffers were tested for use during plant tissue maceration and the assays were validated in the field by collecting 222 symptomatic plant samples from over 50 different hosts. Only 56 samples were culture positive for Phytophthora spp. whereas 91 were positive using the Phytophthora genus-specific RPA test and a TaqMan real-time PCR assay. A technique for the generation of sequencing templates from positive RPA amplifications to confirm species identification was also developed. These RPA assays have added benefits over traditional technologies because they are rapid (results can be obtained in as little as 15 min), do not require DNA extraction or extensive training to complete, use less expensive portable equipment than PCR-based assays, and are significantly more specific than current immunologically based methods. This should provide a rapid, field-deployable capability for pathogen detection that will facilitate point-of-sample collection processing

  12. DNA quantification via ICP-MS using lanthanide-labeled probes and ligation-mediated amplification.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Kathrin; Schwarz, Kathleen; Beck, Sebastian; Linscheid, Michael W

    2014-01-07

    The combination of lanthanide-tagged oligonucleotide probes with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as the detection technique is a novel labeling and analysis strategy for heterogeneous nucleic acid quantification assays. We describe a hybridization assay based on biotin-streptavidin affinity using lanthanide-labeled reporter probes and biotinylated capture probes. For the basic sandwich type assay, performed in streptavidin-coated microtitration wells, the limit of detection (LOD) was 7.2 fmol of DNA target, corresponding to a final concentration of 6 pM terbium-labeled probes detectable by ICP-MS after elution from the solid support. To improve the sensitivity and sequence specificity of the approach, it was combined with established molecular biological techniques, i.e., elution with a restriction endonuclease and signal and target amplification by the ligase detection reaction (LDR) and ligase chain reaction (LCR), respectively. Initial experiments showed that the enzymes facilitated the discrimination of single-base mismatches within the recognition or ligation site. Furthermore, LCR as a target amplification step resulted in a 6000-fold increase of sensitivity, and finally an LOD of 2.6 amol was achieved with an artificial double-stranded DNA target.

  13. Linear RNA amplification for the production of microarray hybridization probes.

    PubMed

    Klebes, Ansgar; Kornberg, Thomas B

    2008-01-01

    To understand Drosophila development and other genetically controlled processes, it is often desirable to identify differences in gene expression levels. An experimental approach to investigate these processes is to catalog the transcriptome by hybridization of mRNA to DNA microbar-rays. In these experiments mRNA-derived hybridization probes are produced and hybridized to an array of DNA spots on a solid support. The labeled cDNAs of the complex hybridization probe will bind to their complementary sequences and provide quantification of the relative concentration of the corresponding transcript in the starting material. However, such approaches are often limited by the scarcity of the experimental sample because standard methods of probe preparation require microgram quantities of mRNA template. Linear RNA amplification can alleviate such limitations to support the generation of microarray hybridization probes from a few 100 pg of mRNA. These smaller quantities can be isolated from a few 100 cells. Here, we present a linear amplification protocol designed to preserve both the relative abundance of transcripts as well as their sequence complexity.

  14. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Diagnostics of Dengue Infection

    PubMed Central

    Abd El Wahed, Ahmed; Patel, Pranav; Faye, Oumar; Thaloengsok, Sasikanya; Heidenreich, Doris; Matangkasombut, Ponpan; Manopwisedjaroen, Khajohnpong; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Sall, Amadou A.; Hufert, Frank T.; Weidmann, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Background Over 2.5 billion people are exposed to the risk of contracting dengue fever (DF). Early diagnosis of DF helps to diminish its burden on public health. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase amplification assays (RT-PCR) are the standard method for molecular detection of the dengue virus (DENV). Real-time RT-PCR analysis is not suitable for on-site screening since mobile devices are large, expensive, and complex. In this study, two RT-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assays were developed to detect DENV1-4. Methodology/Principal Findings Using two quantitative RNA molecular standards, the analytical sensitivity of a RT-RPA targeting the 3´non-translated region of DENV1-4 was found to range from 14 (DENV4) to 241 (DENV1-3) RNA molecules detected. The assay was specific and did not cross detect other Flaviviruses. The RT-RPA assay was tested in a mobile laboratory combining magnetic-bead based total nucleic acid extraction and a portable detection device in Kedougou (Senegal) and in Bangkok (Thailand). In Kedougou, the RT-RPA was operated at an ambient temperature of 38°C with auxiliary electricity tapped from a motor vehicle and yielded a clinical sensitivity and specificity of 98% (n=31) and 100% (n=23), respectively. While in the field trial in Bangkok, the clinical sensitivity and specificity were 72% (n=90) and 100%(n=41), respectively. Conclusions/Significance During the first 5 days of infection, the developed DENV1-4 RT-RPA assays constitute a suitable accurate and rapid assay for DENV diagnosis. Moreover, the use of a portable fluorescence-reading device broadens its application potential to the point-of-care for outbreak investigations. PMID:26075598

  15. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Diagnostics of Dengue Infection.

    PubMed

    Abd El Wahed, Ahmed; Patel, Pranav; Faye, Oumar; Thaloengsok, Sasikanya; Heidenreich, Doris; Matangkasombut, Ponpan; Manopwisedjaroen, Khajohnpong; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Sall, Amadou A; Hufert, Frank T; Weidmann, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Over 2.5 billion people are exposed to the risk of contracting dengue fever (DF). Early diagnosis of DF helps to diminish its burden on public health. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase amplification assays (RT-PCR) are the standard method for molecular detection of the dengue virus (DENV). Real-time RT-PCR analysis is not suitable for on-site screening since mobile devices are large, expensive, and complex. In this study, two RT-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assays were developed to detect DENV1-4. Using two quantitative RNA molecular standards, the analytical sensitivity of a RT-RPA targeting the 3´non-translated region of DENV1-4 was found to range from 14 (DENV4) to 241 (DENV1-3) RNA molecules detected. The assay was specific and did not cross detect other Flaviviruses. The RT-RPA assay was tested in a mobile laboratory combining magnetic-bead based total nucleic acid extraction and a portable detection device in Kedougou (Senegal) and in Bangkok (Thailand). In Kedougou, the RT-RPA was operated at an ambient temperature of 38 °C with auxiliary electricity tapped from a motor vehicle and yielded a clinical sensitivity and specificity of 98% (n=31) and 100% (n=23), respectively. While in the field trial in Bangkok, the clinical sensitivity and specificity were 72% (n=90) and 100%(n=41), respectively. During the first 5 days of infection, the developed DENV1-4 RT-RPA assays constitute a suitable accurate and rapid assay for DENV diagnosis. Moreover, the use of a portable fluorescence-reading device broadens its application potential to the point-of-care for outbreak investigations.

  16. Continuous-flow ATP amplification system for increasing the sensitivity of quantitative bioluminescence assay.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Tetsuya; Shinoda, Yasuharu; Alexandrov, Maxym; Kuroda, Akio; Murakami, Yuji

    2008-08-01

    We constructed a novel ATP amplification reactor using a continuous-flow system, and this allowed us to increase the sensitivity of a quantitative bioluminescence assay by controlling the number of ATP amplification cycles. We previously developed a bioluminescence assay coupled with ATP amplification using a batch system. However, it was difficult to control the number of amplification cycles. In this study, ATP amplification was performed using a continuous-flow system, and significant linear correlations between amplified luminescence and initial ATP concentration were observed. When performing four cycles of continuous-flow ATP amplification, the gradient of amplification was 1.87(N). Whereas the lower quantifiable level was 500 pM without amplification, values as low as 50 pM ATP could be measured after amplification. The sensitivity thus increased 10-fold, with further improvements expected with additional amplification cycles. The continuous-flow system thus effectively increased the sensitivity of the quantitative bioluminescence assay.

  17. Advances in ligase chain reaction and ligation-based amplifications for genotyping assays: Detection and applications.

    PubMed

    Gibriel, Abdullah A; Adel, Ola

    2017-07-01

    Genetic variants have been reported to cause several genetic diseases. Various genotyping assays have been developed for diagnostic and screening purposes but with certain limitations in sensitivity, specificity, cost effectiveness and/or time savings. Since the discovery of ligase chain reaction (LCR) in the late nineties, it became one of the most favored platforms for detecting these variants and also for genotyping low abundant contaminants. Recent and powerful modifications with the integration of various detection strategies such as electrochemical and magnetic biosensors, nanoparticles (NPs), quantum dots, quartz crystal and leaky surface acoustic surface biosensors, DNAzyme, rolling circle amplification (RCA), strand displacement amplification (SDA), surface enhanced raman scattering (SERS), chemiluminescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer have been introduced to both LCR and ligation based amplifications to enable high-throughput and inexpensive multiplex genotyping with improved robustness, simplicity, sensitivity and specificity. In this article, classical and up to date modifications in LCR and ligation based amplifications are critically evaluated and compared with emphasis on points of strength and weakness, sensitivity, cost, running time, equipment needed, applications and multiplexing potential. Versatile genotyping applications such as genetic diseases detection, bacterial and viral pathogens detection are also detailed. Ligation based gold NPs biosensor, ligation based RCA and ligation mediated SDA assays enhanced detection limit tremendously with a discrimination power approaching 1.5aM, 2aM and 0.1fM respectively. MLPA (multiplexed ligation dependent probe amplification) and SNPlex assays have been commercialized for multiplex detection of at least 48 SNPs at a time. MOL-PCR (multiplex oligonucleotide ligation) has high-throughput capability with multiplex detection of 50 SNPs/well in a 96 well plate. Ligase detection reaction (LDR

  18. Verification of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification probes in the absence of positive samples.

    PubMed

    Wooderchak-Donahue, Whitney; Vaughn, Cecily; Chou, Lan-Szu; Lewis, Tracey; Sumner, Kelli; Procter, Melinda; Gedge, Friederike; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Lyon, Elaine; Pont-Kingdon, Genevieve

    2011-11-01

    Deletions and duplications of single or multiple exons in specific genes are associated with human diseases. Multiplex ligation-dependant probe amplification (MLPA), a technique recently introduced to clinical laboratories, can detect deletions or duplications at the exon level. MLPA kits have a high multiplexing capability containing mixtures of exon-specific probes that target the gene of interest and control probes that hybridize to other genomic areas before PCR amplification. To verify each probe set, known positive samples with a single-exon deletion or duplication and normal samples are ideally used. Often, positive samples do not exist for each exon and normal samples are not suited to verify the identity of each probe set. We designed a straightforward approach using mixes of exon-specific PCR products as template to unequivocally verify each probe set in MLPA kits. This method can be used to verify the identity of MLPA probes for exons when positive samples are unavailable. Exon-specific probes from 15 MLPA kits were shown to hybridize to the targeted exons of interest. In one kit, this method identified probes that also bind a pseudogene, making them unreliable for clinical analysis. Incorporating this methodology in the analytical validation process will help ensure that MLPA results are interpreted correctly.

  19. Oncogene amplification in male breast cancer: analysis by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.

    PubMed

    Kornegoor, Robert; Moelans, Cathy B; Verschuur-Maes, Anoek H J; Hogenes, Marieke C H; de Bruin, Peter C; Oudejans, Joost J; Marchionni, Luigi; van Diest, Paul J

    2012-08-01

    Gene amplification is an important mechanism for oncogene activation, a crucial step in carcinogenesis. Compared to female breast cancer, little is known on the genetic makeup of male breast cancer, because large series are lacking. Copy number changes of 21 breast cancer related genes were studied in 110 male breast cancers using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. A ratio of >1.3 was regarded indicative for gene copy number gain and a ratio >2.0 for gene amplification. Data were correlated with clinicopathological features, prognosis and 17 genes were compared with a group of female breast cancers. Gene copy number gain of CCND1, TRAF4, CDC6 and MTDH was seen in >40 % of the male breast cancer cases, with also frequent amplification. The number of genes with copy number gain and several single genes were associated with high grade, but only CCND1 amplification was an independent predictor of adverse survival in Cox regression (p = 0.015; hazard ratio 3.0). In unsupervised hierarchical clustering a distinctive group of male breast cancer with poor prognosis (p = 0.009; hazard ratio 3.4) was identified, characterized by frequent CCND1, MTDH, CDC6, ADAM9, TRAF4 and MYC copy number gain. Compared to female breast cancers, EGFR (p = 0.005) and CCND1 (p = 0.041) copy number gain was more often seen in male breast cancer, while copy number gain of EMSY (p = 0.004) and CPD (p = 0.001) and amplification in general was less frequent. In conclusion, several female breast cancer genes also seem to be important in male breast carcinogenesis. However, there are also clear differences in copy number changes between male and female breast cancers, pointing toward differences in carcinogenesis between male and female breast cancer and emphasizing the importance of identifying biomarkers and therapeutic agents based on research in male breast cancer. In addition CCND1 amplification seems to be an independent prognosticator in male breast cancer.

  20. A Label-Free and Sensitive Fluorescent Qualitative Assay for Bisphenol A Based on Rolling Circle Amplification/Exonuclease III-Combined Cascade Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Song, Juan; Xue, Qing-Wang; You, Fu-Heng; Lu, Xia; Kong, Yan-Cong; Ma, Shu-Yi; Jiang, Wei; Li, Chen-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) detection in drinking water and food packaging materials has attracted much attention since the discovery that BPA can interfere with normal physiological processes and cause adverse health effects. Here, we constructed a label-free aptamer fluorescent assay for selective and sensitive detection of BPA based on the rolling circle amplification (RCA)/Exonuclease III (Exo III)-combined cascade amplification strategy. First, the duplex DNA probe (RP) with anti-BPA aptamer and trigger sequence was designed for BPA recognition and signal amplification. Next, under the action of BPA, the trigger probe was liberated from RP to initiate RCA reaction as primary amplification. Subsequently, the RCA products were used to trigger Exo III assisted secondary amplification with the help of hairpin probes, producing plenty of “G-quadruplex” in lantern-like structures. Finally, the continuously enriched “G-quadruplex lanterns” were lightened by zinc(II)-protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) generating enhanced fluorescence signals. By integrating the primary RCA and secondary Exo III mediated cascade amplification strategy, this method displayed an excellent sensitivity with the detection limits of 5.4 × 10−17 M. In addition, the anti-BPA aptamer exhibits high recognition ability with BPA, guaranteeing the specificity of detection. The reporter signal probe (G-quadruplex with ZnPPIX) provides a label-free fluorescence signals readout without complicated labeling procedures, making the method simple in design and cost-effective in operation. Moreover, environmental samples analysis was also performed, suggesting that our strategy was reliable and had a great potential application in environmental monitoring. PMID:28335318

  1. A Label-Free and Sensitive Fluorescent Qualitative Assay for Bisphenol A Based on Rolling Circle Amplification/Exonuclease III-Combined Cascade Amplification.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Song, Juan; Xue, Qing-Wang; You, Fu-Heng; Lu, Xia; Kong, Yan-Cong; Ma, Shu-Yi; Jiang, Wei; Li, Chen-Zhong

    2016-10-21

    Bisphenol A (BPA) detection in drinking water and food packaging materials has attracted much attention since the discovery that BPA can interfere with normal physiological processes and cause adverse health effects. Here, we constructed a label-free aptamer fluorescent assay for selective and sensitive detection of BPA based on the rolling circle amplification (RCA)/Exonuclease III (Exo III)-combined cascade amplification strategy. First, the duplex DNA probe (RP) with anti-BPA aptamer and trigger sequence was designed for BPA recognition and signal amplification. Next, under the action of BPA, the trigger probe was liberated from RP to initiate RCA reaction as primary amplification. Subsequently, the RCA products were used to trigger Exo III assisted secondary amplification with the help of hairpin probes, producing plenty of "G-quadruplex" in lantern-like structures. Finally, the continuously enriched "G-quadruplex lanterns" were lightened by zinc(II)-protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) generating enhanced fluorescence signals. By integrating the primary RCA and secondary Exo III mediated cascade amplification strategy, this method displayed an excellent sensitivity with the detection limits of 5.4 × 10(-17) M. In addition, the anti-BPA aptamer exhibits high recognition ability with BPA, guaranteeing the specificity of detection. The reporter signal probe (G-quadruplex with ZnPPIX) provides a label-free fluorescence signals readout without complicated labeling procedures, making the method simple in design and cost-effective in operation. Moreover, environmental samples analysis was also performed, suggesting that our strategy was reliable and had a great potential application in environmental monitoring.

  2. An integrated closed-tube 2-plex PCR amplification and hybridization assay with switchable lanthanide luminescence based spatial detection.

    PubMed

    Lahdenperä, Susanne; Spangar, Anni; Lempainen, Anna-Maija; Joki, Laura; Soukka, Tero

    2015-06-21

    Switchable lanthanide luminescence is a binary probe technology that inherently enables a high signal modulation in separation-free detection of DNA targets. A luminescent lanthanide complex is formed only when the two probes hybridize adjacently to their target DNA. We have now further adapted this technology for the first time in the integration of a 2-plex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and hybridization-based solid-phase detection of the amplification products of the Staphylococcus aureus gyrB gene and an internal amplification control (IAC). The assay was performed in a sealed polypropylene PCR chip containing a flat-bottom reaction chamber with two immobilized capture probe spots. The surface of the reaction chamber was functionalized with NHS-PEG-azide and alkyne-modified capture probes for each amplicon, labeled with a light harvesting antenna ligand, and covalently attached as spots to the azide-modified reaction chamber using a copper(i)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. Asymmetric duplex-PCR was then performed with no template, one template or both templates present and with a europium ion carrier chelate labeled probe for each amplicon in the reaction. After amplification europium fluorescence was measured by scanning the reaction chamber as a 10 × 10 raster with 0.6 mm resolution in time-resolved mode. With this assay we were able to co-amplify and detect the amplification products of the gyrB target from 100, 1000 and 10,000 copies of isolated S. aureus DNA together with the amplification products from the initial 5000 copies of the synthetic IAC template in the same sealed reaction chamber. The addition of 10,000 copies of isolated non-target Escherichia coli DNA in the same reaction with 5000 copies of the synthetic IAC template did not interfere with the amplification or detection of the IAC. The dynamic range of the assay for the synthetic S. aureus gyrB target was three orders of magnitude and the limit of detection of 8 p

  3. Telomerase Activity Detection with Amplification-Free Single Molecule Stochastic Binding Assay.

    PubMed

    Su, Xin; Li, Zehao; Yan, Xinzhong; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Xu; Wei, Lin; Xiao, Lehui; Yu, Changyuan

    2017-03-21

    Because the elongation of telomeres has been associated with tumorigenesis, it is of great interest to develop rapid and high-confidence telomerase activity detection methods for disease diagnosis. Currently, amplification-based strategies have been extensively explored for telomerase detection in vitro and in vivo. However, amplification is typically associated with poor reproducibility and high background, which hamper further applications of the strategies, particularly for real sample assays. Here, we demonstrate a new amplification-free single molecule imaging method for telomerase activity detection in vitro based on nucleic acid stochastic binding with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. The dynamic stochastic binding of a short fluorescent DNA probe with a genuine target yields a distinct kinetic signature from the background noise, allowing us to identify telomerase reaction products (TRPs) at the single molecule level. A limit-of-detection as low as 0.5 fM and a dynamic range of 0.5-500 fM for TRP detection were readily achieved. With this method, telomerase extracted from cancer cells was determined with sensitivity down to 10 cells. Moreover, the length distribution of TRPs was also determined by multiple stochastic probing, which could provide deep insight into the mechanistic study of telomerase catalysis.

  4. Kinetic viability assays using DRAQ7 probe.

    PubMed

    Wlodkowic, Donald; Akagi, Jin; Dobrucki, Jurek; Errington, Rachel; Smith, Paul J; Takeda, Kazuo; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2013-07-01

    Cell death within cell populations is a stochastic process where cell-to-cell variation in temporal progression through the various stages of cell death arises from asynchrony of subtle fluctuations in the signaling pathways. Most cell death assays rely on detection of the specific marker of cell demise at the end-point of cell culturing. Such an approach cannot account for the asynchrony and the stochastic nature of cell response to the death-inducing signal. There is a need therefore for rapid and high-throughput bioassays capable of continuously tracking viability of individual cells from the time of encountering a stress signal up to final stages of their demise. In this context, a new anthracycline derivative, DRAQ7, is gaining increasing interest as an easy-to-use marker capable of long-term monitoring of cell death in real-time. This novel probe neither penetrates the plasma membrane of living cells nor does it affect the cells' susceptibility to the death-inducing agents. However, when the membrane integrity is compromised, DRAQ7 enters cells undergoing demise and binds readily to nuclear DNA to report cell death. Here, we provide three sets of protocols for viability assays using DRAQ7 probe. The first protocol describes the innovative use of single-color DRAQ7 real-time assay to dynamically track cell viability. The second protocol outlines a simplified end-point DRAQ7 staining approach. The final protocol highlights the real-time and multiparametric apoptosis assay utilizing DRAQ7 dye concurrently with tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM), the mitochondrial trans-membrane electrochemical potential (ΔΨm) sensing probe.

  5. Genotyping of the CCR5 chemokine receptor by isothermal NASBA amplification and differential probe hybridization.

    PubMed

    Romano, J W; Tetali, S; Lee, E M; Shurtliff, R N; Wang, X P; Pahwa, S; Kaplan, M H; Ginocchio, C C

    1999-11-01

    The human CCR5 chemokine receptor functions as a coreceptor with CD4 for infection by macrophage-tropic isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). A mutated CCR5 allele which encodes a protein that does not function as a coreceptor for HIV-1 has been identified. Thus, expression of the wild-type and/or mutation allele is relevant to determining the infectability of patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and affects disease progression in vivo. We developed a qualitative CCR5 genotyping assay using NASBA, an isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology. The method involves three enzymes and two oligonucleotides and targets the CCR5 mRNA, which is expressed in PBMC at a copy number higher than 2, the number of copies of DNA present encoding the gene. The single oligonucleotide set amplifies both alleles, and genotyping is achieved by separate hybridizations of wild-type- and mutation-specific probes directly to the single-stranded RNA amplification product. Assay sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated with RNAs produced in vitro from plasmid clones bearing the DNA encoding each allele. No detectable cross-reactivity between wild-type and mutation probes was found, and 50 copies of each allele were readily detectable. Analysis of patient samples found that 20% were heterozygous and 1% were homozygous for the CCR5 mutation. Thus, NASBA is a sensitive and specific means of rapidly determining CCR5 genotype and provides several technical advantages over alternative assay systems.

  6. Genotyping of the CCR5 Chemokine Receptor by Isothermal NASBA Amplification and Differential Probe Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Joseph W.; Tetali, Surya; Lee, Eun Mi; Shurtliff, Roxanne N.; Wang, Xue Ping; Pahwa, Savita; Kaplan, Mark H.; Ginocchio, Christine C.

    1999-01-01

    The human CCR5 chemokine receptor functions as a coreceptor with CD4 for infection by macrophage-tropic isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). A mutated CCR5 allele which encodes a protein that does not function as a coreceptor for HIV-1 has been identified. Thus, expression of the wild-type and/or mutation allele is relevant to determining the infectibility of patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and affects disease progression in vivo. We developed a qualitative CCR5 genotyping assay using NASBA, an isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology. The method involves three enzymes and two oligonucleotides and targets the CCR5 mRNA, which is expressed in PBMC at a copy number higher than 2, the number of copies of DNA present encoding the gene. The single oligonucleotide set amplifies both alleles, and genotyping is achieved by separate hybridizations of wild-type- and mutation-specific probes directly to the single-stranded RNA amplification product. Assay sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated with RNAs produced in vitro from plasmid clones bearing the DNA encoding each allele. No detectable cross-reactivity between wild-type and mutation probes was found, and 50 copies of each allele were readily detectable. Analysis of patient samples found that 20% were heterozygous and 1% were homozygous for the CCR5 mutation. Thus, NASBA is a sensitive and specific means of rapidly determining CCR5 genotype and provides several technical advantages over alternative assay systems. PMID:10548593

  7. Integrated multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assays for the detection of alterations in the HEXB, GM2A and SMARCAL1 genes to support the diagnosis of Morbus Sandhoff, M. Tay-Sachs variant AB and Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia in humans.

    PubMed

    Sobek, Anna K U; Evers, Christina; Dekomien, Gabriele

    2013-02-01

    Multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assays were designed for the genes HEXB (OMIM: 606873), GM2A (OMIM: 613109) and SMARCAL1 (OMIM: 606622) of humans. Two sets of synthetic MLPA probes for these coding exons were tested. Changes in copy numbers were detected as well as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by complementary DNA sequence analyses. The MLPA method was shown to be reliable for mutation detection and identified five published and 12 new mutations. In all cases from a Morbus Sandhoff cohort of patients, exclusively one variation in copy number was observed and linked to a nucleotide alteration called c.1614-14C>A. This deletion comprised exons 1-5. One of these cases is described in detail. Deletions were neither detected in the GM2A nor the SMARCAL1 genes. The MLPA assays complement routine diagnostics for M. Sandhoff (OMIM: 268800), M. Tay-Sachs variant AB (OMIM: 272750) and Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (OMIM: 242900).

  8. Multiplex detection of microRNAs by combining molecular beacon probes with T7 exonuclease-assisted cyclic amplification reaction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yacui; Zhang, Jiangyan; Tian, Jingxiao; Fan, Xiaofei; Geng, Hao; Cheng, Yongqiang

    2017-01-01

    A simple, highly sensitive, and specific assay was developed for the homogeneous and multiplex detection of microRNAs (miRNAs) by combining molecular beacon (MB) probes and T7 exonuclease-assisted cyclic amplification. An MB probe with five base pairs in the stem region without special modification can effectively prevent the digestion by T7 exonuclease. Only in the presence of target miRNA is the MB probe hybridized with the target miRNA, and then digested by T7 exonuclease in the 5' to 3' direction. At the same time, the target miRNA is released and subsequently initiates the nuclease-assisted cyclic digestion process, generating enhanced fluorescence signal significantly. The results show that the combination of T7 exonuclease-assisted cyclic amplification reaction and MB probe possesses higher sensitivity for miRNA detection. Moreover, multiplex detection of miRNAs was successfully achieved by designing two MB probes labeled with FAM and Cy3, respectively. As a result, the method opens a new pathway for the sensitive and multiplex detection of miRNAs as well as clinical diagnosis. Graphical Abstract A simple, highly sensitive, and specific assay was developed for the detection of microRNAs by combining molecular beacon probes with T7 exonuclease-assisted cyclic amplification reaction.

  9. Real-time assays with molecular beacons and other fluorescent nucleic acid hybridization probes.

    PubMed

    Marras, Salvatore A E; Tyagi, Sanjay; Kramer, Fred Russell

    2006-01-01

    A number of formats for nucleic acid hybridization have been developed to identify DNA and RNA sequences that are involved in cellular processes and that aid in the diagnosis of genetic and infectious diseases. The introduction of hybridization probes with interactive fluorophore pairs has enabled the development of homogeneous hybridization assays for the direct identification of nucleic acids. A change in the fluorescence of these probes indicates the presence of a target nucleic acid, and there is no need to separate unbound probes from hybridized probes. The advantages of homogeneous hybridization assays are their speed and simplicity. In addition, homogeneous assays can be combined with nucleic acid amplification, enabling the detection of rare target nucleic acids. These assays can be followed in real time, providing quantitative determination of target nucleic acids over a broad range of concentrations.

  10. A sensitive colorimetric assay system for nucleic acid detection based on isothermal signal amplification technology.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Guo, Jing; Xu, Ying; Wei, Hua; Zhao, Guojie; Guan, Yifu

    2017-08-01

    Rapid and accurate detection of microRNAs in biological systems is of great importance. Here, we report the development of a visual colorimetric assay which possesses the high amplification capabilities and high selectivity of the rolling circle amplification (RCA) method and the simplicity and convenience of gold nanoparticles used as a signal indicator. The designed padlock probe recognizes the target miRNA and is circularized, and then acts as the template to extend the target miRNA into a long single-stranded nucleotide chain of many tandem repeats of nucleotide sequences. Next, the RCA product is hybridized with oligonucleotides tagged onto gold nanoparticles. This interaction leads to the aggregation of gold nanoparticles, and the color of the system changes from wine red to dark blue according to the abundance of miRNA. A linear correlation between fluorescence and target oligonucleotide content was obtained in the range 0.3-300 pM, along with a detection limit of 0.13 pM (n = 7) and a RSD of 3.9% (30 pM, n = 9). The present approach provides a simple, rapid, and accurate visual colorimetric assay that allows sensitive biodetection and bioanalysis of DNA and RNA nucleotides of interest in biologically important samples. Graphical abstract The colorimetric assay system for analyzing target oligonucleotides.

  11. Single universal primer multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification with sequencing gel electrophoresis analysis.

    PubMed

    Shang, Ying; Zhu, Pengyu; Xu, Wentao; Guo, Tianxiao; Tian, Wenying; Luo, Yunbo; Huang, Kunlun

    2013-12-15

    In this study, a novel single universal primer multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (SUP-MLPA) technique that uses only one universal primer to perform multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed. Two reversely complementary common sequences were designed on the 5' or 3' end of the ligation probes (LPs), which allowed the ligation products to be amplified through only a single universal primer (SUP). SUP-MLPA products were analyzed on sequencing gel electrophoresis with extraordinary resolution. This method avoided the high expenses associated with capillary electrophoresis, which was the commonly used detection instrument. In comparison with conventional multiplex PCR, which suffers from low sensitivity, nonspecificity, and amplification disparity, SUP-MLPA had higher specificity and sensitivity and a low detection limit of 0.1 ng for detecting single crop species when screening the presence of genetically modified crops. We also studied the effect of different lengths of stuffer sequences on the probes for the first time. Through comparing the results of quantitative PCR, the LPs with different stuffer sequences did not affect the ligation efficiency, which further increased the multiplicity of this assay. The improved SUP-MLPA and sequencing gel electrophoresis method will be useful for food and animal feed identification, bacterial detection, and verification of genetic modification status of crops.

  12. Improving colorimetric assays through protein enzyme-assisted gold nanoparticle amplification.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaoji; Xu, Wei; Liu, Xiaogang

    2012-09-18

    The discovery of the DNA-mediated assembly of gold nanoparticles was a great moment in the history of science; this understanding and chemical control enabled the rational design of functional nanomaterials as novel probes in biodetection. In contrast with conventional probes such as organic dyes, gold nanoparticles exhibit high photostability and unique size-dependent optical properties. Because of their high extinction coefficients and strong distance dependent optical properties, these nanoparticles have emerged over the past decade as a promising platform for rapid, highly sensitive colorimetric assays that allow for the visual detection of low concentrations of metal ions, small molecules, and biomacromolecules. These discoveries have deepened our knowledge of biological phenomena and facilitated the development of many new diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Despite these many advances and continued research efforts, current nanoparticle-based colorimetric detection systems still suffer from several drawbacks, such as limited sensitivity and selectivity. This Account describes the recent development of colorimetric assays based on protein enzyme-assisted gold nanoparticle amplification. The benefits of such detection systems include significantly improved detection sensitivity and selectivity. First, we discuss the general design of enzyme-modified nanoparticle systems in colorimetric assays. We show that a quantitative understanding of the unique properties of different enzymes is paramount for effective biological assays. We then examine the assays for nucleic acid detection based on different types of enzymes, including endonucleases, ligases, and polymerases. For each of these assays, we identify the underlying principles that contribute to the enhanced detection capability of nanoparticle systems and illustrate them with selected examples. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the combination of gold nanoparticles and specific enzymes can probe enzyme dynamics

  13. Autoinductive exponential signal amplification: a diagnostic probe for direct detection of fluoride.

    PubMed

    Perry-Feigenbaum, Rotem; Sella, Eran; Shabat, Doron

    2011-10-17

    A new example of an exponential signal amplification strategy for the direct detection of fluoride is demonstrated. The amplification occurred through reaction of fluoride with a responsive chromogenic probe. The probe activity is based on a unique dendritic chain reaction that generates a fluoride anion, which is the analyte of interest, during the disassembly pathway of the dendritic probe. This autoinductive amplification mechanism may be applied for detection of other analytes by coupling activity of a modified probe with that of the fluoride amplifier. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Enzymatic assays for probing mitochondrial apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Nicolas, Claire; Fischmeister, Rodolphe; Brenner, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Isolated mitochondria are an invaluable analytical tool to probe mitochondrial function and evaluate apoptosis induction via the so-called mitochondrial pathway. Irrespective of their tissue origin (e.g., heart, liver, muscle, brain), these organelles participate actively to cell and life decision by producing energy for cell metabolism, but also by undergoing a lethal and irreversible mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP) in stress and pathological conditions. MMP consequences consist, at least in part, in loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), matrix swelling, arrest of respiration and ATP production, and cytochrome c release from the intermembrane space to the cytosol. These parameters can be evaluated in vitro via several miniaturized assays, which have tremendous applications in the field of pharmacology, toxicology, diagnosis, as well as drug discovery.

  15. Detection of infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) in Litopenaeus vannamei by ramification amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Teng, Ping-Hua; Lee, Pei-Yu; Lee, Fu-Chun; Chien, Hung-Wen; Chen, Man-Shu; Sung, Ping-Feng; Su, Chen; Ou, Bor-Rung

    2006-12-14

    Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) is a single-stranded DNA virus that causes developmental and growth abnormalities in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (also known as Penaeus vannamei). Nucleic acid based methods such as in situ hybridization (ISH) and PCR have been commonly used for IHHNV detection. Ramification amplification (RAM), an isothermal nucleic acid amplification approach, was used in this study to detect IHHNV in L. vannamei. RAM offers many advantages over PCR, including simple procedures and short detection time, and is labor-saving and cost-effective. RAM exponentially amplifies a circular oligonucleotide amplicon (C probe) after a target-specific ligation step through sequential primer extension and strand displacement processes. The conditions of an IHHNV RAM assay were optimized using artificial templates and targets prior to application. Using DNA of IHHNV-infected L. vannamei as targets, results revealed that RAM amplified target DNA with similar sensitivity as PCR. RAM offers competitive levels of speed, simplicity and sensitivity among various pathogen diagnostic methods.

  16. Multiplex ligation-dependant probe amplification study of children with idiopathic mental retardation in South India.

    PubMed

    John, Neetha; Rajasekhar, Moka; Girisha, Katta Mohan; Sharma, Podila Satya Venkata Narasimha; Gopinath, Puthiya Mundyat

    2013-04-01

    Mental retardation (MR) is a heterogeneous dysfunction of the central nervous system exhibiting complex phenotypes and has an estimated prevalence of 1-3% in the general population. However, in about 50% of the children diagnosed with any form of intellectual disability or developmental delay the cause goes undetected contributing to idiopathic intellectual disability. A total of 122 children with developmental delay/MR were studied to identify the microscopic and submicroscopic chromosome rearrangements by using the conventional cytogenetics and multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis using SALSA MLPA kits from Microbiology Research Centre Holland [MRC] Holland. All the recruited children were selected for this study, after thorough clinical assessment and metaphases prepared were analyzed by using automated karyotyping system. None was found to have chromosomal abnormality; MLPA analysis was carried out in all subjects and identified in 11 (9%) patients. Karyotype analysis in combination with MLPA assays for submicroscopic micro-deletions may be recommended for children with idiopathic MR.

  17. Simultaneous detection of DNA from 10 food allergens by ligation-dependent probe amplification.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Alexandra; Demmel, Anja; Hupfer, Christine; Busch, Ulrich; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2009-04-01

    The simultaneous detection of DNA from different allergenic food ingredients by a ligation-dependent probe amplification (LPA) system is described. The approach allows detection of several targets in a one-tube assay. Synthetic oligonucleotides were designed to detect DNA from peanuts, cashews, pecans, pistachios, hazelnuts, sesame seeds, macadamia nuts, almonds, walnuts and brazil nuts. The specificity of the system was tested with DNA from more than 50 plant and animal species. The sensitivity of the method was suitable to detect allergenic ingredients in the low mg kg(-1) range. The limit of detection (LOD) for single allergens in different food matrices was 5 mg kg(-1). The novel analytical strategy represents a useful tool for the surveillance of established legislation on food allergens within the European Union.

  18. Development of a rapid recombinase polymerase amplification assay for detection of Brucella in blood samples.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hang; Yang, Mingjuan; Zhang, Guoxia; Liu, Shiwei; Wang, Xinhui; Ke, Yuehua; Du, Xinying; Wang, Zhoujia; Huang, Liuyu; Liu, Chao; Chen, Zeliang

    2016-04-01

    A rapid and sensitive recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay, Bruce-RPA, was developed for detection of Brucella. The assay could detect as few as 3 copies of Brucella per reaction within 20 min. Bruce-RPA represents a candidate point-of-care diagnosis assay for human brucellosis.

  19. Development of an isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of pseudorabies virus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Qin, Xiaodong; Zhang, Wei; Li, Zhiyong; Zhang, Shuaijun; Li, Yanmin; Zhang, Zhidong

    2017-03-22

    Recombinase polymerase amplification assays using real-time fluorescent detection (real-time RPA assay) and lateral flow dipstick (RPA LFD assay) were developed targeting the gD gene of pseudorabies virus (PRV). Both assays were performed at 39 °C within 20 min. The sensitivity of the real-time RPA assay and the RPA LFD assay was 100 copies per reaction and 160 copies per reaction, respectively. Both assays did not detect DNAs from other virus or PRV negative samples. Therefore, the developed RPA assays provide a rapid, simple, sensitive and specific alternative tool for detection of PRV.

  20. Development of a rapid diagnostic assay for the detection of tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid based on isothermal reverse-transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A molecular diagnostic assay utilizing reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) at an isothermal constant temperature of 39 °C and target-specific primers and probe were developed for the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) in ...

  1. Melt analysis of mismatch amplification mutation assays (Melt-MAMA): a functional study of a cost-effective SNP genotyping assay in bacterial models.

    PubMed

    Birdsell, Dawn N; Pearson, Talima; Price, Erin P; Hornstra, Heidie M; Nera, Roxanne D; Stone, Nathan; Gruendike, Jeffrey; Kaufman, Emily L; Pettus, Amanda H; Hurbon, Audriana N; Buchhagen, Jordan L; Harms, N Jane; Chanturia, Gvantsa; Gyuranecz, Miklos; Wagner, David M; Keim, Paul S

    2012-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are abundant in genomes of all species and biologically informative markers extensively used across broad scientific disciplines. Newly identified SNP markers are publicly available at an ever-increasing rate due to advancements in sequencing technologies. Efficient, cost-effective SNP genotyping methods to screen sample populations are in great demand in well-equipped laboratories, but also in developing world situations. Dual Probe TaqMan assays are robust but can be cost-prohibitive and require specialized equipment. The Mismatch Amplification Mutation Assay, coupled with melt analysis (Melt-MAMA), is flexible, efficient and cost-effective. However, Melt-MAMA traditionally suffers from high rates of assay design failures and knowledge gaps on assay robustness and sensitivity. In this study, we identified strategies that improved the success of Melt-MAMA. We examined the performance of 185 Melt-MAMAs across eight different pathogens using various optimization parameters. We evaluated the effects of genome size and %GC content on assay development. When used collectively, specific strategies markedly improved the rate of successful assays at the first design attempt from ~50% to ~80%. We observed that Melt-MAMA accurately genotypes across a broad DNA range (~100 ng to ~0.1 pg). Genomic size and %GC content influence the rate of successful assay design in an independent manner. Finally, we demonstrated the versatility of these assays by the creation of a duplex Melt-MAMA real-time PCR (two SNPs) and conversion to a size-based genotyping system, which uses agarose gel electrophoresis. Melt-MAMA is comparable to Dual Probe TaqMan assays in terms of design success rate and accuracy. Although sensitivity is less robust than Dual Probe TaqMan assays, Melt-MAMA is superior in terms of cost-effectiveness, speed of development and versatility. We detail the parameters most important for the successful application of Melt-MAMA, which

  2. Nonenzymatic catalytic signal amplification for nucleic acid hybridization assays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Wenhong (Inventor); Cassell, Alan M. (Inventor); Han, Jie (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Devices, methods, and kits for amplifying the signal from hybridization reactions between nucleic acid probes and their cognate targets are presented. The devices provide partially-duplexed, immobilized probe complexes, spatially separate from and separately addressable from immobilized docking strands. Cognate target acts catalytically to transfer probe from the site of probe complex immobilization to the site of immobilized docking strand, generating a detectable signal. The methods and kits of the present invention may be used to identify the presence of cognate target in a fluid sample.

  3. Detection of North American eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses by nucleic acid amplification assays.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Amy J; Martin, Denise A; Lanciotti, Robert S

    2003-01-01

    We have developed nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), standard reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and TaqMan nucleic acid amplification assays for the rapid detection of North American eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and western equine encephalitis (WEE) viral RNAs from samples collected in the field and clinical samples. The sensitivities of these assays have been compared to that of virus isolation. While all three types of nucleic acid amplification assays provide rapid detection of viral RNAs comparable to the isolation of viruses in Vero cells, the TaqMan assays for North American EEE and WEE viral RNAs are the most sensitive. We have shown these assays to be specific for North American EEE and WEE viral RNAs by testing geographically and temporally distinct strains of EEE and WEE viruses along with a battery of related and unrelated arthropodborne viruses. In addition, all three types of nucleic acid amplification assays have been used to detect North American EEE and WEE viral RNAs from mosquito and vertebrate tissue samples. The sensitivity, specificity, and rapidity of nucleic acid amplification demonstrate the usefulness of NASBA, standard RT-PCR, and TaqMan assays, in both research and diagnostic settings, to detect North American EEE and WEE viral RNAs.

  4. Simple and specific detection of Bordetella holmesii by using a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Nao; Yoshino, Shuji; Kawano, Kimiko; Toyoizumi-Ajisaka, Hiromi; Shibayama, Keigo; Kamachi, Kazunari

    2012-07-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for simple detection of Bordetella holmesii was developed. This assay discriminates between B. holmesii and other Bordetella species and successfully detect B. holmesii DNA in nasopharyngeal swab samples from subjects with suspected pertussis. The LAMP assay results were in complete agreement with the results of previously published real-time PCR assay, indicating that the former is a powerful tool for the accurate diagnosis and surveillance of B. holmesii.

  5. Highly sensitive detection of epidermal growth factor receptor in lung cancer cells by aptamer-based target-/probe-mediated cyclic signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dandan; Ma, Fei; Zhang, Qianyi; Zhang, Chun-Yang

    2017-10-09

    We develop an antibody-free fluorescence method for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) assay using aptamer-based target-/probe-mediated cyclic signal amplification. The method is highly sensitive with a detection limit of 0.16 fM, and it can be applied to detect EGFR in lung cancer cells, holding great potential in clinical diagnosis.

  6. Use of ramification amplification assay for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other E. coli Shiga toxin-producing strains.

    PubMed

    Li, Fan; Zhao, Chunyan; Zhang, Wandi; Cui, Shenghui; Meng, Jianghong; Wu, Josephine; Zhang, David Y

    2005-12-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains are important human pathogens that are mainly transmitted through the food chain. These pathogens have a low infectious dose and may cause life-threatening illnesses. However, detection of this microorganism in contaminated food or a patient's stool specimens presents a diagnostic challenge because of the low copy number in the sample. Often, a more sensitive nucleic acid amplification method, such as PCR, is required for rapid detection of this microorganism. Ramification amplification (RAM) is a recently introduced isothermal DNA amplification technique that utilizes a circular probe for target detection and achieves exponential amplification through the mechanism of primer extension, strand displacement, and ramification. In this study, we synthesized a circular probe specific for the Shiga toxin 2 gene (stx(2)). Our results showed that as few as 10 copies of stx(2) could be detected, indicating that the RAM assay was as sensitive as conventional PCR. We further tested 33 isolates of E coli O157:H7, STEC, Shigella dysenteriae, and nonpathogenic E. coli by RAM assay. Results showed that all 27 STEC isolates containing the stx(2) gene were identified by RAM assay, while S. dysenteriae and nonpathogenic E. coli isolates were undetected. The RAM results were 100% in concordance with those of PCR. Because of its simplicity and isothermal amplification, the RAM assay could be a useful method for detecting STEC in food and human specimens.

  7. Aptamer Lateral Flow Assays for Ultrasensitive Detection of β-Conglutin Combining Recombinase Polymerase Amplification and Tailed Primers.

    PubMed

    Jauset-Rubio, Miriam; Svobodová, Markéta; Mairal, Teresa; McNeil, Calum; Keegan, Neil; El-Shahawi, Mohammad S; Bashammakh, Abdulaziz S; Alyoubi, Abdulrahman O; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2016-11-01

    In this work, different methodologies were evaluated in search of robust, simple, rapid, ultrasensitive, and user-friendly lateral flow aptamer assays. In one approach, we developed a competitive based lateral flow aptamer assay, in which β-conglutin immobilized on the test line of a nitrocellulose membrane and β-conglutin in the test sample compete for binding to AuNP labeled aptamer. The control line exploits an immobilized DNA probe complementary to the labeled aptamer, forcing displacement of the aptamer from the β-conglutin-aptamer complex. In a second approach, the competition for aptamer binding takes place off-strip, and following competition, aptamer bound to the immobilized β-conglutin is eluted and used as a template for isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification, exploiting tailed primers, resulting in an amplicon of a duplex flanked by single stranded DNA tails. The amplicon is rapidly and quantitatively detected using a nucleic acid lateral flow with an immobilized capture probe and a gold nanoparticle labeled reporter probe. The competitive lateral flow is completed in just 5 min, achieving a detection limit of 55 pM (1.1 fmol), and the combined competitive-amplification lateral flow requires just 30 min, with a detection limit of 9 fM (0.17 amol).

  8. Evaluation of a commercial loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for diagnosis of Bordetella pertussis infection.

    PubMed

    Kamachi, Kazunari; Moriuchi, Takumi; Hiramatsu, Yukihiro; Otsuka, Nao; Shibayama, Keigo

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated a commercial loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay kit for Bordetella pertussis detection. The LAMP primers were designed to target the ptxP1 allele of the pertussis toxin promoter, but the assay could detect B. pertussis ptxP3 and ptxP8 strains in addition to ptxP1 strains, with high analytical sensitivity.

  9. Visual Detection of Brucella spp. in Spiked Bovine Semen Using Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assay.

    PubMed

    Prusty, Bikash R; Chaudhuri, Pallab; Chaturvedi, V K; Saini, Mohini; Mishra, B P; Gupta, Praveen K

    2016-06-01

    Several pathogens including Brucella spp. are shed in semen of infected bulls and can be transmitted to cows through contaminated semen during artificial insemination. The present study reports omp2a and bcsp31 gene based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for detection of Brucella genomic DNA in semen from infected bulls. The positive results could be interpreted visually by change in colour of reaction mixture containing hydroxyl naphthol blue (HNB) dye from violet to sky blue. LAMP assays based on omp2a and bcsp31 could detect as little as 10 and 100 fg of B. abortus S19 genomic DNA, respectively. Sensitivity of omp2a and bcsp31 LAMP assays for direct detection of organisms in bovine semen was 2.28 × 10(1) CFU and 2.28 × 10(2) CFU of B. abortus S19 in spiked bovine semen, respectively. The omp2a LAMP assay was found equally sensitive to TaqMan probe based real-time PCR and 100 times more sensitive than conventional PCR in identifying Brucella in spiked semen. The diagnostic applicability of the omp2a LAMP assay was evaluated with seventy-nine bovine semen samples and results were re-evaluated through TaqMan probe based real-time PCR and conventional PCR. Taken together, the omp2a LAMP assay is easy to perform, rapid and sensitive in diagnosis of Brucella spp. in bovine semen.

  10. Edesign: Primer and Enhanced Internal Probe Design Tool for Quantitative PCR Experiments and Genotyping Assays

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, Naoko; Delobel, Diane; Hanami, Takeshi; Tanaka, Yuki; de Hoon, Michiel J. L.; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Usui, Kengo; Harbers, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Analytical PCR experiments preferably use internal probes for monitoring the amplification reaction and specific detection of the amplicon. Such internal probes have to be designed in close context with the amplification primers, and may require additional considerations for the detection of genetic variations. Here we describe Edesign, a new online and stand-alone tool for designing sets of PCR primers together with an internal probe for conducting quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and genotypic experiments. Edesign can be used for selecting standard DNA oligonucleotides like for instance TaqMan probes, but has been further extended with new functions and enhanced design features for Eprobes. Eprobes, with their single thiazole orange-labelled nucleotide, allow for highly sensitive genotypic assays because of their higher DNA binding affinity as compared to standard DNA oligonucleotides. Using new thermodynamic parameters, Edesign considers unique features of Eprobes during primer and probe design for establishing qPCR experiments and genotyping by melting curve analysis. Additional functions in Edesign allow probe design for effective discrimination between wild-type sequences and genetic variations either using standard DNA oligonucleotides or Eprobes. Edesign can be freely accessed online at http://www.dnaform.com/edesign2/, and the source code is available for download. PMID:26863543

  11. Edesign: Primer and Enhanced Internal Probe Design Tool for Quantitative PCR Experiments and Genotyping Assays.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yasumasa; Soma, Takahiro; Kasahara, Naoko; Delobel, Diane; Hanami, Takeshi; Tanaka, Yuki; de Hoon, Michiel J L; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Usui, Kengo; Harbers, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Analytical PCR experiments preferably use internal probes for monitoring the amplification reaction and specific detection of the amplicon. Such internal probes have to be designed in close context with the amplification primers, and may require additional considerations for the detection of genetic variations. Here we describe Edesign, a new online and stand-alone tool for designing sets of PCR primers together with an internal probe for conducting quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and genotypic experiments. Edesign can be used for selecting standard DNA oligonucleotides like for instance TaqMan probes, but has been further extended with new functions and enhanced design features for Eprobes. Eprobes, with their single thiazole orange-labelled nucleotide, allow for highly sensitive genotypic assays because of their higher DNA binding affinity as compared to standard DNA oligonucleotides. Using new thermodynamic parameters, Edesign considers unique features of Eprobes during primer and probe design for establishing qPCR experiments and genotyping by melting curve analysis. Additional functions in Edesign allow probe design for effective discrimination between wild-type sequences and genetic variations either using standard DNA oligonucleotides or Eprobes. Edesign can be freely accessed online at http://www.dnaform.com/edesign2/, and the source code is available for download.

  12. Performance assessment of two commercial amplification assays for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from respiratory and extrapulmonary specimens.

    PubMed

    Piersimoni, Claudio; Scarparo, Claudio; Piccoli, Paola; Rigon, Alessandra; Ruggiero, Giuliana; Nista, Domenico; Bornigia, Stefano

    2002-11-01

    The new BDProbeTec ET Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Direct Detection Assay (DTB) was compared with the enhanced M. tuberculosis Amplified Direct Test (AMTDII). The system is an automated walkaway system characterized by simultaneous DNA amplification (strand displacement amplification) and real-time fluorometric detection. It also contains an internal amplification control (IAC) designed to identify inhibition from the processed samples. The AMTDII assay amplifies rRNA by transcription-mediated amplification; it uses hybridization with a chemoluminescent probe as a detection system and is entirely manual. A total of 515 N-acetyl-L-cysteine-sodium hydroxide-decontaminated respiratory (n = 331) and extrapulmonary (n = 184) sediments (from 402 patients) were tested in parallel by both assays. The results were compared with those of acid-fast staining and culture (solid plus liquid media), setting the combination of culture and clinical diagnosis as the "gold standard." Culture results from the tested specimens were as follows: 121 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) (98 smear-positive), 46 nontuberculous mycobacteria (38 smear-positive), and 338 culture-negative results. After resolution of the discrepant results, the percent sensitivity, percent specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios for AMTDII were 88%, 99.2%, 110, and 0.11 for respiratory specimens and 74.3%, 100%, 740, and 0.26 for extrapulmonary specimens, respectively. The corresponding values for DTB were 94.5%, 99.6%, 235, and 0.05 for respiratory specimens and 92.3%, 100%, 920, and 0.07 for extrapulmonary specimens, respectively. The cumulative difference for all tuberculosis-positive extrapulmonary specimens was significant (P = 0.03). The overall inhibition rate for DTB was 5% (26 specimens). We conclude that both amplification assays proved to be rapid and specific for the detection of MTB in clinical samples and particularly feasible for a routine laboratory work flow. DTB

  13. Performance Assessment of New Multiplex Probe Assay for Identification of Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Tortoli, Enrico; Nanetti, Anna; Piersimoni, Claudio; Cichero, Paola; Farina, Claudio; Mucignat, Giorgio; Scarparo, Claudio; Bartolini, Laura; Valentini, Roberta; Nista, Domenico; Gesu, Giampietro; Tosi, Cristiana Passerini; Crovatto, Marina; Brusarosco, Giuliana

    2001-01-01

    A new DNA probe assay (INNO LiPA Mycobacteria; Innogenetics, Ghent, Belgium) for the simultaneous identification, by means of reverse hybridization and line-probe technology, of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium xenopi, Mycobacterium gordonae, the species of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, and Mycobacterium chelonae was evaluated on a panel of 238 strains including, besides representatives of all the taxa identifiable by the system, a number of other mycobacteria, some of which are known to be problematic with the only other commercial DNA probe system (AccuProbe; Gen-Probe, San Diego, Calif.), and two nocardiae. The new kit, which includes a control probe reacting with the whole genus Mycobacterium, correctly identified 99.6% of the strains tested; the one discrepancy, which remained unresolved, concerned an isolate identified as MAC intermediate by INNO LiPA Mycobacteria and as Mycobacterium intracellulare by AccuProbe. In five cases, because of an imperfect checking of hybridization temperature, a very slight, nonspecific, line was visible which was no longer evident when the test was repeated. Two strains whose DNA failed amplification at the first attempt were regularly identified when the test was repeated. Interestingly, the novel kit dodged all the pitfalls presented by the strains giving anomalous reactions with AccuProbe. A unique feature of INNO LiPA Mycobacteria is its ability to recognize different subgroups within the species M. kansasii and M. chelonae, while the declared overlapping reactivity of probe 4 with some M. kansasii and Mycobacterium gastri organisms and of probe 9 with MAC, Mycobacterium haemophilum, and Mycobacterium malmoense, may furnish a useful aid for their identification. The turnaround time of the method is approximately 6 h, including a preliminary PCR amplification. PMID:11230430

  14. A sensitive quartz crystal microbalance assay of adenosine triphosphate via DNAzyme-activated and aptamer-based target-triggering circular amplification.

    PubMed

    Song, Weiling; Zhu, Zheng; Mao, Yaning; Zhang, Shusheng

    2014-03-15

    In this work, a simple and novel quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) assay is demonstrated to selectively and sensitively detect the adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The amplification process consists of circular nucleic acid strand-displacement polymerization, aptamer recognition strategy and nanoparticle signal amplification. With the involvement of an aptamer-based complex, two amplification reaction templates and AuNP-functionalized probes, the whole circle amplification process is triggered by the target recognition of ATP. As an efficient mass amplifier, AuNP-functionalized probes are introduced to enhance the QCM signals. As a result of DNA multiple amplification, a large number of AuNP-functionalized probes are released and hybridized with the capture probes on the gold electrode. Therefore the QCM signals are significantly enhanced, reaching a detection limit of ATP as low as 1.3 nM. This strategy can be conveniently used for any aptamer-target binding events with other biological detection such as protein and small molecules. Moreover, the practical determination of ATP in cancer cells demonstrates the feasibility of this QCM approach and potential application in clinical diagnostics.

  15. Ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA assay based on counting of single magnetic nanobeads by a combination of DNA amplification and enzyme amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Li, Linlin; Li, Lu; Chen, Jia; Zou, Guizheng; Si, Zhikun; Jin, Wenrui

    2009-03-01

    An ultrasensitive electrochemical method for determination of DNA is developed based on counting of single magnetic nanobeads (MNBs) corresponding to single DNA sequences combined with a double amplification (DNA amplification and enzyme amplification). In this method, target DNA (t-DNA) is captured on a streptavidin-coated substrate via biotinylated capture DNA. Then, MNBs functionalized with first-probe DNAs (p1-DNA-MNBs) are conjugated to t-DNA sequences with a ratio of 1:1. Subsequently, the p1-DNA-MNBs are released from the substrate via dehybridization. The released p1-DNA-MNBs are labeled with alkaline phosphatase (AP) using biotinylated second-probe DNAs (p2-DNAs) and streptavidin-AP conjugates. The resultant AP-p2-DNA-p1-DNA-MNBs with enzyme substrate disodium phenyl phosphate (DPP) are continuously introduced through a capillary as the microsampler and microreactor at 40 degrees C. AP on the AP-p2-DNA-p1-DNA-MNBs converts a huge number of DPP into its product phenol, and phenol zones are produced around each moving AP-p2-DNA-p1-DNA-MNB. The phenol zones are continuously delivered to the capillary outlet and detected by a carbon fiber disk bundle electrode at 1.05 V. An elution curve with peaks is obtained. Each peak is corresponding to a phenol zone relative to single t-DNA sequence. The peaks on the elution curve are counted for quantification. The number of the peaks is proportional to the concentration of t-DNA in a range of 5.0 x 10(-16) to 1.0 x 10(-13) mol/L.

  16. Development of a Quantitative Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay with an Internal Positive Control

    PubMed Central

    Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    It was recently demonstrated that recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), an isothermal amplification platform for pathogen detection, may be used to quantify DNA sample concentration using a standard curve. In this manuscript, a detailed protocol for developing and implementing a real-time quantitative recombinase polymerase amplification assay (qRPA assay) is provided. Using HIV-1 DNA quantification as an example, the assembly of real-time RPA reactions, the design of an internal positive control (IPC) sequence, and co-amplification of the IPC and target of interest are all described. Instructions and data processing scripts for the construction of a standard curve using data from multiple experiments are provided, which may be used to predict the concentration of unknown samples or assess the performance of the assay. Finally, an alternative method for collecting real-time fluorescence data with a microscope and a stage heater as a step towards developing a point-of-care qRPA assay is described. The protocol and scripts provided may be used for the development of a qRPA assay for any DNA target of interest. PMID:25867513

  17. Development of a quantitative recombinase polymerase amplification assay with an internal positive control.

    PubMed

    Crannell, Zachary A; Rohrman, Brittany; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2015-03-30

    It was recently demonstrated that recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), an isothermal amplification platform for pathogen detection, may be used to quantify DNA sample concentration using a standard curve. In this manuscript, a detailed protocol for developing and implementing a real-time quantitative recombinase polymerase amplification assay (qRPA assay) is provided. Using HIV-1 DNA quantification as an example, the assembly of real-time RPA reactions, the design of an internal positive control (IPC) sequence, and co-amplification of the IPC and target of interest are all described. Instructions and data processing scripts for the construction of a standard curve using data from multiple experiments are provided, which may be used to predict the concentration of unknown samples or assess the performance of the assay. Finally, an alternative method for collecting real-time fluorescence data with a microscope and a stage heater as a step towards developing a point-of-care qRPA assay is described. The protocol and scripts provided may be used for the development of a qRPA assay for any DNA target of interest.

  18. GMO detection in food and feed through screening by visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Li, Rong; Quan, Sheng; Shen, Ping; Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin; Yang, Litao

    2015-06-01

    Isothermal DNA/RNA amplification techniques are the primary methodology for developing on-spot rapid nucleic acid amplification assays, and the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique has been developed and applied in the detection of foodborne pathogens, plant/animal viruses, and genetically modified (GM) food/feed contents. In this study, one set of LAMP assays targeting on eight frequently used universal elements, marker genes, and exogenous target genes, such as CaMV35S promoter, FMV35S promoter, NOS, bar, cry1Ac, CP4 epsps, pat, and NptII, were developed for visual screening of GM contents in plant-derived food samples with high efficiency and accuracy. For these eight LAMP assays, their specificity was evaluated by testing commercial GM plant events and their limits of detection were also determined, which are 10 haploid genome equivalents (HGE) for FMV35S promoter, cry1Ac, and pat assays, as well as five HGE for CaMV35S promoter, bar, NOS terminator, CP4 epsps, and NptII assays. The screening applicability of these LAMP assays was further validated successfully using practical canola, soybean, and maize samples. The results suggested that the established visual LAMP assays are applicable and cost-effective for GM screening in plant-derived food samples.

  19. Development and evaluation of a rapid recombinase polymerase amplification assay for detection of coxsackievirus A6.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaifeng; Wu, Yue; Yin, Dan; Tang, Shixing; Hu, Guifang; He, Yaqing

    2017-01-01

    Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) is an important pathogen causing hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a rapid real-time reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for detection of CV-A6. The sensitivity of this assay was 202 copies/reaction, with 100 % specificity. Furthermore, this assay yielded consistent results comparable with a commercial qRT-PCR diagnostic kit. This assay is therefore potentially useful for surveillance of CV-A6 infections and outbreak control.

  20. Reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay for the rapid detection of type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Chang; Yuan, Wan-Zhe; Han, Qing-An; Wang, Jin-Feng; Liu, Li-Bing

    2017-05-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most important pathogens in pigs, and has tremendous negative economic impact on the swine industry worldwide. PRRSV is classified into the two distinct genotypes: type 1 and type 2, and most of the described PRRSV isolates in China are type 2. Rapid and sensitive detection of PRRSV is of great importance for the disease control and regional eradication programs. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) has emerged as a novel isothermal amplification technology for the molecular diagnosis of infectious diseases. In this study, a fluorescence reverse transcription RPA (RT-RPA) assay was developed to detect the type 2 PRRSV using primers and exo probe specific for the viral nucleocapsid gene. The reaction was performed at 40°C within 20min. The RT-RPA assay could detect both the classical (C-PRRSV) and highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV), but there was no cross-reaction to other pathogens. Using the in vitro transcribed PRRSV RNA as template, the analytical sensitivity of RT-RPA was 690 copies. The assay performance was evaluated by testing 60 field samples and compared to real-time RT-PCR. The detection rate of RT-RPA was 86.6% (52/60), while the detection rate of real-time RT-PCR was 83.3% (50/60). This simple, rapid and reliable method could be potentially applied for rapid detection of PRRSV in point-of-care and rural areas.

  1. Development of single-tube nested real-time PCR assays with long internally quenched probes for detection of norovirus genogroup II.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hongyan; Gravelsina, Sabine; Öhrmalm, Christina; Ottoson, Jakob; Blomberg, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    The high sequence variation of RNA viruses necessitates use of degenerate primers and probes or multiple primers and probes in molecular diagnostic assays. We showed previously that PCR amplification in two rounds, first with long target-specific primers and then with short generic primers, followed by detection using long probes, can tolerate sequence variation. Here we demonstrate that long primers and probes of up to 56 nucleotides can also be applied in real-time PCR for the detection of norovirus genogroup II with improved sensitivity. Probe design (method of incorporating quenchers, use of Zen internal quencher or traditional quenchers) greatly affects the sensitivity of the real-time PCR assays.

  2. A sensitive and specific hyperbranched rolling circle amplification assay and test strip for white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu-Ran; Yin, Wei-Li; Yue, Zhi-Qin; Li, Ba-Fang

    2014-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a global threat to the prawn industry, and there is no simple method for field-based testing of this virus. We designed a padlock probe and primers to the capsid protein gene VP28 of WSSV, and established a hyperbranched rolling circle amplification (HRCA) assay and a corresponding strip-based test. The assay and the test strip both had similar high accuracy and specificity, and their sensitivity was about 10 copies/μL, which is 100 times higher than conventional PCR. In this study, 68 batches of prawns were tested for WSSV with the HRCA assay and test strip, and the results were compared with the PCR assay. The results indicated that both the assay and test strip had accuracy similar to each other and to the PCR results. However, the assay and strip were more sensitive and user-friendly than PCR. Establishment of this method will provide a rapid detection of WSSV and also a basis for field-based detection of animal disease.

  3. Development of rapid isothermal amplification assays for Phytophthora species from plant tissue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several isothermal amplification techniques recently have been developed that are tolerant of inhibitors present in many plant extracts, which can reduce the need for obtaining purified DNA for running diagnostic assays. One such commercially available technique that has similarities with real time ...

  4. A universal biosensor for multiplex DNA detection based on hairpin probe assisted cascade signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Chen, Lingbo; Lie, Puchang; Dun, Boying; Zeng, Lingwen

    2013-06-07

    A hairpin DNA probe mediated cascade signal amplification method was developed for visual and rapid DNA analysis with a detection limit of 100 aM. The implementation of tag/anti-tag DNA and gold nanoparticle reporters permits a universal platform for multiplex genotyping without instrumentation.

  5. Development of a Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Detection of Epidemic Human Noroviruses.

    PubMed

    Moore, Matthew D; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2017-01-09

    Human norovirus is a leading cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. Rapid detection could facilitate control, however widespread point-of-care testing is infrequently done due to the lack of robust and portable methods. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is a novel isothermal method which rapidly amplifies and detects nucleic acids using a simple device in near real-time. An RT-RPA assay targeting a recent epidemic human norovirus strain (GII.4 New Orleans) was developed and evaluated in this study. The assay successfully detected purified norovirus RNA from multiple patient outbreak isolates and had a limit of detection of 3.40 ± 0.20 log10 genomic copies (LGC), which is comparable to most other reported isothermal norovirus amplification methods. The assay also detected norovirus in directly boiled stool, and displayed better resistance to inhibitors than a commonly used RT-qPCR assay. The assay was specific, as it did not amplify genomes from 9 non-related enteric viruses and bacteria. The assay detected norovirus in some samples in as little as 6 min, and the entire detection process can be performed in less than 30 min. The reported RT-RPA method shows promise for sensitive point-of-care detection of epidemic human norovirus, and is the fastest human norovirus amplification method to date.

