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Sample records for probe guided sentinel

  1. Handheld array-based photoacoustic probe for guiding needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chulhong; Erpelding, Todd N.; Maslov, Konstantin; Jankovic, Ladislav; Akers, Walter J.; Song, Liang; Achilefu, Samuel; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Pashley, Michael D.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2010-07-01

    By modifying a clinical ultrasound array system, we develop a novel handheld photoacoustic probe for image-guided needle biopsy. The integration of optical fiber bundles for pulsed laser light delivery enables photoacoustic image-guided insertion of a needle into rat axillary lymph nodes with accumulated indocyanine green (ICG). Strong photoacoustic contrast of the needle is achieved. After subcutaneous injection of the dye in the left forepaw, sentinel lymph nodes are easily detected, in vivo and in real time, beneath 2-cm-thick chicken breast overlaying the axillary region. ICG uptake in axillary lymph nodes is confirmed with fluorescence imaging both in vivo and ex vivo. These results demonstrate the clinical potential of this handheld photoacoustic system for facile identification and needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes for cancer staging and metastasis detection in humans.

  2. Sentinel node staging of early breast cancer using lymphoscintigraphy and the intraoperative gamma-detecting probe.

    PubMed

    Alazraki, N P; Styblo, T; Grant, S F; Cohen, C; Larsen, T; Aarsvold, J N

    2000-01-01

    Sentinel node staging for breast cancer is increasingly used in place of axillary lymph node dissection but is not yet universally accepted. The problems of non-standardized methodologies and lack of consensus on the optimum techniques to identify sentinel nodes are being addressed. Complementary use of radionuclide imaging before surgery, intraoperative probe detection, and blue dye have yielded the best reported sensitivities for finding a sentinel node (94%). The importance of imaging is summarized as identifying sentinel node(s), distinguishing sentinel from secondary nodes, guiding surgical incision planning, and facilitating lower doses. The learning curve phenomenon, which applies to the surgeon and the nuclear medicine physician, has been recognized; measures to minimize it are being implemented. Radiation exposure to operating room and pathology personnel is very low; estimates of exposure to the surgeon's hands are 0.2% of the annual whole body dose received by every human being from natural background and cosmic sources.

  3. Photoacoustic image-guided needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chulhong; Erpelding, Todd N.; Akers, Walter J.; Maslov, Konstantin; Song, Liang; Jankovic, Ladislav; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Achilefu, Samuel; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-03-01

    We have implemented a hand-held photoacoustic and ultrasound probe for image-guided needle biopsy using a modified clinical ultrasound array system. Pulsed laser light was delivered via bifurcated optical fiber bundles integrated with the hand-held ultrasound probe. We photoacoustically guided needle insertion into rat sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) following accumulation of indocyanine green (ICG). Strong photoacoustic image contrast of the needle was achieved. After intradermal injection of ICG in the left forepaw, deeply positioned SLNs (beneath 2-cm thick chicken breast) were easily indentified in vivo and in real time. Further, we confirmed ICG uptake in axillary lymph nodes with in vivo and ex vivo fluorescence imaging. These results demonstrate the clinical potential of this hand-held photoacoustic system for facile identification and needle biopsy of SLNs for cancer staging and metastasis detection in humans.

  4. Innovation in early breast cancer surgery: radio-guided occult lesion localization and sentinel node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Paganelli, G; Veronesi, U

    2002-07-01

    The surgical management of non-palpable breast lesions remains controversial. At the European Institute of Oncology we have introduced a new technique, radio-guided occult lesion localization (ROLL) to replace standard methods and overcome their disadvantages. Regarding axillary dissection, probe-guided biopsy of the sentinel node (SN) is easy to apply, and the whole procedure is associated to a low risk of false negatives. We suggest that the SN technique should be widely adopted to stage the axilla in patients with breast cancer with clinically negative lymph nodes. Large-scale implementation of the sentinel node technique will reduce the cost of treatment as a result of shorter hospitalization times.

  5. Characteristics of magnetic probes for identifying sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Ookubo, Tetsu; Inoue, Yusuke; Kim, Dongmin; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Mashiko, Yusuke; Kusakabe, Moriaki; Sekino, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    The identification of the sentinel lymph nodes that cause tumor metastasis is important in breast cancer therapy. The detection of magnetic fluid accumulating in the lymph nodes using a magnetic probe allows surgeons to identify the lymph nodes. In this study, we carried out numerical simulations and experiments to investigate the sensitivity and basic characteristics of a magnetic probe consisting of a permanent magnet and a small magnetic sensor. The measured magnetic flux density arising from the magnetic fluid agreed well with the numerical results. In addition, the results helped realize an appropriate probe configuration for achieving high sensitivity to magnetic fluid. A prototype probe detected magnetic fluid located 30 mm from the probe head.

  6. Sentinel node in cancer diagnosis with surgical probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazandjian, Anne; Prat, Vincent; Simon, Herve; Ricard, Marcel; Bede, Jessica

    1999-10-01

    A probe system has been designed for the accurate location of areas of increased radionuclide uptake. Different type of applications are possible i.e. when precise position or even identification of the radionuclide is needed, like in wound investigation. In this paper, we restrict ourself to a system incorporating two probes, for the identification of `hot' lymph nodes, close to the surface of the body. Axillary lymph node involvement is a major prognostic indicator and treatment planning factor in both melanoma and breast cancer. However, sentinel node localization is relatively difficult often due to close proximity of the primary tumor. The developed instrument has a very sensitive detector, with good spatial resolution, able to discriminate between primary and scattered radiations.

  7. Sentinel node in cancer diagnosis with surgical probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fougères, Paul; Kazandjian, Anne; Prat, Vincent; Simon, Hervé; Ricard, Marcel; Bede, Jessica

    2001-02-01

    A probe system has been designed for the accurate location of areas of increased radionuclide uptake. Different types of applications are possible, i.e. when the precise position or even identification of the radionuclide is needed, like in wound investigation. In this paper, we restrict ourselves to a system incorporating two probes, for the identification of "hot" lymph nodes, close to the surface of the body. Axillary lymph node involvement is a major prognostic indicator and treatment planning factor in both melanoma and breast cancer. However, sentinel node localisation is relatively difficult often due to close proximity of the primary tumour. The developed instrument has a very sensitive detector, with good spatial resolution, able to discriminate between primary and scattered radiation. In the first part of the paper the instrument arrangement will be presented, including the two probes, CdTe /CZT and CsI(Tl) coupled to a photodiode. In the second part results will be given, demonstrating the performance of the system.

  8. Assessment of Risk Reduction for Lymphedema Following Sentinel Lymph Noded Guided Surgery for Primary Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    Lymphedema Following Sentinel Lymph Noded Guided Surgery for Primary Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Andrea L. Cheville, M.D...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Assessment of Risk Reduction for Lymphedema Following Sentinel Lymph Noded Guided Surgery for Primary Breast Cancer 5b...14. ABSTRACT Lymphedema is a common complication of primary breast cancer therapy. It is a chronic, insidiously progressive, and potentially

  9. Indocyanine green-guided sentinel lymph node biopsy for periocular tumors.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Tal J; Perry, Julian D; Korn, Jason M; Costin, Bryan R; Gastman, Brian R; Singh, Arun D

    2014-01-01

    To compare the accuracy of indocyanine green (ICG)-guided sentinel lymph node biopsy to sentinel lymph node biopsy performed with technetium-99m in eyelid and in conjunctival malignancies. Review of a consecutive series of adult patients undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy for eyelid and conjunctival malignancies between 2009 and 2013. Only patients undergoing both ICG-guided and technetium-99m-guided sentinel lymph node biopsies were included. Five patients were identified: 3 women and 2 men. Four had conjunctival melanoma and 1 had eyelid melanoma. ICG aided in localization and confirmation of the sentinel nodes identified by technetium-99m, and all sentinel lymph nodes identified by technetium-99m were identified by ICG. All patients who underwent both sentinel lymph node modalities had negative lymph node biopsies for micrometastasis, but metastatic disease eventually developed in 1 patient. No safety concerns were identified with the use of ICG in the ocular adnexal region. For certain periocular malignancies, ICG-guided sentinel lymph node biopsy safely identifies sentinel lymph nodes intraoperatively possibly to a similar extent compared with technetium-99m-guided methods.

  10. Novel Handheld Magnetometer Probe Based on Magnetic Tunnelling Junction Sensors for Intraoperative Sentinel Lymph Node Identification

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, A.; Balalis, G. L.; Thompson, S. K.; Forero Morales, D.; Mohtar, A.; Wedding, A. B.; Thierry, B.

    2015-01-01

    Using magnetic tunnelling junction sensors, a novel magnetometer probe for the identification of the sentinel lymph node using magnetic tracers was developed. Probe performance was characterised in vitro and validated in a preclinical swine model. Compared to conventional gamma probes, the magnetometer probe showed excellent spatial resolution of 4.0 mm, and the potential to detect as few as 5 μg of magnetic tracer. Due to the high sensitivity of the magnetometer, all first-tier nodes were identified in the preclinical experiments, and there were no instances of false positive or false negative detection. Furthermore, these preliminary data encourage the application of the magnetometer probe for use in more complex lymphatic environments, such as in gastrointestinal cancers, where the sentinel node is often in close proximity to other non-sentinel nodes, and high spatial resolution detection is required. PMID:26038833

  11. Novel handheld magnetometer probe based on magnetic tunnelling junction sensors for intraoperative sentinel lymph node identification.

    PubMed

    Cousins, A; Balalis, G L; Thompson, S K; Forero Morales, D; Mohtar, A; Wedding, A B; Thierry, B

    2015-06-03

    Using magnetic tunnelling junction sensors, a novel magnetometer probe for the identification of the sentinel lymph node using magnetic tracers was developed. Probe performance was characterised in vitro and validated in a preclinical swine model. Compared to conventional gamma probes, the magnetometer probe showed excellent spatial resolution of 4.0 mm, and the potential to detect as few as 5 μg of magnetic tracer. Due to the high sensitivity of the magnetometer, all first-tier nodes were identified in the preclinical experiments, and there were no instances of false positive or false negative detection. Furthermore, these preliminary data encourage the application of the magnetometer probe for use in more complex lymphatic environments, such as in gastrointestinal cancers, where the sentinel node is often in close proximity to other non-sentinel nodes, and high spatial resolution detection is required.

  12. Optimization of a gamma imaging probe for axillary sentinel lymph mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, M.; Loudos, G.; Stratos, D.; Papadimitroulas, P.; Liakou, P.; Georgoulias, P.

    2012-09-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping is a technique for assessing whether early-stage invasive breast cancer has metastasized, thus determining prognosis and treatment options. SLN identification is achieved using the blue-dye and radioactive colloids techniques, which are sometimes combined with lymphoscintigraphy. Furthermore, intra-operative gamma acoustic probes, as well as gamma imaging probes are used during surgery. The purpose of this study is the construction of a gamma probe for sentinel lymph node imaging and its optimization in terms of sensitivity with respect to spatial resolution. The reference probe has small field of view (2.5 × 2.5 cm2) and is based on a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) coupled to a pixellated CsI(Tl) scintillator. Following experimental validation, we simulated the system using the GATE Monte Carlo toolkit (GATE v6.1) and modeled various collimator geometries, in order to evaluate their performance and propose the optimal configuration. The constraints of the proposed gamma imaging probe are i) sensitivity close to 2 cps/kBq and ii) spatial resolution equal to 6 mm at 2 cm source-to-collimator distance and ~ 10 mm at 5 cm. An integrated structure that achieves those requirements is a tungsten collimator with 2 × 2 mm2square holes, 16 mm thickness, 0.15 mm septa, where each CsI(Tl) 2 × 2 × 5 mm3 crystal pixel is placed inside the collimator.

  13. Plant sentinels and molecular probes that monitor environmental munitions contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, P.J.; DeWitt, J.G.; Hill, K.K.; Kuske, C.R.; Kim, D.Y.

    1994-08-01

    Plants accumulate TNT and similar compounds from soil. Their sessile nature requires that plants adapt to environmental changes by biochemical and molecular means. In principle, it is possible to develop a monitoring capability based on expression of any gene that is activated by specific environmental conditions. The authors have identified plant genes activated upon exposure to TNT. Partial gene sequences allow design of DNA probes that measure TNT-induced gene activity. These will be used to develop sensitive assays that monitor gene expression in plants growing in environments possibly contaminated with explosives.

  14. Prospective comparison of 3 gamma-probes for sentinel lymph node detection in 200 breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Classe, Jean-Marc; Fiche, Maryse; Rousseau, Caroline; Sagan, Christine; Dravet, François; Pioud, Raphaëlle; Lisbona, Albert; Ferrer, Ludovic; Campion, Loic; Resche, Isabelle; Curtet, Chantal

    2005-03-01

    Previous reports have shown that axillary sentinel lymph node (ASLN) radiodetection allows accurate axillary staging for patients with early breast cancer. Radioguided surgery implies the use of a gamma-probe to count the emitted radioactivity of marked ASLNs. Several gamma-probes are commercially available, each with its own properties. The clinical impact of the type of gamma-probe used for ASLN radiodetection remains to be evaluated. Three commercially available gamma-probes were evaluated: a scintillator with a bismuth germanate crystal (probe A), a semiconductor with a cadmium telluride crystal (probe B), and a semiconductor with a cadmium zinc telluride crystal (probe C). Two hundred patients with early breast cancer were prospectively enrolled to undergo ASLN radiodetection and axillary lymphadenectomy. ASLN mapping consisted of injecting (99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid around the tumor. For each patient, sentinel lymph nodes were counted successively with the 3 probes and the sensitivity of each gamma-probe was determined from ASLN residual activity. The results of detection rates and false-negative rates for each probe were compared. Mean residual ASLN activity was 52 kBq (range, 0.07-189 kBq). Sensitivity was compared among the 3 probes and found to be best for probe A. The detection rate of probe A was significantly better than that of probe B (93% vs. 86%, P = 0.05) but not different from that of probe C (93% vs. 90%). No differences in false-negative rates were observed among the 3 probes. ASLN detection rate depends on the type of gamma-probe used. Because failure to detect the ASLN leads to complete axillary lymphadenectomy, involving local morbidity and other sequelae, the type of gamma-probe must be considered important for sentinel lymph node radiodetection.

  15. A magnetic probe equipped with small-tip permanent magnet for sentinel lymph node biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Miki; Ohashi, Kaichi; Chikaki, Shinichi; Kuwahata, Akihiro; Shiozawa, Mikio; Kusakabe, Moriaki; Sekino, Masaki

    2017-05-01

    We previously developed a magnetic probe equipped with a ring-shaped permanent magnet for detecting magnetic nanoparticle tracer accumulating in the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). The magnetic probe enables us to identify SLNs objectively, without the risk of radiation exposure, unlike the conventional technique using dye and radioisotope. A technical challenge of the probe is to reduce the tip diameter of magnet to identify smaller SLNs. In this study, we optimized the size of smaller-tip magnet based on numerical analyses using the finite element method and evaluated the expected sensitivity. According to the analysis results, the optimum tip diameter and length of convex-shaped magnet were 16 mm and 12 mm, respectively. The experimental results showed that the sensitivity of the probe with smaller-tip magnet was comparable to the previous one. We successfully developed a smaller tip magnet, maintaining the sensitivity to magnetic nanoparticles. The proposed probe will be capable of identifying the location of SLNs more easily.

  16. A dual-modal magnetic nanoparticle probe for preoperative and intraoperative mapping of sentinel lymph nodes by magnetic resonance and near infrared fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhengyang; Chen, Hongwei; Lipowska, Malgorzata; Wang, Liya; Yu, Qiqi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Tiwari, Diana; Yang, Lily; Mao, Hui

    2013-07-01

    The ability to reliably detect sentinel lymph nodes for sentinel lymph node biopsy and lymphadenectomy is important in clinical management of patients with metastatic cancers. However, the traditional sentinel lymph node mapping with visible dyes is limited by the penetration depth of light and fast clearance of the dyes. On the other hand, sentinel lymph node mapping with radionucleotide technique has intrinsically low spatial resolution and does not provide anatomic details in the sentinel lymph node mapping procedure. This work reports the development of a dual modality imaging probe with magnetic resonance and near infrared imaging capabilities for sentinel lymph node mapping using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (10 nm core size) conjugated with a near infrared molecule with emission at 830 nm. Accumulation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in sentinel lymph nodes leads to strong T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging contrast that can be potentially used for preoperative localization of sentinel lymph nodes, while conjugated near infrared molecules provide optical imaging tracking of lymph nodes with a high signal to background ratio. The new magnetic nanoparticle based dual imaging probe exhibits a significant longer lymph node retention time. Near infrared signals from nanoparticle conjugated near infrared dyes last up to 60 min in sentinel lymph node compared to that of 25 min for the free near infrared dyes in a mouse model. Furthermore, axillary lymph nodes, in addition to sentinel lymph nodes, can be also visualized with this probe, given its slow clearance and sufficient sensitivity. Therefore, this new dual modality imaging probe with the tissue penetration and sensitive detection of sentinel lymph nodes can be applied for preoperative survey of lymph nodes with magnetic resonance imaging and allows intraoperative sentinel lymph node mapping using near infrared optical devices.

  17. A dual-modal magnetic nanoparticle probe for preoperative and intraoperative mapping of sentinel lymph nodes by magnetic resonance and near infrared fluorescence imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhengyang; Chen, Hongwei; Lipowska, Malgorzata; Wang, Liya; Yu, Qiqi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Tiwari, Diana; Yang, Lily; Mao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The ability to reliably detect sentinel lymph nodes for sentinel lymph node biopsy and lymphadenectomy is important in clinical management of patients with metastatic cancers. However, the traditional sentinel lymph node mapping with visible dyes is limited by the penetration depth of light and fast clearance of the dyes. On the other hand, sentinel lymph node mapping with radionucleotide technique has intrinsically low spatial resolution and does not provide anatomic details in the sentinel lymph node mapping procedure. This work reports the development of a dual modality imaging probe with magnetic resonance and near infrared imaging capabilities for sentinel lymph node mapping using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (10 nm core size) conjugated with a near infrared molecule with emission at 830 nm. Accumulation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in sentinel lymph nodes leads to strong T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging contrast that can be potentially used for preoperative localization of sentinel lymph nodes, while conjugated near infrared molecules provide optical imaging tracking of lymph nodes with a high signal to background ratio. The new magnetic nanoparticle based dual imaging probe exhibits a significant longer lymph node retention time. Near infrared signals from nanoparticle conjugated near infrared dyes last up to 60 min in sentinel lymph node compared to that of 25 min for the free near infrared dyes in a mouse model. Furthermore, axillary lymph nodes, in addition to sentinel lymph nodes, can be also visualized with this probe, given its slow clearance and sufficient sensitivity. Therefore, this new dual modality imaging probe with the tissue penetration and sensitive detection of sentinel lymph nodes can be applied for preoperative survey of lymph nodes with magnetic resonance imaging and allows intraoperative sentinel lymph node mapping using near infrared optical devices. PMID:23812946

  18. Three-dimensional sensitivity mapping of a handheld magnetic probe for sentinel lymph node biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahata, Akihiro; Chikaki, Shinichi; Ergin, Aslı; Kaneko, Miki; Kusakabe, Moriaki; Sekino, Masaki

    2017-05-01

    An experimental apparatus for three-dimensional sensitivity mapping of a handheld magnetic probe with a permanent magnet and a Hall sensor was developed. To optimize the shapes and sizes of the magnets, the sensitivity mappings of two types of magnets, column- and cone-type magnets, were evaluated by the experimental apparatus. The longitudinal sensitivities of column and cone types are 8 and 9 mm, respectively, for 5 μL of magnetic nanoparticles. The measured longitudinal sensitivities agree well with the sensitivities calculated by the finite element method. Furthermore, the maximum lateral resolutions of column and cone types are 4.1 and 3.7 mm, respectively. In terms of the directionality, the sensitivities of column and cone types of the angle of 90° with respect to the probe axis fall approximately to 72% and 50% at 6 mm distance from the probe head, indicating that the cone type has high directionality due to its sharp shape. The measurement of sensitivity mapping revealed that the characteristics of the cone-type magnet are superior to that of the column-type magnet for the identification of sentinel lymph nodes.

  19. Molecular Imaging Probes for Positron Emission Tomography and Optical Imaging of Sentinel Lymph Node and Tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhengtao

    Molecular imaging is visualizations and measurements of in vivo biological processes at the molecular or cellular level using specific imaging probes. As an emerging technology, biocompatible macromolecular or nanoparticle based targeted imaging probes have gained increasing popularities. Those complexes consist of a carrier, an imaging reporter, and a targeting ligand. The active targeting ability dramatically increases the specificity. And the multivalency effect may further reduce the dose while providing a decent signal. In this thesis, sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping and cancer imaging are two research topics. The focus is to develop molecular imaging probes with high specificity and sensitivity, for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and optical imaging. The objective of this thesis is to explore dextran radiopharmaceuticals and porous silicon nanoparticles based molecular imaging agents. Dextran polymers are excellent carriers to deliver imaging reporters or therapeutic agents due to its well established safety profile and oligosaccharide conjugation chemistry. There is also a wide selection of dextran polymers with different lengths. On the other hand, Silicon nanoparticles represent another class of biodegradable materials for imaging and drug delivery. The success in fluorescence lifetime imaging and enhancements of the immune activation potency was briefly discussed. Chapter 1 begins with an overview on current molecular imaging techniques and imaging probes. Chapter 2 presents a near-IR dye conjugated probe, IRDye 800CW-tilmanocept. Fluorophore density was optimized to generate the maximum brightness. It was labeled with 68Ga and 99mTc and in vivo SLN mapping was successfully performed in different animals, such as mice, rabbits, dogs and pigs. With 99mTc labeled IRDye 800CW-tilmanocept, chapter 3 introduces a two-day imaging protocol with a hand-held imager. Chapter 4 proposed a method to dual radiolabel the IRDye 800CW-tilmanocept with both 68Ga and

  20. Probe-guided surgery for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lechner, P; Lind, P; Snyder, M; Haushofer, H

    2000-01-01

    Anti-CEA-scintigraphy turned out to be very reliable in detecting primary and recurrent colorectal cancer, its overall accuracy being more than 90%. The intraoperative application of this technology should provide similar results when focussing at extrahepatic tumor deposits, for example in lymph nodes, thus allowing accurate staging of the underlying disease. To test this hypothesis we launched the following feasibility study the results of which are compared to those reported in the recent literature. We investigated 20 patients, six with rectum and 14 with colon cancer. 24 hours before surgery they were intravenously given 1 ml of a fab'-fragment-antibody to CEA, labeled with 25 mCi of 99mTc (CEA-Scan). During surgery the radioactivity in lymph glands regional to the tumors was measured and compared to the much lower activity in healthy nodes. For this we used a scintillation probe (C-Trak, Care Wise, Inc., Morgan Hill, CA). All lymph nodes of interest were then excised and submitted to frozen section pathology. In 7 out of 20 cases scintimetry led to an up-staging of the disease. In addition we found metastatic spread to lymph nodes that were basically not regional to the primary tumor (retroperitoneum, renal hilum etc.). Scintimetry can precisely identify even very small tumor deposits. So it leads to accurate staging while surgery is still ongoing. In a further step the concept of sentinel node diagnosis, which is right now being clinically evaluated, may some day be applied in colorectal surgical oncology.

  1. Optically guided large-nanostructure probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchman, Herschel M.; Wetsel, Grover C., Jr.

    1993-05-01

    A large-nanostructure probe with optically guided macroscopic scanning has been developed for high-resolution imaging and characterization of nanostructures. The novel optical viewing system allows placement of the imaging tip to within 1 μm of a desired site on the sample during coarse positioning. Fine positioning and imaging are accomplished with nanometer-scale resolution using a segmented-tube piezoelectric scanner. High-resolution images of identifiable quantum dots have been obtained to demonstrate the efficacy of the method.

  2. Minimum acceptable sensitivity of intraoperative gamma probes used for sentinel lymph node detection in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Matheoud, R; Giorgione, R; Valzano, S; Sacchetti, G; Colombo, E; Brambilla, M

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the suspension level for the sensitivity of an intraoperative scintillation gamma probe in the detection of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) in melanoma patients. Thirty-eight consecutive patients with melanoma were enrolled in the study during a 12-month period and underwent lymphatic scintigraphy after the peritumoral intradermal administration of about 14 MBq of (99m)Tc-nanocolloids. The SLNs were successfully removed during the surgical intervention about 4 h later. To identify and localize the SLN, a scintillation NaI(Tl) collimated probe was used. Predictably, the probe sensitivity decreased as the photopeak energy window was progressively narrowed, from 6.9 ± 0.7 counts per second (cps)/kBq (designated as the 'optimum,' or 'OPT,' sensitivity) to 2.5 ± 0.3 cps/kBq (LOW sensitivity) and to 1.4 ± 0.2 cps/kBq (VLOW sensitivity). Maximum lymph node count rates (cps) were determined for the foregoing energy windows prior to skin incision (PREOPT, PRELOW, PREVLOW, respectively) and in vivo after incision (INVOPT, INVLOW, INVVLOW). Forty-three SLNs were removed with a mean source-to-detector distance of 46 ± 24 mm (min 12 mm, max 92 mm). Four SLNs could not have been detected using PRELOW. This figure would have decreased to 34, with nine undetectable lymph nodes, with PREVLOW. One SLN could not have been identified using INVLOW and four could not have be identified using INVVLOW. In the clinical scenario of SLN detection in melanoma patients, a system sensitivity of 2.5 cps/kBq represents a suspension level, that is, a level under which the equipment must be suspended from clinical use and the poor performance must be investigated. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimising probe holder design for sentinel lymph node imaging using clinical photoacoustic system with Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivasubramanian, Kathyayini; Periyasamy, Vijitha; Wen, Kew Kok; Pramanik, Manojit

    2017-03-01

    Photoacoustic tomography is a hybrid imaging modality that combines optical and ultrasound imaging. It is rapidly gaining attention in the field of medical imaging. The challenge is to translate it into a clinical setup. In this work, we report the development of a handheld clinical photoacoustic imaging system. A clinical ultrasound imaging system is modified to integrate photoacoustic imaging with the ultrasound imaging. Hence, light delivery has been integrated with the ultrasound probe. The angle of light delivery is optimized in this work with respect to the depth of imaging. Optimization was performed based on Monte Carlo simulation for light transport in tissues. Based on the simulation results, the probe holders were fabricated using 3D printing. Similar results were obtained experimentally using phantoms. Phantoms were developed to mimic sentinel lymph node imaging scenario. Also, in vivo sentinel lymph node imaging was done using the same system with contrast agent methylene blue up to a depth of 1.5 cm. The results validate that one can use Monte Carlo simulation as a tool to optimize the probe holder design depending on the imaging needs. This eliminates a trial and error approach generally used for designing a probe holder.

  4. Multi-slice SPECT/CT vs. lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative gamma ray probe for sentinel node mapping in HNSCC.

    PubMed

    Meerwein, C M; Sekine, T; Veit-Haibach, P; Bredell, M G; Huber, G F; Huellner, M W

    2017-03-01

    To assess the diagnostic potential of multi-slice single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) for preoperative sentinel node (SN) mapping in early stage head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Retrospective case-control study including data of consecutive HNSCC patients treated between November 2011 and December 2015. The diagnostic accuracy of multi-slice SPECT/CT was assessed with regard to the gold standard intraoperative gamma ray detection probe, using McNemar's test and calculating the area under the ROC curve. Additionally, the hot spot yield of SPECT/CT and planar lymphoscintigraphy (LS) was compared. Compared to the intraoperative gold standard, SPECT/CT showed an overall positive predictive value of 60.3% [confidence interval (CI) 46.6-73.0%)], a negative predictive value of 96.3% (CI 93.6-98.1%), and an accuracy of 90.8% (CI 89.1-92.4%). SPECT/CT detected more hot spots than LS and provided detailed anatomical information as well as relevant additional findings with potential impact on further patient management. Sentinel lymph node biopsy proved to be a reliable and safe procedure with an excellent SN excision rate (97%). Multi-slice SPECT/CT is a highly accurate diagnostic test and matches the gold standard intraoperative gamma ray detection probe.

  5. Sentinel node mapping guided by indocyanine green fluorescence imaging in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Yusuke; Yamazaki, Kimiyasu; Masuda, Yuki; Kato, Masanori; Yasuda, Daisuke; Aoki, Takeshi; Kato, Takashi; Murakami, Masahiko; Miwa, Mitsuharu; Kusano, Mitsuo

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we determined the possible usefulness of sentinel node (SN) mapping guided by indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging in the management of gastric cancer. ICG fluorescence imaging system has recently been developed for obtaining biochemical information from living tissues. Our series consisted of 56 patients with gastric cancer who underwent standard gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy. Two milliliters of ICG solution (0.5%) was injected into the submucosa around the tumor endoscopically before the operation or into the subserosa intraoperatively. ICG fluorescence imaging was conducted using a charge-coupled device camera with a light-emitting diode having a wavelength of 760 nm as the light source and a cut filter to filter out light with wavelengths below 820 nm as the detector. SNs were detected in 54 (96.4%) of the 56 patients, and the mean number of SNs was 7.2 +/- 7.0. Even SNs that were not green in color could be easily and clearly visualized by ICG fluorescence imaging. cT1-stage cancers were associated with a significantly higher accuracy rate (97.2% vs. 72.2%, P = 0.0127) than cT2-or cT3-stage cancers. Preoperative ICG injection was associated with a significantly higher incidence of cT1-stage cancers (87.1% vs. 40.0%, P = 0.0004), a larger mean number of SNs (9.9 +/- 7.5 vs. 4.1 +/- 5.0, P < 0.0001), a higher accuracy rate (100% vs. 73.9%, P = 0.0039), and a lower false negative rate (0% vs. 60.0%, P = 0.0345) as compared with intraoperative ICG injection. This study shows that ICG fluorescence imaging allows highly sensitive image-guided intraoperative SN mapping in cases of gastric cancer. Our data suggest that SN mapping guided by ICG fluorescence imaging might be useful for predicting the metastatic status in lymph nodes in cases of gastric cancer, especially those with cT1-stage cancer.

  6. Outcome following sentinel lymph node biopsy-guided decisions in breast cancer patients with conversion from positive to negative axillary lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Young-Joon; Han, Wonshik; Park, Soojin; You, Ji Young; Yi, Ha Woo; Park, Sungmin; Nam, Sanggeun; Kim, Joo Heung; Yun, Keong Won; Kim, Hee Jeong; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Park, Seho; Lee, Jeong Eon; Lee, Eun Sook; Noh, Dong-Young; Lee, Jong Won

    2017-08-01

    Many breast cancer patients with positive axillary lymph nodes achieve complete node remission after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The usefulness of sentinel lymph node biopsy in this situation is uncertain. This study evaluated the outcomes of sentinel biopsy-guided decisions in patients who had conversion of axillary nodes from clinically positive to negative following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We reviewed the records of 1247 patients from five hospitals in Korea who had breast cancer with clinically axillary lymph node-positive status and negative conversion after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, between 2005 and 2012. Patients who underwent axillary operations with sentinel biopsy-guided decisions (Group A) were compared with patients who underwent complete axillary lymph node dissection without sentinel lymph node biopsy (Group B). Axillary node recurrence and distant recurrence-free survival were compared. There were 428 cases in Group A and 819 in Group B. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that recurrence-free survivals were not significantly different between Groups A and B (4-year axillary recurrence-free survival: 97.8 vs. 99.0%; p = 0.148). Multivariate analysis also indicated the two groups had no significant difference in axillary and distant recurrence-free survival. For breast cancer patients who had clinical conversion of axillary lymph nodes from positive to negative following neoadjuvant chemotherapy, sentinel biopsy-guided axillary surgery, and axillary lymph node dissection without sentinel lymph node biopsy had similar rates of recurrence. Thus, sentinel biopsy-guided axillary operation in breast cancer patients who have clinically axillary lymph node positive to negative conversion following neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a useful strategy.

  7. Error prediction for probes guided by means of fixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, J. Michael

    2012-02-01

    Probe guides are surgical fixtures that are rigidly attached to bone anchors in order to place a probe at a target with high accuracy (RMS error < 1 mm). Applications include needle biopsy, the placement of electrodes for deep-brain stimulation (DBS), spine surgery, and cochlear implant surgery. Targeting is based on pre-operative images, but targeting errors can arise from three sources: (1) anchor localization error, (2) guide fabrication error, and (3) external forces and torques. A well-established theory exists for the statistical prediction of target registration error (TRE) when targeting is accomplished by means of tracked probes, but no such TRE theory is available for fixtured probe guides. This paper provides that theory and shows that all three error sources can be accommodated in a remarkably simple extension of existing theory. Both the guide and the bone with attached anchors are modeled as objects with rigid sections and elastic sections, the latter of which are described by stiffness matrices. By relating minimization of elastic energy for guide attachment to minimization of fiducial registration error for point registration, it is shown that the expression for targeting error for the guide is identical to that for weighted rigid point registration if the weighting matrices are properly derived from stiffness matrices and the covariance matrices for fiducial localization are augmented with offsets in the anchor positions. An example of the application of the theory is provided for ear surgery.

  8. A new optical probe for the detection of the sentinel lymph node using patent blue V dye in breast cancer: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Tellier, F; Poulet, P; Ghnassia, J P; Wilt, M; Weitbruch, D; Rodier, J F

    2013-01-01

    The present study presents a novel near-infrared optical probe for the sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection in breast cancer patients, based on the recording of scattered photons. The aim of this study was to improve the detection of patent blue V (PBV), a dye routinely injected during clinical practice. A combined injection of the dye and radioactive colloid was used in the 24 patients enrolled in the study. The clinical results of the ex vivo detection of 70 dye-marked SLNs are reported, subsequent to the injection of various quantities of PBV (0.25-2 ml). The accuracy and success rate of an isotopic probe for the detection of radioactive colloid tracer, the eye visibility threshold of the surgeon and the use of a new optical probe were examined. The radio-labeled and dye-marked sentinel lymph nodes were all detected by the radio-isotopic probe, as opposed to the 75% detected by the eye visibility threshold of the surgeon. The optical probe detected all of the nodes, regardless of the volume of the dye injected. The relative PBV concentration computed by the probe facing SLNs with infravisible/visually undetectable dye-mark was relatively constant at 5.5±1.4 μmol/l. The optical detection of the sentinel lymph nodes using PBV and the probe presented in this study have the potential to reduce the false negative detection rate. This instrument is likely to provide surgeons with a simple diagnostic tool, without significantly changing their surgical procedures.