  6. Development of a Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Detection of Epidemic Human Noroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Matthew D.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2017-01-01

    Human norovirus is a leading cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. Rapid detection could facilitate control, however widespread point-of-care testing is infrequently done due to the lack of robust and portable methods. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is a novel isothermal method which rapidly amplifies and detects nucleic acids using a simple device in near real-time. An RT-RPA assay targeting a recent epidemic human norovirus strain (GII.4 New Orleans) was developed and evaluated in this study. The assay successfully detected purified norovirus RNA from multiple patient outbreak isolates and had a limit of detection of 3.40 ± 0.20 log10 genomic copies (LGC), which is comparable to most other reported isothermal norovirus amplification methods. The assay also detected norovirus in directly boiled stool, and displayed better resistance to inhibitors than a commonly used RT-qPCR assay. The assay was specific, as it did not amplify genomes from 9 non-related enteric viruses and bacteria. The assay detected norovirus in some samples in as little as 6 min, and the entire detection process can be performed in less than 30 min. The reported RT-RPA method shows promise for sensitive point-of-care detection of epidemic human norovirus, and is the fastest human norovirus amplification method to date. PMID:28067278

  7. An improved loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the detection of Mycoplasma bovis

    PubMed Central

    HIGA, Yumiko; UEMURA, Ryoko; YAMAZAKI, Wataru; GOTO, Shinya; GOTO, Yoshitaka; SUEYOSHI, Masuo

    2016-01-01

    We improved a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay permitting sensitive and rapid Mycoplasma bovis detection. A total of 55 bacterial strains were examined in this study, including 33 M. bovis strains, 14 non-M. bovis mycoplasmas and eight non-mycoplasma bacterial strains. M. bovis was successfully detected by the LAMP assay within 60 min without cross-reaction to any other bacteria. Furthermore, a total of 135 nasal swab samples were tested directly using our LAMP assays, the previously reported LAMP assay, conventional PCR assay without pre-culture and comparing standard culture methods. The improved LAMP assay showed sensitivity and specificity of 97.2% and 90.9%, respectively (with a kappa coefficient of 0.8231), and the sensitivity of our revised LAMP assay was increased compared to existing methods. PMID:27109067

  8. Connector inversion probe technology: a powerful one-primer multiplex DNA amplification system for numerous scientific applications.

    PubMed

    Akhras, Michael S; Unemo, Magnus; Thiyagarajan, Sreedevi; Nyrén, Pål; Davis, Ronald W; Fire, Andrew Z; Pourmand, Nader

    2007-09-19

    We combined components of a previous assay referred to as Molecular Inversion Probe (MIP) with a complete gap filling strategy, creating a versatile powerful one-primer multiplex amplification system. As a proof-of-concept, this novel method, which employs a Connector Inversion Probe (CIPer), was tested as a genetic tool for pathogen diagnosis, typing, and antibiotic resistance screening with two distinct systems: i) a conserved sequence primer system for genotyping Human Papillomavirus (HPV), a cancer-associated viral agent and ii) screening for antibiotic resistance mutations in the bacterial pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. We also discuss future applications and advances of the CIPer technology such as integration with digital amplification and next-generation sequencing methods. Furthermore, we introduce the concept of two-dimension informational barcodes, i.e. "multiplex multiplexing padlocks" (MMPs). For the readers' convenience, we also provide an on-line tutorial with user-interface software application CIP creator 1.0.1, for custom probe generation from virtually any new or established primer-pairs.

  9. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis on capillary electrophoresis instruments for a rapid gene copy number study.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Stéphane; Currie-Fraser, Erica; Xu, Licen; Coffa, Jordy

    2008-09-01

    Annotated DNA samples that had been previously analyzed were tested using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assays containing probes targeting BRCA1, BRCA2, and MMR (MLH1/MSH2 genes) and the 9p21 chromosomal region. MLPA polymerase chain reaction products were separated on a capillary electrophoresis platform, and the data were analyzed using GeneMapper v4.0 software (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). After signal normalization, loci regions that had undergone deletions or duplications were identified using the GeneMapper Report Manager and verified using the DyeScale functionality. The results highlight an easy-to-use, optimal sample preparation and analysis workflow that can be used for both small- and large-scale studies.

  10. Highly Rapid Amplification-Free and Quantitative DNA Imaging Assay

    PubMed Central

    Klamp, Tobias; Camps, Marta; Nieto, Benjamin; Guasch, Francesc; Ranasinghe, Rohan T.; Wiedemann, Jens; Petrášek, Zdeněk; Schwille, Petra; Klenerman, David; Sauer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need for rapid and highly sensitive detection of pathogen-derived DNA in a point-of-care (POC) device for diagnostics in hospitals and clinics. This device needs to work in a ‘sample-in-result-out’ mode with minimum number of steps so that it can be completely integrated into a cheap and simple instrument. We have developed a method that directly detects unamplified DNA, and demonstrate its sensitivity on realistically sized 5 kbp target DNA fragments of Micrococcus luteus in small sample volumes of 20 μL. The assay consists of capturing and accumulating of target DNA on magnetic beads with specific capture oligonucleotides, hybridization of complementary fluorescently labeled detection oligonucleotides, and fluorescence imaging on a miniaturized wide-field fluorescence microscope. Our simple method delivers results in less than 20 minutes with a limit of detection (LOD) of ~5 pM and a linear detection range spanning three orders of magnitude. PMID:23677392

  11. Melt Analysis of Mismatch Amplification Mutation Assays (Melt-MAMA): A Functional Study of a Cost-Effective SNP Genotyping Assay in Bacterial Models

    PubMed Central

    Birdsell, Dawn N.; Pearson, Talima; Price, Erin P.; Hornstra, Heidie M.; Nera, Roxanne D.; Stone, Nathan; Gruendike, Jeffrey; Kaufman, Emily L.; Pettus, Amanda H.; Hurbon, Audriana N.; Buchhagen, Jordan L.; Harms, N. Jane; Chanturia, Gvantsa; Gyuranecz, Miklos; Wagner, David M.; Keim, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are abundant in genomes of all species and biologically informative markers extensively used across broad scientific disciplines. Newly identified SNP markers are publicly available at an ever-increasing rate due to advancements in sequencing technologies. Efficient, cost-effective SNP genotyping methods to screen sample populations are in great demand in well-equipped laboratories, but also in developing world situations. Dual Probe TaqMan assays are robust but can be cost-prohibitive and require specialized equipment. The Mismatch Amplification Mutation Assay, coupled with melt analysis (Melt-MAMA), is flexible, efficient and cost-effective. However, Melt-MAMA traditionally suffers from high rates of assay design failures and knowledge gaps on assay robustness and sensitivity. In this study, we identified strategies that improved the success of Melt-MAMA. We examined the performance of 185 Melt-MAMAs across eight different pathogens using various optimization parameters. We evaluated the effects of genome size and %GC content on assay development. When used collectively, specific strategies markedly improved the rate of successful assays at the first design attempt from ∼50% to ∼80%. We observed that Melt-MAMA accurately genotypes across a broad DNA range (∼100 ng to ∼0.1 pg). Genomic size and %GC content influence the rate of successful assay design in an independent manner. Finally, we demonstrated the versatility of these assays by the creation of a duplex Melt-MAMA real-time PCR (two SNPs) and conversion to a size-based genotyping system, which uses agarose gel electrophoresis. Melt-MAMA is comparable to Dual Probe TaqMan assays in terms of design success rate and accuracy. Although sensitivity is less robust than Dual Probe TaqMan assays, Melt-MAMA is superior in terms of cost-effectiveness, speed of development and versatility. We detail the parameters most important for the successful application of Melt

  12. Recombinase polymerase and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a DNA amplification-detection strategy for food analysis.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Felipe, S; Tortajada-Genaro, L A; Puchades, R; Maquieira, A

    2014-02-06

    Polymerase chain reaction in conjunction with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA) is a well-established technique that provides a suitable rapid, sensitive, and selective method for a broad range of applications. However, the need for precise rapid temperature cycling of PCR is an important drawback that can be overcome by employing isothermal amplification reactions such as recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). The RPA-ELISA combination is proposed for amplification at a low, constant temperature (40°C) in a short time (40 min), for the hybridisation of labelled products to specific 5'-biotinylated probes/streptavidin in coated microtiter plates at room temperature, and for detection by colorimetric immunoassay. RPA-ELISA was applied to screen common safety threats in foodstuffs, such as allergens (hazelnut, peanut, soybean, tomato, and maize), genetically modified organisms (P35S and TNOS), pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella sp. and Cronobacter sp.), and fungi (Fusarium sp.). Satisfactory sensitivity and reproducibility results were achieved for all the targets. The RPA-ELISA technique does away with thermocycling and provides a suitable sensitive, specific, and cost-effective method for routine applications, and proves particularly useful for resource-limited settings.

  13. Label-Free Isothermal Amplification Assay for Specific and Highly Sensitive Colorimetric miRNA Detection

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new method for the detection of miRNA in biological samples. This technology is based on the isothermal nicking enzyme amplification reaction and subsequent hybridization of the amplification product with gold nanoparticles and magnetic microparticles (barcode system) to achieve naked-eye colorimetric detection. This platform was used to detect a specific miRNA (miRNA-10b) associated with breast cancer, and attomolar sensitivity was demonstrated. The assay was validated in cell culture lysates from breast cancer cells and in serum from a mouse model of breast cancer. PMID:27713932

  14. Development of a real-time recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid and sensitive detection of porcine circovirus 2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianchang; Wang, Jinfeng; Liu, Libing; Yuan, Wanzhe

    2017-08-01

    Porcine diseases associated with porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) infection have resulted in significant economic losses worldwide. A real-time recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay was developed to detect PCV-2 using primers and an exo probe specific for the ORF2 gene. The reaction process can be completed in 20 min at 38 °C. The assay only detects PCV-2, as there was no cross-reaction with other pathogens important in pigs. Using the PCV-2 genomic DNA as template, the analytical sensitivity of the real-time RPA was 103 copies. The assay performance was evaluated by testing 38 field samples and compared with real-time PCR. The two assays demonstrated a 100% diagnostic agreement, and PCV-2 DNA was detected in 26 samples. The R(2) value of real-time RPA and real-time PCR was 0.954 by linear regression analysis. The real-time RPA assay provides an alternative tool for rapid, simple, and reliable detection of PCV-2, especially in remote and rural areas.

  15. Portrait Toxigenic Clostridium difficile assay, an isothermal amplification assay detects toxigenic C. difficile in clinical stool specimens.

    PubMed

    Denys, Gerald A

    2014-01-01

    The Portrait Toxigenic Clostridium difficile assay is a rapid, qualitative assay for the detection of the tcdB gene of C. difficile in stool specimens from patients suspected of C. difficile infections, and received 510(k) clearance by the US FDA in March 2012. The Portrait Toxigenic C. difficile assay combines novel blocked-primer-mediated helicase-dependent multiplex amplification (bpHDA) technology and chip-based detection in an automated sample-to-result format. The assay requires minimal sample preparation and results are available within 90 min. In a multicenter evaluation, the Portrait Toxigenic C. difficile assay had a sensitivity of 98.2% and specificity of 92.8% compared with toxigenic culture. A comparative study between the Portrait Toxigenic C. difficile assay and three FDA-cleared molecular assays for the detection of toxigenic C. difficile exhibited a high degree of agreement (93.8-97.5%). The Portrait Toxigenic C. difficile assay provides a simple, cost-effective method with broad applicability to panel-based approaches, potentially simplifying workflow.

  16. Comparative evaluation of two commercial amplification assays for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Piersimoni, C; Callegaro, A; Nista, D; Bornigia, S; De Conti, F; Santini, G; De Sio, G

    1997-01-01

    Two commercial assays detecting the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in clinical specimens by rRNA target amplification (Gen-Probe Amplified M. tuberculosis Direct Test [AMTD]) and PCR (Amplicor) were evaluated. The tests were applied to 327 digested, decontaminated respiratory specimens collected from 236 patients. Results were compared with those of acid-fast staining and culture. The combination of culture and clinical diagnosis was considered the "gold standard." A total of 60 specimens were collected from 27 patients with a diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Thirteen of these specimens were from patients receiving standard antituberculosis therapy and therefore were not included in the comparison. Of the remaining 47 specimens, 33 were smear positive, 40 were culture positive, 45 were AMTD positive, and 39 were Amplicor positive. After resolution of discrepant results, the overall sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative predictive values were 77, 100, 100, and 95 for staining; 87, 100, 100, and 97.4 for culture; 95.9, 98.9, 94, and 99.2 for AMTD; and 85.4, 99.6, 97.9, and 97.1 for Amplicor, respectively. Agreement between AMTD and Amplicor assay results was 96.8%. It is concluded that although both nucleic acid amplification methods are rapid and specific for the detection of M. tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens, AMTD appeared to be more sensitive than Amplicor. PMID:8968906

  17. Rapid detection of microbial DNA by a novel isothermal genome exponential amplification reaction (GEAR) assay.

    PubMed

    Prithiviraj, Jothikumar; Hill, Vincent; Jothikumar, Narayanan

    2012-04-20

    In this study we report the development of a simple target-specific isothermal nucleic acid amplification technique, termed genome exponential amplification reaction (GEAR). Escherichia coli was selected as the microbial target to demonstrate the GEAR technique as a proof of concept. The GEAR technique uses a set of four primers; in the present study these primers targeted 5 regions on the 16S rRNA gene of E. coli. The outer forward and reverse Tab primer sequences are complementary to each other at their 5' end, whereas their 3' end sequences are complementary to their respective target nucleic acid sequences. The GEAR assay was performed at a constant temperature 60 °C and monitored continuously in a real-time PCR instrument in the presence of an intercalating dye (SYTO 9). The GEAR assay enabled amplification of as few as one colony forming units of E. coli per reaction within 30 min. We also evaluated the GEAR assay for rapid identification of bacterial colonies cultured on agar media directly in the reaction without DNA extraction. Cells from E. coli colonies were picked and added directly to GEAR assay mastermix without prior DNA extraction. DNA in the cells could be amplified, yielding positive results within 15 min.

  18. Real-Time Sequence-Validated Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assays for Detection of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV)

    PubMed Central

    Bhadra, Sanchita; Jiang, Yu Sherry; Kumar, Mia R.; Johnson, Reed F.; Hensley, Lisa E.; Ellington, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), an emerging human coronavirus, causes severe acute respiratory illness with a 35% mortality rate. In light of the recent surge in reported infections we have developed asymmetric five-primer reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assays for detection of MERS-CoV. Isothermal amplification assays will facilitate the development of portable point-of-care diagnostics that are crucial for management of emerging infections. The RT-LAMP assays are designed to amplify MERS-CoV genomic loci located within the open reading frame (ORF)1a and ORF1b genes and upstream of the E gene. Additionally we applied one-step strand displacement probes (OSD) for real-time sequence-specific verification of LAMP amplicons. Asymmetric amplification effected by incorporating a single loop primer in each assay accelerated the time-to-result of the OSD-RT-LAMP assays. The resulting assays could detect 0.02 to 0.2 plaque forming units (PFU) (5 to 50 PFU/ml) of MERS-CoV in infected cell culture supernatants within 30 to 50 min and did not cross-react with common human respiratory pathogens. PMID:25856093

  19. Recombinase polymerase amplification-based assay to diagnose Giardia in stool samples.

    PubMed

    Crannell, Zachary Austin; Cabada, Miguel Mauricio; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Irani, Ayesha; White, Arthur Clinton; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2015-03-01

    Giardia duodenalis is one of the most commonly identified parasites in stool samples. Although relatively easy to treat, giardiasis can be difficult to detect as it presents similar to other diarrheal diseases. Here, we present a recombinase polymerase amplification-based Giardia (RPAG) assay to detect the presence of Giardia in stool samples. The RPAG assay was characterized on the bench top using stool samples spiked with Giardia cysts where it showed a limit-of-detection nearly as low as the gold standard polymerase chain reaction assay. The RPAG assay was then tested in the highlands of Peru on 104 stool samples collected from the surrounding communities where it showed 73% sensitivity and 95% specificity against a polymerase chain reaction and microscopy composite gold standard. Further improvements in clinical sensitivity will be needed for the RPAG assay to have clinical relevance.

  20. Real-Time Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification Assay for Detection of Hepatitis A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Abd El Galil, Khaled H.; El Sokkary, M. A.; Kheira, S. M.; Salazar, Andre M.; Yates, Marylynn V.; Chen, Wilfred; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2005-01-01

    A nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assay in combination with a molecular beacon was developed for the real-time detection and quantification of hepatitis A virus (HAV). A 202-bp, highly conserved 5′ noncoding region of HAV was targeted. The sensitivity of the real-time NASBA assay was tested with 10-fold dilutions of viral RNA, and a detection limit of 1 PFU was obtained. The specificity of the assay was demonstrated by testing with other environmental pathogens and indicator microorganisms, with only HAV positively identified. When combined with immunomagnetic separation, the NASBA assay successfully detected as few as 10 PFU from seeded lake water samples. Due to its isothermal nature, its speed, and its similar sensitivity compared to the real-time RT-PCR assay, this newly reported real-time NASBA method will have broad applications for the rapid detection of HAV in contaminated food or water. PMID:16269748

  1. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification-Based Assay to Diagnose Giardia in Stool Samples

    PubMed Central

    Crannell, Zachary Austin; Cabada, Miguel Mauricio; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Irani, Ayesha; White, Arthur Clinton; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is one of the most commonly identified parasites in stool samples. Although relatively easy to treat, giardiasis can be difficult to detect as it presents similar to other diarrheal diseases. Here, we present a recombinase polymerase amplification-based Giardia (RPAG) assay to detect the presence of Giardia in stool samples. The RPAG assay was characterized on the bench top using stool samples spiked with Giardia cysts where it showed a limit-of-detection nearly as low as the gold standard polymerase chain reaction assay. The RPAG assay was then tested in the highlands of Peru on 104 stool samples collected from the surrounding communities where it showed 73% sensitivity and 95% specificity against a polymerase chain reaction and microscopy composite gold standard. Further improvements in clinical sensitivity will be needed for the RPAG assay to have clinical relevance. PMID:25510713

  2. Evaluation of LNA, MGB and non-modified DNA probes to improve the detection limit of TaqMan real-time PCR assay for Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal of this study was to compare the sensitivity and amplification efficiency of the TaqMan assay using locked nucleic acid (LNA), minor groove binder (MGB) ligands and non-modified DNA probes. In monoplex or single target TaqMan assays for P. stewartii subsp. stewartii, LNA and MGB probes impr...

  3. Detection and Characterization of Viral Species/Subspecies Using Isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) Assays.

    PubMed

    Glais, Laurent; Jacquot, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Numerous molecular-based detection protocols include an amplification step of the targeted nucleic acids. This step is important to reach the expected sensitive detection of pathogens in diagnostic procedures. Amplifications of nucleic acid sequences are generally performed, in the presence of appropriate primers, using thermocyclers. However, the time requested to amplify molecular targets and the cost of the thermocycler machines could impair the use of these methods in routine diagnostics. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) technique allows rapid (short-term incubation of sample and primers in an enzymatic mixture) and simple (isothermal) amplification of molecular targets. RPA protocol requires only basic molecular steps such as extraction procedures and agarose gel electrophoresis. Thus, RPA can be considered as an interesting alternative to standard molecular-based diagnostic tools. In this paper, the complete procedures to set up an RPA assay, applied to detection of RNA (Potato virus Y, Potyvirus) and DNA (Wheat dwarf virus, Mastrevirus) viruses, are described. The proposed procedure allows developing species- or subspecies-specific detection assay.

  4. A Novel Isothermal Assay of Borrelia burgdorferi by Recombinase Polymerase Amplification with Lateral Flow Detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Hui-Xin; Zhang, Lin; Hou, Xue-Xia; Wan, Kang-Lin; Hao, Qin

    2016-08-03

    A novel isothermal detection for recombinase polymerase amplification with lateral flow (LF-RPA) was established for Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) detection in this study. This assay with high sensitivity and specificity can get a visible result without any additional equipment in 30 min. We designed a pair of primers according to recA gene of B. burgdorferi strains and a methodology evaluation was performed. The results showed that the RPA assay based on the recA gene was successfully applied in B. burgdorferi detection, and its specific amplification was only achieved from the genomic DNA of B. burgdorferi. The detection limit of the new assay was about 25 copies of the B. burgdorferi genomic DNA. Twenty Lyme borreliosis patients' serum samples were detected by LF-RPA assay, real-time qPCR and nested-PCR. Results showed the LF-RPA assay is more effective than nested-PCR for its shorter reaction time and considerably higher detection rate. This method is of great value in clinical rapid detection for Lyme borreliosis. Using the RPA assay might be a megatrend for DNA detection in clinics and endemic regions.

  5. Robustness of Salmonella loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for food applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Q; Wang, F; Prinyawiwatkul, W; Ge, B

    2014-01-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays have been developed recently for Salmonella detection. This study aimed at evaluating the robustness of two Salmonella LAMP assays in comparison with PCR and real-time quantitative PCR for food applications. Performance of the assays was examined under abusive preparation conditions, running temperatures and pH, and with the addition of various inhibitors and food rinses. LAMP achieved robust detection under abusive assay preparation conditions (holding at 22 and 37°C for up to 30 min) and running temperatures (57-68°C). With a hot-start DNA polymerase, PCR obtained comparable results under these temperature ranges. However, PCR performed markedly poorer under abusive pH. LAMP also showed greater tolerance to potential inhibitors than PCR. When food rinses including meat juice, chicken rinse, egg homogenate and produce homogenate were added at 20% of the reaction mix, PCR amplifications were completely inhibited, but LAMP reactions were not. Our results demonstrated that LAMP is a robust alternative to PCR in Salmonella detection for food applications. This study filled important knowledge gaps regarding the robustness of Salmonella LAMP assays. The findings will help bring Salmonella LAMP assays closer to wider applications in food testing. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Comparison of nucleic acid amplification assays with BD affirm VPIII for diagnosis of vaginitis in symptomatic women.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Charles P; Lembke, Bryndon D; Ramachandran, Kalpana; Body, Barbara A; Nye, Melinda B; Rivers, Charles A; Schwebke, Jane R

    2013-11-01

    A commercially available, nonamplified, nucleic acid probe-based test system (BD Affirm VPIII) was compared with nucleic acid amplification (NAA)-based assays for determining the etiology of vaginitis in a cohort of 323 symptomatic women. First, a semiquantitative, multiplexed PCR assay (BV-PCR) and the Affirm VPIII Gardnerellavaginalis test were compared with a unified bacterial-vaginosis (BV) reference standard incorporating both Nugent Gram stain scores and Amsel clinical criteria. In the evaluable population of 305 patients, BV-PCR was 96.9% (191/197) sensitive and 92.6% specific (100/108) for BV, while Affirm VPIII was 90.1% sensitive (179/197) and 67.6% specific (73/108). Second, a multiplexed PCR assay detecting Candida albicans and Candida glabrata (CAN-PCR) was compared with the Affirm VPIII Candida test using a reference standard for vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) of yeast culture plus exclusion of alternate vaginitis etiologies. In the population evaluated (n = 102), CAN-PCR was 97.7% sensitive (42/43) and 93.2% specific (55/59) and Affirm VP III was 58.1% sensitive (25/43) and 100% specific (59/59) for VVC. Finally, the results of a commercial NAA test (GenProbe Aptima Trichomonas vaginalis assay; ATV) for T. vaginalis were compared with the Affirm VPIII Trichomonas vaginalis test. In the absence of an independent reference standard for trichomonal vaginitis (TV), a positive result in either assay was deemed to represent true infection. In the evaluable cohort of 388 patients, the sensitivity of ATV was 98.1% (53/54) versus 46.3% (25/54) for Affirm VPIII. The diagnostic accuracy of the combined NAA-based test construct was approximately 20 to 25% higher than that of the Affirm VPIII when modeled in populations with various prevalences of infectious vaginitis.

  7. Comparison of Nucleic Acid Amplification Assays with BD Affirm VPIII for Diagnosis of Vaginitis in Symptomatic Women

    PubMed Central

    Lembke, Bryndon D.; Ramachandran, Kalpana; Body, Barbara A.; Nye, Melinda B.; Rivers, Charles A.; Schwebke, Jane R.

    2013-01-01

    A commercially available, nonamplified, nucleic acid probe-based test system (BD Affirm VPIII) was compared with nucleic acid amplification (NAA)-based assays for determining the etiology of vaginitis in a cohort of 323 symptomatic women. First, a semiquantitative, multiplexed PCR assay (BV-PCR) and the Affirm VPIII Gardnerellavaginalis test were compared with a unified bacterial-vaginosis (BV) reference standard incorporating both Nugent Gram stain scores and Amsel clinical criteria. In the evaluable population of 305 patients, BV-PCR was 96.9% (191/197) sensitive and 92.6% specific (100/108) for BV, while Affirm VPIII was 90.1% sensitive (179/197) and 67.6% specific (73/108). Second, a multiplexed PCR assay detecting Candida albicans and Candida glabrata (CAN-PCR) was compared with the Affirm VPIII Candida test using a reference standard for vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) of yeast culture plus exclusion of alternate vaginitis etiologies. In the population evaluated (n = 102), CAN-PCR was 97.7% sensitive (42/43) and 93.2% specific (55/59) and Affirm VP III was 58.1% sensitive (25/43) and 100% specific (59/59) for VVC. Finally, the results of a commercial NAA test (GenProbe Aptima Trichomonas vaginalis assay; ATV) for T. vaginalis were compared with the Affirm VPIII Trichomonas vaginalis test. In the absence of an independent reference standard for trichomonal vaginitis (TV), a positive result in either assay was deemed to represent true infection. In the evaluable cohort of 388 patients, the sensitivity of ATV was 98.1% (53/54) versus 46.3% (25/54) for Affirm VPIII. The diagnostic accuracy of the combined NAA-based test construct was approximately 20 to 25% higher than that of the Affirm VPIII when modeled in populations with various prevalences of infectious vaginitis. PMID:23985917

  8. Evaluation of the Hologic Panther Transcription-Mediated Amplification Assay for Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium

    PubMed Central

    Costa, A. M.; Su, J.; Lowe, P.; Bradshaw, C. S.; Fairley, C. K.; Garland, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    The detection of Mycoplasma genitalium was evaluated on 1,080 urine samples by the use of a Panther instrument. Overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values were 100%, 99.4%, 93.6%, and 100%, respectively. Detection of M. genitalium by the use of the Panther transcription-mediated amplification assay offers a simple, accurate, and sensitive platform for diagnostic laboratories. PMID:27307453

  9. Factors influencing Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay outcomes at point of care.

    PubMed

    Lillis, Lorraine; Siverson, Joshua; Lee, Arthur; Cantera, Jason; Parker, Mathew; Piepenburg, Olaf; Lehman, Dara A; Boyle, David S

    2016-04-01

    Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) can be used to detect pathogen-specific DNA or RNA in under 20 min without the need for complex instrumentation. These properties enable its potential use in resource limited settings. However, there are concerns that deviations from the manufacturer's protocol and/or storage conditions could influence its performance in low resource settings. RPA amplification relies upon viscous crowding agents for optimal nucleic acid amplification, and thus an interval mixing step after 3-6 min of incubation is recommended to distribute amplicons and improve performance. In this study we used a HIV-1 RPA assay to evaluate the effects of this mixing step on assay performance. A lack of mixing led to a longer time to amplification and inferior detection signal, compromising the sensitivity of the assay. However lowering the assay volume from 50 μL to 5 μL showed similar sensitivity with or without mixing. We present the first peer-reviewed study that assesses long term stability of RPA reagents without a cold chain. Reagents stored at -20 °C, and 25 °C for up to 12 weeks were able to detect 10 HIV-1 DNA copies. Reagents stored at 45 °C for up to 3 weeks were able to detect 10 HIV-1 DNA copies, with reduced sensitivity only after >3 weeks at 45 °C. Together our results show that reducing reaction volumes bypassed the need for the mixing step and that RPA reagents were stable even when stored for 3 weeks at very high temperatures.

  10. Factors influencing Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) assay outcomes at point of care

    PubMed Central

    Lillis, Lorraine; Siverson, Joshua; Lee, Arthur; Cantera, Jason; Parker, Matthew; Piepenburg, Olaf; Lehman, Dara A.; Boyle, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) can be used to detect pathogen-specific DNA or RNA in under 20 minutes without the need for complex instrumentation. These properties enable its potential use in resource limited settings. However, there are concerns that deviations from the manufacturer’s protocol and/or storage conditions could influence its performance in low resource settings. RPA amplification relies upon viscous crowding agents for optimal nucleic acid amplification, and thus an interval mixing step after 3–6 minutes of incubation is recommended to distribute amplicons and improve performance. In this study we used a HIV-1 RPA assay to evaluate the effects of this mixing step on assay performance. A lack of mixing led to a longer time to amplification and inferior detection signal, compromising the sensitivity of the assay. However lowering the assay volume from 50 μL to 5 μL showed similar sensitivity with or without mixing. We present the first peer-reviewed study that assesses long term stability of RPA reagents without a cold chain. Reagents stored at −20°C, and 25°C for up to 12 weeks were able to detect 10 HIV-1 DNA copies. Reagents stored at 45°C for up to 3 weeks were able to detect 10 HIV-1 DNA copies, with reduced sensitivity only after >3 weeks at 45°C. Together our results show that reducing reaction volumes bypassed the need for the mixing step and that RPA reagents were stable even when stored for 3 weeks at very high temperatures. PMID:26854117

  11. Evaluation of Isothermal Target and Probe Amplification (iTPA) for the Detection of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunjung; Lee, Jehoon; Kwon, Hi Jeong; Kim, Kwan Hyoung; Yeo, Chang Dong; Kim, Jin Woo; Lee, Hae Kyung

    2016-09-01

    This study compared the diagnostic power of isothermal target and probe amplification (iTPA) with the existing real-time PCR for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). The two molecular methods were performed using DNA extracted directly from lower respiratory tract samples, not from the culture broth. A total of 174 non-consecutive patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis were enrolled in this study. Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) stain and liquid culture with the BACTEC MGIT 960 system (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic, USA) were performed. Real-time PCR and iTPA methods were performed with the AdvanSure TB/NTM TaqMan assay (LG Lifescience, Korea) and the RapiDx® MTB test (RapleGene, Korea). Among 174 patients, 49 of 52 isolates were identified as MTB and 3 of 52 isolates were identified as non-tuberculous mycobacteria NTM. Based on the culture results, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were 95.9%, 90.1%, 81.3%, and 98.2% for iTPA, and 95.7%, 91.0%, 80.4%, and 98.2% for real-time PCR, respectively. The agreement of iTPA was 83.0% with the AFB stain, 92.4% with the MGIT culture, and 94.2% with real-time PCR. Disagreement between the two molecular methods occurred in 10 patients. This study is the first to report the evaluation of iTPA conducted from direct specimens. Both iTPA and real-time PCR proved to be rapid, sensitive, and specific tools for the detection of MTB in clinical samples. The iTPA method for the MTB detection revealed a high concordance rate with real-time PCR. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  12. Development of a Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of the Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Sören; Schäfer, Jenny; Fechner, Kim; Czerny, Claus-Peter; Abd El Wahed, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background The detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in ruminants is crucial to control spread among animals and to humans. Cultivation of MAP is seen as the gold standard for detection, although it is very time consuming and labour intensive. In addition, several PCR assays have been developed to detect MAP in around 90 minutes, but these assays required highly sophisticated equipment as well as lengthy and complicated procedure. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we have developed a rapid assay for the detection of MAP based on the recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay targeting a MAP specific region, the IS900 gene. The detection limit was 16 DNA molecules in 15 minutes as determined by the probit analysis on eight runs of the plasmid standard. Cross reactivity with other mycobacterial and environmentally associated bacterial strains was not observed. The clinical performance of the MAP RPA assay was tested using 48 MAP-positive and 20 MAP-negative blood, sperm, faecal and tissue samples. All results were compared with reads of a highly sensitive real-time PCR assay. The specificity of the MAP RPA assay was 100%, while the sensitivity was 89.5%. Conclusions/Significance The RPA assay is quicker and much easier to handle than real-time PCR. All RPA reagents were cold-chain independent. Moreover, combining RPA assay with a simple extraction protocol will maximize its use at point of need for rapid detection of MAP. PMID:27992571

  13. Rapid and specific detection of porcine parvovirus by isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assays.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Qin, Xiaodong; Zhang, Wei; Li, Yanmin; Zhang, Zhidong

    2016-10-01

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is a major cause of swine reproductive failure and reported in many countries worldwide. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assays using a real-time fluorescent detection (PPV real-time RPA assay) and a lateral flow dipstick (PPV RPA LFD assay) were developed targeting PPV NS1 gene. The detection limit of PPV real-time RPA assay was 300 copies per reaction within 9 min at 38 °C, while the RPA LFD assay has a detection limit of 400 copies per reaction in less than 20 min at 38 °C. In both assays, there were no cross-reactions with porcine circovirus type 2, pseudorabies virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, classical swine fever virus, and foot-and-mouth disease virus. Based on a total of 128 clinical samples examined, the sensitivity and the specificity of the developed RPA assays for identification of PPV was 94.4% and 100%, respectively, when compared to real-time (qPCR) assay. Therefore, the RPA assay provides a rapid, sensitive and specific alternative for PPV detection.

  14. Development of a Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of the Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Sören; Schäfer, Jenny; Fechner, Kim; Czerny, Claus-Peter; Abd El Wahed, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    The detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in ruminants is crucial to control spread among animals and to humans. Cultivation of MAP is seen as the gold standard for detection, although it is very time consuming and labour intensive. In addition, several PCR assays have been developed to detect MAP in around 90 minutes, but these assays required highly sophisticated equipment as well as lengthy and complicated procedure. In this study, we have developed a rapid assay for the detection of MAP based on the recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay targeting a MAP specific region, the IS900 gene. The detection limit was 16 DNA molecules in 15 minutes as determined by the probit analysis on eight runs of the plasmid standard. Cross reactivity with other mycobacterial and environmentally associated bacterial strains was not observed. The clinical performance of the MAP RPA assay was tested using 48 MAP-positive and 20 MAP-negative blood, sperm, faecal and tissue samples. All results were compared with reads of a highly sensitive real-time PCR assay. The specificity of the MAP RPA assay was 100%, while the sensitivity was 89.5%. The RPA assay is quicker and much easier to handle than real-time PCR. All RPA reagents were cold-chain independent. Moreover, combining RPA assay with a simple extraction protocol will maximize its use at point of need for rapid detection of MAP.

  15. An accurate assay for HCV based on real-time fluorescence detection of isothermal RNA amplification.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuping; Wang, Jianfang; Song, Jinyun; Li, Jiayan; Yang, Yongfeng

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the common reasons of liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Early, rapid and accurate HCV RNA detection is important to prevent and control liver disease. A simultaneous amplification and testing (SAT) assay, which is based on isothermal amplification of RNA and real-time fluorescence detection, was designed to optimize routine HCV RNA detection. In this study, HCV RNA and an internal control (IC) were amplified and analyzed simultaneously by SAT assay and detection of fluorescence using routine real-time PCR equipment. The assay detected as few as 10 copies of HCV RNA transcripts. We tested 705 serum samples with SAT, among which 96.4% (680/705) showed consistent results compared with routine real-time PCR. About 92% (23/25) discordant samples were confirmed to be same results as SAT-HCV by using a second real-time PCR. The sensitivity and specificity of SAT-HCV assay were 99.6% (461/463) and 100% (242/242), respectively. In conclusion, the SAT assay is an accurate test with a high specificity and sensitivity which may increase the detection rate of HCV. It is therefore a promising tool to diagnose HCV infection.

  16. Recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of lumpy skin disease virus.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Mohamed A; El-Deeb, Ayman; El-Tholoth, Mohamed; Hoffmann, Donata; Czerny, Claus-Peter; Hufert, Frank T; Weidmann, Manfred; Abd El Wahed, Ahmed

    2016-11-02

    Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) is a Capripoxvirus infecting cattle and Buffalos. Lumpy skin disease (LSD) leads to significant economic losses due to hide damage, reduction of milk production, mastitis, infertility and mortalities (10 %). Early detection of the virus is crucial to start appropriate outbreak control measures. Veterinarians rely on the presence of the characteristic clinical signs of LSD. Laboratory diagnostics including virus isolation, sequencing and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are performed at well-equipped laboratories. In this study, a portable, simple, and rapid recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay for the detection of LSDV-genome for the use on farms was developed. The LSDV RPA assay was performed at 42 °C and detected down to 179 DNA copies/reaction in a maximum of 15 min. Unspecific amplification was observed with neither LSDV-negative samples (n = 12) nor nucleic acid preparations from orf virus, bovine papular stomatitis virus, cowpoxvirus, Peste des petits ruminants and Blue tongue virus (serotypes 1, 6 and 8). The clinical sensitivity of the LSDV RPA assay matched 100 % (n = 22) to real-time PCR results. In addition, the LSDV RPA assay detected sheep and goat poxviruses. The LSDV RPA assay is a rapid and sensitive test that could be implemented in field or at quarantine stations for the identification of LSDV infected case.

  17. Rapid detection of Infectious bursal disease virus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chunyi; Zhang, Yun; Zhou, Qingfeng; Xu, Cong; Li, Xiaoming; Cao, Yongchang

    2009-11-01

    A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the rapid identification of Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). The RT-LAMP assay used a set of 4 primers to amplify the viral protein 2 gene of IBDV for the detection of IBDV, showing not only high efficiency but also analytic specificity. The data demonstrated that the RT-LAMP assay detected 30 different IBDV isolates, had no cross-reaction with 3 other avian viruses (Infectious bronchitis virus, Newcastle disease virus, and Avian influenza virus), and obtained a 95.45% sensitivity in 22 positive clinical samples in reference to virus isolation. Therefore, this rapid, specific, sensitive, and convenient RT-LAMP assay could be applicable to the identification of IBDV in less-equipped laboratories as well as in the field.

  18. Rapid Detection of Plasmodium knowlesi by Isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay.

    PubMed

    Lai, Meng-Yee; Ooi, Choo-Huck; Lau, Yee-Ling

    2017-08-14

    In this study, we developed a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay for specific diagnosis of Plasmodium knowlesi. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood samples using a commercial kit. With incubation at 37°C, the samples were successfully amplified within 20 minutes. The end product of RPA was further examined by loading onto agarose gel and a specific band was observed with a size of 128 bp. The RPA assay exhibited high sensitivity with limits of detection down to one copy of the plasmid. From the specificity experiments, it was demonstrated that all P. knowlesi samples (N = 45) were positive while other Plasmodium spp. (N = 42) and negative samples (N = 6) were negative. Therefore, the RPA assay is a highly promising approach with the potential to be used in resource-limited settings. This assay can be further optimized for bedside and on field application.

  19. Meat Species Identification using Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay Targeting Species-specific Mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ae-Ri; Dong, Hee-Jin; Cho, Seongbeom

    2014-01-01

    Meat source fraud and adulteration scandals have led to consumer demands for accurate meat identification methods. Nucleotide amplification assays have been proposed as an alternative method to protein-based assays for meat identification. In this study, we designed Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays targeting species-specific mitochondrial DNA to identify and discriminate eight meat species; cattle, pig, horse, goat, sheep, chicken, duck, and turkey. The LAMP primer sets were designed and the target genes were discriminated according to their unique annealing temperature generated by annealing curve analysis. Their unique annealing temperatures were found to be 85.56±0.07℃ for cattle, 84.96±0.08℃ for pig, and 85.99±0.05℃ for horse in the BSE-LAMP set (Bos taurus, Sus scrofa domesticus and Equus caballus); 84.91±0.11℃ for goat and 83.90±0.11℃ for sheep in the CO-LAMP set (Capra hircus and Ovis aries); and 86.31±0.23℃ for chicken, 88.66±0.12℃ for duck, and 84.49±0.08℃ for turkey in the GAM-LAMP set (Gallus gallus, Anas platyrhynchos and Meleagris gallopavo). No cross-reactivity was observed in each set. The limits of detection (LODs) of the LAMP assays in raw and cooked meat were determined from 10 pg/μL to 100 fg/μL levels, and LODs in raw and cooked meat admixtures were determined from 0.01% to 0.0001% levels. The assays were performed within 30 min and showed greater sensitivity than that of the PCR assays. These novel LAMP assays provide a simple, rapid, accurate, and sensitive technology for discrimination of eight meat species.

  20. Detecting a novel Eriocheir sinensis reovirus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y; Dai, T; Serwadda, A; Shen, H

    2016-11-01

    The novel Eriocheir sinensis reovirus (EsRV) is a pathogen that causes severe disease and high mortality rates in cultivated crabs. Here, we established a highly sensitive and specific rapid reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay that was cheaper and more suitable for field applications in crab aquaculture than those of traditional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. The amplification was completed within 45 min under isothermal conditions at 65°C. The RT-LAMP test for EsRV had a detection limit of 15 pg, and sensitivity was 100 times greater than that of conventional RT-PCR. The LAMP primers for EsRV were not amplified by other pathogen strains, indicating good specificity. In addition to detection by electrophoresis, RT-LAMP results were detectable by visual observations of reaction tube turbidity, and calcein was added to visually detect the amplification products. These results indicate that this highly convenient, rapid and sensitive RT-LAMP assay can be used to detect EsRV-infected aquatic organisms.

  1. Isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay applied to the detection of group B streptococci in vaginal/anal samples.

    PubMed

    Daher, Rana K; Stewart, Gale; Boissinot, Maurice; Bergeron, Michel G

    2014-04-01

    Group B streptococcal infections are the leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in newborns. A rapid and reliable method for the detection of this pathogen at the time of delivery is needed for the early treatment of neonates. Isothermal amplification techniques such as recombinase polymerase amplification have advantages relative to PCR in terms of the speed of reaction and simplicity. We studied the clinical performance of recombinase polymerase amplification for the screening of group B streptococci in vaginal/anal samples from 50 pregnant women. We also compared the limit of detection and the analytical specificity of this isothermal assay to real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Compared to RT-PCR, the recombinase polymerase amplification assay showed a clinical sensitivity of 96% and a clinical specificity of 100%. The limit of detection was 98 genome copies and the analytical specificity was 100% for a panel of 15 bacterial and/or fungal strains naturally found in the vaginal/anal flora. Time-to-result for the recombinase polymerase amplification assay was <20 min compared to 45 min for the RT-PCR assay; a positive sample could be detected as early as 8 min. We demonstrate the potential of isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay as a clinically useful molecular diagnostic tool that is simple and faster than PCR/RT-PCR. Recombinase polymerase amplification offers great potential for nucleic acid-based diagnostics at the point of care.

  2. Field-Applicable Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mingyan; O'Brien, Elizabeth; Heller, Martin; Nepper, Julia F.; Weibel, Douglas B.; Gluecks, Ilona; Younan, Mario; Frey, Joachim; Falquet, Laurent; Jores, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a highly contagious disease caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae that affects goats in Africa and Asia. Current available methods for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma infection, including cultivation, serological assays, and PCR, are time-consuming and require fully equipped stationary laboratories, which make them incompatible with testing in the resource-poor settings that are most relevant to this disease. We report a rapid, specific, and sensitive assay employing isothermal DNA amplification using recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) for the detection of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae. We developed the assay using a specific target sequence in M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, as found in the genome sequence of the field strain ILRI181 and the type strain F38 and that was further evidenced in 10 field strains from different geographical regions. Detection limits corresponding to 5 × 103 and 5 × 104 cells/ml were obtained using genomic DNA and bacterial culture from M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strain ILRI181, while no amplification was obtained from 71 related Mycoplasma isolates or from the Acholeplasma or the Pasteurella isolates, demonstrating a high degree of specificity. The assay produces a fluorescent signal within 15 to 20 min and worked well using pleural fluid obtained directly from CCPP-positive animals without prior DNA extraction. We demonstrate that the diagnosis of CCPP can be achieved, with a short sample preparation time and a simple read-out device that can be powered by a car battery, in <45 min in a simulated field setting. PMID:26085615

  3. Field-Applicable Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Liljander, Anne; Yu, Mingyan; O'Brien, Elizabeth; Heller, Martin; Nepper, Julia F; Weibel, Douglas B; Gluecks, Ilona; Younan, Mario; Frey, Joachim; Falquet, Laurent; Jores, Joerg

    2015-09-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a highly contagious disease caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae that affects goats in Africa and Asia. Current available methods for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma infection, including cultivation, serological assays, and PCR, are time-consuming and require fully equipped stationary laboratories, which make them incompatible with testing in the resource-poor settings that are most relevant to this disease. We report a rapid, specific, and sensitive assay employing isothermal DNA amplification using recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) for the detection of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae. We developed the assay using a specific target sequence in M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, as found in the genome sequence of the field strain ILRI181 and the type strain F38 and that was further evidenced in 10 field strains from different geographical regions. Detection limits corresponding to 5 × 10(3) and 5 × 10(4) cells/ml were obtained using genomic DNA and bacterial culture from M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strain ILRI181, while no amplification was obtained from 71 related Mycoplasma isolates or from the Acholeplasma or the Pasteurella isolates, demonstrating a high degree of specificity. The assay produces a fluorescent signal within 15 to 20 min and worked well using pleural fluid obtained directly from CCPP-positive animals without prior DNA extraction. We demonstrate that the diagnosis of CCPP can be achieved, with a short sample preparation time and a simple read-out device that can be powered by a car battery, in <45 min in a simulated field setting. Copyright © 2015 Liljander et al.

  4. Temperature switch PCR (TSP): Robust assay design for reliable amplification and genotyping of SNPs.

    PubMed

    Tabone, Tania; Mather, Diane E; Hayden, Matthew J

    2009-12-03

    Many research and diagnostic applications rely upon the assay of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Thus, methods to improve the speed and efficiency for single-marker SNP genotyping are highly desirable. Here, we describe the method of temperature-switch PCR (TSP), a biphasic four-primer PCR system with a universal primer design that permits amplification of the target locus in the first phase of thermal cycling before switching to the detection of the alleles. TSP can simplify assay design for a range of commonly used single-marker SNP genotyping methods, and reduce the requirement for individual assay optimization and operator expertise in the deployment of SNP assays. We demonstrate the utility of TSP for the rapid construction of robust and convenient endpoint SNP genotyping assays based on allele-specific PCR and high resolution melt analysis by generating a total of 11,232 data points. The TSP assays were performed under standardised reaction conditions, requiring minimal optimization of individual assays. High genotyping accuracy was verified by 100% concordance of TSP genotypes in a blinded study with an independent genotyping method. Theoretically, TSP can be directly incorporated into the design of assays for most current single-marker SNP genotyping methods. TSP provides several technological advances for single-marker SNP genotyping including simplified assay design and development, increased assay specificity and genotyping accuracy, and opportunities for assay automation. By reducing the requirement for operator expertise, TSP provides opportunities to deploy a wider range of single-marker SNP genotyping methods in the laboratory. TSP has broad applications and can be deployed in any animal and plant species.

  5. Development of Isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Porcine Circovirus Type 2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Qin, Xiaodong; Sun, Yingjun; Cong, Guozheng; Li, Yanmin; Zhang, Zhidong

    2017-01-01

    Porcine circovirus virus type II (PCV2) is the etiology of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), porcine dermatitis, nephropathy syndrome (PDNS), and necrotizing pneumonia. Rapid diagnosis tool for detection of PCV2 plays an important role in the disease control and eradication program. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assays using a real-time fluorescent detection (PCV2 real-time RPA assay) and RPA combined with lateral flow dipstick (PCV2 RPA LFD assay) were developed targeting the PCV2 ORF2 gene. The results showed that the sensitivity of the PCV2 real-time RPA assay was 10(2) copies per reaction within 20 min at 37°C and the PCV2 RPA LFD assay had a detection limit of 10(2) copies per reaction in less than 20 min at 37°C. Both assays were highly specific for PCV2, with no cross-reactions with porcine circovirus virus type 1, foot-and-mouth disease virus, pseudorabies virus, porcine parvovirus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and classical swine fever virus. Therefore, the RPA assays provide a novel alternative for simple, sensitive, and specific identification of PCV2.

  6. High sensitivity, loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with colorimetric gold-nanoparticle probes for visual detection of high risk human papillomavirus genotypes 16 and 18.

    PubMed

    Kumvongpin, Ratchanida; Jearanaikool, Patcharee; Wilailuckana, Chotechana; Sae-Ung, Nattaya; Prasongdee, Prinya; Daduang, Sakda; Wongsena, Metee; Boonsiri, Patcharee; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika; Swangvaree, Sukumarn Sanersak; Sandee, Alisa; Daduang, Jureerut

    2016-08-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) causes cervical cancer. HPV16 and HPV18 are the most prevalent strains of the virus reported in women worldwide. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an alternative method for DNA detection under isothermal conditions. However, it results in a turbid amplified product which is not easily detected by the naked eye. This study aimed to develop an improved technique by using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) attached to a single-stranded DNA probe for the detection of HPV16 and HPV18. Detection of the LAMP product by AuNP color change was compared with detection by visual turbidity. The optimal conditions for this new LAMP-AuNP assay were an incubation time of 20min and a temperature of 65°C. After LAMP amplification was complete, its products were hybridized with the AuNP probe for 5min and then detected by the addition of magnesium salt. The color changed from red to blue as a result of aggregation of the AuNP probe under high ionic strength conditions produced by the addition of the salt. The sensitivity of the LAMP-AuNP assay was greater than the LAMP turbidity assay by up to 10-fold for both HPV genotypes. The LAMP-AuNP assay showed higher sensitivity and ease of visualization than did the LAMP turbidity for the detection of HPV16 and HPV18. Additionally, AuNP-HPV16 and AuNP-HPV18 probes were stable for over 1year. The combination of LAMP and the AuNP-probe colorimetric assay offers a simple, rapid and highly sensitive alternative diagnostic tool for the detection of HPV16 and HPV18 in district hospitals or field studies.

  7. Coherent pump-probe spectroscopy in sodium vapor: From electromagnetically induced transparency to parametric amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Ken-ichi; Hayashi, Nobuhito; Kido, Hiroaki; Sugimura, Shota; Hombo, Naoya; Mitsunaga, Masaharu

    2011-06-15

    We have theoretically and experimentally investigated coherent pump-probe spectra for the 3S{sub 1/2}-3P{sub 1/2} D1 transition of sodium atomic vapor. Probe transmission spectra in the presence of a coupling beam exhibit dramatic changes depending on experimental conditions. In the weak-excitation, low-atomic-density limit, the spectra are mainly characterized by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and saturated absorption, but for the strong-excitation, high-density case, parametric amplification (PA) is dominant, featuring high probe gain and Stokes-wave generation. We have developed a theory that can explain these two seemingly totally different phenomena (EIT and PA) within the same theoretical framework by manipulating a few experimentally controllable parameters, and have successfully reproduced the observed spectra. Other than the main spectral features, many other interesting physical processes have been predicted and observed.

  8. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Reyes, John Carlo B; Solon, Juan Antonio A; Rivera, Windell L

    2014-07-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the 2-kbp repeated DNA species-specific sequence was developed for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis, the causative agent of trichomoniasis. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of the LAMP assay were evaluated using pooled genital swab and urine specimens, respectively, spiked with T. vaginalis trophozoites. Genital secretion and urine did not inhibit the detection of the parasite. The sensitivity of the LAMP was 10-1000 times higher than the PCR performed. The detection limit of LAMP was 1 trichomonad for both spiked genital swab and urine specimens. Also, LAMP did not exhibit cross-reactivity with closely-related trichomonads, Trichomonas tenax and Pentatrichomonas hominis, and other enteric and urogenital microorganisms, Entamoeba histolytica, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first report of a LAMP assay for the detection of T. vaginalis and has prospective application for rapid diagnosis and control of trichomoniasis.

  9. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Didymella bryoniae by Visual Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiefeng; Li, Pingfang; Xu, Jinghua; Zhang, Man; Ren, Runsheng; Liu, Guang; Yang, Xingping

    2016-01-01

    Didymella bryoniae is a pathogenic fungus that causes gummy stem blight (GSB) in Cucurbitaceae crops (e.g., cantaloupe, muskmelon, cucumber, and watermelon). GSB produces lesions on the stems and leaves, and can also be spread by seeds. Here, we developed a rapid, visual, and sensitive loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) assay for D. bryoniae detection based on sequence-characterized amplified regions (GenBank accession nos GQ872461 and GQ872462) common to the two random amplification of polymorphic DNA group genotypes (RGI and RGII) of D. bryoniae; ideal conditions for detection were optimized for completion in 45 min at 63°C. The sensitivity and specificity of the LAMP assay were further analyzed in comparison with those of a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 1000-fold higher than that of conventional PCR with a detection limit of 0.1 fg μL-1 of targeted DNA. The LAMP assay could be accomplished in about 45 min, with the results visible to the naked eye. The assay showed high specificity in discriminating all D. bryoniae isolates from seven other fungal pathogens that occur in Cucurbitaceae crops. The LAMP assay also detected D. bryoniae infection in young muskmelon leaves with suspected early symptoms of GSB disease. Hence, the technique has great potential for developing rapid and sensitive visual detection methods for the D. bryoniae pathogen in crops and seeds. This method has potential application in early prediction of disease and reducing the risk of epidemics. PMID:27625648

  10. Development of an internal amplification control system for a real-time PCR assay for detection of Neisseria meningitidis in CSF and EDTA blood.

    PubMed

    McIver, Christopher J; Bell, Sydney M; Er, Noel

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assemble and assess a non-competitive internal amplification control (IAC) system targeting the Escherichia coli alanine racemase (alr) gene to include in a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for Neisseria meningitidis. Primers and hybridisation probes specific for the IAC were designed and assessed for specificity. Amplification efficiency and limit of detection for the assembled assay was extrapolated using standard curves constructed with serial dilutions of N. meningitidis in saline, pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and EDTA blood. The 95% confidence limits (CI) were calculated for IAC crossing-points recorded for assays for N. meningitidis ctrA in saline (negative blank), and N. meningitides-negative samples of CSF and EDTA blood. These limits served as a reference range against which the IAC crossing-points recorded for prospective assays are compared to detect sample inhibition. This system was used in testing consecutive EDTA blood samples from two cases of meningococcal disease. The IAC system is specific for Escherichia coli and Shigella species. The amplification efficiency of the assembled assay for N. meningitidis and ability to detect low target DNA levels was not compromised with the inclusion of the IAC system. The IAC crossing-points varied in clinical samples of CSF and EDTA blood. The elucidated reference range for EDTA blood was used to detect sample inhibition in one of the two clinical cases investigated.The IAC system monitors the performance of all processes in the assembled assay for N. meningitidis. Measuring IAC crossing-points serves as an indicator of sample stability and inhibitory properties when testing single or multiple samples from the same patient. Specificity for E. coli and Shigella species enables inclusion in assays of different targets within the same laboratory. Reporting PCR assay results in the context of the IAC crossing-points and reference ranges validates against sample

  11. Specific detection of Histomonas meleagridis in turkeys by a PCR assay with an internal amplification control.

    PubMed

    Bleyen, Nele; De Gussem, Koen; De Gussem, Jeroen; Goddeeris, Bruno M

    2007-02-28

    Histomoniasis or blackhead is a disease of gallinaceous birds, caused by the protozoon Histomonas meleagridis. Since traditional diagnostics for the detection of this disease are complex and far less sensitive than molecular tools, a PCR would provide a more rapid and sensitive alternative. However, intestinal material and droppings, which are preferably used in epidemiological studies of histomoniasis, often contain PCR inhibitory substances. To detect these false negative results, the use of an internal amplification control is essential. Nevertheless, the recently developed PCR tests lack this internal control. Therefore, a new PCR assay with H. meleagridis specific primers was developed which does include an internal amplification control. The diagnostic value of the PCR assay was evaluated in comparison to three other conventional H. meleagridis specific PCR tests (HIS5, HM1 and HM2). None of the organ samples originating from uninfected turkeys, showed positive PCR results in any of the tests. Among the lesion-positive, inhibition-free samples, 95.4% were positive by our PCR assay, while only 50, 66.7 and 83.3% of the lesion-positive organs tested positive by the HM1, the HIS5 and the HM2 PCR respectively. In conclusion, our PCR offers the use of the internal control to detect false negative results and an increased sensitivity, and thus should be useful for routine diagnosis of H. meleagridis in poultry.

  12. Comparison of the illumigene Mycoplasma DNA Amplification Assay and Culture for Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Ratliff, Amy E.; Duffy, Lynn B.

    2014-01-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) system, the illumigene Mycoplasma DNA amplification assay (Meridian Bioscience, Inc., Cincinnati, OH) was evaluated to determine its analytical sensitivity, specificity, and clinical application in comparison to historic culture in a collection of archived respiratory specimens. The illumigene limit of detection was ≤88 CFU/reaction for 10 Mycoplasma pneumoniae reference strains. This assay correctly identified 36 M. pneumoniae reference strains and clinical isolates from various geographic origins, including both of the main subtypes. No cross-reactions were detected with other mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas, other bacterial species, viruses, yeasts, or human DNA. Among 214 respiratory specimens previously cultured for M. pneumoniae, when real-time PCR with bidirectional sequencing of the PCR products was used to resolve discrepancies, the sensitivity was 22 of 22 (100%) and the specificity was 190 of 192 (99%). This commercial LAMP assay is a useful rapid method for detecting M. pneumoniae in clinical specimens. Additional prospective clinical trials with direct comparison to culture and PCR are warranted. PMID:24430454

  13. A new approach for diagnosis of bovine coronavirus using a reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Amer, H M; Abd El Wahed, A; Shalaby, M A; Almajhdi, F N; Hufert, F T; Weidmann, M

    2013-11-01

    Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is an economically significant cause of calf scours and winter dysentery of adult cattle, and may induce respiratory tract infections in cattle of all ages. Early diagnosis of BCoV helps to diminish its burden on the dairy and beef industry. Real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of BCoV has been described, but it is relatively expensive, requires well-equipped laboratories and is not suitable for on-site screening. A novel assay, using reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA), for the detection of BCoV is developed. The BCoV RT-RPA was rapid (10-20 min) and has an analytical sensitivity of 19 molecules. No cross-reactivity with other viruses causing bovine gastrointestinal and/or respiratory infections was observed. The assay performance on clinical samples was validated by testing 16 fecal and 14 nasal swab specimens and compared to real-time RT-PCR. Both assays provided comparable results. The RT-RPA assay was significantly more rapid than the real-time RT-PCR assay. The BCoV RT-RPA constitutes a suitable accurate, sensitive and rapid alternative to the common measures used for BCoV diagnosis. In addition, the use of a portable fluorescence reading device extends its application potential to use in the field and point-of-care diagnosis.

  14. Rapid detection of BoHV-1 genomic DNA by loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    PubMed

    El-Kholy, Alaa A; Abdelrahman, Khaled; Soliman, Hatem

    2014-08-01

    Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1) is a serious viral pathogen of domestic and wild cattle. Herein, we report development of a new molecular diagnostic assay for rapid and sensitive detection of BoHV-1 utilizing the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique. BoHV-1-LAMP assay was optimized to amplify the target DNA by incubation the Bst-DNA polymerase enzyme with a set of specially constructed six primers, based on the gE-gene of BoHV-1 virus, at 65°C for 60min. BoHV-1-LAMP products were detected by visual inspection using SYBR Green-I stain and had a ladder-like appearance by gel electrophoresis analysis. Negative results obtained with DNA from other tested fish viruses confirmed the specificity of the assay. The analytical sensitivity of the BoHV-1-LAMP assay was 1fg of BoHV-1 DNA (dilution of 10(6)). The developed assay could successfully detect BoVH-1 DNA from clinical samples. Results of this study indicate that the developed BoHV-1-LAMP is rapid and highly sensitive assay not only for detection of BoHV-1 in clinical samples, but also for differentiation between wild-type (gE-positive) and gE-negative BoHV-1 viruses, which will improve the control programs of BoHV-1 in Egypt.

  15. Rapid detection of European orthobunyaviruses by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays.

    PubMed

    Camp, Jeremy V; Nowotny, Norbert

    2016-10-01

    The development of reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assays are described herein for the detection of two orthobunyaviruses (Bunyaviridae), which represent the two main serogroups found in mosquitoes in Central Europe. The RT-LAMP assays were optimized for the detection of Ťahyňa virus (a California encephalitis group virus found in Aedes sp or Ochlerotatus sp mosquitoes) and Batai virus (also called Čalovo virus, a Bunyamwera group virus found in Anopheles maculipennis s.l. mosquitoes) nucleic acid using endemic European virus isolates. The sensitivity of the RT-LAMP assays was determined to be comparable to that of conventional tests, with a limit of detection<0.1 pfu per reaction. The assays can be performed in 60min under isothermal conditions using very simple equipment. Furthermore, it was possible to proceed with the assays without nucleic acid extraction, albeit at a 100-fold loss of sensitivity. The RT-LAMP assays are a sensitive, cost-efficient method for both arbovirus surveillance as well as diagnostic laboratories to detect the presence of these endemic orthobunyaviruses.

  16. Comparison of Aptima Trichomonas vaginalis Transcription-Mediated Amplification Assay and BD Affirm VPIII for Detection of T. vaginalis in Symptomatic Women: Performance Parameters and Epidemiological Implications▿

    PubMed Central

    Andrea, Sarah B.; Chapin, Kimberle C.

    2011-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is an underestimated sexually transmitted infection (STI) associated with numerous clinical sequelae. The true prevalence and clinical impact of trichomoniasis are unknown, as current methods of detection exhibit poor sensitivity compared to molecular amplification methods. Limited data exist comparing the BD Affirm VPIII hybridization assay to the Gen-Probe Aptima T. vaginalis (ATV) transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) assay for detection of T. vaginalis. In this study, specimens from 766 patients were evaluated. Specimens were retrieved consecutively from patients with vaginal complaints and/or with histories suggestive of STI. Study inclusion was dependent upon the request for and collection of both a vaginal swab for Affirm and a specimen for Aptima Combo 2 by the health care provider during the same office visit. Affirm was performed using the specific collection swab and the transport provided for the test. The ATV assay was performed on remnant Aptima Combo 2 specimens. A second ATV TMA assay, utilizing an alternate T. vaginalis primer and probe set, was performed on all specimens positive by the initial TMA and/or the Affirm assay. Infected-patient status was defined as positive T. vaginalis test results by at least 2 assays. Overall, 5.1% of subjects were positive for T. vaginalis. T. vaginalis was most prevalent in women who were 36 to 45 (11.9%), 51 to 60 (7.7%), and 16 to 25 (4.2%) years of age. The ATV assay was statistically more sensitive than the Affirm assay (100% versus 63.4%, P < 0.0001), identifying 36.6% more positive patients. PMID:21248097

  17. Identification of deletion carriers in hemophilia B: quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction or multiple ligation probe amplification.

    PubMed

    Casaña, Pilar; Haya, Saturnino; Cid, Ana R; Oltra, Silvestre; Martínez, Francisco; Cabrera, Noelia; Aznar, José A

    2009-03-01

    Gross deletions in the F9 gene are easily detected by routinely sequencing hemophilia B-affected men. Nevertheless, a carrier diagnosis proves difficult as the presence of a normal allele does not recognize the partial or complete loss of the F9 gene and may be challenging if no DNA sample from affected men is available. This work aimed to identify hemophilia carriers in 2 families in which gross deletions of the F9 gene could be expected. The indirect genetic study was not conclusive, and sequencing did not show genetic defects in family 1. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay using SYBR Green revealed the deletion of a copy of exon 8 in 3 women, whereas the multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay showed the deletion of a copy of exons 7 and 8 in these 3 women. These studies enabled us not only to rule out a pregnant woman as a carrier but also to confirm a complete deletion of the gene in the patient from family 2 and the heterozygous state of his mother. The advantages that the MLPA method offers are the identification of a multiple exon deletion in the same assay and commonly used technology. The RT-PCR technology used involves standardizing and analyzing each exon independently.

  18. Assessment of p53 and ATM functionality in chronic lymphocytic leukemia by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.

    PubMed

    te Raa, G D; Moerland, P D; Leeksma, A C; Derks, I A; Yigittop, H; Laddach, N; Loden-van Straaten, M; Navrkalova, V; Trbusek, M; Luijks, D M; Zenz, T; Skowronska, A; Hoogendoorn, M; Stankovic, T; van Oers, M H; Eldering, E; Kater, A P

    2015-08-06

    The ATM-p53 DNA-damage response (DDR) pathway has a crucial role in chemoresistance in CLL, as indicated by the adverse prognostic impact of genetic aberrations of TP53 and ATM. Identifying and distinguishing TP53 and ATM functional defects has become relevant as epigenetic and posttranscriptional dysregulation of the ATM/p53 axis is increasingly being recognized as the underlying cause of chemoresistance. Also, specific treatments sensitizing TP53- or ATM-deficient CLL cells are emerging. We therefore developed a new ATM-p53 functional assay with the aim to (i) identify and (ii) distinguish abnormalities of TP53 versus ATM and (iii) enable the identification of additional defects in the ATM-p53 pathway. Reversed transcriptase multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (RT-MLPA) was used to measure ATM and/or p53-dependent genes at the RNA level following DNA damage using irradiation. Here, we showed that this assay is able to identify and distinguish three subgroups of CLL tumors (i.e., TP53-defective, ATM-defective and WT) and is also able to detect additional samples with a defective DDR, without molecular aberrations in TP53 and/or ATM. These findings make the ATM-p53 RT-MLPA functional assay a promising prognostic tool for predicting treatment responses in CLL.