  9. A new optical probe for the detection of the sentinel lymph node using patent blue V dye in breast cancer: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    TELLIER, F.; POULET, P.; GHNASSIA, J.P.; WILT, M.; WEITBRUCH, D.; RODIER, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    The present study presents a novel near-infrared optical probe for the sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection in breast cancer patients, based on the recording of scattered photons. The aim of this study was to improve the detection of patent blue V (PBV), a dye routinely injected during clinical practice. A combined injection of the dye and radioactive colloid was used in the 24 patients enrolled in the study. The clinical results of the ex vivo detection of 70 dye-marked SLNs are reported, subsequent to the injection of various quantities of PBV (0.25–2 ml). The accuracy and success rate of an isotopic probe for the detection of radioactive colloid tracer, the eye visibility threshold of the surgeon and the use of a new optical probe were examined. The radio-labeled and dye-marked sentinel lymph nodes were all detected by the radio-isotopic probe, as opposed to the 75% detected by the eye visibility threshold of the surgeon. The optical probe detected all of the nodes, regardless of the volume of the dye injected. The relative PBV concentration computed by the probe facing SLNs with infravisible/visually undetectable dye-mark was relatively constant at 5.5±1.4 μmol/l. The optical detection of the sentinel lymph nodes using PBV and the probe presented in this study have the potential to reduce the false negative detection rate. This instrument is likely to provide surgeons with a simple diagnostic tool, without significantly changing their surgical procedures. PMID:24649137

  10. The sentinel vein: an anatomical guide to localisation of the dorsomedial cutaneous nerve in hallux surgery.

    PubMed

    Makwana, N; Hossain, M; Kumar, A; Mbako, A

    2011-10-01

    Damage to the dorsomedial branch of the medial dorsal cutaneous nerve is not uncommon in surgery of the hallux. The resultant morbidity can be disabling. In the light of the senior author's operative observation of a sentinel vein, we undertook a cadaver study to investigate the anatomical relationships of the dorsomedial branch of the medial dorsal cutaneous nerve. This established that in 14 of 16 cadaver great toes exposed via a modified medial incision, there is an easily identified vein which runs transversely superficial and proximal to the nerve. In a prospective clinical study of 171 operations on the great toe using this approach, we confirmed this anatomical relationship in 142 procedures (83%), with no complaint of numbness or pain in the scar at follow-up. We attribute this to careful identification of the 'sentinel' vein and the subjacent sensory nerve, which had been successfully protected from damage. We recommend this technique when operating on the great toe.

  11. Radioisotope guided surgery with imaging probe, a hand-held high-resolution gamma camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soluri, A.; Trotta, C.; Scopinaro, F.; Tofani, A.; D'Alessandria, C.; Pasta, V.; Stella, S.; Massari, R.

    2007-12-01

    Since 1997, our group of Physics together with Nuclear Physicians studies imaging probes (IP), hand-held, high-resolution gamma cameras for radio-guided surgery (RGS). Present work is aimed to verify the usefulness of two updated IP in different surgical operations. Forty patients scheduled for breast cancer sentinel node (SN) biopsy, five patients with nodal recurrence of thyroid cancer, seven patients with parathyroid adenomas, five patients with neuroendocrine tumours (NET), were operated under the guide of IP. We used two different IP with field of view of 1 and 4 in. 2, respectively and intrinsic spatial resolution of about 2 mm. Radioisotopes were 99mTc, 123I and 111In. The 1 in. 2 IP detected SN in all the 40 patients and more than one node in 24, whereas anger camera (AC) failed locating SN in four patients and detected true positive second nodes in only nine patients. The 4 in. 2 IP was used for RGS of thyroid, parathyroid and NETs. It detected eight latero-cervical nodes. In the same patients, AC detected five invaded nodes. Parathyroid adenomas detected by IP were 10 in 7 patients, NET five in five patients. One and 4 in. 2 IPs showed usefulness in all operations. Initial studies on SN biopsy were carried out on small series of patients to validate IP and to demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of IP alone or against conventional probes. We propose the use of the IP as control method for legal documentation and surgeon strategy guide before and after lesion(s) removal.

  12. Simultaneous mapping of pan and sentinel lymph nodes for real-time image-guided surgery.

    PubMed

    Ashitate, Yoshitomo; Hyun, Hoon; Kim, Soon Hee; Lee, Jeong Heon; Henary, Maged; Frangioni, John V; Choi, Hak Soo

    2014-01-01

    The resection of regional lymph nodes in the basin of a primary tumor is of paramount importance in surgical oncology. Although sentinel lymph node mapping is now the standard of care in breast cancer and melanoma, over 20% of patients require a completion lymphadenectomy. Yet, there is currently no technology available that can image all lymph nodes in the body in real time, or assess both the sentinel node and all nodes simultaneously. In this study, we report an optical fluorescence technology that is capable of simultaneous mapping of pan lymph nodes (PLNs) and sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in the same subject. We developed near-infrared fluorophores, which have fluorescence emission maxima either at 700 nm or at 800 nm. One was injected intravenously for identification of all regional lymph nodes in a basin, and the other was injected locally for identification of the SLN. Using the dual-channel FLARE intraoperative imaging system, we could identify and resect all PLNs and SLNs simultaneously. The technology we describe enables simultaneous, real-time visualization of both PLNs and SLNs in the same subject.

  13. Simulation-guided DNA probe design for consistently ultraspecific hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juexiao Sherry; Zhang, David Yu

    2015-07-01

    Hybridization of complementary sequences is one of the central tenets of nucleic acid chemistry; however, the unintended binding of closely related sequences limits the accuracy of hybridization-based approaches to analysing nucleic acids. Thermodynamics-guided probe design and empirical optimization of the reaction conditions have been used to enable the discrimination of single-nucleotide variants, but typically these approaches provide only an approximately 25-fold difference in binding affinity. Here we show that simulations of the binding kinetics are both necessary and sufficient to design nucleic acid probe systems with consistently high specificity as they enable the discovery of an optimal combination of thermodynamic parameters. Simulation-guided probe systems designed against 44 sequences of different target single-nucleotide variants showed between a 200- and 3,000-fold (median 890) higher binding affinity than their corresponding wild-type sequences. As a demonstration of the usefulness of this simulation-guided design approach, we developed probes that, in combination with PCR amplification, detect low concentrations of variant alleles (1%) in human genomic DNA.

  14. Simulation-Guided DNA Probe Design for Consistently Ultraspecific Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J. Sherry; Zhang, David Yu

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization of complementary sequences is one of the central tenets of nucleic acid chemistry; however, the unintended binding of closely related sequences limits the accuracy of hybridization-based approaches for analyzing nucleic acids. Thermodynamics-guided probe design and empirical optimization of reaction conditions have been used to enable discrimination of single nucleotide variants, but typically these approaches provide only an approximate 25-fold difference in binding affinity. Here we show that simulations of the binding kinetics are both necessary and sufficient to design nucleic acid probe systems with consistently high specificity as they enable the discovery of an optimal combination of thermodynamic parameters. Simulation-guided probe systems designed against 44 different target single nucleotide variants sequences showed between 200- and 3000-fold (median 890) higher binding affinity than their corresponding wildtype sequences. As a demonstration of the usefulness of this simulation-guided design approach we developed probes which, in combination with PCR amplification, we use to detect low concentrations of variant alleles (1%) in human genomic DNA. PMID:26100802

  15. Simulation-guided DNA probe design for consistently ultraspecific hybridization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juexiao Sherry; Zhang, David Yu

    2015-07-01

    Hybridization of complementary sequences is one of the central tenets of nucleic acid chemistry; however, the unintended binding of closely related sequences limits the accuracy of hybridization-based approaches to analysing nucleic acids. Thermodynamics-guided probe design and empirical optimization of the reaction conditions have been used to enable the discrimination of single-nucleotide variants, but typically these approaches provide only an approximately 25-fold difference in binding affinity. Here we show that simulations of the binding kinetics are both necessary and sufficient to design nucleic acid probe systems with consistently high specificity as they enable the discovery of an optimal combination of thermodynamic parameters. Simulation-guided probe systems designed against 44 sequences of different target single-nucleotide variants showed between a 200- and 3,000-fold (median 890) higher binding affinity than their corresponding wild-type sequences. As a demonstration of the usefulness of this simulation-guided design approach, we developed probes that, in combination with PCR amplification, detect low concentrations of variant alleles (1%) in human genomic DNA.

  16. Mapping Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis by Dual-probe Optical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiangyu; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Fuwu; Zhu, Guizhi; Song, Jibin; Teng, Gao-Jun; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has emerged as the preferred standard procedure in patients with breast cancer, melanoma and other types of cancer. Herein, we developed a method to intra-operatively map SLNs and differentiate tumor metastases within SLNs at the same time, with the aim to provide more accurate and real-time intraoperative guidance. Experimental Design: Hyaluronic acid (HA), a ligand of lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE)-1, is employed as a SLN mapping agent after being conjugated with a near-infrared fluorophore (Cy5.5). Different sized HAs (5, 10 and 20K) were tested in normal mice and mice with localized inflammation to optimize LN retention time and signal to background ratio. Cetuximab, an antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and trastuzumab, an antibody against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), were labeled with near-infrared fluorophore (IRDye800) for detecting metastatic tumors. LN metastasis model was developed by hock injection of firefly luciferase engineered human head neck squamous carcinoma cancer UM-SCC-22B cells or human ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells. The metastases within LNs were confirmed by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). IRDye800-Antibodies were intravenously administered 24 h before local administration of Cy5.5-HA. Optical imaging was then performed to identify nodal metastases. Results: Binding of HA with LYVE-1 was confirmed by ELISA and fluorescence staining. HA with a size of 10K was chosen based on the favorable migration and retention profile. After sequential administration of IRDye800-antibodies intravenously and Cy5.5-HA locally to a mouse model with LN metastases and fluorescence optical imaging, partially metastasized LNs were successfully distinguished from un-metastasized LNs and fully tumor occupied LNs, based on the different signal patterns. Conclusions: Fluorophore conjugated HA is a potential lymphatic mapping agent for SLNB. Dual-tracer imaging

  17. Monte Carlo modeling of ultrasound probes for image guided radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena; Schlosser, Jeffrey; Chen, Josephine; Hristov, Dimitre

    2015-10-15

    X6-1 probe in vertical orientation caused the highest attenuation of the 6 and 15 MV beams, which at 10 cm depth accounted for 33% and 43% decrease compared to the respective (15 × 15) cm{sup 2} open fields. The C5-2 probe in horizontal orientation, on the other hand, caused a dose increase of 10% and 53% for the 6 and 15 MV beams, respectively, in the buildup region at 0.5 cm depth. For the X6-1 probe in vertical orientation, the dose at 5 cm depth for the 3-cm diameter 6 MV and 5-cm diameter 15 MV beams was attenuated compared to the corresponding open fields to a greater degree by 65% and 43%, respectively. Conclusions: MC models of two US probes used for real-time image guidance during radiotherapy have been built. Due to the high beam attenuation of the US probes, the authors generally recommend avoiding delivery of treatment beams that intersect the probe. However, the presented MC models can be effectively integrated into US-guided radiotherapy treatment planning in cases for which beam avoidance is not practical due to anatomy geometry.

  18. Monte Carlo modeling of ultrasound probes for image guided radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena; Schlosser, Jeffrey; Chen, Josephine; Hristov, Dimitre

    2015-01-01

    orientation caused the highest attenuation of the 6 and 15 MV beams, which at 10 cm depth accounted for 33% and 43% decrease compared to the respective (15 × 15) cm2 open fields. The C5-2 probe in horizontal orientation, on the other hand, caused a dose increase of 10% and 53% for the 6 and 15 MV beams, respectively, in the buildup region at 0.5 cm depth. For the X6-1 probe in vertical orientation, the dose at 5 cm depth for the 3-cm diameter 6 MV and 5-cm diameter 15 MV beams was attenuated compared to the corresponding open fields to a greater degree by 65% and 43%, respectively. Conclusions: MC models of two US probes used for real-time image guidance during radiotherapy have been built. Due to the high beam attenuation of the US probes, the authors generally recommend avoiding delivery of treatment beams that intersect the probe. However, the presented MC models can be effectively integrated into US-guided radiotherapy treatment planning in cases for which beam avoidance is not practical due to anatomy geometry. PMID:26429248

  19. Surgical sentinel lymph node biopsy in early breast cancer. Could it be avoided by performing a preoperative staging procedure? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Testori, Alberto; Meroni, Stefano; Moscovici, Oana Codrina; Magnoni, Paola; Malerba, Paolo; Chiti, Arturo; Rahal, Daoud; Travaglini, Roberto; Cariboni, Umberto; Alloisio, Marco; Orefice, Sergio

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this pilot trial was to study the feasibility of sentinel node percutaneous preoperative gamma probe-guided biopsy as a valid preoperative method of assessment of nodal status compared to surgical sentinel lymph node biopsy. This prospective study enrolled 10 consecutive patients without evidence of axillary lymph node metastases at preoperative imaging. All patients underwent sentinel node occult lesion localization (SNOLL) using radiotracer intradermic injection that detected a "hot spot" corresponding to the sentinel node in all cases. Gamma probe over the skin detection with subsequent ultrasonographically guided needle biopsy of the sentinel node were performed. The percutaneous needle core histopathological diagnosis was compared to the results of the surgical biopsy. Preoperative sentinel node identification was successful in all patients. The combination of preoperative gamma probe sentinel node detection and ultrasound-guided biopsy could represent a valid alternative to intraoperative sentinel node biopsy in clinically and ultrasonographically negative axillary nodes, resulting in shorter duration of surgery and lower intraoperative risks.

  20. Surgical sentinel lymph node biopsy in early breast cancer. Could it be avoided by performing a preoperative staging procedure? A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Testori, Alberto; Meroni, Stefano; Moscovici, Oana Codrina; Magnoni, Paola; Malerba, Paolo; Chiti, Arturo; Rahal, Daoud; Travaglini, Roberto; Cariboni, Umberto; Alloisio, Marco; Orefice, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this pilot trial was to study the feasibility of sentinel node percutaneous preoperative gamma probe-guided biopsy as a valid preoperative method of assessment of nodal status compared to surgical sentinel lymph node biopsy. Material/Methods This prospective study enrolled 10 consecutive patients without evidence of axillary lymph node metastases at preoperative imaging. All patients underwent sentinel node occult lesion localization (SNOLL) using radiotracer intradermic injection that detected a “hot spot” corresponding to the sentinel node in all cases. Gamma probe over the skin detection with subsequent ultrasonographically guided needle biopsy of the sentinel node were performed. The percutaneous needle core histopathological diagnosis was compared to the results of the surgical biopsy. Results Preoperative sentinel node identification was successful in all patients. Conclusions The combination of preoperative gamma probe sentinel node detection and ultrasound-guided biopsy could represent a valid alternative to intraoperative sentinel node biopsy in clinically and ultrasonographically negative axillary nodes, resulting in shorter duration of surgery and lower intraoperative risks. PMID:22936189

  1. Comparative study between ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of axillary lymph nodes and sentinel lymph node histopathology in early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Coelho, Lívio Portela; Borges, Rafael Soares; Alencar, Airlane Pereira; Cardoso-Campos-Verdes, Larysse Maira; da Silva-Sampaio, João Paulo; Borges, Umbelina Soares; Gebrim, Luiz Henrique; da Silva, Benedito Borges

    2017-05-01

    The replacement of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-guided FNA) cytology of axillary lymph nodes is controversial, despite the simplicity and reduced cost of the latter. In the present study, US-guided FNA was performed in 27 patients with early-stage breast cancer for comparison with SNB. Data were analyzed by calculation of sample proportions. Tumor subtypes included invasive ductal carcinoma (85%), invasive lobular carcinoma (7%), and tubular and metaplastic carcinoma (4%). FNA had a sensitivity of 45%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 73%. Axillary lymph node cytology obtained by US guided-FNA in patients with breast cancer had a specificity similar to that of sentinel lymph node histopathology in the presence of axillary node metastases. However, when lymph node cytology is negative, it does not exclude the existence of metastatic implants, due to its low sensitivity in comparison to sentinel lymph node histopathology.

  2. Comparative study between ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of axillary lymph nodes and sentinel lymph node histopathology in early-stage breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso-Coelho, Lívio Portela; Borges, Rafael Soares; Alencar, Airlane Pereira; Cardoso-Campos-Verdes, Larysse Maira; da Silva-Sampaio, João Paulo; Borges, Umbelina Soares; Gebrim, Luiz Henrique; da Silva, Benedito Borges

    2017-01-01

    The replacement of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-guided FNA) cytology of axillary lymph nodes is controversial, despite the simplicity and reduced cost of the latter. In the present study, US-guided FNA was performed in 27 patients with early-stage breast cancer for comparison with SNB. Data were analyzed by calculation of sample proportions. Tumor subtypes included invasive ductal carcinoma (85%), invasive lobular carcinoma (7%), and tubular and metaplastic carcinoma (4%). FNA had a sensitivity of 45%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 73%. Axillary lymph node cytology obtained by US guided-FNA in patients with breast cancer had a specificity similar to that of sentinel lymph node histopathology in the presence of axillary node metastases. However, when lymph node cytology is negative, it does not exclude the existence of metastatic implants, due to its low sensitivity in comparison to sentinel lymph node histopathology. PMID:28521436

  3. Sentinel lymph node biopsy revisited: ultrasound-guided photoacoustic detection of micrometastases using molecularly targeted plasmonic nanosensors

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Geoffrey P.; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.; Sokolov, Konstantin V.

    2014-01-01

    Metastases rather than primary tumors are responsible for killing most cancer patients. Cancer cells often invade regional lymph nodes (LN) before colonizing other parts of the body. However, due to the low sensitivity and specificity of current imaging methods to detect localized nodal spread, an invasive surgical procedure - sentinel lymph node biopsy - is generally employed to identify metastatic cancer cells. Here we introduce a new approach for more sensitive in vivo detection of lymph node micrometastases, based on the use of ultrasound-guided spectroscopic photoacoustic (sPA) imaging of molecularly-activated plasmonic nanosensors (MAPS). Using a metastatic murine model of oral squamous cell carcinoma, we showed that MAPS targeted to the EGFR shifted their optical absorption spectrum to the red-near-infrared region after specific interactions with nodal metastatic cells, enabling their non-invasive detection by sPA. Notably, LN metastases as small as 50 μm were detected at centimeter-depth range with high sensitivity and specificity. Large sPA signals appeared in metastatic LN within 30 minutes of MAPS injection, in support of the clinical utility of this method. Our findings offer a rapid and effective tool to non-invasively identify micrometastases as an alternate to sentinal node biopsy analysis. PMID:25106426

  4. SPECT-CT-Guided Thoracoscopic Biopsy of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in the Internal Mammary Chain in Patients With Breast Cancer: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Piato, José Roberto Morales; Filassi, José Roberto; Dela Vega, Alberto Jorge Monteiro; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Aguiar, Fernando Nalesso; Porciuncula, Ligia Maria Teixeira Pereira; Dória, Maíra Teixeira; Soares, José Maria; Baracat, Edmund Chada

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of the use of single-photon emission computed tomography fused with computed tomography (SPECT-CT) on thoracoscopic biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in the internal mammary chain in patients with breast cancer by evaluating resultant changes in staging and their clinical implications. Between September 2010 and January 2014, we performed lymphoscintigraphy-assisted thoracoscopic biopsy of the internal mammary chain SLN in 20 patients with breast cancer. Single-photon emission computed tomography fused with computed tomography was also used in 13 of these patients. The sentinel nodes were surgically identified with the aid of a gamma probe. Sentinel lymph nodes were identified surgically in 19 of 20 patients. In the 13 patients in whom SPECT-CT was used, it readily identified SLNs, especially when they were located over an intercostal space. Change of staging occurred in three patients (15%), two of whom accordingly received adjuvant radiotherapy to the internal thoracic chain. Compared with lymphoscintigraphy alone, the use of SPECT-CT improves localization of the SLN in the internal mammary chain, allowing more accurate planning of each individual's treatment.

  5. Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration of Non-palpable and Suspicious Axillary Lymph Nodes with Subsequent Removal after Tattooing: False-Negative Results and Concordance with Sentinel Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Hwa; Kim, Hye Jung; Jung, Jin Hyang; Park, Ho Yong; Lee, Jeeyeon; Kim, Wan Wook; Park, Ji Young; Cheon, Hyejin; Lee, So Mi; Cho, Seung Hyun; Shin, Kyung Min; Kim, Gab Chul

    2017-11-01

    Ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-guided FNA) for axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) is currently used with various techniques for the initial staging of breast cancer and tagging of ALNs. With the implementation of the tattooing of biopsied ALNs, the rate of false-negative results of US-guided FNA for non-palpable and suspicious ALNs and concordance with sentinel lymph nodes were determined by node-to node analyses. A total of 61 patients with breast cancer had negative results for metastasis on US-guided FNA of their non-palpable and suspicious ALNs. The biopsied ALNs were tattooed with an injection of 1-3 mL Charcotrace (Phebra, Lane Cove West, Australia) ink and removed during sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary dissection. We determined the rate of false-negative results and concordance with the sentinel lymph nodes by a retrospective review of surgical and pathologic findings. The association of false-negative results with clinical and imaging factors was evaluated using logistic regression. Of the 61 ALNs with negative results for US-guided FNA, 13 (21%) had metastases on final pathology. In 56 of 61 ALNs (92%), tattooed ALNs corresponded to the sentinel lymph nodes. Among the 5 patients (8%) without correspondence, 1 patient (2%) had 2 metastatic ALNs of 1 tattooed node and 1 sentinel lymph node. In multivariate analysis, atypical cells on FNA results (odds ratio = 20.7, p = 0.040) was independently associated with false-negative FNA results. False-negative ALNs after US-guided FNA occur at a rate of 21% and most of the tattooed ALNs showed concordance with sentinel lymph nodes. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. VLBI for Gravity Probe B: the guide star, IM Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartel, N.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Lebach, D. E.; Ransom, R. R.; Ratner, M. I.; Shapiro, I. I.

    2015-11-01

    We review the radio very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of the guide star, IM Peg, and three compact extragalactic reference sources, made in support of the NASA/Stanford gyroscope relativity mission, Gravity Probe B (GP-B). The main goal of the observations was the determination of the proper motion of IM Peg relative to the distant Universe. VLBI observations made between 1997 and 2005 yield a proper motion of IM Peg of -20.83 ± 0.09 mas yr-1 in α and -27.27 ± 0.09 mas yr-1 in δ in a celestial reference frame of extragalactic radio galaxies and quasars virtually identical to the International Celestial Reference Frame 2 (ICRF2). They also yield a parallax for IM Peg of 10.37 ± 0.07 mas, corresponding to a distance of 96.4 ± 0.7 pc. The uncertainties are standard errors with statistical and estimated systematic contributions added in quadrature. These results met the pre-launch requirements of the GP-B mission to not discernibly degrade the estimates of the geodetic and frame-dragging effects.

  7. Optimization via specific fluorescence brightness of a receptor-targeted probe for optical imaging and positron emission tomography of sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhengtao; Hall, David J; Liss, Michael A; Hoh, Carl K; Kane, Christopher J; Wallace, Anne M; Vera, David R

    2013-10-01

    The optical properties of a receptor-targeted probe designed for dual-modality mapping of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) was optimized. Specific fluorescence brightness was used as the design criterion, which was defined as the fluorescence brightness per mole of the contrast agent. Adjusting the molar ratio of the coupling reactants, IRDye 800CW-NHS-ester and tilmanocept, enabled us to control the number of fluorescent molecules attached to each tilmanocept, which was quantified by H1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Quantum yields and molar absorptivities were measured for unconjugated IRDye 800CW and IRDye 800CW-tilmanocept (800CW-tilmanocept) preparations at 0.7, 1.5, 2.3, 2.9, and 3.8 dyes per tilmanocept. Specific fluorescence brightness was calculated by multiplication of the quantum yield by the molar absorptivity and the number of dyes per tilmanocept. It predicted that the preparation with 2.3 dyes per tilmanocept would exhibit the brightest signal, which was confirmed by fluorescence intensity measurements using three optical imaging systems. When radiolabeled with Ga68 and injected into the footpads of mice, the probe identified SLNs by both fluorescence and positron emission tomography (PET) while maintaining high percent extraction by the SLN. These studies demonstrated the feasibility of 800CW-tilmanocept for multimodal SLN mapping via fluorescence and PET-computed tomography imaging.

  8. Sentinel Network

    Cancer.gov

    The Sentinel Network is an integrated, electronic, national medical product safety initiative that compiles information about the safe and effective use of medical products accessible to patients and healthcare practitioners.

  9. Sentinel lymph node procedure in patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal: early experience.

    PubMed

    Damin, Daniel C; Rosito, Mario A; Gus, Pedro; Spiro, Bernardo L; Amaral, Beatriz B; Meurer, Luise; Cartel, Andre; Schwartsmann, Gilberto

    2003-08-01

    This study was conducted to assess the feasibility of the sentinel lymph node procedure in patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal. Between February 2001 and November 2002, 14 patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal and no clinical evidence of inguinal involvement were prospectively enrolled in the study. The sentinel lymph node procedure consisted of a combination of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy with technetium 99m dextran 500 injected around the tumor and intraoperative detection of the sentinel node with a gamma probe. Patent blue V dye was also injected at the periphery of the tumor to facilitate direct identification of the blue-stained lymph node. After removal, the sentinel node was studied by hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry for pancytokeratins (antigen A1 and A3). Detection and removal of sentinel lymph nodes was possible in all patients. There was no correlation between tumor size and pattern of lymphatic drainage to the groin. Tumors located in the midline of the anal canal gave rise to bilateral sentinel nodes in eight of nine cases. In total, 23 sentinel lymph nodes were removed. One patient (7.1 percent) had a node identified as positive for metastatic carcinoma on immunohistochemical staining. Surgical complications were minimal. The standardized technique was safe and highly effective in sampling inguinal sentinel lymph nodes in carcinoma of the anal canal. It also proved to be useful as an instrument to detect micrometastatic deposits in clinically normal nodes. Our early results suggest the sentinel lymph node procedure may have a role in guiding a more selective approach for patients with anal cancer. Additional studies in a larger patient population to determine the sensitivity and specificity of this method are warranted.

  10. Ultrasound probe and needle-guide calibration for robotic ultrasound scanning and needle targeting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chunwoo; Chang, Doyoung; Petrisor, Doru; Chirikjian, Gregory; Han, Misop; Stoianovici, Dan

    2013-06-01

    Image-to-robot registration is a typical step for robotic image-guided interventions. If the imaging device uses a portable imaging probe that is held by a robot, this registration is constant and has been commonly named probe calibration. The same applies to probes tracked by a position measurement device. We report a calibration method for 2-D ultrasound probes using robotic manipulation and a planar calibration rig. Moreover, a needle guide that is attached to the probe is also calibrated for ultrasound-guided needle targeting. The method is applied to a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) probe for robot-assisted prostate biopsy. Validation experiments include TRUS-guided needle targeting accuracy tests. This paper outlines the entire process from the calibration to image-guided targeting. Freehand TRUS-guided prostate biopsy is the primary method of diagnosing prostate cancer, with over 1.2 million procedures performed annually in the U.S. alone. However, freehand biopsy is a highly challenging procedure with subjective quality control. As such, biopsy devices are emerging to assist the physician. Here, we present a method that uses robotic TRUS manipulation. A 2-D TRUS probe is supported by a 4-degree-of-freedom robot. The robot performs ultrasound scanning, enabling 3-D reconstructions. Based on the images, the robot orients a needle guide on target for biopsy. The biopsy is acquired manually through the guide. In vitro tests showed that the 3-D images were geometrically accurate, and an image-based needle targeting accuracy was 1.55 mm. These validate the probe calibration presented and the overall robotic system for needle targeting. Targeting accuracy is sufficient for targeting small, clinically significant prostatic cancer lesions, but actual in vivo targeting will include additional error components that will have to be determined.

  11. Image-Guided Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping and Nanotechnology-Based Nodal Treatment in Lung Cancer using Invisible Near-Infrared Fluorescent Light

    PubMed Central

    Khullar, Onkar; Frangioni, John V.; Colson, Yolonda L.

    2011-01-01

    Current methods for sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping and nodal treatment in lung cancer remain inadequate for routine clinical use. Here we discuss the potential for using the combination of invisible near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent light and nanotechnology for these applications. NIR fluorescence imaging has recently received significant attention for in vivo imaging applications because of its low tissue autofluorescence, high photon penetration into living tissue, and high signal-to-background ratio. Our large animal in vivo studies have been able to successfully identify sentinel lymph nodes in lung tissue and several clinical studies have examined the use of NIR fluorescence imaging systems for SLN mapping in breast and gastric cancer. Promising new nanoparticle technologies, when combined with NIR fluorescence imaging, offer the potential for image-guided treatment of lymph nodes at high risk for tumor recurrence. This review provides a theoretical and empirical framework for developing the next-generation of diagnostic and therapeutic agents for lung cancer. PMID:20226343

  12. Comparison between the indocyanine green fluorescence and blue dye methods for sentinel lymph node biopsy using novel fluorescence image-guided resection equipment in different types of hospitals.

    PubMed

    He, Kunshan; Chi, Chongwei; Kou, Deqiang; Huang, Wenhe; Wu, Jundong; Wang, Yabing; He, Lifang; Ye, Jinzuo; Mao, Yamin; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Wang, Jiandong; Tian, Jie

    2016-12-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become a standard of care to detect axillary lymph metastasis in early-stage breast cancer patients with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes. Current SLNB detection modalities comprising a blue dye, a radioactive tracer, or a combination of both have advantages as well as disadvantages. Thus, near-infrared fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green (ICG) has recently been regarded as a novel method that has generated interest for SLNB around the world. However, the lack of appropriate fluorescence imaging systems has hindered further research and wide application of this method. Therefore, we developed novel fluorescence image-guided resection equipment (FIRE) to detect sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). Moreover, to compare the ICG fluorescence imaging method with the blue dye method and to explore the universal feasibility of the former, a different type of hospital study was conducted. Ninety-nine eligible patients participated in the study at 3 different types of hospitals. After subcutaneous ICG allergy testing, all the patients were subcutaneously injected with methylene blue and ICG into the subareolar area. Consequently, 276 SLNs (range 1-7) were identified in 98 subjects (detection rate: 99%) by using the ICG fluorescence imaging method. In contrast, the blue dye method only identified 202 SLNs (range 1-7) in 91 subjects (detection rate: 91.92%). Besides, the results of the fluorescence imaging method were similar in the 3 hospitals. Our findings indicate the universal feasibility of the ICG fluorescence imaging method for SLNB using the fluorescence image-guided resection equipment in early breast cancer detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Video-assisted breast surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy guided by three-dimensional computed tomographic lymphography.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, K; Shimizu, K

    2008-02-01

    Video-assisted breast surgery (VABS) is a less invasive and aesthetically better option for benign and malignant breast diseases and for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). The authors have performed 150 VABS procedures since December 2001. They have examined the usefulness of three-dimensional computed tomographic (3D-CT) lymphography for detecting sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) precisely, as well as the cosmetic and treatment results of VABS. In this study, VABS was performed with a 2.5-cm skin incision in the axilla or periareola (1 cm in the axilla for SLNB), using a retraction method, for mammary gland resection, SLNB, axillary lymph node dissection, and breast reconstruction under video assistance. On the day before the surgery, 3D-CT lymphography was performed to mark SLN on the skin. Above the tumor and near the areola, 2 ml of Iopamiron 300 was injected subcutaneously. A 16-channnel multidetector-row helical CT scan image was taken after 1 min and reconstructed to produce a 3D image. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed by the VABS technique using the Visiport. The VABS procedure was performed for 19 benign and 131 malignant diseases, and 115 SLNBs (74 with 3D-CT) were performed. The SLNs were shown precisely by 3D-CT lymphography, as proved by a case of lymph node metastasis, in which accurate relationships between lymph ducts and SLNs were shown. These were classified into four patterns: a single duct to single node (40 cases), multiple ducts to a single node (13 cases), a single duct to multiple nodes (1 case), and multiple ducts to multiple nodes (12 cases). The SLNB procedure can be performed safely by 3D-CT lymphography and less invasively by VABS. The findings show that 3D-CT lymphography is useful for performing precise SLNB using VABS.