  19. Assessment of p53 and ATM functionality in chronic lymphocytic leukemia by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification

    PubMed Central

    te Raa, G D; Moerland, P D; Leeksma, A C; Derks, I A; Yigittop, H; Laddach, N; Loden-van Straaten, M; Navrkalova, V; Trbusek, M; Luijks, D M; Zenz, T; Skowronska, A; Hoogendoorn, M; Stankovic, T; van Oers, M H; Eldering, E; Kater, A P

    2015-01-01

    The ATM-p53 DNA-damage response (DDR) pathway has a crucial role in chemoresistance in CLL, as indicated by the adverse prognostic impact of genetic aberrations of TP53 and ATM. Identifying and distinguishing TP53 and ATM functional defects has become relevant as epigenetic and posttranscriptional dysregulation of the ATM/p53 axis is increasingly being recognized as the underlying cause of chemoresistance. Also, specific treatments sensitizing TP53- or ATM-deficient CLL cells are emerging. We therefore developed a new ATM-p53 functional assay with the aim to (i) identify and (ii) distinguish abnormalities of TP53 versus ATM and (iii) enable the identification of additional defects in the ATM-p53 pathway. Reversed transcriptase multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (RT-MLPA) was used to measure ATM and/or p53-dependent genes at the RNA level following DNA damage using irradiation. Here, we showed that this assay is able to identify and distinguish three subgroups of CLL tumors (i.e., TP53-defective, ATM-defective and WT) and is also able to detect additional samples with a defective DDR, without molecular aberrations in TP53 and/or ATM. These findings make the ATM-p53 RT-MLPA functional assay a promising prognostic tool for predicting treatment responses in CLL. PMID:26247737

  20. Detection of bovine trichomoniasis with a specific DNA probe and PCR amplification system.

    PubMed

    Ho, M S; Conrad, P A; Conrad, P J; LeFebvre, R B; Perez, E; BonDurant, R H

    1994-01-01

    Trichomoniasis is a widespread, economically important venereal disease of cattle which causes infertility and abortion. Effective control of trichomoniasis has been impeded by the insensitivity of traditional diagnostic procedures, which require the isolation and cultivation of the parasite, Tritrichomonas foetus, from infected cattle. We developed a 0.85-kb T. foetus DNA probe by identifying conserved sequences in DNAs from T. foetus that were isolated from cattle in California, Idaho, Nevada, and Costa Rica. The probe hybridized specifically to DNAs of T. foetus isolates from different geographic areas but not to DNA preparations of Trichomonas vaginalis, bovine cells, or a variety of bacteria from cattle. The probe detected DNA from a minimum of 10(5) T. foetus organisms. To improve sensitivity, a partial sequence of the probe was used to identify oligonucleotide primers (TF1 and TF2) which could be used to amplify a 162-bp product from T. foetus DNAs by PCR. A chemiluminescent internal T. foetus sequence probe was hybridized to Southern blots of the amplification product. This system detected as few as one T. foetus organism in culture media or 10 parasites in samples containing bovine preputial smegma. Analysis of 52 clinical samples showed that 47 (90.4%) of the 52 samples were correctly identified, with no false-positive reactions. In comparison, the traditional cultivation method detected 44 (84.6%) of the 52 samples from T. foetus-infected and uninfected bulls. These results indicate that the PCR-based amplification system could be a useful alternative method for the diagnosis of bovine trichomoniasis.

  1. Multiplex assay for subtyping avian influenza A viruses by cDNA hybridization and adapter-mediated amplification.

    PubMed

    Yang, Genyan; Jones, Joyce; Jang, Yunho; Davis, C Todd

    2016-10-01

    Multiple subtypes of influenza A viruses circulating in animals must be closely monitored to understand their risk to humans and animal populations. Many molecular-based subtyping methods require constant monitoring of viral genomes for primer and/or probe mismatches and are prone to primer-primer interactions. This report presents a new approach that involves target enrichment through cDNA hybridization followed by adapter-mediated amplification for subtyping influenza virus (AmASIV). As a proof of concept, the AmASIV assay was multiplexed to specifically detect and differentiate influenza A virus subtypes (H5, N5, N7, and N9) in a single reaction without cross-recognition of nontarget subtypes or influenza B virus. The limit of detection (LOD) of AmASIV, as measured by 50 % egg-infective dose per reaction (EID50/reaction), was comparable to that of singleplex TaqMan® qPCR assays with LODs of 10(-0.6) (H5), 10(2) (N5), 10(-0.3) (N7), and 10(-0.5) (N9) EID50/reaction. The AmASIV will strengthen animal influenza virus surveillance and laboratory capacity to improve prevention and control of influenza.

  2. Development of a panel of recombinase polymerase amplification assays for detection of biothreat agents.

    PubMed

    Euler, Milena; Wang, Yongjie; Heidenreich, Doris; Patel, Pranav; Strohmeier, Oliver; Hakenberg, Sydney; Niedrig, Matthias; Hufert, Frank T; Weidmann, Manfred

    2013-04-01

    Syndromic panels for infectious disease have been suggested to be of value in point-of-care diagnostics for developing countries and for biodefense. To test the performance of isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assays, we developed a panel of 10 RPAs for biothreat agents. The panel included RPAs for Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Bacillus anthracis, variola virus, and reverse transcriptase RPA (RT-RPA) assays for Rift Valley fever virus, Ebola virus, Sudan virus, and Marburg virus. Their analytical sensitivities ranged from 16 to 21 molecules detected (probit analysis) for the majority of RPA and RT-RPA assays. A magnetic bead-based total nucleic acid extraction method was combined with the RPAs and tested using inactivated whole organisms spiked into plasma. The RPA showed comparable sensitivities to real-time RCR assays in these extracts. The run times of the assays at 42°C ranged from 6 to 10 min, and they showed no cross-detection of any of the target genomes of the panel nor of the human genome. The RPAs therefore seem suitable for the implementation of syndromic panels onto microfluidic platforms.

  3. Molecular detection of Muscovy duck parvovirus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Ji, J; Xie, Q M; Chen, C Y; Bai, S W; Zou, L S; Zuo, K J; Cao, Y C; Xue, C Y; Ma, J Y; Bi, Y Z

    2010-03-01

    Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) usually causes high morbidity and mortality in 1- to 3-wk-old Muscovy ducklings due to serious infections, which is an imminent threat to the commercial duck industry in China. The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a simple, rapid, and inexpensive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for specific detection of MDPV and to compare it with the PCR method in rapidity, sensitivity, and accuracy. The novel LAMP assay used a set of 4 specific primers to recognize 6 distinct genomic sequences of capsid protein (VP3) from MDPV, which could be completed within 50 min at 63 degrees C in a simple water bath. The diagnostic results demonstrated that the LAMP assay detected all 7 preserved MDPV isolates, had no cross-reactivity with other duck pathogens (i.e., goose parvovirus, duck plague virus, H9N2 avian influenza virus, duck hepatitis type virus I, and Muscovy duck reovirus). The LAMP assay was at least 10-fold more sensitive than the routine PCR assay and obtained more sensitivity in 61 clinical samples. Therefore, the newly developed LAMP assay provides a specific and sensitive means for detecting MDPV and can be simply applied both in field conditions and in laboratory operations in a cost-effective manner with primary care facilities.

  4. A real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Shigella species.

    PubMed

    Liew, P S; Teh, C S J; Lau, Y L; Thong, K L

    2014-12-01

    Shigellosis is a foodborne illness caused by the genus Shigella and is an important global health issue. The development of effective techniques for rapid detection of this pathogen is essential for breaking the chain of transmission. Therefore, we have developed a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the invasion plasmid antigen H (ipaH) gene to rapidly detect Shigella species. This assay could be performed in 90 min at an optimal temperature of 64ºC, with endpoint results visualized directly. Notably, the method was found to be more sensitive than conventional PCR. Indeed, the detection limit for the LAMP assay on pure bacterial cultures was 5.9 x 10(5) CFU/ml, while PCR displayed a limit of 5.9 x 10(7) CFU/ml. In spiked lettuce samples, the sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 3.6 x 10(4) CFU/g, whereas PCR was 3.6 x 10(5) CFU/g. Overall, the assay accurately identified 32 Shigella spp. with one enteroinvasive Escherichia coli displaying positive reaction while the remaining 32 non-Shigella strains tested were negative.

  5. Amplification refractory mutation system PCR assays for the detection of variola and Orthopoxvirus.

    PubMed

    Pulford, David; Meyer, Hermann; Brightwell, Gale; Damon, Inger; Kline, Richard; Ulaeto, David

    2004-04-01

    PCR assays that can identify the presence of variola virus (VARV) sequences in an unknown DNA sample were developed using principles established for the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS). The assay's specificity utilised unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) identified among Orthopoxvirus (OPV) orthologs of the vaccinia virus Copenhagen strain A13L and A36R genes. When a variola virus specific primer was used with a consensus primer in an ARMS assay with different Orthopoxvirus genomes, a PCR product was only amplified from variola virus DNA. Incorporating a second consensus primer into the assay produced a multiplex PCR that provided Orthopoxvirus generic and variola-specific products with variola virus DNA. We tested two single nucleotide polymorphisms with a panel of 43 variola virus strains, collected over 40 years from countries across the world, and have shown that they provide reliable markers for variola virus identification. The variola virus specific primers did not produce amplicons with either assay format when tested with 50 other Orthopoxvirus DNA samples. Our analysis shows that these two polymorphisms were conserved in variola virus genomes and provide a reliable signature of Orthopoxvirus species identification.

  6. Rapid detection of shrimp white spot syndrome virus by real time, isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaoming; Yu, Yongxin; Weidmann, Manfred; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2014-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) causes large economic losses to the shrimp aquaculture industry, and thus far there are no efficient therapeutic treatments available against this lethal virus. In this study, we present the development of a novel real time isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay for WSSV detection on a small ESEQuant Tube Scanner device. The RPA sensitivity, specificity and rapidity were evaluated by using a plasmid standard as well as viral and shrimp genomic DNAs. Compared with qPCR, the RPA assay revealed more satisfactory performance. It reached a detection limit up to 10 molecules in 95% of cases as determined by probit analysis of 8 independent experiments within 6.41 ± 0.17 min at 39 °C. Consequently, this rapid RPA method has great application potential for field use or point of care diagnostics.

  7. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of human coronavirus-NL63.

    PubMed

    Pyrc, Krzysztof; Milewska, Aleksandra; Potempa, Jan

    2011-07-01

    Human coronavirus NL63 was identified in 2004 in the Netherlands. Due to the high prevalence and world-wide distribution of this pathogen, it is essential to develop a sensitive and specific detection assay suitable for use in a routine diagnostic laboratory. Techniques based on PCR or real-time PCR are laborious and expensive. Detailed analysis of the HCoV-NL63 genome permitted the identification of a conserved nucleic acid sequential motif, which was sufficient for the design of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay. Evaluation of the method showed that the test is specific to HCoV-NL63 and that it does not cross-react with other respiratory viruses. The detection limit was found to be 1 copy of RNA template per reaction in cell culture supernatants and clinical specimens.

  8. New closed tube loop mediated isothermal amplification assay for prevention of product cross-contamination

    PubMed Central

    Karthik, K.; Rathore, Rajesh; Thomas, Prasad; Arun, T.R.; Viswas, K.N.; Dhama, Kuldeep; Agarwal, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay, a promising diagnostic test, has been developed for detection of different pathogens of human as well as animals. Various positive points support its use as a field level test but the major problem is product cross contamination leading to false positive results. Different methods were adopted by various researchers to control this false positive amplification due to cross contamination but all have their own advantages and disadvantages. A new closed tube LAMP assay based on agar dye capsule was developed in the present study and this technique has some advantages over the other closed tube technique.•Agar at the concentration of 1.5% was used to sandwich SYBR green dye I with the aid of intradermal syringe. This agar dye capsule was placed over the LAMP reaction mixture before it was amplified.•To eliminate the hazardous nature of Ultra Violet (UV) light during result visualization of LAMP products, the present study demonstrates the use of Light Emitting Diode (LED) lights for result visualization.•LAMP was carried out for Brucella species detection using this modified techniques yielding good results without any cross contamination and LED showed similar fluorescence compared to UV. PMID:26150945

  9. Detection of Bar Transgenic Sugarcane with a Rapid and Visual Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dinggang; Wang, Chunfeng; Li, Zhu; Chen, Yun; Gao, Shiwu; Guo, Jinlong; Lu, Wenying; Su, Yachun; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

    2016-01-01

    Genetic engineering offers an attractive alternative in sugarcane breeding for increasing cane and sugar yields as well as disease and insect resistance. Bar transgenic sugarcane employing the herbicide tolerance is a useful agronomical trait in weed control. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of the bar gene in transgenic sugarcane has been developed and evaluated. A set of six primers was designed for LAMP-based amplification of the bar gene. The LAMP reaction conditions were optimized as follows: 5.25 mM of Mg2+, 6:1 ratio of inner vs. outer primer, and 6.0 U of Bst DNA polymerase in a reaction volume of 25.0 μL. The detection limit of the recombinant plasmid 1Ac0229 was as low as 10 copies in the developed LAMP, which was 10-fold higher sensitive than that of conventional PCR. In 100 putative transgenic lines, the bar gene was detected in 100/100 cases (100%) by LAMP and 97/100 cases (97%) by conventional PCR, respectively. In conclusion, the developed LAMP assay is visual, rapid, sensitive, reliable, and cost-effective for detection of the bar specific transgenic sugarcane. PMID:27014303

  10. Detection of Bar Transgenic Sugarcane with a Rapid and Visual Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dinggang; Wang, Chunfeng; Li, Zhu; Chen, Yun; Gao, Shiwu; Guo, Jinlong; Lu, Wenying; Su, Yachun; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

    2016-01-01

    Genetic engineering offers an attractive alternative in sugarcane breeding for increasing cane and sugar yields as well as disease and insect resistance. Bar transgenic sugarcane employing the herbicide tolerance is a useful agronomical trait in weed control. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of the bar gene in transgenic sugarcane has been developed and evaluated. A set of six primers was designed for LAMP-based amplification of the bar gene. The LAMP reaction conditions were optimized as follows: 5.25 mM of Mg(2+), 6:1 ratio of inner vs. outer primer, and 6.0 U of Bst DNA polymerase in a reaction volume of 25.0 μL. The detection limit of the recombinant plasmid 1Ac0229 was as low as 10 copies in the developed LAMP, which was 10-fold higher sensitive than that of conventional PCR. In 100 putative transgenic lines, the bar gene was detected in 100/100 cases (100%) by LAMP and 97/100 cases (97%) by conventional PCR, respectively. In conclusion, the developed LAMP assay is visual, rapid, sensitive, reliable, and cost-effective for detection of the bar specific transgenic sugarcane.

  11. New closed tube loop mediated isothermal amplification assay for prevention of product cross-contamination.

    PubMed

    Karthik, K; Rathore, Rajesh; Thomas, Prasad; Arun, T R; Viswas, K N; Dhama, Kuldeep; Agarwal, R K

    2014-01-01

    Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay, a promising diagnostic test, has been developed for detection of different pathogens of human as well as animals. Various positive points support its use as a field level test but the major problem is product cross contamination leading to false positive results. Different methods were adopted by various researchers to control this false positive amplification due to cross contamination but all have their own advantages and disadvantages. A new closed tube LAMP assay based on agar dye capsule was developed in the present study and this technique has some advantages over the other closed tube technique.•Agar at the concentration of 1.5% was used to sandwich SYBR green dye I with the aid of intradermal syringe. This agar dye capsule was placed over the LAMP reaction mixture before it was amplified.•To eliminate the hazardous nature of Ultra Violet (UV) light during result visualization of LAMP products, the present study demonstrates the use of Light Emitting Diode (LED) lights for result visualization.•LAMP was carried out for Brucella species detection using this modified techniques yielding good results without any cross contamination and LED showed similar fluorescence compared to UV.

  12. [Detection of microdeletion in Williams syndrome by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification].

    PubMed

    Peng, Yuan-yuan; Meng, Yan; Qiu, Zheng-qing; Wang, Ou; Huang, Shang-zhi

    2009-08-01

    To establish a method of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) for clinical screening of Williams syndrome (WS) and for routine use in WS diagnosis. Probes for MLPA were designed according to the frequent deletion regions, and used to screen the two patients suspected with Williams syndrome, and the density of the bands were analyzed with software. Linkage analysis using polymorphic markers was performed to confirm the positive result of MLPA. The MLPA data indicated that the two children had possible microdeletions in the WS critical region. The deletions were confirmed and both were maternal origin by polymorphism analysis. MLPA is a quick and convenient method for detecting deletion or duplication mutations. It can provide reliable and helpful information for clinical diagnose of Williams syndrome.

  13. Homogeneous real-time detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms by strand displacement amplification on the BD ProbeTec ET system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sha-Sha; Thornton, Keith; Kuhn, Andrew M; Nadeau, James G; Hellyer, Tobin J

    2003-10-01

    The BD ProbeTec ET System is based on isothermal strand displacement amplification (SDA) of target nucleic acid coupled with homogeneous real-time detection using fluorescent probes. We have developed a novel, rapid method using this platform that incorporates a universal detection format for identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and other genotypic variations. The system uses a common pair of fluorescent Detector Probes in conjunction with unlabeled allele-specific Adapter Primers and a universal buffer chemistry to permit analysis of multiple SNP loci under generic assay conditions. We used Detector Probes labeled with different dyes to facilitate differentiation of two alternative alleles in a single reaction with no postamplification manipulation. We analyzed six SNPs within the human beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR) gene, using whole blood, buccal swabs, and urine samples, and compared results with those obtained by DNA sequencing. Unprocessed whole blood was successfully genotyped with as little as 0.1-1 micro L of sample per reaction. All six beta(2)AR assays were able to accommodate >/==" BORDER="0">20 micro L of unprocessed whole blood. For the 14 individuals tested, genotypes determined with the six beta(2)AR assays agreed with DNA sequencing results. SDA-based allelic differentiation on the BD ProbeTec ET System can detect SNPs rapidly, using whole blood, buccal swabs, or urine.

  14. Efficacy of loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the laboratory identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in a resource limited setting.

    PubMed

    Geojith, G; Dhanasekaran, S; Chandran, Salesh P; Kenneth, John

    2011-01-01

    Current methods of TB diagnosis are time consuming and less suited for developing countries. The LAMP (loop mediated isothermal amplification) is a rapid method more suitable for diagnosis in resource limited settings and has been proposed as a viable test requiring further evaluation for use as a laboratory method as well. We evaluated two LAMP assays, using culture lysates of clinical sputum samples (from Southern India) and compared it to a proprietary multiplex PCR reverse-hybridization line probe assay ('GenoType MTBC' from HAIN Lifescience GmbH, Germany). The LAMP procedure was modified to suit the local conditions. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific LAMP assay ('MTB LAMP') showed sensitivity and specificity, of 44.7% and 94.4% respectively in a 60 min format, 85.7% and 93.9% respectively in a 90 min format and 91.7%, and 90.9% respectively in a 120 min format. The Mycobacteria universal LAMP assay ('Muniv LAMP') showed a sensitivity of 99.1%. The LAMP was shown to be a rapid and accessible assay for the laboratory identification of M. tuberculosis isolates. Initial denaturation of template was shown to be essential for amplification in unpurified/dilute samples and longer incubation was shown to increase the sensitivity. The need for modification of protocols to yield better efficacy in this scenario needs to be addressed in subsequent studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay Targeting the mpb64 Gene for Diagnosis of Intraocular Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Balne, Praveen Kumar; Barik, Manas Ranjan; Sharma, Savitri

    2013-01-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the mpb64 gene for the diagnosis of intraocular tuberculosis was highly specific (100%), sensitive (85.7%), rapid, and easy to perform. The LAMP assay can be an alternative to conventional PCR for the diagnosis of ocular tuberculosis in resource-limited settings. PMID:23966513

  16. Specific detection of DNA and RNA targets using a novel isothermal nucleic acid amplification assay based on the formation of a three-way junction structure.

    PubMed

    Wharam, S D; Marsh, P; Lloyd, J S; Ray, T D; Mock, G A; Assenberg, R; McPhee, J E; Brown, P; Weston, A; Cardy, D L

    2001-06-01

    The formation of DNA three-way junction (3WJ) structures has been utilised to develop a novel isothermal nucleic acid amplification assay (SMART) for the detection of specific DNA or RNA targets. The assay consists of two oligonucleotide probes that hybridise to a specific target sequence and, only then, to each other forming a 3WJ structure. One probe (template for the RNA signal) contains a non-functional single-stranded T7 RNA polymerase promoter sequence. This promoter sequence is made double-stranded (hence functional) by DNA polymerase, allowing T7 RNA polymerase to generate a target-dependent RNA signal which is measured by an enzyme-linked oligosorbent assay (ELOSA). The sequence of the RNA signal is always the same, regardless of the original target sequence. The SMART assay was successfully tested in model systems with several single-stranded synthetic targets, both DNA and RNA. The assay could also detect specific target sequences in both genomic DNA and total RNA from Escherichia coli. It was also possible to generate signal from E.coli samples without prior extraction of nucleic acid, showing that for some targets, sample purification may not be required. The assay is simple to perform and easily adaptable to different targets.

  17. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Papaya ringspot virus.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Yang, Yong; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2014-08-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), which causes disease symptoms similar to PRSV, threaten commercial production of both non-transgenic-papaya and PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in China. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay to detect PLDMV was developed previously. In this study, the development of another RT-LAMP assay to distinguish among transgenic, PRSV-infected and PLDMV-infected papaya by detection of PRSV is reported. A set of four RT-LAMP primers was designed based on the highly conserved region of the P3 gene of PRSV. The RT-LAMP method was specific and sensitive in detecting PRSV, with a detection limit of 1.15×10(-6)μg of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR. Field application of the RT-LAMP assay demonstrated that samples positive for PRSV were detected only in non-transgenic papaya, whereas samples positive for PLDMV were detected only in commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya. This suggests that PRSV remains the major limiting factor for non-transgenic-papaya production, and the emergence of PLDMV threatens the commercial transgenic cultivar in China. However, this study, combined with the earlier development of an RT-LAMP assay for PLDMV, will provide a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective diagnostic power to distinguish virus infections in papaya.

  18. An Enzyme-Free Signal Amplification Technique for Ultrasensitive Colorimetric Assay of Disease Biomarkers

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, Haihang; Yang, Kuikun; Tao, Jing; ...

    2017-01-30

    Enzyme-based colorimetric assays have been widely used in research labs and clinical diagnosis for decades. Nevertheless, as constrained by the performance of enzymes, their detection sensitivity has not been substantially improved in recent years, which inhibits many critical applications such as early detection of cancers. In this work, we demonstrate an enzyme-free signal amplification technique, based on gold vesicles encapsulated with Pd-Ir nanoparticles as peroxidase mimics, for colorimetric assay of disease biomarkers with significantly enhanced sensitivity. This technique overcomes the intrinsic limitations of enzymes, thanks to the superior catalytic efficiency of peroxidase mimics and the efficient loading and release ofmore » these mimics. Using human prostate surface antigen as a model biomarker, we demonstrated that the enzyme-free assay could reach a limit of detection at the femtogram/mL level, which is over 103-fold lower than that of conventional enzyme-based assay when the same antibodies and similar procedure were used.« less

  19. A Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay Optimized to Detect Multiple HIV Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Ocwieja, Karen E.; Sherrill-Mix, Scott; Liu, Changchun; Song, Jinzhao; Bau, Haim; Bushman, Frederic D.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic methods for detecting and quantifying HIV RNA have been improving, but efficient methods for point-of-care analysis are still needed, particularly for applications in resource-limited settings. Detection based on reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) is particularly useful for this, because when combined with fluorescence-based DNA detection, RT-LAMP can be implemented with minimal equipment and expense. Assays have been developed to detect HIV RNA with RT-LAMP, but existing methods detect only a limited subset of HIV subtypes. Here we report a bioinformatic study to develop optimized primers, followed by empirical testing of 44 new primer designs. One primer set (ACeIN-26), targeting the HIV integrase coding region, consistently detected subtypes A, B, C, D, and G. The assay was sensitive to at least 5000 copies per reaction for subtypes A, B, C, D, and G, with Z-factors of above 0.69 (detection of the minor subtype F was found to be unreliable). There are already rapid and efficient assays available for detecting HIV infection in a binary yes/no format, but the rapid RT-LAMP assay described here has additional uses, including 1) tracking response to medication by comparing longitudinal values for a subject, 2) detecting of infection in neonates unimpeded by the presence of maternal antibody, and 3) detecting infection prior to seroconversion. PMID:25675344

  20. Filter-based assay for Escherichia coli in aqueous samples using bacteriophage-based amplification.

    PubMed

    Derda, Ratmir; Lockett, Matthew R; Tang, Sindy K Y; Fuller, Renee C; Maxwell, E Jane; Breiten, Benjamin; Cuddemi, Christine A; Ozdogan, Aysegul; Whitesides, George M

    2013-08-06

    This paper describes a method to detect the presence of bacteria in aqueous samples, based on the capture of bacteria on a syringe filter, and the infection of targeted bacterial species with a bacteriophage (phage). The use of phage as a reagent provides two opportunities for signal amplification: (i) the replication of phage inside a live bacterial host and (ii) the delivery and expression of the complementing gene that turns on enzymatic activity and produces a colored or fluorescent product. Here we demonstrate a phage-based amplification scheme with an M13KE phage that delivers a small peptide motif to an F(+), α-complementing strain of Escherichia coli K12, which expresses the ω-domain of β-galactosidase (β-gal). The result of this complementation-an active form of β-gal-was detected colorimetrically, and the high level of expression of the ω-domain of β-gal in the model K12 strains allowed us to detect, on average, five colony-forming units (CFUs) of this strain in 1 L of water with an overnight culture-based assay. We also detected 50 CFUs of the model K12 strain in 1 L of water (or 10 mL of orange juice, or 10 mL of skim milk) in less than 4 h with a solution-based assay with visual readout. The solution-based assay does not require specialized equipment or access to a laboratory, and is more rapid than existing tests that are suitable for use at the point of access. This method could potentially be extended to detect many different bacteria with bacteriophages that deliver genes encoding a full-length enzyme that is not natively expressed in the target bacteria.

  1. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of capripoxviruses.

    PubMed

    Das, Amaresh; Babiuk, Shawn; McIntosh, Michael T

    2012-05-01

    Sheep pox (SP), goat pox (GP), and lumpy skin disease (LSD), caused by capripoxviruses (CaPVs), are economically important diseases of sheep, goats, and cattle, respectively. Here, we report the development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of CaPVs. LAMP primers were designed to target a conserved gene encoding the poly(A) polymerase small subunit (VP39) of CaPVs. Hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB) was incorporated to monitor assay progress by color change from violet when negative to sky blue when positive, and results were verified by agarose gel electrophoresis. The LAMP assay was shown to be highly specific for CaPVs, with no apparent cross-reactivity to other related viruses (near neighbors) or viruses that cause similar clinical signs (look-a-like viruses). The performance of LAMP was compared to that of a highly sensitive quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay. LAMP and qPCR exhibited similar analytical sensitivities, with limits of detection of 3 and 8 viral genome copies, respectively. Diagnostic specificity was assessed on 36 negative specimens, including swabs and EDTA blood from control sheep, goats, and cattle. Diagnostic sensitivity was assessed on 275 specimens, including EDTA blood, swabs, and tissues from experimentally infected sheep, goats, and cattle. Overall agreement on diagnostic test results between the two assays was 90 to 95% for specificity and 89 to 100% for sensitivity. The LAMP assay described in this report is simple to use, inexpensive, highly sensitive, and particularly well suited for the diagnosis of capripox in less well equipped laboratories and in rural settings where resources are limited.

  2. Real-time target-specific detection of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for white spot syndrome virus using fluorescence energy transfer-based probes.

    PubMed

    Chou, Pin-Hsing; Lin, Yu-Chan; Teng, Ping-Hua; Chen, Chu-Liang; Lee, Pei-Yu

    2011-04-01

    Aiming to establish a target amplicon-specific detection system for loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), the fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) probe technology was applied to develop the FRET LAMP platform. This report describes the development of the first FRET LAMP assay targeting white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of penaeid shrimp. A successful accelerated WSSV LAMP was assembled first in a conventional oven and confirmed by gel electrophoresis and dot-blot hybridization. Subsequently, two additional FRET probes designed to target one loop region within WSSV LAMP amplicons were added to the same LAMP reaction. The reactions were carried out in a LightCycler (Roche) and significant FRET signals were detected in real time. Optimization of the reaction using plasmid DNA shortened the time for the detection of 10(2) copies of the target DNA to less than 70min. Cross reactivity was absent with WSSV-free or infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus-infected Penaeus vannamei samples. The performance of this system was comparable with that of a nested PCR assay from 21 WSSV-infected shrimp. Specifically detecting target amplicons and requiring no post-amplification manipulation, the novel FRET LAMP assay should allow indisputable detection of pathogens with minimized risks of amplicon contamination.

  3. Mobile suitcase laboratory for rapid detection of Leishmania donovani using recombinase polymerase amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Dinesh; Ghosh, Prakash; Khan, Md Anik Ashfaq; Hossain, Faria; Böhlken-Fascher, Susanne; Matlashewski, Greg; Kroeger, Axel; Olliaro, Piero; Abd El Wahed, Ahmed

    2016-05-13

    Leishmania donovani (LD) is a protozoan parasite transmitted to humans from sand flies, which causes Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL). Currently, the diagnosis is based on presence of the anti-LD antibodies and clinical symptoms. Molecular diagnosis would require real-time PCR, which is not easy to implement at field settings. In this study, we report on the development and testing of a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay for the detection of LD. A genomic DNA sample was applied to determine the assay analytical sensitivity. The cross-reactivity of the assay was tested by DNA of Leishmania spp. and of pathogens considered for differential diagnosis. The clinical performance of the assay was evaluated on LD positive and negative samples. All results were compared with real-time PCR. To allow the use of the assay at field settings, a mobile suitcase laboratory (56 × 45.5 × 26.5 cm) was developed and operated at the local hospital in Mymensingh, Bangladesh. The LD RPA assay detected equivalent to one LD genomic DNA. The assay was performed at constant temperature (42 °C) in 15 min. The RPA assay also detected other Leishmania species (L. major, L. aethiopica and L. infantum), but did not identify nucleic acid of other pathogens. Forty-eight samples from VL, asymptomatic and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis subjects were detected positive and 48 LD-negative samples were negative by both LD RPA and real-time PCR assays, which indicates 100 % agreement. The suitcase laboratory was successfully operated at the local hospital by using a solar-powered battery. DNA extraction was performed by a novel magnetic bead based method (SpeedXtract), in which a simple fast lysis protocol was applied. Moreover, All reagents were cold-chain independent. The mobile suitcase laboratory using RPA is ideal for rapid sensitive and specific detection of LD especially at low resource settings and could contribute to VL control and elimination programmes.

  4. Development of a recombinase polymerase amplification assay for the detection of pathogenic Leptospira.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ahmed; van der Linden, Hans; Hartskeerl, Rudy A

    2014-05-08

    Detection of leptospires based on DNA amplification techniques is essential for the early diagnosis of leptospirosis when anti-Leptospira antibodies are below the detection limit of most serological tests. In middle and low income countries where leptospirosis is endemic, routine implementation of real-time PCR is financially and technically challenging due to the requirement of expensive thermocycler equipment. In this study we report the development and evaluation of a novel isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay (RPA) for detection of pathogenic Leptospira based on TwistAmp chemistry. RPA enabled the detection of less than two genome copies per reaction. Retrospective evaluation revealed a high diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity of 94.7% and 97.7%, respectively) compared to culturing as the reference standard. RPA presents a powerful tool for the early diagnosis of leptospirosis in humans and in animals. Furthermore, it enables the detection of the causative agent in reservoirs and environment, and as such is a valuable adjunct to current tools for surveillance and early outbreak warning.

  5. Development of a Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for the Detection of Pathogenic Leptospira

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Ahmed; van der Linden, Hans; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.

    2014-01-01

    Detection of leptospires based on DNA amplification techniques is essential for the early diagnosis of leptospirosis when anti-Leptospira antibodies are below the detection limit of most serological tests. In middle and low income countries where leptospirosis is endemic, routine implementation of real-time PCR is financially and technically challenging due to the requirement of expensive thermocycler equipment. In this study we report the development and evaluation of a novel isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay (RPA) for detection of pathogenic Leptospira based on TwistAmp chemistry. RPA enabled the detection of less than two genome copies per reaction. Retrospective evaluation revealed a high diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity of 94.7% and 97.7%, respectively) compared to culturing as the reference standard. RPA presents a powerful tool for the early diagnosis of leptospirosis in humans and in animals. Furthermore, it enables the detection of the causative agent in reservoirs and environment, and as such is a valuable adjunct to current tools for surveillance and early outbreak warning. PMID:24814943

  6. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Identification of Five Human Plasmodium Species in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lau, Yee-Ling; Lai, Meng-Yee; Fong, Mun-Yik; Jelip, Jenarun; Mahmud, Rohela

    2016-02-01

    The lack of rapid, affordable, and accurate diagnostic tests represents the primary hurdle affecting malaria surveillance in resource- and expertise-limited areas. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a sensitive, rapid, and cheap diagnostic method. Five species-specific LAMP assays were developed based on 18S rRNA gene. Sensitivity and specificity of LAMP results were calculated as compared with microscopic examination and nested polymerase chain reaction. LAMP reactions were highly sensitive with the detection limit of one copy for Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, and Plasmodium malariae and 10 copies for Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium ovale. LAMP positively detected all human malaria species in all positive samples (N = 134; sensitivity = 100%) within 35 minutes. All negative samples were not amplified by LAMP (N = 67; specificity = 100%). LAMP successfully detected two samples with very low parasitemia. LAMP may offer a rapid, simple, and reliable test for the diagnosis of malaria in areas where malaria is prevalent.

  7. Intraoperative diagnosis of sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer treatment with one-step nucleic acid amplification assay (OSNA)

    PubMed Central

    Szychta, Paweł; Westfal, Bogusław; Maciejczyk, Rafał; Smolarz, Beata; Romanowicz, Hanna; Krawczyk, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of a one-step nucleic acid amplification assay (OSNA) for intraoperative detection of metastases to sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in comparison to examination of frozen sections, and to summarize the results of previous studies. Material and methods We enrolled 98 patients aged 58.13 ±10.74 years treated surgically for breast cancer, and 99 biopsies of SLNs were followed by analysis of 105 SLNs. The central 1 mm slice of SLN was used for examination of frozen sections, whereas 2 outer slices of SLNs were analyzed intraoperatively with OSNA. Detection of isolated tumor cells (ITC), micrometastases or macrometastases with OSNA extended surgery to axillary lymph node dissection. Congruency of results was assessed between OSNA and examination of frozen sections. Results One-step nucleic acid amplification assay detected metastases in 29/105 SLNs in surgery of 27/99 breasts, including ITC in 3/29 SLNs, micrometastases in 12/29 and macrometastases in 14/29. One-step nucleic acid amplification assay detected significantly more metastases to SLNs than examination of frozen sections (p < 0.0001). All 8 inconsistent results were positive in OSNA and negative in examination of frozen sections; ITC were identified in 2/8 SLNs and micrometastases in 6/8 SLNs. Sensitivity for OSNA was calculated as 100%, specificity as 90.47%, and κ was 79.16%. Conclusions One-step nucleic acid amplification assay analysis allows rapid and quantitative detection of mRNA CK19 with high specificity and a low rate of false positives. One-step nucleic acid amplification assay is a reliable tool for intraoperative diagnosis of whole SLNs during surgery of breast cancer. One-step nucleic acid amplification assay minimizes the need for secondary surgery and avoids delays in the adjuvant treatment. PMID:27904514

  8. Design and development of PCR-free highly sensitive electrochemical assay for detection of telomerase activity using Nano-based (liposomal) signal amplification platform.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh-Ghodsi, Mohammadreza; Zavari-Nematabad, Ali; Hamishehkar, Hamed; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Mahmoudi-Badiki, Tohid; Zarghami, Faraz; Pourhassan Moghaddam, Mohammad; Alipour, Esmaeel; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2016-06-15

    Telomerase, which has been detected in almost all kinds of cancer tissues, is considered as an important tumor marker for early cancer diagnostics. In the present study, an electrochemical method based on liposomal signal amplification platform is proposed for simple, PCR-free, and highly sensitive detection of human telomerase activity, extracted from A549 cells. In this strategy, telomerase reaction products, which immobilized on streptavidin-coated microplate, hybridized with biotinylated capture probes. Then, dopamine-loaded biotinylated liposomes are attached through streptavidin to biotinylated capture probes. Finally, liposomes are ruptured by methanol and the released-dopamine is subsequently measured using differential pulse voltammetry technique by multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode. Using this strategy, the telomerase activity extracted from 10 cultured cancer cells could be detected. Therefore, this approach affords high sensitivity for telomerase activity detection and it can be regarded as an alternative to telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay, having the advantages of simplicity and less assay time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A cytometric bead assay for sensitive DNA detection based on enzyme-free signal amplification of hybridization chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wei; Liu, Hongmei; Yang, Wenxia; Fan, Yunlong; Yang, Lang; Wang, Yucong; Liu, Chenghui; Li, Zhengping

    2013-11-15

    A versatile flow cytometric bead assay (CBA) is developed for sensitive DNA detection by integrating the advantages of hybridization chain reaction (HCR) for enzyme-free signal amplification, flow cytometry for robust and rapid signal readout as well as magnetic beads (MBs) for facile separation. In this HCR-CBA, a biotinylated hairpin DNA (Bio-H1) is firstly immobilized on streptavidin-functionalized MBs. Upon the addition of target DNA, each target would hybridize with one Bio-H1 to open its hairpin structure and subsequently initiate a cascade of hybridization events between two species of fluorescent DNA hairpin probes (H1*/H2*) to form a nicked double helical DNA structure, resulting in amplified accumulation of numerous fluorophores on the MBs. Finally, the fluorescent MBs are directly analyzed by flow cytometry. This technique enables quantitative analysis of the HCR products anchored on the MBs as a function of target DNA concentration, and analysis of each sample can be completed within few minutes. Therefore, the HCR-CBA approach provides a practical DNA assay with greatly improved sensitivity. The detection limit of a model DNA target is 0.5 pM (3σ), which is about 3 orders of magnitude lower compared with traditional hybridization methods without HCR. Furthermore, the signal of complementary target can be clearly distinguished from that of single-base mismatched sequences, indicating the high specificity of the HCR-CBA. Moreover, this strategy is also successfully applied to the DNA analysis in complex biological samples, showing great potential in gene analysis and disease diagnosis in clinical samples.

  10. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of iridovirus in the Chinese giant salamander.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yan; Zhang, Hui; Liang, Hongwei; Zeng, Lingbing; Xiao, Hanbing; Xie, Congxin

    2013-12-01

    The Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus) iridovirus (GSIV) is an emerging infectious pathogen responsible for severe hemorrhagic disease and high mortality in cultured Chinese giant salamanders. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay based on the major caspid protein (MCP) gene has been developed to detect this virus. Primer pairs for the LAMP assay were designed based on the GSIV MCP gene sequence. Amplification results indicate that under optimized conditions the LAMP assay has the ability to specifically detect the virus in both diseased animals and infected epithelioma papilloma cyprinid (EPC) cells. The assay was shown to be 10-fold more sensitive than nested PCR and was able to detect concentrations of 10(-9) (approximately 0.01 pg/μL). The LAMP assay is relatively easy to perform in situ and the amplification products can be observed directly under UV light or via staining with SYBR Green I. The LAMP assay is also rapid and cost-effective. This study establishes the use of a LAMP assay for rapid detection of GSIV, which is a novel and important tool for the diagnosis of GSIV infection in laboratory or farmed Chinese giant salamanders.

  11. Rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of Clostridium tetani by loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dongneng; Pu, Xiaoyun; Wu, Jiehong; Li, Meng; Liu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Tetanus is a specific infectious disease, which is often associated with catastrophic events such as earthquakes, traumas, and war wounds. The obligate anaerobe Clostridium tetani is the pathogen that causes tetanus. Once the infection of tetanus progresses to an advanced stage within the wounds of limbs, the rates of amputation and mortality increase manifold. Therefore, it is necessary to devise a rapid and sensitive point-of-care detection method for C. tetani so as to ensure an early diagnosis and clinical treatment of tetanus. In this study, we developed a detection method for C. tetani using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay, wherein the C. tetani tetanus toxin gene was used as the target gene. The method was highly specific and sensitive, with a detection limit of 10 colony forming units (CFU)/ml, and allowed quantitative analysis. While detecting C. tetani in clinical samples, it was found that the LAMP results completely agreed with those of the traditional API 20A anaerobic bacteria identification test. As compared with the traditional API test and PCR assay, LAMP detection of C. tetani is simple and rapid, and the results can be identified through naked-eye observation. Therefore, it is an ideal and rapid point-of-care testing method for tetanus.

  12. Development of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assay for Rapid Detection of Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Masashi; Aragane, Masako; Nakamura, Kou; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Sasaki, Yohei

    2016-07-01

    In many parts of the world, the possession and cultivation of Cannabis sativa L. are restricted by law. As chemical or morphological analyses cannot identify the plant in some cases, a simple yet accurate DNA-based method for identifying C. sativa is desired. We have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid identification of C. sativa. By optimizing the conditions for the LAMP reaction that targets a highly conserved region of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene, C. sativa was identified within 50 min at 60-66°C. The detection limit was the same as or higher than that of conventional PCR. The LAMP assay detected all 21 specimens of C. sativa, showing high specificity. Using a simple protocol, the identification of C. sativa could be accomplished within 90 min from sample treatment to detection without use of special equipment. A rapid, sensitive, highly specific, and convenient method for detecting and identifying C. sativa has been developed and is applicable to forensic investigations and industrial quality control.

  13. Reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay for the detection of middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Abd El Wahed, Ahmed; Patel, Pranav; Heidenreich, Doris; Hufert, Frank T; Weidmann, Manfred

    2013-12-12

    The emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the eastern Mediterranean and imported cases to Europe has alerted public health authorities. Currently, detection of MERS-CoV in patient samples is done by real-time RT-PCR. Samples collected from suspected cases are sent to highly-equipped centralized laboratories for screening. A rapid point-of-care test is needed to allow more widespread mobile detection of the virus directly from patient material. In this study, we describe the development of a reverse transcription isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the identification of MERS-CoV. A partial nucleocapsid gene RNA molecular standard of MERS-coronavirus was used to determine the assay sensitivity. The isothermal (42°C) MERS-CoV RT-RPA was as sensitive as real-time RT-PCR (10 RNA molecules), rapid (3-7 minutes) and mobile (using tubescanner weighing 1kg). The MERS-CoV RT-RPA showed cross-detection neither of any of the RNAs of several coronaviruses and respiratory viruses affecting humans nor of the human genome. The developed isothermal real-time RT-RPA is ideal for rapid mobile molecular MERS-CoV monitoring in acute patients and may also facilitate the search for the animal reservoir of MERS-CoV.

  14. Real-time PCR Detection of Brucella Abortus: A Comparative Study of SYBR Green I, 5'-exonuclease, and Hybridization Probe Assays

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, Deborah Trishelle; Hadfield, Ted; Roberto, Francisco Figueroa

    2003-08-01

    Real-time PCR provides a means of detecting and quantifying DNA targets by monitoring PCR product accumulation during cycling as indicated by increased fluorescence. A number of different approaches can be used to generate the fluorescence signal. Three approaches—SYBR Green I (a double-stranded DNA intercalating dye), 5'-exonuclease (enzymatically released fluors), and hybridization probes (fluorescence resonance energy transfer)—were evaluated for use in a real-time PCR assay to detect Brucella abortus. The three assays utilized the same amplification primers to produce an identical amplicon. This amplicon spans a region of the B. abortus genome that includes portions of the alkB gene and the IS711 insertion element. All three assays were of comparable sensitivity, providing a linear assay over 7 orders of magnitude (from 7.5 ng down to 7.5 fg). However, the greatest specificity was achieved with the hybridization probe assay.

  15. Locked Nucleic Acid Probe-Based Real-Time PCR Assay for the Rapid Detection of Rifampin-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Guilian; Sun, Chongyun; Li, Chao; Wang, Xiaochen; Liu, Haican; Zhang, Pingping; Zhao, Xiuqin; Wang, Xinrui; Jiang, Yi; Yang, Ruifu; Wan, Kanglin; Zhou, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be rapidly diagnosed through nucleic acid amplification techniques by analyzing the variations in the associated gene sequences. In the present study, a locked nucleic acid (LNA) probe-based real-time PCR assay was developed to identify the mutations in the rpoB gene associated with rifampin (RFP) resistance in M. tuberculosis. Six LNA probes with the discrimination capability of one-base mismatch were designed to monitor the 23 most frequent rpoB mutations. The target mutations were identified using the probes in a "probe dropout" manner (quantification cycle = 0); thus, the proposed technique exhibited superiority in mutation detection. The LNA probe-based real-time PCR assay was developed in a two-tube format with three LNA probes and one internal amplification control probe in each tube. The assay showed excellent specificity to M. tuberculosis with or without RFP resistance by evaluating 12 strains of common non-tuberculosis mycobacteria. The limit of detection of M. tuberculosis was 10 genomic equivalents (GE)/reaction by further introducing a nested PCR method. In a blind validation of 154 clinical mycobacterium isolates, 142/142 (100%) were correctly detected through the assay. Of these isolates, 88/88 (100%) were determined as RFP susceptible and 52/54 (96.3%) were characterized as RFP resistant. Two unrecognized RFP-resistant strains were sequenced and were found to contain mutations outside the range of the 23 mutation targets. In conclusion, this study established a sensitive, accurate, and low-cost LNA probe-based assay suitable for a four-multiplexing real-time PCR instrument. The proposed method can be used to diagnose RFP-resistant tuberculosis in clinical laboratories.

  16. Development of a rapid diagnostic assay for the detection of tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid based on isothermal reverse-transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Rosemarie W; Zhang, Shulu

    2016-10-01

    A molecular diagnostic assay utilizing reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) at an isothermal constant temperature of 39°C and target-specific primers and probe were developed for the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) in infected leaf and seed tissues. The performance of the AmplifyRP(®) Acceler8™ RT-RPA diagnostic assay, utilizing a lateral flow strip contained within an amplicon detection chamber, was evaluated and the results were compared with a standard RT-PCR assay. The AmplifyRP(®) Acceler8™ assay was specific for TCDVd in leaf and seed tissues, its sensitivity was comparable to conventional RT-PCR in leaf tissues, and it does not require extensive sample purification, specialized equipment, or technical expertise. This is the first report utilizing an RT-RPA assay to detect viroids and the assay can be used both in the laboratory and in the field for TCDVd detection.

  17. Visual detection of H3 subtype avian influenza viruses by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent epidemiological investigation of different HA subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) shows that the H3 subtype is the most predominant among low pathogenic AIVs (LPAIVs), and the seasonal variations in isolation of H3 subtype AIVs are consistent with that of human H3 subtype influenza viruses. Consequently, the development of a rapid, simple, sensitive detection method for H3 subtype AIVs is required. The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive and cost-effective nucleic acid amplification method that does not require any specialized equipment. Results A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed to detect the H3 subtype AIVs visually. Specific primer sets target the sequences of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of H3 subtype AIVs were designed, and assay reaction conditions were optimized. The established assay was performed in a water bath for 50 minutes, and the amplification result was visualized directly as well as under ultraviolet (UV) light reflections. The detection limit of the RT-LAMP assay was 0.1pg total RNA of virus, which was one hundred-fold higher than that of RT-PCR. The results on specificity indicated that the assay had no cross-reactions with other subtype AIVs or avian respiratory pathogens. Furthermore, a total of 176 clinical samples collected from birds at the various live-bird markets (LBMs) were subjected to the H3-subtype-specific RT-LAMP (H3-RT-LAMP). Thirty-eight H3 subtype AIVs were identified from the 176 clinical samples that were consistent with that of virus isolation. Conclusions The newly developed H3-RT-LAMP assay is simple, sensitive, rapid and can identify H3 subtype AIVs visually. Consequently, it will be a very useful screening assay for the surveillance of H3 subtype AIVs in underequipped laboratories as well as in field conditions. PMID:21729297

  18. Application of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for molecular identification of Trueperella pyogenes isolated from various origins.

    PubMed

    Abdulmawjood, A; Wickhorst, J; Hashim, O; Sammra, O; Hassan, A A; Alssahen, M; Lämmler, C; Prenger-Berninghoff, E; Klein, G

    2016-08-01

    In the present study 28 Trueperella pyogenes strains isolated from various origins could successfully be identified with a newly designed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay based on gene cpn60 encoding chaperonin. No cross reaction could be observed with control strains representing four species of genus Trueperella and seven species of closely related genus Arcanobacterium. The present cpn60 LAMP assay might allow a reliable and low cost identification of T. pyogenes also in laboratories with less specified equipment.

  19. Visual detection of H3 subtype avian influenza viruses by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yi; Xie, Zhixun; Liu, Jiabo; Pang, Yaoshan; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Zhiqin; Xie, Liji; Fan, Qing; Feng, Jiaxun; Khan, Mazhar I

    2011-07-05

    Recent epidemiological investigation of different HA subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) shows that the H3 subtype is the most predominant among low pathogenic AIVs (LPAIVs), and the seasonal variations in isolation of H3 subtype AIVs are consistent with that of human H3 subtype influenza viruses. Consequently, the development of a rapid, simple, sensitive detection method for H3 subtype AIVs is required. The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive and cost-effective nucleic acid amplification method that does not require any specialized equipment. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed to detect the H3 subtype AIVs visually. Specific primer sets target the sequences of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of H3 subtype AIVs were designed, and assay reaction conditions were optimized. The established assay was performed in a water bath for 50 minutes, and the amplification result was visualized directly as well as under ultraviolet (UV) light reflections. The detection limit of the RT-LAMP assay was 0.1pg total RNA of virus, which was one hundred-fold higher than that of RT-PCR. The results on specificity indicated that the assay had no cross-reactions with other subtype AIVs or avian respiratory pathogens. Furthermore, a total of 176 clinical samples collected from birds at the various live-bird markets (LBMs) were subjected to the H3-subtype-specific RT-LAMP (H3-RT-LAMP). Thirty-eight H3 subtype AIVs were identified from the 176 clinical samples that were consistent with that of virus isolation. The newly developed H3-RT-LAMP assay is simple, sensitive, rapid and can identify H3 subtype AIVs visually. Consequently, it will be a very useful screening assay for the surveillance of H3 subtype AIVs in underequipped laboratories as well as in field conditions.

  20. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay and sample preparation procedure for sensitive detection of Xanthomonas fragariae in strawberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Xanthomonas fragariae is a bacterium that causes angular leaf spot of strawberry. Asymptomatic infections are common and contribute to the difficulties in disease management. The aim of this study was to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay with a bacterial enrichment proced...

  1. One-step reverse transcription loop mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the detection of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) was developed. In this method, a set of four primers was designed based on the conserved regions in the coat protein gene of ACLSV, and was synthesized for the ...

  2. Double-probe signal enhancing strategy for toxin aptasensing based on rolling circle amplification.

    PubMed

    Tong, Ping; Zhao, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Lan; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2012-03-15

    On the basis of aptamer-based rolling circle amplification (RCA) and magnetic beads (MBs), a highly sensitive electrochemical method was developed for the determination of Ochratoxin A (OTA). Initially, an amino-modified capture DNA was immobilized onto MBs for the following hybridization with an OTA aptamer and a phosphate labeled padlock DNA. In the presence of OTA, the aptamer would dissociate from the bioconjugate, and the padlock DNA would subsequently hybridize with the capture DNA to form a circular template with the aid of the T4 ligase. Next, capture DNA would act as primer to initiate a linear RCA reaction and hence generate a long tandem repeated sequences by phi29 DNA polymerase and dNTPs. Then, two quantum dots (QDs) labeled DNA probes were tagged on the resulted RCA product to indicate the OTA recognition event by electrochemical readout. This strategy, based on the novel design of OTA-mediated DNA circularization, the combination of RCA and double signal probes introduction, could detect OTA down to the level of 0.2 pg mL(-1) with a dynamic range spanning more than 4 orders of magnitude. The proposed approach is tested to determine OTA in red wines and shows good application potential in real samples.

  3. Rapid identification and characterization of Penicillium marneffei using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in paraffin-embedded tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-Min; Sun, Jiu-Feng; Feng, Pei-Ying; Li, Xi-Qing; Lu, Chang-Ming; Lu, Sha; Cai, Wen-Ying; Xi, Li-Yan; de Hoog, G S

    2011-04-01

    Penicillium marneffei infection is a deadly disease and early diagnosis leads to prompt and appropriate antifungal therapy. To develop a sensitive method to diagnose P. marneffei infection, a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay was adapted. This method can rapidly and specifically detect P. marneffei DNA in cultured cells and paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Three pairs of probes were designed for amplifying the internally (intergenic) transcribed spacer (ITS) region of P. marneffei rRNA using a systematic phylogenetic analysis. These three probe sets produced three amplicons of 198, 166, and 152 bp, respectively, specific for P. marneffei. In contrast, there was only one 198 bp amplicon produced for Talaromyces stipitatus, and one 152 bp amplicon for P. funiculosum, T. intermedius and T. derxii. The probes did not amplify any other reference strains. An array of 40 P. marneffei strains isolated from human patients, bamboo rat, and the local environment was tested by using MLPA, and all were positively identified. Most importantly, P. marneffei in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from infected human patients was positively amplified by MLPA. The sensitivity and specificity of the MLPA assay could be a useful tool for prompt diagnosis, pathogen characterization, and epidemiological studies of fungal infections.

  4. A novel magneto-DNA duplex probe for bacterial DNA detection based on exonuclease III-aided cycling amplification.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan; Wan, Yi; Zhang, Dun; Qi, Peng

    2015-01-01

    A novel magneto-DNA duplex probe for bacterial DNA detection based on exonuclease III (Exo-III) aided cycling amplification has been developed. This magneto-DNA duplex probe contains a partly hybrid fluorophore-modified capture probe and a fluorophore-modified signal probe with magnetic microparticle as carrier. In the presence of a perfectly matched target bacterial DNA, blunt 3'-terminus of the capture probe is formed, activating the Exo-III aided cycling amplification. Thus, Exo-III catalyzes the stepwise removal of mononucleotides from this terminus, releasing both fluorophore-modified signal probe, fluorescent dyes of the capture probe and target DNA. The released target DNA then starts a new cycle, while released fluorescent fragments are recovered with magnetic separation for fluorescence signal collection. This system exhibited sensitive detection of bacterial DNA, with a detection limit of 14 pM because of the unique cleavage function of Exo-III, high fluorescence intensity, and separating function of magneto-DNA duplex probes. Besides this sensitivity, this strategy exhibited excellent selectivity with mismatched bacterial DNA targets and other bacterial species targets and good applicability in real seawater samples, hence, this strategy could be potentially used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of bacteria.

  5. Development of Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assays for Detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi or Rickettsia typhi.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chien-Chung; Belinskaya, Tatyana; Zhang, Zhiwen; Ching, Wei-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Sensitive, specific and rapid diagnostic tests for the detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi (O. tsutsugamushi) and Rickettsia typhi (R. typhi), the causative agents of scrub typhus and murine typhus, respectively, are necessary to accurately and promptly diagnose patients and ensure that they receive proper treatment. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assays using a lateral flow test (RPA-nfo) and real-time fluorescent detection (RPA-exo) were developed targeting the 47-kDa gene of O. tsutsugamushi or 17 kDa gene of R. typhi. The RPA assay was capable of detecting O. tsutsugamushi or R. typhi at levels comparable to that of the quantitative PCR method. Both the RPA-nfo and RPA-exo methods performed similarly with regards to sensitivity when detecting the 17 kDa gene of R. typhi. On the contrary, RPA-exo performed better than RPA-nfo in detecting the 47 kDa gene of O. tsutsugamushi. The clinical performance of the O. tsutsugamushi RPA assay was evaluated using either human patient samples or infected mouse samples. Eight out of ten PCR confirmed positives were determined positive by RPA, and all PCR confirmed negative samples were negative by RPA. Similar results were obtained for R. typhi spiked patient sera. The assays were able to differentiate O. tsutsugamushi and R. typhi from other phylogenetically related bacteria as well as mouse and human DNA. Furthermore, the RPA-nfo reaction was completed in 20 minutes at 37°C followed by a 10 minute incubation at room temperature for development of an immunochromatographic strip. The RPA-exo reaction was completed in 20 minutes at 39°C. The implementation of a cross contamination proof cassette to detect the RPA-nfo fluorescent amplicons provided an alternative to regular lateral flow detection strips, which are more prone to cross contamination. The RPA assays provide a highly time-efficient, sensitive and specific alternative to other methods for diagnosing scrub typhus or murine typhus.

  6. Development of Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assays for Detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi or Rickettsia typhi

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chien-Chung; Belinskaya, Tatyana; Zhang, Zhiwen; Ching, Wei-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Sensitive, specific and rapid diagnostic tests for the detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi (O. tsutsugamushi) and Rickettsia typhi (R. typhi), the causative agents of scrub typhus and murine typhus, respectively, are necessary to accurately and promptly diagnose patients and ensure that they receive proper treatment. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assays using a lateral flow test (RPA-nfo) and real-time fluorescent detection (RPA-exo) were developed targeting the 47-kDa gene of O. tsutsugamushi or 17 kDa gene of R. typhi. The RPA assay was capable of detecting O. tsutsugamushi or R. typhi at levels comparable to that of the quantitative PCR method. Both the RPA-nfo and RPA-exo methods performed similarly with regards to sensitivity when detecting the 17 kDa gene of R. typhi. On the contrary, RPA-exo performed better than RPA-nfo in detecting the 47 kDa gene of O. tsutsugamushi. The clinical performance of the O. tsutsugamushi RPA assay was evaluated using either human patient samples or infected mouse samples. Eight out of ten PCR confirmed positives were determined positive by RPA, and all PCR confirmed negative samples were negative by RPA. Similar results were obtained for R. typhi spiked patient sera. The assays were able to differentiate O. tsutsugamushi and R. typhi from other phylogenetically related bacteria as well as mouse and human DNA. Furthermore, the RPA-nfo reaction was completed in 20 minutes at 37oC followed by a 10 minute incubation at room temperature for development of an immunochromatographic strip. The RPA-exo reaction was completed in 20 minutes at 39oC. The implementation of a cross contamination proof cassette to detect the RPA-nfo fluorescent amplicons provided an alternative to regular lateral flow detection strips, which are more prone to cross contamination. The RPA assays provide a highly time-efficient, sensitive and specific alternative to other methods for diagnosing scrub typhus or murine typhus. PMID:26161793

  7. A high-throughput, nonisotopic, competitive binding assay for kinases using nonselective inhibitor probes (ED-NSIP).

    PubMed

    Vainshtein, Inna; Silveria, Scott; Kaul, Poonam; Rouhani, Riaz; Eglen, Richard M; Wang, John

    2002-12-01

    A novel competitive binding assay for protein kinase inhibitors has been developed for high-throughput screening (HTS). Unlike functional kinase assays, which are based on detection of substrate phosphorylation by the enzyme, this novel method directly measures the binding potency of compounds to the kinase ATP binding site through competition with a conjugated binding probe. The binding interaction is coupled to a signal amplification system based on complementation of beta-galactosidase enzyme fragments, a homogeneous, nonisotopic assay technology platform developed by DiscoveRx Corp. In the present study, staurosporine, a potent, nonselective kinase inhibitor, was chemically conjugated to a small fragment of beta-galactosidase (termed ED-SS). This was used as the binding probe to the kinase ATP binding pocket. The binding potencies of several inhibitors with diverse structures were assessed by displacement of ED-SS from the kinase. The assay format was specifically evaluated with GSK3alpha, an enzyme previously screened in a radioactive kinase assay (i.e., measurement of [(33)P]-gamma-ATP incorporation into the kinase peptide substrate). Under optimized assay conditions, nonconjugated staurosporine inhibited ED-SS binding in a concentration-dependent manner with an apparent potency (IC(50)) of 11 nM, which was similar to the IC(50) value determined in a radioactive assay. Furthermore, 9 kinase inhibitors with diverse structures, previously identified from chemical compound library screening, were screened using the competitive binding assay. The potencies in the binding assay were in very good agreement with those obtained previously in the isotopic functional activity assay. The binding assay was adapted for automated HTS using selected compound libraries in a 384-well microtiter plate format. The HTS assay was observed to be highly robust and reproducible (Z' factors > 0.7) with high interassay precision (R(2) > 0.96). Interference of compounds with the beta

  8. Nonisotopic detection of human papillomavirus DNA in clinical specimens using a consensus PCR and a generic probe mix in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay format.

    PubMed

    Kornegay, J R; Shepard, A P; Hankins, C; Franco, E; Lapointe, N; Richardson, H; Coutleé, F

    2001-10-01

    We assessed the value of a new digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled generic probe mix in a PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay format to screen for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA amplified from clinical specimens. After screening with this new generic assay is performed, HPV DNA-positive samples can be directly genotyped using a reverse blotting method with product from the same PCR amplification. DNA from 287 genital specimens was amplified via PCR using biotin-labeled consensus primers directed to the L1 gene. HPV amplicons were captured on a streptavidin-coated microwell plate (MWP) and detected with a DIG-labeled HPV generic probe mix consisting of nested L1 fragments from types 11, 16, 18, and 51. Coamplification and detection of human DNA with biotinylated beta-globin primers served as a control for both sample adequacy and PCR amplification. All specimens were genotyped using a reverse line blot assay (13). Results for the generic assay using MWPs and a DIG-labeled HPV generic probe mix (DIG-MWP generic probe assay) were compared with results from a previous analysis using dot blots with a radiolabeled nested generic probe mix and type-specific probes for genotyping. The DIG-MWP generic probe assay resulted in high intralaboratory concordance in genotyping results (88% versus 73% agreement using traditional methods). There were 207 HPV-positive results using the DIG-MWP method and 196 positives using the radiolabeled generic probe technique, suggesting slightly improved sensitivity. Only one sample failed to test positive with the DIG-MWP generic probe assay in spite of a positive genotyping result. Concordance between the two laboratories was nearly 87%. Approximately 6% of samples that were positive or borderline when tested with the DIG-MWP generic probe assay were not detected with the HPV type-specific panel, perhaps representing very rare or novel HPV types. This new method is easier to perform than traditional generic probe techniques and uses

  9. Probing quantum coherence in a biological system by means of DNA amplification.

    PubMed

    Bieberich, E

    2000-07-01

    As a result of rapid decoherence, quantum effects in biological systems are usually confined to single electron or hydrogen delocalizations. In principle, molecular interactions at high temperatures can be guided by quantum coherence if embedded in a dynamics preventing decoherence. This was experimentally investigated by analyzing the thermodynamics, kinetics, and quantum mechanics of the primer/template duplex formation during DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction. The structures of the two oligonucleotide primers used for amplification of a cDNA template were derived either from a repetitive motif or a fractal distribution of nucleotide residues. Contrary to the computer-based calculation of the primer melting temperatures (T(m)) that predicted a higher T(m) for the non-fractal primer due to nearest-neighbor effects, it was found that the T(m) of the non-fractal primer was actually 2 degrees C lower than that of its fractal counterpart. A thermodynamic analysis of the amplification reaction indicated that the primer annealing process followed Bose-Einstein instead of Boltzmann statistics, with an additional binding potential of mu=500 J/mol or 10(-21) J/molecule due to a superposition of binding states within the primer/template duplex. The temporal evolution of the Bose-Einstein state was determined by enzyme kinetic analysis of the association of the primer/template duplex to Taq polymerase. Assuming that collision with the enzyme interrupted the superposition, it was found that the Bose-Einstein state lasted for t(dec)=0.7x10(-12) s, corresponding to the energy dispersion (DeltaE) of quantum coherent states (mu=DeltaE>/=h/t(dec)). A quantum mechanical analysis revealed that the coherent state was stabilized by almost vanishing separation energies between distinct binding states during a temperature-driven shifting of the two DNA strands in the primer/template duplex. The additional binding potential is suggested to arise from a short-lived electron

  10. Comparison of isothermal helicase-dependent amplification and PCR for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by an electrochemical genomagnetic assay.

    PubMed

    Barreda-García, Susana; Miranda-Castro, Rebeca; de-Los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; Miranda-Ordieres, Arturo J; Lobo-Castañón, M Jesús

    2016-12-01

    Methods for the early and sensitive detection of pathogenic bacteria suited to low-resource settings could impact diagnosis and management of diseases. Helicase-dependent isothermal amplification (HDA) is an ideal tool for this purpose, especially when combined with a sequence-specific detection method able to improve the selectivity of the assay. The implementation of this approach requires that its analytical performance is shown to be comparable with the gold standard method, polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In this study, we optimize and compare the asymmetric amplification of an 84-base-long DNA sequence specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis by PCR and HDA, using an electrochemical genomagnetic assay for hybridization-based detection of the obtained single-stranded amplicons. The results indicate the generalizability of the magnetic platform with electrochemical detection for quantifying amplification products without previous purification. Moreover, we demonstrate that under optimal conditions the same gene can be amplified by either PCR or HDA, allowing the detection of as low as 30 copies of the target gene sequence with acceptable reproducibility. Both assays have been applied to the detection of M. tuberculosis in sputum, urine, and pleural fluid samples with comparable results. Simplicity and isothermal nature of HDA offer great potential for the development of point-of-care devices. Graphical Abstract Comparative evaluation of isothermal helicase-dependent amplification and PCR for electrochemical detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  11. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification as a reliable assay for Toxocara canis infection in pet dogs.

    PubMed

    Khoshakhlagh, Paria; Spotin, Adel; Mahami-Oskouei, Mahmoud; Shahbazi, Abbas; Ozlati, Maryam

    2017-07-09

    Keeping of infected dogs as pet results in the potential transmission risk factors for shedding helminthic infections such as toxocariasis. Lack of accurate identification of Toxocara canis eggs in non-dewormed infected pet dogs remains a diagnostic concern among researchers. In this study, dog owners were asked to fill up a questionnaire regarding their pets and their attitude towards the deworming regimen. One hundred faecal samples were collected from pet dogs (Northwest Iran) and were subsequently identified by the ZnSo4 flotation technique, PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays. The DNA of the recovered T. canis eggs was then extracted and amplified by LAMP and PCR. Furthermore, ITS2 amplicons were sequenced for appraisal of the phylogenetic analysis. Nine, 5 and 11% of T. canis infections were identified by microscopy, PCR and LAMP, respectively. It was detected that LAMP was 10 times (10(-10)to 10(-13) g/μl) more sensitive than PCR (10(-10)to 10(-12) g/μl). The kappa value between LAMP and PCR indicated a faint concurrence (0.463). The kappa coefficient between LAMP and flotation technique indicated a strong agreement (0.667). The highest infection rate (n = 11) was detected in non-dewormed pet dogs, particularly those less than 3 months old (P < 0.05). None of the infected dogs had a history of walking and kennelled behaviours in public places. The LAMP assay can address as a simple, rapid and highly sensitive technique for detecting low burden of T. canis eggs in infected pet dogs. It was proposed that the dog holder's awareness is insufficient to implement regular deworming schedules. Additionally, regional policymakers should broadly revise anthelmintic treatment guidelines.