  14. FDG-PET probe-guided surgery for recurrent retroperitoneal testicular tumor recurrences.

    PubMed

    de Jong, J S; van Ginkel, R J; Slart, R H J A; Lemstra, C L; Paans, A M J; Mulder, N H; Hoekstra, H J

    2010-11-01

    Tumor marker based recurrences of previously treated testicular cancer are generally detected with CT scan. They sometimes cannot be visualized with conventional morphologic imaging. FDG-PET has the ability to detect these recurrences. PET probe-guided surgery, may facilitate the extent of surgery and optimize the surgical resection. Three patients with resectable 2nd or 3rd recurrent testicular cancer based on elevated tumor markers after previous various chemotherapy schedules and resections of residual retroperitoneal tumor masses were included in this study. A diagnostic FDG-PET was performed and a hotspot in previously operated area of the retroperitoneal space in all three patients was visualized. PET probe-guided surgery was performed using a high-energy gamma probe 3 h post-injection of 500 MBq FDG. All patients showed extended adhesions and scar tissue in the retroperitoneal area due to the previous surgeries. Pre-operative PET/CT scan showed a good correlation with intra-operative PET probe-guided detection of recurrent lesions. There was a high target to background ratio (TGB) of 5:1 during the procedure. In one patient, a 2 cm large lesion, which did not show on pre-operative FDG-PET scan, was detected with the PET probe. Histopathologic tissue evaluation demonstrated recurrent vital tumor in all PET probe positive lesions. PET probe-guided surgery seems to be a promising tool to localize FDG-PET positive lesion in recurrent testicular cancer in hardly accessible surgical locations. PET probe-guided surgery might be a useful technique in surgical oncology for recurrent testicular cancer and has the potential to be applied in surgery of other malignant diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinically-translated silica nanoparticles as dual-modality cancer-targeted probes for image-guided surgery and interventions

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Evan; Montero, Pablo H.; Cheal, Sarah M.; Stambuk, Hilda; Durack, Jeremy C.; Sofocleous, Constantinos T.; Meester, Richard J. C.; Wiesner, Ulrich; Patel, Snehal

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of melanoma are essential to minimizing morbidity and mortality. The presence of lymph node metastases is a vital prognostic predictor, and accurate identification by imaging has important implications for disease staging, prognosis, and clinical outcome. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping procedures are limited by a lack of intraoperative visualization tools that can aid accurate determination of disease spread and delineate nodes from adjacent critical neural and vascular structures. Newer methods for circumventing these issues can exploit a variety of imaging tools, including biocompatible particle-based platforms coupled with portable device technologies for use with image-guided surgical and interventional procedures. We describe herein a clinically-translated, integrin-targeting platform for use with both PET and optical imaging that meets a number of key design criteria for improving SLN tissue localization and retention, target-to-background ratios, and clearance from the site of injection and the body. The use of such agents for selectively probing critical cancer targets may elucidate important insights into cellular and molecular processes that govern metastatic disease spread. Coupled with portable, real-time optical camera systems, we show that pre-operative PET imaging findings for mapping metastatic disease in clinically-relevant larger-animal models can be readily translated into the intraoperative setting for direct visualization of the draining tumor lymphatics and fluorescent SLN/s with histologic correlation. The specificity of this platform, relative to the standard-of-care radiotracer, 18F-FDG, for potentially discriminating metastatic disease from inflammatory processes is also discussed in the setting of surgically-based or interventionally-driven therapies. PMID:23138852

  16. Image-guided sentinel lymph node mapping and nanotechnology-based nodal treatment in lung cancer using invisible near-infrared fluorescent light.

    PubMed

    Khullar, Onkar; Frangioni, John V; Grinstaff, Mark; Colson, Yolonda Lorig

    2009-01-01

    Current methods for sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping and nodal treatment in lung cancer remain inadequate for routine clinical use. In this study, we discuss the potential for using the combination of invisible near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent light and nanotechnology for these applications. NIR fluorescence imaging has recently received significant attention for in vivo imaging applications because of its low tissue autofluorescence, high photon penetration into living tissue, and high signal-to-background ratio. Our large animal in vivo studies have been able to successfully identify SLNs in lung tissue, and several clinical studies have examined the use of NIR fluorescence imaging systems for SLN mapping in breast and gastric cancer. Promising new nanoparticle technologies, when combined with NIR fluorescence imaging, offer the potential for image-guided treatment of lymph nodes at high risk for tumor recurrence. This review provides a theoretic and empiric framework for developing the next generation of diagnostic and therapeutic agents for lung cancer. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of an asymmetric add-on collimator used with a hand-held gamma probe for radioguided surgery and sentinel node detection: a demonstration of an alternative collimation method.

    PubMed

    Johnsrud, Kjersti; Skretting, Arne; Naum, Alexandru G; Bogsrud, Trond V; Bach-Gansmo, Tore

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate a new principle for collimation of gamma probes for radioguided surgery and sentinel node detection: the use of asymmetric lateral shielding. The intension was to maintain the sensitivity in the lateral and forward directions on the unshielded side while at the same time to shield the probe against high activity sources that could mask the signal from the object to be detected. The device was constructed to shield only against photons that come from a region in space that spans approximately 180° sideways and forwards relative to the detector. The intension of the study was to demonstrate the principle rather than to document its use in the clinic. Sensitivity profiles were derived from measurements obtained while stepwise moving the probe relatively to a point source of known activity surrounded by water. The measurements were taken in the symmetry plane of the collimator where the shielding effects were expected to be most pronounced. The asymmetric collimator led to nearly unchanged sensitivity in the lateral and forward directions. At the same time, the field of view was effectively shrunk on the shielded side. Contributions from sources lateral and close to the shield were reduced by factors up to 45. By rotating the probe around its longitudinal axis, an asymmetric add-on shield collimator could potentially make it easier to detect a sentinel node when this is located close to a neighbouring high activity region like the urinary bladder or the injection site. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Fiber optic photoacoustic probe with ultrasonic tracking for guiding minimally invasive procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Wenfeng; Mosse, Charles A.; Colchester, Richard J.; Mari, Jean Martial; Nikitichev, Daniil I.; West, Simeon J.; Ourselin, Sebastien; Beard, Paul C.; Desjardins, Adrien E.

    2015-07-01

    In a wide range of clinical procedures, accurate placement of medical devices such as needles and catheters is critical to optimize patient outcomes. Ultrasound imaging is often used to guide minimally invasive procedures, as it can provide real-time visualization of patient anatomy and medical devices. However, this modality can provide low image contrast for soft tissues, and poor visualization of medical devices that are steeply angled with respect to the incoming ultrasound beams. Photoacoustic sensors can provide information about the spatial distributions of tissue chromophores that could be valuable for guiding minimally invasive procedures. In this study, a system for guiding minimally invasive procedures using photoacoustic sensing was developed. This system included a miniature photoacoustic probe with three optical fibers: one with a bare end for photoacoustic excitation of tissue, a second for photoacoustic excitation of an optically absorbing coating at the distal end to transmit ultrasound, and a third with a Fabry-Perot cavity at the distal end for receiving ultrasound. The position of the photoacoustic probe was determined with ultrasonic tracking, which involved transmitting pulses from a linear-array ultrasound imaging probe at the tissue surface, and receiving them with the fiber-optic ultrasound receiver in the photoacoustic probe. The axial resolution of photoacoustic sensing was better than 70 μm, and the tracking accuracy was better than 1 mm in both axial and lateral dimensions. By translating the photoacoustic probe, depth scans were obtained from different spatial positions, and two-dimensional images were reconstructed using a frequency-domain algorithm.

  19. Design, fabrication, integration and commissioning of an upgraded guiding probe for the VLT unit telescope 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Christoph; Hammersley, Peter; Buzzoni, Bernard; Manescau, Antonio; Arsenault, Robin; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Birkmann, Martin; Mueller, Michael; Salgado, Fernando; Guisard, Stephane; Kroedel, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    As part of the preparation for the arrival of the MUSE instrument to the VLT, it was required to adapt the hosting telescope (UT4) guide probe, to increase its back focal length. This is to allow enough space for the later deployment of the MUSE Adaptive Optics module GALACSI, in-between the telescope adapter rotator and the instrument itself. The UT guide probe is a critical component for the successful operation of the telescope, so its modification to increase the telescope's back focal length, while maintaining full compatibility with the existing operation model and other hardware, was rather demanding. The design, manufacture, assembly and test for the new supporting arm in the UT guiding probe is presented. It mixes the use of novel materials (HB-CESIC® for the mirrors substrates) and state of the art manufacturing techniques (3D printing mould production and rapid casting for the support structure), which allow producing easily a high performance subsystem. Characterization of the system prior delivery to the telescope, its integration in the UT and results after commissioning is presented. Its successful implementation has validated new manufacturing techniques that may prove very useful for future instruments development.

  20. Intraoperative β{sup -} detecting probe for radio-guided surgery in tumour resection

    SciTech Connect

    Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Bellini, Fabio; Bocciy, Valerio; Collamatiyz, Francesco; Faccini, Riccardo; Paramattiy, Riccardo; Paterayz, Vincenzo; Pinciy, Davide; Recchiay, Luigi; Sciubbayz, Adalberto; Senzacqua, Martina; Voenay, Cecilia; Morgantiy, Silvio; De Luciax, Erika; Matteixk, Ilaria; Sartizx, Alessio; Russomando, Aandrea; Marafiniy, Michela

    2015-07-01

    The development of the β{sup -} based radio-guided surgery aims to extend the technique to those tumours where surgery is the only possible treatment and the assessment of the resection would most profit from the low background around the lesion, as for brain tumours. Feasibility studies on meningioma and gliomas already estimated the potentiality of this new treatment. To validate the technique, a prototype of the intraoperative probe detecting β{sup -} decays and specific phantoms simulating tumour remnant patterns embedded in healthy tissue have been realized. The response of the probe in this simulated environment is tested with dedicated procedures. This document discusses the innovative aspects of the method, the status of the developed intraoperative β{sup -} detecting probe and the results of the preclinical tests. (authors)

  1. Mitochondrial membrane potential probes and the proton gradient: a practical usage guide.

    PubMed

    Perry, Seth W; Norman, John P; Barbieri, Justin; Brown, Edward B; Gelbard, Harris A

    2011-02-01

    Fluorescent probes for monitoring mitochondrial membrane potential are frequently used for assessing mitochondrial function, particularly in the context of cell fate determination in biological and biomedical research. However, valid interpretation of results obtained with such probes requires careful consideration of numerous controls, as well as possible effects of non-protonic charges on dye behavior. In this context, we provide an overview of some of the important technical considerations, controls, and parallel complementary assays that can be employed to help ensure appropriate interpretation of results, thus providing a practical usage guide for monitoring mitochondrial membrane potentials with cationic probes. In total, this review will help illustrate both the strengths and potential pitfalls of common mitochondrial membrane potential dyes, and highlight best-usage approaches for their efficacious application in life sciences research.

  2. Sentinel node biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sentinel node biopsy is a technique which helps determine if a cancer has spread (metastasized), or is contained locally. When a ... is closest to the cancer site. Sentinel node biopsy is used to stage many kinds of cancer, ...

  3. PET Probe-Guided Surgery in Patients with Breast Cancer: Proposal for a Methodological Approach

    PubMed Central

    ORSARIA, PAOLO; CHIARAVALLOTI, AGOSTINO; FIORENTINI, ALESSANDRO; PISTOLESE, CHIARA; VANNI, GIANLUCA; VITTORIA GRANAI, ALESSANDRA; VARVARAS, DIMITRIOS; DANIELI, ROBERTA; SCHILLACI, ORAZIO; PETRELLA, GIUSEPPE; CLAUDIO BUONOMO, ORESTE

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although it is valuable for detecting distant metastases, identifying recurrence, and evaluating responses to chemotherapy, the role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in assessing locoregional nodal status for initial staging of breast cancer has not yet been well-defined in clinical practice. In the current report, we describe a new PET probe-based clinical approach, with evaluation of the technical performance of a handheld high-energy gamma probe for intraoperative localization of breast carcinomas, and evaluation of lymph node metastases during radio-guided oncological surgery. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent a PET/CT scan immediately prior to surgery following the standard clinical protocol. Intraoperatively, tumors were localized and resected with the assistance of a hand-held gamma probe. PET-guided assessment of the presence or absence of regional nodal spread of malignancy was compared with the reference standard of histopathological examination. Results: In all three cases, perioperative 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging and intraoperative gamma probe detection verified complete resection of the hypermetabolic lesions and demonstrated no additional suspicious occult disease. Conclusion: This innovative approach demonstrates great promise for providing real-time access to metabolic and morphological tumor information that may lead to an optimal disease-tailored approach. In carefully selected indications, a PET probe can be a useful adjunct in surgical practice, but further trials with a larger number of patients need to be performed to verify these findings. PMID:28064227

  4. PET Probe-Guided Surgery in Patients with Breast Cancer: Proposal for a Methodological Approach.

    PubMed

    Orsaria, Paolo; Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Fiorentini, Alessandro; Pistolese, Chiara; Vanni, Gianluca; Granai, Alessandra Vittoria; Varvaras, Dimitrios; Danieli, Roberta; Schillaci, Orazio; Petrella, Giuseppe; Buonomo, Oreste Claudio

    2017-01-02

    Although it is valuable for detecting distant metastases, identifying recurrence, and evaluating responses to chemotherapy, the role of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) in assessing locoregional nodal status for initial staging of breast cancer has not yet been well-defined in clinical practice. In the current report, we describe a new PET probe-based clinical approach, with evaluation of the technical performance of a handheld high-energy gamma probe for intraoperative localization of breast carcinomas, and evaluation of lymph node metastases during radio-guided oncological surgery. Three patients underwent a PET/CT scan immediately prior to surgery following the standard clinical protocol. Intraoperatively, tumors were localized and resected with the assistance of a hand-held gamma probe. PET-guided assessment of the presence or absence of regional nodal spread of malignancy was compared with the reference standard of histopathological examination. In all three cases, perioperative (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging and intraoperative gamma probe detection verified complete resection of the hypermetabolic lesions and demonstrated no additional suspicious occult disease. This innovative approach demonstrates great promise for providing real-time access to metabolic and morphological tumor information that may lead to an optimal disease-tailored approach. In carefully selected indications, a PET probe can be a useful adjunct in surgical practice, but further trials with a larger number of patients need to be performed to verify these findings. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  5. A lateral paracarotid approach for ultrasound-guided stellate ganglion block with a linear probe.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyuckgoo; Song, Sun Ok; Jung, Gul

    2017-06-01

    Recent reports suggest that ultrasound-guided stellate ganglion block (SGB) is safer and more accurate than classic SGB by the using the surface anatomical landmark. However, previous reports concern the classic paratracheal approach using a small specialized curved probe, which may not be appropriate in some patients. The authors have attempted several approaches, including paratracheal, trans-thyroidal, lateral paracarotid, and lateral approaches, to find a safe and suitable method for real-time ultrasound-guided SGB using a standard high-frequency linear probe. A total of 27 injections were performed on 27 patients with sensorineural hearing loss. The lateral paracarotid out-of-plane and lateral in-plane approaches were identified as the easiest and safest methods among the four tested. In this report, we describe a new lateral paracarotid approach for ultrasound-guided SGB. An ipsilateral paratracheal short-axis transverse scan was acquired at the C6 level with a linear probe (6-13 MHz). The probe was moved laterally, scanning the thyroid, carotid artery, internal jugular vein, longus colli muscle, and the transverse process of the C6, placing the carotid artery in the middle of the view. Light pressure was applied to the probe postero-medially to displace the carotid artery medially and completely compress the internal jugular vein. The needle was inserted out-of-plane between the lateral margin of the carotid artery and Chassaignac's tubercle, traversing the collapsed internal jugular vein, and targeted between the longus colli muscle and the prevertebral fascia. A total of 4 ml of 0.2% ropivacaine was injected for each procedure after a negative aspiration test. Successful blockade was confirmed with the onset of Horner's sign. All 27 injections resulted in successful blockade with Horner's sign presenting within 5 min after injection. Side effects were minor and caused minimal discomfort; they included hoarseness and a foreign body sensation. No hematomas

  6. Validity of sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection following adjuvant radiochemotherapy (RCT) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).

    PubMed

    Wagner, A; Kermer, C; Zettinig, G; Lang, S; Schicho, K; Noebauer, I; Kainberger, F; Selzer, E; Leitha, T

    2007-12-01

    The effect of preoperative radio chemotherapy on lymphatic drainage and intraoperative gamma probe-guided sentinel lymph node detection has yet not been investigated. In this study, we study 13 patients with SCC. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) imaging of the patients was performed using SPECT-CT. Special care was taken to use identical injection sites for both studies. Imaging comprised planar and SPECT, iterative reconstruction and were viewed with the co-registered CT image. The results were validated by comparison with the histological results of intraoperative gamma probe detection and histology of the completed neck dissection. Identical SLNs were found in 6/13 patients. In 2/13 cases SLN biopsies were false-negative. In 4/13 patients preoperative SLN imaging identified more/additional nodes than the initial imaging, whereas fewer nodes were seen in 3/13 patients. Neither the primary tumor site nor the TNM stage was predictive for changes in the lymphatic drainage pattern. No constant effect of irradiation could be demonstrated. Preoperative radio chemotherapy has an unpredictable influence on the lymphatic drainage pattern in HNSCC. Consequently, the intraoperative gamma probe-guided sentinel lymph node detection after radio chemotherapy does not reveal the SLN of carcinogenesis. Thus, we advise fused functional/anatomical imaging (SPECT-CT) before and after radiochemotherapy if the SLN concept is utilized in HNSCC.

  7. Intraoperative probe detecting β- decays in brain tumour radio-guided surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Bocci, V.; Chiodi, G.; Collamati, F.; Donnarumma, R.; Faccini, R.; Mancini Terracciano, C.; Marafini, M.; Mattei, I.; Muraro, S.; Recchia, L.; Rucinski, A.; Russomando, A.; Toppi, M.; Traini, G.; Morganti, S.

    2017-02-01

    Radio-guided surgery (RGS) is a technique to intraoperatively detect tumour remnants, favouring a radical resection. Exploiting β- emitting tracers provides a higher signal to background ratio compared to the established technique with γ radiation, allowing the extension of the RGS applicability range. We developed and tested a detector based on para-terphenyl scintillator with high sensitivity to low energy electrons and almost transparent to γs to be used as intraoperative probe for RGS with β- emitting tracer. Portable read out electronics was customised to match the surgeon needs. This probe was used for preclinical test on specific phantoms and a test on ;ex vivo; specimens from patients affected by meningioma showing very promising results for the application of this new technique on brain tumours. In this paper, the prototype of the intraoperative probe and the tests are discussed; then, the results on meningioma are used to make predictions on the performance of the probe detecting residuals of a more challenging and more interesting brain tumour: the glioma.

  8. Sentinel node approach in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Sicart, S; Valdés Olmos, R A

    2015-01-01

    In general terms, one of the main objectives of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is to identify the 20-25% of patients with occult regional metastatic involvement. This technique reduces the associated morbidity from lymphadenectomy, as well as increasing the identification rate of occult lymphatic metastases by offering the pathologist those lymph nodes with the highest probability of containing metastatic cells. Pre-surgical lymphoscintigraphy is considered a "road map" to guide the surgeon towards the sentinel nodes and to ascertain unpredictable lymphatic drainages. In prostate cancer this aspect is essential due to the multidirectional character of the lymphatic drainage in the pelvis. In this context the inclusion of SPECT/CT should be mandatory in order to improve the SLN detection rate, to clarify the location when SLNs are difficult to interpret on planar images, to achieve a better definition of them in locations close to injection site, and to provide anatomical landmarks to be recognized during operation to locate SLNs. Conventional and laparoscopic hand-held gamma probes allow the SLN technique to be applied in any kind of surgery. The introduction and combination of new tracers and devices refines this technique, and the use of intraoperative images. These aspects become of vital importance due to the recent incorporation of robot-assisted procedures for SLN biopsy. In spite of these advances various aspects of SLN biopsy in prostate cancer patients still need to be discussed, and therefore their clinical application is not widely used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of an endoscopic fluorescence image-guided OCT probe for oral cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNichols, Roger J.; Gowda, Ashok; Bell, Brent A.; Johnigan, Richard M.; Calhoun, Karen H.; Motamedi, Massoud

    2001-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is a disease which progresses through a number of well-defined morphological and biochemical changes. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a rapidly-evolving, non-invasive imaging modality which allows detailed probing of subsurface tissue structures with resolution on the order of microns. While this technique offers tremendous potential as a diagnostic tool for detection and characterization of oral cancer, OCT imaging is presently associated with a field of view on the order of millimeters, and acquisition time on the order of seconds. Thus, OCT's utility as a rapid cancer screening technique is presently limited. On the other hand, imaging of tissue autofluorescence provides a very rapid, high-throughput method for cancer screening. However, while autofluorescence measures may be sensitive to cancer, they are often non- specific and lead to a large number of false positives. In the present work, we have developed a fluorescence image guided optical coherence tomographic (FIG-OCT) probe in which tissue autofluorescence images are simultaneously used to guide OCT image acquisition of suspicious regions in real time. We have begun pre-clinical pilot studies with this instrument in a DMBA-induced model of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch. Initial results indicate that the FIG- OCT approach shows promise as a rapid and effective tool for screening of oral cancer.

  10. Polycrystalline para-terphenyl scintillator adopted in a β- detecting probe for radio-guided surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Bellini, F.; Bocci, V.; Collamati, F.; De Lucia, E.; Faccini, R.; Marafini, M.; Mattei, I.; Morganti, S.; Paramatti, R.; Patera, V.; Pinci, D.; Recchia, L.; Russomando, A.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Senzacqua, M.; Voena, C.

    2015-06-01

    A radio-guided surgery technique exploiting β- emitters is under development. It aims at a higher target-to-background activity ratio implying both a smaller radiopharmaceutical activity and the possibility of extending the technique to cases with a large uptake of surrounding healthy organs. Such technique requires a dedicated intraoperative probe detecting β- radiation. A first prototype has been developed relying on the low density and high light yield of the diphenylbutadiene doped para-therphenyl organic scintillator. The scintillation light produced in a cylindrical crystal, 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height, is guided to a photo-multiplier tube by optical fibres. The custom readout electronics is designed to optimize its usage in terms of feedback to the surgeon, portability and remote monitoring of the signal. Tests show that with a radiotracer activity comparable to those administered for diagnostic purposes the developed probe can detect a 0.1 ml cancerous residual of meningioma in a few seconds.

  11. Intraoperative Imaging for Sentinel Lymph Nodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    camera and probe. Sentinel Node 2004, submitted. CONCLUSION User experience suggests that a field of view (FOV) less than 5" x 5" would not be useful in...SLN localization especially for breast cancer cases. Preliminary analysis of acquired data and user experience suggest a 5" x 5" FOV has some

  12. An intra-operative positron probe with background rejection capability for FDG-guided surgery.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Matsumoto, Keiichi; Sakamoto, Setsu; Tarutani, Kazumasa; Minato, Kotaro; Senda, Michio

    2005-02-01

    For radio-guided surgery on tumors using F-18-FDG, detection of annihilation gamma photons emanating from other parts of the body produces background radiation counts and limits its use in clinical situations. To overcome this limitation, we have developed an intra-operative positron probe with background-rejection capability. The positron probe uses a phoswich detector composed of a plastic scintillator and a bismuth germinate (BGO). A positron from a positron emitter such as F-18 is detected by the plastic scintillator and emits annihilation photons. The BGO detects one of the annihilation photons while a photo-multiplier tube (PMT) detects scintillation photons from both scintillators. The decay time differences of these two scintillators are used to distinguish whether the event is a true event where a positron and a following annihilation photon are detected simultaneously, or a background event. In this configuration, only positrons can be selectively detected, even in an environment of high background gamma photon flux. Spatial resolution was 11-mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) 5 mm from the detector surface. Measured sensitivity for the F-18 point source was 2.6 cps/kBq 5 mm from the detector surface. The background count rate was less than 0.5 cps for a 20-cm diameter cylindrical phantom containing 37 MBq of F-18 solution measured on the phantom surface, while the positron count rate was almost linear over a range of approximately 6 kcps. These results indicate that our developed intra-operative positron probe is valuable for radio-guided surgery on tumors using F-18-FDG in a high flux of background annihilation gamma photons.

  13. Sensor sentinel computing device

    DOEpatents

    Damico, Joseph P.

    2016-08-02

    Technologies pertaining to authenticating data output by sensors in an industrial environment are described herein. A sensor sentinel computing device receives time-series data from a sensor by way of a wireline connection. The sensor sentinel computing device generates a validation signal that is a function of the time-series signal. The sensor sentinel computing device then transmits the validation signal to a programmable logic controller in the industrial environment.

  14. Reliability of dynamic sentinel node biopsy combined with ultrasound-guided removal of sonographically suspicious lymph nodes as a diagnostic approach in patients with penile cancer with palpable inguinal lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Carsten Maik; van der Horst, Sibylle; van der Horst, Christof; Kähler, Katharina Charlotte; Seeger, Markus; Osmonov, Daniar; Lützen, Ulf; Jünemann, Klaus-Peter; Franz Hamann, Moritz

    2015-09-01

    Dynamic sentinel node biopsy (DSNB) is considered "unsuitable" in patients with penile cancer and palpable inguinal lymph nodes. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic reliability of DSNB combined with ultrasound (US)-guided removal of additional suspicious lymph nodes as a minimally invasive diagnostic approach in these patients. A total of 23 consecutive patients with penile cancer and unilaterally or bilaterally palpable inguinal lymph nodes underwent DSNB according to the 2-day protocol. Before the combined staging procedure, the patients underwent preoperative US of both groins. During surgery, sentinel nodes and additional suspicious lymph nodes as determined by the US examination were removed under US guidance. A complete inguinal lymph node dissection was only performed in patients who had tumor-positive nodes. Follow-up consisted of control visits according to the European Association of Urology guidelines, including US investigation of the groins. The primary tumors were staged as T1, T2, and T3 carcinomas in 12, 8, and 3 patients, respectively. Grading was good, moderate, and poor in 2, 16, and 4 cases, respectively. Tumor grading could not be determined in 1 patient who underwent surgery of the invasive part of the primary tumor elsewhere. Sentinel nodes or nonsentinel nodes or both were positive in 15 of 36 palpatory-positive groins. DSNB alone showed lymphatic spread in 10 inguinal regions. US-guided removal of suspicious nonsentinel nodes revealed 5 further inguinal basins with metastases, which would have been missed by DSNB owing to rerouting or complete blockage of the lymphotropic tracer. So far, no lymph node relapse has been observed in the 12 patients with node-negative disease by this combined diagnostic approach with a median follow-up of 42 (16-84) months. The morbidity (postoperative bleeding and prolonged lymphorrhea) associated with this procedure was minor (6%). The results of this study imply that DSNB combined with US-guided

  15. Diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions with radial probe endobronchial ultrasound-guided bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Boonsarngsuk, Viboon; Kanoksil, Wasana; Laungdamerongchai, Sarangrat

    2014-09-01

    The diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs) is a challenging task for pulmonologists. Radial probe endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS) has been developed to enhance diagnostic yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of R-EBUS in the diagnosis of PPLs. A retrospective study was conducted on 174 patients diagnosed with PPLs who underwent EBUS-guided bronchoscopy. Histological examination of specimens obtained by transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) and cytological examinations of brushing smear, brush rinse fluid and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were evaluated for the diagnosis. The mean diameter of the PPLs was 25.1 ± 10.7 mm. The final diagnoses included 129 malignancies and 45 benign lesions. The overall diagnostic yield of EBUS-guided bronchoscopy was 79.9%. Neither size nor etiology of the PPLs influenced the diagnostic performance of EBUS-guided bronchoscopy (82.9% vs. 74.6% for PPLs>20mm and PPLs≤20mm; p=0.19, and 82.9% vs. 71.1% for malignancy and benign diseases; p=0.09). TBLB rendered the highest yield among these specimens (69.0%, 50.6%, 42.0%, and 44.3% for TBLB, brushing smear, brush rinse fluid, and BALF, respectively; p<0.001). The combination of TBLB, brush smear, and BALF provided the greatest diagnostic yield, while brush rinse fluid did not add benefits to the outcomes. R-EBUS-guided bronchoscopy is a useful technique in the diagnosis of PPLs. To achieve the highest diagnostic performance, TBLB, brushing smear and bronchoalveolar lavage should be performed together. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Large-scale synthesis of bioinert tantalum oxide nanoparticles for X-ray computed tomography imaging and bimodal image-guided sentinel lymph node mapping.

    PubMed

    Oh, Myoung Hwan; Lee, Nohyun; Kim, Hyoungsu; Park, Seung Pyo; Piao, Yuanzhe; Lee, Jisoo; Jun, Samuel Woojoo; Moon, Woo Kyung; Choi, Seung Hong; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2011-04-13

    Ever since Au nanoparticles were developed as X-ray contrast agents, researchers have actively sought alternative nanoparticle-based imaging probes that are not only inexpensive but also safe for clinical use. Herein, we demonstrate that bioinert tantalum oxide nanoparticles are suitable nanoprobes for high-performance X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging while simultaneously being cost-effective and meeting the criteria as a biomedical platform. Uniformly sized tantalum oxide nanoparticles were prepared using a microemulsion method, and their surfaces were readily modified using various silane derivatives through simple in situ sol-gel reaction. The silane-modified surface enabled facile immobilization of functional moieties such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) and fluorescent dye. PEG was introduced to endow the nanoparticles with biocompatibility and antifouling activity, whereas immobilized fluorescent dye molecules enabled simultaneous fluorescence imaging as well as X-ray CT imaging. The resulting nanoparticles exhibited remarkable performances in the in vivo X-ray CT angiography and bimodal image-guided lymph node mapping. We also performed an extensive study on in vivo toxicity of tantalum oxide nanoparticles, revealing that the nanoparticles did not affect normal functioning of organs. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. Pulmonary mucormycosis diagnosed by convex probe endobronchial ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of cavity wall

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Vidya; Sharma, Rahul Kumar; Khanna, Arjun; Talwar, Deepak

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary mucormycosis is an opportunistic fungal infection in immunocompromised individuals. It is difficult to diagnose as it requires tissue biopsy, and generally these patients are unfit to undergo invasive lung biopsies. We describe a novel technique in a case with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus with nonresolving pulmonary cavitary disease where convex probe endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided aspiration of lung cavity wall showed classical histopathological picture establishing the diagnosis of mucorale infection. EBUS being real-time, minimally invasive technique with minimal risk of complications, led to early diagnosis, and prompt treatment. This appears to be a novel diagnostic modality in pulmonary mucormycosis with minimal complications as compared with other biopsy methods with very high complication risk. PMID:28360470

  18. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for conjunctival malignant melanoma: surgical techniques

    PubMed Central

    Wainstein, Alberto JA; Drummond-Lage, Ana P; Kansaon, Milhem JM; Bretas, Gustavo O; Almeida, Rodrigo F; Gloria, Ana LF; Figueiredo, Ana RP

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this report is to examine the viability and safety of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and radio guided sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for conjunctival melanoma, and to identify the best technique to perform this procedure. Methods Three patients diagnosed with malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva underwent lymphoscintigraphy and SLN biopsy using a dual technique comprising isosulfan blue dye and technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid. Each patient was anesthetized and the conjunctival melanoma was excised. SLNs were localized by a gamma probe, identified according to radioactivity and sentinel blue printing, and dissected, along with drainage of the associated lymphatic basins. The SLNs were evaluated by a pathologist using hematoxylin-eosin staining following serial sectioning and immunohistochemistry using a triple melanoma cocktail (S-100, Melan-A, and HMB-45 antigens). Results Two SLNs were stained in the jugular chain during preoperative lymphoscintigraphy in the first patient, two SLNs were identified in the preauricular and submandibular areas in the second patient, and two SLNs were identified in the submandibular and parotid areas in the third patient. All lymph nodes identified by lymphoscintigraphy were dissected and identified at surgery with 100% accuracy in all three patients. All SLNs were histologically and immunohistochemically negative. Patients had good cosmetic and functional results, and maintained their visual acuity and ocular motility. Conclusion Patients with conjunctival melanoma can undergo preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and SLN biopsy safely using radioactive technetium and isosulfan blue dye. PMID:25565762

  19. Sentinel-2 mission status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoersch, Bianca

    2017-04-01

    The SENTINEL-2 mission is the European Multispectral Imaging Mission for the Copernicus joint initiative of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA). The SENTINEL-2 mission includes 13-spectral band multispectral optical imager with different resolution (down to 10 m) and a swath width of 290km. It provides very short revisit times and rapid product delivery. The mission is composed of a constellation of two satellite units, SENTINEL-2A and SENTINEL-2B, sharing the same orbital plane and featuring a short repeat cycle of 5 days at the equator optimized to mitigate the impact of clouds for science and applications. SENTINEL-2 enables exploitation for a variety of land and coastal applications such as agriculture, forestry, land cover and land cover change, urban mapping, emergency, as well as inland water, ice, glaciers and also coastal zone and closed seas applications. Following the launch of the Sentinel-2A in June 2015 and successful operations and data delivery since December 2015, the Sentinel-2B satellite is set for launch in March 2017. The full operation capacity is foreseen after the in-orbit commissioning phase of the Sentinel-2B unit in early summer 2017. The objective of the talk is to provide information about the mission status, and the way to achieve full operational capacity with 2 satellites.

  20. Dominant hand operating probe vs needle: a comparison study of ultrasound-guided needle placement in phantom models.

    PubMed

    Johnston, D F; Stafford, M

    2015-08-01

    We conducted a replicated crossover design study to assess if using one's dominant hand for operating a probe vs directing a needle would affect the time taken, the number of needle passes and the accuracy of an ultrasound-guided procedure in phantom models. Twenty ultrasound-novice participants completed the task 10 times for each hand arrangement (alternating between attempts). The time taken and number of needle passes required for both dominant hand-probe and hand-needle decreased over time (p = 0.001). Dominant hand-needle had a lower mean time used (p = 0.001) and fewer needle passes (p = 0.02) compared with hand-probe. Sixty-five per cent of participants preferred using their dominant hand to direct the needle. When learning ultrasound-guided needle procedures on phantom models, use of the dominant hand to operate the needle is associated with a shorter procedure time and fewer needle passes.

  1. Interventional multispectral photoacoustic imaging with a clinical linear array ultrasound probe for guiding nerve blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Wenfeng; West, Simeon J.; Nikitichev, Daniil I.; Ourselin, Sebastien; Beard, Paul C.; Desjardins, Adrien E.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate identification of tissue structures such as nerves and blood vessels is critically important for interventional procedures such as nerve blocks. Ultrasound imaging is widely used as a guidance modality to visualize anatomical structures in real-time. However, identification of nerves and small blood vessels can be very challenging, and accidental intra-neural or intra-vascular injections can result in significant complications. Multi-spectral photoacoustic imaging can provide high sensitivity and specificity for discriminating hemoglobin- and lipid-rich tissues. However, conventional surface-illumination-based photoacoustic systems suffer from limited sensitivity at large depths. In this study, for the first time, an interventional multispectral photoacoustic imaging (IMPA) system was used to image nerves in a swine model in vivo. Pulsed excitation light with wavelengths in the ranges of 750 - 900 nm and 1150 - 1300 nm was delivered inside the body through an optical fiber positioned within the cannula of an injection needle. Ultrasound waves were received at the tissue surface using a clinical linear array imaging probe. Co-registered B-mode ultrasound images were acquired using the same imaging probe. Nerve identification was performed using a combination of B-mode ultrasound imaging and electrical stimulation. Using a linear model, spectral-unmixing of the photoacoustic data was performed to provide image contrast for oxygenated and de-oxygenated hemoglobin, water and lipids. Good correspondence between a known nerve location and a lipid-rich region in the photoacoustic images was observed. The results indicate that IMPA is a promising modality for guiding nerve blocks and other interventional procedures. Challenges involved with clinical translation are discussed.

  2. Doppler Endoscopic Probe as a Guide to Risk Stratification and Definitive Hemostasis of Peptic Ulcer Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Dennis M.; Ohning, Gordon V.; Kovacs, Thomas OG; Ghassemi, Kevin A.; Jutabha, Rome; Dulai, Gareth S.; Machicado, Gustavo A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims For more than 4 decades endoscopists have relied on ulcer stigmata for risk stratification and as a guide to hemostasis. None used arterial blood flow underneath stigmata to predict outcomes. For patients with severe peptic ulcer bleeding (PUBs), we used Doppler endoscopic probe (DEP) for: 1. detection of blood flow underlying stigmata of recent hemorrhage (SRH), 2. quantitating rates of residual arterial blood flow under SRH after visually directed standard endoscopic treatment, and 3. comparing risks of rebleeding and actual 30 day rebleed rates for spurting arterial bleeding (Forrest – FIA) and oozing bleeding (FIB). Methods Prospective cohort study of 163 consecutive patients with severe PUBs and different SRH. Results All blood flow detected by DEP was arterial. Detection rates were 87.4% in major SRH - spurting arterial bleeding (FIA), non bleeding visible vessel (FIIA), clot (FIIB) - and significantly lower at 42.3% (p<0.0001) for intermediate group of oozing bleeding (FIB) or flat spot (FIIC). For spurting bleeding (FIA) vs. oozing (FIB), baseline DEP arterial flow was 100% vs. 46.7%; residual blood flow detected after endoscopic hemostasis was 35.7% vs. 0%; and 30 day rebleed rates were 28.6% vs. 0% (all p<0.05). Conclusions 1. For major SRH vs. oozing or spot, the arterial blood flow detection rates by DEP was significantly higher, indicating a higher rebleed risk. 2. Before and after endoscopic treatment, spurting FIA PUB’s had significantly higher rates of blood flow detection than oozing FIB PUB’s and a significantly higher 30 rebleed rate. 3. DEP is recommended as a new endoscopic guide with SRH to improve risk stratification and potentially definitive hemostasis for PUBs. PMID:26318834

  3. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxygglucose-guided breast cancer surgery with a positron-sensitive probe: Validation in preclinical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Raylman, R.R.; Fisher, S.J.; Brown, R.S.; Ethier, S.P.; Wahl, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    In this study, the feasibility of utilizing 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) in conjunction with a positron-sensitive intraoperative probe to guide breast tumor excision was investigated. The probe was constructed with a plastic scintillator tip coupled to a photomultiplier tube with fiber optic cable. Anticipated resolution degradation was evaluated by measurement of line spread functions in the presence of background radiation. Realistic photon background distributions were simulated with a human torso phantom and a cardiac insert. The relationship between resolution and energy threshold was measured to find the optimal discriminator settings. In addition, probe sensitivity as a function of energy threshold was determined for various size-simulated tumors. Finally, the ability to localize breast cancers in vivo was tested in a rodent model. Mammary rat tumors implanted in Lewis rats were examined after injection with FDG; these results were correlated with those of histologic analyses. Measurements of line spread functions indicated that resolution could be maximized in a realistic background photon environment by increasing the energy threshold to levels at or above the Compton continuum edge (340 keV). At this setting, the probe`s sensitivity was determined to be 58 and 11 cps/{mu}Ci for 3.18- and 6.35-mm diameter simulated tumors, respectively. Probe readings correlated well with histologic results; the probe was generally able to discriminate between tumor and normal tissue. This study indicates that breast cancer surgery guided by a positron-sensitive probe warrants future evaluation in breast-conserving surgery of patients with breast cancer. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  4. An Intraoperative β- Detecting Probe for Radio-Guided Surgery in Tumour Resection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russomando, Andrea; Bellini, Fabio; Bocci, Valerio; Collamati, Francesco; De Lucia, Erika; Faccini, Riccardo; Marafini, Michela; Mattei, Ilaria; Chiodi, Giacomo; Patera, Vincenzo; Recchia, Luigi; Sarti, Alessio; Sciubba, Adalberto; Camillocci, Elena Solfaroli; Paramatti, Riccardo; Voena, Cecilia; Donnarumma, Raffaella; Mancini-Terracciano, Carlo; Morganti, Silvio

    2016-10-01

    The development of the β- based radio-guided surgery aims to extend the technique to those tumours where surgery is the only possible treatment and the assessment of the resection would most profit from the low background around the lesion, as for brain tumours. To validate the technique, prototypes of the intraoperative β- probe have been developed. This paper discusses the design details of one of the prototypes and its tests performed in laboratory. In such tests particular care has to be taken to reproduce the surgical field conditions. The tests showed that the prototype under study has 70% efficiency on electrons with an energy threshold at 540 keV, a point-like resolution of 2.8±0.1 mm, and a sensitivity to photons lower than 1%. The tests also demonstrated, with an innovative technique to produce specific phantoms, that 0.5 ml residuals can be safely identified in 1 s with tumor-non-tumor ratio equal to 10.

  5. Sentinel-1 Instrument Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeij, Paul; Torres, Ramon; Geudtner, Dirk; Brown, Michael; Deghaye, Patrick; Navas-Traver, Ignacio; Ostergaard, Allan; Rommen, Bjorn; Floury, Nicolas; Davidson, Malcolm

    2013-03-01

    The forthcoming European Space Agency (ESA) Sentinel-1 (S-1) C-band SAR constellation will provide continuous all-weather day/night global coverage, with six days exact repetition time (near daily coverage over Europe and Canada) and with radar data delivery within 3 to 24 hours. These features open new possibilities for operational maritime services. The Sentinel-1 space segment has been designed and is being built by an industrial consortium with Thales Alenia Space Italia as prime contractor and EADS Astrium GmbH as C-SAR instrument responsible. It is expected that Sentinel-1A be launched in 2013. This paper will provide an overview of the Sentinel-1 system, the status and characteristics of the technical implementation. The key elements of the system supporting the maritime user community will be highlighted.

  6. Measurement of two-dimensional periodical flow behind turbine guide-vanes by means of a split-fiber probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, H.

    1985-06-01

    The accuracy of a split fiber hot-sensor anemometer in measuring nonstationary flow behind turbine guide vanes is discussed. The techniques used to calibrate split fiber probes are described, and experimental results are presented concerning the sources of error in flow measurements over a temperature range of 20 degrees. It is shown that the split fiber anemometer design compares favorably with hot-wire anemometers which require additional instrumentation for transforming the measuring value into an electrical signal.

  7. Guided Growth and Electrical Probing of Neurons on Arrays of Biofunctionalized GaAs/InGaAs Semiconductor Microtubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bausch, Cornelius S.; Koitmäe, Aune; Stava, Eric; Diedrich, Daniel; Price, Amanda; Resto, Pedro J.; Sonnenberg, David; Heyn, Christian; Justin, Williams; Dent, Erik; Blick, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate embedded growth of cortical mouse neurons in dense arrays of semiconductor microtubes. The microtubes, fabricated from a strained GaAs/InGaAs heterostructure, guide axon growth through them and enable electrical and optical probing of propagating action potentials. The coaxial nature of the microtubes -- similar to myelin -- is expected to enhance the signal transduction along the axon. We present a technique of suppressing arsenic toxicity and prove the success of this technique by overgrowing neuronal mouse cells.

  8. VLBI for Gravity Probe B. V. Proper Motion and Parallax of the Guide Star, IM Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratner, M. I.; Bartel, N.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Lebach, D. E.; Lestrade, J.-F.; Ransom, R. R.; Shapiro, I. I.

    2012-07-01

    We present the principal astrometric results of the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program undertaken in support of the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) relativity mission. VLBI observations of the GP-B guide star, the RS CVn binary IM Pegasi (HR 8703), yielded positions at 35 epochs between 1997 and 2005. We discuss the statistical assumptions behind these results and our methods for estimating the systematic errors. We find the proper motion of IM Peg in an extragalactic reference frame closely related to the International Celestial Reference Frame 2 (ICRF2) to be -20.83 ± 0.03 ± 0.09 mas yr-1 in right ascension and -27.27 ± 0.03 ± 0.09 mas yr-1 in declination. For each component, the first uncertainty is the statistical standard error and the second is the total standard error (SE) including plausible systematic errors. We also obtain a parallax of 10.37 ± 0.07 mas (distance: 96.4 ± 0.7 pc), for which there is no evidence of any significant contribution of systematic error. Our parameter estimates for the ~25 day period orbital motion of the stellar radio emission have SEs corresponding to ~0.10 mas on the sky in each coordinate. The total SE of our estimate of IM Peg's proper motion is ~30% smaller than the accuracy goal set by the GP-B project before launch: 0.14 mas yr-1 for each coordinate of IM Peg's proper motion. Our results ensure that the uncertainty in IM Peg's proper motion makes only a very small contribution to the uncertainty of the GP-B relativity tests.

  9. VLBI FOR GRAVITY PROBE B. V. PROPER MOTION AND PARALLAX OF THE GUIDE STAR, IM PEGASI

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, M. I.; Lebach, D. E.; Shapiro, I. I.; Bartel, N.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Ransom, R. R.; Lestrade, J.-F.

    2012-07-01

    We present the principal astrometric results of the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program undertaken in support of the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) relativity mission. VLBI observations of the GP-B guide star, the RS CVn binary IM Pegasi (HR 8703), yielded positions at 35 epochs between 1997 and 2005. We discuss the statistical assumptions behind these results and our methods for estimating the systematic errors. We find the proper motion of IM Peg in an extragalactic reference frame closely related to the International Celestial Reference Frame 2 (ICRF2) to be -20.83 {+-} 0.03 {+-} 0.09 mas yr{sup -1} in right ascension and -27.27 {+-} 0.03 {+-} 0.09 mas yr{sup -1} in declination. For each component, the first uncertainty is the statistical standard error and the second is the total standard error (SE) including plausible systematic errors. We also obtain a parallax of 10.37 {+-} 0.07 mas (distance: 96.4 {+-} 0.7 pc), for which there is no evidence of any significant contribution of systematic error. Our parameter estimates for the {approx}25 day period orbital motion of the stellar radio emission have SEs corresponding to {approx}0.10 mas on the sky in each coordinate. The total SE of our estimate of IM Peg's proper motion is {approx}30% smaller than the accuracy goal set by the GP-B project before launch: 0.14 mas yr{sup -1} for each coordinate of IM Peg's proper motion. Our results ensure that the uncertainty in IM Peg's proper motion makes only a very small contribution to the uncertainty of the GP-B relativity tests.

  10. SU-E-J-205: Monte Carlo Modeling of Ultrasound Probes for Real-Time Ultrasound Image-Guided Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hristov, D; Schlosser, J; Bazalova, M; Chen, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify the effect of ultrasound (US) probe beam attenuation for radiation therapy delivered under real-time US image guidance by means of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Methods: MC models of two Philips US probes, an X6-1 matrix-array transducer and a C5-2 curved-array transducer, were built based on their CT images in the EGSnrc BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc codes. Due to the metal parts, the probes were scanned in a Tomotherapy machine with a 3.5 MV beam. Mass densities in the probes were assigned based on an electron density calibration phantom consisting of cylinders with mass densities between 0.2–8.0 g/cm{sup 3}. Beam attenuation due to the probes was measured in a solid water phantom for a 6 MV and 15 MV 15x15 cm{sup 2} beam delivered on a Varian Trilogy linear accelerator. The dose was measured with the PTW-729 ionization chamber array at two depths and compared to MC simulations. The extreme case beam attenuation expected in robotic US image guided radiotherapy for probes in upright position was quantified by means of MC simulations. Results: The 3.5 MV CT number to mass density calibration curve was found to be linear with R{sup 2} > 0.99. The maximum mass densities were 4.6 and 4.2 g/cm{sup 3} in the C5-2 and X6-1 probe, respectively. Gamma analysis of the simulated and measured doses revealed that over 98% of measurement points passed the 3%/3mm criteria for both probes and measurement depths. The extreme attenuation for probes in upright position was found to be 25% and 31% for the C5-2 and X6-1 probe, respectively, for both 6 and 15 MV beams at 10 cm depth. Conclusion: MC models of two US probes used for real-time image guidance during radiotherapy have been built. As a Result, radiotherapy treatment planning with the imaging probes in place can now be performed. J Schlosser is an employee of SoniTrack Systems, Inc. D Hristov has financial interest in SoniTrack Systems, Inc.

  11. JOURNAL CLUB: Ultrasound-Guided Breast Interventions: Low Incidence of Infectious Complications With Use of an Uncovered Probe.

    PubMed

    Reisenauer, Chris; Fazzio, Robert T; Hesley, Gina

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of infectious complications after ultrasound-guided breast interventions performed with an intermediate-level disinfection protocol without an ultrasound probe cover. Two independent institutional databases were searched to identify breast infections in patients who underwent ultrasound-guided interventions between January 2005 and July 2013. The departments of radiology and infectious diseases independently maintained these databases. A comprehensive retrospective chart review based on periprocedural antibiotic use and clinical documentation of infection was also performed to reduce the likelihood of missing potential infectious complications. A total of 12,708 ultrasound-guided breast procedures were performed in the time frame of this study. All potential cases of procedure-related infection were included for subspecialist review in an effort to give the most conservative (highest) estimate of infectious complications. Among these cases, 14 documented cases of possible procedure-related infection were identified, for an overall incidence of 0.11%. All infections were localized skin or soft-tissue infections and adequately treated with a short course of oral antibiotics. No cases of more serious infections or sepsis were found. None of the reported infections required IV antibiotic therapy, percutaneous intervention, surgical intervention, or hospitalization. The incidence of infectious complications after an ultrasound-guided breast intervention without an ultrasound probe cover is extremely low. Physicians can use this information in the development of their disinfection protocols and to provide accurate information in counseling patients during preprocedural consultation.

  12. Most frequent location of the sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chiao; Lee, Po-Chu; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Huang, Chiun-Sheng

    2014-07-01

    Inappropriate skin incisions can make sentinel lymph node dissection difficult. A knowledge of the most common locations of the hotspot in the axilla helps in planning the incision. This information also helps to locate the lymph node preoperatively by ultrasound. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the most common location of the sentinel lymph node in the axilla. From January 2006 to December 2010, 974 consecutive patients who underwent sentinel lymph node dissection guided by (99m)Tc-sulfur colloid were included and the position of the hotspot in the axilla was recorded prospectively. The location of the hottest spot on the skin of the axilla was categorized into seven areas divided by five landmarks. In 98.4% of our patients, the hotspot detected on the axilla skin before sentinel lymph node dissection was located in the area demarcated by the four landmarks of the hairline, a line tangential to and 2 cm below the center of the hairline, the lateral border of the pectoralis major muscle, and the mid-axillary line. The area between these four landmarks is the most frequent location of the sentinel lymph node identified using the radioisotope method. We suggest that this area should be carefully evaluated preoperatively by ultrasound for appropriate surgical planning. A skin incision in this area is also recommended when sentinel lymph node dissection is guided by blue dye. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Characterizing nanoscale scanning probes using electron microscopy: A novel fixture and a practical guide

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Tevis D. B.; Wabiszewski, Graham E.; Goodman, Alexander J.; Carpick, Robert W.

    2016-01-15

    The nanoscale geometry of probe tips used for atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements determines the lateral resolution, contributes to the strength of the tip-surface interaction, and can be a significant source of uncertainty in the quantitative analysis of results. While inverse imaging of the probe tip has been used successfully to determine probe tip geometry, direct observation of the tip profile using electron microscopy (EM) confers several advantages: it provides direct (rather than indirect) imaging, requires fewer algorithmic parameters, and does not require bringing the tip into contact with a sample. In the past, EM-based observation of the probe tip has been achieved using ad hoc mounting methods that are constrained by low throughput, the risk of contamination, and repeatability issues. We report on a probe fixture designed for use in a commercial transmission electron microscope that enables repeatable mounting of multiple AFM probes as well as a reference grid for beam alignment. This communication describes the design, fabrication, and advantages of this probe fixture, including full technical drawings for machining. Further, best practices are discussed for repeatable, non-destructive probe imaging. Finally, examples of the fixture’s use are described, including characterization of common commercial AFM probes in their out-of-the-box condition.

  14. The clinical utility of combining pre-operative axillary ultrasonography and fine needle aspiration cytology with radionuclide guided sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients with palpable axillary lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Usmani, Sharjeel; Ahmed, Najeeb; Al Saleh, Noha; abu Huda, Fawaz; Amanguno, Henney G; Amir, Thasneem; al Kandari, Farida

    2015-12-01

    Clinically palpable lymph nodes (CPLN) are usually considered a contraindication to sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) but one third of these patients are node negative. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the clinical usefulness of combining SLNB and preoperative axillary ultrasonography (AUS) with FNAC in patients with clinically palpable but indeterminate axillary lymph nodes. Fifty three patients with primary breast cancer and CPLN (mean age, 51.6 years; median age 51 years; age range, 28-73 years) were included in the study. All patients underwent AUS and fine needle aspiration (FNAC) followed by SLNB in FNAC negative patients (Group A). Patients with proven metastasis subsequently had axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) (Group B). Standard SLN scintigraphy was performed 2-4h before surgery by injecting Tc-99m labeled nano-colloid intra-dermally in the periareolar region. Nodal metastases were documented at FNAC in 26 (49%) of the 53 patients with subsequent ALND (Group B). All 27 patients (51%) with negative FNAC results (Group A) underwent SLNB, which revealed metastasis in 6 (11%) patients. The remaining 21 (40%) patients were tumor negative and all these patients remain disease free during the follow-up period of 12-36 months with NPV of 100%. SLN was identified in all patients (100% success rate). Preoperative AUS sensitivity was 78%, specificity 76%, PPV 83%, NPV 69% and accuracy 77% (p=0.001). In comparison, ultrasound guided FNAC sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were 81%, 100%, 100%, 78%, 89% respectively (p=0.001). The inaccuracy of clinical assessment allows widening of indication of SLNB. Preoperative ultrasonography and guided FNAC can help in selecting the patients suitable for ALND or SLNB. Patients who are FNAC positive can proceed to ALND whilst FNAC negative samples can undergo SLNB. This combination strategy may be helpful in avoiding unnecessary ALND. Copyright © 2015

  15. Impact of non-axillary sentinel node biopsy on staging and treatment of breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Tanis, P J; Nieweg, O E; Valdés Olmos, R A; Peterse, J L; Rutgers, E J Th; Hoefnagel, C A; Kroon, B B R

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of lymphatic drainage to non-axillary sentinel nodes and to determine the implications of this phenomenon. A total of 549 breast cancer patients underwent lymphoscintigraphy after intratumoural injection of 99mTc-nanocolloid. The sentinel node was intraoperatively identified with the aid of intratumoural administered patent blue dye and a gamma-ray detection probe. Histopathological examination of sentinel nodes included step-sectioning at six levels and immunohistochemical staining. A sentinel node outside level I or II of the axilla was found in 149 patients (27%): internal mammary sentinel nodes in 86 patients, other non-axillary sentinel nodes in 44 and both internal mammary and other non-axillary sentinel nodes in nineteen patients. The intra-operative identification rate was 80%. Internal mammary metastases were found in seventeen patients and metastases in other non-axillary sentinel nodes in ten patients. Staging improved in 13% of patients with non-axillary sentinel lymph nodes and their treatment strategy was changed in 17%. A small proportion of clinically node negative breast cancer patients can be staged more precisely by biopsy of sentinel nodes outside level I and II of the axilla, resulting in additional decision criteria for postoperative regional or systemic therapy. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 705–710. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600359 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12232750

  16. [Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: accurate staging and individualized treatment].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Pengfe; Zhao, Rongrong; Cong, Binbin; Yang, Guoren; Liu, Yanbing; Chen, Peng; Sun, Xiao; Wang, Chunjian; Wang, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of routinely performed internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) on the staging and treatment, and to analyze the success rate, complications and learning curve. All patients with biopsy-proven breast cancer who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy between 2012 and 2014 were included in a prospective analysis. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) was performed in all patients with IM-SLN visualized on preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and/or detected by intraoperative gamma probe detection. The adjuvant treatment plan was adjusted according to the current guidelines. In a total of 349 patients, 249 patients (71.1%) showed internal mammary drainage. IM-SLNB was performed in 153 patients with internal mammary drainage, with a success rate of IM-SLNB of 97.4% (149/153). Pleural lesion and internal mammary artery bleeding were found in 7.2% and 5.2% patients, respectively. In 8.1% of patients (12/149) the IM-SLN was tumor positive. In the group of patients who underwent IM-SLNB, lymph node staging was changed in 8.1% of patients, and IMLNs radiotherapy was guided by these results, however, systemic treatment was changed in only 0.7% of the patients. IM-SLNB has a high successful rate and good safety. Identification of internal mammary metastases through IM-SLNB may provide more accurate staging and guide the tailored internal mammary radiotherapy. ClinicalTrials. gov, NCT01642511.

  17. User's guide for the computer code COLTS for calculating the coupled laminar and turbulent flow over a Jovian entry probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, A.; Graeves, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    A user's guide for a computer code 'COLTS' (Coupled Laminar and Turbulent Solutions) is provided which calculates the laminar and turbulent hypersonic flows with radiation and coupled ablation injection past a Jovian entry probe. Time-dependent viscous-shock-layer equations are used to describe the flow field. These equations are solved by an explicit, two-step, time-asymptotic finite-difference method. Eddy viscosity in the turbulent flow is approximated by a two-layer model. In all, 19 chemical species are used to describe the injection of carbon-phenolic ablator in the hydrogen-helium gas mixture. The equilibrium composition of the mixture is determined by a free-energy minimization technique. A detailed frequency dependence of the absorption coefficient for various species is considered to obtain the radiative flux. The code is written for a CDC-CYBER-203 computer and is capable of providing solutions for ablated probe shapes also.

  18. Experimental canine model for sentinel lymph node biopsy in the vulva using technetium and patent blue dye.

    PubMed

    Aquino, José Ulcijara; Pinheiro, Luiz Gonzaga Porto; Vasques, Paulo Henrique Diógenes; Rocha, João Ivo Xavier; Cruz, Diego Alves; Beserra, Hugo Enrique Orsini; Cavalcante, Raissa Vasconcelos

    2012-02-01

    This paper aims to study and define the experimental model of sentinel lymph node biopsy of the vulva in bitches. 0.2 ml of 99mTc phytate was injected intradermally, using a fine gauge insulin needle in the anterior commissure of the vulva. Thirty minutes after 99mTc injection, the inguinal mapping was performed using a gamma probe. After this, 0.5 ml of blue dye (bleu patenté V Guerbet 2.5%) was injected in the same place. After 15 minutes, a 3 cm long inguinal incision was made at point maximum uptake followed by careful dissection, guided by visualization of a bluish afferent lymphatic system that points to the sentinel lymph node (SLN). It was observed that 88% of SLN were identified. It wasn't found a significant difference among the presence or not of sentinel lymph node in the sides, which is an indication of a good consistency. It was observed a high (88%) and significant (χ2=12.89 and p=0.0003) intercession between both methods (blue dye and radiation). The experimental model adopted is feasible, becoming advantageous in applying the association of Patent blue and 99mTc.

  19. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with extramammary Paget's disease.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Naohito; Morita, Reiji; Yamada, Mizuki; Echigo, Takeshi; Hirano, Takashi; Takehara, Kazuhiko; Ichiyanagi, Kenji; Yokoyama, Kunihiko

    2004-10-01

    Patients with invasive extramammary Paget's disease appear to have a risk of regional lymph node metastasis. Despite the poor prognosis for patients with lymph node metastasis, management of extramammary Paget's disease without clinical evidence of involved nodes is controversial. To evaluate the usefulness of sentinel lymph node biopsy, patients with extramammary Paget's disease underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy using preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative patent blue dye injection with a handheld gamma-detecting probe. Thirteen patients with primary genital extramammary Paget's disease were included in the study. Sentinel nodes identified were excised and examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. All sentinel lymph nodes were also subjected to immunohistochemical staining for carcinoembryonic antigen, MUC1, cytokeratin 7, and gross cystic disease fluid protein-15. A total of 23 nodes were removed successfully. Tumor cells were detected in 4 nodes from four patients by hematoxylin and eosin staining. No additional lymph nodes were positive by immunohistochemistry. Three of the four sentinel-node-positive patients developed distant metastases. All nine patients without node involvement were free from disease during the follow-up period. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was safe and feasible method and may have an important role in the management of extramammary Paget's disease with clinically N0 status. To establish the optimal management of inguinal lymph nodes in extramammary Paget's disease, additional studies in large number of patients are needed.

  20. The efficacy of transgingival probing in class II buccal furcation defects treated by guided tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Monika; Singh, Tej Bali

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objectives of the present study were to establish transgingival probing as an evaluating method in the clinical studies of periodontal regenerative techniques and to compare the effectiveness of transgingival probing to the surgical entry. Materials and Methods: Ten systemically healthy persons (20–50 years) with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis participated in this study. These cases were recruited into the study only when they fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Vertical probing depth (VPD) and horizontal probing depth (HPD) of furcation defects were measured with and without opening the flap, following local anesthesia during initial surgery and at 6 months after collagen membrane placement. The defect fill (DF) was also noted. The mean measurements of clinical parameters were compared by two-tailed paired t-test at 5% level of significance. Results: The difference between the measurements of VPD and HPD taken during transgingival probing and after opening the flap was lie in the range of 0.10–0.30 mm at the time of initial surgery and 6 months after surgery that was not statistically significant. Persons experienced slight discomfort or pain during opening the flap as compared to transgingival probing, and this method was also appreciated by the patients as it is easy, simple and does not involve the surgical procedure. Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that measurements recorded during transgingival probing and after opening the flap do not influence the required outcome of regenerative therapies, i.e., DF that was not statistically significant difference from surgical reentry. Therefore, it was concluded that transgingival probing could be used as evaluating parameters to see the outcome of regenerative surgeries and the surgical reentry procedure may be avoided because it is a second surgical procedure, time-consuming and interrupts the healing process. PMID:28298820

  1. In vivo reproducibility of robotic probe placement for a novel ultrasound-guided radiation therapy system

    PubMed Central

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Sen, H. Tutkun; Iordachita, Iulian; Kazanzides, Peter; Wong, John

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Ultrasound can provide real-time image guidance of radiation therapy, but the probe-induced tissue deformations cause local deviations from the treatment plan. If placed during treatment planning, the probe causes streak artifacts in required computed tomography (CT) images. To overcome these challenges, we propose robot-assisted placement of an ultrasound probe, followed by replacement with a geometrically identical, CT-compatible model probe. In vivo reproducibility was investigated by implanting a canine prostate, liver, and pancreas with three 2.38-mm spherical markers in each organ. The real probe was placed to visualize the markers and subsequently replaced with the model probe. Each probe was automatically removed and returned to the same position or force. Under position control, the median three-dimensional reproducibility of marker positions was 0.6 to 0.7 mm, 0.3 to 0.6 mm, and 1.1 to 1.6 mm in the prostate, liver, and pancreas, respectively. Reproducibility was worse under force control. Probe substitution errors were smallest for the prostate (0.2 to 0.6 mm) and larger for the liver and pancreas (4.1 to 6.3 mm), where force control generally produced larger errors than position control. Results indicate that position control is better than force control for this application, and the robotic approach has potential, particularly for relatively constrained organs and reproducibility errors that are smaller than established treatment margins. PMID:26158038

  2. Sentinel-1 And Sentinel-3 OLCI PAC At DLR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahmann, Thomas; Weber, Hans; Diedrich, Erhard; Schreier, Gunter

    2013-12-01

    GMES / Copernicus is the European Earth Observation Programme, conducted jointly by the EC, ESA, EUMETSAT and the member states. The Sentinel satellites (Copernicus space segment) are expected to be launched in 2014 (Sentinel-1A, -2A, and -3A). The core payload data ground segment (PDGS) is managed by ESA and operated by national partners. In this core ground segment, the DLR German Remote Sensing Data Center (DFD) was selected to install and operate Processing and Archiving Centers (PACs) for Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-3-OLCI. This paper describes the current status of the project “Preparation and Operations of the Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-3 OLCI Off- line Processing and Archiving Centre at DLR Oberpfaffenhofen (S1-PAC / S3-OLCI-PAC)”.

  3. Sentinel-2 Mission status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoersch, Bianca; Colin, Olivier; Gascon, Ferran; Arino, Olivier; Spoto, Francois; Marchese, Franco; Krassenburg, Mike; Koetz, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Copernicus is a joint initiative of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA), designed to establish a European capacity for the provision and use of operational monitoring information for environment and security applications. Within the Copernicus programme, ESA is responsible for the development of the Space Component, a fully operational space-based capability to supply earth-observation data to sustain environmental information Services in Europe. The Sentinel missions are Copernicus dedicated Earth Observation missions composing the essential elements of the Space Component. In the global Copernicus framework, they are complemented by other satellites made available by third-parties or by ESA and coordinated in the synergistic system through the Copernicus Data-Access system versus the Copernicus Services. The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission provides continuity to services relying on multi-spectral high-resolution optical observations over global terrestrial surfaces. Sentinel-2 capitalizes on the technology and the vast experience acquired in Europe and the US to sustain the operational supply of data for services such as forest monitoring, land cover changes detection or natural disasters management. The Sentinel-2 mission offers an unprecedented combination of the following capabilities: ○ Systematic global coverage of land surfaces: from 56°South to 84°North, coastal waters and Mediterranean sea; ○ High revisit: every 5 days at equator under the same viewing conditions with 2 satellites; ○ High spatial resolution: 10m, 20m and 60m; ○ Multi-spectral information with 13 bands in the visible, near infra-red and short wave infra-red part of the spectrum; ○ Wide field of view: 290 km. The data from the Sentinel-2 mission are available openly and freely for all users with online easy access since December 2015. The presentation will give a status report on the Sentinel-2 mission, and outlook for the remaining ramp-up Phase, the

  4. SNAP (Sentinel Application Platform) and the ESA Sentinel 3 Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhlke, Marco; Fomferra, Norman; Brockmann, Carsten; Peters, Marco; Veci, Luis; Malik, Julien; Regner, Peter

    2015-12-01

    ESA is developing three new free open source Toolboxes for the scientific exploitation of the Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 missions. The Toolboxes are based on a common software platform, namely the Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP). SNAP is an evolution of the proven ESA BEAM/NEST architecture inheriting all current BEAM and NEST functionality including multi-mission support for SAR and optical missions to support ESA and third party missions for years to come. The Sentinel-3 Toolbox includes generic function for visualisation and analysis of Sentinel-3 OLCI and SLSTR Level 1 and Level 2 data, as well as specific processing tools such as cloud screening, water constituent retrieval and SST retrieval. The Toolbox will put emphasis on access to remote in-situ databases such as Felyx or MERMAID, and exploitation of the data-uncertainty information which is included in the Sentinel-3 data products. New image classification, segmentation and filtering methods, as well as interoperability with the ORFEO Toolbox and the GDAL libraries will be additional new tools. New challenges stemming from Sentinel-3 sensors, such as raster data in different resolutions within a single dataset, will be supported gracefully. The development of SNAP and the Sentinel Toolboxes is funded through the “Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM)” programme, a new programme element of ESA’s fourth period of the Earth Observation Envelope Programme (2013-2017).

  5. Intra-Operative Lymphatic Mapping and Sentinel Node Biopsy in Laryngeal Carcinoma: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Khadivi, Ehsan; Daghighi, Maryam; Khazaeni, Kamran; Dabbagh Kakhki, Vahid Reza; Zarifmahmoudi, Leili; Sadeghi, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sentinel node mapping has been used for laryngeal carcinoma in several studies, with excellent results thus far. In the current study, we report our preliminary results on sentinel node mapping in laryngeal carcinoma using intra-operative peri-tumoral injection of a radiotracer. Materials and Methods: Patients with biopsy-proven squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx were included in the study. Two mCi/0.4 cc Tc-99m-phytate in four aliquots was injected on the day of surgery, after induction of anesthesia, in the sub-mucosal peri-tumoral location using a suspension laryngoscopy. After waiting for 10 minutes, a portable gamma probe was used to search for sentinel nodes. All patients underwent laryngectomy and modified radical bilateral neck dissection. All sentinel nodes and removed non-sentinel nodes were examined by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Results: Ten patients with laryngeal carcinoma were included. At least one sentinel node could be detected in five patients (bilateral nodes in four patients). One patient had pathologically involved sentinel and non-sentinel nodes (no false-negative cases). Conclusion: Sentinel node mapping in laryngeal carcinoma is technically feasible using an intra-operative radiotracer injection. In order to evaluate the relationship of T-stage and the laterality of the tumor with accuracy, larger studies are needed. PMID:26788477

  6. Sentinel-3 for Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, J.; Regner, P.; Desnos, Y. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Scientific Exploitation of Operational Mission (SEOM) programme element (http://seom.esa.int/) is part of the ESA's Fourth Earth Observation Envelope Programme (2013-2017). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM is enabling the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. The Programme is based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings such as the Sentinel-3 for Science Workshop held last June in Venice, Italy (see http://seom.esa.int/S3forScience2015). The 2015 SEOM work plan includes the launch of new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels, the development of open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes, the organization of advanced international training courses, summer schools and educational materials, as well as activities for promoting the scientific use of EO data, also via the organization of Workshops. This paper will report the recommendations from the International Scientific Community concerning the Sentinel-3 Scientific Exploitation, as expressed in Venice, keeping in mind that Sentinel-3 is an operational mission to provide operational services (see http://www.copernicus.eu).

  7. Automatic transperineal ultrasound probe positioning based on CT scan for image guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camps, S. M.; Verhaegen, F.; Paiva Fonesca, G.; de With, P. H. N.; Fontanarosa, D.