  12. Rapid detection of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay combined with a lateral flow dipstick method.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Wu, Jiege; Lin, Feng; Chen, Naifu; Yuan, Shaofei; Ding, Lina; Gao, Li; Hang, Bangxing

    2015-12-01

    The Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a principal pathogen of the domestic silkworm. The disease often breaks out in sericultural countries and due to its high infectivity; it is difficult to control, resulting in heavy economic loss. In order to develop a rapid, sensitive visual detection and simple-to-use novel technology for detection of BmNPV, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay combined with a lateral flow dipstick (LFD) method was described. In this study, a set of four primers and a labeled probe were designed specifically to recognize six distinct regions of the BmNPV gp41 gene, and the LAMP for the detection of BmNPV was developed by isothermal amplification at 61 °C for 45 min, followed by hybridization with an FITC-labeled DNA probe for 5 min and detected by LFD within 5 min. The detection limit of LAMP-LFD was 0.2 pg DNA extracted from silkworm infected with BmNPV and was 100 times more sensitive than conventional PCR. No product was generated from silkworm infected with other viruses. Furthermore, we applied the technique to detect BmNPV in the hemolymph and feces at different intervals post infection (pi). In conclusion, the novel LAMP-LFD setup presented here is simple, rapid, reliable, and has the potential for future use in the detection of BmNPV.

  13. Assay for Listeria monocytogenes cells in whole blood using isotachophoresis and recombinase polymerase amplification.

    PubMed

    Eid, Charbel; Santiago, Juan G

    2016-12-19

    We present a new approach which enables lysis, extraction, and detection of inactivated Listeria monocytogenes cells from blood using isotachophoresis (ITP) and recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). We use an ITP-compatible alkaline and proteinase K approach for rapid and effective lysis. We then perform ITP purification to separate bacterial DNA from whole blood contaminants using a microfluidic device that processes 25 μL sample volume. Lysis, mixing, dispensing, and on-chip ITP purification are completed in a total of less than 50 min. We transfer extracted DNA directly into RPA master mix for isothermal incubation and detection, an additional 25 min. We first validate our assay in the detection of purified genomic DNA spiked into whole blood, and demonstrate a limit of detection of 16.7 fg μL(-1) genomic DNA, the equivalent of 5 × 10(3) cells per mL. We then show detection of chemically-inactivated L. monocytogenes cells spiked into whole blood, and demonstrate a limit of detection of 2 × 10(4) cells per mL. Lastly, we show preliminary experimental data demonstrating the feasibility of the integration of ITP purification with RPA detection on a microfluidic chip. Our results suggest that ITP purification is compatible with RPA detection, and has potential to extend the applicability of RPA to whole blood.

  14. Ultra-high-throughput, automated nucleic acid detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for infant infection diagnosis using the Gen-Probe Aptima HIV-1 screening assay.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Wendy S; Noble, Lara; Berrie, Leigh; Sarang, Somaya; Scott, Lesley E

    2009-08-01

    The early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in infants is critical to ensure the initiation of treatment before significant immunological compromise. Each year an estimated 300,000 HIV-exposed infants in South Africa require access to tests for the diagnosis of HIV infection. Currently, testing is performed at several facilities by using PCR amplification of HIV DNA at 6 weeks of age by the use of dried blood spots (DBSs) and whole blood (WB). The Gen-Probe Aptima HIV type 1 (HIV-1) screening assay (the Aptima assay) is a qualitative nucleic acid test based on transcription-mediated amplification (TMA), a technology routinely used in blood banks in South Africa. The performance characteristics of Gen-Probe's TMA technology compared well to those of the Roche Amplicor HIV-1 DNA (version 1.5) assay. The sensitivity of the assay with WB and DBS samples was 100%, and the specificities were 99.4% and 99.5% for DBSs and WB, respectively. The detection of HIV by the Aptima assay at greater levels of dilution in samples negative by the comparator assay indicates an improvement in sensitivity by the use of the TMA technology. The ability to process 1,900 samples in a 24-h period on the Tigris instrument makes the Aptima assay an attractive option for high-volume, centralized laboratories.

  15. Triblock copolymer-based microchip device for rapid analysis of stuffer-free multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification products.

    PubMed

    Shin, Gi Won; Kim, Yong Tae; Heo, Hyun Young; Chung, Boram; Seo, Tae Seok; Jung, Gyoo Yeol

    2012-12-01

    Recent improvements in the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) method promise successful multiplex analysis of various genetic markers. In particular, it has been demonstrated that elimination of the stuffer sequence included in MLPA probes for length-dependent analysis substantially simplifies the probe design process and improves the accuracy of the analysis. As is the case for other CE-based methods, MLPA could be further developed on a microchip platform. However, high-resolution analysis of short MLPA probes requires careful microchip operation. In this study, we developed a microchip device for the multiplex analysis of five food-borne pathogens using a stuffer-free probe set. Microchip channel design and electrophoresis operating conditions were first optimized for reproducible analysis, after which two sieving matrices were tested. Finally, the method was validated using DNA samples isolated from intentionally infected milk. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Rapid Detection of Hepatitis B Virus in Blood Plasma by a Specific and Sensitive Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay

    PubMed Central

    Nyan, Dougbeh-Chris; Ulitzky, Laura E.; Cehan, Nicoleta; Williamson, Phillip; Winkelman, Valerie; Rios, Maria; Taylor, Deborah R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an important blood-borne pathogen that causes hepatic inflammation and can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Conventional methods of HBV detection are time consuming and require highly trained personnel and elaborate equipment. This report describes the development of a rapid, simple, specific, and sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (LAMP) for detection of HBV genotypes A, B, C, D, E, and F in blood samples. Methods. HBV standard plasma panels and clinical donor plasma specimens were used for the development and validation of the LAMP assay. Amplification was performed at 60°C for 60 minutes using extracted DNA or heat-treated plasma specimens without DNA extraction. The assay was evaluated for its ability to detect various HBV genotypes and for its sensitivity, specificity, and time-point of detection. Results. The LAMP assay detected HBV genotypes A–F and demonstrated a sensitivity of 10–100 IU per reaction of HBV DNA. The assay also detected 69 of 75 (92%) HBV-positive donor plasma specimens tested and demonstrated a specificity of 100%. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that our HBV-LAMP assay is rapid, sensitive and specific, and capable of detecting the major HBV genotypes. This assay could be used in clinical point-of-care settings, mainly in endemic and resource-limited environments for HBV diagnostics, donor screening, epidemiological studies, and therapeutic monitoring of patients undergoing antiviral treatment. PMID:24704724

  17. Noncardiac DiGeorge syndrome diagnosed with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification: A case report.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chih-Hsuan; Leung, Cheung; Kao, Chuan-Hong; Yeh, Shu-Jen

    2015-08-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is not really a rare disease. A microdeletion of chromosome 22q11.2 is found in most patients. Sharing the same genetic cause, a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations such as conotruncal anomaly face syndrome, Cayler cardiofacial syndrome, and velocardiofacial syndrome have been reported. Classic characteristics are cardiac defects, abnormal facial features, thymic hypoplasia, cleft palate, and hypocalcemia. We report a 6-year-old female child presenting with generalized seizure resulting from hypocalcemia. She had no cardiac defects and no hypocalcemia episode in neonatal stage, and had been said to be normal before by her parents until the diagnosis was made. This highlights the importance of extracardiac manifestations in the diagnosis of DiGeorge syndrome, and many affected patients may be underestimated with minor facial dysmorphism. As health practitioners, it is our duty to identify the victims undermined in the population, and start thorough investigations and the following rehabilitation as soon as possible. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification is a rapid, reliable, and economical alternative for the diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletion.

  18. Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification in X-linked Recessive Muscular Dystrophy in Korean Subjects.

    PubMed

    Suh, Mi Ri; Lee, Kyung A; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Jiho; Choi, Won Ah; Kang, Seong Woong

    2017-05-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) are similar genetic disorders whose patterns of mutation and disease phenotypes might be expected to show differences among different countries. We analyzed multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) data in a large number of Korean patients with DMD/BMD. We obtained 130 positive MLPA results (86 DMD, 27 BMD, and 17 female carriers) from 272 candidates (237 clinically suspected patients and 35 possible female carriers) who took part in this study. We analyzed the mutation patterns among 113 patients diagnosed by MLPA and calculated deletion/duplication percentages from a total of 128 patients, including 15 patients who were diagnosed using methods other than MLPA. We also analyzed hot spot locations among the 130 MLPA-positive results. Most mutations were detected in a central hot spot region between exons 44 and 55 (80 samples, 60.6%). Unlike previous reports, a second frequently observed hot spot near the 5'-end was not distinctive. MLPA detected deletions in specific exons in 92 patients with DMD/BMD (71.8%) and duplications in 21 patients (16.4%). Our MLPA study of a large number of Korean patients with DMD/BMD identified the most frequent mutation hot spot, as well as a unique hot spot pattern. DMD gene mutation patterns do not appear to show significant ethnic differences.

  19. [Application of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification technique in prenatal diagnosis of α-thalassemia].

    PubMed

    Hao, Ying; Xu, Xiaoxin; Xu, Zhiyong; Jiang, Niping; Wu, Weiqing; Jin, Qing; Yin, Shanshan; Cai, Yun; Xie, Jiansheng

    2015-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the application value of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) for the detection of gene deletion and prenatal diagnosis of α-thalassemia. METHODS MLPA was applied for 2 cases with α-thalassemia phenotype by whole blood cell counting and hemoglobin component detection but were ruled out by regular molecular diagnosis. Potential gene deletions and point mutations of α-thalassemia gene were detected with regular Gap-polymerase chain reaction (Gap-PCR) and reverse dot blotting (RDB) in 89 cases where one or both partners were carriers of α-thalassemia mutations. Meanwhile, MLPA was used for detecting α-globin gene deletion among the 89 samples. RESULTS For the 2 cases with α-thalassemia phenotype, no α globin gene deletion was detected by MLPA, but were subsequently confirmed as iron-deficiency anemia. The results of MLPA and Gap-PCR detection for the 88 cases were consistent, except for 1 fetal sample (chorionic villi) which could not be diagnosed by Gap-PCR and was confirmed to be - SEA/αα by MLPA. CONCLUSION MLPA can be applied to prenatal diagnosis of α-thalassemia as an effective supplement to Gap-PCR to reduce both misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis and improve the accuracy of prenatal diagnosis.

  20. Detection of Chromosome Aneuploidies in Chorionic Villus Samples by Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Kooper, Angelique J.A.; Faas, Brigitte H.W.; Feuth, Ton; Creemers, Johan W.T.; Zondervan, Hans H.; Boekkooi, Peter F.; Quartero, Rik W.P.; Rijnders, Robbert J.P.; van der Burgt, Ineke; van Kessel, Ad Geurts; Smits, Arie P.T.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the suitability of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in chorionic villus samples as a replacement for traditional karyotyping for the detection of (an)euploidies of chromosomes 21, 18, 13, X, and Y. Chorionic villus samples were diagnosed by traditional karyotyping using short-term cultures (STC) and long-term cultures (LTC), and by MLPA using kit P095. DNA was extracted after digestion of whole villi with proteinase K and/or trypsin and collagenase. Different cell-dissociation procedures were tested to obtain MLPA results representative of the cytotrophoblast layer and the mesenchymal core. Over 95% of the MLPA results were in concordance with the traditional karyotyping of STC and LTC. Traditional karyotyping revealed seven mosaics. After digestion of whole villi with proteinase K, only abnormal cell lines confined to the STC gave rise to abnormal MLPA results. In one sample, the complete discrepancy between STC and LTC was resolved after enzymatic dissociation of cells from the cytotrophoblast layer and the mesenchymal core. MLPA in chorionic villus samples was found to be a reliable test for the detection of (an)euploidies of chromosomes 21, 18, 13, X, and Y. Whole villi digestion with proteinase K resulted in the over-representation of cytotrophoblasts in the DNA pool. To obtain MLPA results representative for STC and LTC, enzymatic dissociation of cells from the cytotrophoblast layer and mesenchymal core is required. PMID:19074591

  1. A label-free fluorescent probe based on DNA-templated silver nanoclusters and exonuclease III-assisted recycling amplification detection of nucleic acid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Tian, Jianniao; Ma, Yefei; Wang, Lijun; Zhao, Yanchun; Zhao, Shulin

    2015-11-05

    A number of specific nucleic acids are closely related with many serious diseases, in the current research, a platform taking advantage of exonuclease III (Exo III) to realize double recycling amplification and label-free fluorescent DNA-templated silver nanoclusters (DNA-AgNCs) for detecting of nucleic acid had been developed. In this method, a molecular beacon (MB) with 3'-protruding termini and a single-stranded cytosine-rich (C-rich) probe were designed that coexist stably with Exo III. Once the target DNA appeared, portion of the MB could hybridize with target DNA and was digested by Exo III, which allowed the release of target DNA and a residual sequence. Subsequently, the residual sequence could trigger the Exo III to digest C-rich probe, and the DNA-AgNCs was not able to be synthesized because of the C-rich probe was destroyed; finally the fluorescent of solution was quenched. This assay enables to monitor human hemochromatosis gene (as a model) with high sensitivity, the detection limit is as low as 120 pM compared with other fluorescence DNA-AgNCs methods, this assay also exhibits superior specificity even against single base mismatch. The strategy is applied to detect human hemochromatosis gene in real human serum samples successfully. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and sensitive detection of bovine papular stomatitis virus.

    PubMed

    Kurosaki, Yohei; Okada, Sayaka; Nakamae, Sayuri; Yasuda, Jiro

    2016-12-01

    Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) causes pustular cutaneous disease in cattle worldwide. This paper describes the development of a specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to detect BPSV which did not cross-react with other parapoxviruses. To assess analytical sensitivity of this LAMP assay, DNA was extracted from serially diluted BPSV from which the infectious titer was determined by a novel assay based on calf kidney epithelial cells. The LAMP assay had equivalent analytical sensitivity to quantitative PCR, and could detect as few as 86 copies of viral DNA per reaction. These results suggest that the assay is a specific and sensitive technique to rapidly diagnose bovine papular stomatitis in domestic animals.

  3. Production of dumbbell probe through hairpin cleavage-ligation and increasing RCA sensitivity and specificity by circle to circle amplification

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hua; Tang, Suming; Hu, Tianyu; Zhao, Guojie; Guan, Yifu

    2016-01-01

    Dumbbell probe (DP) attracts increasing interests in rolling circle amplification (RCA). A universal DP production method through cleavage-ligation of hairpin was proposed and optimized. The production is characterized by restriction endonuclease (RE)-induced cleavage ends ligation. It has the advantage of phosphorylation-free, splint-free and purification-free. To optimize designing, we found that the position of RE cleavage sequence in the stem and the primer position in the loop affected the formation and amplification of DP obviously. Both sticky and blunt ends cleaved by RE produce DP efficiently. Moreover, we introduced this DP into circle to circle (C2C) RCA based on the same cleavage-ligation principle, and acquired high sensitivity. By combining a two-ligation design and the C2C strategy, specificity for detecting let-7 family members was increased extremely. Furthermore, coreaction of different steps facilitated convenient formation and amplification process of DP. PMID:27385060

  4. Production of dumbbell probe through hairpin cleavage-ligation and increasing RCA sensitivity and specificity by circle to circle amplification.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hua; Tang, Suming; Hu, Tianyu; Zhao, Guojie; Guan, Yifu

    2016-07-07

    Dumbbell probe (DP) attracts increasing interests in rolling circle amplification (RCA). A universal DP production method through cleavage-ligation of hairpin was proposed and optimized. The production is characterized by restriction endonuclease (RE)-induced cleavage ends ligation. It has the advantage of phosphorylation-free, splint-free and purification-free. To optimize designing, we found that the position of RE cleavage sequence in the stem and the primer position in the loop affected the formation and amplification of DP obviously. Both sticky and blunt ends cleaved by RE produce DP efficiently. Moreover, we introduced this DP into circle to circle (C2C) RCA based on the same cleavage-ligation principle, and acquired high sensitivity. By combining a two-ligation design and the C2C strategy, specificity for detecting let-7 family members was increased extremely. Furthermore, coreaction of different steps facilitated convenient formation and amplification process of DP.

  5. Amplification of the Gp41 gene for detection of mutations conferring resistance to HIV-1 fusion inhibitors on genotypic assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanumihardja, J.; Bela, B.

    2017-08-01

    Fusion inhibitors have potential for future use in HIV control programs in Indonesia, so the capacity to test resistance to such drugs needs to be developed. Resistance-detection with a genotypic assay began with amplification of the target gene, gp41. Based on the sequence of the two most common HIV subtypes in Indonesia, AE and B, a primer pair was designed. Plasma samples containing both subtypes were extracted to obtain HIV RNA. Using PCR, the primer pair was used to produce the amplification product, the identity of which was checked based on length under electrophoresis. Eleven plasma samples were included in this study. One-step PCR using the primer pair was able to amplify gp41 from 54.5% of the samples, and an unspecific amplification product was seen in 1.1% of the samples. Amplification failed in 36.4% of the samples, which may be due to an inappropriate primer sequence. It was also found that the optimal annealing temperature for producing the single expected band was 57.2 °C. With one-step PCR, the designed primer pair amplified the HIV-1 gp41 gene from subtypes AE and B. However, further research should be done to determine the conditions that will increase the sensitivity and specificity of the amplification process.

  6. Improved testing for CMT1A and HNPP using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) with rapid DNA preparations: comparison with the interphase FISH method.

    PubMed

    Slater, Howard; Bruno, Damien; Ren, Hua; La, Phung; Burgess, Trent; Hills, Louise; Nouri, Sara; Schouten, Jan; Choo, K H Andy

    2004-08-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) are the two most common peripheral neuropathies, with incidences of about 1 in 2,500. Several techniques can be used to detect the typical 1.5-Mb duplication or deletion associated with these respective conditions, but none combines simplicity with high sensitivity. MLPA is a new technique for measuring sequence dosage. We have assessed its performance for the detection of the specific 1.5-Mb duplication/deletion by prospectively testing 50 patients referred with differential diagnoses of CMT or HNPP. Probes were designed to evaluate the TEKT3, PMP22, and COX10 genes within the CMT1A/HNPP region. We have compared the results with our existing fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay, which was performed in parallel. There was concordance of results for 49 patients. Of note, one patient showed an intermediate multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) result with an abnormal FISH result, which is consistent with mosaicism. The assay works equally well with either purified DNA or rapid DNA preparations made by direct cell lysis. The use of the latter significantly reduces the cost of the assay. MLPA is a sensitive, specific, robust, and cost-effective technique suitable for fast, high-throughput testing and offers distinct advantages over other testing methods.

  7. Analytical Performance and Clinical Utility of a Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification Assay for Detection of Cytomegalovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Donald J.; Kemper, M.; Stead, Andrew; Sillekens, P.; Ginocchio, Christine C.; Espy, Mark J.; Paya, Carlos V.; Smith, Thomas F.; Roeles, Frits; Caliendo, Angela M.

    2000-01-01

    A nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assay for qualitative detection of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) pp67 mRNA was evaluated in a multicenter study. Negative results were obtained for all specimens from 50 CMV-seronegative and 50 CMV-seropositive low-risk whole-blood donors. No interference with CMV mRNA amplification was observed in the testing of 288 specimens containing various potential interfering substances, nonspecifically reacting substances (including mRNA from other herpesviruses), and three anticoagulants. A total of 95% (50 of 51) of CMV-positive (cell culture- and antigenemia immunofluorescence [AG-IFA]-positive) clinical specimens were positive by the NASBA assay. Results from different operators over multiple testing days were consistent for each of four panel members containing different concentrations of CMV mRNA, indicating the reproducibility of the assay. The estimated 95% reliable upper detection limit of the assay was 600 mRNA copies; the lower limit of detection was less than 25 mRNA copies. The clinical utility of the assay was evaluated with longitudinally collected specimens from solid-organ transplant patients (n = 21). A total of 98% (81 of 83) of the specimens from CMV-negative patients were negative by the NASBA assay, while 90% (10 of 11) of patient specimens that were positive by cell culture or AG-IFA were positive by the NASBA assay. Positive NASBA assay results were obtained earlier than AG-IFA or cell culture results for 55% of the patients and at the same time for the remainder of the patients (45%). The overall agreement between the NASBA assay and current reference tests was 86% when active CMV infection was present. These studies indicate that the CMV pp67 mRNA NASBA assay has reproducible and sensitive performance characteristics that should enable more rapid diagnosis of CMV infection. PMID:11060058

  8. Development of a Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) - Surface Enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) Assay for the Detection of Salmonella Enterica Serotype Enteritidis

    PubMed Central

    Draz, Mohamed Shehata; Lu, Xiaonan

    2016-01-01

    As a major foodborne pathogen, Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is increasingly rising as a global health concern. Here, we developed an integrated assay that combines loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for DNA detection of S. Enteritidis using specifically designed Raman active Au-nanoprobes. The target DNA was amplified by LAMP and then labeled with Au-nanoprobes comprised of gold nanoparticle-modified with specific cy5/DNA probes to allow the detection by SERS. The sensitivity of the developed LAMP-SERS detection assay (66 CFU/mL) was ~100-fold higher than the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Significantly, this technique allowed highly specific detection of the target DNA of S. Enteritidis and could differentiate it from the DNA of closely related bacterial species or non-specific contamination, making it more accurate and reliable than the standard LAMP technique. The applicability of detection of S. Enteritidis in milk samples using LAMP-SERS assay was validated as well. In sum, the developed LAMP-SERS assay is highly specific and sensitive, and has the potential to be applied for rapid detection of different foodborne pathogens and other microbial contaminants. PMID:26941845

  9. Development of a Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) - Surface Enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) Assay for the Detection of Salmonella Enterica Serotype Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Draz, Mohamed Shehata; Lu, Xiaonan

    2016-01-01

    As a major foodborne pathogen, Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is increasingly rising as a global health concern. Here, we developed an integrated assay that combines loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for DNA detection of S. Enteritidis using specifically designed Raman active Au-nanoprobes. The target DNA was amplified by LAMP and then labeled with Au-nanoprobes comprised of gold nanoparticle-modified with specific cy5/DNA probes to allow the detection by SERS. The sensitivity of the developed LAMP-SERS detection assay (66 CFU/mL) was ~100-fold higher than the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Significantly, this technique allowed highly specific detection of the target DNA of S. Enteritidis and could differentiate it from the DNA of closely related bacterial species or non-specific contamination, making it more accurate and reliable than the standard LAMP technique. The applicability of detection of S. Enteritidis in milk samples using LAMP-SERS assay was validated as well. In sum, the developed LAMP-SERS assay is highly specific and sensitive, and has the potential to be applied for rapid detection of different foodborne pathogens and other microbial contaminants.

  10. Development of a recombinase polymerase amplification assay for the diagnosis of banana bunchy top virus in different banana cultivars.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Reetika; Srivastava, Nishant; Kumar, Shailender; Saritha, R K; Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Jain, Rakesh Kumar; Baranwal, Virendra Kumar

    2017-05-12

    Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is a rapid, isothermal amplification method with high specificity and sensitivity. In this study, an assay was developed and evaluated for the detection of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) in infected banana plants. Three oligonucleotide primer pairs were designed from the replicase initiator protein gene sequences of BBTV to function both in RPA as well as in polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 133 symptomatic as well as asymptomatic banana leaf samples from various cultivars were collected from the different regions of India and evaluated for BBTV infection using the RPA assay. BBTV was efficiently detected using crude leaf sap in RPA and the results obtained were consistent with PCR-based detection using purified DNA as template. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reliable diagnosis of BBTV infection by RPA using crude leaf sap as a template.

  11. Development of microbial genome-probing microarrays using digital multiple displacement amplification of uncultivated microbial single cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ho-Won; Sung, Youlboong; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Nam, Young-Do; Roh, Seong Woon; Kim, Min-Soo; Jeon, Che Ok; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2008-08-15

    A crucial problem in the use of previously developed genome-probing microarrays (GPM) has been the inability to use uncultivated bacterial genomes to take advantage of the high sensitivity and specificity of GPM in microbial detection and monitoring. We show here a method, digital multiple displacement amplification (MDA), to amplify and analyze various genomes obtained from single uncultivated bacterial cells. We used 15 genomes from key microbes involved in dichloromethane (DCM)-dechlorinating enrichment as microarray probes to uncover the bacterial population dynamics of samples without PCR amplification. Genomic DNA amplified from single cells originating from uncultured bacteria with 80.3-99.4% similarity to 16S rRNA genes of cultivated bacteria. The digital MDA-GPM method successfully monitored the dynamics of DCM-dechlorinating communities from different phases of enrichment status. Without a priori knowledge of microbial diversity, the digital MDA-GPM method could be designed to monitor most microbial populations in a given environmental sample.

  12. Systematic Evaluation of Different Nucleic Acid Amplification Assays for Cytomegalovirus Detection: Feasibility of Blood Donor Screening.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, T; Knabbe, C; Dreier, J

    2015-10-01

    Acute primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, which commonly occur asymptomatically among blood donors, represent a significant risk for serious morbidity in immunocompromised patients (a major group of transfusion recipients). We implemented a routine CMV pool screening procedure for plasma for the identification of CMV DNA-positive donors, and we evaluated the sensitivities and performance of different CMV DNA amplification systems. Minipools (MPs) of samples from 18,405 individual donors (54,451 donations) were screened for CMV DNA using the RealStar CMV PCR assay (Altona Diagnostic Technologies), with a minimum detection limit of 11.14 IU/ml. DNA was extracted with a high-volume protocol (4.8 ml, Chemagic Viral 5K kit; PerkinElmer) for blood donor pool screening (MP-nucleic acid testing [NAT]) and with the Nuclisens easyMAG system (0.5 ml; bioMérieux) for individual donation (ID)-NAT. In total, six CMV DNA-positive donors (0.03%) were identified by routine CMV screening, with DNA concentrations ranging from 4.35 × 10(2) to 4.30 × 10(3) IU/ml. Five donors already showed seroconversion and detectable IgA, IgM, and/or IgG antibody titers (IgA(+)/IgM(+)/IgG(-) or IgA(+)/IgM(+)/IgG(+)), and one donor showed no CMV-specific antibodies. Comparison of three commercial assays, i.e., the RealStar CMV PCR kit, the Sentosa SA CMV quantitative PCR kit (Vela Diagnostics), and the CMV R-gene PCR kit (bioMérieux), for MP-NAT and ID-NAT showed comparably good analytical sensitivities, ranging from 10.23 to 11.14 IU/ml (MP-NAT) or from 37.66 to 57.94 IU/ml (ID-NAT). The clinical relevance of transfusion-associated CMV infections requires further investigation, and the evaluated methods present powerful basic tools providing sensitive possibilities for viral testing. The application of CMV MP-NAT facilitated the identification of one donor with a window-phase donation during acute primary CMV infection.

  13. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid and sensitive identification of Arcanobacterium pluranimalium.

    PubMed

    Abdulmawjood, A; Wickhorst, J; Sammra, O; Lämmler, C; Foster, G; Wragg, P N; Prenger-Berninghoff, E; Klein, G

    2015-12-01

    In the present study 28 Arcanobacterium pluranimalium strains isolated from various origins could successfully be identified with a newly designed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay based on gene pla encoding pluranimaliumlysin. No comparable reaction could be observed with control strains representing five species of genus Arcanobacterium and five species of genus Trueperella. The presented pla LAMP assay might allow a reliable and low cost identification of this bacterial pathogen also in laboratories with less specified equipment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A field evaluation of an isothermal DNA amplification assay for the detection of Theileria annulata infection in cattle.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Jacinto; Santos, Marcos; Amaro, Ana; Pereira da Fonseca, Isabel; Santos-Gomes, Gabriela; Inácio, João

    2017-02-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was evaluated for the detection of Theileria annulata infection in cattle. The results were compared with a real-time PCR used for the quantification of T. annulata parasitaemia. One hundred bovine blood samples from 16 cattle farms were tested with LAMP and real-time PCR, with T. annulata DNA being detected in 66% and 67% of the samples, respectively. The results showed that the LAMP assay detects a parasitaemia as low as 0.00025%, indicating a high analytical sensitivity of LAMP for clinical diagnosis of bovine theileriosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Concurrent reactivation of herpes simplex and varicella zoster viruses confirmed by the loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tsukane; Yagami, Akiko; Suzuki, Kayoko; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent reactivation of herpes simplex and varicella zoster viruses is rare. Here, we describe the case of an elderly patient with herpes labialis and herpes zoster manifesting as a right-side facial eruption with vesicles and crusting. The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay demonstrated the presence of both herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella zoster virus in swab samples taken from the face, which was confirmed by real-time PCR, suggesting concurrent reactivation of both viruses. The use of the LAMP assay in the present case indicates its usefulness in the diagnosis of atypical herpes infections.

  16. Establishment of an accurate and fast detection method using molecular beacons in loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Huang, Simo; Liu, Ningwei; Dong, Derong; Yang, Zhan; Tang, Yue; Ma, Wen; He, Xiaoming; Ao, Da; Xu, Yaqing; Zou, Dayang; Huang, Liuyu

    2017-01-01

    This study established a constant-temperature fluorescence quantitative detection method, combining loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with molecular beacons. The advantages of LAMP are its convenience and efficiency, as it does not require a thermocycler and results are easily visualized by the naked eye. However, a major disadvantage of current LAMP techniques is the use of indirect evaluation methods (e.g., electrophoresis, SYBR Green I dye, precipitation, hydroxynaphthol blue dye, the turbidimetric method, calcein/Mn2+ dye, and the composite probe method), which cannot distinguish between the desired products and products of nonspecific amplification, thereby leading to false positives. Use of molecular beacons avoids this problem because molecular beacons produce fluorescence signals only when binding to target DNA, thus acting as a direct indicator of amplification products. Our analyses determined the optimal conditions for molecular beacons as an evaluation tool in LAMP: beacon length of 25–45 bp, beacon concentration of 0.6–1 pmol/μL, and reaction temperature of 60–65 °C. In conclusion, we validated a novel molecular beacon loop-mediated isothermal amplification method (MB-LAMP), realizing the direct detection of LAMP product. PMID:28059137

  17. Probe-specific mixed-model approach to detect copy number differences using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA)

    PubMed Central

    González, Juan R; Carrasco, Josep L; Armengol, Lluís; Villatoro, Sergi; Jover, Lluís; Yasui, Yutaka; Estivill, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Background MLPA method is a potentially useful semi-quantitative method to detect copy number alterations in targeted regions. In this paper, we propose a method for the normalization procedure based on a non-linear mixed-model, as well as a new approach for determining the statistical significance of altered probes based on linear mixed-model. This method establishes a threshold by using different tolerance intervals that accommodates the specific random error variability observed in each test sample. Results Through simulation studies we have shown that our proposed method outperforms two existing methods that are based on simple threshold rules or iterative regression. We have illustrated the method using a controlled MLPA assay in which targeted regions are variable in copy number in individuals suffering from different disorders such as Prader-Willi, DiGeorge or Autism showing the best performace. Conclusion Using the proposed mixed-model, we are able to determine thresholds to decide whether a region is altered. These threholds are specific for each individual, incorporating experimental variability, resulting in improved sensitivity and specificity as the examples with real data have revealed. PMID:18522760

  18. Development and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of lymphocystis disease virus.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiong; Yue, Zhiqin; Liu, Hong; Liang, Chengzhu; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zhao, Yuran; Chen, Xiao; Xiao, Xizhi; Chen, Changfu

    2010-02-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV). A set of five specific primers, two inner and two outer primers and a loop primer, were designed on the basis of the major capsid protein gene of LCDV. The reaction time and temperatures were optimized for 60 min at 63 degrees C, respectively. LAMP amplification products were detected by a ladder-like appearance on agarose gel electrophoresis or a naked-eye inspection of a color change in the reaction tube by addition of SYBR Green I. The assay was specific for LCDV, and there was no cross-reactivity with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or six other Iridoviridae viruses (epizootic hematopoietic necrosis virus, EHNV; tiger frog virus, TFV; Bohle iridovirus, BIV; soft-shelled turtle iridovirus, STIV; infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus, ISKNV; red sea bream iridovirus, RSIV). The detection limit of the LAMP assay was 15 fg, which was similar to that of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 10-fold higher than the conventional PCR. The LAMP assay was evaluated using 109 clinical samples, and the results indicated the suitability and simplicity of the test as a rapid, field diagnostic tool for detection of LCDV. The LCDV LAMP assay has potential for early diagnosis of LCDV infection.

  19. Evaluation of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for the Detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii in Immunocompromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Preeti; Singh, Sundeep; Mirdha, Bijay Ranjan; Guleria, Randeep; Agarwal, Sanjay Kumar; Mohan, Anant

    2015-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is one of the common opportunistic infection among HIV and non-HIV immunocompromised patients. The lack of a rapid and specific diagnostic test necessitates a more reliable laboratory diagnostic test for PCP. In the present study, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was evaluated for the detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii. 185 clinical respiratory samples, including both BALF and IS, were subjected to GMS staining, nested PCR, and LAMP assay. Of 185 respiratory samples, 12/185 (6.5%), 41/185 (22.2%), and 49/185 (26.5%) samples were positive by GMS staining, nested PCR, and LAMP assay, respectively. As compared to nested PCR, additional 8 samples were positive by LAMP assay and found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05) with the detection limit of 1 pg. Thus, the LAMP assay may serve as a better diagnostic tool for the detection of P. jirovecii with high sensitivity and specificity, less turn-around time, operational simplicity, single-step amplification, and immediate visual detection. PMID:26664746

  20. Comparison of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and karyotyping in prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Boormans, Elisabeth M; Birnie, Erwin; Oepkes, Dick; Galjaard, Robert Jan; Schuring-Blom, Gijsbertha H; van Lith, Jan M

    2010-02-01

    To estimate whether multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), a molecular technique used for detecting the most common chromosomal aneuploidies, is comparable with karyotyping for the detection of aneuploidies of chromosomes X, Y, 13, 18, and 21 in routine clinical practice and to estimate the costs differences of both techniques. In this prospective, nationwide cohort study, we consecutively included 4,585 women who had an amniocentesis because of their age (36 years or older), increased risk after prenatal screening, or maternal anxiety. Amniotic fluid samples were tested independently with both MLPA and karyotyping. The primary outcome was diagnostic accuracy of MLPA to detect aneuploidies of chromosomes X, Y, 13, 18, and 21. Secondary outcome measures were turnaround time for test results and costs. A sample size was calculated using a critical noninferiority margin of 0.002; therefore, at least 4,497 paired test results were needed (one-sided alpha 0.05, power 0.90). Diagnostic accuracy of MLPA was 1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99-1.0), sensitivity was 100% (95% CI 0.96-1.0) and specificity was 100% (95% CI 0.999-1.0). Diagnostic accuracy of MLPA was statistically similar (noninferior) to that of karyotyping (P<.001). In 75 cases, MLPA failed (1.6%); karyotyping failed once (0.02%). Compared with karyotyping, MLPA shortened the waiting time by 14.5 days (P<.001, 95% CI 14.3-14.6) and cost less (-47, P<.001). In routine clinical practice, diagnostic accuracy of MLPA for detection of trisomies X, Y, 13, 18, and 21 is comparable with that of karyotyping, and it reduces waiting time at lower costs. II.

  1. Cluster analysis of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification data in choroidal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Caines, Rhydian; Eleuteri, Antonio; Kalirai, Helen; Fisher, Anthony C.; Heimann, Heinrich; Damato, Bertil E.; Coupland, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine underlying correlations in multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) data and their significance regarding survival following treatment of choroidal melanoma (CM). Methods MLPA data were available for 31 loci across four chromosomes (1p, 3, 6, and 8) in tumor material obtained from 602 patients with CM treated at the Liverpool Ocular Oncology Center (LOOC) between 1993 and 2012. Data representing chromosomes 3 and 8q were analyzed in depth since their association with CM patient survival is well-known. Unsupervised k-means cluster analysis was performed to detect latent structure in the data set. Principal component analysis (PCA) was also performed to determine the intrinsic dimensionality of the data. Survival analyses of the identified clusters were performed using Kaplan–Meier (KM) and log-rank statistical tests. Correlation with largest basal tumor diameter (LTD) was investigated. Results Chromosome 3: A two-cluster (bimodal) solution was found in chromosome 3, characterized by centroids at unilaterally normal probe values and unilateral deletion. There was a large, significant difference in the survival characteristics of the two clusters (log-rank, p<0.001; 5-year survival: 80% versus 40%). Both clusters had a broad distribution in LTD, although larger tumors were characteristically in the poorer outcome group (Mann–Whitney, p<0.001). Threshold values of 0.85 for deletion and 1.15 for gain optimized the classification of the clusters. PCA showed that the first principal component (PC1) contained more than 80% of the data set variance and all of the bimodality, with uniform coefficients (0.28±0.03). Chromosome 8q: No clusters were found in chromosome 8q. Using a conventional threshold-based definition of 8q gain, and in conjunction with the chromosome 3 clusters, three prognostic groups were identified: chromosomes 3 and 8q both normal, either chromosome 3 or 8q abnormal, and both chromosomes 3 and 8q abnormal. KM

  2. Optimization of a phage amplification assay to permit accurate enumeration of viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells.

    PubMed

    Foddai, Antonio; Elliott, Christopher T; Grant, Irene R

    2009-06-01

    A commercially available phage amplification assay, FASTPlaqueTB (Biotec Laboratories, Ipswich, United Kingdom), when used according to the manufacturer's instructions, does not permit accurate enumeration of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The aim of this study was to optimize the phage amplification assay conditions to permit accurate quantification of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells. The burst time for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was initially determined to inform decisions about optimal incubation time before plating, and then other test parameters were altered to evaluate how the correlation between plaque and colony counts was affected. The D29 mycobacteriophage replicates more slowly in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis than in Mycobacterium smegmatis (used to optimize the commercial test originally), and the mean burst time for four M. avium subsp. paratuberulosis strains was 210 +/- 36.8 min at 37 degrees C compared to 63 +/- 17.5 min for M. smegmatis mc(2) 155. To achieve 100% correlation between plaque and colony counts, the optimized phage assay includes the following: (i) resuspension of the samples to be tested in Middlebrook 7H9 broth containing 10% oleic acid-albumin-dextrose-catalase and 2 mM calcium chloride, followed by overnight incubation at 37 degrees C before performance of the phage assay; (ii) a 2-h incubation of the sample with D29 mycobacteriophage before viricide treatment; and (iii) a further 90-min incubation after viricide treatment and neutralization up to the burst time (total incubation time, 210 min) before plating with M. smegmatis mc(2) 155 in 7H9 agar. The optimized phage amplification assay was able to detect 1 to 10 CFU/ml of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in spiked milk or broth within 48 h, as demonstrated by the results of several blind trials.

  3. Direct detection of various pathogens by loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays on bacterial culture and bacterial colony.

    PubMed

    Yan, Muxia; Li, Weidong; Zhou, Zhenwen; Peng, Hongxia; Luo, Ziyan; Xu, Ling

    2017-01-01

    In this work, loop-mediated isothermal amplification based detection assay using bacterial culture and bacterial colony for various common pathogens direct detection had been established, evaluated and further applied. A total of five species of common pathogens and nine detection targets (tlh, tdh and trh for V. Parahaemolyticus, rfbE, stx1 and stx2 for E. coli, oprI for P. aeruginosa, invA for Salmonella and hylA for L. monocytogenes) were performed on bacterial culture and bacterial colony LAMP. To evaluate and optimize this assay, a total of 116 standard strains were included. Then, for each detected targets, 20 random selected strains were applied. Results were determined through both visual observation of the changed color by naked eye and electrophoresis, which increased the accuracy of survey. The minimum adding quantity of each primer had been confirmed, and the optimal amplification was obtained under 65 °C for 45 min with 25 μl reaction volume. The detection limit of bacterial culture LAMP and PCR assay were determined to be 10(2) and 10(4) or 10(5) CFU/reaction, respectively. No false positive amplification was observed when subjecting the bacterial -LAMP assay to 116 reference strains. This was the first report of colony-LAMP and culture-LAMP assay, which had been demonstrated to be a fast, reliable, cost-effective and simple method on detection of various common pathogens.

  4. Developmental validation of the GlobalFiler(®) Express PCR Amplification Kit: A 6-dye multiplex assay for the direct amplification of reference samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dennis Y; Gopinath, Siddhita; Lagacé, Robert E; Norona, Wilma; Hennessy, Lori K; Short, Marc L; Mulero, Julio J

    2015-11-01

    In order to increase the power of discrimination, reduce the possibility of adventitious matches, and expand global data sharing, the CODIS Core Loci Working Group made a recommendation to expand the CODIS core loci from the "required" 13 loci to 20 plus three additional "highly recommended" loci. The GlobalFiler(®) Express Kit was designed to incorporate all 20 required and 3 highly recommended loci along with a novel male-specific Y insertion/deletion marker. The GlobalFiler(®) Express Kit allows simultaneous amplification of the following loci: D3S1358, vWA, D16S539, CSF1PO, TPOX, Yindel, AMEL, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, DYS391, D2S441, D19S433, TH01, FGA, D22S1045, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, SE33, D10S1248, D1S1656, D12S391, and D2S1338. The kit enables direct amplification from blood and buccal samples stored on paper or swab and the chemistry features an optimized PCR protocol that yields time to results in less than an hour. Developmental validation testing followed SWGDAM guidelines and demonstrated the quality and robustness of the GlobalFiler(®) Express Kit over a number of variables. The validation results demonstrate that the 24-locus multiplex kit is a robust and reliable identification assay as required for forensic DNA typing and databasing.

  5. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for sensitive and rapid detection of the tdh and trh genes of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and related Vibrio species.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Wataru; Kumeda, Yuko; Misawa, Naoaki; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki

    2010-02-01

    Thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH) are the major virulence determinants of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. TRH is further differentiated into TRH1 and TRH2 on the basis of genetic and phenotypic differences. We developed a novel and highly specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for sensitive and rapid detection of the tdh, trh1, and trh2 genes of V. parahaemolyticus. The LAMP assay was designed for both combined and individual detection of the tdh, trh1, and trh2 genes and combined detection of the trh1 and trh2 genes. Our results showed that it gave the same results as DNA probes and conventional PCR assays for 125 strains of V. parahaemolyticus, 3 strains of Grimontia hollisae, and 2 strains of Vibrio mimicus carrying the tdh, trh1, and trh2 genes in various combinations. No LAMP products were detected for any of the 20 bacterial strains lacking the tdh, trh1, and trh2 genes. The sensitivities of the LAMP assay for detection of tdh-, trh1-, and trh2-carrying V. parahaemolyticus strains in spiked shrimp samples were 0.8, 21.3, and 5.0 CFU per LAMP reaction tube, respectively. Starting with DNA extraction from a single colony and from spiked shrimp samples, the LAMP assay required only 27 to 60 min and less than 80 min, respectively. This is the first report of a rapid and specific LAMP assay for detection and differentiation of the tdh, trh1, and trh2 genes of V. parahaemolyticus and related Vibrio species.

  6. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Bosward, Katrina L; House, John K; Deveridge, Amber; Mathews, Karen; Sheehy, Paul A

    2016-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a well-characterized bovine mastitis pathogen that is known to be highly contagious and capable of spreading rapidly in affected dairy herds. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel molecular diagnostic method that has the capability to provide rapid, cost-effective screening for pathogens to support on-farm disease control and eradication programs. In the current study, a LAMP test was developed to detect S. agalactiae in milk. The assay was validated on a bank of existing clinical mastitis milk samples that had previously been identified as S. agalactiae positive via traditional microbiological culture techniques and PCR. The LAMP assay was conducted on bacterial colonies and DNA extracted from milk in tube- and plate-based formats using multiple detection platforms. The 1-h assay conducted at 64 °C exhibited repeatability (coefficient of variation) of 2.07% (tube) and 8.3% (plate), sensitivity to ~20 pg of extracted DNA/reaction, and specificity against a panel of known bacterial mastitis pathogens. Of the 109 known S. agalactiae isolates assessed by LAMP directly from bacterial cells in culture, 108 were identified as positive, in accordance with PCR analysis. The LAMP analysis from the corresponding milk samples indicated that 104 of these milks exhibited a positive amplification curve. Although exhibiting some limitations, this assay provides an opportunity for rapid screening of milk samples to facilitate on-farm management of this pathogen.

  7. A Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay and Sample Preparation Procedure for Sensitive Detection of Xanthomonas fragariae in Strawberry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hehe; Turechek, William W.

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas fragariae is a bacterium that causes angular leaf spot of strawberry. Asymptomatic infection is common and contributes to the difficulties in disease management. The aim of this study was to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay as an efficient method for detection of asymptomatic infections of X. fragariae. In addition, a new method of sample preparation was developed that allows sampling of a larger amount of plant tissue, hence increasing the detection rate in real-life samples. The sample preparation procedure includes an overnight incubation of strawberry tissues in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), followed by a quick sample concentration and a boiling step to extract DNA for amplification. The detection limit of the LAMP assay was approximately 2×103 CFU/mL for pure bacteria culture and 300 CFU/mL for bacteria spiked strawberry leaf and petiole samples. LAMP provided a 2–3 fold lower detection limit than the standard qPCR assay but was faster, and more user-friendly. The LAMP assay should serve as a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective tool for detecting asymptomatic infections of X. fragariae in strawberry nursery stock and contribute to improved disease management. PMID:26766068

  8. Evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid diagnosis of soft-shelled turtle iridovirus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zongxiao; Liu, Hong; Xie, Xiayang; He, Junqiang; Luo, Tingrong; Teng, Yong

    2011-05-01

    Softshelled turtle iridovirus (STIV) is the first Asian iridovirus isolated from reptiles, which infects soft-shelled turtles severely and leads to "Red neck disease" associated with high mortality. A set of four specific primers was designed by targeting the STIV Thymidine kinase (TK) gene and amplified STIV DNA specifically under optimized amplification conditions at 63°C for 60 min. The sensitivity of the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was found to be 20 copies/μl of STIV DNA. To evaluate the application of the LAMP assay for detection of STIV in clinical samples, 223 samples suspected of STIV infection from turtle tissues were tested by the LAMP assay and by cell-based virus isolation. A 78.5% concordance was observed between the results of the two methods. In this study, a robust and simple LAMP assay for rapid detection of STIV was developed and evaluated, which is the first suitable for potential diagnosis and helping to monitor STIV infections in the aquaculture industry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of a toxR-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detecting Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of seafood-related bacterial gastroenteritis and outbreaks worldwide. Sensitive and specific detection methods are needed to better control V. parahaemolyticus infections. This study aimed at developing a highly specific and sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for detecting V. parahaemolyticus in oysters. A set of five LAMP primers, two outer, two inner, and one loop were designed based on the published V. parahaemolyticus toxR sequence. Specificity of the assay was evaluated using a panel of 36 V. parahaemolyticus and 39 other strains. The assay sensitivity was determined using serial dilutions of V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 27969 culture ranging from 108 CFU/ml to extinction. The assay was also tested in experimentally inoculated oyster samples. Results The toxR-based LAMP assay was able to specifically detect all of the 36 V. parahaemolyticus strains without amplification from 39 other strains. The detection limit was 47-470 cells per reaction in pure culture, up to 100-fold more sensitive than that of toxR-PCR. When applied in spiked oysters, the assay was able to detect 1.1 × 105 V. parahaemolyticus cells per gram of oyster without enrichment, up to 100-fold more sensitive than that of toxR-PCR. Standard curves generated for detecting V. parahaemolyticus in both pure culture and spiked oyster samples showed good linear relationship between cell numbers and the fluorescence or turbidity signals. Conclusions The toxR-based LAMP assay developed in this study was sensitive, specific, and quantitative, holding great potential for future field detection of V. parahaemolyticus in raw oysters. PMID:20146814

  10. Detection of DNA Sequences Refractory to PCR Amplification Using a Biophysical SERRS Assay (Surface Enhanced Resonant Raman Spectroscopy)

    PubMed Central

    Feuillie, Cécile; Merheb, Maxime M.; Gillet, Benjamin; Montagnac, Gilles; Daniel, Isabelle; Hänni, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of ancient or processed DNA samples is often a great challenge, because traditional Polymerase Chain Reaction – based amplification is impeded by DNA damage. Blocking lesions such as abasic sites are known to block the bypass of DNA polymerases, thus stopping primer elongation. In the present work, we applied the SERRS-hybridization assay, a fully non-enzymatic method, to the detection of DNA refractory to PCR amplification. This method combines specific hybridization with detection by Surface Enhanced Resonant Raman Scattering (SERRS). It allows the detection of a series of double-stranded DNA molecules containing a varying number of abasic sites on both strands, when PCR failed to detect the most degraded sequences. Our SERRS approach can quickly detect DNA molecules without any need for DNA repair. This assay could be applied as a pre-requisite analysis prior to enzymatic reparation or amplification. A whole new set of samples, both forensic and archaeological, could then deliver information that was not yet available due to a high degree of DNA damage. PMID:25502338

  11. HIV-1 Viral Load and Phenotypic Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Assays Based on Reverse Transcriptase Activity in Comparison to Amplification Based HIV-1 RNA and Genotypic Assays

    PubMed Central

    Napravnik, Sonia; Cachafeiro, Ada; Stewart, Paul; Eron, Joseph J.; Fiscus, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Amplification based HIV-1 viral load and genotypic resistance assays are expensive, technologically complex and may be difficult to implement in resource limited settings. Inexpensive, simpler assays are urgently needed. Objectives To determine the suitability of the ExaVir™ Load and ExaVir™ Drug assays for use in patient monitoring. Study Design Specimens from 108 adults were used to compare ExaVir™ Load HIV-1 RT to Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor® HIV-1 RNA, and ExaVir™ Drug phenotype to HIV GenoSure™ genotype. Results HIV-1 RT and HIV-1 RNA levels were comparable (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.83). Most (94%) had detectable results in both assays. The mean difference (HIV-1 RT minus HIV-1 RNA) was -0.21 log10 cps/mL equivalents. Relationship between HIV-1 RT and HIV-1 RNA was not affected by RT mutations, CD4 cell count, or efavirenz (EFV) or nevirapine (NVP) use. Phenotypes were generally consistent with genotype findings for EFV, but not for NVP. Most patients (93.9%) with phenotypic EFV resistance had at least one EFV mutation, while 78.0% of patients with phenotypic NVP resistance had at least one NVP mutation. Eleven of 49 samples tested for EFV susceptibility were found resistant (n=2) or with reduced susceptibility (n=9) despite the absence of genotypic resistance. Eleven of 45 samples tested for NVP susceptibility were found resistant (n=9) or with reduced susceptibility (n=2) with no evidence of genotypic mutations. Conclusions The ExaVir™ Load assay performed well and may be an alternative to amplification based techniques for HIV-1 RNA quantification. The ExaVir™ Drug assay for phenotypic resistance testing requires further evaluation, especially for NVP. PMID:19896416

  12. A Simple Strain Typing Assay for Trypanosoma cruzi: Discrimination of Major Evolutionary Lineages from a Single Amplification Product

    PubMed Central

    Cosentino, Raul O.; Agüero, Fernán

    2012-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas' Disease. The parasite has a complex population structure, with six major evolutionary lineages, some of which have apparently resulted from ancestral hybridization events. Because there are important biological differences between these lineages, strain typing methods are essential to study the T. cruzi species. Currently, there are a number of typing methods available for T. cruzi, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. However, most of these methods are based on the amplification of a variable number of loci. Methodology/Principal Findings We present a simple typing assay for T. cruzi, based on the amplification of a single polymorphic locus: the TcSC5D gene. When analyzing sequences from this gene (a putative lathosterol/episterol oxidase) we observed a number of interesting polymorphic sites, including 1 tetra-allelic, and a number of informative tri- and bi-allelic SNPs. Furthermore, some of these SNPs were located within the recognition sequences of two commercially available restriction enzymes. A double digestion with these enzymes generates a unique restriction pattern that allows a simple classification of strains in six major groups, corresponding to DTUs TcI–TcIV, the recently proposed Tcbat lineage, and TcV/TcVI (as a group). Direct sequencing of the amplicon allows the classification of strains into seven groups, including the six currently recognized evolutionary lineages, by analyzing only a few discriminant polymorphic sites. Conclusions/Significance Based on these findings we propose a simple typing assay for T. cruzi that requires a single PCR amplification followed either by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, or direct sequencing. In the panel of strains tested, the sequencing-based method displays equivalent inter-lineage resolution to recent multi- locus sequence typing assays. Due to their simplicity and low cost, the proposed assays represent a good

  13. Nanoparticle-bridge assay for amplification-free electrical detection of oligonucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teimouri, Manouchehr

    The aim of this research is to investigate a highly sensitive, fast, inexpensive, and field-applicable amplification-free nanoparticle-based oligonucleotide detection method which does not rely on any enzymatic or signal amplification process. In this approach, target oligonucleotide strands are detected through the formation of nanoparticle satellites which make an electrical path between two electrodes. This method enables an extremely sensitive oligonucleotide detection because even a few oligonucleotide strands can form a single nanoparticle satellite which can solely generates an electrical output signal. Results showed that this oligonucleotide detection method can detect oligonucleotide single strands at concentrations as low as 50 femtomolar without any amplification process. This detection method can be implemented in many fields such as biodefense, food safety, clinical research, and forensics.

  14. Rapid detection of infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) by real-time, isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaoming; Yu, Yongxin; Hu, Linghao; Weidmann, Manfred; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-04-01

    Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) causes mortality or runt deformity syndrome in penaeid shrimps and is responsible for significant economic losses in the shrimp aquaculture industry. Here, we describe a novel real-time isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay developed for IHHNV detection. Using IHHNV plasmid standards and DNA samples from a variety of organisms, we evaluated the ability of the IHHNV-RPA assay to detect IHHNV based on analysis of its sensitivity, specificity, rapidity, and reproducibility. Probit analysis of eight independent experimental replicates indicated satisfactory performance of the RPA assay, which is sufficiently sensitive to detect as few as 4 copies of the IHHNV genome within 7 min at 39 °C with 95 % reliability. Therefore, this rapid RPA method has great potential for applications, either in field use or as a point of care diagnostic technique.

  15. The development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and sensitive detection of abalone herpesvirus DNA.

    PubMed

    Chen, M H; Kuo, S T; Renault, T; Chang, P H

    2014-02-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of abalone herpesvirus DNA. Two pairs of primers were designed, based on the sequence of the DNA polymerase gene of abalone herpesvirus. The reaction temperature and time were optimized to 63°C and 60min, respectively. LAMP amplicons were analyzed by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis or by visual inspection of a colour change emitted by fluorescent dye. The method developed was specific for the detection of abalone herpesvirus, without cross-reactions with other tested herpesviruses including ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1), European eel herpesvirus, koi herpesvirus (KHV) and an avian herpesvirus. The LAMP assay was 100 folds more sensitive than a conventional PCR and 10 folds less sensitive than a SYBR Green PCR. These results indicate that the developed LAMP assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, specific and reliable technique for the detection of abalone herpesvirus.

  16. Rapid Molecular Detection of Zika Virus in Acute-Phase Urine Samples Using the Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay.

    PubMed

    Abd El Wahed, Ahmed; Sanabani, Sabri Saeed; Faye, Oumar; Pessôa, Rodrigo; Patriota, João Veras; Giorgi, Ricardo Rodrigues; Patel, Pranav; Böhlken-Fascher, Susanne; Landt, Olfert; Niedrig, Matthias; Zanotto, Paolo Marinho de Andrade; Czerny, Claus Peter; Sall, Amadou A; Weidmann, Manfred

    2017-01-25

    Currently the detection of Zika virus (ZIKV) in patient samples is done by real-time RT-PCR. Samples collected from rural area are sent to highly equipped laboratories for screening. A rapid point-of-care test is needed to detect the virus, especially at low resource settings. In this report, we describe the development of a reverse transcription isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the identification of ZIKV. RT-RPA assay was portable, sensitive (21 RNA molecules), and rapid (3-15 minutes). No cross-reactivity was detected to other flaviviruses, alphaviruses and arboviruses. Compared to real-time RT-PCR, the diagnostic sensitivity was 92%, while the specificity was 100%. The developed assay is a promising platform for rapid point of need detection of ZIKV in low resource settings and elsewhere (e.g. during mass gathering).

  17. Rapid Molecular Detection of Zika Virus in Acute-Phase Urine Samples Using the Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay

    PubMed Central

    Abd El Wahed, Ahmed; Sanabani, Sabri Saeed; Faye, Oumar; Pessôa, Rodrigo; Patriota, João Veras; Giorgi, Ricardo Rodrigues; Patel, Pranav; Böhlken-Fascher, Susanne; Landt, Olfert; Niedrig, Matthias; Zanotto, Paolo Marinho de Andrade; Czerny, Claus Peter; Sall, Amadou A.; Weidmann, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Background: Currently the detection of Zika virus (ZIKV) in patient samples is done by real-time RT-PCR. Samples collected from rural area are sent to highly equipped laboratories for screening. A rapid point-of-care test is needed to detect the virus, especially at low resource settings. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this report, we describe the development of a reverse transcription isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the identification of ZIKV. RT-RPA assay was portable, sensitive (21 RNA molecules), and rapid (3-15 minutes). No cross-reactivity was detected to other flaviviruses, alphaviruses and arboviruses. Compared to real-time RT-PCR, the diagnostic sensitivity was 92%, while the specificity was 100%. Conclusions/Significance: The developed assay is a promising platform for rapid point of need detection of ZIKV in low resource settings and elsewhere (e.g. during mass gathering). PMID:28239513

  18. Promoter hypermethylation in male breast cancer: analysis by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.

    PubMed

    Kornegoor, Robert; Moelans, Cathy B; Verschuur-Maes, Anoek Hj; Hogenes, Marieke Ch; de Bruin, Peter C; Oudejans, Joost J; van Diest, Paul J

    2012-07-05

    Epigenetic events are, along with genetic alteration, important in the development and progression of cancer. Promoter hypermethylation causes gene silencing and is thought to be an early event in carcinogenesis. The role of promoter hypermethylation in male breast cancer has not yet been studied. In a group of 108 male breast cancers, the methylation status of 25 genes was studied using methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Methylation of more than 15% was regarded indicative for promoter hypermethylation. Methylation status was correlated with clinicopathological features, with patients' outcome and with 28 female breast cancer cases. Promoter hypermethylation of the genes MSH6, WT1, PAX5, CDH13, GATA5 and PAX6 was seen in more than 50% of the cases, but was uncommon or absent in normal male breast tissue. High overall methylation status was correlated with high grade (P = 0.003) and was an independent predictor of poor survival (P = 0.048; hazard ratio 2.5). ESR1 and GSTP1 hypermethylation were associated with high mitotic count (P = 0.037 and P = 0.002, respectively) and high grade (both P = 0.001). No correlation with survival was seen for individual genes. Compared with female breast cancers (logistic regression), promoter hypermethylation was less common in a variety of genes, particularly ESR1 (P = 0.005), BRCA1 (P = 0.010) and BRCA2 (P < 0.001). The most frequently hypermethylated genes (MSH6, CDH13, PAX5, PAX6 and WT1) were similar for male and female breast cancer. Promoter hypermethylation is common in male breast cancer and high methylation status correlates with aggressive phenotype and poor survival. ESR1 and GSTP1 promoter hypermethylation seem to be involved in development and/or progression of high-grade male breast cancer. Although female and male breast cancer share a set of commonly methylated genes, many of the studied genes are less frequently methylated in male breast cancer, pointing towards possible

  19. A sandwich-hybridization assay for simultaneous determination of HIV and tuberculosis DNA targets based on signal amplification by quantum dots-PowerVision™ polymer coding nanotracers.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhongdan; Gan, Ning; Zhang, Huairong; Wang, De; Qiao, Li; Cao, Yuting; Li, Tianhua; Hu, Futao

    2015-09-15

    A novel sandwich-hybridization assay for simultaneous electrochemical detection of multiple DNA targets related to human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) was developed based on the different quantum dots-PowerVision(TM) polymer nanotracers. The polymer nanotracers were respectively fabricated by immobilizing SH-labeled oligonucleotides (s-HIV or s-TB), which can partially hybrid with virus DNA (HIV or TB), on gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and then modified with PowerVision(TM) (PV) polymer-encapsulated quantum dots (CdS or PbS) as signal tags. PV is a dendrimer enzyme linked polymer, which can immobilize abundant QDs to amplify the stripping voltammetry signals from the metal ions (Pb or Cd). The capture probes were prepared through the immobilization of SH-labeled oligonucleotides, which can complementary with HIV and TB DNA, on the magnetic Fe3O4@Au (GMPs) beads. After sandwich-hybridization, the polymer nanotracers together with HIV and TB DNA targets were simultaneously introduced onto the surface of GMPs. Then the two encoding metal ions (Cd(2+) and Pb(2+)) were used to differentiate two viruses DNA due to the different subsequent anodic stripping voltammetric peaks at -0.84 V (Cd) and -0.61 V (Pb). Because of the excellent signal amplification of the polymer nanotracers and the great specificity of DNA targets, this assay could detect targets DNA as low as 0.2 femtomolar and exhibited excellent selectivity with the dynamitic range from 0.5 fM to 500 pM. Those results demonstrated that this electrochemical coding assay has great potential in applications for screening more viruses DNA while changing the probes.

  20. INTERNAL AMPLIFICATION CONTROL FOR USE IN QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) can be used as a rapid method for detecting fecal indicator bacteria. Because false negative results can be caused by PCR inhibitors that co-extract with the DNA samples, an internal amplification control (IAC) should be run with eac...

  1. INTERNAL AMPLIFICATION CONTROL FOR USE IN QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) can be used as a rapid method for detecting fecal indicator bacteria. Because false negative results can be caused by PCR inhibitors that co-extract with the DNA samples, an internal amplification control (IAC) should be run with eac...

  2. Instrument-free nucleic acid amplification assays for global health settings

    PubMed Central

    LaBarre, Paul; Boyle, David; Hawkins, Kenneth; Weigl, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Many infectious diseases that affect global health are most accurately diagnosed through nucleic acid amplification and detection. However, existing nucleic acid amplification tests are too expensive and complex for most low-resource settings. The small numbers of centralized laboratories that exist in developing countries tend to be in urban areas and primarily cater to the affluent. In contrast, rural area health care facilities commonly have only basic equipment and health workers have limited training and little ability to maintain equipment and handle reagents.1 Reliable electric power is a common infrastructure shortfall. In this paper, we discuss a practical approach to the design and development of non-instrumented molecular diagnostic tests that exploit the benefits of isothermal amplification strategies. We identify modular instrument-free technologies for sample collection, sample preparation, amplification, heating, and detection. By appropriately selecting and integrating these instrument-free modules, we envision development of an easy to use, infrastructure independent diagnostic test that will enable increased use of highly accurate molecular diagnostics at the point of care in low-resource settings. PMID:25089171

  3. Instrument-free nucleic acid amplification assays for global health settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaBarre, Paul; Boyle, David; Hawkins, Kenneth; Weigl, Bernhard

    2011-06-01

    Many infectious diseases that affect global health are most accurately diagnosed through nucleic acid amplification and detection. However, existing nucleic acid amplification tests are too expensive and complex for most low-resource settings. The small numbers of centralized laboratories that exist in developing countries tend to be in urban areas and primarily cater to the affluent. In contrast, rural area health care facilities commonly have only basic equipment and health workers have limited training and little ability to maintain equipment and handle reagents.1 Reliable electric power is a common infrastructure shortfall. In this paper, we discuss a practical approach to the design and development of non-instrumented molecular diagnostic tests that exploit the benefits of isothermal amplification strategies. We identify modular instrument-free technologies for sample collection, sample preparation, amplification, heating, and detection. By appropriately selecting and integrating these instrument-free modules, we envision development of an easy to use, infrastructure independent diagnostic test that will enable increased use of highly accurate molecular diagnostics at the point of care in low-resource settings.

  4. Sensitive electrochemical determination of miRNAs based on a sandwich assay onto magnetic microcarriers and hybridization chain reaction amplification.

    PubMed

    Torrente-Rodríguez, R M; Campuzano, S; Montiel, V Ruiz-Valdepeñas; Montoya, J J; Pingarrón, J M

    2016-12-15

    A novel electrochemical approach for determination of miRNAs involving a sandwich hybridization assay onto streptavidin-magnetic beads (Strep-MBs), hybridization chain reaction (HCR) amplification and amperometric detection at disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes is reported. Using miRNA-21 as the target analyte, a dynamic linear range from 0.2 to 5.0nM with a 60pM (1.5fmol in 25μL) detection limit was obtained. The achieved sensitivity is 24-fold higher than a non-HCR amplification approach involving conventional sandwich type assay onto MBs. Moreover, the whole assay time lasted 1h 45min which is remarkably shorter than other reported methodologies. The methodology exhibited full selectivity against other non-complementary miRNAs as well as an acceptable discrimination between homologous miRNA family members. The applicability of this novel approach was demonstrated by determining mature miRNA-21 in total RNA (RNAt) extracted from tumor cells and human tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection of Puccinia kuehnii Causing Sugarcane Orange Rust with a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification-Based Assay.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Amaresh; Keizerweerd, Amber T; Grisham, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    Puccinia kuehnii is a fungal pathogen that causes orange rust in sugarcane, which is now prevalent in many countries. At the early stage of disease, it is almost indistinguishable from brown rust, which is caused by Puccinia melanocephala. Although several PCR assays are available to detect these diseases, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)-based assay has been reported to be more economical and easier to perform. Under isothermal conditions, DNA is amplified with high specificity and rapidity. Moreover, visual judgment of color change without further post-amplification processing makes the method convenient. The present study was undertaken to detect P. kuehnii genomic DNA using four primers corresponding to a unique DNA sequence of P. kuehnii. The LAMP assay was found to be optimal when 8 mM MgSO4 was used and the reaction was incubated at 63 °C for 90 min. Positive samples showed a color change from orange to green upon SYBR Green I dye addition. Specificity of the LAMP test was checked with DNA of P. melanocephala, which showed no reaction. Sensitivity of the LAMP method was observed to be the same as real-time PCR at 0.1 ng, thus providing a rapid and more affordable option for early disease detection.

  6. Development of a rapid loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for diagnosis and assessment of cure of Leishmania infection.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sandeep; Singh, Ruchi; Sharma, Vanila; Bumb, Ram Avtar; Negi, Narendra Singh; Ramesh, V; Salotra, Poonam

    2017-03-23

    Leishmaniasis is a spectrum of diseases with great relevance to public health. Conventional diagnostic methods are time consuming, needing trained personnel. A robust, rapid and cost effective diagnostic test is warranted for on-time diagnosis and field application. We have developed a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay with primers (n = 6) based on Leishmania donovani kDNA for detection of Leishmania infection, using a closed tube to prevent cross-contamination. The assay was used to detect Leishmania infection in biological samples obtained from patients of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The assay was positive for L. donovani, L. tropica and L. major parasites, with the highest sensitivity towards L. donovani (1 fg DNA). The high sensitivity of the assay for detection of L. donovani was reflected in its ability to detect parasite DNA within 30 min of amplification time with a threshold detection limit of ≥25 copies per reaction. The assay detected parasite in 64 of 66 VL blood samples (sensitivity, 96.9%; 95% CI: 89.6-99.2%), 15 of 15 VL bone marrow aspirate samples (sensitivity, 100%; 95% CI:79.6-100%), 65 of 67 PKDL tissue biopsy samples (sensitivity, 97%; 95% CI:89.7-99.2%). The assay was evaluated in a few cases of CL wherein it was found positive in 8 of 10 tissue biopsies (sensitivity, 80%; 95% CI: 49-94.3%). The assay was negative in all control blood (n = 76) and tissue biopsy (n = 24) samples (specificity, 100%; 95% CI: 96.3-100%). Further, the assay was evaluated for its utility in assessment of cure in treated VL and PKDL patients. The assay detected parasite DNA in 2 of 20VL blood samples and 2 of 21 PKDL tissue samples. Out of 4 cases that were positive for parasite DNA at post treatment stage, 2 patients (1VL and 1 PKDL) returned with relapse. The study demonstrated a Leishmania genus specific closed tube LAMP assay for reliable and rapid

  7. DNA probe culture confirmation assay for identification of thermophilic Campylobacter species.

    PubMed Central

    Tenover, F C; Carlson, L; Barbagallo, S; Nachamkin, I

    1990-01-01

    We studied the ability of a new DNA probe-based assay system to correctly identify isolates of the thermophilic campylobacters Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, and C. laridis grown in vitro. We examined 424 organisms, including 214 Campylobacter isolates and 210 other aerobic and anaerobic isolates. The probe assay, which uses a new homogeneous system in which all reactions take place within a single tube, demonstrated 100% accuracy, producing neither false-positive nor false-negative results. The assay does not, however, distinguish among C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. laridis. PMID:2380357

  8. Next-generation repeat-free FISH probes for DNA amplification in glioblastoma in vivo: Improving patient selection to MDM2-targeted inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Brunelli, Matteo; Eccher, Albino; Cima, Luca; Trippini, Tobia; Pedron, Serena; Chilosi, Marco; Barbareschi, Mattia; Scarpa, Aldo; Pinna, Giampietro; Cabrini, Giulio; Pilotto, Sara; Carbognin, Luisa; Bria, Emilio; Tortora, Giampaolo; Fioravanzo, Adele; Schiavo, Nicola; Meglio, Mario; Sava, Teodoro; Belli, Laura; Martignoni, Guido; Ghimenton, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    A next-generation FISH probe mapping to the MDM2 locus-specific region has recently been designed. The level of MDM2 gene amplification (high versus low) may allow selection of patients for cancer treatment with MDM2 inhibitors and may predict their responsiveness. We investigated the spectrum of MDM2 gene alterations using the new probes in vivo after visualizing single neoplastic cells in situ from a series of glioblastomas. Signals from next-generation repeat-free FISH interphase probes were identified in tissue microarrays that included 3 spots for each of the 48 cases. The murine double minutes (MDM2)-specific DNA probe and the satellite enumeration probe for chromosome 12 were used. Three cases (6%) showed more than 25 signals (high gene amplification), and 7 (15%) showed 3-10 signals (gains); among these, 4 cases (8%) had an equal number of MDM2 and centromeric signals on chromosome 12 (polyploidy). Genomic heterogeneity was observed only in 3 cases with low gene amplification. In our series, 6% of glioblastomas exhibited high MDM2 amplification (in vivo) with a pattern related to the known double minutes/chromothripsis phenomenon (in situ), and only cases with low amplification showed genomic heterogeneity. We concluded that the rate of MDM2 gene amplification can be a useful predictive biomarker to improve patient selection.

  9. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for the species-specific detection of Eimeria that infect chickens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Eimeria parasites can cause the disease coccidiosis in poultry and even subclinical infection can incur economic loss. Diagnosis of infection predominantly relies on traditional techniques including lesion scoring and faecal microscopy despite the availability of sensitive molecular assays, largely due to cost and the requirement for specialist equipment. Despite longstanding proven efficacy these traditional techniques demand time and expertise, can be highly subjective and may under-diagnose subclinical disease. Recognition of the tight economic margins prevailing in modern poultry production and the impact of avian coccidiosis on poverty in many parts of the world has highlighted a requirement for a panel of straightforward and sensitive, but cost-effective, Eimeria species-specific diagnostic assays. Results Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an uncomplicated, quick and relatively inexpensive diagnostic tool. In this study we have developed a panel of species-specific LAMP assays targeting the seven Eimeria species that infect the chicken. Each assay has been shown to be genuinely species-specific with the capacity to detect between one and ten eimerian genomes, equivalent to less than a single mature schizont. Development of a simple protocol for template DNA preparation from tissue collected post mortem with no requirement for specialist laboratory equipment supports the use of these assays in routine diagnosis of eimerian infection. Preliminary field testing supports this hypothesis. Conclusions Development of a panel of sensitive species-specific LAMP assays introduces a valuable new cost-effective tool for use in poultry husbandry. PMID:22053893

  10. A Novel Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Serogroup Identification of Neisseria meningitidis in Cerebrospinal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Lee, DoKyung; Kim, Eun Jin; Kilgore, Paul E.; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Ohnishi, Makoto; Tomono, Jun; Miyamoto, Shigehiko; Omagari, Daisuke; Kim, Dong Wook; Seki, Mitsuko

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a novel Neisseria meningitidis serogroup-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for six of the most common meningococcal serogroups (A, B, C, W, X, and Y). The assay was evaluated using a set of 31 meningococcal LAMP assay positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from 1574 children with suspected meningitis identified in prospective surveillance between 1998 and 2002 in Vietnam, China, and Korea. Primer specificity was validated using 15 N. meningitidis strains (including serogroups A, B, C, E, W, X, Y, and Z) and 19 non-N. meningitidis species. The N. meningitidis serogroup LAMP detected down to ten copies and 100 colony-forming units per reaction. Twenty-nine CSF had N. meningitidis serogroup identified by LAMP compared with two CSF in which N. meningitidis serogroup was identified by culture and multi-locus sequence typing. This is the first report of a serogroup-specific identification assay for N. meningitidis using the LAMP method. Our results suggest that this assay will be a rapid, sensitive, and uniquely serogroup-specific assay with potential for application in clinical laboratories and public health surveillance systems. PMID:26793181

  11. Genomic DNA Hybridization Probe and Immunoenzymatic Color Pigment Detection Assay.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-27

    example, Schmid, W. "The Micronucleus Test ", 15 Mutation Res. 31,9 (1975), Salamone, et al.,"Towards an Improved Micronucleus Test : Studies 16 on 3...found in the cytoplasm as a micronucleus . 3 In the conventional mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay, mice are exposed to a particular 4 test ...the micronucleus test ". Mutat. Research, 120:241-247; Hayashi, M, Morita, T., Kodama, Y., 11 Sofuni, T. and Ishidate, M. Jr. 1990, "The

  12. An oligonucleotide-ligation assay for the differentiation between Cyclospora and Eimeria spp. polymerase chain reaction amplification products.

    PubMed

    Jinneman, K C; Wetherington, J H; Hill, W E; Omiescinski, C J; Adams, A M; Johnson, J M; Tenge, B J; Dang, N L; Wekell, M M

    1999-06-01

    An oligonucleotide-ligation assay (OLA) was developed and compared to a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) test for distinguishing between 294-bp polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification products of the 18S rRNA gene from Cyclospora and Eimeria spp. The PCR/OLA correctly distinguished between three Cyclospora, three E. tenella, and one E. mitis strains and the ratio of positive to negative spectrophotometric absorbance (A490) values for each strain ranged from 4.086 to 15.280 (median 9.5). PCR/OLA provides a rapid, reliable, spectrophotometric alternative to PCR/RFLP.

  13. Development and performance evaluation of a recombinase polymerase amplification assay for the rapid detection of group B streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Christina; O'Connor, Louise; Carré-Skinner, Heather; Piepenburg, Olaf; Smith, Terry J

    2016-09-22

    Despite the implementation of prevention guidelines, group B Streptococcal (GBS) infection remains a leading cause of sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis, resulting in significant neonatal morbidity and mortality. Preventive approaches that identify women at risk of transmitting GBS have reduced the incidence of neonatal GBS disease, and dramatically decreased the associated mortality rates. However, there is an on-going requirement for a near-patient diagnostic test for GBS that can be carried out at the time of delivery, ideally in the labour ward setting, particularly for women of unknown GBS colonisation status at the time of delivery. In this study, a Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) assay was developed and performance evaluated for the detection of group B Streptococcus in vaginal swabs. The assay uses the cAMP factor (cfb) gene of GBS as the target gene. The analytical performance of the assay was evaluated by testing a panel of GBS reference strains and clinical isolates, and non-GBS organisms. The limit of detection was determined and the clinical performance was evaluated by testing 124 vaginal swabs from women with both GBS positive and negative status. Based on specificity testing carried out the assay was shown to be specific for the target of interest. The limit of detection of the assay was shown to be between six and 12 genome copies and was comparable to that of a real-time PCR assay, both achieving a limit of detection below 12.5 genome copies. The performance of both assays when applied to clinical samples was identical. A specific, sensitive RPA assay for GBS was developed. The performance of the assay for testing of clinical samples is within the acceptable range.

  14. Design and Evaluation of a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA Assay Using Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification Technology Able To Quantify Both Group M and O Viruses by Using the Long Terminal Repeat as Target

    PubMed Central

    de Baar, Michel P.; van der Schoot, Audrey M.; Goudsmit, Jaap; Jacobs, Femke; Ehren, Ron; van der Horn, Karin H. M.; Oudshoorn, Peter; de Wolf, Frank; de Ronde, Anthony

    1999-01-01

    Currently available human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA quantification assays can detect most viruses of the group M subtypes, but a substantial number are missed or not quantified reliably. Viruses of HIV-1 group O cannot be detected by any commercially available assay. We developed and evaluated a quantitative assay based on nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) technology, with primers and probes located in the conserved long terminal repeat (LTR) region of the HIV-1 genome. In 68 of 72 serum samples from individuals infected with HIV-1 subtypes A to H of group M, viruses could be detected and quantified. In serum samples from two patients infected with HIV-1 group O viruses, these viruses as well could be detected and quantified. In contrast, the currently used gag-based assay underestimated the presence of subtype A viruses and could not detect subtype G and group O viruses. The discrepancy between the results of the two assays may be explained by the number of mismatches found within and among the probe and primer regions of the subtype isolates. These data indicate that LTR-based assays, including the NASBA format chosen here, are better suited to monitoring HIV-1 therapy than are gag-based assays in an era in which multiple HIV-1 subtypes and groups are spreading worldwide. PMID:10325329

  15. Method to detect the end-point for PCR DNA amplification using an ionically labeled probe and measuring impedance change

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R.; Belgrader, Phillip; Fuller, Christopher D.

    2007-01-02

    Impedance measurements are used to detect the end-point for PCR DNA amplification. A pair of spaced electrodes are located on a surface of a microfluidic channel and an AC or DC voltage is applied across the electrodes to produce an electric field. An ionically labeled probe will attach to a complementary DNA segment, and a polymerase enzyme will release the ionic label. This causes the conductivity of the solution in the area of the electrode to change. This change in conductivity is measured as a change in the impedance been the two electrodes.

  16. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) assay for the identification of Echinococcus multilocularis infections in canine definitive hosts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the metacestode larval stage of Echinococcus multilocularis, is a zoonosis of public health significance and is highly prevalent in northwest China. To effectively monitor its transmission, we developed a new rapid and cheap diagnostic assay, based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), to identify canine definitive hosts infected with E. multilocularis. Methods The primers used in the LAMP assay were based on the mitochondrial nad5 gene of E. multilocularis and were designed using Primer Explorer V4 software. The developed LAMP assay was compared with a conventional PCR assay, using DNA extracted from the feces of dogs experimentally infected with E. multilocularis, on 189 dog fecal samples collected from three E. multilocularis-endemic regions in Qinghai province, the People’s Republic of China, and 30 negative control copro-samples from dogs from an area in Gansu province that had been subjected to an intensive de-worming program. Light microscopy was also used to examine the experimentally obtained and field collected dog copro-samples for the presence of E. multilocularis eggs. Results The E. multilocularis-positivity rates obtained for the field-collected fecal samples were 16.4% and 5.3% by the LAMP and PCR assays, respectively, and all samples obtained from the control dogs were negative. The LAMP assay was able to detect E. multilocularis DNA in the feces of experimentally infected dogs at 12 days post-infection, whereas the PCR assay was positive on the 17th day and eggs were first detectable by light microscopy at day 44 post-challenge. Conclusion The earlier specific detection of an E. multilocularis infection in dog copro-samples indicates that the LAMP assay we developed is a realistic alternative method for the field surveillance of canines in echinococcosis-endemic areas. PMID:24886279

  17. A Field-Deployable Reverse Transcription Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of the Chikungunya Virus

    PubMed Central

    Faye, Oumar; Prüger, Pauline; Kaiser, Marco; Thaloengsok, Sasikanya; Ubol, Sukathida; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Hufert, Frank T.; Sall, Amadou A.; Weidmann, Manfred; Niedrig, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus currently transmitted in about 60 countries. CHIKV causes acute flu-like symptoms and in many cases prolonged musculoskeletal and joint pain. Detection of the infection is mostly done using RT-RCR or ELISA, which are not suitable for point-of-care diagnosis. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, a reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the detection of the CHIKV was developed. The assay sensitivity, specificity, and cross-reactivity were tested. CHIKV RT-RPA assay detected down to 80 genome copies/reaction in a maximum of 15 minutes. It successfully identified 18 isolates representing the three CHIKV genotypes. No cross-reactivity was detected to other alphaviruses and arboviruses except O'nyong'nyong virus, which could be differentiated by a modified RPA primer pair. Seventy-eight samples were screened both by RT-RPA and real-time RT-PCR. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the CHIKV RT-RPA assay were determined at 100%. Conclusions/Significance The developed RT-RPA assay represents a promising method for the molecular detection of CHIKV at point of need. PMID:27685649

  18. One-step reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for sensitive and rapid detection of porcine kobuvirus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinqiong; Zhou, Yuanchen; Ji, Hongwei; Xu, Zhiwen; Zhu, Ling

    2014-10-01

    Porcine kobuvirus (PKoV) is associated with swine gastroenteritis, but its pathogenesis is uncertain. In this study, a rapid one-step reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method for the detection of PKoV is developed. A set of four primers specific to six regions within the PKoV 3D gene was designed for the RT-LAMP assay using total RNA extracted from PKoV-infected tissues. The reaction temperature and time for this assay were optimized. Compared with reverse-transcription PCR, RT-LAMP was able to detect PKoV at a 100-fold lower dilution. No cross-reaction was observed with other similar viruses, indicating that the assay is highly specific for PKoV. To investigate the prevalence of PKoV in symptomatic pigs in Sichuan province, the newly developed method was used to detect PKoV in a panel of clinical specimens, yielding a positive rate of 86.7% (144/166) in piglets. The results showed that the RT-LAMP assay is highly feasible in clinical settings. The data confirm that the RT-LAMP assay is rapid, simple and cost-effective and is particularly suitable for simple diagnosis of PKoV both in the field and in the laboratory.

  19. Development of reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay for avian influenza H5N1 HA gene detection.

    PubMed

    Yehia, Nahed; Arafa, Abdel-Satar; Abd El Wahed, Ahmed; El-Sanousi, Ahmed A; Weidmann, Manfred; Shalaby, Mohamed A

    2015-10-01

    The 2006 outbreaks of H5N1 avian influenza in Egypt interrupted poultry production and caused staggering economic damage. In addition, H5N1 avian influenza viruses represent a significant threat to public health. Therefore, the rapid detection of H5 viruses is very important in order to control the disease. In this study, a qualitative reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the detection of hemagglutinin gene of H5 subtype influenza viruses was developed. The results were compared to the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). An in vitro transcribed RNA standard of 970 nucleotides of the hemagglutinin gene was developed and used to determine the assay sensitivity. The developed H5 RT-RPA assay was able to detect one RNA molecule within 7 min, while in real-time RT-PCR, at least 90 min was required. H5 RT-RPA assay did not detect nucleic acid extracted from H5 negative samples or from other pathogens producing respiratory manifestation in poultry. The clinical performance of the H5 RT-RPA assay was tested in 30 samples collected between 2014 and 2015; the sensitivity of H5 RT-RPA and real-time RT-PCR was 100%. In conclusion, H5 RT-RPA was faster than real-time RT-PCR and easily operable in a portable device. Moreover, it had an equivalent sensitivity and specificity.

  20. A portable reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Abd El Wahed, Ahmed; El-Deeb, Ayman; El-Tholoth, Mohamed; Abd El Kader, Hanaa; Ahmed, Abeer; Hassan, Sayed; Hoffmann, Bernd; Haas, Bernd; Shalaby, Mohamed A; Hufert, Frank T; Weidmann, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a trans-boundary viral disease of livestock, which causes huge economic losses and constitutes a serious infectious threat for livestock farming worldwide. Early diagnosis of FMD helps to diminish its impact by adequate outbreak management. In this study, we describe the development of a real-time reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the detection of FMD virus (FMDV). The FMDV RT-RPA design targeted the 3D gene of FMDV and a 260 nt molecular RNA standard was used for assay validation. The RT-RPA assay was fast (4-10 minutes) and the analytical sensitivity was determined at 1436 RNA molecules detected by probit regression analysis. The FMDV RT-RPA assay detected RNA prepared from all seven FMDV serotypes but did not detect classical swine fever virus or swine vesicular disease virus. The FMDV RT-RPA assay was used in the field during the recent FMD outbreak in Egypt. In clinical samples, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RT-RPA showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 100% and 98%, respectively. In conclusion, FMDV RT-RPA was quicker and much easier to handle in the field than real-time RT-PCR. Thus RT-RPA could be easily implemented to perform diagnostics at quarantine stations or farms for rapid spot-of-infection detection.

  1. A Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Cyprinid Herpesvirus 2 in Gibel Carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Zeng, Lingbing; Fan, Yuding; Zhou, Yong; Xu, Jin; Ma, Jie

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) detection in gibel carp was developed. Following cloning and sequencing of the putative DNA helicase gene of CyHV-2 isolate from China, a set of four specific primers was designed based on the sequence. The MgCl2 concentration and the reaction temperature were optimized to 6 mM, 64°C, respectively. LAMP products were detected by visual inspection of a color change due to addition of SYBR Green I stain. The specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP assay were determined. No cross-reaction was observed with other fish DNA viruses including eel herpesvirus, koi herpesvirus, and Chinese giant salamander iridovirus. The LAMP assay was found to be equally sensitive as nested PCR. A comparative evaluation of 10 fish samples using LAMP and nested PCR assays showed an overall correlation in positive and negative results for CyHV-2. These results indicate that the LAMP assay is simple, sensitive, and specific and has a great potential use for CyHV-2 detection in the laboratory and field. PMID:24574914

  2. Diagnostic test accuracy of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for Mycobacterium tuberculosis: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Kenjiro; Horita, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Tsukahara, Toshinori; Nagakura, Hideyuki; Tashiro, Ken; Shibata, Yuji; Watanabe, Hiroki; Nakashima, Kentaro; Ushio, Ryota; Ikeda, Misako; Narita, Atsuya; Kanai, Akinori; Sato, Takashi; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic test accuracy of the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for culture proven tuberculosis is unclear. We searched electronic databases for both cohort and case-control studies that provided data to calculate sensitivity and specificity. The index test was any LAMP assay including both commercialized kits and in-house assays. Culture-proven M. tuberculosis was considered a positive reference test. We included 26 studies on 9330 sputum samples and one study on 315 extra-pulmonary specimens. For sputum samples, 26 studies yielded the summary estimates of sensitivity of 89.6% (95% CI 85.6–92.6%), specificity of 94.0% (95% CI 91.0–96.1%), and a diagnostic odds ratio of 145 (95% CI 93–226). Nine studies focusing on Loopamp MTBC yielded the summary estimates of sensitivity of 80.9% (95% CI 76.0–85.1%) and specificity of 96.5% (95% CI 94.7–97.7%). Loopamp MTBC had higher sensitivity and lower specificity for smear-positive sputa compared to smear-negative sputa. In-house assays showed higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Loopamp MTBC. LAMP promises to be a useful test for the diagnosis of TB, however there is still need to improve the assay to make it simpler, cheaper and more efficient to make it competitive against other PCR methods already available. PMID:27958360

  3. A Portable Reverse Transcription Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Abd El Wahed, Ahmed; El-Deeb, Ayman; El-Tholoth, Mohamed; Abd El Kader, Hanaa; Ahmed, Abeer; Hassan, Sayed; Hoffmann, Bernd; Haas, Bernd; Shalaby, Mohamed A.; Hufert, Frank T.; Weidmann, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a trans-boundary viral disease of livestock, which causes huge economic losses and constitutes a serious infectious threat for livestock farming worldwide. Early diagnosis of FMD helps to diminish its impact by adequate outbreak management. In this study, we describe the development of a real-time reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the detection of FMD virus (FMDV). The FMDV RT-RPA design targeted the 3D gene of FMDV and a 260 nt molecular RNA standard was used for assay validation. The RT-RPA assay was fast (4–10 minutes) and the analytical sensitivity was determined at 1436 RNA molecules detected by probit regression analysis. The FMDV RT-RPA assay detected RNA prepared from all seven FMDV serotypes but did not detect classical swine fever virus or swine vesicular disease virus. The FMDV RT-RPA assay was used in the field during the recent FMD outbreak in Egypt. In clinical samples, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RT-RPA showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 100% and 98%, respectively. In conclusion, FMDV RT-RPA was quicker and much easier to handle in the field than real-time RT-PCR. Thus RT-RPA could be easily implemented to perform diagnostics at quarantine stations or farms for rapid spot-of-infection detection. PMID:23977101

  4. Rapid detection of peste des petits ruminants virus by a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Bao, Jingyue; Wu, Xiaodong; Wang, Zhiliang; Wang, Junwei; Gong, Mingxia; Liu, Chunju; Li, Jinming

    2010-12-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is the causative agent of peste des petits ruminants (PPR), an economically important viral disease of small ruminants. In this report, a one-step, single-tube, reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of PPRV. A set of six LAMP primers were designed based on the matrix gene sequence of PPRV to amplify the target RNA by incubation at 63°C for 60min with Bst DNA polymerase and reverse transcriptase. The amplified products could be observed by the naked eye. The specificity of the RT-LAMP assay was validated by amplifying eight strains of PPRV isolated in different geographical areas. No cross-reactivity with other related viruses, including rinderpest virus, canine distemper virus and measles virus, was detected. The sensitivity of the assay was similar to that of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and 10-fold higher than that of conventional RT-PCR. Twenty clinical samples were evaluated by the RT-LAMP assay, and the results were consistent with those of real-time RT-PCR. As a simple, rapid and accurate detection method, this RT-LAMP assay has important potential applications in the clinical diagnosis of PPR and the surveillance of PPRV. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid, sensitive detection of Campylobacter jejuni in cattle farm samples.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hee-Jin; Cho, Ae-Ri; Hahn, Tae-Wook; Cho, Seongbeom

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial foodborne disease worldwide. The detection of this organism in cattle and their environment is important for the control of C. jejuni transmission and the prevention of campylobacteriosis. Here, we describe the development of a rapid and sensitive method for the detection of C. jejuni in naturally contaminated cattle farm samples, based on real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of the hipO gene. The LAMP assay was specific (100% inclusivity and exclusivity for 84 C. jejuni and 41 non-C. jejuni strains, respectively), sensitive (detection limit of 100 fg/μl), and quantifiable (R(2) = 0.9133). The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was then evaluated for its application to the naturally contaminated cattle farm samples. C. jejuni strains were isolated from 51 (20.7%) of 246 cattle farm samples, and the presence of the hipO gene was tested using the LAMP assay. Amplification of the hipO gene by LAMP within 30 min (mean ~10.8 min) in all C. jejuni isolates (n = 51) demonstrated its rapidity and accuracy. Next, template DNA was prepared from a total of 186 enrichment broth cultures of cattle farm samples either by boiling or using a commercial kit, and the sensitivity of detection of C. jejuni was compared between the LAMP and PCR assays. In DNA samples prepared by boiling, the higher sensitivity of the LAMP assay (84.4%) compared with the PCR assay (35.5%) indicates that it is less susceptible to the existence of inhibitors in sample material. In DNA samples prepared using a commercial kit, both the LAMP and PCR assays showed 100% sensitivity. We anticipate that the use of this rapid, sensitive, and simple LAMP assay, which is the first of its kind for the identification and screening of C. jejuni in cattle farm samples, may play an important role in the prevention of C. jejuni contamination in the food chain, thereby reducing the risk of human campylobacteriosis.

  6. Simple and Sensitive Colorimetric Assay for Pb2+ Based on Glutathione Protected Ag Nanoparticles by Salt Amplification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhang; Li, Huidong; Chu, Lin; Liu, Chenbin; Luo, Shenglian

    2015-02-01

    A simple and sensitive colorimetric assay for Pb2+ detection has been reported using glutathione protected silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by salt amplification. The naked AgNPs aggregate under the influence of salt. Glutathione (GSH) can bind to AgNPs via Ag-S bond, helping AgNPs to against salt-induced aggregation. However, GSH binding to AgNPs can be compromised by the interaction between Pb2+ and GSH. As a result, Pb2+-mediated aggregation of AgNPs under the influence of salt is reflected by the UV-Visible spectrum, and the qualitative and quantitative detection for Pb2+ is accomplished, with the detection range 0.5-4 µM and a detection limit of 0.5 µM. At the same time, Pb2+ in real water sample is detected. Furthermore, the high selectivity and low cost of the assay means it is promising for enviromental applications.

  7. Rapid detection of hepatitis C virus RNA by a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin-qin; Zhang, Jie; Hu, Jin-song; Chen, Hao-tai; Du, Li; Wu, Li-qin; Ding, Yao-zhong; Xiong, Sheng-he; Huang, Xin-cheng; Zhang, Yin-hong; Liu, Yong-sheng

    2011-10-01

    The usefulness of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) for the rapid diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA was evaluated. This assay showed higher sensitivities than that of nested RT-PCR, with a detection limit of 600 IU mL(-1) , and no cross-reactivity was observed with hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis E virus. Furthermore, 106 stored sera from recently diagnosed cases were retrospectively investigated with real-time RT-PCR, the nested RT-PCR, in parallel with this new assay. The general detection rates of HCV RT-LAMP, real-time PCR and the nested RT-PCR for 106 stored sera samples were 95%, 96% and 88%, respectively. This study provides the first data on the usefulness of HCV RT-LAMP in the diagnosis of HCV RNA, especially in the early clinical diagnosis of acute HCV infection.

  8. A Sensitive, Colorimetric, High-Throughput Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for the Detection of Plasmodium knowlesi

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Sumudu; Cheng, Qin; Grigg, Matthew J.; William, Timothy; Anstey, Nicholas M.; McCarthy, James S.

    2016-01-01

    The simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is now the commonest cause of malaria in Malaysia and can rapidly cause severe and fatal malaria. However, microscopic misdiagnosis of Plasmodium species is common, rapid antigen detection tests remain insufficiently sensitive and confirmation of P. knowlesi requires polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Thus available point-of-care diagnostic tests are inadequate. This study reports the development of a simple, sensitive, colorimetric, high-throughput loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (HtLAMP) diagnostic test using novel primers for the detection of P. knowlesi. This assay is able to detect 0.2 parasites/μL, and compared with PCR has a sensitivity of 96% for the detection of P. knowlesi, making it a potentially field-applicable point-of-care diagnostic tool. PMID:27162264

  9. TaqMan probes as blocking agents for enriched PCR amplification and DNA melting analysis of mutant genes.

    PubMed

    Botezatu, Irina V; Panchuk, Irina O; Stroganova, Anna M; Senderovich, Anastasia I; Kondratova, Valentina N; Shelepov, Valery P; Lichtenstein, Anatoly V

    2017-02-01

    Asymmetric PCR and DNA melting analysis with TaqMan probes applied for mutation detection is effectively used in clinical diagnostics. The method is simple, cost-effective, and carried out in a closed-tube format, minimizing time, labor, and risk of sample cross-contamination. Although DNA melting analysis is more sensitive than Sanger sequencing (mutation detection thresholds are ~5% and 15%-20%, respectively), it is less sensitive than more labor-intensive and expensive techniques such as pyrosequencing and droplet digital PCR. Here, we demonstrate that, under specially selected conditions of asymmetric PCR, TaqMan probes can play the role of blocking agents. Preferential blocking of the wild-type allele brings about enriched amplification of mutant alleles. As a result, an ~10-fold increase in the detection sensitivity for mutant BRAF and NRAS genes was achieved.

  10. Evaluation of colorimetric loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for visual detection of Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus iniae in tilapia.

    PubMed

    Suebsing, R; Kampeera, J; Tookdee, B; Withyachumnarnkul, B; Turner, W; Kiatpathomchai, W

    2013-10-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae and Strep. iniae are bacterial pathogens that cause streptococcosis in many fish species. An accelerated colorimetric loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay with pre-addition of calcein was established, and the transmission and detection of Strep. agalactiae and Strep. iniae in tilapia under natural aquatic environment were investigated. A positive reaction was observed by a colour change from orange to green through the naked eyes after completion at 63°C for 30 min with 10 times higher sensitivity than that of nested PCR assays and without cross-amplification with other fish bacterial pathogens. All sample types of Nile and red tilapia (broodstock, fertilized egg, fry) were Strep. agalactiae- and Strep. iniae positive by this new method, implying that they could be vertically transmitted. With its application for screening broodstock and fry before stocking and for monitoring fish health in grow-out ponds, the method would become very useful in fish farming industry. The application of colorimetric LAMP with pre-addition of calcein offers simple, rapid and sensitive technique with applicability for small field laboratories. This technique explored the possible vertical transmission mode of Strep. agalactiae and Strep. iniae under natural aquatic environment. It could be such preliminary data provided for the screening broodstock before breeding and/or the specific-pathogen-free production. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Development of a pan-serotype reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the detection of dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Dauner, Allison L; Mitra, Indrani; Gilliland, Theron; Seales, Sajeewane; Pal, Subhamoy; Yang, Shih-Chun; Guevara, Carolina; Chen, Jiann-Hwa; Liu, Yung-Chuan; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Wu, Shuenn-Jue L

    2015-09-01

    During dengue outbreaks, acute diagnosis at the patient's point of need followed by appropriate supportive therapy reduces morbidity and mortality. To facilitate needed diagnosis, we developed and optimized a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay that detects all 4 serotypes of dengue virus (DENV). We used a quencher to reduce nonspecific amplification. The assay does not require expensive thermocyclers, utilizing a simple water bath to maintain the reaction at 63 °C. Results can be visualized using UV fluorescence, handheld readers, or lateral flow immunochromatographic tests. We report a sensitivity of 86.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 72.7-94.8%) and specificity of 93.0% (95% CI, 83.0-98.1%) using a panel of clinical specimens characterized by DENV quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. This pan-serotype DENV RT-LAMP can be adapted to field-expedient formats where it can provide actionable diagnosis near the patient's point of need.

  12. Rapid and specific identification of Brucella abortus using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sung-Il; Her, Moon; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Jin Ju; Lee, Kichan; Sung, So-Ra; Jung, Suk Chan

    2015-06-01

    A rapid and accurate diagnosis of brucellosis is required to reduce and prevent the spread of disease among animals and the risk of transfer to humans. In this study, a Brucella abortus-specific (Ba) LAMP assay was developed, that had six primers designed from the BruAb2_0168 region of chromosome I. The specificity of this LAMP assay was confirmed with Brucella reference strains, B. abortus vaccine strains, B. abortus isolates and phylogenetically or serologically related strains. The detection limit of target DNA was up to 20 fg/μl within 60 min. The sensitivity of the new LAMP assay was equal to or slightly higher than other PCR based assays. Moreover, this Ba-LAMP assay could specifically amplify all B. abortus biovars compared to previous PCR assays. To our knowledge, this is the first report of specific detection of B. abortus using a LAMP assay. The Ba-LAMP assay can offer a rapid, sensitive and accurate diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in the field.

  13. Evaluation of Performance of the Gen-Probe Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Viral Load Assay Using Primary Subtype A, C, and D Isolates from Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Sandra; Bodrug, Sharon; Richardson, Barbra A.; Giachetti, Cristina; Bott, Martha A.; Panteleeff, Dana; Jagodzinski, Linda L.; Michael, Nelson L.; Nduati, Ruth; Bwayo, Job; Kreiss, Joan K.; Overbaugh, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Accurate and sensitive quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA has been invaluable as a marker for disease prognosis and for clinical monitoring of HIV-1 disease. The first generation of commercially available HIV-1 RNA tests were optimized to detect the predominant HIV-1 subtype found in North America and Europe, subtype B. However, these tests are frequently suboptimal in detecting HIV-1 genetic forms or subtypes found in other parts of the world. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the performance of a new viral load assay with non-subtype B viruses. A transcription-mediated amplification method for detection and quantitation of diverse HIV-1 subtypes, called the Gen-Probe HIV-1 viral load assay, is under development. In this study we examined the performance of the Gen-Probe HIV-1 viral load assay relative to that of the commonly used commercial HIV-1 RNA assays using a panel of primary isolates from Kenya. For comparison, we included several subtype B cloned viruses, and we quantified each virus using an in-house quantitative-competitive reverse transcriptase PCR (QC-RT-PCR) method and gagp24 antigen capture. The Gen-Probe HIV-1 viral load assay and a version of the Roche AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR test (version 1.5) that was designed to detect a broader range of subtypes were both sensitive for the quantification of Kenyan primary isolates, which represented subtype A, C, and D viruses. The Gen-Probe HIV-1 viral load assay was more sensitive for the majority of viruses than the Roche AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR test version 1.0, the Bayer Quantiplex HIV RNA 3.0 assay, or a QC-RT-PCR method in use in our laboratory, suggesting that it provides a useful method for quantifying HIV-1 RNAs from diverse parts of the world, including Africa. PMID:10878065

  14. Intercalation activating fluorescence DNA probe and its application to homogeneous quantification of a target sequence by isothermal sequence amplification in a closed vessel.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Takahiko; Saitoh, Juichi; Horie, Ryuichi; Hayashi, Toshinori; Ishizuka, Tetsuya; Tsuchiya, Shigeo; Yasukawa, Kiyoshi; Kido, Takahiro; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Ueda, Kunihiro

    2003-03-01

    We developed a completely homogeneous and isothermal method of detecting RNA sequences and demonstrated ultrarapid and direct quantification of pathogenic gene expression with high sensitivity. The assay is based on performing isothermal RNA sequence amplification in the presence of our novel DNA probe, an intercalation activating fluorescence DNA probe, and measuring the fluorescence intensity of the reaction mixture. When detecting mecA gene expression of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, we quantified starting copies ranging from 10 to 10(7) copies within 10min. The primer sequences were designed to bind to secondary structure-free sites of the target RNA, which enabled a totally isothermal protocol to quantify mRNA specifically in a sample of existing genomic DNA. When we applied this to quantifying the expression of marker genes of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain, the results correlated well with the viability of each bacterium. We also demonstrated monitoring Pab gene expression of M. bovis BCG during cultivation with antibiotics. The present method can potentially realize rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing of slowly growing organisms, such as tuberculosis.

  15. Multivalent Bifunctional Chelator Scaffolds for Gallium-68 Based Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Probe Design: Signal Amplification via Multivalency

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajay N.; Liu, Wei; Hao, Guiyang; Kumar, Amit; Gupta, Anjali; Öz, Orhan K.; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Sun, Xiankai

    2011-01-01

    The role of the multivalent effect has been well recognized in the design of molecular imaging probes towards the desired imaging signal amplification. Recently we reported a bifunctional chelator (BFC) scaffold design, which provides a simple and versatile approach to impart multivalency to radiometal based nuclear imaging probes. In this work, we report a series of BFC scaffolds (tBu3-1-COOH, tBu3-2-(COOH)2 and tBu3-3-(COOH)3) constructed on the framework of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) for 68Ga-based PET probe design and signal amplification via multivalent effect. For proof of principle, a known integrin αvβ3 specific ligand (c(RGDyK)) was used to build the corresponding NOTA conjugates (H31, H32, and H33), which present 1 – 3 copies of c(RGDyK) peptide, respectively, in a systematic manner. Using the integrin αvβ3 binding affinities (IC50 values), the enhanced specific binding was observed for multivalent conjugates (H32: 43.9 ± 16.1 nM; H33: 14.7 ± 5.0 nM) as compared to their monovalent counterpart (H31: 171 ± 60 nM) and the intact c(RGDyK) peptide (204 ± 76 nM). The obtained conjugates were efficiently labeled with 68Ga3+ within 30 min at room temperature in high radiochemical yields (> 95%). The in vivo evaluation of the labeled conjugates, 68Ga-1, 68Ga-2 and 68Ga-3, was performed using male severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice bearing integrin αvβ3 positive PC-3 tumor xenografts (n = 3). All 68Ga -labeled conjugates showed high in vivo stability with no detectable metabolites found by radio-HPLC within 2 h post-injection (p.i.). The PET signal amplification in PC-3 tumor by multivalent effect was clearly displayed by the tumor uptake of the 68Ga-labeled conjugates (68Ga-3: 2.55 ± 0.50%ID/g; 68Ga-2: 1.90 ± 0.10 %ID/g; 68Ga-1: 1.66 ± 0.15 %ID/g) at 2 h p.i. In summary, we have designed and synthesized a series of NOTA-based BFC scaffolds with signal amplification properties, which may find potential applications

  16. Detection of HCV genotypes 1b and 2a by a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na; Liu, Jinxia; Sun, Dianxing

    2016-12-09

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1b and 2a are the major cause of liver disease in northern China; however, conventional detection tools are labor-consuming, technically demanding, and costly. Here, we assessed the specificity, sensitivity, and clinical utility of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for detection of HCV genotypes 1b and 2a. Firstly, clinical samples were collected from HCV genotype 1b and 2a infected patients and the RNA were extracted. Secondly, specificity of RT-LAMP assay for detection HCV genotypes 1b and 2a were tested against viral genomes of other hepatitis viruses. Sensitivity of RT-LAMP assay was determined using serial dilutions of standard HCV genotypes 1b and 2a. The amplified products were detected by both electrophoresis and calcein/Mn(2+) -dependent visual methods. Finally, we compared the clinical detection rate of RT-LAMP to that of real-time PCR. RT-LAMP assay showed high specificity to detect HCV genotypes 1b and 2b since there was no cross-reactivity with other hepatitis viruses. Sensitivity of RT-LAMP was 100 IU/mL for both genotypes detected by either electrophoresis or calcein/Mn(2+) -dependent visual methods. The detection rate of RT-LAMP assay in clinical samples was also comparable to that of real-time PCR without significant difference between the both assays. This study proposes a newly developed RT-LAMP assay for detection of HCV genotypes 1b and 2a. RT-LAMP is highly specific, sensitive, and simple diagnostic tool which would be useful for screening and early diagnosis of HCV especially in resource-limited environments.

  17. Quantitative, Fluorogenic Probe PCR Assay for Detection of Human Herpesvirus 8 DNA in Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Stamey, Felicia R.; Patel, Mitesh M.; Holloway, Brian P.; Pellett, Philip E.

    2001-01-01

    A quantitative, fluorescence-based PCR assay (TaqMan-based system) was developed for detection of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) DNA in clinical specimens. Primers and probes chosen from each of five 10-kb segments from the unique region of the HHV-8 genome were evaluated for sensitivity with dilution series of DNA extracted from a cell line (BCBL-1) that harbors HHV-8 DNA. Although several of the primer-probe sets performed similarly with BCBL-1 DNA that had been diluted in water, their performance differed when target DNA was diluted in a constant background of uninfected cell DNA, an environment more relevant to their intended use. The two best primer-probe combinations were specific for HHV-8 relative to the other known human herpesviruses and herpesvirus saimiri, a closely related gammaherpesvirus of nonhuman primates. PCRs included an enzymatic digestion step to eliminate PCR carryover and an exogenous internal positive control that enabled discrimination of false-negative from true-negative reactions. The new assays were compared to conventional PCR assays for clinical specimens (saliva, rectal brushings, rectal swab specimens, peripheral blood lymphocytes, semen, and urine) from human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with or without Kaposi's sarcoma. In all instances, the new assays agreed with each other and with the conventional PCR system. In addition, the quantitative results obtained with the new assays were in good agreement both for duplicate reactions in the same assay and between assays. PMID:11574569

  18. Quantitative, fluorogenic probe PCR assay for detection of human herpesvirus 8 DNA in clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Stamey, F R; Patel, M M; Holloway, B P; Pellett, P E

    2001-10-01

    A quantitative, fluorescence-based PCR assay (TaqMan-based system) was developed for detection of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) DNA in clinical specimens. Primers and probes chosen from each of five 10-kb segments from the unique region of the HHV-8 genome were evaluated for sensitivity with dilution series of DNA extracted from a cell line (BCBL-1) that harbors HHV-8 DNA. Although several of the primer-probe sets performed similarly with BCBL-1 DNA that had been diluted in water, their performance differed when target DNA was diluted in a constant background of uninfected cell DNA, an environment more relevant to their intended use. The two best primer-probe combinations were specific for HHV-8 relative to the other known human herpesviruses and herpesvirus saimiri, a closely related gammaherpesvirus of nonhuman primates. PCRs included an enzymatic digestion step to eliminate PCR carryover and an exogenous internal positive control that enabled discrimination of false-negative from true-negative reactions. The new assays were compared to conventional PCR assays for clinical specimens (saliva, rectal brushings, rectal swab specimens, peripheral blood lymphocytes, semen, and urine) from human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with or without Kaposi's sarcoma. In all instances, the new assays agreed with each other and with the conventional PCR system. In addition, the quantitative results obtained with the new assays were in good agreement both for duplicate reactions in the same assay and between assays.

  19. Microfluidic accumulation assay probes attachment of biofilm forming diatom cells.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Kim A; Schwarze, Jana; Rosenhahn, Axel

    2017-08-01

    Testing of fouling release (FR) technologies is of great relevance for discovery of the next generation of protective marine coatings. In this paper, an accumulation assay to test diatom interaction under laminar flow with the model organism Navicula perminuta is introduced. Using time lapse microscopy with large area sampling allows determination of the accumulation kinetics of the diatom on three model surfaces with different surface properties at different wall shear stresses. The hydrodynamic conditions within the flow cell are described and a suitable shear stress range to perform accumulation experiments is identified at which statistically significant discrimination of surfaces is possible. The observed trends compare well to published adhesion preferences of N. perminuta. Also, previously determined trends of critical wall shear stresses required for cell removal from the same set of functionalized interfaces shows consistent trends. Initial attachment mediated by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) present outside the diatoms leads to the conclusion that the FR potential of the tested coating candidates can be deducted from dynamic accumulation experiments under well-defined hydrodynamic conditions. As well as testing new coating candidates for their FR properties, monitoring of the adhesion process under flow provides additional information on the mechanism and geometry of attachment and the population kinetics.

  20. Development of a highly sensitive gold nanoparticle probe-based assay for bluetongue virus detection.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hui-qiong; Jia, Min-xian; Yang, Shu; Jing, Pei-pei; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Jin-gang

    2012-07-01

    A simple gold nanoparticle (GNP) probe based assay (GNPA) that was modified from a bio-barcode assay (BCA) technique, was developed for ultra-sensitive, rapid detection of the bluetongue virus (BTV) VP7 outer-core protein. This assay captures the VP7 target antigen using the GNP probe coated with anti-VP7 polyclonal antibodies and single-stranded signal DNA. Magnetic microparticle (MMP) probes coated with anti-VP7 monoclonal antibodies were then added to form a sandwich immuno-complex. The single-stranded signal DNA coated onto the GNP probe present in the immuno-complex could then be detected by PCR and real-time fluorescence PCR using a TaqMan probe. The assay has a purified VP7 detection limit of 10(-2)fg/ml which is 8 orders of magnitude greater than that of conventional antigen capture ELISAs and 1 order of magnitude more sensitive than that of a conventional BCA. These results indicate that the GNPA is a highly sensitive method for easy detection of BTV proteins and that it can be modified as needed to measure the presence of other proteins.

  1. Rapid and sensitive detection of porcine torovirus by a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (RT-LAMP).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaowan; Zhou, Yuancheng; Yang, Fan; Liu, Pengjuan; Cai, Yuhan; Huang, Jianbo; Zhu, Ling; Xu, Zhiwen

    2016-02-01

    Porcine torovirus (PToV) is associated with swine gastroenteritis, but its pathogenesis is uncertain because there is limited information regarding PToV due to its difficulty to adapt in vitro. This study has developed a rapid one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method for the detection of PToV. A set of four primers specific to six regions within the PToV's highly conserved fragment of the M gene was designed for use with the RT-LAMP assay. The RT-LAMP assay was sensitive with a detection limit of 1 × 10(1)copies/μL, which was 100-fold higher than reverse-transcription PCR. No cross-reaction was observed with other similar viruses. A total of 175 clinical specimens were collected from the Sichuan province, and PToV was detected by the established RT-LAMP assay with a positive rate of 39.2% (69/175). This study developed the first rapid, sensitive, simple, cost-effective and accurate method for the detection of PToV. The results show that the RT-LAMP assay is highly feasible in clinical settings.

  2. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and sensitive detection of ostreid herpesvirus 1 DNA.

    PubMed

    Ren, Weicheng; Renault, Tristan; Cai, Yuyong; Wang, Chongming

    2010-12-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for rapid, specific and sensitive detection of ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) DNA. A set of four primers was designed, based on the sequence of the ATPase subunit of the OsHV-1 DNA-packaging terminase gene. The reaction temperature and time were optimized to 64°C and 60min, respectively. LAMP products were detected by agarose gel electrophoresis or by visual inspection of a color change due to addition of fluorescent dye. The developed method was highly specific for detection of OsHV-1, and no cross-reaction was observed with other DNA viruses, such as White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), Turbot reddish body iridovirus (TRBIV) and Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) found commonly in China. The lower detection limit of the LAMP assay was approximately 20 copies per reaction, and it was 100 times more sensitive than that of conventional PCR. A comparative evaluation of 10 oyster samples using LAMP and PCR assays showed overall correlation in positive and negative results for OsHV-1. These results indicate that the LAMP assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, specific and reliable technique for the detection of OsHV-1. The LAMP technique has capacity for use for the detection of OsHV-1 both in the laboratory and on farms.

  3. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid and sensitive identification of ostrich meat.

    PubMed

    Abdulmawjood, Amir; Grabowski, Nils; Fohler, Svenja; Kittler, Sophie; Nagengast, Helga; Klein, Guenter

    2014-01-01

    Animal species identification is one of the primary duties of official food control. Since ostrich meat is difficult to be differentiated macroscopically from beef, therefore new analytical methods are needed. To enforce labeling regulations for the authentication of ostrich meat, it might be of importance to develop and evaluate a rapid and reliable assay. In the present study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay based on the cytochrome b gene of the mitochondrial DNA of the species Struthio camelus was developed. The LAMP assay was used in combination with a real-time fluorometer. The developed system allowed the detection of 0.01% ostrich meat products. In parallel, a direct swab method without nucleic acid extraction using the HYPLEX LPTV buffer was also evaluated. This rapid processing method allowed detection of ostrich meat without major incubation steps. In summary, the LAMP assay had excellent sensitivity and specificity for detecting ostrich meat and could provide a sampling-to-result identification-time of 15 to 20 minutes.

  4. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid detection of the sexually-transmitted parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Adao, Davin Edric V; Rivera, Windell L

    2016-01-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed to detect the sexually-transmitted parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal swabs. The presence of T. vaginalis was detected from 121 female sex workers attending a social hygiene clinic in Balibago, Angeles City, Pampanga, Philippines using culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the developed LAMP assay. The high analytical sensitivity of LAMP detected a higher prevalence of T. vaginalis (42.06%) compared to culture (8.26%) and PCR (7.44%). Additionally, this assay did not cross-react with DNAs of other trichomonads that can infect humans such as Trichomonas tenax and Pentatrichomonas hominis as well as the pathogens, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. The LAMP assay developed had a limit of detection (0.036 ng/μl) lower than that of PCR using the primers TvK3 and TvK7 (0.36 ng/μl). Prevalence of T. vaginalis in female sex workers in this area of the Philippines may be higher than previously estimated. Discordant results of PCR and LAMP may be due to different reactions to different kinds of inhibitors in the vaginal swabs.

  5. Development of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assay for Rapid and Sensitive Identification of Ostrich Meat

    PubMed Central

    Abdulmawjood, Amir; Grabowski, Nils; Fohler, Svenja; Kittler, Sophie; Nagengast, Helga; Klein, Guenter

    2014-01-01

    Animal species identification is one of the primary duties of official food control. Since ostrich meat is difficult to be differentiated macroscopically from beef, therefore new analytical methods are needed. To enforce labeling regulations for the authentication of ostrich meat, it might be of importance to develop and evaluate a rapid and reliable assay. In the present study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay based on the cytochrome b gene of the mitochondrial DNA of the species Struthio camelus was developed. The LAMP assay was used in combination with a real-time fluorometer. The developed system allowed the detection of 0.01% ostrich meat products. In parallel, a direct swab method without nucleic acid extraction using the HYPLEX LPTV buffer was also evaluated. This rapid processing method allowed detection of ostrich meat without major incubation steps. In summary, the LAMP assay had excellent sensitivity and specificity for detecting ostrich meat and could provide a sampling-to-result identification-time of 15 to 20 minutes. PMID:24963709

  6. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assays for Detecting Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Ground Beef and Human Stools

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Jiang, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), encompassing E. coli O157 and non-O157 STEC, is a significant cause of food-borne illnesses and deaths in the United States and worldwide. Shiga toxins (encoded by stx) and intimin (encoded by eae) are important virulence factors for STEC strains linked to severe human illnesses such as hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. In this study, the stx1, stx2, and eae genes were chosen as targets to design loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for the rapid, specific, sensitive, and quantitative detection of STEC strains. The assay performances in pure culture and spiked ground beef and human stools were evaluated and compared with those of quantitative PCR (qPCR). No false-positive or false-negative results were observed among 90 bacterial strains used to evaluate assay specificity. The limits of detection for seven STEC strains of various serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) were approximately 1 to 20 CFU/reaction in pure culture and 103 to 104 CFU/g in spiked ground beef, which were comparable to the results of qPCR. Standard curves generated suggested good linear relationships between STEC cell numbers and LAMP turbidity signals. When applied in ground beef samples spiked with two low levels (1 to 2 and 10 to 20 CFU/25 g) of STEC cultures, the LAMP assays achieved accurate detection after 6 to 8 h enrichment. The assays also consistently detected STEC in human stool specimens spiked with 103 or 104 CFU/0.5 g stool after 4 h enrichment, while qPCR required 4 to 6 h. In conclusion, the LAMP assays developed in this study may facilitate rapid and reliable identification of STEC contaminations in high-risk food commodities and also facilitate prompt diagnosis of STEC infections in clinical laboratories. PMID:22031701

  7. Field evaluation of a recombinase polymerase amplification assay for the diagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum infection in Hunan province of China.

    PubMed

    Xing, Weiwei; Yu, Xinling; Feng, Jingtao; Sun, Kui; Fu, Wenliang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zou, Minji; Xia, Wenrong; Luo, Zhihong; He, Hongbin; Li, Yuesheng; Xu, Donggang

    2017-02-21

    Current diagnostic methods for Schistosoma japonicum infection are insensitive for low-density infections. Therefore, a new diagnostic assay based on recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) technology was established and assessed for field applification. The S.japonicum RPA assay was developed to target highly repetitive retrotransposon SjR2 gene of S japonicum, and its sensitivity and specificity were assessed by serial dilution of S. japonicum genomic DNA and other related worm genomic DNA respectively. The RPA diagnostic validity was first evaluated in 60 fecal samples from healthy people and patients, and then compared with other diagnostic tests in 200 high-risk individuals living in endemic areas. The real time RPA assay could detect 0.9 fg S. japonicum DNA within 15 min and distinguish S. japonicum from other worms. The validity analysis of RPA for the detection of S. japonicum in stool samples from 30 S. japonicum-infected patients and 30 healthy persons indicated 100% sensitivity and specificity. When testing 200 fecal or serum samples from a high-risk population, the percentage sensitivity of RPA was 100%, whereas that of indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were 80.3% and 85.2% respectively. In addition, the RPA presented better consistency with the stool-based tests than IHA and ELISA. Overall, the RPA was superior to other detection methods with respect to detection time, sensitivity, and convenience. This is the first time we applied the RPA technology to the field evaluation of S. japonicum infection. And the results suggest that RPA-based assays can be used as a promising point-of-care test for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis.

  8. Rapid identification of drug-type strains in Cannabis sativa using loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Masashi; Aragane, Masako; Nakamura, Kou; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Sasaki, Yohei

    2017-01-01

    In Cannabis sativa L., tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary psychoactive compound and exists as the carboxylated form, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA). C. sativa is divided into two strains based on THCA content-THCA-rich (drug-type) strains and THCA-poor (fiber-type) strains. Both strains are prohibited by law in many countries including Japan, whereas the drug-type strains are regulated in Canada and some European countries. As the two strains cannot be discriminated by morphological analysis, a simple method for identifying the drug-type strains is required for quality control in legal cultivation and forensic investigation. We have developed a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for identifying the drug-type strains of C. sativa. We designed two selective LAMP primer sets for on-site or laboratory use, which target the drug-type THCA synthase gene. The LAMP assay was accomplished within approximately 40 min. The assay showed high specificity for the drug-type strains and its sensitivity was the same as or higher than that of conventional polymerase chain reaction. We also showed the effectiveness of melting curve analysis that was conducted after the LAMP assay. The melting temperature values of the drug-type strains corresponded to those of the cloned drug-type THCA synthase gene, and were clearly different from those of the cloned fiber-type THCA synthase gene. Moreover, the LAMP assay with simple sample preparation could be accomplished within 1 h from sample treatment to identification without the need for special devices or techniques. Our rapid, sensitive, specific, and simple assay is expected to be applicable to laboratory and on-site detection.

  9. Sensitive Visual Detection of AHPND Bacteria Using Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Combined with DNA-Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles as Probes

    PubMed Central

    Arunrut, Narong; Kampeera, Jantana; Sirithammajak, Sarawut; Sanguanrut, Piyachat; Proespraiwong, Porranee; Suebsing, Rungkarn; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika

    2016-01-01

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a component cause of early mortality syndrome (EMS) of shrimp. In 2013, the causative agent was found to be unique isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VPAHPND) that contained a 69 kbp plasmid (pAP1) carrying binary Pir-like toxin genes PirvpA and PirvpB. In Thailand, AHPND was first recognized in 2012, prior to knowledge of the causative agent, and it subsequently led to a precipitous drop in shrimp production. After VPAHPND was characterized, a major focus of the AHPND control strategy was to monitor broodstock shrimp and post larvae for freedom from VPAHPND by nucleic acid amplification methods, most of which required use of expensive and sophisticated equipment not readily available in a shrimp farm setting. Here, we describe a simpler but equally sensitive approach for detection of VPAHPND based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with unaided visual reading of positive amplification products using a DNA-functionalized, ssDNA-labled nanogold probe (AuNP). The target for the special set of six LAMP primers used was the VPAHPND PirvpA gene. The LAMP reaction was carried out at 65°C for 45 min followed by addition of the red AuNP solution and further incubation at 65°C for 5 min, allowing any PirvpA gene amplicons present to hybridize with the probe. Hybridization protected the AuNP against aggregation, so that the solution color remained red upon subsequent salt addition (positive test result) while unprotected AuNP aggregated and underwent a color change from red to blue and eventually precipitated (negative result). The total assay time was approximately 50 min. The detection limit (100 CFU) was comparable to that of other commonly-used methods for nested PCR detection of VPAHPND and 100-times more sensitive than 1-step PCR detection methods (104 CFU) that used amplicon detection by electrophoresis or spectrophotometry. There was no cross reaction with DNA templates derived from non

  10. Value of a DNA probe assay (Gen-Probe) compared with that of culture for diagnosis of gonococcal infection.

    PubMed

    Vlaspolder, F; Mutsaers, J A; Blog, F; Notowicz, A

    1993-01-01

    The Gen-Probe PACE 2 system for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GP), which uses a chemiluminescently labeled DNA probe, was compared with conventional culture as the method of reference. A total of 1,750 specimens were collected from 496 females and 623 males visiting the outpatient clinic of the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Department of the Westeinde Hospital, The Hague, The Netherlands, during the year 1991. The prevalences of gonorrhea culture-positive men and women were 14.9 and 7.7%, respectively. The overall positive rate was 8.7%. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of GP were 97.1, 99.1, 90.6, and 99.8%, respectively. A total of 12 of 13 patients with positive GP results and negative cultures may have had a gonococcal infection, a conclusion based on clinical symptoms, positive methylene blue smears, and high relative light unit ratios. The DNA probe test can be useful as a suitable screening and diagnostic test for gonorrheal infection in men and women. An advantage of using this DNA probe technique is that simultaneous testing for Chlamydia trachomatis of the same specimen is possible. We also examined whether (all) rRNA had disappeared after adequate treatment for gonococcal and/or chlamydial infection in 30 patients. None of those positive patients showed a positive result in the DNA probe assay after treatment.

  11. A homogeneous and "off-on" fluorescence aptamer-based assay for chloramphenicol using vesicle quantum dot-gold colloid composite probes.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yang-Bao; Ren, Hong-Xia; Gan, Ning; Zhou, You; Cao, Yuting; Li, Tianhua; Chen, Yinji

    2016-07-27

    In this work, a novel homogeneous and signal "off-on" aptamer based fluorescence assay was successfully developed to detect chloramphenicol (CAP) residues in food based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The vesicle nanotracer was prepared through labeling single stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) on limposome-CdSe/ZnS quantum dot (SSB/L-QD) complexes. It was worth mentioning that the signal tracer (SSB/L-QD) with vesicle shape, which was fabricated being encapsulated with a number of quantum dots and SSB. The nanotracer has excellent signal amplification effects. The vesicle composite probe was formed by combining aptamer labeled nano-gold (Au-Apt) and SSB/L-QD. Which based on SSB's specific affinity towards aptamer. This probe can't emit fluoresce which is in "off" state because the signal from SSB/L-QD as donor can be quenched by the Au-aptas acceptor. When CAP was added in the composite probe solution, the aptamer on the Au-Apt can be preferentially bounded with CAP then release from the composite probe, which can turn the "off" signal of SSB/L-QD tracer into "on" state. The assay indicates excellent linear response to CAP from 0.001 nM to 10 nM and detection limit down to 0.3 pM. The vesicle probes with size of 88 nm have strong signal amplification. Because a larger number of QDs can be labeled inside the double phosphorus lipid membrane. Besides, it was employed to detect CAP residues in the milk samples with results being agreed well with those from ELISA, verifying its accuracy and reliability.

  12. Nucleic Acid Amplification Based Diagnostic of Lyme (Neuro-)borreliosis – Lost in the Jungle of Methods, Targets, and Assays?

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory based diagnosis of infectious diseases usually relies on culture of the disease causing micro-organism, followed by identification and susceptibility testing. Since Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis, requires very specific culture conditions (e.g. specific liquid media, long term cul-ture) traditional bacteriology is often not done on a routine basis. Instead, confirmation of the clinical diagnosis needs ei-ther indirect techniques (like serology or measurement of cellular activity in the presence of antigens) or direct but culture independent techniques, like microscopy or nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT), with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) being the most frequently applied NAT method in routine laboratories. NAT uses nucleic acids of the disease causing micro-organism as template for amplification, isolated from various sources of clinical specimens. Although the underlying principle, adoption of the enzymatic process running during DNA duplication prior to prokaryotic cell division, is comparatively easy, a couple of ‘pitfalls’ is associated with the technique itself as well as with interpretation of the results. At present, no commercial, CE-marked and sufficiently validated PCR assay is available. A number of homebrew assays have been published, which are different in terms of target (i.e. the gene targeted by the amplification primers), method (nested PCR, PCR followed by hybridization, real-time PCR) and validation criteria. Inhibitory compounds may lead to false negative results, if no appropriate internal control is included. Carry-over of amplicons, insufficient handling and workflow and/or insufficiently validated targets/primers may result in false positive results. Different targets may yield different analytical sensitivity, depending, among other factors, of the redundancy of a target gene in the genome. Per-formance characteristics (e.g. analytical sensitivity and

  13. Nucleic Acid Amplification Based Diagnostic of Lyme (Neuro-)borreliosis - Lost in the Jungle of Methods, Targets, and Assays?