    2017-03-01

    Image interpretation is crucial during ultrasound image acquisition. A skilled operator is typically needed to verify if the correct anatomical structures are all visualized and with sufficient quality. The need for this operator is one of the major reasons why presently ultrasound is not widely used in radiotherapy workflows. To solve this issue, we introduce an algorithm that uses anatomical information derived from a CT scan to automatically provide the operator with a patient-specific ultrasound probe setup. The first application we investigated, for its relevance to radiotherapy, is 4D transperineal ultrasound image acquisition for prostate cancer patients. As initial test, the algorithm was applied on a CIRS multi-modality pelvic phantom. Probe setups were calculated in order to allow visualization of the prostate and adjacent edges of bladder and rectum, as clinically required. Five of the proposed setups were reproduced using a precision robotic arm and ultrasound volumes were acquired. A gel-filled probe cover was used to ensure proper acoustic coupling, while taking into account possible tilted positions of the probe with respect to the flat phantom surface. Visual inspection of the acquired volumes revealed that clinical requirements were fulfilled. Preliminary quantitative evaluation was also performed. The mean absolute distance (MAD) was calculated between actual anatomical structure positions and positions predicted by the CT-based algorithm. This resulted in a MAD of (2.8±0.4) mm for prostate, (2.5±0.6) mm for bladder and (2.8±0.6) mm for rectum. These results show that no significant systematic errors due to e.g. probe misplacement were introduced.

  8. A Miniature Forward-imaging B-scan Optical Coherence Tomography Probe to Guide Real-time Laser Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhuoyan; Shen, Jin H.; Kozub, John A.; Prasad, Ratna; Lu, Pengcheng; Joos, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective Investigations have shown that pulsed lasers tuned to 6.1 μm in wavelength are capable of ablating ocular and neural tissue with minimal collateral damage. This study investigated whether a miniature B-scan forward-imaging optical coherence tomography (OCT) probe can be combined with the laser to provide real-time visual feedback during laser incisions. Study Design/Methods and Materials A miniature 25-gauge B-scan forward-imaging OCT probe was developed and combined with a 250 μm hollow-glass waveguide to permit delivery of 6.1 μm laser energy. A gelatin mixture and both porcine corneal and retinal tissues were simultaneously imaged and lased (6.1 μm, 10 Hz, 0.4-0.7 mJ) through air. The ablation studies were observed and recorded in real time. The crater dimensions were measured using OCT imaging software (Bioptigen, Durham, NC). Histological analysis was performed on the ocular tissues. Results The combined miniature forward-imaging OCT and mid-infrared laser-delivery probe successfully imaged real-time tissue ablation in gelatin, corneal tissue, and retinal tissue. Application of a constant number of 60 pulses at 0.5 mJ/pulse to the gelatin resulted in a mean crater depth of 123 ± 15 μm. For the corneal tissue, there was a significant correlation between the number of pulses used and depth of the lased hole (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.82; P = 0.0002). Histological analysis of the cornea and retina tissues showed discrete holes with minimal thermal damage. Conclusions A combined miniature OCT and laser -delivery probe can monitor real-time tissue laser ablation. With additional testing and improvements, this novel instrument has the future possibility of effectively guiding surgeries by simultaneously imaging and ablating tissue. PMID:24648326

  9. Gravity Probe B: Examining Einstein's Spacetime with Gyroscopes. An Educator's Guide with Activities in Space Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Range, Shannon K'doah; Mullins, Jennifer

    This teaching guide introduces a relativity gyroscope experiment aiming to test two unverified predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. An introduction to the theory includes the following sections: (1) "Spacetime, Curved Spacetime, and Frame-Dragging"; (2) "'Seeing' Spacetime with Gyroscopes"; (3)…

  10. Probing To Know: A Teachers' Guide to Exploring Critical Thinking and Adult Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Barbara E., Ed.

    This guide, designed for teachers and other workers in adult basic education, includes a variety of articles about teaching; counseling, and advocacy approaches; curriculum planning and evaluation, assessment; and program design based on personal experience. All focus on critical thinking as a teaching and learning skill. Article topics include:…

  11. Laparoscopic sentinel lymph node (SLN) versus extensive pelvic dissection for clinically localized prostate carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Caroline; Rousseau, Thierry; Bridji, Boumédiène; Pallardy, Amandine; Lacoste, Jacques; Campion, Loïc; Testard, Aude; Aillet, Geneviève; Mouaden, Ayat; Curtet, Chantal; Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise

    2012-02-01

    Lymph node metastasis is an important prognostic factor in prostate cancer (PC). The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the accuracy of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy by laparoscopy in staging locoregional patients with clinically localized PC. A transrectal ultrasound-guided injection of 0.3 ml/100 MBq (99m)Tc-sulphur rhenium colloid in each prostatic lobe was performed the day before surgery. Detection was performed intraoperatively with a laparoscopic probe (Gamma Sup CLERAD) followed by extensive resection. SLN counts were performed in vivo and confirmed ex vivo. Histological analysis was performed by haematoxylin-phloxine-saffron staining, followed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) if the SLN was free of metastasis. The study included 93 patients with PC at intermediate or high risk of lymph node metastases. The intraoperative detection rate was 93.5% (87/93). Nineteen patients had lymph node metastases, nine only in SLN. The false-negative rate was 10.5% (2/19). The internal iliac region was the primary metastatic site (43.3%). Metastatic sentinel nodes in the common iliac region beyond the ureteral junction were present in 13.3%. Limited or standard lymph node resection would have ignored 73.2 and 56.6% of lymph node metastases, respectively. Laparoscopy is suitable for broad identification of SLN metastasis, and targeted resection of these lymph nodes significantly limits the risk of extended surgical resection whilst maintaining the accuracy of the information.

  12. Ultrasound-guided probe-generated artifacts stimulating ventricular tachycardia: A rare phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Rafat; Haldar, Rudrashish; Kaushal, Ashutosh

    2017-01-01

    Electrocardiographic (ECG) artifacts may arise due to interference, faulty earthing, and current leakages in biomedical equipment which might create clinical dilemmas in the perioperative settings. Piezoelectric signals generated by ultrasonography probe are another uncommon source which might be sensed by the ECG electrodes and produce tracings similar to pathological arrhythmias triggering false alarms and avoidable therapies. Anesthesiologists should be familiar with these uncommon sources which might produce these artifacts and they should be identified swiftly. PMID:28217063

  13. Ultrasound-guided probe-generated artifacts stimulating ventricular tachycardia: A rare phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Rafat; Haldar, Rudrashish; Kaushal, Ashutosh

    2017-01-01

    Electrocardiographic (ECG) artifacts may arise due to interference, faulty earthing, and current leakages in biomedical equipment which might create clinical dilemmas in the perioperative settings. Piezoelectric signals generated by ultrasonography probe are another uncommon source which might be sensed by the ECG electrodes and produce tracings similar to pathological arrhythmias triggering false alarms and avoidable therapies. Anesthesiologists should be familiar with these uncommon sources which might produce these artifacts and they should be identified swiftly.

  14. Novel small Cajal-body-specific RNAs identified in Drosophila: probing guide RNA function

    PubMed Central

    Deryusheva, Svetlana; Gall, Joseph G.

    2013-01-01

    The spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are modified post-transcriptionally by introduction of pseudouridines and 2′-O-methyl modifications, which are mediated by box H/ACA and box C/D guide RNAs, respectively. Because of their concentration in the nuclear Cajal body (CB), these guide RNAs are known as small CB-specific (sca) RNAs. In the cell, scaRNAs are associated with the WD-repeat protein WDR79. We used coimmunoprecipitation with WDR79 to recover seven new scaRNAs from Drosophila cell lysates. We demonstrated concentration of these new scaRNAs in the CB by in situ hybridization, and we verified experimentally that they can modify their putative target RNAs. Surprisingly, one of the new scaRNAs targets U6 snRNA, whose modification is generally assumed to occur in the nucleolus, not in the CB. Two other scaRNAs have dual guide functions, one for an snRNA and one for 28S rRNA. Again, the modification of 28S rRNA is assumed to take place in the nucleolus. These findings suggest that canonical scaRNAs may have functions in addition to their established role in modifying U1, U2, U4, and U5 snRNAs. We discuss the likelihood that processing by scaRNAs is not limited to the CB. PMID:24149844

  15. Sentinel-3 For Land Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryl, Philippe; Gobron, Nadine; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Donlon, Craig; Bouvet, Marc; Buongiorno, Alessandra; Wilson, Hilary

    2016-07-01

    The Copernicus Programme, being Europe's Earth Observation and Monitoring Programme led by the European Union, aims to provide, on a sustainable basis, reliable and timely services related to environmental and security issues. The Sentinel-3 mission forms part of the Copernicus Space Component. Its main objectives, building on the heritage and experience of the European Space Agency's (ESA) ERS and ENVISAT missions, are to measure sea-surface topography, sea- and land-surface temperature and ocean- and land-surface colour in support of ocean forecasting systems, and for environmental and climate monitoring. The series of Sentinel-3 satellites will ensure global, frequent and near-real time ocean, ice and land monitoring, with the provision of observation data in a routine, long-term (up to 20 years of operations) and continuous fashion, with a consistent quality and a high level of reliability and availability. The launch of Sentinel-3 was successful last February 2016. The Sentinel-3 missions are jointly operated by ESA and EUMETSAT. ESA will be responsible for the operations, maintenance and evolution of the Sentinel-3 ground segment on land related products and EUMETSAT on the marine products and the satellite monitoring and control. All facilities supporting the Sentinel-3 operations are in place. The Sentinel-3 ground segment systematically acquires, processes and distributes a set of pre-defined core data products to the users. For a detailed description of the core data products please see https://earth.esa.int/web/sentinel/missions/sentinel-3/data-products. On request from the European Commission, ESA and EUMETSAT are presently assessing the possibility to include further core data products, in particular on aerosol optical depth, fire monitoring and synergistic products over land. This paper will provide an update on the status of the mission operations after the initial months in orbit and provide in particular an overview on the status of the Sentinel-3

  16. Automatic Segmentation and Probe Guidance for Real-Time Assistance of Ultrasound-Guided Femoral Nerve Blocks.

    PubMed

    Smistad, Erik; Iversen, Daniel Høyer; Leidig, Linda; Lervik Bakeng, Janne Beate; Johansen, Kaj Fredrik; Lindseth, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia can be challenging, especially for inexperienced physicians. The goal of the proposed methods is to create a system that can assist a user in performing ultrasound-guided femoral nerve blocks. The system indicates in which direction the user should move the ultrasound probe to investigate the region of interest and to reach the target site for needle insertion. Additionally, the system provides automatic real-time segmentation of the femoral artery, the femoral nerve and the two layers fascia lata and fascia iliaca. This aids in interpretation of the 2-D ultrasound images and the surrounding anatomy in 3-D. The system was evaluated on 24 ultrasound acquisitions of both legs from six subjects. The estimated target site for needle insertion and the segmentations were compared with those of an expert anesthesiologist. Average target distance was 8.5 mm with a standard deviation of 2.5 mm. The mean absolute differences of the femoral nerve and the fascia segmentations were about 1-3 mm.

  17. Fluorescence-Guided Probes of Aptamer-Targeted Gold Nanoparticles with Computed Tomography Imaging Accesses for in Vivo Tumor Resection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheng-Hung; Kuo, Tsung-Rong; Su, Hsin-Jan; Lai, Wei-Yun; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Chen, Jinn-Shiun; Wang, Di-Yan; Wu, Yi-Chun; Chen, Chia-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Recent development of molecular imaging probes for fluorescence-guided surgery has shown great progresses for determining tumor margin to execute the tissue resection. Here we synthesize the fluorescent gold nanoparticles conjugated with diatrizoic acid and nucleolin-targeted AS1411 aptamer. The nanoparticle conjugates exhibit high water-solubility, good biocompatibility, visible fluorescence and strong X-ray attenuation for computed tomography (CT) contrast enhancement. The fluorescent nanoparticle conjugates are applied as a molecular contrast agent to reveal the tumor location in CL1-5 tumor-bearing mice by CT imaging. Furthermore, the orange-red fluorescence emitting from the conjugates in the CL1-5 tumor can be easily visualized by the naked eyes. After the resection, the IVIS measurements show that the fluorescence signal of the nanoparticle conjugates in the tumor is greatly enhanced in comparison to that in the controlled experiment. Our work has shown potential application of functionalized nanoparticles as a dual-function imaging agent in clinical fluorescence-guided surgery. PMID:26507179

  18. Sentinel node detection and radioguided occult lesion localization in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Trifirò, Guiseppe; Lavinia Travaini, Laura; De Cicco, Concetta; Paganelli, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy might replace complete axillary dissection for staging of the axilla in clinically N0 breast cancer patients and represent a significant advantage as a minimally invasive procedure, considering that about 70% of patients are found to be free from metastatic disease, yet axillary node dissection can lead to significant morbidity. In our Institute, Radioguided Occult Lesion Localization is the standard method to locate non-palpable breast lesions and the gamma probes is very effective in assisting intra-operative localization and removal, as in sentinel node biopsy. The rapid spread of sentinel lymph node biopsy has led to its use in clinical settings previously considered contraindications to sentinel lymph node biopsy. In this contest, we evaluated in a large group of patients possible factors affecting sentinel node detection and the reliability of sentinel lymph node biopsy carried out after large excisional breast biopsy. Our data confirm that a previous breast surgery does not prohibit efficient sentinel lymph node localization and sentinel lymph node biopsy can correctly stage the axialla in these patients.

  19. Guided assembly of metal and hybrid conductive probes using floating potential dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Puigmartí-Luis, Josep; Stadler, Johannes; Schaffhauser, Daniel; del Pino, Angel Pérez; Burg, Brian R; Dittrich, Petra S

    2011-03-01

    We present the site-selective, parallel and reproducible formation of conductive gold and tetrathiafulvalene-gold (TTF-Au) hybrid micro- and nanowires from their respective ion salt and cation-radical solutions. While the formation of micro- and nanowires by means of dielectrophoresis with directly coupled electrodes has been thoroughly investigated in recent studies, we present here the first relevant example of metal and hybrid wire assembly obtained by floating potential dielectrophoresis. In this configuration, the assembly of micro- and nanowires is achieved by capacitively coupling a large electrode (bias electrode) to a conductive substrate (p-doped Si) separated by an insulating oxide layer. In contrast to former studies, this allows parallel production of micro- and nanowires with only one pair of electrodes connected to a sine wave generator. We further demonstrate that these structures are suitable probes for localized surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS).

  20. [SentiMag--the magnetic detection system of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Coufal, O; Fait, V; Lžičařová, E; Chrenko, V; Žaloudík, J

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of the new detection system of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer (SentiMag) and to compare its use to the standard method of detection with a radioisotope and a gamma-probe. Twenty breast cancer patients scheduled for sentinel lymph node biopsy underwent standard lymphatic mapping with a radioisotope and also with the Sienna+ tracer. During the surgery, sentinel lymph nodes were identified preferably with the SentiMag system. The gamma-probe was used only at the end of the surgery to verify whether all sentinel lymph nodes had been harvested. The sentinel lymph node was detected in all cases. Both methods agreed in 18 cases, i.e. the lymph node with the highest magnetic value ex vivo was the same node as the one with the highest radioactivity. A metastasis in the sentinel lymph node was found in three patients. It is very likely that with the sole use of the SentiMag system, the results would have been identical to those of using the standard method with a radioisotope and the gamma-probe. The new magnetic detection method of sentinel lymph nodes (SentiMag) is feasible and clinically comparable to the gold standard method of detection with a radioisotope and the gamma-probe in patients with breast cancer. The new method could find its use not only in hospitals where the department of nuclear medicine is not available but in all hospitals performing sentinel lymph node biopsies in breast cancer and possibly other types of cancer.

  1. Advancing molecular-guided surgery through probe development and testing in a moderate cost evaluation pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Hull, Sally M.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Gunn, Jason; Hoopes, Jack; Roberts, David W.; Strong, Theresa V.; Draney, Daniel; Feldwisch, Joachim

    2015-03-01

    Molecular guided oncology surgery has the potential to transform the way decisions about resection are done, and can be critically important in areas such as neurosurgery where the margins of tumor relative to critical normal tissues are not readily apparent from visual or palpable guidance. Yet there are major financial barriers to advancing agents into clinical trials with commercial backing. We observe that development of these agents in the standard biological therapeutic paradigm is not viable, due to the high up front financial investment needed and the limitations in the revenue models of contrast agents for imaging. The hypothesized solution to this problem is to develop small molecular biologicals tagged with an established fluorescent reporter, through the chemical agent approval pathway, targeting a phase 0 trials initially, such that the initial startup phase can be completely funded by a single NIH grant. In this way, fast trials can be completed to de-risk the development pipeline, and advance the idea of fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) reporters into human testing. As with biological therapies the potential successes of each agent are still moderate, but this process will allow the field to advance in a more stable and productive manner, rather than relying upon isolated molecules developed at high cost and risk. The pathway proposed and tested here uses peptide synthesis of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-binding Affibody molecules, uniquely conjugated to IRDye 800CW, developed and tested in academic and industrial laboratories with well-established records for GMP production, fill and finish, toxicity testing, and early phase clinical trials with image guidance.

  2. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma: is there a correlation of preoperative lymphatic mapping with sentinel lymph nodes harvested?

    PubMed

    Hudak, Kristen Ann; Hudak, Kevin E; Dzwierzynski, William W

    2015-04-01

    Nodal status is the most significant prognostic factor in melanoma. No study has examined the relationship between lymphoscintigraphy, γ probe counts, harvested nodes, and nodal status. Two-hundred sixty two patients were identified who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma between 2001 and 2010. Clinicopathologic and treatment information was collected. The number of lymph nodes and basins demonstrated on lymphoscintigraphy was compared to those at surgery. γ Probe counts were compared. Median age was 54.5 years (range, 18-90 years) with 52.3% male. Average Breslow depth was 2.0 (1.9) mm; 99.6% of lymphoscintigraphy studies identified at least 1 basin, 80% showed only 1 (range, 0-4). Lymphoscintigraphy identified on average 1.5 (0.9) sentinel nodes and 31% with secondary node. Surgery excised on average 2.6 (1.4) nodes involving 1.2 (0.5) basins; 17.6% had a positive sentinel lymph node. There was no difference in the sum or average of γ counts between positive and negative sentinel lymph node groups (P = 0.2, P = 0.5). When comparing lymphoscintigraphy and surgical excision, the correlation of lymphatic basins was r = 0.67 and of lymph node numbers was r = 0.33. Lymphoscintigraphy should be used to identify the proper lymphatic basins for a sentinel node procedure, however, the removal of nodes must continue until the background count is less than 10%. The correlation of lymph node number identified on lymphoscintigraphy to surgical excision is weak. γ Probe counts cannot be used to differentiate positive from negative nodes and the positive lymph node is not always the hottest node.

  3. High risk of non-sentinel node metastases in a group of breast cancer patients with micrometastases in the sentinel node.

    PubMed

    Tvedskov, Tove Filtenborg; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Lisse, Ida Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Balslev, Eva; Kroman, Niels

    2012-11-15

    Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel nodes is under debate. We aimed to establish two models to predict non-sentinel node (NSN) metastases in patients with micrometastases or isolated tumor cells (ITC) in sentinel nodes, to guide the decision for ALND. A total of 1,577 breast cancer patients with micrometastases and 304 with ITC in sentinel nodes, treated by sentinel lymph node dissection and ALND in 2002-2008 were identified in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group database. Risk of NSN metastases was calculated according to clinicopathological variables in a logistic regression analysis. We identified tumor size, proportion of positive sentinel nodes, lymphovascular invasion, hormone receptor status and location of tumor in upper lateral quadrant of the breast as risk factors for NSN metastases in patients with micrometastases. A model based on these risk factors identified 5% of patients with a risk of NSN metastases on nearly 40%. The model was however unable to identify a subgroup of patients with a very low risk of NSN metastases. Among patients with ITC, we identified tumor size, age and proportion of positive sentinel nodes as risk factors. A model based on these risk factors identified 32% of patients with risk of NSN metastases on only 2%. Omission of ALND would be acceptable in this group of patients. In contrast, ALND may still be beneficial in the subgroup of patients with micrometastases and a high risk of NSN metastases. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  4. Application of novel iron core/iron oxide shell nanoparticles to sentinel lymph node identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousins, Aidan; Howard, Douglas; Henning, Anna M.; Nelson, Melanie R. M.; Tilley, Richard D.; Thierry, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Current `gold standard' staging of breast cancer and melanoma relies on accurate in vivo identification of the sentinel lymph node. By replacing conventional tracers (dyes and radiocolloids) with magnetic nanoparticles and using a handheld magnetometer probe for in vivo identification, it is believed the accuracy of sentinel node identification in nonsuperficial cancers can be improved due to increased spatial resolution of magnetometer probes and additional anatomical information afforded by MRI road-mapping. By using novel iron core/iron oxide shell nanoparticles, the sensitivity of sentinel node mapping via MRI can be increased due to an increased magnetic saturation compared to traditional iron oxide nanoparticles. A series of in vitro magnetic phantoms (iron core vs. iron oxide nanoparticles) were prepared to simulate magnetic particle accumulation in the sentinel lymph node. A novel handheld magnetometer probe was used to measure the relative signals of each phantom, and determine if clinical application of iron core particles can improve in vivo detection of the sentinel node compared to traditional iron oxide nanoparticles. The findings indicate that novel iron core nanoparticles above a certain size possess high magnetic saturation, but can also be produced with low coercivity and high susceptibility. While some modification to the design of handheld magnetometer probes may be required for particles with large coercivity, use of iron core particles could improve MRI and magnetometer probe detection sensitivity by up to 330 %.

  5. Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Product User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPeters, R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Krueger, A.; Herman, J.; Wellemeyer, C.; Seftor, C.; Jaross, G.; Torres, O.; Moy, L.; Labow, G.; Byerly, W.; Taylor, S.; Swissler, T.; Cebula, R.

    1998-01-01

    Two data products from the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (EP/TOMS) have been archived at the Distributed Active Archive Center, in the form of Hierarchical Data Format files. The EP/ TOMS began taking measurements on July 15, 1996. The instrument measures backscattered Earth radiance and incoming solar irradiance; their ratio is used in ozone retrievals. Changes in the reflectivity of the solar diffuser used for the irradiance measurement are monitored using a carousel of three diffusers, each exposed to the degrading effects of solar irradiation at different rates. The algorithm to retrieve total column ozone compares measured Earth radiances at sets of three wavelengths with radiances calculated for different total ozone values. The initial error in the absolute scale for TOMS total ozone is 3 percent, the one standard deviation random error is 2 percent, and the drift is less than 0.5 percent over the first year of data. The Level-2 product contains the measured radiances, the derived total ozone amount, and reflectivity information for each scan position. The Level-3 product contains daily total ozone and reflectivity in a 1-degree latitude by 1.25 degrees longitude grid. Level-3 files containing estimates of LTVB at the Earth surface and tropospheric aerosol information are also available, Detailed descriptions of both HDF data-files and the CD-ROM product are provided.

  6. A beginner's guide to atomic force microscopy probing for cell mechanics

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Atomic Force microscopy (AFM) is becoming a prevalent tool in cell biology and biomedical studies, especially those focusing on the mechanical properties of cells and tissues. The newest generation of bio‐AFMs combine ease of use and seamless integration with live‐cell epifluorescence or more advanced optical microscopies. As a unique feature with respect to other bionanotools, AFM provides nanometer‐resolution maps for cell topography, stiffness, viscoelasticity, and adhesion, often overlaid with matching optical images of the probed cells. This review is intended for those about to embark in the use of bio‐AFMs, and aims to assist them in designing an experiment to measure the mechanical properties of adherent cells. In addition to describing the main steps in a typical cell mechanics protocol and explaining how data is analysed, this review will also discuss some of the relevant contact mechanics models available and how they have been used to characterize specific features of cellular and biological samples. Microsc. Res. Tech. 80:75–84, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27676584

  7. Dendronized iron oxide colloids for imaging the sentinel lymph node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouhannaud, J.; Garofalo, A.; Felder-Flesch, D.; Pourroy, G.

    2015-03-01

    Various methods have been used in medicine for more than one century to explore the lymphatic system. Radioactive colloids (RuS labelled with 99mTc) or/and Vital Blue dye are injected around the primary tumour and detected by means of nuclear probe or visual colour inspection respectively. The simultaneous clinical use of both markers (dye and radionuclide) improves the sensitivity of detection close to 100%. Superparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIOs) are currently receiving much attention as strong T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents that can be potentially used for preoperative localization of sentinel nodes, but also for peroperative detection of sentinel node using hand-held probes. In that context, we present the elaboration of dendronized iron oxide nanoparticles elaborated at the Institute of Physics and Chemistry of Materials of Strasbourg.

  8. Sentinel-3 Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, U.; Berruti, B.; Donlon, C.; Frerick, J.; Mavrocordatos, C.; Nieke, J.; Seitz, B.; Stroede, J.; Rebhan, H.

    2009-04-01

    The series of Sentinel-3 satellites will provide global, frequent and near-realtime ocean, ice and land monitoring. Sentinel-3 will be particularly devoted to the provision of observation data in routine, long term (20 years of operations) and continuous fashion with a consistent quality and a very high level of availability. It will continue the successful observations of similar predecessor instruments onboard Envisat from 2012 onwards. The Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) is based on the Envisat MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Instrument (MERIS) instrument. It fulfils ocean-colour and land-cover objectives with a larger swath and additional spectral bands. The Sea and Land Surface Temperature radiometer (SLSTR) is based on Envisat's Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR). SLSTR has a double-scanning mechanism, yielding a wider swath and a complete overlap with OLCI. This enables the generation of a synergy product with a total of 30 spectral bands, fully co-registered for new and innovative ocean and land products. The topography mission has the primary objective of providing accurate, closely spaced altimetry measurements from a high-inclination orbit with a long repeat cycle. It will complement the Jason ocean altimeter series monitoring mid-scale circulation and sea levels. The altimeter will be operated in two different modes, a classical low resolution mode and a synthetic aperture mode similar to CryoSat for increased along-track resolution and improved performance. Accompanying the altimeter will be a Precise Orbit Determination system and microwave radiometer (MWR) for removing the errors related to the altimeter signals being delayed by water vapour in the atmosphere. The altimeter will track over a variety of surfaces: Open ocean, coastal zones, sea ice and inland waters. The conceptual designs of the major instruments and their basic performance parameters will be introduced together with the expected accuracies of the main

  9. Reproducibility and accuracy of automated probe measurements of gingiva and bone levels on stone casts following guided bone regeneration treatment.

    PubMed

    Van der Zee, Erwin; Vogels, Marie-Faustine; Oosterveld, Paul; Van Waas, Marinus

    2004-04-01

    For evidence-based evaluation of guided bone regeneration (GBR), accurate registration of changes in gingiva and bone levels is needed. A new method is introduced and evaluated. In a clinical trial with 30 patients, alginate impressions of the surgical area including the interproximal gingiva and alveolar bone at the adjacent teeth were made in duplicate prior to and during GBR surgery, fixture installation and abutment connection. Poured in hard stone, the casts were used for repeated measurements of the level of the free gingival margin and the alveolar bone with an automated probe (Florida disc-probe(R)), using the incisal edge as a fixed reference point. The reproducibility and accuracy of these measurements were evaluated by means of the Intraclass Correlation Coefficients and Generalizability Theory. The effect of treatment was evaluated by multivariate analysis of variance. Generalizability Theory indicated a high accuracy of the gingiva- and bone-level measurements: the Intraclass Correlation Coefficients for gingiva and bone levels were 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. The intra-cast reproducibility was 0.09+/-0.07 mm (mean+/-SD) and the inter-cast reproducibility was 0.10+/-0.09 and 0.20+/-0.07 mm for gingiva and bone levels, respectively. Clinical applicability is demonstrated by the fact that manova revealed on average a small but highly significant (p=0.001) effect of the staged surgical intervention on the gingiva and bone levels at the adjacent teeth. It is concluded that the presented method makes it possible to evaluate reproducibly and accurately changes in gingiva and bone levels for GBR studies.

  10. Preliminary experience in sentinel node and occult lesion localization (SNOLL) technique—One center study

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk, Beata; Dawid, Murawa; Karol, Połom; Arkadiusz, Spychała; Piotr, Nowaczyk; Paweł, Murawa

    2011-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to present one center experience in applying the SNOLL technique to patients with suspected occult breast lesions. Background In the last years, the widespread use of mammographic screening programs resulted in an increasing number of women with nonpalpable suspicious breast lesions requiring further examination. The new method called sentinel node and occult lesion localization (SNOLL) enables the intraoperative detection of nonpalpable breast tumors and sentinel node biopsy in one surgical procedure. Materials and methods 46 patients with suspected malignant lesions or diagnosed non-palpable breast cancer were subjected to a pre-operative SNOLL procedure. The day before the surgery, they were administered two radiotracers: one to localize the tumor and the other to localize the sentinel node. During the surgery, the breast tumor and the sentinel node, which in most cases had been examined intraoperatively, were detected with a handheld gamma probe and resected under its control. Results All 46 (100%) patients had their occult breast lesions resected. Histopathologic examination revealed cancer in 40 patients: in situ in 2 cases, invasive in 38 cases. All these patients had their sentinel nodes examined. In one case only, the sentinel node could not be located with a gamma probe. Intraoperative tests showed the sentinel node to be metastatic in 5 patients, who were then given a simultaneous axillary lymphadenectomy. In addition, the final histopathologic examination revealed metastasis to the sentinel node in one patient, who had to be reoperated. Conclusion SNOLL is a modern technique that enables a precise intraoperative localization of non-palpable suspected malignant breast lesions in combination with a sentinel node biopsy. Extended application of intraoperative management leads to significant decrease in the number of reoperations performed in patients with early bread cancer. PMID:24376984

  11. Indocyanine green SPY elite-assisted sentinel lymph node biopsy in cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Korn, Jason M; Tellez-Diaz, Alejandra; Bartz-Kurycki, Marisa; Gastman, Brian

    2014-04-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the standard of care for intermediate-depth and high-risk thin melanomas. Recently, indocyanine green and near-infrared imaging have been used to aid in sentinel node biopsy. The present study aimed to determine the feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy with indocyanine green SPY Elite navigation and to critically evaluate the technique compared with the standard modalities. A retrospective review of 90 consecutive cutaneous melanoma patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed. Two cohorts were formed: group A, which had sentinel lymph node biopsy performed with blue dye and radioisotope; and group B, which had sentinel lymph node biopsy performed with radioisotope and indocyanine green SPY Elite navigation. The cohorts were compared to assess for differences in localization rates, sensitivity and specificity of sentinel node identification, and length of surgery. The sentinel lymph node localization rate was 79.4 percent using the blue dye method, 98.0 percent using the indocyanine green fluorescence method, and 97.8 percent using the radioisotope/handheld gamma probe method. Indocyanine green fluorescence detected more sentinel lymph nodes than the vital dye method alone (p = 0.020). A trend toward a reduction in length of surgery was noted in the SPY Elite cohort. Sentinel lymph node mapping and localization in cutaneous melanoma with the indocyanine green SPY Elite navigation system is technically feasible and may offer several advantages over current modalities, including higher sensitivity and specificity, decreased number of lymph nodes sampled, decreased operative time, and potentially lower false-negative rates. Diagnostic, II.

  12. The Guiding Light: Vri/uvby & Tio Photometry Of The Chromospherically Active & Spotted Binary System Im Peg - The Guide-star For The Gravity Probe-b Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellem, Robert; Guinan, E.; Messina, S.; Wasatonic, R.; McCook, G.

    2007-12-01

    We report on the starspot and chromospheric properties of IM Pegasi - the guide star of the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) satellite. GP-B's mission is to measure two predicted consequences of General Relativity - frame-dragging and geodetic effects, via its extremely precise onboard gyroscopes. IM Peg was selected as the mission's guide star as it is not only bright enough to be seen with GP-B's onboard optical telescope but it is also a bright radio source. Thus, ground-based radio telescope observations can easily and accurately correct for IM Peg's motions in space. However, IM Peg is a chomospherically active binary system with a luminous K2 III primary star showing rotationally modulated (Prot 24.5 days) light variations from starspots. The starspots can cause problems as GP-B can erroneously interpret a change in starspot coverage (and corresponding shifts in the light center) as the star's movement. This apparent shift can also be exacerbated by possible changes in the light-center of the binary system arising from changes in the light balance with the fainter dK component. Since 2000 we have carried out multi-band high-precision photoelectric photometry of IM Peg to determine its activity and starspot coverage. Our photometry uses Strömgren uvby filters, VRCIC filters and TiO (719/755 nm ) narrow-band filter sets. Measurements were made relative to neaby comparsion & check stars using a robotic 0.8-m telescope (located in AZ) and 0.25-m telescope (located in PA). The TiO- and multi-band continuum photometry constrains the starspot areas, temperatures and distributions. The photometry is being modeled to determine the effects of changing starspot areas and distributions on the light center of the binary. The results of our analysis and possible impacts on the GP-B Mission will be discussed. This research is supported by NSF/RUI Grants AST- 0507536 and AST- 0507542 which we gratefully acknowledge.

  13. Sentinel-2 data exploitation with ESA's Sentinel-2 Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascon, Ferran; Ramoino, Fabrizzio; deanos, Yves-louis

    2017-04-01

    The Sentinel-2 Toolbox is a project kicked off by ESA in early 2014, under the umbrella of the ESA SEOM programme with the aim to provide a tool for visualizing, analysing, and processing the Sentinel-2 datasets. The toolbox is an extension of the SeNtinel Application Platform (SNAP), a project resulting from the effort of the developers of the Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 toolbox to provide a single common application framework suited for the mixed exploitation of SAR, high resolution optical and medium resolution optical datasets. All three development teams collaborate to drive the evolution of the common SNAP framework in a developer forum. In this triplet, the Sentinel-2 toolbox is dedicated to enhance SNAP support for high resolution optical imagery. It is a multi-mission toolbox, already providing support for Sentinel-2, RapidEye, Deimos, SPOT 1 to SPOT 5 datasets. In terms of processing algorithms, SNAP provides tools specific to the Sentinel-2 mission : • An atmospheric correction module, Sen2Cor, is integrated into the toolbox, and provides scene classification, atmospheric correction, cirrus detection and correction. The output L2A products can be opened seamlessly in the toolbox. • A multitemporal synthesis processor (L3) • A biophysical products processor (L2B) • A water processor • A deforestation detector • OTB tools integration • SNAP Engine for Cloud Exploitation along with a set of more generic tools for high resolution optical data exploitation. Together with the generic functionalities of SNAP this provides an ideal environment for designing multi-missions processing chains and producing value-added products from raw datasets. The use of SNAP is manifold and the desktop tools provides a rich application for interactive visualization, analysis and processing of data. But all tools available from SNAP can be accessed via command-line through the Graph Processing Framework (GPT), the kernel of the SNAP processing engine. This

  14. Influence of transrectal ultrasound probe on prostate cancer detection in transrectal ultrasound-guided sextant biopsy of prostate.