    PubMed

    Nolte, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory based diagnosis of infectious diseases usually relies on culture of the disease causing micro-organism, followed by identification and susceptibility testing. Since Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis, requires very specific culture conditions (e.g. specific liquid media, long term cul-ture) traditional bacteriology is often not done on a routine basis. Instead, confirmation of the clinical diagnosis needs ei-ther indirect techniques (like serology or measurement of cellular activity in the presence of antigens) or direct but culture independent techniques, like microscopy or nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT), with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) being the most frequently applied NAT method in routine laboratories. NAT uses nucleic acids of the disease causing micro-organism as template for amplification, isolated from various sources of clinical specimens. Although the underlying principle, adoption of the enzymatic process running during DNA duplication prior to prokaryotic cell division, is comparatively easy, a couple of 'pitfalls' is associated with the technique itself as well as with interpretation of the results. At present, no commercial, CE-marked and sufficiently validated PCR assay is available. A number of homebrew assays have been published, which are different in terms of target (i.e. the gene targeted by the amplification primers), method (nested PCR, PCR followed by hybridization, real-time PCR) and validation criteria. Inhibitory compounds may lead to false negative results, if no appropriate internal control is included. Carry-over of amplicons, insufficient handling and workflow and/or insufficiently validated targets/primers may result in false positive results. Different targets may yield different analytical sensitivity, depending, among other factors, of the redundancy of a target gene in the genome. Per-formance characteristics (e.g. analytical sensitivity and

  14. Carbon nanotube enhanced label-free detection of microRNAs based on hairpin probe triggered solid-phase rolling-circle amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qianqian; Wang, Ying; Deng, Ruijie; Lin, Lei; Liu, Yang; Li, Jinghong

    2014-12-01

    The detection of microRNAs (miRNAs) is imperative for gaining a better understanding of the functions of these biomarkers and has great potential for the early diagnosis of human disease. High sensitivity and selectivity for miRNA detection brings new challenges. Herein, an ultrasensitive protocol for electrochemical detection of miRNA is designed through carbon nanotube (CNT) enhanced label-free detection based on hairpin probe triggered solid-phase rolling-circle amplification (RCA). Traditionally, RCA, widely applied for signal enhancement in the construction of a variety of biosensors, has an intrinsic limitation of ultrasensitive detection, as it is difficult to separate the enzymes, templates, and padlock DNAs from the RCA products in the homogeneous solution. We purposely designed a solid-phase RCA strategy, using CNTs as the solid substrate, integrated with a hairpin structured probe to recognize target miRNA. In the presence of miRNA the stem-loop structure will be unfolded, triggering the CNT based RCA process. Due to the efficient blocking effect originating from the polymeric RCA products, the label-free assay of miRNA exhibits an ultrasensitive detection limit of 1.2 fM. Furthermore, the protocol possesses excellent specificity for resolving lung cancer-related let-7 family members which have only one-nucleotide variations. The high sensitivity and selectivity give the method great potential for applications in online diagnostics and in situ detection in long-term development.The detection of microRNAs (miRNAs) is imperative for gaining a better understanding of the functions of these biomarkers and has great potential for the early diagnosis of human disease. High sensitivity and selectivity for miRNA detection brings new challenges. Herein, an ultrasensitive protocol for electrochemical detection of miRNA is designed through carbon nanotube (CNT) enhanced label-free detection based on hairpin probe triggered solid-phase rolling-circle amplification

  15. Development of a rapid recombinase polymerase amplification assay for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Eoin; Higgins, Owen; Forrest, Matthew S; Boo, Teck Wee; Cormican, Martin; Barry, Thomas; Piepenburg, Olaf; Smith, Terry J

    2015-10-29

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important cause of microbial disease in humans. The introduction of multivalent vaccines has coincided with a dramatic decrease in the number of pneumococcal-related deaths. In spite of this, at a global level, pneumococcal infection remains an important cause of death among children under 5 years of age and in adults 65 years of age or older. In order to properly manage patients and control the spread of infection, a rapid and highly sensitive diagnostic method is needed for routine implementation, especially in resource-limited regions where pneumococcal disease is most prevalent. Using the gene encoding leader peptidase A as a molecular diagnostics target, a real-time RPA assay was designed and optimised for the detection of S. pneumoniae in whole blood. The performance of the assay was compared to real-time PCR in terms of its analytical limit of detection and specificity. The inhibitory effect of human genomic DNA on amplification was investigated. The potential clinical utility of the assay was investigated using a small number of clinical samples. The RPA assay has a limit of detection equivalent to PCR (4.0 and 5.1 genome equivalents per reaction, respectively) and was capable of detecting the equivalent of <1 colony forming unit of S. pneumoniae when spiked into human whole blood. The RPA assay was 100 % inclusive (38/38 laboratory reference strains and 19/19 invasive clinical isolates) and 100 % exclusive; differentiating strains of S. pneumoniae species from other viridans group streptococci, including S. pseudopneumoniae. When applied to the analysis of a small number (n = 11) of clinical samples (blood culture positive for S. pneumoniae), the RPA assay was demonstrated to be both rapid and sensitive. The RPA assay developed in this work is shown to be as sensitive and as specific as PCR. In terms of reaction kinetics, the RPA assay is shown to exceed those of the PCR, with the RPA running to completion in 20 minutes

  16. Selective amyloid β oligomer assay based on abasic site-containing molecular beacon and enzyme-free amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linling; Zhang, Junying; Wang, Fengyang; Wang, Ya; Lu, Linlin; Feng, Chongchong; Xu, Zhiai; Zhang, Wen

    2016-04-15

    Amyloid-beta (Aβ) oligomers are highly toxic species in the process of Aβ aggregation and are regarded as potent therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Herein, a label-free molecular beacon (MB) system integrated with enzyme-free amplification strategy was developed for simple and highly selective assay of Aβ oligomers. The MB system was constructed with abasic site (AP site)-containing stem-loop DNA and a fluorescent ligand 2-amino-5,6,7-trimethyl-1,8-naphyridine (ATMND), of which the fluorescence was quenched upon binding to the AP site in DNA stem. Enzyme-free amplification was realized by target-triggered continuous opening of two delicately designed MBs (MB1 and MB2). Target DNA hybridization with MB1 and then MB2 resulted in the release of two ATMND molecules in one binding event. Subsequent target recycling could greatly amplify the detection sensitivity due to the greatly enhanced turn-on emission of ATMND fluorescence. Combining with Aβ oligomers aptamers, the strategy was applied to analyze Aβ oligomers and the results showed that it could quantify Aβ oligomers with high selectivity and monitor the Aβ aggregation process. This novel method may be conducive to improve the diagnosis and pathogenic study of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of primer & probe chemistry and amplification target on reverse transcription digital PCR quantification of viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Van Heuverswyn, Fran; Karczmarczyk, Maria; Schimmel, Heinz; Trapmann, Stefanie; Emons, Hendrik

    2016-09-01

    Compared to other PCR technologies, digital PCR is a potentially highly accurate approach for the quantification of nucleic acid fragments. This study describes the impact of four experimental factors, namely primer and probe chemistry, PCR amplification target, duplexing, and template type, on the measurement results obtained by reverse transcription digital PCR (RT-dPCR) of viral RNA using influenza A virus as a model. Along conventional dual labelled probes (DLP), alternative primer and probe chemistries, including Zip Nucleic Acids (ZNAs), Locked Nucleic Acids (LNAs), and Scorpions(®), were compared with two RNA template types: i) total genomic RNA extracted from cell cultured influenza A and ii) a synthetically prepared RNA transcript (In vitro transcribed RNA). While apparently duplexing or a different PCR target choice did not have a significant influence on the estimated RNA copy numbers, the impact of the choice of primer and probe chemistry and template type differed significantly for some methods. The combined standard uncertainty of the dPCR analysis results has been assessed, taking into account both the repeatability and the intermediate precision of the procedure. Our data highlight the importance of dPCR method optimisation and the advantage of using a more sophisticated primer and probe chemistry, which turned out to be dependent on the template type. Considerations are provided with respect to the molecular diagnostics of viral RNA pathogens, and more specifically, for precise quantification of RNA, which is of tremendous importance for the development of RNA calibration materials and the qualification of these calibrants as certified reference materials.

  18. Development of Phage Immuno-Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assays for Organophosphorus Pesticides in Agro-products

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Two immuno-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays (iLAMP) were developed by using a phage-borne peptide that was isolated from a cyclic eight-peptide phage library. One assay was used to screen eight organophosphorus (OP) pesticides with limits of detection (LOD) between 2 and 128 ng mL–1. The iLAMP consisted of the competitive immuno-reaction coupled to the LAMP reaction for detection. This method provides positive results in the visual color of violet, while a negative response results in a sky blue color; therefore, the iLAMP allows one to rapidly detect analytes in yes or no fashion. We validated the iLAMP by detecting parathion-methyl, parathion, and fenitrothion in Chinese cabbage, apple, and greengrocery, and the detection results were consistent with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In conclusion, the iLAMP is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and economical method for detecting OP pesticide residues in agro-products with no instrumental requirement. PMID:25135320

  19. Development and deployment of a rapid recombinase polymerase amplification Ebola virus detection assay in Guinea in 2015.

    PubMed

    Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Soropogui, Barré; Patel, Pranav; El Wahed, Ahmed Abd; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Fall, Gamou; Kiory, Davy; Magassouba, N'Faly; Keita, Sakoba; Kondé, Mandy Kader; Diallo, Alpha Amadou; Koivogui, Lamine; Karlberg, Helen; Mirazimi, Ali; Nentwich, Oliver; Piepenburg, Olaf; Niedrig, Matthias; Weidmann, Manfred; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of a vaccine or specific treatments for Ebola virus disease (EVD), early identification of cases is crucial for the control of EVD epidemics. We evaluated a new extraction kit (SpeedXtract (SE), Qiagen) on sera and swabs in combination with an improved diagnostic reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay for the detection of Ebola virus (EBOV-RT-RPA). The performance of combined extraction and detection was best for swabs. Sensitivity and specificity of the combined SE and EBOV-RT-RPA were tested in a mobile laboratory consisting of a mobile glovebox and a Diagnostics-in-a-Suitcase powered by a battery and solar panel, deployed to Matoto Conakry, Guinea as part of the reinforced surveillance strategy in April 2015 to reach the goal of zero cases. The EBOV-RT-RPA was evaluated in comparison to two real-time PCR assays. Of 928 post-mortem swabs, 120 tested positive, and the combined SE and EBOV-RT-RPA yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 100% in reference to one real-time RT-PCR assay. Another widely used real-time RT-PCR was much less sensitive than expected. Results were provided very fast within 30 to 60 min, and the field deployment of the mobile laboratory helped improve burial management and community engagement.

  20. A pH Indicator-linked Immunosorbent assay following direct amplification strategy for colorimetric detection of protein biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Shao, Fengying; Jiao, Lei; Miao, Luyang; Wei, Qin; Li, He

    2017-04-15

    A new pH indicator-linked immunosorbent assay (PILISA) reached pg/mL sensitivity based on pH indicator molecules loaded carbon nitride nanosheets as signal enhancer has been developed for colorimetric detection of protein biomarkers. As the secondary antibody binds to the carbon nitride nanosheets, the carbon nitride nanosheets and pH indicator complex as the signal amplification platform for colour change by detecting absorbance of pH indicator. The colour change was resulted from the releasing of pH indicator molecules from carbon nitride nanosheets triggered by alkali solution (AS). In this novel PILISA, the intensity absorbance of pH indicator is proportional to the concentration of the disease marker. The outstanding detection performance of the PILISA can be attributed to the following reasons: (1) ultrathin carbon nitride nanosheets with a larger surface area could adsorb abundant phenolphthalein (PP) molecules through hydrophobic interactions as well as the resulted PP anions can be free easily released into aqueous solution, leading to an obvious allochroic response; (2) the signal intensity is precisely determined by the amount of PP molecules loading onto the carbon nitride nanosheets surface, which ensures simple, low-cost and stable colorimetric detection. As expected, this new PILISA method offered an enzyme-free approach followed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay format, which showed great promising potential as an innovative robust assay method for practical clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of phage immuno-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for organophosphorus pesticides in agro-products.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xiude; Yin, Wei; Shi, Haiyan; Li, Ming; Wang, Yanru; Wang, Hong; Ye, Yonghao; Kim, Hee Joo; Gee, Shirley J; Wang, Minghua; Liu, Fengquan; Hammock, Bruce D

    2014-08-19

    Two immuno-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays (iLAMP) were developed by using a phage-borne peptide that was isolated from a cyclic eight-peptide phage library. One assay was used to screen eight organophosphorus (OP) pesticides with limits of detection (LOD) between 2 and 128 ng mL(-1). The iLAMP consisted of the competitive immuno-reaction coupled to the LAMP reaction for detection. This method provides positive results in the visual color of violet, while a negative response results in a sky blue color; therefore, the iLAMP allows one to rapidly detect analytes in yes or no fashion. We validated the iLAMP by detecting parathion-methyl, parathion, and fenitrothion in Chinese cabbage, apple, and greengrocery, and the detection results were consistent with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In conclusion, the iLAMP is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and economical method for detecting OP pesticide residues in agro-products with no instrumental requirement.

  2. Rapid and simple identification of Beijing genotype strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Yuhki; Iwade, Yoshito; Nakano, Manabu; Akachi, Shigehiro; Kobayashi, Takashi; Nishinaka, Takamichi

    2016-07-01

    Beijing genotype strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are geographically widespread and pose a notorious public health problem, these strains causing outbreaks of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB); some studies have reported an association with drug resistance. Because the prevalence of Beijing strain has a substantial impact on TB control programs, the availability of a rapid and reliable method for detecting these strains is important for epidemiological monitoring of their circulation. The main methods currently used to identify Beijing genotype strains are IS6110 DNA fingerprinting, spoligotyping and PCR to detect specific deletions such as region of difference (RD)207. More recently, multiplex PCR assay using a Beijing-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been developed for detecting Beijing lineage strains. However, these methods are time-consuming and technically demanding. In the present study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay that allows specific identification of Beijing genotype strain was developed. This Beijing genotype strain-identifying LAMP assay was performed 214 clinical isolates and the results compared with those of conventional PCR that targeted RD207 and Rv0679c-targreting multiplex PCR for Beijing lineage identification. LAMP assay showed 100% sensitivity and specificity compared with RD207-PCR. Furthermore, the sensitivity and specificity were 99.3% and 100%, respectively, compared with Rv0679c-multiplex PCR. This LAMP assay could be used routinely in local laboratories to monitor the prevalence of the Beijing genotype strain and thereby used to help control the spread of these potentially highly virulent and drug resistant strains.

  3. DETECTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI IN WATER USING A COLORIMETRIC GENE PROBE ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A commercially available DNA hydribization assay (Gene-trak , Framingham, MA. USA) was compared with the EC-MUG procedure for the detection of Escherichia coli in water. The gene probe gave positive responses for pure cultures of E. coli 0157:H7, E. fergusonii, Shigella sonnei, S...

  4. DETECTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI IN WATER USING A COLORIMETRIC GENE PROBE ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A commercially available DNA hydribization assay (Gene-trak , Framingham, MA. USA) was compared with the EC-MUG procedure for the detection of Escherichia coli in water. The gene probe gave positive responses for pure cultures of E. coli 0157:H7, E. fergusonii, Shigella sonnei, S...

  5. HybProbes-based real-time PCR assay for specific identification of Streptomyces scabies and Streptomyces europaeiscabiei, the potato common scab pathogens.

    PubMed

    Xu, R; Falardeau, J; Avis, T J; Tambong, J T

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a HybProbes-based real-time PCR assay targeting the trpB gene for specific identification of Streptomyces scabies and Streptomyces europaeiscabiei. Four primer pairs and a fluorescent probe were designed and evaluated for specificity in identifying S. scabies and Streptomyces europaeiscabiei, the potato common scab pathogens. The specificity of the HybProbes-based real-time PCR assay was evaluated using 46 bacterial strains, 23 Streptomyces strains and 23 non-Streptomyces bacterial species. Specific and strong fluorescence signals were detected from all nine strains of S. scabies and Streptomyces europaeiscabiei. No fluorescence signal was detected from 14 strains of other Streptomyces species and all non-Streptomyces strains. The identification was corroborated by the melting curve analysis that was performed immediately after the amplification step. Eight of the nine S. scabies and S. europaeiscabiei strains exhibited a unique melting peak, at Tm of 69·1°C while one strain, Warba-6, had a melt peak at Tm of 65·4°C. This difference in Tm peaks could be attributed to a guanine to cytosine mutation in strain Warba-6 at the region spanning the donor HybProbe. The reported HybProbes assay provides a more specific tool for accurate identification of S. scabies and S. europaeiscabiei strains. This study reports a novel assay based on HybProbes chemistry for rapid and accurate identification of the potato common scab pathogens. Since the HybProbes chemistry requires two probes for positive identification, the assay is considered to be more specific than conventional PCR or TaqMan real-time PCR. The developed assay would be a useful tool with great potential in early diagnosis and detection of common scab pathogens of potatoes in infected plants or for surveillance of potatoes grown in soil environment. © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. An isothermal, label-free, and rapid one-step RNA amplification/detection assay for diagnosis of respiratory viral infections.

    PubMed

    Koo, Bonhan; Jin, Choong Eun; Lee, Tae Yoon; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Park, Mi Kyoung; Sung, Heungsup; Park, Se Yoon; Lee, Hyun Jung; Kim, Sun Mi; Kim, Ji Yeun; Kim, Sung-Han; Shin, Yong

    2017-04-15

    Recently, RNA viral infections caused by respiratory viruses, such as influenza, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Zika virus, are a major public health threats in the world. Although myriads of diagnostic methods based on RNA amplification have been developed in the last decades, they continue to lack speed, sensitivity, and specificity for clinical use. A rapid and accurate diagnostic method is needed for appropriate control, including isolation and treatment of the patients. Here, we report an isothermal, label-free, one-step RNA amplification and detection system, termed as iROAD, for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases. It couples a one-step isothermal RNA amplification method and a bio-optical sensor for simultaneous viral RNA amplification/detection in a label-free and real-time manner. The iROAD assay offers a one-step viral RNA amplification/detection example to rapid analysis (<20min). The detection limit of iROAD assay was found to be 10-times more sensitive than that of real-time reverse transcription-PCR method. We confirmed the clinical utility of the iROAD assay by detecting viral RNAs obtained from 63 human respiratory samples. We envision that the iROAD assay will be useful and potentially adaptable for better diagnosis of emerging infectious diseases including respiratory diseases.

  7. Rolling-circle amplification detection of thrombin using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with core-shell nanoparticle probe.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuemei; Wang, Linlin; Li, Chunxiang

    2015-04-27

    An ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sensor based on rolling-circle amplification (RCA)-increased "hot-spot" was developed for the detection of thrombin. The sensor contains a SERS gold nanoparticle@Raman label@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticle probe in which the Raman reporter molecules are sandwiched between a gold nanoparticle core and a thin silica shell by a layer-by-layer method. Thrombin aptamer sequences were immobilized onto the magnetic beads (MBs) through hybridization with their complementary strand. In the presence of thrombin, the aptamer sequence was released; this allowed the remaining single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) to act as primer and initiate in situ RCA reaction to produce long ssDNAs. Then, a large number of SERS probes were attached on the long ssDNA templates, causing thousands of SERS probes to be involved in each biomolecular recognition event. This SERS method achieved the detection of thrombin in the range from 1.0×10(-12) to 1.0×10(-8)  M and a detection limit of 4.2×10(-13)  M, and showed good performance in real serum samples.

  8. Comparison of Mismatch Amplification Mutation Assay with DNA Sequencing for Characterization of Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Zafar; Nahar, Shamsun; Wretlind, Bengt; Lindback, Emma; Rahman, Motiur

    2004-01-01

    A mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA) was developed for identification of point mutations in quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrA at codons 91 and 95. MAMA PCR was used to detect mutations at codons 91 and 95 of gyrA in 117 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates (with ciprofloxacin MICs of 0.004 to >32 μg/ml) from Bangladesh during 1997 to 2001. The QRDR regions of the gyrA genes from 31 randomly selected isolates were sequenced, and the results were compared with those of MAMA PCR. Using mismatch PCR, a mutation at Ser91 could be detected in all 27 (resistant and intermediate) isolates, and an Asp95-to-Gly95 mutation could be detected in all 15 isolates, as detected by sequencing. MAMA PCR offers a simple, inexpensive, rapid, and easier alternative for detection of point mutations in fluoroquinolone resistance in N. gonorrhoeae. PMID:14766821

  9. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for genotyping of Type III Secretion System in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Shi, H; Chen, Z; Kan, J

    2015-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a well-known environmental bacterium capable of causing a variety of life-threatening human infections, with a Type III Secretion System (T3SS) as the most significant virulence determinant. P. aeruginosa strains exhibit unique T3SS virulence genotypes defined by the presence of either exoS or exoU. In this study, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for rapid detection of exoS and exoU in P. aeruginosa have been developed and evaluated. Set of four primers were designed for LAMP-based amplification of exoS and exoU respectively. The LAMP reactions were performed at 63°C for 40 min, with detection limits of 100 fg purified DNA. In 107 river water isolates, exoS and exoU were detected in 10 (9%) and 89 (83%) isolates, respectively, and in 38 soil isolates, they were detected in 7 (18%) and 31 (82%) cases respectively. In conclusion, the LAMP assays are rapid, simple and cost-effective tools for detection of the exoU- and exoS-types of P. aeruginosa strains. This method can be used for the rapid, sensitive and low-cost detection of genes (exoS and exoU) encoding proteins that are part of Type III Secretion System of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It can serve as an efficient method in outbreak situations or in routine surveillance studies to judge virulence potential and to investigate pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Development of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay as a simple detection method of Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus in chrysanthemum and tomato.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ryoji; Fukuta, Shiro; Matsumoto, Yuho; Hasegawa, Toru; Kojima, Hiroko; Hotta, Makiko; Miyake, Noriyuki

    2016-10-01

    For a simple and rapid detection of Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV) from chrysanthemum and tomato, a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed. A primer set designed to the genome sequences of CSNV worked most efficiently at 63°C and could detect CSNV RNA within 12min by fluorescence monitoring using an isothermal DNA amplification and fluorescence detection device. The result of a specificity test using seven other viruses and one viroid-infectable chrysanthemum or tomato showed that the assay could amplify CSNV specifically, and a sensitivity comparison showed that the RT-LAMP assay was as sensitive as the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The RT-LAMP assay using crude RNA, extracted simply, could detect CSNV. Overall, the RT-LAMP assay was found to be a simple, specific, convenient, and time-saving method for CSNV detection.

  11. Noncompetitive affinity assays of glucagon and amylin using mirror-image aptamers as affinity probes.

    PubMed

    Yi, Lian; Wang, Xue; Bethge, Lucas; Klussmann, Sven; Roper, Michael G

    2016-03-21

    The ability to detect picomolar concentrations of glucagon and amylin using fluorescently labeled mirror-image aptamers, so-called Spiegelmers, is demonstrated. Spiegelmers rival the specificity of antibodies and overcome the problem of biostability of natural aptamers in a biological matrix. Using Spiegelmers as affinity probes, noncompetitive capillary electrophoresis affinity assays of glucagon and murine amylin were developed and optimized. The detection limit for glucagon was 6 pM and for amylin was 40 pM. Glucagon-like peptide-1 and -2 did not interfere with the glucagon assay, while the amylin assay showed cross-reactivity to calcitonin gene related peptide. The developed assays were combined with a competitive immunoassay for insulin to measure glucagon, amylin, and insulin secretion from batches of islets after incubation with different glucose concentrations. The development of these assays is an important step towards incorporation into an online measurement system for monitoring dynamic secretion from single islets.

  12. Low noise, low heat dissipation, high gain AC-DC front end amplification for scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Messina, Paolo; Fradin, F Y; Pittana, Paolo

    2009-02-04

    We report here on the design, construction and testing of a vacuum compatible AC-DC amplification system for low signal measurements with scanning probes. The most important feature of this new amplification system is incorporated within the head of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). This is achieved with a very low thermal dissipation radio frequency amplifier at the STM head. The amplifier gain is higher than 40 dB and has a 50 dB maximum. Further, the AC noise figure is 0.7 dB between 100 and 1000 MHz. The noise induced in the DC amplifier is less than 2 pA RMS (root mean square), which enables the microscope to scan over soft insulating molecular layers. Thermal drift at the STM tip-sample interface is below 0.1 nm min(-1) both in air and in vacuum operation. Atomic resolution on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surfaces is reliably achieved. Spin noise measurements are provided as an example of an application.

  13. Low noise, low heat dissipation, high gain AC-DC front end amplification for scanning probe microscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Messina, P.; Fradin, F. Y.; Pittana, P.

    2009-01-01

    We report here on the design, construction and testing of a vacuum compatible AC-DC amplification system for low signal measurements with scanning probes. The most important feature of this new amplification system is incorporated within the head of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). This is achieved with a very low thermal dissipation radio frequency amplifier at the STM head. The amplifier gain is higher than 40 dB and has a 50 dB maximum. Further, the AC noise figure is 0.7 dB between 100 and 1000 MHz. The noise induced in the DC amplifier is less than 2 pA RMS (root mean square), which enables the microscope to scan over soft insulating molecular layers. Thermal drift at the STM tip-sample interface is below 0.1 nm min{sup -1} both in air and in vacuum operation. Atomic resolution on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surfaces is reliably achieved. Spin noise measurements are provided as an example of an application.

  14. A rapid assay for detection of Rose rosette virus using reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification using multiple gene targets.

    PubMed

    Babu, Binoy; Washburn, Brian K; Miller, Steven H; Poduch, Kristina; Sarigul, Tulin; Knox, Gary W; Ochoa-Corona, Francisco M; Paret, Mathews L

    2017-02-01

    Rose rosette disease caused by Rose rosette virus (RRV; genus Emaravirus) is the most economically relevant disease of Knock Out(®) series roses in the U.S. As there are no effective chemical control options for the disease, the most critical disease management strategies include the use of virus free clean plants for propagation and early detection and destruction of infected plants. The current diagnostic techniques for RRV including end-point reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) are highly sensitive, but limited to diagnostic labs with the equipment and expertise; and is time consuming. To address this limitation, an isothermal reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay based on multiple gene targets for specific detection of RRV was developed. The assay is highly specific and did not cross react with other viruses belonging to the inclusive and exclusive genus. Dilution assays using the in vitro transcripts showed that the primer sets designed (RPA-267, RPA-131, and RPA-321) are highly sensitive, consistently detecting RRV with a detection limit of 1fg/μL. Testing of the infected plants using the primer sets indicated that the virus could be detected from leaves, stems and petals of roses. The primer pair RPA-267 produced 100% positive detection of the virus from infected leaf tissues, while primer set RPA-131 produced 100% detection from stems and petals. The primer set RPA-321 produced 83%, 87.5% and 75% positive detection from leaves, petals and stem tissues, respectively. In addition, the assay has been efficiently used in the detection of RRV infecting Knock Out(®) roses, collected from different states in the U.S. The assay can be completed in 20min as compared to the end-point RT-PCR assay (3-4h) and RT-qPCR (1.5h). The RT-RPA assay is reliable, rapid, highly sensitive, and can be easily used in diagnostic laboratories for detection of RRV with no need for any special

  15. Clinical Evaluation of a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assay for Rapid Detection of Neisseria meningitidis in Cerebrospinal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Kilgore, Paul E.; Kim, Soon Ae; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Ohnishi, Makoto; Anh, Dang Duc; Dong, Bai Qing; Kim, Jung Soo; Tomono, Jun; Miyamoto, Shigehiko; Notomi, Tsugunori; Kim, Dong Wook; Seki, Mitsuko

    2015-01-01

    Background Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) is a leading causative agent of bacterial meningitis in humans. Traditionally, meningococcal meningitis has been diagnosed by bacterial culture. However, isolation of bacteria from patients’ cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is time consuming and sometimes yields negative results. Recently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic methods of detecting Nm have been considered the gold standard because of their superior sensitivity and specificity compared with culture. In this study, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method and evaluated its ability to detect Nm in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Methodology/Principal Findings We developed a meningococcal LAMP assay (Nm LAMP) that targets the ctrA gene. The primer specificity was validated using 16 strains of N. meningitidis (serogroup A, B, C, D, 29-E, W-135, X, Y, and Z) and 19 non-N. meningitidis species. Within 60 min, the Nm LAMP detected down to ten copies per reaction with sensitivity 1000-fold more than that of conventional PCR. The LAMP assays were evaluated using a set of 1574 randomly selected CSF specimens from children with suspected meningitis collected between 1998 and 2002 in Vietnam, China, and Korea. The LAMP method was shown to be more sensitive than PCR methods for CSF samples (31 CSF samples were positive by LAMP vs. 25 by PCR). The detection rate of the LAMP method was substantially higher than that of the PCR method. In a comparative analysis of the PCR and LAMP assays, the clinical sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the LAMP assay were 100%, 99.6%, 80.6%, and 100%, respectively. Conclusions/Significance Compared to PCR, LAMP detected Nm with higher analytical and clinical sensitivity. This sensitive and specific LAMP method offers significant advantages for screening patients on a population basis and for diagnosis in clinical settings. PMID:25853422

  16. Probe-based quantitative PCR assay for detecting constitutional and somatic deletions in the NF1 gene: application to genetic testing and tumor analysis.

    PubMed

    Terribas, Ernest; Garcia-Linares, Carles; Lázaro, Conxi; Serra, Eduard

    2013-06-01

    About 5% of patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) bear constitutional microdeletions that encompass NF1 (neurofibromin 1) and neighboring genes. These patients are characterized by the development of a high number of dermal neurofibromas (dNFs), mental retardation, and an increased risk of developing a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST). Additionally, 10% of somatic second hits identified in dNFs are caused by deletions involving the NF1 gene. To detect constitutional and somatic deletions, we developed a probe-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for interrogating the copy number status of 11 loci distributed along a 2.8-Mb region around the NF1 gene. We developed the qPCR assay with Universal ProbeLibrary technology (Roche) and designed a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to analyze qPCR data for copy number calculations. The assay fulfilled the essential aspects of the MIQE (minimum information for publication of quantitative real-time PCR experiments) guidelines and used the qBase relative quantification framework for calculations. The assay was validated with a set of DNA samples with known constitutional or somatic NF1 deletions. The assay showed high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity and distinguished between Type-1, Type-2, and atypical constitutional microdeletions in 14 different samples. It also identified 16 different somatic deletions in dNFs. These results were confirmed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. The qPCR assay provides a methodology for detecting constitutional NF1 microdeletions that could be incorporated as an additional technique in a genetic-testing setting. It also permits the identification of somatic NF1 deletions in tissues with a high percentage of cells bearing 2 copies of the NF1 gene. © 2013 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  17. Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assays for the Species-specific Detection of Eimeria that Infect Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Barkway, Christopher P.; Pocock, Rebecca L.; Vrba, Vladimir; Blake, Damer P.

    2015-01-01

    Eimeria species parasites, protozoa which cause the enteric disease coccidiosis, pose a serious threat to the production and welfare of chickens. In the absence of effective control clinical coccidiosis can be devastating. Resistance to the chemoprophylactics frequently used to control Eimeria is common and sub-clinical infection is widespread, influencing feed conversion ratios and susceptibility to other pathogens such as Clostridium perfringens. Despite the availability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based tools, diagnosis of Eimeria infection still relies almost entirely on traditional approaches such as lesion scoring and oocyst morphology, but neither is straightforward. Limitations of the existing molecular tools include the requirement for specialist equipment and difficulties accessing DNA as template. In response a simple field DNA preparation protocol and a panel of species-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays have been developed for the seven Eimeria recognised to infect the chicken. We now provide a detailed protocol describing the preparation of genomic DNA from intestinal tissue collected post-mortem, followed by setup and readout of the LAMP assays. Eimeria species-specific LAMP can be used to monitor parasite occurrence, assessing the efficacy of a farm’s anticoccidial strategy, and to diagnose sub-clinical infection or clinical disease with particular value when expert surveillance is unavailable. PMID:25741643

  18. Development of a panel of recombinase polymerase amplification assays for detection of common bacterial urinary tract infection pathogens.

    PubMed

    Raja, B; Goux, H J; Marapadaga, A; Rajagopalan, S; Kourentzi, K; Willson, R C

    2017-08-01

    To develop and evaluate the performance of a panel of isothermal real-time recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assays for detection of common bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) pathogens. The panel included RPAs for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis. All five RPAs required reaction times of under 12 min to reach their lower limit of detection of 100 genomes per reaction or less, and did not cross-react with high concentrations of nontarget bacterial genomic DNA. In a 50-sample retrospective clinical study, the five-RPA assay panel was found to have a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 78-100%) and a sensitivity of 89% (95% CI, 75-96%) for UTI detection. The analytical and clinical validity of RPA for the rapid and sensitive detection of common UTI pathogens was established. Rapid identification of the causative pathogens of UTIs can be valuable in preventing serious complications by helping avoid the empirical treatment necessitated by traditional urine culture's 48-72-h turnaround time. The routine and widespread use of RPA to supplement or replace culture-based methods could profoundly impact UTI management and the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for detection and identification of aquaculture pathogens: current state and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Gouranga; Sakai, Masahiro

    2014-04-01

    Since its invention in 2000, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay has been one of the most extensively used molecular diagnostic tools in bio-medical fields due to the rapidity, accuracy, and cost-effectiveness of the technique. This technique has also earned popularity in aquaculture disease diagnosis. Aquaculture, as a result of its rapid intensification and expansion, experiences increased infectious disease occurrences. For maintenance of economic viability, rapid, sensitive and efficient diagnosis of disease causing agents is an important step prior to undertaking effective prevention and control measures in aquaculture. Constraints on time and expertise required for conventional biochemical, serological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques offer avenues in adoption of the LAMP by the aquaculturists at field conditions. This assay has been successfully applied in detection of several bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens causing serious diseases in aquaculture. In this review, we endeavored to accommodate the LAMP methodology with its different recent improvements and an overview of its application for the detection of aquaculture-associated pathogens.

  20. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for rapid detection and differentiation of Nosema apis and N. ceranae in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Ptaszyńska, Aneta A; Borsuk, Grzegorz; Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Gnat, Sebastian; Małek, Wanda

    2014-08-01

    Nosemosis is a contagious disease of honeybees (Apis mellifera) manifested by increased winter mortality, poor spring build-up and even the total extinction of infected bee colonies. In this paper, loop-mediated isothermal amplifications (LAMP) were used for the first time to identify and differentiate N. apis and N. ceranae, the causative agents of nosemosis. LAMP assays were performed at a constant temperature of 60 °C using two sets of six species-specific primers, recognising eight distinct fragments of 16S rDNA gene and GspSSD polymerase with strand displacement activity. The optimal time for LAMP and its Nosema species sensitivity and specificity were assessed. LAMP only required 30 min for robust identification of the amplicons. Ten-fold serial dilutions of total DNA isolated from bees infected with microsporidia were used to determine the detection limit of N. apis and N. ceranae DNAs by LAMP and standard PCR assays. LAMP appeared to be 10(3) -fold more sensitive than a standard PCR in detecting N. apis and N. ceranae. LAMP methods developed by us are highly Nosema species specific and allow to identify and differentiate N. apis and N. ceranae.

  1. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for the species-specific detection of Eimeria that infect chickens.

    PubMed

    Barkway, Christopher P; Pocock, Rebecca L; Vrba, Vladimir; Blake, Damer P

    2015-02-20

    Eimeria species parasites, protozoa which cause the enteric disease coccidiosis, pose a serious threat to the production and welfare of chickens. In the absence of effective control clinical coccidiosis can be devastating. Resistance to the chemoprophylactics frequently used to control Eimeria is common and sub-clinical infection is widespread, influencing feed conversion ratios and susceptibility to other pathogens such as Clostridium perfringens. Despite the availability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based tools, diagnosis of Eimeria infection still relies almost entirely on traditional approaches such as lesion scoring and oocyst morphology, but neither is straightforward. Limitations of the existing molecular tools include the requirement for specialist equipment and difficulties accessing DNA as template. In response a simple field DNA preparation protocol and a panel of species-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays have been developed for the seven Eimeria recognised to infect the chicken. We now provide a detailed protocol describing the preparation of genomic DNA from intestinal tissue collected post-mortem, followed by setup and readout of the LAMP assays. Eimeria species-specific LAMP can be used to monitor parasite occurrence, assessing the efficacy of a farm's anticoccidial strategy, and to diagnose sub-clinical infection or clinical disease with particular value when expert surveillance is unavailable.

  2. Rapid assessment of the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells after heat treatment, using an optimized phage amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Foddai, Antonio; Elliott, Christopher T; Grant, Irene R

    2010-03-01

    Thermal inactivation experiments were carried out to assess the utility of a recently optimized phage amplification assay to accurately enumerate viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells in milk. Ultra-heat-treated (UHT) whole milk was spiked with large numbers of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms (10(6) to 10(7) CFU/ml) and dispensed in 100-microl aliquots in thin-walled 200-microl PCR tubes. A Primus 96 advanced thermal cycler (Peqlab, Erlangen, Germany) was used to achieve the following time and temperature treatments: (i) 63 degrees C for 3, 6, and 9 min; (ii) 68 degrees C for 20, 40, and 60 s; and (iii) 72 degrees C for 5, 10, 15, and 25 s. After thermal stress, the number of surviving M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells was assessed by both phage amplification assay and culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium (HEYM). A high correlation between PFU/ml and CFU/ml counts was observed for both unheated (r(2) = 0.943) and heated (r(2) = 0.971) M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells. D and z values obtained using the two types of counts were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The D(68 degrees C), mean D(63 degrees C), and D(72 degrees C) for four M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains were 81.8, 9.8, and 4.2 s, respectively, yielding a mean z value of 6.9 degrees C. Complete inactivation of 10(6) to 10(7) CFU of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis/ml milk was not observed for any of the time-temperature combinations studied; 5.2- to 6.6-log(10) reductions in numbers were achieved depending on the temperature and time. Nonlinear thermal inactivation kinetics were consistently observed for this bacterium. This study confirms that the optimized phage assay can be employed in place of conventional culture on HEYM to speed up the acquisition of results (48 h instead of a minimum of 6 weeks) for inactivation experiments involving M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-spiked samples.

  3. Evaluation of a novel ultra-sensitive nanoparticle probe-based assay for ricin detection.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hui-qiong; Jia, Min-xian; Shi, Li-jun; Liu, Jun; Wang, Rui; Lv, Mao-min; Ma, Yu-yuan; Zhao, Xiong; Zhang, Jin-gang

    2014-01-01

    A gold nanoparticle (GNP) probe-based assay (GNPA) modified from the bio-barcode assay (BCA) was developed for ultrasensitive detection of ricin, a potential biothreat agent. In the GNPA, a chain of ricin was captured by a GNP probe coated with polyclonal antibodies and single-stranded signal DNA. A magnetic microparticle (MMP) probe coated with ricin A chain monoclonal antibody was then added to form an immuno-complex. After being magnetically separated, the immuno-complex containing the single-stranded signal DNA was characterized by PCR and real-time PCR. A detection limit of 10(-2) fg/ml was determined for the ricin A chain; this is eight orders of magnitude more sensitive than that achieved with an ELISA and two orders more sensitive than that obtained with the BCA. The coefficients of variation (CV) of the intra- and inter-assay values ranged from 3.82-6.46%. The results here show that this novel assay is an ultrasensitive method for detection of ricin proteins and may be suitable for the ultrasensitive detection of other proteins.

  4. Clinical application of a ligation-independent pathway of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for the determination of quinolone susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Uno, Naoki; Araki, Nobuko; Kaku, Norihito; Kosai, Kosuke; Hasegawa, Hiroo; Yanagihara, Katsunori

    2016-09-01

    We previously uncovered a ligation-independent pathway of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) through which products of MLPA could be amplified without both hybridization and ligation reactions. Here, we utilized this pathway to detect an antibiotic resistance mutation of quinolones in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Screening of autosomal gene deletions in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification: detection of a hemizygosis for the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Trarbach, Ericka Barbosa; Teles, Milena Gurgel; Costa, Elaine Maria Frade; Abreu, Ana Paula; Garmes, Heraldo Mendes; Guerra, Gil; Baptista, Maria Tereza Matias; de Castro, Margaret; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho; Latronico, Ana Claudia

    2010-03-01

    Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with anosmia (Kallmann syndrome) or with normal sense of smell is a heterogeneous genetic disorder caused by defects in the synthesis, secretion and action of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Mutations involving autosomal genes have been identified in approximately 30% of all cases of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. However, most studies that screened patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism for gene mutations did not include gene dosage methodologies. Therefore, it remains to be determined whether patients without detected point mutation carried a heterozygous deletion of one or more exons. We used the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay to evaluate the potential contribution of heterozygous deletions of FGFR1, GnRH1, GnRHR, GPR54 and NELF genes in the aetiology of GnRH deficiency. We studied a mutation-negative cohort of 135 patients, 80 with Kallmann syndrome and 55 with normosmic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. One large heterozygous deletion involving all FGFR1 exons was identified in a female patient with sporadic normosmic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and mild dimorphisms as ogival palate and cavus foot. FGFR1 hemizygosity was confirmed by gene dosage with comparative multiplex and real-time PCRs. FGFR1 or other autosomal gene deletion is a possible but very rare event and does not account for a significant number of sporadic or inherited cases of isolated GnRH deficiency.

  6. Aptamer-based microchip electrophoresis assays for amplification detection of carcinoembryonic antigen.

    PubMed

    Pan, Li; Zhao, Jingjin; Huang, Yong; Zhao, Shulin; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2015-10-23

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as one of the most widely used tumor markers is used in the clinical diagnosis of colorectal, pancreatic, gastric, and cervical carcinomas. We developed an aptamer-based microchip electrophoresis assay technique for assaying CEA in human serum for cancer diagnosis. The magnetic beads (MBs) are employed as carriers of double strand DNA that is formed by an aptamer of the target and a complementary DNA of the aptamer. After the aptamer in the MB-dsDNA conjugate binds with the target, the complementary DNA was released from the MB-dsDNA conjugate. The released complementary DNA hybridizes with a fluorescein amidite (FAM) labeled DNA, and forms a DNA duplex, which triggers the selective cleavage of FAM labeled DNA by nicking endonuclease Nb.BbvCI, and generating a FAM labeled DNA segment. The released complementary DNA hybridizes with another FAM labeled DNA, resulting in a continuous cleavage of FAM labeled DNA, and the generation of large numbers of FAM labeled DNA segments. In MCE laser induced fluorescence detection (LIF), the FAM labeled DNA segment is separated and detected. The linear range for CEA was 130 pg/ml-8.0 ng/ml with a correlation coefficient of 0.9916 and a detection limit of 68 pg/ml. The CEA concentration in the serum samples from healthy subjects was found to be in the range 1.3 ng/ml to 3.2 ng/ml. The CEA concentration in the samples from cancer patients was found to be >15 ng/ml. This method may become a useful tool for rapid analysis of CEA and other tumor markers in biomedical analysis and clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Aptamer-based microchip electrophoresis assays for amplification detection of carcinoembryonia antigen

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Li; Zhao, Jingjin; Huang, Yong; Zhao, Shulin; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as one of the most widely used tumor marker is used in the clinical diagnosis of colorectal, pancreatic, gastric, and cervical carcinomas. We developed an aptamer-based microchip electrophoresis assay technique for assaying CEA in human serum for cancer diagnosis. Methods The magnetic beads (MBs) are employed as carriers of double strand DNA that is formed by an aptamer of target and a complementary DNA of aptamer. After the aptamer in MB-dsDNA conjugate binds with target, the complementary DNA was released from MB-dsDNA conjugate. The released complementary DNA hybridizes with a fluorescein amidite (FAM) labeled DNA, and forms DNA duplex, which triggers the selective cleavage of FAM labeled DNA by nicking endonuclease Nb.BbvCI, and generating FAM labeled DNA segment. The released complementary DNA hybridizes with another FAM labeled DNA, resulting in a continuous cleavage of FAM labeled DNA, and the generation of large numbers of FAM labeled DNA segments. In MCE laser induced fluorescence detection (LIF), FAM labeled DNA segment is separated and detected. Results The linear range for CEA was 130 pg/ml~8.0 ng/ml with a correlation coefficient of 0.9916 and a detection limit of 68 pg/ml. The CEA concentration in the serum samples from healthy subjects was found be in the range 1.3 ng/ml to 3.2 ng/ml. The CEA concentration in the samples from cancer patients was found to be >15 ng/ml. Conclusions This method may become a useful tool for rapid analysis of CEA and other tumor markers in biomedical analysis and clinical diagnosis. PMID:26344338

  8. Development of Lentivirus-Based Reference Materials for Ebola Virus Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology-Based Assays.

    PubMed

    Mattiuzzo, Giada; Ashall, James; Doris, Kathryn S; MacLellan-Gibson, Kirsty; Nicolson, Carolyn; Wilkinson, Dianna E; Harvey, Ruth; Almond, Neil; Anderson, Robert; Efstathiou, Stacey; Minor, Philip D; Page, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The 2013-present Ebola virus outbreak in Western Africa has prompted the production of many diagnostic assays, mostly based on nucleic acid amplification technologies (NAT). The calibration and performance assessment of established assays and those under evaluation requires reference materials that can be used in parallel with the clinical sample to standardise or control for every step of the procedure, from extraction to the final qualitative/quantitative result. We have developed safe and stable Ebola virus RNA reference materials by encapsidating anti sense viral RNA into HIV-1-like particles. The lentiviral particles are replication-deficient and non-infectious due to the lack of HIV-1 genes and Envelope protein. Ebola virus genes were subcloned for encapsidation into two lentiviral preparations, one containing NP-VP35-GP and the other VP40 and L RNA. Each reference material was formulated as a high-titre standard for use as a calibrator for secondary or internal standards, and a 10,000-fold lower titre preparation to serve as an in-run control. The preparations have been freeze-dried to maximise stability. These HIV-Ebola virus RNA reference materials were suitable for use with in-house and commercial quantitative RT-PCR assays and with digital RT-PCR. The HIV-Ebola virus RNA reference materials are stable at up to 37°C for two weeks, allowing the shipment of the material worldwide at ambient temperature. These results support further evaluation of the HIV-Ebola virus RNA reference materials as part of an International collaborative study for the establishment of the 1st International Standard for Ebola virus RNA.

  9. Development and evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Osman, Hana A M; Eltom, Kamal H; Musa, Nasreen O; Bilal, Nasreldin M; Elbashir, Mustafa I; Aradaib, Imadeldin E

    2013-06-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus (CCHFV) activity has been detected in Kordufan region of the Sudan in 2008 with high case-fatality rates in villages and rural hospitals in the region. Therefore, in the present study, a reverse transcription (RT) loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed and compared to nested RT-PCR for rapid detection of CCHFV targeting the small (S) RNA segment. A set of RT-LAMP primers, designed from a highly conserved region of the S segment of the viral genome, was employed to identify all the Sudanese CCHFV strains. The sensitivity studies indicated that the RT-LAMP detected 10fg of CCHFV RNA as determined by naked eye turbidity read out, which is more likely the way it would be read in a resource-poor setting. This level of sensitivity is good enough to detect most acute cases. Using agarose gel electrophoresis, the RT-LAMP assay detected as little as 0.1fg of viral RNA (equivalent to 50 viral particle). There was 100% agreement between results of the RT-LAMP and the nested PCR when testing 10-fold serial dilution of CCHFV RNA. The specificity studies indicated that there was no cross-reactivity with other related hemorrhagic fever viruses circulating in Sudan including, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Dengue fever virus, and yellow fever virus. The RT-LAMP was performed under isothermal conditions at 63°C and no special apparatus was needed, which rendered the assay more economical and practical than real-time PCR in such developing countries, like Sudan. In addition, the RT-LAMP provides a valuable tool for rapid detection and differentiation of CCHFV during an outbreak of the disease in remote areas and in rural hospitals with resource-poor settings.

  10. Development of a quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification (qLAMP) assay for the detection of Magnaporthe oryzae airborne inoculum in turf ecosystems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grey Leaf Spot (GLS) is a detrimental disease of perennial ryegrass caused by a host-specialized form of Magnaporthe oryzae (Mot). In order to improve turf management, a quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay coupled with a simple spore trap is being developed to monitor GL...

  11. Development of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of an emerging potyvirus: tomato necrotic stunt virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato necrotic stunt virus (ToNStV) is an emerging potyvirus that causes severe stunting to the infected tomato plants. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for a sensitive detection of ToNStV. The sensitivity of RT-LAMP was comparable to th...

  12. Development of a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the detection of Sugarcane mosaic virus and Sorghum mosaic virus in sugarcane

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for detecting Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) in sugarcane. Six sets of four primers corresponding to the conserved coat protein gene were designed for each virus and their succ...

  13. An Aptamer Bio-barCode (ABC) assay using SPR, RNase H, and probes with RNA and gold-nanorods for anti-cancer drug screening.

    PubMed

    Loo, Jacky Fong-Chuen; Yang, Chengbin; Tsang, Hing Lun; Lau, Pui Man; Yong, Ken-Tye; Ho, Ho Pui; Kong, Siu Kai

    2017-10-07

    With modifications to an ultra-sensitive bio-barcode (BBC) assay, we have developed a next generation aptamer-based bio-barcode (ABC) assay to detect cytochrome-c (Cyto-c), a cell death marker released from cancer cells, for anti-cancer drug screening. An aptamer is a short single-stranded DNA selected from a synthetic DNA library that is capable of binding to its target with high affinity and specificity based on its unique DNA sequence and 3D structure after folding. Similar to the BBC assay, Cyto-c is captured by a micro-magnetic particle (MMP) coated with capturing antibodies (Ab) and an aptamer specifically against Cyto-c to form sandwich structures ([MMP-Ab]-[Cyto-c]-[Aptamer]). After washing and melting, our aptamers, acting as a DNA bio-barcode, are released from the sandwiches and hybridized with the probes specially designed for RNase H for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing. In an aptamer-probe duplex, RNase H digests the RNA in the probe and releases the intact aptamer for another round of hybridization and digestion. With signal enhancement effects from gold-nanorods (Au-NRs) on probes for SPR sensing, the detection limit was found to be 1 nM for the aptamer and 80 pM for Cyto-c. Without the time-consuming DNA amplification steps by PCR, the detection process of this new ABC assay can be completed within three hours. As a proof-of-concept, phenylarsine oxide was found to be a potent agent to kill liver cancer cells with multi-drug resistance at the nano-molar level. This approach thus provides a fast, sensitive and robust tool for anti-cancer drug screening.

  14. Rapid aneuploidy detection with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification: a prospective study of 4000 amniotic fluid samples

    PubMed Central

    Van Opstal, Diane; Boter, Marjan; de Jong, Danielle; van den Berg, Cardi; Brüggenwirth, Hennie T; Wildschut, Hajo I J; de Klein, Annelies; Galjaard, Robert-Jan H

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of prenatal screening requires rapid high-throughput diagnosis of common aneuploidies. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) allows for quick, easily automated multiplex testing of these aneuploidies in one polymerase chain reaction. We performed a large prospective study using MLPA on 4000 amniotic fluid (AF) samples including all indications and compared its value to karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). MLPA can reliably determine common aneuploidies with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Moreover, some mosaic cases and structural chromosome aberrations were detected as well. In cases of a male fetus, triploidies can be detected by an aberrant pattern of probe signals, which mimics maternal cell contamination (MCC). Macroscopic blood contamination was encountered in 3.2% of the AF samples. In 20% of these samples, an MLPA pattern was found consistent with MCC, although there were no false negatives of the most common aneuploidies. As the vast majority of inconclusive results (1.7%) is due to potential MCC, we designed a protocol in which we determine whether MLPA can be performed on blood-contaminated AF samples by testing if blood is of fetal origin. Then, the number of inconclusive results could be theoretically reduced to 0.05%. We propose an alternative interpretation of relative probe signals for rapid aneuploidy diagnosis (RAD). We discuss the value of MLPA for the detection of (submicroscopic) structural chromosome anomalies. MLPA is a reliable method that can replace FISH and could be used as a stand-alone test for RAD instead of karyotyping. PMID:18781187

  15. Reply to ``Comment on `Optimal probe wave function of weak-value amplification' ''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susa, Yuki; Shikano, Yutaka; Hosoya, Akio

    2013-04-01

    It is pointed out that the “counterexample” presented in the Comment is a family of probe wave functions which are increasingly broad as the shift becomes large. Furthermore, the author's variational calculation is not correct in the sense that we have to gauge fix the freedom of the phase translation. It is shown that there are two kinds of solutions, normalizable and un-normalizable. The former is our optimal solution, and the latter is what he found. It seems only the former is relevant from a practical point of view.

  16. Microscale detection of specific bacterial DNA in soil with a magnetic capture-hybridization and PCR amplification assay.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, C S

    1995-01-01

    A magnetic capture-hybridization PCR technique (MCH-PCR) was developed to eliminate the inhibitory effect of humic acids and other contaminants in PCRs targeting specific soil DNA. A single-stranded DNA probe, which was complementary to an internal part of the target gene, was used to coat magnetic beads. After hybridization in a suspension of soil DNA, magnetic extraction of the beads separated the hybrid DNA from all other soil DNA, humic acids, and other interfering soil components. The MCH was followed by PCR amplification of the specific target DNA. In barley rhizosphere soil, detection of a lux gene inserted in a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain could be demonstrated in nonsterile soil samples (0.5 mg). This corresponded to a detection of fewer than 40 bacterial cells per cm of barley root. The MCH-PCR technique greatly improves the current protocols for PCR detection of specific microorganisms or genes in soil because specific target DNA sequences from very small soil samples can be extracted and determined. PMID:7574645

  17. Line probe assay for detection of rifampicin and isoniazid resistant tuberculosis in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, Joveria Qais; Khan, Erum; Alam, Syed Muhammed Zaheer; Ali, Asho; Hasan, Zahra; Hasan, Rumina

    2012-08-01

    To assess the efficacy of a line-probe assay delta (LiPA) as rapid diagnostic test for early detection of drug-resistant tuberculosis compared to conventional susceptibility methods in Pakistan. Resistance to rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) in 108 smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis samples was detected using a line-probe assay [GenoType MTBDRplus (Hain Lifescience, GmbH, Nehren, Germany)] at the clinical microbiology laboratory of Aga Khan University Hospital in May, 2009. Results were compared with susceptibilities performed while using agar proportion. In comparison to the agar proportion method, the detection rate and specificity of resistance using MTBDR plus was 92.5% and 98.2% for rifampicin, and 76.3% and 100% for isoniazid. Mutations in codons 531 and 533 of rpoB gene (62%S531L) were responsible for 67.9% of rifampicin resistance. S315T mutation of katG gene was detected in 55.9% and inhA promoter mutation at positions -15 (C15T) in 11.9% of isoniazid resistant isolates. Four phenotypically rifampicin-resistant and 14 isoniazid-resistant strains were not detected by MTBDRplus. Sequencing these strains revealed mutations in 4 strains; 2 in rpoB gene S531W, del518 and 2 in katG genesW300L, S315N. Hence, two phenotypic rifampicin-resistant and 13 phenotypic isoniazid-resistant strains were not detected by the commercial line probe assay. The study showed that MTBDRplus had a high detection rate for rifampicin resistance. However, additional probes need to be included in the assay to improve the detection of isoniazid-resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in Pakistan.

  18. Relative analytical sensitivity of donor nucleic acid amplification technology screening and diagnostic real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for detection of Zika virus RNA.

    PubMed

    Stone, Mars; Lanteri, Marion C; Bakkour, Sonia; Deng, Xutao; Galel, Susan A; Linnen, Jeffrey M; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Lanciotti, Robert S; Rios, Maria; Gallian, Pierre; Musso, Didier; Levi, José E; Sabino, Ester C; Coffey, Lark L; Busch, Michael P

    2017-03-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread rapidly in the Pacific and throughout the Americas and is associated with severe congenital and adult neurologic outcomes. Nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) assays were developed for diagnostic applications and for blood donor screening on high-throughput NAT systems. We distributed blinded panels to compare the analytical performance of blood screening relative to diagnostic NAT assays. A 25-member, coded panel (11 half-log dilutions of a 2013 French Polynesia ZIKV isolate and 2015 Brazilian donor plasma implicated in transfusion transmission, and 3 negative controls) was sent to 11 laboratories that performed 17 assays with 2 to 12 replicates per panel member. Results were analyzed for the percentage reactivity at each dilution and by probit analysis to estimate the 50% and 95% limits of detection (LOD50 and LOD95 , respectively). Donor-screening NAT assays that process approximately 500 µL of plasma into amplification reactions were comparable in sensitivity (LOD50 and LOD95 , 2.5 and 15-18 copies/mL) and were approximately 10-fold to 100-fold more sensitive than research laboratory-developed and diagnostic reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction tests that process from 10 to 30 µL of plasma per amplification. Increasing sample input volume assayed with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays increased the LODs by 10-fold to 30-fold. Blood donor-screening ZIKV NAT assays demonstrate similar excellent sensitivities to assays currently used for screening for transfusion-transmitted viruses and are substantially more sensitive than most other laboratory-developed and diagnostic ZIKV reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays. Enhancing sensitivities of laboratory-developed and diagnostic assays may be achievable by increasing sample input. © 2017 AABB.

  19. Activity-based probes for rhomboid proteases discovered in a mass spectrometry-based assay

    PubMed Central

    Vosyka, Oliver; Vinothkumar, Kutti R.; Wolf, Eliane V.; Brouwer, Arwin J.; Liskamp, Rob M. J.; Verhelst, Steven H. L.

    2013-01-01

    Rhomboid proteases are evolutionary conserved intramembrane serine proteases. Because of their emerging role in many important biological pathways, rhomboids are potential drug targets. Unfortunately, few chemical tools are available for their study. Here, we describe a mass spectrometry-based assay to measure rhomboid substrate cleavage and inhibition. We have identified isocoumarin inhibitors and developed activity-based probes for rhomboid proteases. The probes can distinguish between active and inactive rhomboids due to covalent, reversible binding of the active-site serine and stable modification of a histidine residue. Finally, the structure of an isocoumarin-based inhibitor with Escherichia coli rhomboid GlpG uncovers an unusual mode of binding at the active site and suggests that the interactions between the 3-substituent on the isocoumarin inhibitor and hydrophobic residues on the protease reflect S′ subsite binding. Overall, these probes represent valuable tools for rhomboid study, and the structural insights may facilitate future inhibitor design. PMID:23359682

  20. A Microfluidic Microbeads Fluorescence Assay with Quantum Dots-Bead-DNA Probe.

    PubMed

    Ankireddy, S R; Kim, Jongsung

    2016-03-01

    A microfluidic bead-based nucleic acid sensor for the detection of tumor causing N-Ras genes using quantum dots has been developed. Presently, quantum dots-bead-DNA probe based hybridization detection methods are often called as 'bead based assays' and their success is substantially influenced by the dispensing and manipulation capability of the microfluidic technology. This study reports the detection of N-Ras cancer gene by fluorescence quenching of quantum dots immobilized on the surface of polystyrene beads. A microfluidic chip was constructed in which the quantum dots-bead-DNA probes were packed in the channel. The target DNA flowed across the beads and hybridized with immobilized probe sequences. The target DNA can be detected by the fluorescence quenching of the quantum dots due to their transfer of emission energy to intercalation dye after DNA hybridization. The mutated gene also induces fluorescence quenching but with less degree than the perfectly complementary target DNA.

  1. A generic assay for whole-genome amplification and deep sequencing of enterovirus A71.

    PubMed

    Tan, Le Van; Tuyen, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thanh, Tran Tan; Ngan, Tran Thuy; Van, Hoang Minh Tu; Sabanathan, Saraswathy; Van, Tran Thi My; Thanh, Le Thi My; Nguyet, Lam Anh; Geoghegan, Jemma L; Ong, Kien Chai; Perera, David; Hang, Vu Thi Ty; Ny, Nguyen Thi Han; Anh, Nguyen To; Ha, Do Quang; Qui, Phan Tu; Viet, Do Chau; Tuan, Ha Manh; Wong, Kum Thong; Holmes, Edward C; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; van Doorn, H Rogier

    2015-04-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) has emerged as the most important cause of large outbreaks of severe and sometimes fatal hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) across the Asia-Pacific region. EV-A71 outbreaks have been associated with (sub)genogroup switches, sometimes accompanied by recombination events. Understanding EV-A71 population dynamics is therefore essential for understanding this emerging infection, and may provide pivotal information for vaccine development. Despite the public health burden of EV-A71, relatively few EV-A71 complete-genome sequences are available for analysis and from limited geographical localities. The availability of an efficient procedure for whole-genome sequencing would stimulate effort to generate more viral sequence data. Herein, we report for the first time the development of a next-generation sequencing based protocol for whole-genome sequencing of EV-A71 directly from clinical specimens. We were able to sequence viruses of subgenogroup C4 and B5, while RNA from culture materials of diverse EV-A71 subgenogroups belonging to both genogroup B and C was successfully amplified. The nature of intra-host genetic diversity was explored in 22 clinical samples, revealing 107 positions carrying minor variants (ranging from 0 to 15 variants per sample). Our analysis of EV-A71 strains sampled in 2013 showed that they all belonged to subgenogroup B5, representing the first report of this subgenogroup in Vietnam. In conclusion, we have successfully developed a high-throughput next-generation sequencing-based assay for whole-genome sequencing of EV-A71 from clinical samples.

  2. A generic assay for whole-genome amplification and deep sequencing of enterovirus A71

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Le Van; Tuyen, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thanh, Tran Tan; Ngan, Tran Thuy; Van, Hoang Minh Tu; Sabanathan, Saraswathy; Van, Tran Thi My; Thanh, Le Thi My; Nguyet, Lam Anh; Geoghegan, Jemma L.; Ong, Kien Chai; Perera, David; Hang, Vu Thi Ty; Ny, Nguyen Thi Han; Anh, Nguyen To; Ha, Do Quang; Qui, Phan Tu; Viet, Do Chau; Tuan, Ha Manh; Wong, Kum Thong; Holmes, Edward C.; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; van Doorn, H. Rogier

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) has emerged as the most important cause of large outbreaks of severe and sometimes fatal hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) across the Asia-Pacific region. EV-A71 outbreaks have been associated with (sub)genogroup switches, sometimes accompanied by recombination events. Understanding EV-A71 population dynamics is therefore essential for understanding this emerging infection, and may provide pivotal information for vaccine development. Despite the public health burden of EV-A71, relatively few EV-A71 complete-genome sequences are available for analysis and from limited geographical localities. The availability of an efficient procedure for whole-genome sequencing would stimulate effort to generate more viral sequence data. Herein, we report for the first time the development of a next-generation sequencing based protocol for whole-genome sequencing of EV-A71 directly from clinical specimens. We were able to sequence viruses of subgenogroup C4 and B5, while RNA from culture materials of diverse EV-A71 subgenogroups belonging to both genogroup B and C was successfully amplified. The nature of intra-host genetic diversity was explored in 22 clinical samples, revealing 107 positions carrying minor variants (ranging from 0 to 15 variants per sample). Our analysis of EV-A71 strains sampled in 2013 showed that they all belonged to subgenogroup B5, representing the first report of this subgenogroup in Vietnam. In conclusion, we have successfully developed a high-throughput next-generation sequencing-based assay for whole-genome sequencing of EV-A71 from clinical samples. PMID:25704598

  3. Non-radioactive detection of oligonucleotide probes by photochemical amplification of dioxetanes.

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, F; Knaf, A; Möller, U; Cech, D

    1995-01-01

    We describe a new method of non-radioactive labelling and detection of oligonucleotide probes. The approach is based on a simple chemical principle. Oligonucleotides labelled with methylene blue (a photosensitizer) are hybridized on a membrane to immobilized DNA target sequences. After hybridization and stringency washing 2(-)[3-(hydroxyphenyl)methoxymethylene] adamantane is added to the membrane and the membrane is irradiated with a tungsten lamp light source through a cut-off filter. Thermally stable dioxetanes are amplified during irradiation at the positions of the labelled probe. These amplified dioxetanes are detected using chemically triggered chemiluminescent decay. Signals are recorded on commercial X-ray film. Detection is possible immediately after the last washing step and a hard copy of the blot is obtained within 1 h. Dependent on the level of the target sequences, the sensitivity of the method allows detection of 0.3 pg single-stranded M13mp18(+) plasmid DNA in dot blots and 75 pg in Southern blots. Additional immunological reaction steps and washing steps with blocking reagents and buffers are avoided. Furthermore, expensive reagents and equipment for physical detection are not necessary. The method might be particularly useful for fast routine analysis in forensic and medical applications. The synthesis of the olefin, conditions of hybridization and the protocol of detection are described in detail. Images PMID:8524657

  4. Activity-Based Probes linked with Laser-Cleavable Mass Tags for Signal Amplification in Imaging Mass Spectrometry: Analysis of Serine Hydrolase Enzymes in Mammalian Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Junhai; Chaurand, Pierre; Norris, Jeremy L.; Porter, Ned A.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    A novel functional Imaging Mass Spectrometry technology is described that utilizes activity-based probes for imaging enzyme active sites in tissue sections. We demonstrate this technology using an activity-based probe (fluorophosphate) that is specific for serine hydrolases. A dendrimer containing multiple mass tags that is attached to the activity-based probe is used to analyze the binding sites of the probe through release and measurement of the mass tags on laser irradiation. A generation 8 Poly(amido amine) dendrimer with 1024 amino groups was labeled with an azide group and then more than 900 mass tags were attached in order to achieve signal amplification of nearly three orders of magnitude. The experimental protocol first involves binding of the activity-based probe containing an alkyne group to serine hydrolases in the tissue section followed by attachment of the dendrimer labeled with mass tags to the bound probe by Click chemistry. On irradiation of the labeled tissue by the laser beam in a raster pattern, the mass tags are liberated and recorded by the mass analyzer, consequently, the ion image of the mass tag reveals the distribution of serine hydrolases in the tissue. This process was shown using rat brain and mouse embryo sections. Targeted imaging has the advantage of providing high spatial resolution and high sensitivity through the use of signal amplification chemistry with high target specificity through the use of an enzyme activity probe. PMID:22424244

  5. A Morphological identification cell cytotoxicity assay using cytoplasm-localized fluorescent probe (CLFP) to distinguish living and dead cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, Fangfang; Shen, Zhengwei; Wen, Hui; Chen, Jialing; Zhang, Xiang; Lin, Ping; Yin, Dali; Cui, Huaqing; Chen, Xiaoguang

    2017-01-08

    Cell cytotoxicity assays include cell activity assays and morphological identification assays. Currently, all frequently used cytotoxicity assays belong to cell activity assays but suffer from detection limitations. Morphological identification of cell death remains as the gold standard, although the method is difficult to scale up. At present there is no generally accepted morphological identification based cell cytotoxicity assay. In this study, we applied previous developed cell cytoplasm-localized fluorescent probe (CLFP) to display cell morphologies. Under fluorescence microscopy, the fluorescence morphology and intensity of living cells are distinct from dead cells. Based on these characters we extracted the images of living cells from series of samples via computational analysis. Thus, a novel cell morphological identification cytotoxicity assay (CLFP assay) is developed. The performance of the CLFP assay was similar to cell activity assay (MTT assay), but the accuracy of the CLFP assay was superior when measuring the cytotoxicity of active compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A simple, high-throughput, colourimetric, field applicable loop-mediated isothermal amplification (HtLAMP) assay for malaria elimination.

    PubMed

    Britton, Sumudu; Cheng, Qin; Sutherland, Colin J; McCarthy, James S

    2015-08-28

    To detect all malaria infections in elimination settings sensitive, high throughput and field deployable diagnostic tools are required. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) represents a possible field-applicable molecular diagnostic tool. However, current LAMP platforms are limited by their capacity for high throughput. A high-throughput LAMP (HtLAMP) platform amplifying mitochondrial targets using a 96-well microtitre plate platform, processing 85 samples and 11 controls, using hydroxynaphtholblue as a colourimetric indicator was optimized for the detection of malaria parasites. Objective confirmation of visually detectable colour change results was made using a spectrophotometer. A dilution series of laboratory-cultured 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum parasites was used to determine the limit of detection of the HtLAMP assay, using P. falciparum (HtLAMP-Pf) and Plasmodium genus (HtLAMP-Pg) primers, on whole blood and filter paper, and using different DNA extraction protocols. The diagnostic accuracy of HtLAMP was validated using clinical samples from Papua New Guinea, Malaysia, Ghana and The Gambia and its field applicability was evaluated in Kota Marudu district hospital, Sabah, Malaysia. The HtLAMP assay proved to be a simple method generating a visually-detectable blue and purple colour change that could be objectively confirmed in a spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 600 nm. When compared with PCR, overall HtLAMP-Pg had a sensitivity of 98 % (n = 260/266, 95 % CI 95-99) and specificity 83 % (n = 15/18, 95 % CI 59-96). HtLAMP-Pf had a sensitivity of 97 % (n = 124/128, 95 % CI 92-99) and specificity of 96 % (n = 151/157, 95 % CI 92-99). A validation study in a regional hospital laboratory demonstrated ease of performance and interpretation of the HtLAMP assay. HtLAMP-Pf performed in this field setting had a sensitivity of 100 % (n = 17/17, 95 % CI 80-100) and specificity of 95 % (n = 123/128, 95 % CI 90-98) compared with multiplex

  7. Loop mediated isothermal amplification assay using hydroxy naphthol blue, conventional polymerase chain reaction and real-time PCR in the diagnosis of intraocular tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Balne, P K; Basu, S; Rath, S; Barik, M R; Sharma, S

    2015-01-01

    This study is a comparative evaluation (Chi-square test) of a closed tube loop mediated isothermal amplification assay using hydroxy naphthol blue dye (HNB-LAMP), real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and conventional PCR in the diagnosis of intraocular tuberculosis. Considering clinical presentation as the gold standard in 33 patients, the sensitivity of HNB-LAMP assay (75.8%) was higher (not significant, P value 0.2) than conventional PCR (57.6%) and lower than real-time PCR (90.9%). Specificity was 100% by all three methods. No amplification was observed in negative controls (n = 20) by all three methods. The cost of the HNB-LAMP assay was Rs. 500.00 and it does not require thermocycler, therefore, it can be used as an alternative to conventional PCR in resource-poor settings.

  8. Comparison of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay and smear microscopy with culture for the diagnostic accuracy of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Gelaw, Baye; Shiferaw, Yitayal; Alemayehu, Marta; Bashaw, Abate Assefa

    2017-01-17

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of death from infectious diseases worldwide. Sputum smear microscopy remains the most widely available pulmonary TB diagnostic tool particularly in resource limited settings. A highly sensitive diagnostic with minimal infrastructure, cost and training is required. Hence, we assessed the diagnostic performance of Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay in detecting M.tuberculosis infection in sputum sample compared to LED fluorescent smear microscopy and culture. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Hospital from June 01, 2015 to August 30, 2015. Pulmonary TB diagnosis using sputum LED fluorescence smear microscopy, TB-LAMP assay and culture were done. A descriptive analysis was used to determine demographic characteristics of the study participants. Analysis of sensitivity and specificity for smear microscopy and TB-LAMP compared with culture as a reference test was performed. Cohen's kappa was calculated as a measure of agreement between the tests. A total of 78 pulmonary presumptive TB patients sputum sample were analyzed. The overall sensitivity and specificity of LAMP were 75 and 98%, respectively. Among smear negative sputum samples, 33.3% sensitivity and 100% specificity of LAMP were observed. Smear microscopy showed 78.6% sensitivity and 98% specificity. LAMP and smear in series had sensitivity of 67.8% and specificity of 100%. LAMP and smear in parallel had sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 96%. The agreement between LAMP and fluorescent smear microscopy tests was very good (κ = 0.83, P-value ≤0.0001). TB-LAMP showed similar specificity but a slightly lower sensitivity with LED fluorescence microscopy. The specificity of LAMP and smear microscopy in series was high. The sensitivity of LAMP was insufficient for smear negative sputum samples.

  9. Evaluation of TaqMan qPCR System Integrating Two Identically Labelled Hydrolysis Probes in Single Assay.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Alexander; Vitásková, Eliška; Černíková, Lenka; Křivda, Vlastimil; Jiřincová, Helena; Sedlák, Kamil; Horníčková, Jitka; Havlíčková, Martina

    2017-01-25

    Ongoing evolution of viral pathogens is a significant issue in diagnostic virology employing TaqMan qPCR/RT-qPCR. Specific concerns are related to false negativity due to probe binding failure. One option for compensating for such deficiency is to integrate a second identically labelled probe in the assay. However, how this alteration influences the reaction parameters has not been comprehensively demonstrated. In the present study, we evaluate a TaqMan protocol using two identically labelled hydrolysis probes (simple, LNA (locked-nucleic-acid)) and MGB (minor-groove-binder) modified probes and combinations thereof in a single assay. Our results based on a synthetic amplicon suggest that the second probe does not compromise the TaqMan qPCR/RT-qPCR parameters, which repeatedly and reproducibly remained comparable to those of the corresponding single-probe assays, irrespective of the relative probe orientation, whether opposite or tandem, and probe modifications or combinations thereof. On the other hand, the second probe additively contributed to the overall fluorescence signal. The utility of the dual-probe approach was demonstrated on practical examples by using field specimens. We hope that the present study might serve as a theoretical basis for the development or improvement of TaqMan qPCR/RT-qPCR assays for the detection of highly variable nucleic acid templates.

  10. Evaluation of TaqMan qPCR System Integrating Two Identically Labelled Hydrolysis Probes in Single Assay

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Alexander; Vitásková, Eliška; Černíková, Lenka; Křivda, Vlastimil; Jiřincová, Helena; Sedlák, Kamil; Horníčková, Jitka; Havlíčková, Martina

    2017-01-01

    Ongoing evolution of viral pathogens is a significant issue in diagnostic virology employing TaqMan qPCR/RT-qPCR. Specific concerns are related to false negativity due to probe binding failure. One option for compensating for such deficiency is to integrate a second identically labelled probe in the assay. However, how this alteration influences the reaction parameters has not been comprehensively demonstrated. In the present study, we evaluate a TaqMan protocol using two identically labelled hydrolysis probes (simple, LNA (locked-nucleic-acid)) and MGB (minor-groove-binder) modified probes and combinations thereof in a single assay. Our results based on a synthetic amplicon suggest that the second probe does not compromise the TaqMan qPCR/RT-qPCR parameters, which repeatedly and reproducibly remained comparable to those of the corresponding single-probe assays, irrespective of the relative probe orientation, whether opposite or tandem, and probe modifications or combinations thereof. On the other hand, the second probe additively contributed to the overall fluorescence signal. The utility of the dual-probe approach was demonstrated on practical examples by using field specimens. We hope that the present study might serve as a theoretical basis for the development or improvement of TaqMan qPCR/RT-qPCR assays for the detection of highly variable nucleic acid templates. PMID:28120891

  11. Rapid pathogen detection by lateral-flow immunochromatographic assay with gold nanoparticle-assisted enzyme signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Cho, Il-Hoon; Bhunia, Arun; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2015-08-03

    To date most LF-ICA format for pathogen detection is based on generating color signals from gold nanoparticle (AuNP) tracers that are perceivable by naked eye but often these methods exhibit sensitivity lower than those associated with the conventional enzyme-based immunological methods or mandated by the regulatory guidelines. By developing AuNP avidin-biotin constructs in which a number of enzymes can be labeled we report on an enhanced LF-ICA system to detect pathogens at very low levels. With this approach we show that as low as 100 CFU/mL of Escherichia coli O157:H7 can be detected, indicating that the limit of detection can be increased by about 1000-fold due to our signal amplification approach. In addition, extensive cross-reactivity experiments were conducted (19 different organisms were used) to test and successfully validate the specificity of the assay. Semi-quantitative analysis can be performed using signal intensities which were correlated with the target pathogen concentrations for calibration by image processing.

  12. Asymptomatic sexually transmitted disease prevalence in four military populations: application of DNA amplification assays for Chlamydia and gonorrhea screening.

    PubMed

    Brodine, S K; Shafer, M A; Shaffer, R A; Boyer, C B; Putnam, S D; Wignall, F S; Thomas, R J; Bales, B; Schachter, J

    1998-10-01

    The prevalence of asymptomatic chlamydial and gonococcal infections in male and female military populations was determined using urine-based ligase chain reaction DNA amplification assays (DAAs). Cross-sectional surveys in four military settings revealed an overall prevalence of asymptomatic chlamydial infection of 4.2% (56/1338). This included 3.4% (21/618) of Western Pacific shipboard US Marine Corps enlisted men; 5.2% (21/406) of male marines shore-based in Okinawa, Japan; 2.7% (5/183) of female enlisted US Navy subtender personnel in dry dock; and 6.9% (9/131) of shore-based female naval personnel in San Diego. No gonococcal infections were detected. All subjects were treated within 2 weeks of screening; none of them had progressed to symptomatic disease. General population-based screening for asymptomatic sexually transmitted diseases, and in particular chlamydial infection, can be successfully implemented using urine-based DAA tests. Benefits are maximized in a population in which compliance for follow-up therapy is high.

  13. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid and specific detection of common genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

    PubMed

    Feng, Jiawang; Tang, Shiming; Liu, Lideng; Kuang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Xiaoyu; Hu, Songnan; You, Shuzhu

    2015-03-01

    Here, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for 11 common transgenic target DNA in GMOs. Six sets of LAMP primer candidates for each target were designed and their specificity, sensitivity, and reproductivity were evaluated. With the optimized LAMP primers, this LAMP assay was simply run within 45-60 min to detect all these targets in GMOs tested. The sensitivity, specificity, and reproductivity of the LAMP assay were further analyzed in comparison with those of Real-Time PCR. In consistent with real-time PCR, detection of 0.5% GMOs in equivalent background DNA was possible using this LAMP assay for all targets. In comparison with real-time PCR, the LAMP assay showed the same results with simple instruments. Hence, the LAMP assay developed can provide a rapid and simple approach for routine screening as well as specific events detection of many GMOs.

  14. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid detection of Penicillium nordicum in dry-cured meat products.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, M; Perrone, G; Gallo, A; Epifani, F; Visconti, A; Susca, A

    2015-06-02

    The need of powerful diagnostic tools for rapid, simple, and cost-effective detection of food-borne fungi has become very important in the area of food safety. Currently, several isothermal nucleic acid amplification methods have been developed as an alternative to PCR-based analyses. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is one of these innovative methods; it requires neither gel electrophoresis to separate and visualize the products nor expensive laboratory equipment and it has been applied already for detection of pathogenic organisms. In the current study, we developed a LAMP assay for the specific detection of Penicillium nordicum, the major causative agent of ochratoxin A contamination in protein-rich food, especially dry-cured meat products. The assay was based on targeting otapksPN gene, a key gene in the biosynthesis of ochratoxin A (OTA) in P. nordicum. Amplification of DNA during the reaction was detected directly in-tube by color transition of hydroxynaphthol blue from violet to sky blue, visible to the naked eye, avoiding further post amplification analyses. Only DNAs isolated from several P. nordicum strains led to positive results and no amplification was observed from non-target OTA and non OTA-producing strains. The assay was able to detect down to 100 fg of purified targeted genomic DNA or 10(2) conidia/reaction within 60 min. The LAMP assay for detection and identification of P. nordicum was combined with a rapid DNA extraction method set up on serially diluted conidia, providing an alternative rapid, specific and sensitive DNA-based method suitable for application directly "on-site", notably in key steps of dry-cured meat production.

  15. Simultaneous diagnosis of Cetacean morbillivirus infection in dolphins stranded in the Spanish Mediterranean sea in 2011 using a novel Universal Probe Library (UPL) RT-PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Guerri, Consuelo; Melero, Mar; Rivera-Arroyo, Belén; Bellière, Edwige Nina; Crespo, Jose Luis; García-Párraga, Daniel; Esperón, Fernando; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose Manuel

    2013-07-26

    A highly sensitive and specific real-time (rt) RT-PCR assay has been developed for rapid, simultaneous detection of three strains of cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV). In this assay, two PCR primers and a hydrolysis probe from a commercially available Universal Probe Library (UPL) are used to amplify a highly conserved region within the fusion protein gene. RT-PCR is carried out on the same sample using two primer sets in parallel: one set detects the more virulent strains, dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) and porpoise morbillivirus (PMV), and the other set detects the least virulent and least common strain, pilot whale morbillivirus (PWMV). Sensitivity analysis using dilute samples containing purified DMV, PMV and PWMV showed that viral RNA detection limits in this UPL RT-PCR assay were lower than in a conventional RT-PCR assay. Our method gave no amplification signal with field samples positive for viruses related and unrelated to CeMV, such as phocine distemper virus (PDV). The reliability and robustness of the UPL RT-PCR assay were verified using tissue samples previously analyzed by conventional methods, as well as a panel of clinical samples suspected of containing CeMV. Using the UPL RT-PCR assay, we were able to associate DMV with a mass stranding of striped dolphins in the Spanish Mediterranean in 2011 with greater reliability than was possible with a conventional RT-PCR method. These results suggest that this UPL RT-PCR method is more sensitive and specific than the conventional approach, and that it may be an affordable and rapid test for routine diagnosis of three CeMV strains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A comparison of the reliability of two gene targets in loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for detecting leptospiral DNA in canine urine.

    PubMed

    Gentilini, Fabio; Zanoni, Renato Giulio; Zambon, Elisa; Turba, Maria Elena

    2017-01-01

    We compared 2 novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays that target either the 16S ribosomal RNA ( rrs) gene or the gene encoding a 32-kDa leptospiral lipoprotein ( lipL32) in order to assess the effect of the target on the accuracy of the LAMP assays. The most sensitive assay was the rrs assay with a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.2 × 10(1) genome equivalents per reaction. The novel lipL32 assay showed an LOD of 1.2 × 10(2) genome equivalents per reaction. Both assays showed adequate specificity when tested against a collection of bacteria commonly found in voided canine urine. However, when field samples were assayed, the rrs assays gave many false-positive results and a poor positive predictive value of 8.33%. In conclusion, even if the LAMP assay is used in low prevalence areas, the lipL32 assay would be preferable. Conversely, the higher analytical sensitivity of the rrs assay could be effectively used as a screening test in endemic areas with high disease prevalence, followed by confirmation of the positive results using the lipL32 assay.

  17. A label-free signal amplification assay for DNA detection based on exonuclease III and nucleic acid dye SYBR Green I.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Aihua; Luo, Ming; Xiang, Dongshan; Xiang, Xia; Ji, Xinghu; He, Zhike

    2013-09-30

    We have developed a new fluorescence method for specific single-stranded DNA sequences with exonuclease III (Exo III) and nucleic acid dye SYBR Green I. It is demonstrated by a reverse transcription oligonucleotide sequence (target DNA, 27 bases) of RNA fragment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as a model system. In the absence of the target DNA, the hairpin-probe is in the stem-closed structure, the fluorescence of SYBR Green I is very strong. In the presence of the target DNA, the hairpin-probe hybridizes with the target DNA to form double-stranded structure with a blunt 3'-terminus. Thus, in the presence of Exo III, only the 3'-terminus of probe is subjected to digestion. Exo III catalyzes the stepwise removal of mononucleotides from this terminus, releasing the target DNA. The released target DNA then hybridizes with another probe, whence the cycle starts anew. The signal of SYBR Green I decreases greatly. This system provides a detection limit of 160 pM, which is comparable to the existing signal amplification methods that utilized Exo III as a signal amplification nuclease. Due to the unique property of Exo III, this method shows excellent detection selectivity for single-base discrimination. More importantly, superiors to other methods based on Exo III, these probes have the advantages of easier to design, synthesize, purify and thus are much cheaper and more applicable. This new approach could be widely applied to sensitive and selective nucleic acids detection.

  18. Development and application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays based on ITS-1 for rapid detection of Toxoplasma gondii in pork.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Xunhui; Huang, Bin; Luo, Jiaqing; Yu, Haijie; Yan, Baolong; Yang, Yi; Du, Aifang

    2015-03-15

    The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay is a novel method that rapidly amplifies DNA with high specificity and sensitivity under isothermal conditions. In this study, we established a LAMP assay with six primers targeting a highly conserved region of Toxoplasma gondii ITS-1 sequence. The amplification protocol completes within 30 min under isothermal condition in a 65°C water bath while specificity tests confirmed no cross-reactivity with DNA templates of Neospora caninum, Eimeria tenella, Cryptosporidium parvum, Listeria monocytogenes and Streptococcus suis. The detection limit of the LAMP assay was 0.9 fg T. gondii genomic DNA, a sensitivity that was 10-fold higher than that of a conventional PCR assay. Both LAMP assay and conventional PCR were applied to detect T. gondii genomic DNA in 118 diaphragm samples obtained from pig farms in Zhejiang Province, China. Our results showed that the LAMP assay is more sensitive than conventional PCR (13.56% and 9.32%). The LAMP assay established in this study provides a simple, specific, sensitive and rapid method of T. gondii genomic DNA detection, hence is expected to plays an important role in the monitoring of T. gondii contamination in various food products.

  19. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification versus karyotyping in prenatal diagnosis: the M.A.K.E. study.

    PubMed

    Boormans, Elisabeth M A; Birnie, Erwin; Wildschut, Hajo I; Schuring-Blom, Heleen G; Oepkes, Dick; van Oppen, Carla A C; Nijhuis, Jan G; Macville, Merryn V E; Kooper, Angelique J A; Huijsdens, Karin; Hoffer, Mariëtte V J; Go, Attie; Creemers, Johan; Bhola, Shama L; Bilardo, Katia M; Suijkerbuijk, Ron; Bouman, Katelijne; Galjaard, Robert-Jan H; Bonsel, Gouke J; van Lith, Jan Mm

    2008-05-20

    In the past 30 years karyotyping was the gold standard for prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal aberrations in the fetus. Traditional karyotyping (TKT) has a high accuracy and reliability. However, it is labor intensive, the results take 14-21 days, the costs are high and unwanted findings such as abnormalities with unknown clinical relevance are not uncommon. These disadvantages challenged the practice of karyotyping. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is a new molecular genetic technique in prenatal diagnosis. Previous preclinical evidence suggests equivalence of MLPA and traditional karyotyping (TKT) regarding test performance. The proposed study is a multicentre diagnostic substitute study among pregnant women, who choose to have amniocentesis for the indication advanced maternal age and/or increased risk following prenatal screening test. In all subjects, both MLPA and karyotyping will be performed on the amniotic fluid sample. The primary outcome is diagnostic accuracy. Secondary outcomes will be maternal quality of life, women's preferences and costs. Analysis will be intention to treat and per protocol analysis. Quality of life analysis will be carried out within the study population. The study aims to include 4500 women. The study results are expected to help decide whether MLPA can replace traditional karyotyping for 'low-risk' pregnancies in terms of diagnostic accuracy, quality of life and women's preferences. This will be the first clinical study to report on all relevant aspects of the potential replacement. The protocol is registered in the clinical trial register number ISRCTN47252164.

  20. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification versus karyotyping in prenatal diagnosis: the M.A.K.E. study

    PubMed Central

    Boormans, Elisabeth MA; Birnie, Erwin; Wildschut, Hajo I; Schuring-Blom, Heleen G; Oepkes, Dick; van Oppen, Carla AC; Nijhuis, Jan G; Macville, Merryn VE; Kooper, Angelique JA; Huijsdens, Karin; Hoffer, Mariëtte VJ; Go, Attie; Creemers, Johan; Bhola, Shama L; Bilardo, Katia M; Suijkerbuijk, Ron; Bouman, Katelijne; Galjaard, Robert-Jan H; Bonsel, Gouke J; van Lith, Jan MM

    2008-01-01

    Background In the past 30 years karyotyping was the gold standard for prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal aberrations in the fetus. Traditional karyotyping (TKT) has a high accuracy and reliability. However, it is labor intensive, the results take 14–21 days, the costs are high and unwanted findings such as abnormalities with unknown clinical relevance are not uncommon. These disadvantages challenged the practice of karyotyping. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is a new molecular genetic technique in prenatal diagnosis. Previous preclinical evidence suggests equivalence of MLPA and traditional karyotyping (TKT) regarding test performance. Methods/Design The proposed study is a multicentre diagnostic substitute study among pregnant women, who choose to have amniocentesis for the indication advanced maternal age and/or increased risk following prenatal screening test. In all subjects, both MLPA and karyotyping will be performed on the amniotic fluid sample. The primary outcome is diagnostic accuracy. Secondary outcomes will be maternal quality of life, women's preferences and costs. Analysis will be intention to treat and per protocol analysis. Quality of life analysis will be carried out within the study population. The study aims to include 4500 women. Discussion The study results are expected to help decide whether MLPA can replace traditional karyotyping for 'low-risk' pregnancies in terms of diagnostic accuracy, quality of life and women's preferences. This will be the first clinical study to report on all relevant aspects of the potential replacement. Trial Registration The protocol is registered in the clinical trial register number ISRCTN47252164 PMID:18492228

  1. Copy-number variations in Y-chromosomal azoospermia factor regions identified by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kazuki; Miyado, Mami; Kobori, Yoshitomo; Tanaka, Yoko; Ishikawa, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Atsumi; Katsumi, Momori; Saito, Hidekazu; Kubota, Toshiro; Okada, Hiroshi; Ogata, Tsutomu; Fukami, Maki

    2015-03-01

    Although copy-number variations (CNVs) in Y-chromosomal azoospermia factor (AZF) regions have been associated with the risk of spermatogenic failure (SF), the precise frequency, genomic basis and clinical consequences of these CNVs remain unclear. Here we performed multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis of 56 Japanese SF patients and 65 control individuals. We compared the results of MLPA with those of conventional sequence-tagged site PCR analyses. Eleven simple and complex CNVs, including three hitherto unreported variations, were identified by MLPA. Seven of the 11 CNVs were undetectable by conventional analyses. CNVs were widely distributed in AZF regions and shared by ~60% of the patients and ~40% of the controls. Most breakpoints resided within locus-specific repeats. The majority of CNVs, including the most common gr/gr deletion, were identified in the patient and control groups at similar frequencies, whereas simple duplications were observed exclusively in the patient group. The results imply that AZF-linked CNVs are more frequent and heterogeneous than previously reported. Non-allelic homologous recombination likely underlies these CNVs. Our data confirm the functional neutrality of the gr/gr deletion in the Japanese population. We also found a possible association between AZF-linked simple duplications and SF, which needs to be evaluated in future studies.

  2. Aneuploidy identification in pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients at diagnosis by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA).

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Reyes, A; Bobadilla-Morales, L; Barba-Barba, C; Macías-Salcedo, G; Serafín-Saucedo, G; Velázquez-Rivera, M E; Almodóvar-Cuevas, M C; Márquez-Mora, A; Pimentel-Gutiérrez, H J; Ortega-de-la-Torre, C; Cruz-Osorio, R M; Nava-Gervasio, S; Rivera-Vargas, J; Sánchez-Zubieta, F; Corona-Rivera, J R; Corona-Rivera, A

    2017-08-01

    Three-quarters of the patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), show numerical or structural chromosomal alterations, which are important factors in leukemogenesis. The use of Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probes Amplification (MLPA) has been mainly limited for searching copy number alterations of genes, suggesting that MLPA could detect numerical alterations in cancer. However, the use of MLPA in pediatrics to analyze subtelomeric sequences for aneuploidy detection has not been considered in previous studies. The aim of this study was to identify aneuploidy for the first time using MLPA and correlate the results with karyotype and DNA-index (DI), from preB ALL patients. Forty-two bone marrow samples were analyzed by cytogenetics and flow cytometry to determine the DI. The chromosomal gains and/or losses were detected by the SALSA MLPA P036 Subtelomere Mix 1 probemix(®). The chromosomal number matched in 36 out of 42 samples between MLPA and karyotype (R(2)=0.7829, p=3.7×10(-10)), 18/42 between MLPA and DI (R(2)=0.1556, p=0.023), and 20/42 between karyotype and DI (R(2)=0.1509, p=0.015). MLPA results correlated with karyotype and DI. The use of MLPA led us to identify a gained marker chromosome. Our results indicate that MLPA could be a useful and fast alternative tool for aneuploidy identification in pediatric leukemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fluorescent oligonucleotide probe based on G-quadruplex scaffold for signal-on ultrasensitive protein assay.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zai-Sheng; Hu, Peng; Zhou, Hui; Shen, Guoli; Yu, Ruqin

    2010-03-01

    This work reported the G-quadruplex structure of pyrene-labeled G-rich DNA probe and its application in the immunoglobulin E (IgE) detection, providing plausibly an insight into the biological function of human telomere. Based on the intermolecular G-quadruplex, a terminal-single-pyrene-labeled oligonucleotide signaling probe was developed and a novel protein assay strategy was proposed via combining specific DNA cleavage by S1 nuclease with target-recognizing aptamer. This assay platform not only circumvented the optimization of specific sites for reporter attachment and the pyrene monomer fluorescence quenching by flanking nucleotide bases but also presented a signal-on mechanism. Thus, ultrasensitive homogeneous detection of IgE was successfully conducted. A linear dynamic range of 4.72 x 10(-12) to 7.56 x 10(-9)m, a regression coefficient of 0.9941 and a detection limit of 9.45 x 10(-14)m were given. Additionally, a preliminary concept of the single-pyrene-labeled excimer fluorescence probes associated with G-quadruplex for screening biological markers was described. Importantly, the unexpected structural property of G-quadruplex discovered seems to provide valuable information to allow understanding of the structure and function of human telomere and exploring of useful structure-based anticancer drug.

  4. How many assay probes to find one ore-bearing asteroid?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, Martin; Esty, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The number of ore-bearing asteroids could well be small and remote telescopic techniques are inadequate to identify such asteroids confidently. Finding an asteroid that can be profitably mined requires proximate observations from assay probes. Here we use a simple statistical approach to estimate the number of assay probes, Nassay, needed to find at least one ore-bearing asteroid at a high confidence (90%, 95%, and 99%). We present results for a wide range of values of the probability of an asteroid being rich in the resource of interest, Prich. We find that Nassay depends strongly on Prich, for likely values of Prich (<0.5). For a plausible value of Prich~0.1 then to obtain 90% confidence that at least one ore-bearing asteroid is found, Nassay=22, and for 99% confidence Nassay=44. A factor two increase in Prich roughly halves Nassay, while for Prich~0.5, Nassay (90%)=4. Hence any improvement in asteroid characterization prior to sending probes to its proximity would be an effective way to cost-effectively search for valuable resources among the asteroids. Some possibilities for doing so are briefly discussed.

  5. [Detection of human enteroviruses with real-time PCR assay using TaqMan fluorescent probe].

    PubMed

    Leś, Katarzyna; Przybylski, Maciej; Dzieciatkowski, Tomasz; Młynarczyk, Grazyna

    2010-01-01

    Infections with human enteroviruses are common worldwide and cause a wide range of signs and symptoms. Nowadays in current diagnostics procedures older virological methods, such virus isolation in a cell cultures and seroneutralisation assay, are replaced with molecular biology tests. The aim of the study was development of real-time PCR assay for detection of human adenoviruses. DNA isolated from MK2 cell line infected with nineteen different enterovirus strains was used for development of a qualitative real-time PCR assay using primers targeting a conserved region of the 5'UTR region and a specific TaqMan probe. The analytical sensitivity of real-time PCR assay was tested using serial dilutions of Coxackie A9 cDNA in range between 10 degrees and 10(-8). For comparison typical end-point detected RT-PCR for enterovirus detection with the same cDNA dilutions was made. The sensitivity of novel method was about ten thousand-fold higher than older one. The conclusion is that real-time PCR is very advisable in diagnostics of diseases caused with enteroviruses. The high level of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and rapidity provided by this assay are favorable for the use in the detection of enteroviral RNA in clinical specimens, especially from neuroinfections.

  6. Universal Single-Probe RT-PCR Assay for Diagnosis of Dengue Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Alm, Erik; Lesko, Birgitta; Lindegren, Gunnel; Ahlm, Clas; Söderholm, Sandra; Falk, Kerstin I.; Lagerqvist, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that has become more prevalent in the last few decades. Most patients are viremic when they present with symptoms, and early diagnosis of dengue is important in preventing severe clinical complications associated with this disease and also represents a key factor in differential diagnosis. Here, we designed and validated a hydrolysis-probe-based one-step real-time RT-PCR assay that targets the genomes of dengue virus serotypes 1–4. Methodology/Principal Findings The primers and probe used in our RT-PCR assay were designed to target the 3′ untranslated region of all complete genome sequences of dengue virus available in GenBank (n = 3,305). Performance of the assay was evaluated using in vitro transcribed RNA, laboratory-adapted virus strains, external control panels, and clinical specimens. The linear dynamic range was found to be 104–1011 GCE/mL, and the detection limit was between 6.0×102 and 1.1×103 GCE/mL depending on target sequence. The assay did not cross-react with human RNA, nor did it produce false-positive results for other human pathogenic flaviviruses or clinically important etiological agents of febrile illnesses. We used clinical serum samples obtained from returning travelers with dengue-compatible symptomatology (n = 163) to evaluate the diagnostic relevance of our assay, and laboratory diagnosis performed by the RT-PCR assay had 100% positive agreement with diagnosis performed by NS1 antigen detection. In a retrospective evaluation including 60 archived serum samples collected from confirmed dengue cases 1–9 days after disease onset, the RT-PCR assay detected viral RNA up to 9 days after appearance of symptoms. Conclusions/Significance The validation of the RT-PCR assay presented here indicates that this technique can be a reliable diagnostic tool, and hence we suggest that it be introduced as the method of choice during the first 5 days of dengue symptoms. PMID:25522325

  7. Development of a reliable dual-gene amplification RT-PCR assay for the detection of Turkey Meningoencephalitis virus in Turkey brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Irit; Raibstein, Israel; Al-Tori, Amira; Khinich, Yevgeny; Simanov, Michael; Yuval, Chanoch; Perk, Shimon; Lublin, Avishai

    2012-11-01

    The Turkey Meningoencephalitis virus (TMEV) causes neuroparalytic signs, paresis, in-coordination, morbidity and mortality in turkeys. In parallel to the increased worldwide scientific interest in veterinary avian flaviviruses, including the Bagaza, Tembusu and Tembusu-related BYD virus, TMEV-caused disease also reemergence in commercial turkeys during late summer of 2010. While initially TMEV was detected by NS5-gene RT-PCR, subsequently, the env-gene RT-PCR was employed. As lately several inconsistencies were observed between the clinical, serological and molecular detection of the TMEV env gene, this study evaluated whether genetic changes occurred in the recently isolated viruses, and sought to optimize and improve the direct TMEV amplification from brain tissues of affected turkeys. The main findings indicated that no changes occurred during the years in the TMEV genome, but the PCR detection sensitivities of the env and NS5 genes differed. The RT-PCR and RNA purification were optimized for direct amplification from brain tissues without pre-replication of clinical samples in tissue cultures or in embryonated eggs. The amplification sensitivity of the NS5-gene was 10-100 times more than the env-gene when separate. The new dual-gene amplification RT-PCR was similar to that of the NS5 gene, therefore the assay can be considered as a reliable diagnostic assay. Cases where one of the two amplicons would be RT-PCR negative would alert and warn on the virus identity, and possible genetic changes. In addition, the biochemical environment of the dual-gene amplification reaction seemed to contribute in deleting non-specific byproducts that occasionally appeared in the singular RT-PCR assays on RNA purified from brain tissues.

  8. Visual and Real-Time Event-Specific Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Based Detection Assays for Bt Cotton Events MON531 and MON15985.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Gurinder Jit; Chhabra, Rashmi; Bhoge, Rajesh K; Singh, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Bt cotton events MON531 and MON15985 are authorized for commercial cultivation in more than 18 countries. In India, four Bt cotton events have been commercialized; more than 95% of total area under genetically modified (GM) cotton cultivation comprises events MON531 and MON15985. The present study reports on the development of efficient event-specific visual and real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for detection and identification of cotton events MON531 and MON15985. Efficiency of LAMP assays was compared with conventional and real-time PCR assays. Real-time LAMP assay was found time-efficient and most sensitive, detecting up to two target copies within 35 min. The developed real-time LAMP assays, when combined with efficient DNA extraction kit/protocol, may facilitate onsite GM detection to check authenticity of Bt cotton seeds.

  9. Non-instrumented incubation of a recombinase polymerase amplification assay for the rapid and sensitive detection of proviral HIV-1 DNA.

    PubMed

    Lillis, Lorraine; Lehman, Dara; Singhal, Mitra C; Cantera, Jason; Singleton, Jered; Labarre, Paul; Toyama, Anthony; Piepenburg, Olaf; Parker, Mathew; Wood, Robert; Overbaugh, Julie; Boyle, David S

    2014-01-01

    Sensitive diagnostic tests for infectious diseases often employ nucleic acid amplification technologies (NAATs). However, most NAAT assays, including many isothermal amplification methods, require power-dependent instrumentation for incubation. For use in low resource settings (LRS), diagnostics that do not require consistent electricity supply would be ideal. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is an isothermal amplification technology that has been shown to typically work at temperatures ranging from 25-43°C, and does not require a stringent incubation temperature for optimal performance. Here we evaluate the ability to incubate an HIV-1 RPA assay, intended for use as an infant HIV diagnostic in LRS, at ambient temperatures or with a simple non-instrumented heat source. To determine the range of expected ambient temperatures in settings where an HIV-1 infant diagnostic would be of most use, a dataset of the seasonal range of daily temperatures in sub Saharan Africa was analyzed and revealed ambient temperatures as low as 10°C and rarely above 43°C. All 24 of 24 (100%) HIV-1 RPA reactions amplified when incubated for 20 minutes between 31°C and 43°C. The amplification from the HIV-1 RPA assay under investigation at temperatures was less consistent below 30°C. Thus, we developed a chemical heater to incubate HIV-1 RPA assays when ambient temperatures are between 10°C and 30°C. All 12/12 (100%) reactions amplified with chemical heat incubation from ambient temperatures of 15°C, 20°C, 25°C and 30°C. We also observed that incubation at 30 minutes improved assay performance at lower temperatures where detection was sporadic using 20 minutes incubation. We have demonstrated that incubation of the RPA HIV-1 assay via ambient temperatures or using chemical heaters yields similar results to using electrically powered devices. We propose that this RPA HIV-1 assay may not need dedicated equipment to be a highly sensitive tool to diagnose infant HIV-1 in

  10. Non-Instrumented Incubation of a Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for the Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Proviral HIV-1 DNA

    PubMed Central

    Lillis, Lorraine; Lehman, Dara; Singhal, Mitra C.; Cantera, Jason; Singleton, Jered; Labarre, Paul; Toyama, Anthony; Piepenburg, Olaf; Parker, Mathew; Wood, Robert; Overbaugh, Julie; Boyle, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Sensitive diagnostic tests for infectious diseases often employ nucleic acid amplification technologies (NAATs). However, most NAAT assays, including many isothermal amplification methods, require power-dependent instrumentation for incubation. For use in low resource settings (LRS), diagnostics that do not require consistent electricity supply would be ideal. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is an isothermal amplification technology that has been shown to typically work at temperatures ranging from 25–43°C, and does not require a stringent incubation temperature for optimal performance. Here we evaluate the ability to incubate an HIV-1 RPA assay, intended for use as an infant HIV diagnostic in LRS, at ambient temperatures or with a simple non-instrumented heat source. To determine the range of expected ambient temperatures in settings where an HIV-1 infant diagnostic would be of most use, a dataset of the seasonal range of daily temperatures in sub Saharan Africa was analyzed and revealed ambient temperatures as low as 10°C and rarely above 43°C. All 24 of 24 (100%) HIV-1 RPA reactions amplified when incubated for 20 minutes between 31°C and 43°C. The amplification from the HIV-1 RPA assay under investigation at temperatures was less consistent below 30°C. Thus, we developed a chemical heater to incubate HIV-1 RPA assays when ambient temperatures are between 10°C and 30°C. All 12/12 (100%) reactions amplified with chemical heat incubation from ambient temperatures of 15°C, 20°C, 25°C and 30°C. We also observed that incubation at 30 minutes improved assay performance at lower temperatures where detection was sporadic using 20 minutes incubation. We have demonstrated that incubation of the RPA HIV-1 assay via ambient temperatures or using chemical heaters yields similar results to using electrically powered devices. We propose that this RPA HIV-1 assay may not need dedicated equipment to be a highly sensitive tool to diagnose infant HIV-1 in

  11. Nanoparticle-Based biobarcode amplification assay (BCA) for sensitive and early detection of human immunodeficiency type 1 capsid (p24) antigen.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shixing; Zhao, Jiangqin; Storhoff, James J; Norris, Philip J; Little, Richard F; Yarchoan, Robert; Stramer, Susan L; Patno, Tim; Domanus, Marc; Dhar, Arindam; Mirkin, Chad A; Hewlett, Indira K

    2007-10-01

    Nanotechnology-based techniques are being widely evaluated in medical testing and could provide a new generation of diagnostic assays due to their high degrees of sensitivity, high specificity, multiplexing capabilities, and ability to operate without enzymes. In this article, we have modified a nanoparticle-based biobarcode amplification (BCA) assay for early and sensitive detection of HIV-1 capsid (p24) antigen by using antip24 antibody-coated microplates to capture viral antigen (p24) and streptavidin-coated nanoparticle-based biobarcode DNAs for signal amplification, followed by detection using a chip-based scanometric method. The modified BCA assay exhibited a linear dose-dependent pattern within the detection range of 0.1 to 500 pg/ml and was approximately 150-fold more sensitive than conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No false positive results were observed in 30 HIV-1-negative samples, while all 45 HIV-1 RNA positive samples were found HIV-1 p24 antigen positive by the BCA assay. In addition, the BCA assay detected HIV-1 infection 3 days earlier than ELISA in seroconversion samples. Preliminary evaluation based on testing a small number of samples indicates that the HIV-1 p24 antigen BCA may provide a new tool for sensitive and early detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen in settings where HIV-1 RNA testing is currently not routinely performed.

  12. PCR Real time Mismatch Amplification Mutation Assay (MAMA Real Time PCR) for evaluation of TNF-α promoter gene polymorphism -308 G/A in patients with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Bergallo, Massimiliano; Ponti, Renata; Gambarino, Stefano; Galliano, Ilaria; Montanari, Paola; Fava, Paolo; Novelli, Mauro; Quaglino, Pietro; Fierro, Maria T; Marra, Elena

    2016-10-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory disease, the plaques are infiltrated by leukocytes producing high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and TNF-α. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the gene promoters have been shown to affect gene expression. The -308 G/A polymorphism could affect TNF synthesis at transcriptional level. The present study develops a MAMA Real Time PCR assay, in order to identify homozygosis or heterozygosis for TNF-α -308 G/A polymorphism. Seventy patients with psoriasis and 235 controls were considered for the development of the real time PCR assay. Whole blood was processed for nucleic acid extraction. A percentage of 36.17% controls and 38.6% patients were heterozygosis, considering Amplification-refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR assay while 23% and 22.85% were heterozygosis using Mismatch Amplification Mutation Assay (MAMA)-PCR. On the contrary, 1.3% and 1.4% were homozygosis A, while 75.7% and 75.75% presented homozygosis G, taking into account the MAMA-PCR results. The two assays were significantly different (P=0.0004 at χ2 Test), but MAMA-PCR showed a better performance for TNF-α -308 G/A gene polymorphism investigation. Further studies are needed for a better comprehension of the role of this polymorphism, such as MAMA real time PCR assays development for other players in cellular immune response.

  13. Development of a dot blot assay using gene probes for the detection of enteroviruses in water

    SciTech Connect

    Margolin, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    Enteric viruses are viruses which replicate in the intestinal tract of man and animals. One mode of transmission for enteric viruses is the fecal-oral route. Drinking water which has been contaminated with sewage or sewage effluent has been implicated as a means for the spread of enteric viruses. Current methods for the detection of enteric viruses in water requires the use of animal cell culture. This technique has several drawbacks. More rapid techniques, such as fluorescent antibody or radioimmunoassay do not have the needed sensitivity to detect the low levels of virus found in contaminated water. An alternative technique for the detection of viruses in water was sought. Recent advances in recombinant DNA technology now makes it possible to detect viruses without the use of cell culture or antibodies. Gene probes that hybridize to the RNA of poliovirus and hepatitis A virus were tested for their ability to detect different enteric viruses. The probes were labeled with /sup 32/P dCTP and /sup 32/P dATP to a specific activity greater then 1.0 x 10/sup 9/ cpm/ug DNA. One infectious unit of poliovirus and hepatitis A virus was detected using labeled cDNA probes. Upon comparison, the dot blot assay was as sensitive as tissue culture for the detection of poliovirus in beef extract, secondary effluent, and tap water. Environmental samples, such as secondary effluent, reclaimed wastewater and unchlorinated drinking water were also assayed for poliovirus and hepatitis A virus with the use of gene probes. The results presented here offer an alternative method for screening water samples for the presence of enteric viruses.

  14. Molecular screening test in familial forms of cerebral cavernous malformation: the impact of the Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification approach.

    PubMed

    Penco, Silvana; Ratti, Rachele; Bianchi, Elena; Citterio, Alberto; Patrosso, Maria Cristina; Marocchi, Alessandro; Tassi, Laura; La Camera, Alessandro; Collice, Massimo

    2009-05-01

    Object The purpose of this study was to underline the effectiveness of molecular analysis in cerebral cavernous angioma, with special attention to the familial forms. Methods Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification analysis integrates the consecutive sequence analysis of the 3 genes (Krit1/CCM1, MGC4607/CCM2, and PDCD10/CCM3) known to be responsible for cerebral cavernous malformation lesions. Results The Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification analysis revealed a new mutation, a heterozygous exon 9/10 deletion of Krit1, in the proband and in all affected family members. Conclusions The identification of the molecular defect allows physicians to screen family members at risk and to identify affected individuals before the onset of clinical symptoms caused by the presence of lesions.

  15. Development of real-time and lateral flow dipstick recombinase polymerase amplification assays for rapid detection of goatpox virus and sheeppox virus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Qin, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiangle; Zhao, Zhixun; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Xueliang; Cong, Guozheng; Li, Yanmin; Zhang, Zhidong

    2017-07-17

    Goatpox virus (GTPV) and sheeppox virus (SPPV), which belong to the Capripoxvirus (CaPV), are economically important pathogens of small ruminants. Therefore, a sensitive, specific and rapid diagnostic assay for detection of GTPV and SPPV is necessary to accurately and promptly control these diseases. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assays combined with a real-time fluorescent detection (real-time RPA assay) and lateral flow dipstick (RPA LFD assay) were developed targeting the CaPV G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor (GPCR) gene, respectively. The sensitivity of both CaPV real-time RPA assay and CaPV RPA LFD assay were 3 × 10(2) copies per reaction within 20 min at 38 °C. Both assays were highly specific for CaPV, with no cross-reactions with peste des petits ruminants virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus and Orf virus. The evaluation of the performance of these two assays with clinical sample (n = 107) showed that the CaPV real-time RPA assay and CaPV RPA LFD assay were able to specially detect SPPV or GTPV present in samples of ovine in liver, lung, kidney, spleen, skin and blood. This study provided a highly time-efficient and simple alternative for rapid detection of GTPV and SPPV.

  16. A nanodiagnostic colorimetric assay for 18S rRNA of Leishmania pathogens using nucleic acid sequence-based amplification and gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Alireza; Jorjani, Oghol-Niaz; Nikbakht, Hassan; Gill, Pooria

    2013-12-01

    We describe here a nanodiagnostic colorimetric assay for 18S rRNA of Leishmania pathogens that uses nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) and gold nanorods (GNRs). NASBA primers targeting 18S rRNA were used for amplification of RNA in an isothermal process. The electrostatic interactions between the phosphate groups of the RNA amplicons and the cetyl trimethylammonium bromide layer on the GNRs resulting in their aggregation. This phenomenon changes the color of the GNR solution from red to purple. Our data showed 100% sensitivity and 80% specificity with the colorimetric assay compared with results using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The nanodiagnostic method we describe simplifies the detection of NASBA amplicons without the need for gel electrophoresis.

  17. Application of a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Cow Components Adulterated in Buffalo Milk/Meat.

    PubMed

    Deb, Rajib; Sengar, Gyanendra Singh; Singh, Umesh; Kumar, Sushil; Alyethodi, R R; Alex, Rani; Raja, T V; Das, A K; Prakash, B

    2016-12-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a diagnostic method for amplification of DNA with rapid and minimal equipment requirement. In the present study, we applied the LAMP assay for rapid detection of cow components adulteration in buffalo milk/meat samples. The test can be completed within around 1 h 40 min starting from DNA extraction and can be performed in water bath without requirement of thermocycler. The cow DNA in buffalo samples were identified in the developed LAMP assay by either visualizing with SYBR Green I/HNB dyes or observing the typical ladder pattern on gel electrophoresis. The test can detect up to 5 % level of cow milk/meat mixed in buffalo counterparts. Due to the simplicity and specificity, the developed LAMP test can be easily adapted in any laboratory for rapid detection of cow species identification in livestock by products.

  18. Development of reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for detection of avian influenza viruses in field specimens.

    PubMed

    Shivakoti, Sakar; Ito, Hiroshi; Murase, Toshiyuki; Ono, Etsuro; Takakuwa, Hiroki; Yamashiro, Tetsu; Otsuki, Koichi; Ito, Toshihiro

    2010-04-01

    Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) is an established gene amplification method for rapid diagnosis of various infectious diseases. In order to detect avian influenza viruses, particularly in field specimens, specific primers targeting the matrix gene were designed. Thirty-four virus samples, including isolates from wild and domestic avian hosts belonging to various geographical areas, were used to confirm the validity of the primers. All samples were confirmed to be positive in less than 1 hr. The RT-LAMP assay was also able to detect avian influenza virus in the various field samples, such as swabs, tissues, and feces. These results indicate that the developed RT-LAMP assay with uniquely designed primers is potentially useful in comprehensive avian influenza surveillance.

  19. In-house phage amplification assay is a sound alternative for detecting rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in low-resource settings.

    PubMed

    Símboli, Norberto; Takiff, Howard; McNerney, Ruth; López, Beatriz; Martin, Anandi; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Barrera, Lucía; Ritacco, Viviana

    2005-01-01

    An in-house mycobacteriophage amplification assay for detecting rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis showed 100% sensitivity, 97.7% specificity, and 95.2% predictive value for resistance in a test of 129 isolates from a hot spot area of multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis. The applicability of the test was demonstrated in the routine work flow of a low-resource reference laboratory.

  20. A Continuous Spectrophotometric Assay for APS Reductase Activity with Sulfite-Selective Probes

    PubMed Central

    Paritala, Hanumantharao; Carroll, Kate S.

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase (EC number 1.8.4.10), (APR) catalyzes the first committed step in sulfate reduction for the biosynthesis of essential reduced sulfur-containing biomolecules, such as cysteine, and is essential for survival in the latent phase of TB infection. Despite the importance of APR to Mtb, and other bacterial pathogens, current assay methods depend on use of [35S]-labeled APS or shunt AMP to a coupled-enzyme system. Both methods are cumbersome and require the use of expensive reagents. Here we report the development of a continuous spectrophotometric method for measuring APR activity by using novel sulfite-selective colorimetric or “off-on” fluorescent levulinate-based probes. The APR activity can thus be followed by monitoring the increase in absorbance or fluorescence of the resulting phenolate product. Using this assay, we determined Michelis-Menten kinetic constants (Km, kcat, kcat/Km) and apparent inhibition constant (Ki) for adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP), which compared favorably to values obtained in the gold-standard radioactive assay. The newly developed assay is robust and easy to perform with a simple spectrophotometer. PMID:23711725

  1. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay combined with a lateral flow dipstick for rapid and simple detection of classical swine fever virus in the field.

    PubMed

    Chowdry, Vinay Kumar; Luo, Yuzi; Widén, Frederik; Qiu, Hua-Ji; Shan, Hu; Belák, Sándor; Liu, Lihong

    2014-03-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious viral disease and may cause heavy economic loss to farmers. The rapid, simple and accurate diagnosis of the disease at the frontline, for example on the farms of concern is crucial for disease control. This study describes the development and evaluation of a new loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay coupled with lateral flow dipstick (LFD) for the detection of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). This RT-LAMP-LFD assay combines the efficient one-step isothermal amplification of CSF viral RNA and the simplicity of the LFD to read the results within two to five minutes. Seven genotypes (1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 and 3.1), but not genotype 3.4, were successfully detected by the RT-LAMP-LFD assay, indicating that the method has a broad range of detection and can be applied in different geographical areas where CSFV strains belonging to these genotypes are present. The performance of this RT-LAMP-LFD assay was similar to that of the real-time RT-PCR. The analytical sensitivity was about 100copies per reaction when testing two genotypes (1.1 and 2.3). No cross-reactivity to non-CSFV pestiviruses was observed. This RT-LAMP-LFD assay can be a useful novel tool for the rapid, simple and economic diagnosis of classical swine fever in the field.

  2. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification copy number variant analysis in patients with acquired long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Williams, Victoria S; Cresswell, Carl J; Ruspi, Gerhard; Yang, Tao; Atak, Thomas C; McLoughlin, Matthew; Ingram, Christiana D; Ramirez, Andrea H; Roden, Dan; Armstrong, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Thirteen genetic loci map to families with congenital long QT syndrome (cLQT) and multiple single nucleotide mutations have been functionally implicated in cLQT. Studies have investigated copy number variations (CNVs) in the cLQT genes to ascertain their involvement in cLQT. In these studies 3-12% of cLQT patients who were mutation negative by all other methods carried CNVs in cLQT genes. Prolongation of the QT interval can also be acquired after exposure to certain drugs [acquired LQT (aLQT)]. Single nucleotide mutations in cLQT genes have also been associated with and functionally implicated in aLQT, but to date no studies have explored CNVs as an additional susceptibility factor in aLQT. The aim of this study was to explore the contribution of CNVs in determining susceptibility to aLQT. In this study we screened the commonest cLQT genes (KCNQ1; KCNH2; SCN5A; KCNE1, and KCNE2) in a general population of healthy volunteers and in a cohort of subjects presenting with aLQT for CNVs using the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification method. Copy number variants were detected and confirmed in 1 of 197 of the healthy volunteers and in 1 of 90 subjects with aLQT. The CNV in the aLQT subject was functionally characterized and demonstrated impaired channel function. Copy number variation is a possible additional risk factor for aLQT and should be considered for incorporation into pharmacogenetic screening of LQTS genes in addition to mutation detection to improve the safety of medication administration. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Economic evaluation of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and karyotyping in prenatal diagnosis: a cost-minimization analysis.

    PubMed

    Boormans, Elisabeth M A; Birnie, Erwin; Hoffer, Mariëtte J V; Macville, Merryn V E; Galjaard, Robert-Jan; Schuring-Blom, Gijsbertha H; Bhola, Shama L; Huijsdens, Karin; Smits, Arie; van Lith, Jan M M

    2012-01-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA, P095 kit) compared to karyotyping. A cost-minimization analysis alongside a nationwide prospective clinical study of 4,585 women undergoing amniocentesis on behalf of their age (≥36 years), an increased risk following first trimester prenatal screening or parental anxiety. Diagnostic accuracy of MLPA (P095 kit) was comparable to karyotyping (1.0 95% CI 0.999-1.0). Health-related quality of life did not differ between the strategies (summary physical health: mean difference 0.31, p = 0.82; summary mental health: mean difference 1.91, p = 0.22). Short-term costs were lower for MLPA: mean difference 315.68 (bootstrap 95% CI 315.63-315.74; -44.4%). The long-term costs were slightly higher for MLPA: mean difference 76.42 (bootstrap 95% CI 71.32-81.52; +8.6%). Total costs were on average 240.13 (bootstrap 95% CI 235.02-245.23; -14.9%) lower in favor of MLPA. Cost differences were sensitive to proportion of terminated pregnancies, sample throughput, individual choice and performance of tests in one laboratory, but not to failure rate or the exclusion of polluted samples. From an economic perspective, MLPA is the preferred prenatal diagnostic strategy in women who undergo amniocentesis on behalf of their age, following prenatal screening or parental anxiety.

  4. Multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) for rapid distinction between unique sequence positive and negative marker chromosomes in prenatal diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) are extra structurally abnormal chromosomes that cannot be unambiguously identified with conventional chromosome banding techniques. These marker chromosomes may cause an abnormal phenotype or be harmless depending on different factors such as genetic content, chromosomal origin and level of mosaicism. When a sSMC is found during prenatal diagnosis, the main question is whether the sSMC contains euchromatin since in most cases this will lead to phenotypic abnormalities. We present the use of Multiplex Ligation Dependent probe Amplification (MLPA) for rapid distinction between non-euchromatic and euchromatic sSMC. Results 29 well-defined sSMC found during prenatal diagnosis were retrospectively investigated with MLPA with the SALSA MLPA centromere kits P181 and P182 as well as with the SALSA MLPA telomere kits P036B and P070 (MRC Holland BV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). All unique-sequence positive sSMC were correctly identified with MLPA, whereas the unique-sequence negative sSMC had normal MLPA results. Conclusions Although different techniques exist for identification of sSMC, we show that MLPA is a valuable adjunctive tool for rapidly distinguishing between unique-sequence positive and negative sSMC. In case of positive MLPA results, genetic microarray analysis or, if not available, targeted FISH can be applied for further identification and determination of the exact breakpoints, which is important for prediction of the fetal phenotype. In case of a negative MLPA result, which means that the sSMC most probably does not contain genes, the parents can already be reassured and parental karyotyping can be initiated to assess the heritability. In the mean time, FISH techniques are needed for determination of the chromosomal origin. PMID:21235775

  5. Integration of PCR-Sequencing Analysis with Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification for Diagnosis of Hereditary Fructose Intolerance.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Lorenzo; Caciotti, Anna; Cavicchi, Catia; Rigoldi, Miriam; Parini, Rossella; Caserta, Marina; Chibbaro, Guido; Gasperini, Serena; Procopio, Elena; Donati, Maria Alice; Guerrini, Renzo; Morrone, Amelia

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the ALDOB gene impair the activity of the hepatic aldolase B enzyme, causing hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI), an inherited autosomic recessive disease of carbohydrate metabolism, that can result in hypoglycemia, liver and kidney failure, coma, and death. Noninvasive diagnosis is possible by identifying mutant ALDOB alleles in suspected patients. We report the genetic characterization of a cohort of 18 HFI Caucasian patients, based on PCR-sequencing and Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA), with the identification of two novel genetic lesions: a small duplication c.940_941dupT (p.Trp314fsX22) and a large deletion encompassing the promoter region and exon 1. MLPA and long range-PCR (LR-PCR) also identified the recently reported g.7840_14288del6448 allele with a surprisingly high frequency (11%) within our patients' cohort. The most common p.Ala150Pro (44%), p.Ala175Asp (19%), p.Asn335Lys (8%), and/or the known c.360-363del4 (5%), p.Tyr204X (2.8%), IVS6 -2A>G (2.8%) mutant alleles were identified in 14 patients at a homozygous or compound-heterozygous level. The integration of PCR-sequencing analysis with exon-dosage tools [MLPA and quantitative fluorescent multiplex-PCR (QFM-PCR)] led to the full genotyping of patients within our cohort and to the identification of the new deletion encompassing the promoter region and exon 1.

  6. Development of a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the rapid diagnosis of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infection.

    PubMed

    Nakauchi, Mina; Takayama, Ikuyo; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Tashiro, Masato; Kageyama, Tsutomu

    2014-08-01

    A genetic diagnosis system for detecting avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infection using reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) technology was developed. The RT-LAMP assay showed no cross-reactivity with seasonal influenza A (H3N2 and H1N1pdm09) or influenza B viruses circulating in humans or with avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses. The sensitivity of the RT-LAMP assay was 42.47 copies/reaction. Considering the high specificity and sensitivity of the assay for detecting the avian influenza A (H7N9) virus and that the reaction was completed within 30 min, the RT-LAMP assay developed in this study is a promising rapid diagnostic tool for avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infection.

  7. Rapid Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Variants Associated with Lamivudine and Adefovir Resistance by Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification Combined with Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Shuangrong; Wang, Feng; Li, Fake; Chang, Kai; Yang, Shaojun; Zhang, Kejun; Jiang, Wenbin; Shang, Ya

    2014-01-01

    Drug-resistant mutations of hepatitis B virus (HBV) are the major obstacles to successful therapy for chronic hepatitis B infection. Although there are many methods for detecting the antiviral drug-resistant mutations of HBV, their applications are restricted because of their shortcomings, such as low sensitivity, the time required, and the high cost. For this study, a multiplex ligation-dependent probe real-time PCR (MLP-RT-PCR) method was developed to simultaneously detect lamivudine (LAM)- and adefovir (ADV)-resistant HBV mutants (those with the mutations rtM204V/I, rtA181V/T, and rtN236T). The new method combined the high-throughput nature of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) with the rapid and sensitive detection of real-time PCR. In this report, MLP-RT-PCR was evaluated by detecting drug-resistant mutants in 116 patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. By MLP-RT-PCR analysis, LAM-resistant mutations were detected in 41 patients (35.3%), ADV-resistant mutations were detected in 17 patients (14.7%), and LAM- and-ADV-resistant mutations were detected in 5 patients (4.3%). Based on the results of MLP-RT-PCR, the mutations rtM204V, rtM204I, rtA181T, rtA181V, and rtN236T were 95.7% (111/116 patients), 98.3% (114/116 patients), 99.1% (115/116 patients), 98.3% (114/116 patients), and 99.1% (115/116 patients) concordant, respectively, with those of direct sequencing. The MLP-RT-PCR assay was more sensitive than direct sequencing for detecting mutations with low frequencies. Four samples containing the low-frequency (<10%) mutants were identified by MLP-RT-PCR and further confirmed by clonal sequencing. MLP-RT-PCR is a rapid and sensitive method that enables the detection of multidrug-resistant HBV mutations in clinical practice. PMID:24478474

  8. Improved Detection Limit in Rapid Detection of Human Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 by a Novel Reverse Transcription–Isothermal Multiple-Self-Matching-Initiated Amplification Assay

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiong; Nie, Kai; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Yong; Guan, Li; Zhang, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Rapid detection of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) is important in the early phase of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). In this study, we developed and evaluated a novel reverse transcription–isothermal multiple-self-matching-initiated amplification (RT-IMSA) assay for the rapid detection of EV71 and CVA16 by use of reverse transcriptase, together with a strand displacement DNA polymerase. Real-time RT-IMSA assays using a turbidimeter and visual RT-IMSA assays to detect EV71 and CVA16 were established and completed in 1 h, and the reported corresponding real-time reverse transcription–loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assays targeting the same regions of the VP1 gene were adopted as parallel tests. Through testing VP1 RNAs transcribed in vitro, the real-time RT-IMSA assays exhibited better linearity of quantification, with R2 values of 0.952 (for EV71) and 0.967 (for CVA16), than the real-time RT-LAMP assays, which had R2 values of 0.803 (for EV71) and 0.904 (for CVA16). Additionally, the detection limits of the real-time RT-IMSA assays (approximately 937 for EV71 and 67 for CVA16 copies/reaction) were higher than those of real-time RT-LAMP assays (approximately 3,266 for EV71 and 430 for CVA16 copies/reaction), and similar results were observed in the visual RT-IMSA assays. The new approaches also possess high specificities for the corresponding targets, with no cross-reactivity observed. In clinical assessment, compared to commercial reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) kits, the diagnostic sensitivities of the real-time RT-IMSA assays (96.4% for EV71 and 94.6% for CVA16) were higher than those of the real-time RT-LAMP assays (91.1% for EV71 and 90.8% for CVA16). The visual RT-IMSA assays also exhibited the same results. In conclusion, this proof-of-concept study suggests that the novel RT-IMSA assay is superior to the RT-LAMP assay in terms of detection limit and has the potential to rapidly detect EV71

  9. Cellular thermal shift and clickable chemical probe assays for the determination of drug-target engagement in live cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua; Gopalsamy, Ariamala; Hett, Erik C; Salter, Shores; Aulabaugh, Ann; Kyne, Robert E; Pierce, Betsy; Jones, Lyn H

    2016-07-14

    Proof of drug-target engagement in physiologically-relevant contexts is a key pillar of successful therapeutic target validation. We developed two orthogonal technologies, the cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA) and a covalent chemical probe reporter approach (harnessing sulfonyl fluoride tyrosine labeling and subsequent click chemistry) to measure the occupancy of the mRNA-decapping scavenger enzyme DcpS by a small molecule inhibitor in live cells. Enzyme affinity determined using isothermal dose response fingerprinting (ITDRFCETSA) and the concentration required to occupy 50% of the enzyme (OC50) using the chemical probe reporter assay were very similar. In this case, the chemical probe method worked well due to the long offset kinetics of the reversible inhibitor (determined using a fluorescent dye-tagged probe). This work suggests that CETSA could become the first choice assay to determine in-cell target engagement due to its simplicity.

  10. Isothermal Method of a Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for the Detection of Most Common High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Type 16 and Type 18 DNA.

    PubMed

    Ma, Biao; Fang, Jiehong; Wang, Ye; He, Haizhen; Dai, Mingyan; Lin, Wei; Su, Wei; Zhang, Mingzhou

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a common gynecologic malignant tumor and has a great impact on women's health. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is implicated in cervical cancer and precancerous lesions and the two are possibly two stages of disease progression. With the technological development of molecular biology and epidemiology, detection and treatment of HPV has become an important means to prevent cervical cancer. Here we present a novel, rapid, sensitive and specific isothermal method of recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), which is established to detect the two most common high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 and type 18 DNA. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of the RPA assay, incubating clinical specimens of HPV16 and HPV18 using plasmids standard. It operates at constant low temperature without the thermal instrumentation for incubation. The products can be detected via agarose gel electrophoresis assay, reverse dot blot assay, and quantitative real-time assay with SYBR Green I. We assess the diagnostic performance of the RPA assay for detecting of HPV16 and HPV18 in 335 clinical samples from patients suspected of cervical cancer. The results revealed no cross-reaction with other HPV genotypes and the RPA assay achieve a sensitivity of 100 copies. Compared with TaqMan qPCR, the RPA technique achieves exponential amplification with no need for pretreatment of sample DNA at 37°C for 20 minutes, which reveals more satisfactory performance. The agreement between the RPA and qPCR assays was 97.6% (κ = 0.89) for HPV16 positivity and 98.5% (κ = 0.81) for HPV18 positivity, indicating very good correlation between both tests. Importantly, the RPA assay was demonstrated to be a useful and powerful method for detection of HPV virus, which therefore may serve as a valuable tool for rapid diagnosis of HPV infection in both commercial and clinical applications.

  11. Highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for mercury(II) ions by using a mercury-specific oligonucleotide probe and gold nanoparticle-based amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiqiang; Su, Yuanyuan; Li, Jiang; Li, Di; Zhang, Jiong; Song, Shiping; Zhao, Yun; Li, Genxi; Fan, Chunhai

    2009-09-15

    We report a highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for the detection of Hg(2+) ions in aqueous solution by using a thymine (T)-rich, mercury-specific oligonucleotide (MSO) probe and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs)-based signal amplification. The MSO probe contains seven thymine bases at both ends and a "mute" spacer in the middle, which, in the presence of Hg(2+), forms a hairpin structure via the Hg(2+)-mediated coordination of T-Hg(2+)-T base pairs. The thiolated MSO probe is immobilized on Au electrodes to capture free Hg(2+) in aqueous media, and the MSO-bound Hg(2+) can be electrochemically reduced to Hg(+), which provides a readout signal for quantitative detection of Hg(2+). This direct immobilization strategy leads to a detection limit of 1 microM. In order to improve the sensitivity, MSO probe-modified Au NPs are employed to amplify the electrochemical signals. Au NPs are comodified with the MSO probe and a linking probe that is complementary to a capture DNA probe immobilized on gold electrodes. We demonstrated that this Au NPs-based sensing strategy brings about an amplification factor of more than 3 orders of magnitude, leading to a limit of detection of 0.5 nM (100 ppt), which satisfactorily meets the sensitivity requirement of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This Au NPs-based Hg(2+) sensor also exhibits excellent selectivity over a spectrum of interference metal ions. Considering the high sensitivity and selectivity of this sensor, as well as the cost-effective and portable features of electrochemical techniques, we expect this Au NPs amplified electrochemical sensor will be a promising candidate for field detection of environmentally toxic mercury.

  12. Detection of beer spoilage bacteria Pectinatus and Megasphaera with acridinium ester labelled DNA probes using a hybridisation protection assay.

    PubMed

    Paradh, A D; Hill, A E; Mitchell, W J

    2014-01-01

    DNA probes specific for rRNA of selected target species were utilised for the detection of beer spoilage bacteria of the genera Pectinatus and Megasphaera using a hybridisation protection assay (HPA). All the probes were modified during synthesis by addition of an amino linker arm at the 5' end or were internally modified by inserting an amine modified thymidine base. Synthesised probes then were labelled with acridinium ester (AE) and purified using reverse phase HPLC. The internally AE labelled probes were able to detect target RNA within the range of 0.016-0.0032pmol. All the designed probes showed high specificity towards target RNA and could detect bacterial contamination within the range of ca. 5×10(2)1×10(3) CFU using the HPA. The developed assay was also compatible with MRS, NBB and SMMP beer enrichment media, routinely used in brewing laboratories.

  13. Development of real-time and lateral flow strip reverse transcription recombinase polymerase Amplification assays for rapid detection of peste des petits ruminants virus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Qin, Xiaodong; Song, Yiming; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Gaowei; Dou, Yongxi; Li, Yanmin; Zhang, Zhidong

    2017-02-07

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an economically important, Office International des Epizooties (OIE) notifiable, transboundary viral disease of small ruminants such as sheep and goat. PPR virus (PPRV), a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus, is the causal agent of PPR. Therefore, sensitive, specific and rapid diagnostic assay for the detection of PPRV are necessary to accurately and promptly diagnose suspected case of PPR. In this study, reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assays using real-time fluorescent detection (real-time RT-RPA assay) and lateral flow strip detection (LFS RT-RPA assay) were developed targeting the N gene of PPRV. The sensitivity of the developed real-time RT-RPA assay was as low as 100 copies per reaction within 7 min at 40 °C with 95% reliability; while the sensitivity of the developed LFS RT-RPA assay was as low as 150 copies per reaction at 39 °C in less than 25 min. In both assays, there were no cross-reactions with sheep and goat pox viruses, foot-and-mouth disease virus and Orf virus. These features make RPA assay promising candidates either in field use or as a point of care diagnostic technique.

  14. Head-to-head comparison of two transcription-mediated amplification assay versions for detection of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 in blood donors.