    PubMed

    Paul, Roger; Korzinek, Christian; Necknig, Ulrike; Niesel, Thomas; Alschibaja, Michael; Leyh, Herbert; Hartung, Rudolf

    2004-09-01

    To determine whether end-fire probes increase the prostate cancer (PCa) detection rate. Enhancing the PCa detection rate is the main goal of biopsy protocols. Prostate biopsy is limited by side-fire probes to a longitudinal axis, but end-fire probes allow biopsy cores to also be taken in the transverse section. A total of 2625 patients underwent systematic sextant biopsy in three institutions using the same protocol. Three different ultrasound probes were used-the Kretz Combisone and Bruel & Kjaer side-fire probes and the ATL HDI end-fire probe. We retrospectively evaluated the influence of the probe on the PCa detection rate. The Kretz probe was used in 384 men, the Bruel & Kjaer probe in 598 men, and the ATL probe in 1643 men. Overall, 35.2% had PCa detected. Analyzing all patients, no statistically significant difference (P = 0.73) was found for the probes, but the subgroup with a prostate-specific antigen level of 4 to 10 ng/mL demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in the detection rate using the end-fire probe (31.3% versus 24.5% and 21.5% for the side-fire probes, P = 0.01). Patients with nonpalpable PCa also demonstrated a statistically significant increase in detection with the end-fire probe (P = 0.004). Multivariate analysis confirmed that the ultrasound probe is an independent parameter to enhance the PCa detection rate. Our results showed that end-fire probes provide a statistically significant improvement in the PCa detection rate compared with side-fire probes in patients with a prostate-specific antigen level of 4 to 10 ng/mL and nonpalpable disease. The reason could be the facilitated sampling in the most lateral part of the peripheral zone. Our results suggest that the widespread use of end-fire probes for prostate biopsy could enhance the PCa detection rate.

  15. [Laparoscopic sentinel lymph node (SLN) dissection for clinically localized prostate carcinoma: results obtained in the first 70 patients].

    PubMed

    Rousseau, T; Lacoste, J; Pallardy, A; Campion, L; Bridji, B; Mouaden, A; Testard, A; Aillet, G; Le Coguic, G; Potiron, E; Curtet, C; Kraeber-Bodéré, F; Rousseau, C

    2012-01-01

    The lymph node metastasis is an important prognostic factor in prostatic cancer. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the relevance of the sentinel lymph node biopsy by laparoscopy in staging locoregional patients with clinically localized PC. A transrectal ultrasound-guided injection by 0.3 mL/100 MBq (99m)Tc-sulfur rhenium colloid in each prostatic lobe was performed the day before surgery. The detection was realized intraoperatively with a laparoscopic probe (Clerad(®) Gamma Sup) followed by extensive dissection. Counts of SLN were performed in vivo and confirmed ex vivo. The histological analysis was performed by hematoxyline-phloxine-safran staining and followed by immunochemistry if SLN is free. Seventy patients with carcinoma of the prostate at intermediate or high risk of lymph node metastases were included. The intraoperative detection rate was 68/70 (97%). Fourteen patients had lymph node metastases, six only in SLN. The false negative rate was 2/14 (14%). The internal iliac region was the first metastatic site (40.9%). A metastatic sentinel node in common iliac region beyond the ureteral junction was present in 18.2%. A non-negligible sentinel metastatic region was the common iliac area (18.2%). Limited or standard lymph node dissection would have ignored respectively 72.7% and 59% of lymph node metastases. The laparoscopy is adapted to a broad identification of SLN and targeted dissection of these lymph nodes significantly limited the risk of surgical extended dissection while maintaining the accuracy of the information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Improvement of the sentinel lymph node detection rate of cervical sentinel lymph node biopsy using real-time fluorescence navigation with indocyanine green in head and neck skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Fujisawa, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Furuta, Jun-ichi; Kawachi, Yasuhiro; Otsuka, Fujio

    2013-06-01

    The standard technique using lymphoscintigraphy, blue dye and a gamma probe has established a reliable method for sentinel node biopsy for skin cancer. However, the detection rate of cervical sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) is generally lower than that of inguinal or axillary SLN because of the complexity of lymphatic drainage in the head and neck region and the "shine-through" phenomenon. Recently, indocyanine green fluorescence imaging has been reported as a new method to detect SLN. We hypothesized that fluorescence navigation with indocyanine green in combination with the standard technique would improve the detection rate of cervical sentinel nodes. We performed cervical sentinel node biopsies using the standard technique in 20 basins of 18 patients (group A) and using fluorescence navigation in combination with the standard technique in 12 basins of 16 patients (group B). The mean number of sentinel nodes was two per basin (range, 1-4) in group A and three per basin (range, 1-5) in group B. The detection rate of sentinel nodes was 83% (29/35) in group A and 95% (36/38) in group B. The false-negative rate was 6% (1/18 patients) in group A and 0% in group B. Fluorescence navigation with indocyanine green may improve the cervical sentinel node detection rate. However, greater collection of data regarding the usefulness of cervical sentinel node biopsy using indocyanine green is necessary.

  17. Design and evaluation of a transesophageal HIFU probe for ultrasound-guided cardiac ablation: simulation of a HIFU mini-maze procedure and preliminary ex vivo trials.

    PubMed

    Constanciel, Elodie; N'Djin, W Apoutou; Bessière, Francis; Chavrier, Françoise; Grinberg, Daniel; Vignot, Alexandre; Chevalier, Philippe; Chapelon, Jean Yves; Lafon, Cyril

    2013-09-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent cardiac arrhythmia. Left atrial catheter ablation is currently performed to treat this disease. Several energy sources are used, such as radio-frequency or cryotherapy. The main target of this procedure is to isolate the pulmonary veins. However, significant complications caused by the invasive procedure are described, such as stroke, tamponade, and atrioesophageal fistula, and a second intervention is often needed to avoid atrial fibrillation recurrence. For these reasons, a minimally-invasive device allowing performance of more complex treatments is still needed. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can cause deep tissue lesions without damaging intervening tissues. Left atrial ultrasound-guided transesophageal HIFU ablation could have the potential to become a new ablation technique. The goal of this study was to design and test a minimally-invasive ultrasound-guided transesophageal HIFU probe under realistic treatment conditions. First, numerical simulations were conducted to determine the probe geometry, and to validate the feasibility of performing an AF treatment using a HIFU mini-maze (HIFUMM) procedure. Then, a prototype was manufactured and characterized. The 18-mm-diameter probe head housing contained a 3-MHz spherical truncated HIFU transducer divided into 8 rings, with a 5-MHz commercial transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) transducer integrated in the center. Finally, ex vivo experiments were performed to test the impact of the esophagus layer between the probe and the tissue to treat, and also the influence of the lungs and the vascularization on lesion formation. First results show that this prototype successfully created ex vivo transmural myocardial lesions under ultrasound guidance, while preserving intervening tissues (such as the esophagus). Ultrasound-guided transesophageal HIFU can be a good candidate for treatment of AF in the future.

  18. Immune response in melanoma: an in-depth analysis of the primary tumor and corresponding sentinel lymph node

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Michelle W.; Medicherla, Ratna C.; Qian, Meng; de Miera, Eleazar Vega-Saenz; Friedman, Erica B.; Berman, Russell S.; Shapiro, Richard L.; Pavlick, Anna C.; Ott, Patrick A.; Bhardwaj, Nina; Shao, Yongzhao; Osman, Iman; Darvishian, Farbod

    2013-01-01

    using clinical stage. Primary tumor regression was associated with prolonged disease-free (P=0.025) and melanoma-specific (P=0.014) survival. Our results support an assessment of local immune profiles in both the primary tumor and sentinel lymph node to help guide therapeutic decisions. PMID:22425909

  19. Sentinel 2 global reference image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechoz, C.; Poulain, V.; Massera, S.; Languille, F.; Greslou, D.; de Lussy, F.; Gaudel, A.; L'Helguen, C.; Picard, C.; Trémas, T.

    2015-10-01

    Sentinel-2 is a multispectral, high-resolution, optical imaging mission, developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) in the frame of the Copernicus program of the European Commission. In cooperation with ESA, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) is responsible for the image quality of the project, and will ensure the CAL/VAL commissioning phase. Sentinel-2 mission is devoted the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas, and will provide a continuity of SPOT- and Landsat-type data. Sentinel-2 will also deliver information for emergency services. Launched in 2015 and 2016, there will be a constellation of 2 satellites on a polar sun-synchronous orbit, imaging systematically terrestrial surfaces with a revisit time of 5 days, in 13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infra-red. Therefore, multi-temporal series of images, taken under the same viewing conditions, will be available. So as to ensure for the multi-temporal registration of the products, specified to be better than 0.3 pixels at 2σ, a Global Reference Image (GRI) will be produced during the CAL/VAL period. This GRI is composed of a set of Sentinel-2 acquisitions, which geometry has been corrected by bundle block adjustment. During L1B processing, Ground Control Points will be taken between this reference image and the sentinel-2 acquisition processed and the geometric model of the image corrected, so as to ensure the good multi-temporal registration. This paper first details the production of the reference during the CALVAL period, and then details the qualification and geolocation performance assessment of the GRI. It finally presents its use in the Level-1 processing chain and gives a first assessment of the multi-temporal registration.

  20. In vivo reproducibility of robotic probe placement for an integrated US-CT image-guided radiation therapy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Sen, H. Tutkun; Iordachita, Iulian; Kazanzides, Peter; Wong, John

    2014-03-01

    Radiation therapy is used to treat cancer by delivering high-dose radiation to a pre-defined target volume. Ultrasound (US) has the potential to provide real-time, image-guidance of radiation therapy to identify when a target moves outside of the treatment volume (e.g. due to breathing), but the associated probe-induced tissue deformation causes local anatomical deviations from the treatment plan. If the US probe is placed to achieve similar tissue deformations in the CT images required for treatment planning, its presence causes streak artifacts that will interfere with treatment planning calculations. To overcome these challenges, we propose robot-assisted placement of a real ultrasound probe, followed by probe removal and replacement with a geometrically-identical, CT-compatible model probe. This work is the first to investigate in vivo deformation reproducibility with the proposed approach. A dog's prostate, liver, and pancreas were each implanted with three 2.38-mm spherical metallic markers, and the US probe was placed to visualize the implanted markers in each organ. The real and model probes were automatically removed and returned to the same position (i.e. position control), and CT images were acquired with each probe placement. The model probe was also removed and returned with the same normal force measured with the real US probe (i.e. force control). Marker positions in CT images were analyzed to determine reproducibility, and a corollary reproducibility study was performed on ex vivo tissue. In vivo results indicate that tissue deformations with the real probe were repeatable under position control for the prostate, liver, and pancreas, with median 3D reproducibility of 0.3 mm, 0.3 mm, and 1.6 mm, respectively, compared to 0.6 mm for the ex vivo tissue. For the prostate, the mean 3D tissue displacement errors between the real and model probes were 0.2 mm under position control and 0.6 mm under force control, which are both within acceptable

  1. Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping of Liver

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Hideyuki; Hyun, Hoon; Vargas, Christina; Genega, Elizabeth M.; Gravier, Julien; Gioux, Sylvain; Frangioni, John V.; Choi, Hak Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) hypothesis has been applied to many tissues and organs, liver has remained unstudied. At present, it is unclear whether hepatic SLNs even exist. If so, they could alter management in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and other hepatic malignancies by minimizing the extent of surgery while still providing precise nodal staging. We investigated whether invisible yet tissue-penetrating near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent light can provide simultaneous identification of both the sentinel lymph node (SLN) and all other regional lymph nodes (RLN) in the liver. Method In twenty five Yorkshire pigs, we determined whether SLNs exist in liver, and compared the effectiveness of two clinically available NIR fluorophores, methylene blue (MB) and indocyanine green (ICG), and two novel NIR fluorophores previously described by our group, ESNF14 and ZW800-3C, for SLN and RLN mapping. Results ESNF14 showed the highest signal-to-background ratio (SBR) and longest retention time in SLNs, without leakage to second-tier lymph nodes. ICG had apparent leakage to second-tier nodes, while ZW800-3C suffered from poor migration after intraparenchymal injection. However, when injected intravenously, ZW800-3C was able to highlight all RLNs in liver over a 4–6 h period. Simultaneous dual channel imaging of SLN (ESNF14) and RLN (ZW800-3C) permitted unambiguous identification and image-guided resection of SLNs and RLNs in liver. Conclusion The NIR imaging technology enables real-time intraoperative identification of SLNs and RLNs in the liver of swine. If these results are confirmed in patients, new strategies for the surgical management of intrahepatic malignancies should be possible. PMID:25968620

  2. Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Jerome; Lucas, Bruno; DInardo, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    The prime objective of the SEOM (Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions) element is to federate, support and expand the large international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have build up over the last 20 years for the future European operational Earth Observation missions, the Sentinels. Sentinel-3 builds directly on a proven heritage of ERS-2 and Envisat, and CryoSat-2, with a dual-frequency (Ku and C band) advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar Altimeter (SRAL) that provides measurements at a resolution of ~300m in SAR mode along track. Sentinel-3 will provide exact measurements of sea-surface height along with accurate topography measurements over sea ice, ice sheets, rivers and lakes. The first of the two Sentinels is expected to be launched in early 2015. The current universal altimetry toolbox is BRAT (Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry mission's data, but it does not have the capabilities to read the upcoming Sentinel-3 L1 and L2 products. ESA will endeavour to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales), and it is freely available at http://earth.esa.int/brat. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats, the BratGUI is the front-end for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with Matlab/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the data-formatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as netCDF, ASCII text files, KML (Google Earth

  3. Experimental study of a fiber optically guided CO2 laser probe for intraocular surgery: measurement of the immediate retinal adhesion force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeRowe, Ari; Bartov, Elisha; Triester, G.; Belkin, Michael; Katzir, Abraham

    1992-08-01

    Using an experimental fiberoptically guided CO2 laser system, we performed lesions on fresh bovine retinas. These lesions were shown to achieve measurable immediate chorioretinal adhesion. This model implies the feasibility of utilizing a fiberoptic CO2 laser probe in intraocular surgery for retinal detachment. The advantages of using CO2 laser energy are minimal damage surrounding the desired lesion and its versatility as a coagulator and cutter. With further research we believe that the technical problem of delivery can be solved. The CO2 endolaser holds promise for intraocular surgery.

  4. Selfish sentinels in cooperative mammals.

    PubMed

    Clutton-Brock, T H; O'Riain, M J; Brotherton, P N; Gaynor, D; Kansky, R; Griffin, A S; Manser, M

    1999-06-04

    Like humans engaged in risky activities, group members of some animal societies take turns acting as sentinels. Explanations of the evolution of sentinel behavior have frequently relied on kin selection or reciprocal altruism, but recent models suggest that guarding may be an individual's optimal activity once its stomach is full if no other animal is on guard. This paper provides support for this last explanation by showing that, in groups of meerkats (Suricata suricatta), animals guard from safe sites, and solitary individuals as well as group members spend part of their time on guard. Though individuals seldom take successive guarding bouts, there is no regular rota, and the provision of food increases contributions to guarding and reduces the latency between bouts by the same individual.

  5. The Sentinel-2 Mission Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascon, Ferran

    2012-04-01

    In the framework of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme, the European Space Agency (ESA) in partnership with the European Commission (EC) is developing the Sentinel-2 optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. This system will deliver a new generation of optical data products designed to directly feed downstream services acting in several domains such as land management, agricultural industry, forestry, food security, or disaster control management following floods, volcanic eruptions, landslides, etc. The Sentinel-2 mission designed to generate products with accurate radiometric and geometric performances (including multi-temporal imagery co-registration). To maximize the products suitability and readiness to downstream usage for the majority of applications, the Sentinel-2 PDGS will systematically generate and archive Level-1C products, which will provide Top of Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance images, orthorectified using a global DEM and UTM projection. A Level-1B product will also be available for expert users and will provide the radiometrically corrected pixels in sensor geometry with the geometric model appended. Finally, a complementary atmospheric correction and enhanced cloud screening algorithm is being prototyped in parallel with the goal of providing some initial capabilities to the users, by means of a specific software toolbox operated on their platforms, to translate the Level-1C TOA reflectance image into Bottom of Atmosphere (BOA) reflectance.

  6. The sentinel behaviour of Arabian babbler floaters

    PubMed Central

    Heifetz, Aviad

    2017-01-01

    The sentinel behaviour of 38 Arabian babbler adult floaters, who lived alone within a territory belonging to a foreign group, was studied and compared with their own sentinel behaviour in the past, when they were group members. All floaters acted as sentinels and uttered ‘alarm calls’. This suggests that sentinel activity is due at least, in part, to selfish motives. Floaters sentinelled less than they did as group members, with the decrease in sentinel activity sharper for ex-dominants than for ex-subordinates. One possible explanation for these differences is that sentinel activity is aimed not only at detecting predators, but also at detecting foreign conspecifics. Within a group, the latter incentive is stronger for breeding dominants than for subordinates, whereas all floaters alike may be trying to detect the owners of the territory in which they were roaming but also to avoid being detected by them. Other possible explanations are that floaters have less time and energy for sentinel activity because they are weaker or because foraging is more difficult in a foreign territory. This may be especially so for dominants who used to enjoy privileged access to food in their group. No significant difference was found in the rate of sentinels' ‘alarm calls’ between floaters and group members, suggesting that their main purpose is predator–prey communication, of which warning groupmates may be a side benefit. PMID:28386429

  7. Copernicus POD Service: Ready for Sentinel-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, H.; Fernández, J.; Escobar, D.; Féménias, P.; Flohrer, C.; Otten, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Copernicus POD Service is part of the Copernicus PDGS Ground Segment of the Sentinel missions. A GMV-led consortium is operating the Copernicus POD Service being in charge of generating precise orbital products and auxiliary data files for their use as part of the processing chains of the respective Sentinel PDGS. The Sentinel-1, -2 & -3 missions have different but very demanding requirements in terms of orbital accuracy and timeliness. Orbital products in Near Real Time (latency: 30 min), Short Time Critical (1.5 days) and Non-time Critical (20-30 days) are required. The accuracy requirements are very challenging, targeting 5 cm in 3D for Sentinel-1 and 2-3 cm in radial direction for Sentinel-3. Sentinel-3A carries, in addition to a GPS receiver a laser retro reflector and a DORIS receiver. On the one hand, the three different techniques GPS, SLR and DORIS make POD more complex but, on the other hand, it is very helpful to have independent techniques available for validation of the orbit results. The successful POD processing for Sentinel-1A is a good preparation for Sentinel-3A due to the similar demanding orbit accuracy requirements. The Copernicus POD Service is ready for Sentinel-3A and the service will process GPS and SLR data routinely and has the capacity to process DORIS in NTC and reprocessing campaigns. The three independent orbit determination techniques on Sentinel-3 offer big potential for scientific exploitation. Carrying all three techniques together makes the satellite, e.g., very useful for combining all the techniques on observation level as it could only be done for Jason-2 until now. The Sentinel POD Quality Working Group strongly supporting the CPOD Service delivers additional orbit solutions to validate the CPOD results independently. The recommendations from this body guarantee that the CPOD Service is updated following state-of-the-art algorithms, models and conventions. The QWG also focuses on the scientific exploitation of the

  8. [Sentinel node in melanoma and breast cancer. Current considerations].

    PubMed

    Vidal-Sicart, S; Vilalta Solsona, A; Alonso Vargas, M I

    2015-01-01

    The main objectives of sentinel node (SN) biopsy is to avoid unnecessary lymphadenectomies and to identify the 20-25% of patients with occult regional metastatic involvement. This technique reduces the associated morbidity from lymphadenectomy and increases the occult lymphatic metastases identification rate by offering the pathologist the or those lymph nodes with the highest probability of containing metastatic cells. Pre-surgical lymphoscintigraphy is considered a "road map" to guide the surgeon towards the sentinel nodes and to localize unpredictable lymphatic drainage patterns. The SPECT/CT advantages include a better SN detection rate than planar images, the ability to detect SNs in difficult to interpret studies, better SN depiction, especially in sites closer to the injection site and better anatomic localization. These advantages may result in a change in the patient's clinical management both in melanoma and breast cancer. The correct SN evaluation by pathology implies a tumoral load stratification and further prognostic implication. The use of intraoperative imaging devices allows the surgeon a better surgical approach and precise SN localization. Several studies reports the added value of such devices for more sentinel nodes excision and a complete monitoring of the whole procedure. New techniques, by using fluorescent or hybrid tracers, are currently being developed.

  9. Sentinel node biopsy for early-stage oral cavity cancer: the VU University Medical Center experience.

    PubMed

    Den Toom, Inne J; Heuveling, Derrek A; Flach, Géke B; van Weert, Stijn; Karagozoglu, K Hakki; van Schie, Annelies; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Leemans, C René; de Bree, Remco

    2015-04-01

    Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) in head and neck cancer is recently introduced as the staging technique of oral squamous cell carcinoma. We report the results of SNB in patients diagnosed with a T1-T2 oral squamous cell carcinoma and clinically negative (N0) neck in a single center. A retrospective analysis of 90 previously untreated patients who underwent SNB between 2007 and 2012 was performed. The SNB procedure consisted of preoperatively performed lymphoscintigraphy, intraoperative detection using blue dye, and gamma probe guidance and histopathologic examination including step-serial sectioning (SSS) and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. A positive SNB was followed by neck dissection, whereas regular follow-up with ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was done in case of a negative SNB. The lymphoscintigraphic identification rate was 98% (88 of 90 patients) and the surgical detection rate was 99% (87 of 88 patients). The upstaging rate was 30%. Sensitivity of SNB was 93% and the negative predictive value was 97%. The median follow-up was 18 months (range, 2-62 months). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) for SNB negative were 100% and 84% and for SNB positive patients 73% and 88%, respectively. SNB is a reliable diagnostic staging technique for the clinically negative neck in patients with early-stage (T1-T2, cN0) oral squamous cell carcinoma. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Motion-compensated hand-held common-path Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography probe for image-guided intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong; Song, Cheol; Liu, Xuan; Kang, Jin U.

    2013-03-01

    A motion-compensated hand-held common-path Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography imaging probe has been developed for image guided intervention during microsurgery. A hand-held prototype instrument was designed and fabricated by integrating an imaging fiber probe inside a stainless steel needle which is attached to the ceramic shaft of a piezoelectric motor housed in an aluminum handle. The fiber probe obtains A-scan images. The distance information was extracted from the A-scans to track the sample surface distance and a fixed distance was maintained by a feedback motor control which effectively compensated hand tremor and target movements in the axial direction. Graphical user interface, real-time data processing, and visualization based on a CPU-GPU hybrid programming architecture were developed and used in the implantation of this system. To validate the system, free-hand optical coherence tomography images using various samples were obtained. The system can be easily integrated into microsurgical tools and robotics for a wide range of clinical applications. Such tools could offer physicians the freedom to easily image sites of interest with reduced risk and higher image quality.

  11. [Evaluation of the efficacy of sentinel node detection in breast cancer: chronological course and influence of the incorporation of an intra-operative portable gamma camera].

    PubMed

    Goñi Gironés, E; Vicente García, F; Serra Arbeloa, P; Estébanez Estébanez, C; Calvo Benito, A; Rodrigo Rincón, I; Camarero Salazar, A; Martínez Lozano, M E

    2013-01-01

    To define the sentinel node identification rate in breast cancer, the chronological evolution of this parameter and the influence of the introduction of a portable gamma camera. A retrospective study was conducted using a prospective database of 754 patients who had undergone a sentinel lymph node biopsy between January 2003 and December 2011. The technique was mixed in the starting period and subsequently was performed with radiotracer intra-peritumorally administered the day before of the surgery. Until October 2009, excision of the sentinel node was guided by a probe. After that date, a portable gamma camera was introduced for intrasurgical detection. The SN was biopsied in 725 out of the 754 patients studied. The resulting technique global effectiveness was 96.2%. In accordance with the year of the surgical intervention, the identification percentage was 93.5% in 2003, 88.7% in 2004, 94.3% in 2005, 95.7% in 2006, 93.3% in 2007, 98.8% in 2008, 97.1% in 2009 and 99.1% in 2010 and 2011. There was a significant difference in the proportion of identification before and after the incorporation of the portable gamma camera of 4.6% (95% CI of the difference 2-7.2%, P = 0.0037). The percentage of global identification exceeds the recommended level following the current guidelines. Chronologically, the improvement for this parameter during the study period has been observed. These data suggest that the incorporation of a portable gamma camera had an important role. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydrodynamic ultrasonic probe

    DOEpatents

    Day, Robert A.; Conti, Armond E.

    1980-01-01

    An improved probe for in-service ultrasonic inspection of long lengths of a workpiece, such as small diameter tubing from the interior. The improved probe utilizes a conventional transducer or transducers configured to inspect the tubing for flaws and/or wall thickness variations. The probe utilizes a hydraulic technique, in place of the conventional mechanical guides or bushings, which allows the probe to move rectilinearly or rotationally while preventing cocking thereof in the tube and provides damping vibration of the probe. The probe thus has lower friction and higher inspection speed than presently known probes.

  13. Optical probes for molecular-guided surgery: Using photomedicine to prevent recurrence in the surgical bed (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spring, Bryan Q.; Sears, R. Bryan; Zheng, Lei Z.; Mai, Zhiming; Watanabe, Reika; Villa, Elizabeth; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-03-01

    Residual tumor deposits missed by conventional treatments frequently seed local and distal recurrence utilizing a network of molecular signaling mechanisms. Beyond providing contrast for molecular-guided surgery, this talk will highlight new concepts in phototherapy to address residual cancer cells in danger zones of recurrence, including selective treatment of microscopic disease using molecular-targeted, activatable immunoconjugates, and photo-initiated release of multikinase inhibitors that suppress multiple modes of tumor escape using optically active nanoparticles. These new approaches support an expanded role for the use of light in fluorescence-guided surgery—for phototherapy and for focused drug release to maximize tumor debulking with suppression of disease recurrence.

  14. Using C-arm x-ray imaging to guide local reporter probe delivery for tracking stem cell engraftment.

    PubMed

    Kedziorek, Dorota A; Solaiyappan, Meiyappan; Walczak, Piotr; Ehtiati, Tina; Fu, Yingli; Bulte, Jeff W M; Shea, Steven M; Brost, Alexander; Wacker, Frank K; Kraitchman, Dara L

    2013-01-01

    Poor cell survival and difficulties with visualization of cell delivery are major problems with current cell transplantation methods. To protect cells from early destruction, microencapsulation methods have been developed. The addition of a contrast agent to the microcapsule also could enable tracking by MR, ultrasound, and X-ray imaging. However, determining the cell viability within the microcapsule still remains an issue. Reporter gene imaging provides a way to determine cell viability, but delivery of the reporter probe by systemic injection may be hindered in ischemic diseases. In the present study, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were transfected with triple fusion reporter gene containing red fluorescent protein, truncated thymidine kinase (SPECT/PET reporter) and firefly luciferase (bioluminescence reporter). Transfected cells were microencapsulated in either unlabeled or perfluorooctylbromide (PFOB) impregnated alginate. The addition of PFOB provided radiopacity to enable visualization of the microcapsules by X-ray imaging. Before intramuscular transplantation in rabbit thigh muscle, the microcapsules were incubated with D-luciferin, and bioluminescence imaging (BLI) was performed immediately. Twenty-four and forty-eight hours post transplantation, c-arm CT was used to target the luciferin to the X-ray-visible microcapsules for BLI cell viability assessment, rather than systemic reporter probe injections. Not only was the bioluminescent signal emission from the PFOB-encapsulated MSCs confirmed as compared to non-encapsulated, naked MSCs, but over 90% of injection sites of PFOB-encapsulated MSCs were visible on c-arm CT. The latter aided in successful targeting of the reporter probe to injection sites using conventional X-ray imaging to determine cell viability at 1-2 days post transplantation. Blind luciferin injections to the approximate location of unlabeled microcapsules resulted in successful BLI signal detection in only 18% of injections. In conclusion

  15. Sentinel-1 mission scientific exploitation activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves louis; Foumelis, Michael; Engdahl, Marcus

    2017-04-01

    The Sentinel-1 mission is the European Imaging Radar Observatory for the Copernicus joint initiative of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA). Sentinel-1 mission is composed of a constellation of two satellites, Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-1B (launched in April 2014 and April 2016, respectively), sharing the same orbital plane and featuring a short repeat cycle of 6 days optimised for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) interferometry science and applications. The full operation capacity was achieved after the completion of the Sentinel-1B in-orbit commissioning on 14 September 2016. Sentinel-1 data are freely available via the ESA's Sentinels Scientific Data Hub since October 2014. The data uptake by the science community has been unprecedented and numerous results have been published to date. The objective of the current paper is to provide a brief overview of the latest ESA activities, in the frame of the Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) programme, aimed to facilitate the scientific exploitation of Sentinel-1 mission as well as discuss future opportunities for research.

  16. Discovering Sentinel Rules for Business Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middelfart, Morten; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    This paper proposes the concept of sentinel rules for multi-dimensional data that warns users when measure data concerning the external environment changes. For instance, a surge in negative blogging about a company could trigger a sentinel rule warning that revenue will decrease within two months, so a new course of action can be taken. Hereby, we expand the window of opportunity for organizations and facilitate successful navigation even though the world behaves chaotically. Since sentinel rules are at the schema level as opposed to the data level, and operate on data changes as opposed to absolute data values, we are able to discover strong and useful sentinel rules that would otherwise be hidden when using sequential pattern mining or correlation techniques. We present a method for sentinel rule discovery and an implementation of this method that scales linearly on large data volumes.

  17. Intraoperative Frozen Section Evaluation of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Carcinoma: Single-Institution Indian Experience.

    PubMed

    Somashekhar, S P; Naikoo, Zahoor Ahmed; Zaveri, Shabber S; Holla, Soumya; Chandra, Suresh; Mishra, Suniti; Parameswaran, R V

    2015-12-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is an established way of predicting axillary nodal metastasis in early breast cancer. Intraoperative frozen sections (FS) of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) can be used to detect metastatic disease, allowing immediate axillary lymph node dissection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of intraoperative frozen sections in evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in cases of breast cancer. Between March 2006 and August 2010, a total of 164 patients with clinically node-negative operable breast cancer were subjected to sentinel lymph node biopsy of axillary lymph nodes using preoperative peritumoral injection of radioactive colloid and methylene blue. Intraoperative identification of sentinel nodes was done using a handheld gamma probe and identification of blue-stained nodes. The nodes were sent for frozen section examination. The results of frozen section were compared with the final histopathology. Out of the 164 cases, metastases were detected in SLN by frozen section in 38 cases. There were three false-negative cases (all showing micrometastasis on final histopathology). FS had sensitivity of 92.6 %, specificity of 100 %, and overall accuracy of 98.1 %. The positive predictive value was 100 %, and the negative predictive value was 97.6 %. FS for diagnosis of metastasis of SLNs is reliable. Patients with negative SLNs by the FS diagnosis can avoid reoperation for axillary lymph node dissection. However, FS may fail to detect micrometastases, especially in cases with small tumors.

  18. EANM-EORTC general recommendations for sentinel node diagnostics in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Chakera, Annette H; Hesse, Birger; Burak, Zeynep; Ballinger, James R; Britten, Allan; Caracò, Corrado; Cochran, Alistair J; Cook, Martin G; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Essner, Richard; Even-Sapir, Einat; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Stopar, Tanja Gmeiner; Ingvar, Christian; Mihm, Martin C; McCarthy, Stanley W; Mozzillo, Nicola; Nieweg, Omgo E; Scolyer, Richard A; Starz, Hans; Thompson, John F; Trifirò, Giuseppe; Viale, Giuseppe; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Uren, Roger; Waddington, Wendy; Chiti, Arturo; Spatz, Alain; Testori, Alessandro

    2009-10-01

    The accurate diagnosis of a sentinel node in melanoma includes a sequence of procedures from different medical specialities (nuclear medicine, surgery, oncology, and pathology). The items covered are presented in 11 sections and a reference list: (1) definition of a sentinel node, (2) clinical indications, (3) radiopharmaceuticals and activity injected, (4) dosimetry, (5) injection technique, (6) image acquisition and interpretation, (7) report and display, (8) use of dye, (9) gamma probe detection, (10) surgical techniques in sentinel node biopsy, and (11) pathological evaluation of melanoma-draining sentinel lymph nodes. If specific recommendations given cannot be based on evidence from original, scientific studies, referral is given to "general consensus" and similar expressions. The recommendations are designed to assist in the practice of referral to, performance, interpretation and reporting of all steps of the sentinel node procedure in the hope of setting state-of-the-art standards for good-quality evaluation of possible spread to the lymphatic system in intermediate-to-high risk melanoma without clinical signs of dissemination.