    PubMed

    Grabarczyk, Piotr; van Drimmelen, Harry; Kopacz, Aneta; Gdowska, Jolanta; Liszewski, Grzegorz; Piotrowski, Dariusz; Górska, Joanna; Kuśmierczyk, Jolanta; Candotti, Daniel; Lętowska, Magdalena; Lelie, Nico; Brojer, Ewa

    2013-10-01

    The second triplex transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) assay version (Ultrio Plus, Novartis Diagnostics) uses an additional reagent enhancing the disruption of hepatitis B virus (HBV) particles and release of DNA for the target capture probe. This study compares the performance of this new assay version with the previous one (Ultrio). For analytical sensitivity assessment the World Health Organization HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) international standards and various genotype dilution panels were used. Individual donations (IDs) from 9980 first-time donors were screened simultaneously by serology and both TMA assay versions. The 50 and 95% limits of detection (LODs) for HBV using Ultrio Plus were 0.8 (0.6-1.0) and 4.6 (3.2-7.2) IU/mL, respectively, 2.4 (1.4-4.8)-fold more sensitive than Ultrio. The TMA assay versions had comparable LODs for HIV-1 and HCV. The improvement factors on analytical sensitivity panels of HBV Genotypes A to G ranged from 1.3 to 7.3 and 50% LODs (95% confidence interval) reduced from 12.5 (10-15) to 3.8 (3.2-4.4) copies/mL. One Ultrio Plus HBV Genotype D yield sample missed by the Ultrio assay in the donor screening study was detected with ninefold higher sensitivity. The specificities of ID nucleic acid test (ID-NAT) and serologic testing in a similar repeat test algorithm were 100 and 99.41%, respectively. More efficient target capture chemistry in the new TMA assay version significantly improved sensitivity and diminished variability in detecting HBV strains of various genotypes. We recommend a triplicate ID-NAT repeat test strategy to eliminate discriminatory tests on false-non-repeat-reactive (anti-HBc-nonreactive) donations. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  15. A novel assay to probe heparin-peptide interactions using pentapeptide-stabilized gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyung Jae; Butterfield, Karen; Panitch, Alyssa

    2008-08-19

    In this article, we present a novel assay to probe the interactions between heparin and heparin-binding peptides based on CALNN pentapeptide-stabilized gold nanoparticles. This assay relies on rapid aggregation of gold nanoparticles and dramatic retardation in the presence of a large excess of heparin due to the binding of peptides to heparin. Using this method, the dissociation constant ( K d) and melting temperature ( T m) of three different peptides against heparin were determined. The results from capillary electrophoresis demonstrated that K d values measured by this method were comparatively accurate. It was found that the peptide with the lowest K d did not have the highest T m. Structural analysis by circular dichroism was performed to explain this phenomenon. A comparison with the results from affinity chromatography indicates that electrostatic interactions only are not the major determinant of the affinity between heparin and peptide, but other interactions such as hydrogen-bonding and hydrophobic interactions may play important roles in the overall interactions. This novel assay is inexpensive, label-free, and easy to implement in the laboratories, does not suffer precipitation of the heparin-peptide complex or their conformational changes caused by surface immobilization, and is expected to be a useful complement to other existing methods.

  16. Simple Identification of Human Taenia Species by Multiplex Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification in Combination with Dot Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    PubMed

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2016-06-01

    For differential detection of Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene has been recently developed and shown to be sensitive, specific, and effective. However, to achieve differential identification, one specimen requires three reaction mixtures containing a primer set of each Taenia species separately, which is complex and time consuming and increases the risk of cross-contamination. In this study, we developed a simple differential identification of human Taenia species using multiplex LAMP (mLAMP) in combination with dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA). Forward inner primers of T. solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), digoxigenin (DIG), and tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA), respectively, and biotin-labeled backward inner primers were used in mLAMP. The mLAMP assay succeeded in specific amplification of each respective target gene in a single tube. Furthermore, the mLAMP product from each species was easily distinguished by dot-ELISA with an antibody specific for FITC, DIG, or TAMRA. The mLAMP assay in combination with dot-ELISA will make identification of human Taenia species simpler, easier, and more practical.

  17. Application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the sensitive and rapid diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sandeep; Avishek, Kumar; Sharma, Vanila; Negi, Narendra Singh; Ramesh, Venkatesh; Salotra, Poonam

    2013-04-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is at the forefront in the search for innovative diagnostics for rapid and specific amplification of target DNA under isothermal conditions. We have applied LAMP assay using SYBR Green for clear-cut naked eye detection of Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani in 200 clinical samples of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). The assay was positive in 53/55 VL blood samples (sensitivity, 96.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 87.7-99%), 15/15 VL bone marrow aspirate samples (sensitivity, 100%; 95% CI, 79.6-100%), 60/62 PKDL tissue biopsy samples (sensitivity, 96.8%; 95% CI, 88.9-99.1%), and 1/68 control samples (specificity, 98.5%; 95% CI, 92.1-99.7%). The assay was specific for L. (L.) donovani, the causative species for VL and negative for L. (L.) infantum, L. (L.) tropica, and L. (L.) major. This is the first comprehensive clinical study demonstrating the applicability of the LAMP assay for a rapid and reliable molecular diagnosis of VL and PKDL.

  18. Development of Multiplex-Mismatch Amplification Mutation-PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Mutation in gyrA Gene Related to Fluoroquinolone Resistance.

    PubMed

    Cui, Mingquan; Wu, Chenbin; Zhang, Peng; Wu, Congming

    2016-11-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a foodborne pathogen, is the major cause of enteritis in humans worldwide, however, its increasing resistance to fluoroquinolones reported recently is of a major concern. In the present study, multiplex-mismatch amplification mutation assay-polymerase chain reaction (MMAMA-PCR) was developed for the first time with the aim to quickly identify C. jejuni and to detect the single nucleotide mutation (C-257 to T) frequently observed in gyrA gene, associated with the acquisition of resistance to fluoroquinolones. In this assay, mismatch amplification mutation primers for the detection of gyrA mutation in C. jejuni were coupled with primers for the hip gene encoding for hippuricase and 16S rRNA gene of C. jejuni, respectively, in the multiplex PCR assay. The specificity and accuracy of this method were analyzed by the use of 78 C. jejuni strains with previously confirmed resistance phenotypes and the mutation (C-257 to T) in gyrA gene, as well as 107 clinical isolates of various bacterial species, including 29 C. jejuni isolates. This study indicates that MMAMA-PCR is a promising assay for the rapid identification of C. jejuni with a specific mutation in gyrA gene, responsible for the resistance to fluoroquinolones.

  19. A method for simultaneous detection and identification of Brazilian dog- and vampire bat-related rabies virus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Saitou, Yasumasa; Kobayashi, Yuki; Hirano, Shinji; Mochizuki, Nobuyuki; Itou, Takuya; Ito, Fumio H; Sakai, Takeo

    2010-09-01

    At present, the sporadic occurrence of human rabies in Brazil can be attributed primarily to dog- and vampire bat-related rabies viruses. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was employed as a simultaneous detection method for both rabies field variants within 60 min. Vampire bat-related rabies viruses could be distinguished from dog variants by digesting amplicons of the RT-LAMP reaction using the restriction enzyme AlwI. Amplification and digestion could both be completed within 120 min after RNA extraction. In addition, the RT-LAMP assay also detected rabies virus in isolates from Brazilian frugivorous bats and Ugandan dog, bovine and goat samples. In contrast, there were false negative results from several Brazilian insectivorous bats and all of Chinese dog, pig, and bovine samples using the RT-LAMP assay. This study showed that the RT-LAMP assay is effective for the rapid detection of rabies virus isolates from the primary reservoir in Brazil. Further improvements are necessary so that the RT-LAMP assay can be employed for the universal detection of genetic variants of rabies virus in the field.

  20. Development of a Novel Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for the Rapid Detection of African Horse Sickness Virus.

    PubMed

    Fowler, V L; Howson, E L A; Flannery, J; Romito, M; Lubisi, A; Agüero, M; Mertens, P; Batten, C A; Warren, H R; Castillo-Olivares, J

    2017-10-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a disease of equids caused by African Horse Sickness Virus (AHSV) and is transmitted by Culicoides midges. AHS is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, but during the past century, outbreaks of significant economic importance and elevated mortality have been recorded in Northern African countries, the Iberian and Arabian Peninsula, the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent. Effective control combines the application of early warning systems, accurate laboratory diagnosis and reporting, animal movement restrictions, suitable vaccination and surveillance programs, and the coordination of all these measures by efficient veterinary services. Conventional reverse-transcriptase (RT) PCR (RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays have improved the sensitivity and rapidity of diagnosing AHS, resulting in the adoption of these methods as recommended tests by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). However, currently these assays are only performed within laboratory settings; therefore, the development of field diagnostics for AHS would improve the fast implementation of control policies. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an isothermal, autocycling, strand-displacement nucleic acid amplification technique which can be performed in the field. LAMP assays are attractive molecular assays because they are simple to use, rapid, portable and have sensitivity and specificity within the range of rRT-PCR. This study describes the development of a novel RT-LAMP assay for the detection of AHSV. The AHSV RT-LAMP assay has an analytical sensitivity of 96.1% when considering an rRT-PCR cut-off value of CT  > 36, or 91.3% when no rRT-PCR cut-off is applied. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 100%. This assay provides for a rapid and low cost AHS diagnostic for use in the field. © 2016 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Detection of natural infection of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus in farmed tilapia by hydroxynapthol blue-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Suebsing, R; Pradeep, P J; Jitrakorn, S; Sirithammajak, S; Kampeera, J; Turner, W A; Saksmerprome, V; Withyachumnarnkul, B; Kiatpathomchai, W

    2016-07-01

    Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) has recently been recognized as a causative agent of serious systemic disease in tilapia. Our objective was to establish a new colorimetric loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay with pre-addition of hydroxynapthol blue (blue-LAMP) to investigate ISKNV transmission in tilapia. The blue-LAMP, targeting a major capsid protein gene of ISKNV, was conducted at 65°C for 45 min, allowing unaided visual detection of the pathogen based on colour change without cross-amplification of other known fish pathogens tested. Comparison of blue-LAMP and PCR assays revealed a higher detection level for blue-LAMP assay (41·33%) in a population of farmed tilapia infected with ISKNV. The investigation of ISKNV transmission pattern in farmed red tilapia using the blue-LAMP revealed a possible matroclinical form. The presence of ISKNV in the gonad samples was confirmed by in situ LAMP assay. Positive signals only appeared in ovarian follicles, and not in oocytes. Moreover, tissue tropism assay revealed that the brain was the main target organ in both farmed red tilapia (40%) and Nile tilapia (20%). The developed blue-LAMP assay has the potential to be used as a viable tool for screening covert and natural infections of ISKNV in tilapia. The evidence of vertical transmission of ISKNV infection in tilapia indicates the seriousness of this disease and will require a close attention and collaboration between tilapia hatcheries and disease experts in order to find a solution. The new blue-LAMP assay is a time-saving and economically viable detection tool, which allows unaided visual detection for ISKNV in tilapia, and it could be applicable for field applications. Evidence on the vertical transmission of ISKNV in farmed tilapia suggests a need for developing farm management practices to control the spread of virus in aquaculture industries. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Reverse-transcription, loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the sensitive and rapid detection of H10 subtype avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Luo, Sisi; Xie, Zhixun; Xie, Liji; Liu, Jiabo; Xie, Zhiqin; Deng, Xianwen; Huang, Li; Huang, Jiaoling; Zeng, Tingting; Khan, Mazhar I

    2015-09-17

    The H10 subtype avian influenza viruses (H10N4, H10N5 and H10N7) have been reported to cause disease in mammals, and the first human case of H10N8 subtype avian influenza virus was reported in 2013. Recently, H10 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been followed more closely, but routine diagnostic tests are tedious, less sensitive and time consuming, rapid molecular detection assays for H10 AIVs are not available. Based on conserved sequences within the HA gene of the H10 subtype AIVs, specific primer sets of H10 subtype of AIVs were designed and assay reaction conditions were optimized. A reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was established for the rapid detection of H10 subtype AIVs. The specificity was validated using multiple subtypes of AIVs and other avian respiratory pathogens, and the limit of detection (LOD) was tested using concentration gradient of in vitro-transcribed RNA. The established assay was performed in a water bath at 63 °C for 40 min, and the amplification result was visualized directly as well as under daylight reflections. The H10-RT-LAMP assay can specifically amplify H10 subtype AIVs and has no cross-reactivity with other subtypes AIVs or avian pathogens. The LOD of the H10-RT-LAMP assay was 10 copies per μL of in vitro-transcribed RNA. The RT-LAMP method reported here is demonstrated to be a potentially valuable means for the detection of H10 subtype AIV and rapid clinical diagnosis, being fast, simple, and low in cost. Consequently, it will be a very useful screening assay for the surveillance of H10 subtype AIVs in underequipped laboratories as well as in field conditions.

  3. Rapid detection and differentiation of dengue virus serotypes by a real-time reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Parida, Manmohan; Horioke, Kouhei; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Dash, Paban Kumar; Saxena, Parag; Jana, Asha Mukul; Islam, Mohammed Alimul; Inoue, Shingo; Hosaka, Norimitsu; Morita, Kouichi

    2005-06-01

    The development and validation of a one-step, real-time, and quantitative dengue virus serotype-specific reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay targeting the 3' noncoding region for the rapid detection and differentiation of dengue virus serotypes are reported. The RT-LAMP assay is very simple and rapid, wherein the amplification can be obtained in 30 min under isothermal conditions at 63 degrees C by employing a set of four serotype-specific primer mixtures through real-time monitoring in an inexpensive turbidimeter. The evaluation of the RT-LAMP assay for use for clinical diagnosis with a limited number of patient serum samples, confirmed to be infected with each serotype, revealed a higher sensitivity by picking up 100% samples as positive, whereas 87% and 81% of the samples were positive by reverse transcription-PCR and virus isolation, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the RT-LAMP assay for the detection of viral RNA in patient serum samples with reference to virus isolation were 100% and 93%, respectively. The optimal assay conditions with zero background and no cross-reaction with other closely related members of the Flavivirus family (Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, and St. Louis encephalitis viruses) as well as within the four serotypes of dengue virus were established. None of the serum samples from healthy individuals screened in this study showed any cross-reaction with the four dengue virus serotype-specific RT-LAMP assay primers. These findings demonstrate that RT-LAMP assay has the potential clinical application for detection and differentiation of dengue virus serotypes, especially in developing countries.

  4. Rapid and sensitive diagnoses of dry root rot pathogen of chickpea (Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) Butler) using loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Raju; Tarafdar, Avijit; Sharma, Mamta

    2017-01-01

    Dry root rot (DRR) caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) Butler, is an emerging disease in chickpea. The disease is often mistaken with other root rots like Fusarium wilt, collar rot and black root rot in chickpea. Therefore, its timely and specific detection is important. Current detection protocols are either based on mycological methods or on protocols involving DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Here we report the rapid and specific detection of R. bataticola using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting fungal specific 5.8S rDNA sequence for visual detection of R. bataticola. The reaction was optimized at 63 °C for 75 min using minimum 10 fg of DNA. After adding SYBR Green I in LAMP products, the amplification was found to be highly specific in all the 94 isolates of R. bataticola collected from diverse geographical regions as well as DRR infected plants and sick soil. No reaction was found in other pathogenic fungi infecting chickpea (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii and Fusarium solani) and pigeonpea (Fusarium udum and Phytophthora cajani). The standardised LAMP assay with its simplicity, rapidity and specificity is very useful for the visual detection of this emerging disease in chickpea. PMID:28218268

  5. Rapid and sensitive diagnoses of dry root rot pathogen of chickpea (Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) Butler) using loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Raju; Tarafdar, Avijit; Sharma, Mamta

    2017-02-20

    Dry root rot (DRR) caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) Butler, is an emerging disease in chickpea. The disease is often mistaken with other root rots like Fusarium wilt, collar rot and black root rot in chickpea. Therefore, its timely and specific detection is important. Current detection protocols are either based on mycological methods or on protocols involving DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Here we report the rapid and specific detection of R. bataticola using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting fungal specific 5.8S rDNA sequence for visual detection of R. bataticola. The reaction was optimized at 63 °C for 75 min using minimum 10 fg of DNA. After adding SYBR Green I in LAMP products, the amplification was found to be highly specific in all the 94 isolates of R. bataticola collected from diverse geographical regions as well as DRR infected plants and sick soil. No reaction was found in other pathogenic fungi infecting chickpea (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii and Fusarium solani) and pigeonpea (Fusarium udum and Phytophthora cajani). The standardised LAMP assay with its simplicity, rapidity and specificity is very useful for the visual detection of this emerging disease in chickpea.

  6. G-quadruplex fluorescent probe-mediated real-time rolling circle amplification strategy for highly sensitive microRNA detection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong-Xin; Liang, Zhen-Zhen; Ma, Yan-Hong; Kong, De-Ming; Hong, Zhang-Yong

    2016-11-02

    Real-time PCR has revolutionized PCR from qualitative to quantitative. As an isothermal DNA amplification technique, rolling circular amplification (RCA) has been demonstrated to be a versatile tool in many fields. Development of a simple, highly sensitive, and specific strategy for real-time monitoring of RCA will increase its usefulness in many fields. The strategy reported here utilized the specific fluorescence response of thioflavin T (ThT) to G-quadruplexes formed by RCA products. Such a real-time monitoring strategy works well in both traditional RCA with linear amplification efficiency and modified RCA proceeded in an exponential manner, and can be readily performed in commercially available real-time PCR instruments, thereby achieving high-throughput detection and making the proposed technique more suitable for biosensing applications. As examples, real-time RCA-based sensing platforms were designed and successfully used for quantitation of microRNA over broad linear ranges (8 orders of magnitude) with a detection limit of 4 aM (or 0.12 zmol). The feasibility of microRNA analysis in human lung cancer cells was also demonstrated. This work provides a new method for real-time monitoring of RCA by using unique nucleic acid secondary structures and their specific fluorescent probes. It has the potential to be extended to other isothermal single-stranded DNA amplification techniques.

  7. Investigation of false positives associated with loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for detection of Toxoplasma gondii in archived tissue samples of captive felids.

    PubMed

    Suleman, Essa; Mtshali, Moses Sibusiso; Lane, Emily

    2016-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite that infects humans and many different animals, including felids. Many molecular and serologic tests have been developed for detection of T. gondii in a wide range of hosts. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a field-friendly technique that lacks the practical drawbacks of other molecular and serologic tests, and LAMP assays have been successfully developed for detection of T. gondii in fresh tissue samples. In the current study, both a previously published and a de-novo designed LAMP assay were compared to a quantitative real-time (q)PCR assay, for the detection of T. gondii in archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from captive wildlife. The LAMP assays produced conflicting results, generating both false positives and false negatives. Furthermore, the LAMP assays were unable to positively identify samples with low levels of parasites as determined by qPCR and histopathology. Therefore, these LAMP assays may not be the most suitable assays for detection of T. gondii in archived FFPE and frozen tissue samples.

  8. 21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. 866.3225 Section... nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification. An enterovirus nucleic acid assay is a device that consists of primers, probes, enzymes, and controls for the amplification and detection of enterovirus ribonucleic acid...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. 866.3225 Section... nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification. An enterovirus nucleic acid assay is a device that consists of primers, probes, enzymes, and controls for the amplification and detection of enterovirus ribonucleic acid...

  10. Design of a real time quantitative PCR assay to assess global mRNA amplification of small size specimens for microarray hybridisation

    PubMed Central

    Choesmel, V; Foucault, F; Thiery, J P; Blin, N

    2004-01-01

    Background: Low RNA yields from clinical samples are a limiting step for microarray technology. Aims: To design an accurate real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to assess the crucial step of global mRNA amplification performed before microarray hybridisation, using less than 1 µg total RNA. Methods: Three RNA extraction procedures were compared for small size samples. Total RNA was amplified from universal RNA or the BC-H1 breast cancer micrometastatic cell line using three different protocols. Real time quantitative PCR technology was used for accurate measurement of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor and cytokeratin 8 RNA amplification rates and ratios, using primer sets binding at various distances from the 3′ end of transcripts. A 50 mer oligomeric array targeting 87 genes potentially involved in breast cancer metastatic progression was built and hybridised with amplified RNA. Results: Eighteen nanograms of total RNA could be purified from 1000 BC-H1 micrometastatic cells. Amplification rates of 25 000 to 100 000 were achieved with as little as 10 ng of starting material. However, results were highly variable, depending on the amount of starting material, gene characteristics, sample quality, and protocols used. Oligomeric array hybridisation with 20 µg reference RNA resulted in specific and reproducible signals for 83% of the genes, whereas mRNA amplification from less than 400 ng of starting material resulted in selective detection of signals from highly expressed genes. Conclusions: Improvements in the design of global mRNA amplification procedures and oligomeric arrays are needed to extract informative gene expression data from clinical samples containing limited cell numbers. PMID:15563668

  11. High-throughput, dual probe biological assays based on single molecule detection

    DOEpatents

    Hollars, Christopher W.; Huser, Thomas R.; Lane, Stephen M.; Balhorn, Rodney L.; Bakajin, Olgica; Darrow, Christopher; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2006-07-11

    A method and apparatus with the sensitivity to detect and identify single target molecules through the localization of dual, fluorescently labeled probe molecules. This can be accomplished through specific attachment of the taget to a surface or in a two-dimensional (2D) flowing fluid sheet having approximate dimensions of 0.5 .mu.m.times.100 .mu.m.times.100 .mu.m. A device using these methods would have 10.sup.3 10.sup.4 greater throughput than previous one-dimensional (1D) micro-stream devices having 1 .mu.m.sup.3 interrogation volumes and would for the first time allow immuno- and DNA assays at ultra-low (femtomolar) concentrations to be performed in short time periods (.about.10 minutes). The use of novel labels (such as metal or semiconductor nanoparticles) may be incorporated to further extend the sensitivity possibly into the attomolar range.

  12. A comparison of two real-time polymerase chain reaction assays using hybridization probes targeting either 16S ribosomal RNA or a subsurface lipoprotein gene for detecting leptospires in canine urine.

    PubMed

    Gentilini, Fabio; Zanoni, Renato Giulio; Zambon, Elisa; Turba, Maria Elena

    2015-11-01

    Leptospires are excreted in the urine of infected animals, and the prompt detection of leptospiral DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is increasingly being used. However, contradictory data has emerged concerning the diagnostic accuracy of the most popular PCR assays that target either the 16S ribosomal RNA (rrs) or the subsurface lipoprotein (LipL32) genes. In order to clarify the effect of the gene target, a novel hydrolysis probe-based, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay targeting the LipL32 gene was developed, validated, and then compared directly to the previously described rrs hydrolysis probe-based qPCR using a convenience collection of canine urine samples. The novel LipL32 qPCR assay was linear from 5.9 × 10(6) to 59 genome equivalents per reaction. Both the LipL32 and the rrs qPCR assays showed a limit of detection of 10 target copies per reaction indicating an approximately equivalent analytical sensitivity. Both assays amplified all 20 pathogenic leptospiral strains tested but did not amplify a representative collection of bacteria commonly found in voided canine urine. When the field samples were assayed, 1 and 5 out of 184 samples yielded an amplification signal in the LipL32 and rrs assays, respectively. Nevertheless, when the limit of detection was considered as the cutoff for interpreting findings, the 4 discordant cases were judged as negative. In conclusion, our study confirmed that both LipL32 and rrs are suitable targets for qPCR for the detection of leptospiral DNA in canine urine. However, the rrs target requires the mandatory use of a cutoff value in order to correctly interpret spurious amplifications.

  13. AID TB resistance line probe assay for rapid detection of resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Molina-Moya, B; Lacoma, A; Prat, C; Diaz, J; Dudnyk, A; Haba, L; Maldonado, J; Samper, S; Ruiz-Manzano, J; Ausina, V; Dominguez, J

    2015-04-01

    To determine the sensitivity and specificity of AID TB Resistance line probe assay (AID Diagnostika, Germany) to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its resistance to first- and second-line drugs in clinical samples using BACTEC 460TB as the reference standard. The test consists on three strips to detect resistance to isoniazid/rifampicin, fluoroquinolones/ethambutol, and kanamycin/amikacin/capreomycin/streptomycin, respectively. This test was performed on 65 retrospectively selected clinical samples corresponding to 32 patients. A valid result was obtained for 92.3% (60/65), 90.8% (59/65) and 78.5% (51/65) of the samples tested, considering the three strips, respectively. Global concordance rates between AID and BACTEC for detecting resistance to isoniazid, rifampicin, fluoroquinolones, ethambutol, kanamycin/capreomycin and streptomycin were 98.3% (59/60), 100% (60/60), 91.5% (54/59), 72.9% (43/59), 100% (51/51) and 98.0% (50/51), respectively. Regarding the discordant results obtained between AID and BACTEC, the alternative molecular methods performed (GenoType MTBDRplus, GenoType MTBDRsl [Hain Lifescience, Germany] and/or pyrosequencing) confirmed the genotypic result in 90.9% (20/22) of the cases. AID line probe assay is a useful tool for the rapid detection of drug resistance in clinical samples enabling an initial therapeutic approach. Nevertheless, for a correct management of drug resistant tuberculosis patients, molecular results should be confirmed by a phenotypic method. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Combined multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification with lateral flow assay to detect sea and seb genes of enterotoxic Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Yin, H Y; Fang, T J; Wen, H W

    2016-07-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are the most common cause of food poisoning worldwide and can induce symptoms, such as diarrhoea, vomiting and abdominal cramping. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop a multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral flow assay (m-LAMP/LFA) to simultaneously detect the sea and seb genes of Staphylococcus aureus. The amplicons of the sea gene were labelled with digoxigenin (Dig) and biotin while those of seb gene were labelled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and biotin. These amplicons were detected using a multiplex LFA with NeutrAvidin-tagged gold nanoparticles as the detection reagent. After optimization, the detection limit of this assay was 10(2)  CFU ml(-1) Staph. aureus, which was one tenth that of a multiplex PCR. This assay did not exhibit any cross-reactivity in detecting other enterotoxic Staph. aureus strains or other food pathogens. After 6 h of enrichment, this developed assay detected 1 CFU ml(-1) of Staph. aureus in milk, apple juice, cheese and rice. The developed m-LAMP/LFA method does not require expensive equipment and can be completely implemented within an 8-h workday. Therefore, this method can provide an effective means of quickly screening staphylococcal enterotoxin A- and/or staphylococcal enterotoxin B-producing Staph. aureus in food samples. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major foodborne pathogens worldwide, and its staphylococcal enterotoxin A and B are strongly associated with food poisoning. This work developed a multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral flow assay (m-LAMP/LFA) to simultaneously detect the sea and seb genes of Staph. aureus in food samples. The assay has good specificity and sensitivity with ease-of-use features, making it ideal for on-site detection. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay-A Simple, Fast and Cost-Effective Alternative to Real Time PCR for Specific Detection of Feline Herpesvirus-1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianchang; Liu, Libing; Wang, Jinfeng; Sun, Xiaoxia; Yuan, Wanzhe

    2017-01-01

    Feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), an enveloped dsDNA virus, is one of the major pathogens of feline upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) and ocular disease. Currently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) remains the gold standard diagnostic tool for FHV-1 infection but is relatively expensive, requires well-equipped laboratories and is not suitable for field tests. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), an isothermal gene amplification technology, has been explored for the molecular diagnosis of infectious diseases. In this study, an exo-RPA assay for FHV-1 detection was developed and validated. Primers targeting specifically the thymidine kinase (TK) gene of FHV-1 were designed. The RPA reaction was performed successfully at 39°C and the results were obtained within 20 min. Using different copy numbers of recombinant plasmid DNA that contains the TK gene as template, we showed the detection limit of exo-RPA was 102 copies DNA/reaction, the same as that of real time PCR. The exo-RPA assay did not cross-detect feline panleukopenia virus, feline calicivirus, bovine herpesvirus-1, pseudorabies virus or chlamydia psittaci, a panel of pathogens important in feline URTD or other viruses in Alphaherpesvirinae, demonstrating high specificity. The assay was validated by testing 120 nasal and ocular conjunctival swabs of cats, and the results were compared with those obtained with real-time PCR. Both assays provided the same testing results in the clinical samples. Compared with real time PCR, the exo-RPA assay uses less-complex equipment that is portable and the reaction is completed much faster. Additionally, commercial RPA reagents in vacuum-sealed pouches can tolerate temperatures up to room temperature for days without loss of activity, suitable for shipment and storage for field tests. Taken together, the exo-RPA assay is a simple, fast and cost-effective alternative to real time PCR, suitable for use in less advanced laboratories and for field detection of FHV-1

  16. Ready to use dry-reagent PCR assays for the four common bacterial pathogens using switchable lanthanide luminescence probe system.

    PubMed

    Lehmusvuori, A; Soikkeli, M; Tuunainen, E; Seppä, T; Spangar, A; Rantakokko-Jalava, K; von Lode, P; Karhunen, U; Soukka, T; Wittfooth, S

    2015-11-01

    Ready to use dry-reagent PCR assays for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas spp. and for broad-range bacteria detection were developed. The assays were based on novel switchable lanthanide probes that provide sensitive target DNA detection with exceptionally high signal-to-background ratio, thus enabling clear discrimination between positive and negative results. For example, sensitivity of three S. aureus and two S. pneumonia bacteria (colony forming units) per PCR assay was measured with fluorescence signal more than 30 times over the background signal level. The rapid and easy-to-use assays are suitable for routine clinical diagnostics without molecular biology expertise and facilities.

  17. Development and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of Ehrlichia canis DNA in naturally infected dogs using the p30 gene.

    PubMed

    Pinhanelli, V C; Costa, P N M; Silva, G; Aguiar, D M; Silva, C M L; Fachin, A L; Marins, M

    2015-12-22

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) is a common tick-borne disease caused by the rickettsial bacterium Ehrlichia canis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae). In view of the different stages and variable clinical signs of CME, which can overlap with those of other infections, a conclusive diagnosis can more readily be obtained by combining clinical and hematological evaluations with molecular diagnostic methods. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the p30 gene of E. canis was developed. The assay was developed using DNA extracted from E. canis-infected cultures of the macrophage cell line DH82 and samples from dogs testing positive for E. canis DNA by PCR. The LAMP assay was compared to a p30-based PCR assay, using DNA extracted from EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples of 137 dogs from an endemic region in Brazil. The LAMP assay was sensitive enough to detect a single copy of the target gene, and identified 74 (54.0%) E. canis DNA-positive samples, while the p30 PCR assay detected 50 positive samples (36.5%) among the field samples. Agreement between the two assays was observed in 42 positive and 55 negative samples. However, 32 positive samples that were not detected by the PCR assay were identified by the LAMP assay, while eight samples identified as E. canis-positive by PCR showed negative results in LAMP. The developed E. canis LAMP assay showed the potential to maximize the use of nucleic acid tests in a veterinary clinical laboratory, and to improve the diagnosis of CME.

  18. Development of real-time PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for the differential detection of digital dermatitis associated treponemes

    PubMed Central

    Kulow, Megan; Yamazaki, Wataru; Döpfer, Dörte

    2017-01-01

    Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is a severe infectious cause of lameness in cattle worldwide, with important economic and welfare consequences. There are three treponeme phylogroups (T. pedis, T. phagedenis, and T. medium) that are implicated in playing an important causative role in DD. This study was conducted to develop real-time PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for the detection and differentiation of the three treponeme phylogroups associated with DD. The real-time PCR treponeme phylogroup assays targeted the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic space (ITS) for T. pedis and T. phagedenis, and the flagellin gene (flaB2) for T. medium. The 3 treponeme phylogroup LAMP assays targeted the flagellin gene (flaB2) and the 16S rRNA was targeted for the Treponeme ssp. LAMP assay. The real-time PCR and LAMP assays correctly detected the target sequence of all control strains examined, and no cross-reactions were observed, representing 100% specificity. The limit of detection for each of the three treponeme phylogroup real-time PCR and LAMP assays was ≤ 70 fg/μl. The detection limit for the Treponema spp. LAMP assay ranged from 7–690 fg/μl depending on phylogroup. Treponemes were isolated from 40 DD lesion biopsies using an immunomagnetic separation culture method. The treponeme isolation samples were then subjected to the real-time PCR and LAMP assays for analysis. The treponeme phylogroup real-time PCR and LAMP assay results had 100% agreement, matching on all isolation samples. These results indicate that the developed assays are a sensitive and specific test for the detection and differentiation of the three main treponeme phylogroups implicated in DD. PMID:28542573

  19. Spatial Chemical Stimulation Control in Microenvironment by Microfluidic Probe Integrated Device for Cell-Based Assay

    PubMed Central

    Horayama, Masayuki; Shinha, Kenta; Kabayama, Kazuya; Fujii, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    Cell—cell interactions play an important role in the development and function of multicellular organisms. To investigate these interactions in detail, it is necessary to evaluate the behavior of a cell population when the minimum number of cells in the population is stimulated by some chemical factors. We propose a microfluidic device integrated with microfluidic probe (MFP) functionality; this device is capable of imparting a chemical stimulus to cells within a microenvironment, for cell-based assays. The device contains MFP channels at the walls of the cell culture microchannels, and it can control a localized chemical stimulation area at the scale of a single cell to a few cells using MFP fluid control in a microspace. The results of a finite element method-based simulation indicated that it is possible to control the chemical stimulation area at the scale of a single cell to a few cells by optimizing the MFP channel apex width and the flow ratio. In addition, localized cell staining was demonstrated successfully using a spatial chemical stimulus. We confirmed the device functionality as a novel cell-based assay tool. We succeeded in performing localized cell collection using this method, which suggested that the single cell analysis of a cell monolayer that is subjected to a specific chemical stimulus is possible. The method proposed in this paper can contribute significantly to the fields of cell biology and drug development. PMID:27930750

  20. Reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the visual detection of European and North American porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Young; Park, Soojin; Park, Yu-Ri; Kang, Dae-Young; Kim, Eun-Mi; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Kim, Ji-Jung; Kim, Won-Il; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Kim, Seong-Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Park, Choi-Kyu

    2016-11-01

    A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for visual detection of European (EU) and North American (NA) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSVs) were established and evaluated with reference PRRSV strains and clinical samples. The assay was performed in two reaction tubes containing each set of primers specific for EU or NA-PRRSV at 58°C for 40min, and the results could be visually detected by the naked eye, using hydroxynaphthol blue dye. The detection limit of the assay was 1 or 0.1 TCID50/0.1mL for EU or NA PRRSV, respectively, which was comparable to that of the previously described real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The detection rate of the assay on 130 field samples was 72.3%, relatively higher than that of qRT-PCR (70.8%), and there was high overall percentage agreement between the two assays. The high specificity, sensitivity, and reliability of the RT-LAMP assay described in this study renders it useful for the rapid and differential diagnosis of EU and NA PRRSVs, even in under-equipped laboratories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for rapid diagnosis of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus.

    PubMed

    Nakauchi, Mina; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Nakai, Hidetaka; Sugata, Ken; Yoshikawa, Akiko; Asano, Yoshizo; Ihira, Masaru; Tashiro, Masato; Kageyama, Tsutomu

    2011-01-01

    Two genetic diagnosis systems using reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) technology were evaluated: one for detecting the HA gene of the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus (H1pdm RT-LAMP) and the other for detecting the matrix gene of the influenza A virus (TypeA RT-LAMP). The competence of these two RT-LAMP assay kits for the diagnosis of the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus was compared using real-time RT-PCR assays developed recently on viruses isolated and clinical specimens collected from patients with suspected infection. TypeA RT-LAMP and H1pdm RT-LAMP showed almost the same sensitivity as real-time RT-PCR for viruses isolated. The sensitivity and specificity of TypeA RT-LAMP and H1pdm RT-LAMP were 96.3% and 88.9%, respectively, for clinical specimens. Considering that the ability of the two RT-LAMP assay kits for detection of the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus was comparable to that of the real-time RT-PCR assays, and that the assays were completed within 1 hr and did not require any expensive equipment, these two RT-LAMP assays are promising rapid diagnostic tests for the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus at the hospital bedside. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Development and evaluation of a simple assay for Marburg virus detection using a reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification method.

    PubMed

    Kurosaki, Yohei; Grolla, Allen; Fukuma, Aiko; Feldmann, Heinz; Yasuda, Jiro

    2010-07-01

    Marburg virus (MARV) causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans with a high mortality rate. The rapid and accurate identification of the virus is required to appropriately provide infection control and outbreak management. Here, we developed and evaluated a one-step reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the rapid and simple detection of MARV. By combining two sets of primers specific for the Musoke and Ravn genetic lineages, a multiple RT-LAMP assay detected MARV strains of both lineages, and no cross-reactivity with other hemorrhagic fever viruses (Ebola virus and Lassa virus) was observed. The assay could detect 10(2) copies of the viral RNA per tube within 40 min by real-time monitoring of the turbidities of the reaction mixtures. The assay was further evaluated using viral RNA extracted from clinical specimens collected in the 2005 Marburg hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Angola and yielded positive results for samples containing MARV at greater than 10(4) 50% tissue culture infective doses/ml, exhibiting 78% (14 of 18 samples positive) consistency with the results of a reverse transcription-PCR assay carried out in the field laboratory. The results obtained by both agarose gel electrophoresis and naked-eye judgment indicated that the RT-LAMP assay developed in this study is an effective tool for the molecular detection of MARV. Furthermore, it seems suitable for use for field diagnostics or in laboratories in areas where MARV is endemic.

  3. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting 16S rRNA gene for rapid detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Ning, Changshen; Wang, Jinhong; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Xiaoxing; Cui, Yanyan; Yan, Yaqun; Wang, Rongjun; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian

    2017-01-24

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic pathogen and the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) in humans and tick-borne fever in various kinds of animals. In the present study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of A. phagocytophilum was developed using primers specific to 16S rRNA gene of this organism. The LAMP assay was performed at 65 C for 60 min and terminated at 80 C for 10 min. The optimal reaction conditions, under which no cross-reaction was observed with other closely related tick borne parasites (Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma ovis, Theileria luwenshuni, Babesia motasi and Schistosoma japonicum) was established. The assay exhibited much higher sensitivity when compared with conventional PCR (1 copy vs 1000 copies). To evaluate the applicability of the LAMP assay, 94 sheep field blood samples were analyzed for A. phagocytophilum infection using LAMP, nested PCR and conventional PCR assay at the same time. A positive LAMP result was obtained from 53 of the 94 samples (56.4%), while only 12 (12.8%) and 3 (3.2%) were tested positive by nested PCR and conventional PCR, respectively. In conclusion, this LAMP assay is a specific, sensitive, and rapid method for the detection of A. phagocytophilum in sheep.

  4. Development of a Fluorogenic Probe-Based PCR Assay for Detection of Bacillus cereus in Nonfat Dry Milk

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Rok; Czajka, John; Batt, Carl A.

    2000-01-01

    A fluorogenic probe-based PCR assay was developed and evaluated for its utility in detecting Bacillus cereus in nonfat dry milk. Regions of the hemolysin and cereolysin AB genes from an initial group of two B. cereus isolates and two Bacillus thuringiensis isolates were cloned and sequenced. Three single-base differences in two B. cereus strains were identified in the cereolysin AB gene at nucleotides 866, 875, and 1287, while there were no species-consistent differences found in the hemolysin gene. A fluorogenic probe-based PCR assay was developed which utilizes the 5′-to-3′ exonuclease of Taq polymerase, and two fluorogenic probes were evaluated. One fluorogenic probe (cerTAQ-1) was designed to be specific for the nucleotide differences at bases 866 and 875 found in B. cereus. A total of 51 out of 72 B. cereus strains tested positive with the cerTAQ-1 probe, while only 1 out of 5 B. thuringiensis strains tested positive. Sequence analysis of the negative B. cereus strains revealed additional polymorphism found in the cereolysin probe target. A second probe (cerTAQ-2) was designed to account for additional polymorphic sequences found in the cerTAQ-1-negative B. cereus strains. A total of 35 out of 39 B. cereus strains tested positive (including 10 of 14 previously negative strains) with cerTAQ-2, although the assay readout was uniformly lower with this probe than with cerTAQ-1. A PCR assay using cerTAQ-1 was able to detect approximately 58 B. cereus CFU in 1 g of artificially contaminated nonfat dry milk. Forty-three nonfat dry milk samples were tested for the presence of B. cereus with the most-probable-number technique and the fluorogenic PCR assay. Twelve of the 43 samples were contaminated with B. cereus at levels greater than or equal to 43 CFU/g, and all 12 of these samples tested positive with the fluorogenic PCR assay. Of the remaining 31 samples, 12 were B. cereus negative and 19 were contaminated with B. cereus at levels ranging from 3 to 9 CFU

  5. Visual endpoint detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 using isothermal Genome Exponential Amplification Reaction (GEAR) assay and malachite green.

    PubMed

    Jothikumar, Prithiviraj; Narayanan, Jothikumar; Hill, Vincent R

    2014-03-01

    Rapid and specific detection methods for bacterial agents in drinking water are important for disease prevention and responding to suspected contamination events. In this study, an isothermal Genome Exponential Amplification Reaction (GEAR) assay for Escherichia coli O157:H7 was designed specifically to recognize a 199-bp fragment of the lipopolysaccharide gene (rfbE) for rapid testing of water samples. The GEAR assay was found to be specific for E. coli O157:H7 using 10 isolates of E. coli O157:H7 and a panel of 86 bacterial controls. The GEAR assay was performed at a constant temperature of 65°C using SYTO 9 intercalating dye. Detection limits were determined to be 20 CFU for the GEAR assay. When SYTO 9 fluorescence was measured using a real-time PCR instrument, the assay had the same detection limit as when malachite green was added to the reaction mix and a characteristic blue color was visually observed in positive reactions. The study also found that 50 and 20 CFU of E. coli O157:H7 seeded into 100-liter of tap water could be detected by the GEAR assays after the sample was concentrated by hollow-fiber ultrafiltration (HFUF) and approximately 10% of HFUF concentrate was cultured using trypticase soy broth-novobiocin. When applied to 19 surface water samples collected from Tennessee and Kentucky, the GEAR assay and a published real-time PCR assay both detected E. coli O157:H7 in two of the samples. The results of this study indicate that the GEAR assay can be sensitive for rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7 in water samples using fluorometric instruments and visual endpoint determination.

  6. Development and application of a rapid detection system for human papillomavirus and Herpes simplex virus-2 by loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Fang; Zhao, Chang-Zhen; Lu, Ke-Xin

    2016-08-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is an important factor that causes cervical cancer and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), while HSV-2 plays an important role when HR-HPV triggers the cancer. Thus, a quick and convenient assay in the detection of HPV and HSV-2in the screening of HPV and HSV-2 infection is required. Two respective HPV and HSV-2 detection methods were established based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay. Specific outer primers, inner primers, and loop primers were designed according to the conserved domains of HPV and HSV-2 genomes, respectively, while degenerate primers were used for HPV assay. After optimizing the reaction conditions, the results were observed by LAMP Tubidimeter real-time LA-320. Standard plasmids HPV-L-P and HSV-2-L-P were cloned and used in sensitivity tests of HPV LAMP and HSV-2 LAMP, respectively. Fifty samples of actinic keratosis (AK), 20 samples of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 50 samples of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and 20 samples of seborrheic keratosis (SK) were detected by HPV assay. Seventy three clinical samples of vaginitis, chronic cervicitis, cervical intraepithelial neoplasias and cervical cancer level positive were detected with HPV and HSV-2 assays. The reaction conditions of two assays were the same with a reaction temperature of 63 °C and a reaction time of 45 min. The sensitivity of HPV LAMP assay was 10 copies/μL, while that of the HSV-2 LAMP assay was 100 copies/μL. No cross-reactivity was observed. The HPV positive rates of AK, SCC, BCC and SK samples were 80% (40/50), 75% (15/20), 44% (22/50) and 21% (15/72), respectively. As an economic and quick diagnostic tool, LAMP assay is conducive to the extensive screening of HPV and HSV-2 and has huge potential to be promoted in resource-limited hospitals.

  7. Evaluation of IFN-γ polymorphism+874 T/A in patients with recurrent tonsillitis by PCR real time mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA real time PCR).

    PubMed

    Bergallo, Massimiliano; Gambarino, Stefano; Loiacono, Elisa; Vergano, Luca; Galliano, Ilaria; Montanari, Paola; Astegiano, Sara; Tavormina, Paolo; Tovo, Pier-Angelo

    2015-02-01

    Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is an important cytokine that plays a crucial role in the balance between normal and pathological immune response. Defect of IFN-γ can give a predisposition to infectious disease, autoimmune pathologies and tumours. Different polymorphisms in this gene have been described, in particular the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)+874∗T/A that may affect IFN-γ gene expression. Several techniques can be used for the detection of SNPs. In this work two PCR Real Time assays were developed, an Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) and a Mismatch Amplification Mutation Assay (MAMA). Twenty-seven samples from patients (tonsillectomy) and 85 from donor's blood bank were considered. As a result, 78/85 controls (91.7%) and 25/27 patients (92.6%) were heterozygosis, considering the ARMS-PCR; 55/85 (64.7%) and 14/27 (51.9%) were heterozygosis using MAMA-PCR assay. Fourteen of 85 (16.5%) and 8/27 (29.6%) were homozygosis A, 16/85 (18.8%) and 5/27 (18.5%) presented homozygosis T, taking into account the MAMA-PCR. There are statistically difference between the two assay with p<0.0001 at Chi-square test. Our preliminary data suggest that tonsillectomy patients had a statistical trend to possess the low IFN-γ polymorphism when compared with control subject (p=0.3) but is not statistically significant. In conclusion the Real time MAMA-PCR assay has several advantages over other SNP identification techniques such as rapidity, reliability, easily to perform in one working day and applicable in clinical molecular diagnostic laboratories, although sequencing remains the gold standard. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of region-specific yeast artificial chromosomes using pools of Alu element-mediated polymerase chain reaction probes labeled via linear amplification.

    PubMed

    Cole, C G; Patel, K; Shipley, J; Sheer, D; Bobrow, M; Bentley, D R; Dunham, I

    1992-12-01

    The ability to identify large numbers of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) specific to any given genomic region rapidly and efficiently enhances both the construction of clone maps and the isolation of region-specific landmarks (e.g., polymorphic markers). We describe a method of preparing region-specific single-stranded hybridization probes from Alu element-mediated polymerase chain reaction (Alu-PCR) products of somatic cell hybrids for YAC library screening. Pools of up to 50 cloned Alu-PCR products from an irradiation-reduced hybrid containing 22q11.2-q13.1 were labeled to high specific activity by linear amplification using a single vector primer. The resulting single-stranded probes were extensively competed to remove repetitive sequences, while retaining the full complexity of the probe. Extensive coverage of the region by YACs using multiple probe pools was demonstrated as many YACs were detected more than once. In situ analysis using chosen YACs confirmed that the clones were specific for the region. Thus, this pooled probe approach constitutes a rapid method to identify large numbers of YACs relevant to a large chromosomal region.

  9. SERS assay of telomerase activity at single-cell level and colon cancer tissues via quadratic signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Shi, Muling; Zheng, Jing; Liu, Changhui; Tan, Guixiang; Qing, Zhihe; Yang, Sheng; Yang, Jinfeng; Tan, Yongjun; Yang, Ronghua

    2016-03-15

    As an important biomarker and therapeutic target, telomerase has attracted extensive attention concerning its detection and monitoring. Recently, enzyme-assisted amplification approaches have provided useful platforms for the telomerase activity detection, however, further improvement in sensitivity is still hindered by the single-step signal amplification. Herein, we develop a quadratic signal amplification strategy for ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of telomerase activity. The central idea of our design is using telomerase-induced silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) assembly and silver ions (Ag(+))-mediated cascade amplification. In our approach, each telomerase-aided DNA sequence extension could trigger the formation of a long double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), making numerous AgNPs assembling along with this long strand through specific Ag-S bond, to form a primary amplification element. For secondary amplification, each conjugated AgNP was dissolved into Ag(+), which can effectively induce the 4-aminobenzenethiol (4-ABT) modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs@4-ABT) to undergo aggregation to form numerous "hot-spots". Through quadratic amplifications, a limit of detection down to single HeLa cell was achieved. More importantly, this method demonstrated good performance when applied to tissues from colon cancer patients, which exhibits great potential in the practical application of telomerase-based cancer diagnosis in early stages. To demonstrate the potential in screening the telomerase inhibitors and telomerase-targeted drugs, the proposed design is successfully employed to measure the inhibition of telomerase activity by 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a TaqMan Probe-Based Insulated Isothermal Polymerase Chain Reaction (iiPCR) Assay for Detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Race 4

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Jia; Chang, Tsai-De; Hong, Li-Ling; Chen, Tzu-Yu; Chang, Pi-Fang Linda

    2016-01-01

    This study developed a novel and inexpensive detection method based on a TaqMan probe-based insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iiPCR) method for the rapid detection of Panama disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) race 4, which is currently among the most serious fungal vascular diseases worldwide. By using the portable POCKIT™ device with the novel primer set iiFoc-1/iiFoc-2, the Foc race 4 iiPCR assay (including DNA amplification and signal monitoring) could be completed within one hour. The developed Foc race 4 iiPCR assay is thus a user-friendly and efficient platform designed specifically for the detection of Foc race 4. The detection limit of this optimized Foc iiPCR system was estimated to be 1 copy of the target standard DNA as well as 1 fg of the Foc genomic DNA. This approach can serve as a rapid detection method for in planta detection of Foc race 4 in field-infected banana. It was concluded that this molecular detection procedure based on iiPCR has good potential for use as an efficient detection method. PMID:27448242

  11. A novel CMOS image sensor system for quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays to detect food-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiantian; Kim, Sanghyo; An, Jeong Ho

    2017-02-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is considered as one of the alternatives to the conventional PCR and it is an inexpensive portable diagnostic system with minimal power consumption. The present work describes the application of LAMP in real-time photon detection and quantitative analysis of nucleic acids integrated with a disposable complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor. This novel system works as an amplification-coupled detection platform, relying on a CMOS image sensor, with the aid of a computerized circuitry controller for the temperature and light sources. The CMOS image sensor captures the light which is passing through the sensor surface and converts into digital units using an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). This new system monitors the real-time photon variation, caused by the color changes during amplification. Escherichia coli O157 was used as a proof-of-concept target for quantitative analysis, and compared with the results for Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica to confirm the efficiency of the system. The system detected various DNA concentrations of E. coli O157 in a short time (45min), with a detection limit of 10fg/μL. The low-cost, simple, and compact design, with low power consumption, represents a significant advance in the development of a portable, sensitive, user-friendly, real-time, and quantitative analytic tools for point-of-care diagnosis.

  12. Real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for group specific detection of important trichothecene producing Fusarium species in wheat.

    PubMed

    Denschlag, Carla; Rieder, Johann; Vogel, Rudi F; Niessen, Ludwig

    2014-05-02

    Trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivaneol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and T2-Toxin are produced by a variety of Fusarium spp. on cereals in the field and may be ingested by consumption of commodities and products made thereof. The toxins inhibit eukaryotic protein biosynthesis and may thus impair human and animal health. Aimed at rapid and sensitive detection of the most important trichothecene producing Fusarium spp. in a single analysis, a real-time duplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was set up. Two sets of LAMP primers were designed independently to amplify a partial sequence of the tri6 gene in Fusarium (F.) graminearum and of the tri5 gene in Fusarium sporotrichioides, respectively. Each of the two sets detected a limited number of the established trichothecene producing Fusarium-species. However, combination of the two sets in one duplex assay enabled detection of F. graminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium cerealis, F. sporotrichioides, Fusarium langsethiae and Fusarium poae in a group specific manner. No cross reactions were detected with purified DNA from 127 other fungal species or with cereal DNA. To demonstrate the usefulness of the assay, 100 wheat samples collected from all over the German state of Bavaria were analyzed for the trichothecene mycotoxin DON by HPLC and for the presence of trichothecene producers by the new real-time duplex LAMP assay in parallel analyses. The LAMP assay showed positive results for all samples with a DON concentration exceeding 163ppb. The major advantage of the duplex LAMP assay is that the presence of six of the major trichothecene producing Fusarium spp. can be detected in a rapid and user-friendly manner with only one single assay. To our knowledge this is the first report of the use of a multiplex LAMP assay for fungal organisms.

  13. Development and Evaluation of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Tylenchulus semipenetrans Using DNA Extracted from Soil

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhi-Qiang; Cheng, Ju-E; Cheng, Fei-Xue; Zhang, De-Yong; Liu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Tylenchulus semipenetrans is an important and widespread plant-parasitic nematode of citrus worldwide and can cause citrus slow decline disease leading to significant reduction in tree growth and yield. Rapid and accurate detection of T. semipenetrans in soil is important for the disease forecasting and management. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed to detect T. semipenetrans using DNA extracted from soil. A set of five primers was designed from the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1) of rDNA, and was highly specific to T. semipenetrans. The LAMP reaction was performed at 63°C for 60 min. The LAMP product was visualized directly in one reaction tube by adding SYBR Green I. The detection limit of the LAMP assay was 10−2 J2/0.5 g of soil, which was 10 times more sensitive than conventional PCR (10−1 J2/0.5 g of soil). Examination of 24 field soil samples revealed that the LAMP assay was applicable to a range of soils infested naturally with T. semipenetrans, and the total assay time was less than 2.5 h. These results indicated that the developed LAMP assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, specific and accurate technique for detection of T. semipenetrans in field soil, and contributes to the effective management of citrus slow decline disease. PMID:28381965

  14. Development and Evaluation of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Tylenchulus semipenetrans Using DNA Extracted from Soil.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhi-Qiang; Cheng, Ju-E; Cheng, Fei-Xue; Zhang, De-Yong; Liu, Yong

    2017-04-01

    Tylenchulus semipenetrans is an important and widespread plant-parasitic nematode of citrus worldwide and can cause citrus slow decline disease leading to significant reduction in tree growth and yield. Rapid and accurate detection of T. semipenetrans in soil is important for the disease forecasting and management. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed to detect T. semipenetrans using DNA extracted from soil. A set of five primers was designed from the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1) of rDNA, and was highly specific to T. semipenetrans. The LAMP reaction was performed at 63°C for 60 min. The LAMP product was visualized directly in one reaction tube by adding SYBR Green I. The detection limit of the LAMP assay was 10(-2) J2/0.5 g of soil, which was 10 times more sensitive than conventional PCR (10(-1) J2/0.5 g of soil). Examination of 24 field soil samples revealed that the LAMP assay was applicable to a range of soils infested naturally with T. semipenetrans, and the total assay time was less than 2.5 h. These results indicated that the developed LAMP assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, specific and accurate technique for detection of T. semipenetrans in field soil, and contributes to the effective management of citrus slow decline disease.

  15. Development of the visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for seven genetically modified maize events and their application in practical samples analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lili; Guo, Jinchao; Wang, Qidi; Kai, Guoyin; Yang, Litao

    2011-06-08

    As more and more genetically modified (GM) crops are approved for commercialization and planting, the development of quick and on-spot methods for GM crops and their derivates is required. Herein, we established the polymerase chain reaction and agarose gel electrophoresis-free system for the identification of seven GM maize events (DAS-59122-7, T25, BT176, TC1507, MON810, BT11, and MON863) employing a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique. The LAMP assay was performed using a set of four specific primers at 60-65 °C in less than 40 min, and the results were observed by direct visual observation. In these developed assays, the specificity targeted at each GM maize event based on the event-specific sequence was well confirmed, and the limits of detection were as low as four copies of maize haploid genomic DNA with an exception of 40 copies for MON810 assay. Furthermore, these developed assays were successfully used to test six practical samples with different GM maize events and contents (ranged from 0.0 to 2.0%). All of the results indicated that the established event-specific visual LAMP assays are more convenient, rapid, and low-cost for GM maize routine analysis.

  16. Second-generation Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV quantitative test for viral load monitoring: a novel dual-probe assay design.

    PubMed

    Zitzer, Heike; Heilek, Gabrielle; Truchon, Karine; Susser, Simone; Vermehren, Johannes; Sizmann, Dorothea; Cobb, Bryan; Sarrazin, Christoph

    2013-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA viral load (VL) monitoring is a well-established diagnostic tool for the management of chronic hepatitis C patients. HCV RNA VL results are used to make treatment decisions with the goal of therapy to achieve an undetectable VL result. Therefore, a sensitive assay with high specificity in detecting and accurately quantifying HCV RNA across genotypes is critical. Additionally, a lower sample volume requirement is desirable for the laboratory and the patient. This study evaluated the performance characteristics of a second-generation real-time PCR assay, the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV quantitative test, version 2.0 (CAP/CTM HCV test, v2.0), designed with a novel dual-probe approach and an optimized automated extraction and amplification procedure. The new assay demonstrated a limit of detection and lower limit of quantification of 15 IU/ml across all HCV genotypes and was linear from 15 to 100,000,000 IU/ml with high accuracy (<0.2-log(10) difference) and precision (standard deviation of 0.04 to 0.22 log(10)). A specificity of 100% was demonstrated with 600 HCV-seronegative specimens without cross-reactivity or interference. Correlation to the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV test (version 1) was good (n = 412 genotype 1 to 6 samples, R(2) = 0.88; R(2) = 0.94 without 105 genotype 4 samples). Paired plasma and serum samples showed similar performance (n = 25, R(2) = 0.99). The sample input volume was reduced from 1 to 0.65 ml in the second version. The CAP/CTM HCV test, v2.0, demonstrated excellent performance and sensitivity across all HCV genotypes with a smaller sample volume. The new HCV RNA VL assay has performance characteristics that make it suitable for use with currently available direct-acting antiviral agents.

  17. Rapid triplex asymmetric real-time PCR hybridization probe assay for the joint genotyping of F2, F5 and F12.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Serra, J; Gutierrez, A; Amat, J C; Galmés, B; Vila, A; Julia, M; López, H; Bautista, A M; Truyols, C; Ros, T; Navarro, M; Canaro, M; Díaz, M; Besalduch, J

    2009-08-01

    The Factor 5 Leiden mutation and the G20210A variant of Factor 2 are two important risk factors for hereditary thromboembolism. Several reports have demonstrated that homozygous carriers for C46T mutation of the Factor 12 gene is associated with a significant increased risk for the development of coronary disease as well as cerebral and peripheral venous thrombosis. We develop a rapid and feasible asymmetric multiplex real-time PCR-based method using fluorescence resonance emission transfer (FRET) probes followed by a melting temperature (T(m)) curve assay for the simultaneous clinical diagnosis of F2, F5 and F12 mutations in a 10 microl closed tube. This new tool uses three different fluorescence channels in a LightCycler 2.0 for the robust genotyping of each one of the mutations included in the reaction. Assay evaluation performed on 67 DNA samples previously genotyped with reference methods resulted in full concordance of results for the three mutations tested. Higher asymmetric ratio of primer pair concentration significantly increased the efficiency of the melting peak assay used for the mutation genotyping without modifying the Crossing Point (CP) obtained from the amplification curves. To our knowledge this is the first triplex real-time PCR FRET-based assay reported in bibliography that allows a rapid and simultaneous genotyping of these three thrombosis risk factors. This new and rapid tool may contribute to the better understanding of the interrelations or contributions of these gene mutations to different thrombotic or coronary disease-related events.

  18. Second-Generation Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV Quantitative Test for Viral Load Monitoring: a Novel Dual-Probe Assay Design

    PubMed Central

    Zitzer, Heike; Heilek, Gabrielle; Truchon, Karine; Susser, Simone; Vermehren, Johannes; Sizmann, Dorothea; Cobb, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA viral load (VL) monitoring is a well-established diagnostic tool for the management of chronic hepatitis C patients. HCV RNA VL results are used to make treatment decisions with the goal of therapy to achieve an undetectable VL result. Therefore, a sensitive assay with high specificity in detecting and accurately quantifying HCV RNA across genotypes is critical. Additionally, a lower sample volume requirement is desirable for the laboratory and the patient. This study evaluated the performance characteristics of a second-generation real-time PCR assay, the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV quantitative test, version 2.0 (CAP/CTM HCV test, v2.0), designed with a novel dual-probe approach and an optimized automated extraction and amplification procedure. The new assay demonstrated a limit of detection and lower limit of quantification of 15 IU/ml across all HCV genotypes and was linear from 15 to 100,000,000 IU/ml with high accuracy (<0.2-log10 difference) and precision (standard deviation of 0.04 to 0.22 log10). A specificity of 100% was demonstrated with 600 HCV-seronegative specimens without cross-reactivity or interference. Correlation to the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV test (version 1) was good (n = 412 genotype 1 to 6 samples, R2 = 0.88; R2 = 0.94 without 105 genotype 4 samples). Paired plasma and serum samples showed similar performance (n = 25, R2 = 0.99). The sample input volume was reduced from 1 to 0.65 ml in the second version. The CAP/CTM HCV test, v2.0, demonstrated excellent performance and sensitivity across all HCV genotypes with a smaller sample volume. The new HCV RNA VL assay has performance characteristics that make it suitable for use with currently available direct-acting antiviral agents. PMID:23241371

  19. Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. dissemination during wastewater treatment and comparative detection via immunofluorescence assay (IFA), nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    PubMed

    Gallas-Lindemann, Carmen; Sotiriadou, Isaia; Plutzer, Judit; Noack, Michael J; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Reza; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2016-06-01

    Environmental water samples from the Lower Rhine area in Germany were investigated via immunofluorescence assays (IFAs), nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to detect the presence of Giardia spp. (n=185) and Cryptosporidium spp. (n=227). The samples were concentrated through filtration or flocculation, and oocysts were purified via centrifugation through a sucrose density gradient. For all samples, IFA was performed first, followed by DNA extraction for the nested PCR and LAMP assays. Giardia cysts were detected in 105 samples (56.8%) by IFA, 62 samples (33.5%) by nested PCR and 79 samples (42.7%) by LAMP. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 69 samples (30.4%) by IFA, 95 samples (41.9%) by nested PCR and 99 samples (43.6%) by LAMP. According to these results, the three detection methods are complementary for monitoring Giardia and Cryptosporidium in environmental waters.

  20. A Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assay for Early Detection of Schistosoma mansoni in Stool Samples: A Diagnostic Approach in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Gandasegui Arahuetes, Javier; Sánchez Hernández, Alicia; López Abán, Julio; Vicente Santiago, Belén; Muro, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background Human schistosomiasis, mainly due to Schistosoma mansoni species, is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide. To overcome the drawbacks of classical parasitological and serological methods in detecting S. mansoni infections, especially in acute stage of the disease, development of cost-effective, simple and rapid molecular methods is still needed for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. A promising approach is the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technology. Compared to PCR-based assays, LAMP has the advantages of reaction simplicity, rapidity, specificity, cost-effectiveness and higher amplification efficiency. Additionally, as results can be inspected by the naked eye, the technique has great potential for use in low-income countries. Methodology/Principal findings A sequence corresponding to a mitochondrial S. mansoni minisatellite DNA region was selected as a target for designing a LAMP-based method to detect S. mansoni DNA in stool samples. We used a S. mansoni murine model to obtain well defined stool and sera samples from infected mice with S. mansoni cercariae. Samples were taken weekly from week 0 to 8 post-infection and the Kato-Katz and ELISA techniques were used for monitoring the infection. Primer set designed were tested using a commercial reaction mixture for LAMP assay and an in house mixture to compare results. Specificity of LAMP was tested using 16 DNA samples from different parasites, including several Schistosoma species, and no cross-reactions were found. The detection limit of our LAMP assay (SmMIT-LAMP) was 1 fg of S. mansoni DNA. When testing stool samples from infected mice the SmMIT-LAMP detected S. mansoni DNA as soon as 1 week post-infection. Conclusions/Significance We have developed, for the first time, a cost-effective, easy to perform, specific and sensitive LAMP assay for early detection of S. mansoni in stool samples. The method is potentially and readily adaptable for field diagnosis and

  1. Hyd5 gene-based detection of the major gushing-inducing Fusarium spp. in a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay.

    PubMed

    Denschlag, Carla; Vogel, Rudi F; Niessen, Ludwig

    2012-06-01

    Fusarium graminearum and the closely related F. culmorum were found to be associated with over foaming of bottled beer (gushing) when contaminated brewing malt is used. The presence of highly surface active hydrophobins produced by these fungi upon growth on wheat or barley in the field or during malting may affect bubble formation and stability in gushing beers and other carbonated beverages. Aiming for a method for the rapid and user friendly analysis of unmalted and malted cereals during quality control in the brewing industry, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the detection of Fusarium spp. capable of producing the gushing inducing hydrophobin Hyd5p was set up. A set of primers was designed towards a 221 bp region within the hyd5 gene of F. culmorum. The LAMP product was verified by sequencing a 150 bp portion. Testing specificity with purified DNA from 99 different fungal species as well as barley and wheat showed that DNA synthesis only occurred during LAMP when DNA of the closely related species F. graminearum, F. culmorum, F. cerealis and F. lunulosporum were used as template. In-tube indirect detection of DNA amplification was applied using manganese-quenched calcein as fluorescence indicator for pyrophosphate produced during DNA synthesis. The assay had a detection limit of 0.74 pg of purified target DNA which corresponds 20 copy numbers per reaction within 30 minutes using a simple heating block. Analysis of Fusarium infected cereals revealed that the assay was able to detect F. graminearum at a level of 0.5% of infected grains in uninfected barley by analysis of surface washings without further sample preparation. Results show that the hyd5 based LAMP assay can be a rapid, useful and sensitive tool for quality control in the brewing and malting industry.

  2. Precise characterization method of antibody-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles for pathogen detection using stuffer-free multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.

    PubMed

    Chung, Boram; Shin, Gi Won; Choi, Woong; Joo, Jinmyoung; Jeon, Sangmin; Jung, Gyoo Yeol

    2014-12-01

    Antibody-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles (Ab-MNPs) have potential in pathogen detection because they allow target cells to be easily separated from complex sample matrices. However, the sensitivity and specificity of pathogen capture by Ab-MNPs generally vary according to the types of MNPs, antibodies, and sample matrices, as well as preparation methods, including immobilization. Therefore, achieving a reproducible analysis utilizing Ab-MNPs as a pathogen detection method requires accurate characterization of Ab-MNP capture ability and standardization of all handling processes. In this study, we used high-resolution CE-single strand conformational polymorphism coupled with a stuffer-free multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification system to characterize Ab-MNPs. The capture ability of Ab-MNPs targeting Salmonella enteritidis and nine pathogens, including S. enteritidis, was analyzed in phosphate buffer and milk. The effect of storage conditions on the stability of Ab-MNPs was also assessed. The results showed that the stuffer-free multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification system has the potential to serve as a standard characterization method for Ab-MNPs. Moreover, the precise characterization of Ab-MNPs facilitated robust pathogen detection in various applications.

  3. PhenDV, a turn-off fluorescent quadruplex DNA probe for improving the sensitivity of drug screening