  19. Sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer using infrared laser system first experience with PDE camera

    PubMed Central

    Polom, Karol; Murawa, Dawid; Michalak, Michał; Murawa, Paweł

    2011-01-01

    Background Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is a gold standard in staging of early breast cancer. Nowadays, routine mapping of lymphatic tract is based on two tracers: human albumin with radioactive technetium, with or without blue dye. Recent years have seen a search for new tracers to examine sentinel node as well as lymphatic network. One of them is indocyanine green (ICG) visible in infrared light. Aim The aim of this study is to evaluate clinical usage of ICG in comparison with standard tracer, i.e. nanocoll, in SNB of breast cancer patients. Materials and methods In the 1st Department of Surgical Oncology and General Surgery, Greater Poland Cancer Centre, Poznań, 13 female breast cancer patients have benn operated since September 2010. All these patients had sentinel node biopsy with nanocoll (human albumin with radioactive technetium), and with indocyanine green. The feasibility of this new method was assessed in comparison with the standard nanocoll. Results A lymphatic network between the place of injection of ICG and sentinel node was seen in infrared light. An area where a sentinel node was possibly located was confirmed by gamma probe. Sensitivity of this method was 100%. Conclusion SNB using ICG is a new, promising diagnostics technique. This procedure is not without drawbacks; nevertheless it opens new horizons in lymphatic network diagnostics. PMID:24376962

  20. Selectivity on-target of bromodomain chemical probes by structure-guided medicinal chemistry and chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Galdeano, Carles; Ciulli, Alessio

    2016-09-01

    Targeting epigenetic proteins is a rapidly growing area for medicinal chemistry and drug discovery. Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in developing small molecules binding to bromodomains, the readers of acetyl-lysine modifications. A plethora of co-crystal structures has motivated focused fragment-based design and optimization programs within both industry and academia. These efforts have yielded several compounds entering the clinic, and many more are increasingly being used as chemical probes to interrogate bromodomain biology. High selectivity of chemical probes is necessary to ensure biological activity is due to an on-target effect. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of bromodomain-targeting compounds, focusing on the structural basis for their on-target selectivity or lack thereof. We also highlight chemical biology approaches to enhance on-target selectivity.

  1. Selectivity on-target of bromodomain chemical probes by structure-guided medicinal chemistry and chemical biology

    PubMed Central

    Galdeano, Carles; Ciulli, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    Targeting epigenetic proteins is a rapidly growing area for medicinal chemistry and drug discovery. Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in developing small molecules binding to bromodomains, the readers of acetyl-lysine modifications. A plethora of co-crystal structures has motivated focused fragment-based design and optimization programs within both industry and academia. These efforts have yielded several compounds entering the clinic, and many more are increasingly being used as chemical probes to interrogate bromodomain biology. High selectivity of chemical probes is necessary to ensure biological activity is due to an on-target effect. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of bromodomain-targeting compounds, focusing on the structural basis for their on-target selectivity or lack thereof. We also highlight chemical biology approaches to enhance on-target selectivity. PMID:27193077

  2. Simulation of multi-probe radiofrequency ablation guided by optical surgery navigation system under different active modes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Leyi; Cai, Ken; Yang, Rongqian; Lin, Qinyong; Yue, Hongwei; Liu, Feng

    2016-12-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a crucial alternative treatment for liver cancer with the advantages of minimal invasion and a fast prognosis. However, two problems limit its further application: the orientation of the puncture point and the ablation of large tumors. The optical surgery navigation system in the RFA presents a promising approach for solving the localization problem in the puncturing process, which greatly increases puncture accuracy and has overcome the disadvantages of traditional RFA surgery. In addition, the use of multiple electrodes in the RFA (multi-probe RFA) is proposed and is applied clinically to deal with large tumors. In this study, we present a multi-probe RFA model using the finite element method (FEM) combined with a self-developed optical surgical navigation system. A real 3D liver model was adopted as an effective reference. Based on this model, two-probe RFA simulations were performed under different active modes. An analysis was conducted from the perspective of the temperature and electric potential fields and cell necrosis. The simulation results showed that different active modes had separate advantages and were suitable for different situations. Understanding their advantages can not only help doctors make surgical plans that fit the patients' conditions, but also the understanding can offer a virtual surgery platform for further development in the preoperative planning of RFA incorporated with the surgery navigation system.

  3. Au@Ag/Au nanoparticles assembled with activatable aptamer probes as smart ``nano-doctors'' for image-guided cancer thermotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hui; Ye, Xiaosheng; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Cui, Wensi; He, Dinggeng; Li, Duo; Jia, Xuekun

    2014-07-01

    Although nanomaterial-based theranostics have increased positive expectations from cancer treatment, it remains challenging to develop in vivo ``nano-doctors'' that provide high-contrast image-guided site-specific therapy. Here we designed an activatable theranostic nanoprobe (ATNP) via self-assembly of activatable aptamer probes (AAPs) on Au@Ag/Au nanoparticles (NPs). As both quenchers and heaters, novel Au@Ag/Au NPs were prepared, showing excellent fluorescence quenching and more effective near-infrared photothermal therapy than Au nanorods. The AAP comprised a thiolated aptamer and a fluorophore-labeled complementary DNA; thus, the ATNP with quenched fluorescence in the free state could realize signal activation through target binding-induced conformational change of the AAP, and then achieve on-demand treatment under image-guided irradiation. By using S6 aptamer as the model, in vitro and in vivo studies of A549 lung cancer verified that the ATNP greatly improved imaging contrast and specific destruction, suggesting a robust and versatile theranostic strategy for personalized medicine in future.Although nanomaterial-based theranostics have increased positive expectations from cancer treatment, it remains challenging to develop in vivo ``nano-doctors'' that provide high-contrast image-guided site-specific therapy. Here we designed an activatable theranostic nanoprobe (ATNP) via self-assembly of activatable aptamer probes (AAPs) on Au@Ag/Au nanoparticles (NPs). As both quenchers and heaters, novel Au@Ag/Au NPs were prepared, showing excellent fluorescence quenching and more effective near-infrared photothermal therapy than Au nanorods. The AAP comprised a thiolated aptamer and a fluorophore-labeled complementary DNA; thus, the ATNP with quenched fluorescence in the free state could realize signal activation through target binding-induced conformational change of the AAP, and then achieve on-demand treatment under image-guided irradiation. By using S6 aptamer as

  4. Indocyanine green detects sentinel lymph nodes in early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Huang, Linping; Wang, Ning; Chen, Ping

    2017-04-01

    Objective To explore the clinical value of indocyanine green (ICG) for the fluorescence-guided detection of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) during sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with early breast cancer. Methods This retrospective study included female patients with breast cancer. Patients were administered methylene blue and ICG using standard techniques. All SLNs that were collected during surgery were submitted for pathological examination. SLNs were defined as those that were either fluorescent, blue, fluorescent and blue or palpably suspicious. Surgical complications, axillary recurrence, distant metastasis and overall survival rates were observed postoperatively. Results A total of 60 patients were enrolled in the study. The fluorescence detection rate of SLNs was 100% ( n = 177), with a mean of 2.95 SLNs per patient. The methylene blue staining rate was 88.3% ( n = 106), with a mean of 1.77 SLNs per patient. Pathological assessment of intraoperative frozen specimens revealed SLN metastases in 10 patients, who immediately underwent axillary lymph node dissection. No patient had axillary recurrence or distant metastases, with a survival rate of 100%. Patients who underwent SLNB showed good appearance in the axillary wound, with no limited shoulder joint abduction and upper limb oedema. Conclusion Fluorescence-guided SLNB has several advantages and is suitable for clinical application.

  5. Inguinal sentinel lymph node biopsy for staging anal cancer.

    PubMed

    Péley, G; Farkas, E; Sinkovics, I; Kovács, T; Keresztes, S; Orosz, Z; Köves, I

    2002-01-01

    The optimal treatment of clinically negative inguinal lymph nodes in patients with primary anal cancer has not yet been clearly defined. The presence of metastases in the inguinal lymph nodes is an adverse prognostic factor for anal cancer. In the present study the feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for staging anal cancer was investigated. From September 1999 to March 2002, 8 patients with biopsy proven primary anal cancer underwent lymphoscintigraphy and dual-agent guided inguinal SLNB for nodal staging before starting multimodality treatment. Inguinal SLNB was successful in all 8 patients (13 groins). A total of 20 hot and blue SLNs (mean 1,5 (1-2) per groins) were removed. In 2 patients (25%) the SLN was positive for metastasis. Lymphoscintigraphy followed by dual-agent guided inguinal SLNB is technically feasible for staging patients with primary anal cancer. The detection of metastases in the removed sentinel lymph node(s) may alter the treatment and thus may improve the locoregional control and overall survival of these patients.

  6. Interest of sentinel node biopsy in apparently intrathyroidal medullary thyroid cancer: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Puccini, M; Manca, G; Ugolini, C; Candalise, V; Passaretti, A; Bernardini, J; Boni, G; Buccianti, P

    2014-09-01

    Initial surgery for medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) with no evidence of lymph node involvement in neck compartments consists of total thyroidectomy and prophylactic central neck dissection. This study evaluated the reliability of a radiotracer technique for the intraoperative detection of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in lateral compartments in patients with early MTC. Patients with limited (cT1 N0) MTC entered the study (2009-2012). A 0.1-0.3 ml suspension of macrocolloidal technetium-99-labeled human albumin was injected (under echo-guide) in the tumor 5 h before surgery. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy confirmed the identification of SLNs in the lateral neck. The operation consisted of total thyroidectomy and central neck dissection, and a hand-held gamma-probe (Neoprobe) guide was used to remove the SLNs from the lateral neck. Four patients were recruited. The tracer always indicated a SLN. Pathology reports indicated micrometastases from MTC in SLN in three patients. At a mean follow-up of 30.5 months, all patients were biochemically cured. The technique we describe to detect and remove neck SLN from MTC seemed to be very accurate. It always showed the SLNs (usually two) in the lateral compartments. Micrometastases were detected in three of four patients, allowing their correct staging. The method described here for the detection of SLNs in early MTC seems effective and reliable and can be used for a more precise N staging of the patients. It could play a role, alone or combined with other techniques, in driving the extent of prophylactic neck dissection or other potential applications.

  7. Internal Mammary Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy With Modified Injection Technique

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Peng-Fei; Cong, Bin-Bin; Zhao, Rong-Rong; Yang, Guo-Ren; Liu, Yan-Bing; Chen, Peng; Wang, Yong-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer incorporated the internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) concept, there has been little change in surgical practice patterns because of the low visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes (IMSLN) with the traditional radiotracer injection technique. In this study, various injection techniques were evaluated in term of the IMSLN visualization rate, and the impact of IM-SLNB on the diagnostic and prognostic value were analyzed. Clinically, axillary lymph nodes (ALN) negative patients (n = 407) were divided into group A (traditional peritumoral intraparenchymal injection) and group B (modified periareolar intraparenchymal injection). Group B was then separated into group B1 (low volume) and group B2 (high volume) according to the injection volume. Clinically, ALN-positive patients (n = 63) were managed as group B2. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed for patients with IMSLN visualized. The IMSLN visualization rate was significantly higher in group B than that in group A (71.1% versus 15.5%, P < 0.001), whereas the axillary sentinel lymph nodes were reliably identified in both groups (98.9% versus 98.3%, P = 0.712). With high injection volume, group B2 was found to have higher IMSLN visualization rate than group B1 (75.1% versus 45.8%, P < 0.001). The IMSLN metastasis rate was only 8.1% (12/149) in clinically ALN-negative patients with successful IM-SLNB, and adjuvant treatment was altered in a small proportion. The IMSLN visualization rate was 69.8% (44/63) in clinically ALN-positive patients with the IMSLN metastasis rate up to 20.5% (9/44), and individual radiotherapy strategy could be guided with the IM-SLNB results. The modified injection technique (periareolar intraparenchymal, high volume, and ultrasound guidance) significantly improved the IMSLN visualization rate, making the routine IM-SLNB possible in daily practice. Internal

  8. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Needle-Based Probe Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy (nCLE) of Intrapancreatic Ectopic Spleen

    PubMed Central

    Bastidas, Amanda B.; Holloman, David; Lankarani, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Accessory spleens and splenosis represent the congenital and acquired type of ectopic splenic tissue. Generally, they are asymptomatic entities posing as solid hypervascular masses at the splenic hilum or in other organs, such as the pancreas. Intrapancreatic ectopic spleen mimics pancreatic neoplasms on imaging studies, and due to the lack of radiological diagnostic criteria, patients undergo unnecessary distal pancreatectomy. We present the first case of intrapancreatic ectopic spleen in which the concomitant use of needle-based probe confocal laser endomicroscopy and fine-needle aspiration supported the final diagnosis. PMID:27144203

  9. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Cui, XinWu; Ignee, Andre; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; De Molo, Chiara; Pirri, Clara; Jedrzejczyk, Maciej; Christoph, Dietrich F

    2013-03-01

    Sentinel lymph nodes are the first lymph nodes in the region that receive lymphatic drainage from a primary tumor. The detection or exclusion of sentinel lymph node micrometastases is critical in the staging of cancer, especially breast cancer and melanoma because it directly affects patient's prognosis and surgical management. Currently, intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsies using blue dye and radioisotopes are the method of choice for the detection of sentinel lymph node with high identification rate. In contrast, conventional ultrasound is not capable of detecting sentinel lymph nodes in most cases. Contrast enhanced ultrasound with contrast specific imaging modes has been used for the evaluation and diagnostic work-up of peripherally located suspected lymphadenopathy. The method allows for real-time analysis of all vascular phases and the visualization of intranodal focal "avascular" areas that represent necrosis or deposits of neoplastic cells. In recent years, a number of animal and human studies showed that contrast enhanced ultrasound can be also used for the detection of sentinel lymph node, and may become a potential application in clinical routine. Several contrast agents have been used in those studies, including albumin solution, hydroxyethylated starch, SonoVue(®), Sonazoid(®) and Definity(®). This review summarizes the current knowledge about the use of ultrasound techniques in detection and evaluation of sentinel lymph node.

  10. Au@Ag/Au nanoparticles assembled with activatable aptamer probes as smart "nano-doctors" for image-guided cancer thermotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hui; Ye, Xiaosheng; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Cui, Wensi; He, Dinggeng; Li, Duo; Jia, Xuekun

    2014-08-07

    Although nanomaterial-based theranostics have increased positive expectations from cancer treatment, it remains challenging to develop in vivo "nano-doctors" that provide high-contrast image-guided site-specific therapy. Here we designed an activatable theranostic nanoprobe (ATNP) via self-assembly of activatable aptamer probes (AAPs) on Au@Ag/Au nanoparticles (NPs). As both quenchers and heaters, novel Au@Ag/Au NPs were prepared, showing excellent fluorescence quenching and more effective near-infrared photothermal therapy than Au nanorods. The AAP comprised a thiolated aptamer and a fluorophore-labeled complementary DNA; thus, the ATNP with quenched fluorescence in the free state could realize signal activation through target binding-induced conformational change of the AAP, and then achieve on-demand treatment under image-guided irradiation. By using S6 aptamer as the model, in vitro and in vivo studies of A549 lung cancer verified that the ATNP greatly improved imaging contrast and specific destruction, suggesting a robust and versatile theranostic strategy for personalized medicine in future.

  11. Sexually selected sentinels? Evidence of a role for intrasexual competition in sentinel behavior

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Lindsay A.; York, Jenny E.

    2016-01-01

    Although the evolutionary mechanisms that favor investment in cooperative behaviors have long been a focus of research, comparatively few studies have considered the role that sexual selection may play. For example, evolutionary explanations for sentinel behavior (where 1 individual assumes an elevated position and scans the surroundings while other group members forage nearby) have traditionally focused on the inclusive fitness benefits arising from its effects on predation risk, while its potential role in defense against intrasexual competitors remains largely unexplored. Here, we provide experimental evidence of a role for sentinel behavior in intrasexual competition, in a cooperatively breeding songbird, the white-browed sparrow weaver (Plocepasser mahali). First, dominant males sentinel substantially more than other group members (even when controlling for variation in age and body condition), consistent with a role for sentineling in intrasexual competition for mates and/or territory. Second, experimental playback of an unfamiliar male’s solo song elicited a marked increase in sentineling by the dominant male, and the vocal response to the playback also positively predicted his sentinel effort following the simulated intrusion. A second experiment also suggests that sentineling may facilitate mounting rapid anti-intruder responses, as responses to intruder-playback occurred significantly earlier when the dominant male was sentineling rather than foraging at playback onset. Together, our findings provide rare support for the hypothesis that sentinel behavior plays a role in intrasexual competition, and so highlight the potential for sexually selected direct benefits to shape its expression in this and other social vertebrates. PMID:27656086

  12. The Sentinel-3 Missions Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donlon, C.; Berruti, B.; Becklenberg, S.; Nieke, J.; Rebhan, H.; Klein, U.; Buongiorno, A.; Mavrocordatos, C.; Frerick, J.; Seitz, B.; Goryl, P.; Femenias, P.; Stroede, J.; Sciarra, R.

    2012-03-01

    ESA is currently implementing the Sentinel-3 mission [3], [4] as part of the European Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) program. It is designed as a constellation of two identical polar orbiting satellites, separated by 180 deg, for the provision of longterm operational marine and land monitoring services. These services include the generation of land and ocean colour products, sea and land surface temperature, vegetation products and sea, ice and land surface topography. The first satellite has a planned launch in late 2013 and will provide valuable information for scientists and policy makers in the European Union and its Member States for the next decade. The operational character of this mission implies a high level of availability of the data products and fast delivery time, which have been important design drivers for the mission.

  13. The sentinel node in gynaecological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Balega, J; Van Trappen, P O

    2006-01-01

    As lymph node metastasis is one of the earliest features of tumour cell spread in most human cancers, assessment of the regional lymph nodes is required for tumour staging, determining prognosis and planning adjuvant therapeutic strategies. However, complete lymph node dissections are frequently associated with significant complications. Conjugating the diagnostic advantages with decreased morbidity, the sentinel node concept represents one of the most recent advances in surgical oncology. In this review we briefly highlight the historical background of the development of the sentinel node concept, the anatomical evidence for applying the sentinel node concept in pelvic gynaecological cancers and the technical aspects of sentinel node detection. We discuss recent studies in vulval, cervical and endometrial cancer. PMID:16520291

  14. Distribution of Prostate Sentinel Nodes: A SPECT-Derived Anatomic Atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Ganswindt, Ute; Schilling, David; Mueller, Arndt-Christian; Bares, Roland; Bartenstein, Peter; Belka, Claus

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: The randomized Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 94-13 trial revealed that coverage of the pelvic lymph nodes in high-risk prostate cancer confers an advantage (progression-free survival and biochemical failure) in patients with {>=}15% risk of lymph node involvement. To facilitate an improved definition of the adjuvant target volume, precise knowledge regarding the location of the relevant lymph nodes is necessary. Therefore, we generated a three-dimensional sentinel lymph node atlas. Methods and Materials: In 61 patients with high-risk prostate cancer, a three-dimensional visualization of sentinel lymph nodes was performed using a single photon emission computed tomography system after transrectal intraprostatic injection of 150 to 362 (median 295) mega becquerel (MBq) {sup 99m}Technetium-nanocolloid (1.5-3h after injection) followed by an anatomic functional image fusion. Results: In all, 324 sentinel nodes in 59 of 61 patients (96.7%) were detected, with 0 to 13 nodes per patient (median 5, mean 5.3). The anatomic distribution of the sentinel nodes was as follows: external iliac 34.3%, internal iliac 17.9%, common iliac 12.7%, sacral 8.6%, perirectal 6.2%, left paraaortic 5.3%, right paraaortic 5.3%, seminal vesicle lymphatic plexus 3.1%, deep inguinal 1.5%, superior rectal 1.2%, internal pudendal 1.2%, perivesical 0.9%, inferior rectal 0.9%, retroaortic 0.3%, superficial inguinal 0.3%, and periprostatic 0.3%. Conclusions: The distribution of sentinel nodes as detected by single photon emission computed tomography imaging correlates well with the distribution determined by intraoperative gamma probe detection. A lower detection rate of sentinels in close proximity to the bladder and seminal vesicles is probably caused by the radionuclide accumulation in the bladder. In regard to intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques, the presented anatomic atlas may allow optimized target volume definitions.

  15. A prospective investigation of fluorescence imaging to detect sentinel lymph nodes at robotic-assisted endometrial cancer staging.

    PubMed

    Paley, Pamela J; Veljovich, Dan S; Press, Joshua Z; Isacson, Christina; Pizer, Ellen; Shah, Chirag

    2016-07-01

    The accuracy of sentinel lymph node mapping has been shown in endometrial cancer, but studies to date have primarily focused on cohorts at low risk for nodal involvement. In our practice, we acknowledge the lack of benefit of lymphadenectomy in the low-risk subgroup and omit lymph node removal in these patients. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of sentinel node mapping in women at sufficient risk for nodal metastasis warranting lymphadenectomy and in whom the potential benefit of avoiding nodal procurement could be realized. To evaluate the detection rate and accuracy of fluorescence-guided sentinel lymph node mapping in endometrial cancer patients undergoing robotic-assisted staging. One hundred twenty-three endometrial cancer patients undergoing sentinel lymph node sentinel node mapping using indocyanine green were prospectively evaluated. Two mL (1.0 mg/mL) of dye were injected into the cervical stroma divided between the 2-3 and 9-10 o'clock positions at the time of uterine manipulator placement. Before hysterectomy, the retroperitoneal spaces were developed and fluorescence imaging was used for sentinel node detection. Identified sentinel nodes were removed and submitted for touch prep intraoperatively, followed by permanent assessment with routine hematoxylin and eosin levels. Patients then underwent hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and completion bilateral pelvic and periaortic lymphadenectomy based on intrauterine risk factors determined intraoperatively (tumor size >2 cm, >50% myometrial invasion, and grade 3 histology). Of 123 patients enrolled, at least 1 sentinel node was detected in 119 (96.7%). Ninety-nine patients (80%) had bilateral pelvic or periaortic sentinel nodes detected. A total of 85 patients met criteria warranting completion lymphadenectomy. In 14 patients (16%) periaortic lymphadenectomy was not feasible, and the mean number of pelvic nodes procured was 13 (6-22). Of the 71 patients undergoing

  16. CTC Sentinel. Volume 9, Issue 9

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    Combating Terrorism Center at West Point Objective • Relevant • Rigorous | September 2016 • Volume 9, Issue 9 v FEATURE ARTICLE...Cruickshank Managing Editor Kristina Hummel EDITORIAL BOARD Colonel Suzanne Nielsen, Ph.D. Department Head Dept. of Social Sciences ( West Point) Lieutenant...Road, Lincoln Hall West Point, NY 10996 Phone: (845) 938-8495 Email: sentinel@usma.edu Web: www.ctc.usma.edu/sentinel/ SUBSMISSIONS The CTC

  17. Application of WHO's guideline for the selection of sentinel sites for hospital-based influenza surveillance in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Susilarini, Ni Ketut; Sitorus, Martahan; Praptaningsih, Catharina Yekti; Sampurno, Ondri Dwi; Bratasena, Arie; Mulyadi, Ester; Rusli, Roselinda; Fandil, Ahmad; Mangiri, Amalya; Apsari, Hana; Hariyanto, Edy; Samaan, Gina

    2014-09-23

    geographic representativeness. This experience may guide other countries interested in adopting WHO's influenza surveillance standards for sentinel site selection.

  18. The SENTINEL-3 Mission: Overview and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, J.; Mecklenburg, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Copernicus Programme, being Europe's Earth Observation and Monitoring Programme led by the European Union, aims to provide, on a sustainable basis, reliable and timely services related to environmental and security issues. The Sentinel-3 mission forms part of the Copernicus Space Component. Its main objectives, building on the heritage and experience of the European Space Agency's (ESA) ERS and ENVISAT missions, are to measure sea-surface topography, sea- and land-surface temperature and ocean- and land-surface colour in support of ocean forecasting systems, and for environmental and climate monitoring. The series of Sentinel-3 satellites will ensure global, frequent and near-real time ocean, ice and land monitoring, with the provision of observation data in routine, long term (up to 20 years of operations) and continuous fashion, with a consistent quality and a high level of reliability and availability. The Sentinel-3 missions will be jointly operated by ESA and EUMETSAT. ESA will be responsible for the operations, maintenance and evolution of the Sentinel-3 ground segment on land related products and EUMETSAT for the marine products. The Sentinel-3 ground segment systematically acquires, processes and distributes a set of pre-defined core data products. Sentinel-3A is foreseen to be launched at the beginning of November 2015. The paper will give an overview on the mission, its instruments and objectives, the data products provided, the mechanisms to access the mission's data, and if available first results.

  19. Use of sentinel node lymphoscintigraphy in malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Yudd, A P; Kempf, J S; Goydos, J S; Stahl, T J; Feinstein, R S

    1999-01-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy is a sensitive, inexpensive, relatively noninvasive method of identifying lymphatic drainage patterns and sentinel lymph nodes in patients with malignant melanoma. Lymphoscintigraphy with filtered technetium-99m sulfur colloid allows prompt visualization of the lymphatic system, produces high-quality images, and delivers a low radiation dose to the patient. In addition, good regional lymph node retention is seen with filtered Tc-99m sulfur colloid, improving the success rate of intraoperative gamma probe localization. In combination with surgical localization, lymphoscintigraphy allows preoperative and intraoperative identification of the sentinel node in patients with intermediate thickness melanomatous lesions, obviating radical lymph node dissection in most patients and possibly prolonging their survival. Variables such as tumor location, type and preparation of radiopharmaceutical, injection technique, imaging technique, and prior surgical intervention influence the efficacy of lymphoscintigraphy. Nevertheless, lymphoscintigraphy is recommended as a cost-effective preoperative procedure in all patients planning to undergo elective lymph node dissection. Because of the unpredictability of lymphatic drainage, preoperative scintigraphic findings may lead to changes in surgical management.

  20. Comparison of 2- and 4-wavelength methods for the optical detection of sentinel lymph node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellier, F.; Simon, H.; Blé, F. X.; Ravelo, R.; Chabrier, R.; Steibel, J.; Rodier, J. F.; Poulet, P.

    2011-07-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the gold standard method to detect a metastatic invasion from the primary breast cancer. This method can avoid patients to be submitted to full axillary chain dissection. In this study we present and compare two near-infrared optical probes for the sentinel lymph node detection, based on the recording of scattered photons. The two setups were developed to improve the detection of the dye injected in clinical routine: the Patent Blue V dye. Herein, we present results regarding clinical ex-vivo detection of sentinel lymph node after different volume injections. We have previously published results obtained with a two-wavelength probe on phantom and animal models. However this first generation device did not completely account for the optical absorption variations from biological tissue. Thus, a second generation probe has been equipped with four wavelengths. The dye concentration computation is then more robust to measurement and tissue property fluctuations. The detection threshold of the second setup was estimated at 8.10-3μmol/L, which is about 37 times lower than the eye visibility threshold. We present here the preliminary results and demonstrate the advantages of using four wavelengths compared to two on phantom suspensions simulating the optical properties of breast tissues.

  1. Probing the structural dynamics of the CRISPR-Cas9 RNA-guided DNA-cleavage system by coarse-grained modeling.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenjun

    2017-02-01

    In the adaptive immune systems of many bacteria and archaea, the Cas9 endonuclease forms a complex with specific guide/scaffold RNA to identify and cleave complementary target sequences in foreign DNA. This DNA targeting machinery has been exploited in numerous applications of genome editing and transcription control. However, the molecular mechanism of the Cas9 system is still obscure. Recently, high-resolution structures have been solved for Cas9 in different structural forms (e.g., unbound forms, RNA-bound binary complexes, and RNA-DNA-bound tertiary complexes, corresponding to an inactive state, a pre-target-bound state, and a cleavage-competent or product state), which offered key structural insights to the Cas9 mechanism. To further probe the structural dynamics of Cas9 interacting with RNA and DNA at the amino-acid level of details, we have performed systematic coarse-grained modeling using an elastic network model and related analyses. Our normal mode analysis predicted a few key modes of collective motions that capture the observed conformational changes featuring large domain motions triggered by binding of RNA and DNA. Our flexibility analysis identified specific regions with high or low flexibility that coincide with key functional sites (such as DNA/RNA-binding sites, nuclease cleavage sites, and key hinges). We also identified a small set of hotspot residues that control the energetics of functional motions, which overlap with known functional sites and offer promising targets for future mutagenesis efforts to improve the specificity of Cas9. Finally, we modeled the conformational transitions of Cas9 from the unbound form to the binary complex and then the tertiary complex, and predicted a distinct sequence of domain motions. In sum, our findings have offered rich structural and dynamic details relevant to the Cas9 machinery, and will guide future investigation and engineering of the Cas9 systems. Proteins 2017; 85:342-353. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals

  2. Hands-free, wireless goggles for near-infrared fluorescence and real-time image-guided surgery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Bauer, Adam Q; Akers, Walter J; Sudlow, Gail; Liang, Kexian; Shen, Duanwen; Berezin, Mikhail Y; Culver, Joseph P; Achilefu, Samuel

    2011-05-01

    Current cancer management faces several challenges, including the occurrence of a residual tumor after resection, the use of radioactive materials or high concentrations of blue dyes for sentinel lymph node biopsy, and the use of bulky systems in surgical suites for image guidance. To overcome these limitations, we developed a real-time, intraoperative imaging device that, when combined with near infrared fluorescent molecular probes, can aid in the identification of tumor margins, guide surgical resections, map sentinel lymph nodes, and transfer acquired data wirelessly for remote analysis. We developed a new compact, wireless, wearable, and battery-operated device that allows for hands-free operation by surgeons. A charge-coupled device-based, consumer-grade night vision viewer was used to develop the detector portion of the device, and the light source portion was developed from a compact headlamp. This piece was retrofitted to provide both near infrared excitation and white light illumination simultaneously. Wireless communication was enabled by integrating a battery-operated, miniature, radio-frequency video transmitter into the system. We applied the device in several types of oncologic surgical procedures in murine models, including sentinel lymph node mapping, fluorescence-guided tumor resection, and surgery under remote expert guidance. Unlike conventional imaging instruments, the device displays fluorescence information directly on its eyepiece. When employed in sentinel lymph node mapping, the locations of sentinel lymph nodes were visualized clearly, even with tracer level dosing of a near infrared fluorescent dye (indocyanine green). When used in tumor resection, tumor margins and small nodules invisible to the naked eye were visualized readily. In a simulated, point-of-care setting, tumors were located successfully and removed under remote guidance using the wireless feature of the device. Importantly, the total cost of this prototype system ($1200

  3. Clinical utilities and biological characteristics of melanoma sentinel lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Dale; Thomas, Daniel C; Zager, Jonathan S; Pockaj, Barbara; White, Richard L; Leong, Stanley PL

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 73870 people will be diagnosed with melanoma in the United States in 2015, resulting in 9940 deaths. The majority of patients with cutaneous melanomas are cured with wide local excision. However, current evidence supports the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) given the 15%-20% of patients who harbor regional node metastasis. More importantly, the presence or absence of nodal micrometastases has been found to be the most important prognostic factor in early-stage melanoma, particularly in intermediate thickness melanoma. This review examines the development of SLNB for melanoma as a means to determine a patient’s nodal status, the efficacy of SLNB in patients with melanoma, and the biology of melanoma metastatic to sentinel lymph nodes. Prospective randomized trials have guided the development of practice guidelines for use of SLNB for melanoma and have shown the prognostic value of SLNB. Given the rapidly advancing molecular and surgical technologies, the technical aspects of diagnosis, identification, and management of regional lymph nodes in melanoma continues to evolve and to improve. Additionally, there is ongoing research examining both the role of SLNB for specific clinical scenarios and the ways to identify patients who may benefit from completion lymphadenectomy for a positive SLN. Until further data provides sufficient evidence to alter national consensus-based guidelines, SLNB with completion lymphadenectomy remains the standard of care for clinically node-negative patients found to have a positive SLN. PMID:27081640

  4. The Copernicus Sentinel-3 Mission: Current Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donlon, C.; Berruti, B.; Mavrocordatos, C.; Nieke, J.; Seitz, B.; Frerrick, J.; Vuilleumier@esa int, P.; Rebhan, H.; Mecklenburg, S.; Goryl, P.; Féménias, P.

    2016-02-01

    Sentinel-3 is an operational mission in high-inclination, low earth orbit for the provision of observational data to Copernicus services. Products include ocean, ice and land surface altimetry, complemented by thermal and visible wavelength multi-spectral image data. The operational character of the mission implies a high level of availability of the data products and fast delivery time, which have been important design drivers for the mission. In terms of ocean applications, the Sentinel-3 payload is designed to monitor open-ocean, coastal and inland waters using a suite of contemporaneous measurements. The spacecraft accommodates a topography payload consisting of a SAR Radar Altimeter (SRAL) and a Microwave Radiometer (MWR) plus a suite of instruments for precise orbit determination (POD). In addition, two large optical instruments - the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) and the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer instrument (SLSTR) have been developed as part of the mission. Full performance will be achieved with a constellation of two identical satellites, separated by 180 degrees in the same orbital plane. Together, the optical and topography instruments of Sentinel-3 will ensure the continuation of important data streams established with ESA's ERS and ENVISAT satellites. Four Sentinel-3 satellites are in development with Sentinel-3A planned for launch in late 2015 and the Sentinel-3B satellite launch expected in 2017. Procurement of the C and D satellites is ongoing. The overall service duration is planned to be 20 years and is expected to be fulfilled by a series of several satellites. This paper reports the current status of the Sentinel-3 Mission and presets some first results from the instrument payload.

  5. The ``Core'' of the Quasar 3C454.3 as the Extragalactic Reference for the Proper Motion of the Gravity Probe B Guide Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartel, Norbert; Ransom, Ryan; Bietenholz, Michael; Lederman, Jerusha; Lebach, Daniel; Ratner, Michael; Shapiro, Irwin; Petrov, Leonid

    2007-04-01

    We used very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) radio observations at 8.4 GHz between 1997 and 2005 to determine the coordinates of the ``core'' of the quasar, 3C454.3, relative to two other extragalactic sources, B2250+194 and B2252+172, nearby on the sky. The core of 3C454.3 is stationary relative to these two sources, with the 1σ upper limit on its proper motion being 25 μas yr-1 in right ascension and 35 μas yr-1 in declination. The corresponding upper limit on the proper motion of this core with respect to the quasi-inertial reference frame determined from separate VLBI observations of many extragalactic radio sources, including B2250+194, is of similar magnitude. The core of 3C454.3 provides a sufficiently stable reference with which to measure the proper motion of the Gravity Probe B guide star, IM Pegasi, relative to the distant universe.

  6. Sentinel lymph node detection by an optical method using scattered photons

    PubMed Central

    Tellier, Franklin; Ravelo, Rasata; Simon, Hervé; Chabrier, Renée; Steibel, Jérôme; Poulet, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    We present a new near infrared optical probe for the sentinel lymph node detection, based on the recording of scattered photons. A two wavelengths setup was developed to improve the detection threshold of an injected dye: the Patent Blue V dye. The method used consists in modulating each laser diode at a given frequency. A Fast Fourier Transform of the recorded signal separates both components. The signal amplitudes are used to compute relative Patent Blue V concentration. Results on the probe using phantoms model and small animal experimentation exhibit a sensitivity threshold of 3.2 µmol/L, which is thirty fold better than the eye visible threshold. PMID:21258517

  7. [Development of technologies for sentinel lymph node biopsy in case of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Mathelin, C; Piqueras, I; Guyonnet, J-L

    2006-06-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is now routinely used in breast cancer multidisciplinary management. The combined use of blue dye and lymphoscintigraphy gives the best SLN identification rate. Two different types of probes are available for the SLN procedure: semi-conductor probes and scintillator ones. Moreover, to increase the performances of the SLN procedure, intra-operative gamma cameras have recently been developed. The objectives of our review are to describe these materials to highlight their advantages and drawbacks from the point of view of the surgeon and the physicist.

  8. Importance of recognizing sentinel headache

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Júlio Leonardo Barbosa; de Albuquerque, Lucas Alverne Freitas; Dellaretti, Marcos; de Carvalho, Gervásio Teles Cardoso; Vieira Junior, Gerival; Rocha, Marcella Israel; Loures, Laize Luzia Andrade; Christo, Paulo Pereira; de Sousa, Atos Alves

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sentinel headache (SH) is a kind of secondary headache and is characterized as sudden, intense, and persistent, preceding spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by days or weeks. Methods: Eighty-nine consecutive patients with a diagnosis of spontaneous SAH were evaluated following admission to the Neurosurgical Service at Santa Casa Hospital, Belo Horizonte, between December 2009 and December 2010. Results: Out of the 89 patients, 64 (71.9%) were women. Mean age was 48.9 years (SD ± 13.4, ranging from 18 to 85 years). Twenty-four patients (27.0%) presented SH, which occurred, in average, 10.6 days (SD ± 13.5) before a SAH. No statistically significant differences were observed between the presence of SH and gender, arterial hypertension and migraine (P > 0.05), Glasgow Comma Scale (GCS) and World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) scale at admission. Conclusion: The prevalence of SH was 27% in this study but no related factors were identified. Therefore, further clarification of this important entity is required so as to facilitate its recognition in emergency services and improve the prognosis of patients with cerebral aneurysms. PMID:23372978

  9. 78 FR 67168 - Sixth Annual Sentinel Initiative; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... status of FDA's Sentinel Initiative and future plans, highlights from key Mini-Sentinel and related... process for human drug and biological products. The reauthorization of PDUFA includes performance goals...

  10. Lymphoscintigraphy and triangulated body marking for morbidity reduction during sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Krynyckyi, Borys R; Shafir, Michail K; Kim, Suk Chul; Kim, Dong Wook; Travis, Arlene; Moadel, Renee M; Kim, Chun K

    2005-01-01

    Current trends in patient care include the desire for minimizing invasiveness of procedures and interventions. This aim is reflected in the increasing utilization of sentinel lymph node biopsy, which results in a lower level of morbidity in breast cancer staging, in comparison to extensive conventional axillary dissection. Optimized lymphoscintigraphy with triangulated body marking is a clinical option that can further reduce morbidity, more than when a hand held gamma probe alone is utilized. Unfortunately it is often either overlooked or not fully understood, and thus not utilized. This results in the unnecessary loss of an opportunity to further reduce morbidity. Optimized lymphoscintigraphy and triangulated body marking provides a detailed 3 dimensional map of the number and location of the sentinel nodes, available before the first incision is made. The number, location, relevance based on time/sequence of appearance of the nodes, all can influence 1) where the incision is made, 2) how extensive the dissection is, and 3) how many nodes are removed. In addition, complex patterns can arise from injections. These include prominent lymphatic channels, pseudo-sentinel nodes, echelon and reverse echelon nodes and even contamination, which are much more difficult to access with the probe only. With the detailed information provided by optimized lymphoscintigraphy and triangulated body marking, the surgeon can approach the axilla in a more enlightened fashion, in contrast to when the less informed probe only method is used. This allows for better planning, resulting in the best cosmetic effect and less trauma to the tissues, further reducing morbidity while maintaining adequate sampling of the sentinel node(s). PMID:16277655

  11. Proceedings of GLaSS: Global Lakes Sentinel Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Steef; Hommersom, Annelies; Alikas, Krista; Heege, Thomas; Schenk, Karin; Ruescas, Ana; Eleveld, Marieke; Giardino, Claudia; Koponen, Sampsa; Kallio, Kari; Philipson, Petra

    2015-12-01

    Global Lakes Sentinel Services (GLaSS) is developing a prototype Sentinel service infrastructure to ingest and process Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 data into validated ecological water quality parameters for lakes, plus training material. GLaSS is an EU-funded R&D project within the Copernicus framework. The project is well on its way to reach its goals. Some results on comparisons on atmospheric correction methods for inland waters are presented here.

  12. Compact intraoperative imaging device for sentinel lymph node mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Bauer, Adam Q.; Akers, Walter; Sudlow, Gail; Liang, Kexian; Shen, Duanwen; Berezin, Mikhail; Culver, Joseph P.; Achilefu, Samuel

    2011-03-01

    We have developed a novel real-time intraoperative fluorescence imaging device that can detect near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence and map sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). In contrast to conventional imaging systems, this device is compact, portable, and battery-operated. It is also wearable and thus allows hands-free operation of clinicians. The system directly displays the fluorescence in its goggle eyepiece, eliminating the need for a remote monitor. Using this device in murine lymphatic mapping, the SLNs stained with indocyanine green (ICG) can be readily detected. Fluorescence-guided SLN resection under the new device was performed with ease. Ex vivo examination of resected tissues also revealed high fluorescence level in the SLNs. Histology further confirmed the lymphatic nature of the resected SLNs.

  13. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for cutaneous head and neck malignancies.

    PubMed

    Dwojak, Sunshine; Emerick, Kevin S

    2015-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a procedure that can provide critical information regarding pathologic lymph node status and accurate regional staging. This is very important for developing treatment plans and providing prognostic guidance for cutaneous malignancies. The head and neck (HN) region is unique from other body sites due to its complex lymphatic drainage pathways, multiple lymph node basins, proximity of important cranial nerves and potential for contralateral or bilateral drainage. These unique aspects of the HN previously created some uncertainty about the use of SLNB in the HN. This review will discuss the current reliable status of HN SLNB and provide a guide for its current application in cutaneous malignancy of the HN.

  14. Sentinel node techniques in cancer of the vulva.

    PubMed

    de Hullu, Joanne A; van der Zee, Ate G J

    2003-02-01

    The sentinel lymph node procedure, with the combined technique (preoperative lymphoscintigraphy with (99m)Technetium-labeled Nanocolloid and Patente Blue V ), is a promising staging technique for patients with vulvar cancer. The clinical implementation of the sentinel lymph node procedure and the role of additional histopathologic techniques of the sentinel lymph nodes are under investigation.

  15. Sentinel-1 Precise Orbit Calibration and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti Guarnieri, Andrea; Mancon, Simone; Tebaldini, Stefano

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a model-based procedure to calibrate and validate Sentinel-1 orbit products by the Multi-Squint (MS) phase. The technique allows to calibrate an interferometric pair geometry by refining the slave orbit with reference to the orbit of a master image. Accordingly, we state the geometric model of the InSAR phase as function of positioning errors of targets and slave track; and the MS phase model as derivative of the InSAR phase geometric model with respect to the squint angle. In this paper we focus on the TOPSAR acquisition modes of Sentinel-1 (IW and EW) assuming at the most a linear error in the known slave trajectory. In particular, we describe a dedicated methodology to prevent InSAR phase artifacts on data acquired by the TOPSAR acquisition mode. Experimental results obtained by interferometric pairs acquired by Sentinel-1 sensor will be displayed.

  16. Internal Mammary Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer - Effects on Disease Prognosis and Therapeutic Protocols - A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Stojanoski, Sinisa; Ristevska, Nevena; Pop-Gjorcheva, Daniela; Antevski, Borce; Petrushevska, Gordana

    2015-03-15

    The main prognostic factor in early staged breast cancer is the axillary lymph node metastatic affection. Sentinel lymph node biopsy, as a staging modality, significantly decreases surgical morbidity. The status of internal mammary lymph nodes gains an increased predictive role in grading breast carcinomas and modulation of postoperative therapeutic protocols. If positive, almost always are associated with worse disease outcome. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of internal mammary lymph node micrometastases has not been up to date precisely defined. To present a case of female patient clinically diagnosed as T1, N0, M0 (clinical TNM) ductal breast carcinoma with scintigraphic detection of internal mammary and axillary sentinel lymph nodes. Dual method of scintigraphic sentinel lymph node detection using 99mTc-SENTI-SCINT and blue dye injection, intraoperative gamma probe detection, radioguided surgery and intraoperative ex tempore biopsy were used. We present a case of clinically T1, N0, M0 ductal breast cancer with scintigraphic detection of internal mammary and axillary sentinel lymph nodes. Intraoperative ex tempore biopsy revealed micrometastases in the internal mammary node and no metastatic involvement of the axillary sentinel lymph node. Detection of internal mammary lymph node metastases improves N (nodal) grading of breast cancer by selecting a high risk subgroup of patients that require adjuvant hormone therapy, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.

  17. Lymphatic drainage patterns of oral maxillary tumors: Approachable locations of sentinel lymph nodes mainly at the cervical neck level.

    PubMed

    Boeve, Koos; Schepman, Kees-Pieter; Vegt, Bert van der; Schuuring, Ed; Roodenburg, Jan L; Brouwers, Adrienne H; Witjes, Max J

    2017-03-01

    There is debate if the lymphatic drainage pattern of oral maxillary cancer is to the retropharyngeal lymph nodes or to the cervical lymph nodes. Insight in drainage patterns is important for the indication for neck treatment. The purpose of this study was to identify the lymphatic drainage pattern of oral maxillary cancer via preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. Eleven consecutive patients with oral maxillary cancer treated in our center between December 1, 2012, and April 22, 2016 were studied. Sentinel lymph nodes identified by preoperative lymphoscintigraphy after injection of (99m) Tc-nanocolloid and by intraoperative detection using a γ-probe, were surgically removed and histopathologically examined. In 10 patients, sentinel lymph nodes were detected and harvested at cervical levels I, II, or III in the neck. In 2 patients, a parapharyngeal sentinel lymph node was detected. One of the harvested sentinel lymph nodes (1/19) was tumor positive. This study suggests the likelihood of 73% of exclusively cervical level I to III sentinel lymph nodes in oral maxillary cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 486-491, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Scientist as Sentinel (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreskes, N.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists have been warning the world for some time about the risks of anthropogenic interference in the climate system. But we struggle with how, exactly, to express that warning. The norms of scientific behavior enjoin us from the communication strategies normally associated with warnings. If a scientist sounds excited or emotional, for example, it is often assumed that he has lost his capac¬ity to assess data calmly and therefore his conclusions are suspect. If the scientist is a woman, the problem is that much worse. In a recently published article my colleagues and I have shown that scientists have systematically underestimated the threat of climate change (Brysse et al., 2012). We suggested that this occurs for norma¬tive reasons: The scientific values of rationality, dispassion, and self-restraint lead us to demand greater levels of evidence in support of surprising, dramatic, or alarming conclusions than in support of less alarming conclusions. We call this tendency 'err¬ing on the side of least drama.' However, the problem is not only that we err on the side of least drama in our assessment of evidence, it's also that we speak without drama, even when our conclusions are dramatic. We speak without the emotional cadence that people expect to hear when the speaker is worried. Even when we are worried, we don't sound as if we are. In short, we are trying to act as sentinels, but we lack the register with which to do so. Until we find those registers, or partner with colleagues who are able to speak in the cadences that communicating dangers requires, our warnings about climate change will likely continue to go substantially unheeded.

  19. Update on detection of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Aarsvold, John N; Alazraki, Naomi P

    2005-04-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is now the practice of choice for the management of many patients with breast cancer. This was not true in the early 1990s, when the first such procedures were performed and protocols for such were refined often. This was also not true in the first years of the 21st century, when a decade of collective experience and information acquired from numerous clinical investigations dictated additional subtle and not-so-subtle refinements of the procedures. However, it is true today; reports of the latest round of clinical investigations indicate that there are several breast cancer sentinel node procedures that result in successful identification of potential sentinel nodes in nearly all patients who are eligible for such procedures. A significant component of many of these successful sentinel node procedures is a detection and localization protocol that involves radiotracer methodologies, including radiopharmaceutical administration, preoperative nuclear medicine imaging, and intraoperative gamma counting. The present state and roles of nuclear medicine protocols used in breast cancer sentinel lymph node biopsy procedures is reviewed with emphasis on discussion of recent results, unresolved issues, and future considerations. Included are brief reviews of present radiotracer and blue-dye techniques for node localization, including remarks about injection strategies, counting probe technology, and radiation safety. Included also are discussions of on-going investigations of the implications of the presence of micrometastases; of the management value of detection, localization, and excision of extra-axillary nodes such as internal mammary nodes; and of the broad range of recurrence rates presently being reported. Remarks on the present and possible near- and long-term roles for nuclear medicine in the staging of breast cancer patients including comments on positron emission tomography and intraoperative imaging conclude the article.

  20. SENTINEL-1 Image Matching Using Strong Scatters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghannadi, M. A.; Saadatseresht, M.; Motagh, M.

    2015-12-01

    The availability of new radar spaceborne sensors offers new interesting potentialities for the geomatics application: spatial and temporal change detection, generation of Digital Elevation Model(DEM) using radargrametry and interferometry. Since the start of the sentinel-1 mission to take images from different regions all over the world, the ability to use these images in variety domains has been treasured. This paper suggests a method for image matching using strong scatters. all the experiments are done on sentinel-1 stereo images from Jam, Bushehr, Iran.

  1. [A variant of the classic technique of ultrasound guided percutaneous renal biopsy: the perpendicular entry by longitudinal viewing planes with a perforated probe].

    PubMed

    Brardi, Simone; Cevenini, Gabriele; Bonadio, Angelo Giovanni; Ponchietti, Roberto; Caremani, Marcello; Duranti, Ennio

    2017-04-01

    The percutaneous biopsy of native kidneys according to the classic methodology, takes place with the introduction of the needle and its guide with ultrasound sagittal viewing planes, with a 30-degree angle, up to the lower pole of the kidney. Since the longitudinal axis of the kidneys converges towards the spine with a sharp angle, we observed that starting from a longitudinal scan of the kidney (conducted along the posterior axillary line with the patient prone) you can drive the needle by a perforated probe through a shorter path perpendicular to the end section of the lower pole of the kidney where the front and rear rims of the cortex bearings without the renal sinus interposed so increasing the chance to obtain, even with a single pass, a good sample of cortical tissue while limiting the possibility to damage the lower chalices that may cause hematuria. We biopsied in that manner 26 patients and we compared the data with those reported in the literature performed with the same needle gauge and post-biopsy monitoring period. With a statistically lower number of needle passes, it is thus obtained the 100% of the sample validity for histological analysis, in absence of major complications and statistically hemoglobin variance when compared with a group of 44 patients biopsied with a significantly greater number of needle passes in the only work carried out with classical technique in the literature (Ori et al.) which is directly comparable to our for gauge of the needles and duration of monitoring. Copyright by Società Italiana di Nefrologia SIN, Rome, Italy.

  2. CTC Sentinel. Volume 1, Issue 1, December 2007. West Point Releases First Issue of CTC Sentinel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    the Combating Terrorism Center’s dual mission of educating a new generation of leaders and conducting objective, policy-relevant, informative and...Sentinel Staff DECEMBER 2007 . VoL 1 . Issue 1 About the CTC Sentinel the combating terrorism center is an independent educational and research...doctrine, to introduce self-criticism as an accepted genre and method in jihadist thinking and his attempts to critically analyze the jihadist current

  3. Showcase of Intraoperative 3D Imaging of the Sentinel Lymph Node in a Breast Cancer Patient using the New Freehand SPECT Technology.

    PubMed

    Schnelzer, Andreas; Ehlerding, Alexandra; Blümel, Christina; Okur, Asli; Scheidhauer, Klemens; Paepke, Stefan; Kiechle, Marion

    2012-12-01

    After the development of a hand-held intraoperative device for 3D real-time imaging of radioactively labeled sentinel lymph nodes in the human body, we present our first experience with the newest version of the freehand single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) technology in the operating room. The freehand SPECT system combines a gamma probe and an optical infrared positioning system, and provides surgeons with 3D imaging including exact depth information of the radioactive target. This technology was used intraoperatively in a female breast cancer patient to localize the axillary sentinel lymph nodes. The data obtained with freehand SPECT correlate well with conventional lymphoscintigraphy and with data collected using a conventional hand-held probe. By offering fast real-time intraoperative imaging, the new freehand SPECT system might facilitate the detection and removal of the sentinel lymph node(s) in certain situations and can be used for documentation and quality assurance purposes.

  4. Patch-Based Image Classification For Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 Earth Resolution EO Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, Florin-Andrei; Tanase, Radu; Datcu, Mihai; Raducanu, Dan

    2016-08-01

    In an era where the satellite image collections are in a continuous growth, Earth Observation (EO) image annotation and classification is becoming an important component of data exploitation. In this paper we present how feature extraction methods such as Gabor (G) and Weber Local Descriptor (WLD) are performing in a patch- based approach in the frame of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 image data analysis. Having the goal to develop an application capable to join feature extraction and classification algorithms, in our assessment, we performed supervised support vector machines (SVM) and k-Nearest Neighbors (k-NN) classifications to extract a few generic classes from synthetic aperture radar (SAR), multispectral (MSI) and data fusion (DFI) images. The result of this study is intended to establish the optimum number of classes that can be found in the Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 images when using patch based image classification techniques. Also another important objective of this paper is to determine the best patch sizes suitable for this classification type in order to return best results for Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 EO images.

  5. Data mining tools for Sentinel 1 and Sentinel 2 data exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza Molina, Daniela; Datcu, Mihai

    2016-10-01

    With the new planned Sentinel missions, the availability of Earth Observation data is increasing everyday offering a larger number of applications that can be created using these data. Currently, three of the five missions were launched and they are delivering a wealth of data and imagery of the Earth's surface as, for example, the Sentinel-1 carries an advanced radar instrument to provide an all-weather, day-and-night supply of Earth imagery. The second mission, the Sentinel-2, carries an optical instrument payload that will sample 13 spectral bands at different resolutions. Even though, we count on tools for automated loading and visual exploration of the Sentinel data, we still face the problem of extracting relevant structures from the images, finding similar patterns in a scene, exploiting the data, and creating final user applications based on these processed data. In this paper, we present our approach for processing radar and multi-spectral Sentinel data. Our approach is mainly composed of three steps: 1) the generation of a data model that explains the information contained in a Sentinel product. The model is formed by primitive descriptors and metadata entries, 2) the storage of this model in a database system, 3) the semantic definition of the image content based on machine learning algorithms and relevance feedback methods.

  6. [SENTINEL LYMPH NODES DISSECTION IN GYNECOLOGICAL MALIGNANCIES].

    PubMed

    Naaman, Yael; Goldenhersh, Limor; Ben-Arie, Alon

    2017-02-01

    During the last decade sentinel lymph nodes biopsy has become an essential part of primary surgical treatment in a number of malignancies including breast cancer, melanoma and head-and-neck malignancies. Dye or radioactive substances are injected at the primary tumor site, followed by pre-operative and intra-operative mapping. During surgery only positive lymph nodes are being dissected instead of a complete dissection of the lymphatic basin. The advantages of sentinel lymph nodes dissection are reducing the side effects of extensive lymph nodes dissection, while maintaining high detection rates and sensitivity in identifying cases with lymphatic tumor spread. In the past years, the use of sentinel lymph nodes biopsy has also been incorporated in the treatment of gynecological malignancies. In vulvar cancer, it has been shown that sentinel lymph nodes biopsy is correlated with the same survival and recurrence rates as full groin lymph nodes dissection, while substantially lowering complications and especially morbid lymphedema. Preliminary experience in cervical cancer and carcinoma of the endometrium also displays the feasibility and liability of this method. Yet, there are still several controversies regarding the optimal detection method, site of injection and its oncological safety. In this article we present a review of the current literature on this evolving field.

  7. Permian insect wing from antarctic sentinel mountains.

    PubMed

    Tasch, P; Riek, E F

    1969-06-27

    A homopterous insect wing was found in micaceous graywacke from the Polarstar Formation, Sentinel Mountains. The unusual venation is reminiscent of family Stenoviciidae known from the Permian and Triassic of Eastern Australia and elsewhere. This first documented account of Paleozoic insects in Antarctica bears on drift questions.

  8. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alsaif, Abdulaziz A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To report our experience in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in early breast cancer. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and December 2014. There were 120 patients who underwent SLNB with frozen section examination. Data collected included the characteristics of patients, index tumor, and sentinel node (SN), SLNB results, axillary recurrence rate and SLNB morbidity. Results: There were 120 patients who had 123 cancers. Sentinel node was identified in 117 patients having 120 tumors (97.6% success rate). No SN was found intraoperatively in 3 patients. Frozen section results showed that 95 patients were SN negative, those patients had no immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), whereas 25 patients were SN positive and subsequently had immediate ALND. Upon further examination of the 95 negative SN’s by hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining for doubtful H&E cases, 10 turned out to have micrometastases (6 had delayed ALND and 4 had no further axillary surgery). Median follow up of patients was 35.5 months and the mean was 38.8 months. There was one axillary recurrence observed in the SN negative group. The morbidity of SLNB was minimal. Conclusion: The obtainable results from our local experience in SLNB in breast cancer, concur with that seen in published similar literature in particular the axillary failure rate. Sentinel lymph node biopsy resulted in minimal morbidity. PMID:26318461

  9. Intraoperative Localisation of Impalpable Breast Lesions Utilising the ROLLIS Technique Following Peritumoral 99mTc-colloid Sentinel Node Lymphoscintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Hung, Te-Jui; Burrage, John; Bourke, Anita; Taylor, Donna

    2017-08-24

    Ultrasound or stereotactic guided hook-wire localisation has been the standard-of-care for the pre-surgical localisation of impalpable breast lesions, which account for approximately a third of all breast cancer. Radioguided occult lesion localisation using I-125 seeds (ROLLIS) is a relatively new technique for guiding surgical excision of impalpable breast lesions, and is a promising alternative to the traditional hook-wire method. When combined with Tc-99m labelled colloid for sentinel node mapping in clinically indicated cases, there has been uncertainty regarding whether the downscatter of Tc-99m into the I-125 energy spectrum could adversely affect the intra-operative detection of the I-125 seed, especially pertaining to a peritumoral injection. To evaluate the percentage contribution of downscattered activity from Tc-99m into the I-125 energy spectrum in simulated intra-operative resections of an I-125 seed following different sentinel node injection techniques. Two scenarios were simulated using breast phantoms with lean chicken breast. The first scenario, with a 2cm distance between the Tc-99m injection site and the I-125 seed, simulated a periareolar ipsiquadrant injection with the subdermal or intradermal technique. The second scenario simulated a peritumoral injection technique with the Tc-99m bolus and an I-125 seed at the same site. Count rates were acquired with a hand-held gamma probe, and the percentage contribution of downscattered Tc-99m gamma photons to the I-125 energy window was calculated. In scenarios one and two, downscattered Tc-99m activity contributed 0.5% and 33% respectively to the detected count rate in the I-125 energy window. In both scenarios, the I-125 seed was successfully localised and removed using the gamma probe. There is no significant contribution of downscattered activity associated with a peritumoral injection of Tc-99m to adversely affect the accurate intra-operative localisation of an I- 125 seed. Copyright© Bentham

  10. Land science with Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 data series synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Jose; Guanter, Luis; Alonso, Luis; Gomez, Luis; Amoros, Julia; Camps, Gustavo; Delegido, Jesus

    2010-05-01

    Although the GMES/Sentinel satellite series were primarily designed to provide observations for operational services and routine applications, there is a growing interest in the scientific community towards the usage of Sentinel data for more advanced and innovative science. Apart from the improved spatial and spectral capabilities, the availability of consistent time series covering a period of over 20 years opens possibilities never explored before, such as systematic data assimilation approaches exploiting the time-series concept, or the incorporation in the modelling approaches of processes covering time scales from weeks to decades. Sentinel-3 will provide continuity to current ENVISAT MERIS/AATSR capabilities. The results already derived from MERIS/AATRS will be more systematically exploited by using OLCI in synergy with SLST. Particularly innovative is the case of Sentinel-2, which is specifically designed for land applications. Built on a constellation of two satellites operating simultaneously to provide 5 days geometric revisit time, the Sentinel-2 system will providing global and systematic acquisitions with high spatial resolution and with a high revisit time tailored towards the needs of land monitoring. Apart from providing continuity to Landsat and SPOT time series, the Sentinel-2 Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI) incorporates new narrow bands around the red-edge for improved retrievals of biophysical parameters. The limitations imposed by the need of a proper cloud screening and atmospheric corrections have represented a serious constraint in the past for optical data. The fact that both Sentinel-2 and 3 have dedicated bands to allow such needed corrections for optical data represents an important step towards a proper exploitation, guarantying consistent time series showing actual variability in land surface conditions without the artefacts introduced by the atmosphere. Expected operational products (such as Land Cover maps, Leaf Area Index

  11. The added value of a portable gamma camera for intraoperative detection of sentinel lymph node in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: A case report.

    PubMed

    Mayoral, M; Paredes, P; Sieira, R; Vidal-Sicart, S; Marti, C; Pons, F

    2014-01-01

    The use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity is still subject to debate although some studies have reported its feasibility. The main reason for this debate is probably due to the high false-negative rate for floor-of-mouth tumors per se. We report the case of a 54-year-old man with a T1N0 floor-of-mouth squamous cell carcinoma who underwent the sentinel lymph node procedure. Lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT imaging were performed for lymphatic mapping with a conventional gamma camera. Sentinel lymph nodes were identified at right Ib, left IIa and Ia levels. However, these sentinel lymph nodes were difficult to detect intraoperatively with a gamma probe owing to the activity originating from the injection site. The use of a portable gamma camera made it possible to localize and excise all the sentinel lymph nodes. This case demonstrates the usefulness of this tool to improve sentinel lymph node detecting in floor-of-mouth tumors, especially those close to the injection area.

  12. Minimally invasive staging of patients with melanoma: sentinel lymphadenectomy and detection of the melanoma-specific proteins MART-1 and tyrosinase by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Goydos, J S; Ravikumar, T S; Germino, F J; Yudd, A; Bancila, E

    1998-08-01

    A minimally invasive standard has yet to be developed for sentinel lymphadenectomy, and many patients undergo this procedure in the main operating room under general anesthesia. These patients often have microscopic metastases in sentinel nodes that could be missed by histopathologic examination. Techniques of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) could detect these metastases if the nodes could be preserved intraoperatively. Fifty patients with melanoma > or = mm thick underwent sentinel lymphadenectomy under local anesthesia in an outpatient surgical unit. Sentinel nodes were identified using blue dye and technetium-99 sulfur colloid and a hand-held gamma probe. Each node was sectioned, with half sent for routine histopathologic study and half preserved in liquid nitrogen. We used RT-PCR to detect mRNA for tyrosinase and Melanoma Antigen Recognized by T cells-1 (MART-1). All patients were able to tolerate sentinel lymph node biopsy under local anesthesia. Sentinel lymph nodes were obtained in 100% of our patients, and usable mRNA was harvested from all but five. Ten patients had positive sentinel node(s) by standard histopathologic examination, and all of these nodes were also positive for MART-1 and tyrosinase. Three patients with negative results by histopathology had positive results by RT-PCR analysis. The average cost of these outpatient operations was 38% less than the same operations performed in the main operating room under general anesthesia. Sentinel lymphadenectomy under local anesthesia in an outpatient setting and intraoperative lymph node preservation in liquid nitrogen are both feasible. Both tyrosinase and MART-1 are promising markers in the detection of occult melanoma in lymph nodes.

  13. Geocoding uncertainty analysis for the automated processing of Sentinel-1 data using Sentinel-1 Toolbox software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostálová, Alena; Naeimi, Vahid; Wagner, Wolfgang; Elefante, Stefano; Cao, Senmao; Persson, Henrik

    2016-10-01

    One of the major advantages of the Sentinel-1 data is its capability to provide very high spatio-temporal coverage allowing the mapping of large areas as well as creation of dense time-series of the Sentinel-1 acquisitions. The SGRT software developed at TU Wien aims at automated processing of Sentinel-1 data for global and regional products. The first step of the processing consists of the Sentinel-1 data geocoding with the help of S1TBX software and their resampling to a common grid. These resampled images serve as an input for the product derivation. Thus, it is very important to select the most reliable processing settings and assess the geocoding uncertainty for both backscatter and projected local incidence angle images. Within this study, selection of Sentinel-1 acquisitions over 3 test areas in Europe were processed manually in the S1TBX software, testing multiple software versions, processing settings and digital elevation models (DEM) and the accuracy of the resulting geocoded images were assessed. Secondly, all available Sentinel-1 data over the areas were processed using selected settings and detailed quality check was performed. Overall, strong influence of the used DEM on the geocoding quality was confirmed with differences up to 80 meters in areas with higher terrain variations. In flat areas, the geocoding accuracy of backscatter images was overall good, with observed shifts between 0 and 30m. Larger systematic shifts were identified in case of projected local incidence angle images. These results encourage the automated processing of large volumes of Sentinel-1 data.

  14. ESA's Multi-mission Sentinel-1 Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veci, Luis; Lu, Jun; Foumelis, Michael; Engdahl, Marcus

    2017-04-01

    The Sentinel-1 Toolbox is a new open source software for scientific learning, research and exploitation of the large archives of Sentinel and heritage missions. The Toolbox is based on the proven BEAM/NEST architecture inheriting all current NEST functionality including multi-mission support for most civilian satellite SAR missions. The project is funded through ESA's Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM). The Sentinel-1 Toolbox will strive to serve the SEOM mandate by providing leading-edge software to the science and application users in support of ESA's operational SAR mission as well as by educating and growing a SAR user community. The Toolbox consists of a collection of processing tools, data product readers and writers and a display and analysis application. A common architecture for all Sentinel Toolboxes is being jointly developed by Brockmann Consult, Array Systems Computing and C-S called the Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP). The SNAP architecture is ideal for Earth Observation processing and analysis due the following technological innovations: Extensibility, Portability, Modular Rich Client Platform, Generic EO Data Abstraction, Tiled Memory Management, and a Graph Processing Framework. The project has developed new tools for working with Sentinel-1 data in particular for working with the new Interferometric TOPSAR mode. TOPSAR Complex Coregistration and a complete Interferometric processing chain has been implemented for Sentinel-1 TOPSAR data. To accomplish this, a coregistration following the Spectral Diversity[4] method has been developed as well as special azimuth handling in the coherence, interferogram and spectral filter operators. The Toolbox includes reading of L0, L1 and L2 products in SAFE format, calibration and de-noising, slice product assembling, TOPSAR deburst and sub-swath merging, terrain flattening radiometric normalization, and visualization for L2 OCN products. The Toolbox also provides several new tools for

  15. Sentinel-1 Mission Overview and Implementation Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, M.; Attema, E.; Snoeij, P.; Levrini, G.

    2009-04-01

    Sentinel-1 is an imaging radar mission at C-band consisting of a constellation of two satellites aimed at providing continuity of all-weather day-and-night supply of imagery for user services. Special emphasis is placed on services identified in ESA's GMES service elements program and on projects funded by the European Union Framework Programmes. Three priorities (fast-track services) for the mission have been identified by user consultation working groups of the European Union: Marine Core Services, Land Monitoring and Emergency Services. These cover applications such as: - Monitoring sea ice zones and the arctic environment - Surveillance of marine environment - Monitoring land surface motion risks - Mapping of land surfaces: forest, water and soil, agriculture - Mapping in support of humanitarian aid in crisis situations. The Sentinel 1 space segment will be designed and built by an industrial consortium with Thales Alenia Space Italia as prime contractor and EADS Astrium GmbH as C-SAR instrument responsible. Data products from current and previous ESA missions including ERS-1, ERS-2 and Envisat missions form the basis for many of the pilot GMES services. Consequently Sentinel-1 data maintain data quality levels of the Agency‘s previous SAR missions in terms of spatial resolution, sensitivity, accuracy, polarization and wavelength. Nonetheless, the Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) constellation represents a completely new approach to SAR mission design by ESA in direct response to the operational needs for SAR data expressed under the EU-ESA Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme. The Sentinel-1 constellation is expected to provide near daily coverage over Europe and Canada, global coverage all independent of weather with delivery of radar data within 1 hour of acquisition - all vast improvements with respect to the existing SAR systems. The continuity of C-band SAR data combined with the greatly improved data provision is

  16. ESA Sentinel-1 Mission and Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floury, Nicolas; Attema, Evert; Davidson, Malcolm; Levrini, Guido; Rommen, Björn; Rosich, Betlem; Snoeij, Paul

    The global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) space component relies on existing and planned space assets by European States, the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), and the European Space Agency (ESA), as well as new complementary developments by ESA. The new developments are implemented in terms of five families of satellites called Sentinels. The Sentinel-1 mission is an imaging synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mission at C-band designed to supply all-weather day-and-night imagery to a number of operational Earth observation based services. Three priorities (fasttrack services) for the mission have been identified by user consultation working groups of the European Union: Marine Core Services, Land Monitoring and Emergency Services. These cover applications such as: - monitoring sea ice zones and the arctic environment, - surveillance of marine environment, - monitoring land surface motion risks, - mapping of land surfaces: forest, water and soil, agriculture, - mapping in support of humanitarian aid in crisis situations. Sentinel-1 has been designed to address medium resolution applications. It includes a main mode of operation that features a wide swath (250 km) and a medium resolution (5 m x 20 m). The two-satellite constellation offers six days exact repeat and the conflict-free operations based on the main operational mode allow exploiting every single data take. This paper describes the Sentinel-1 mission, provides an overview of the mission requirements, and presents some of the key user driven information products, the crucial requirements for operational sustainable services being continuity of data supply, frequent revisit, geographical coverage and timeliness. As data products from the Agency‘s successful ERS-1, ERS-2 and Envisat missions form the basis for many of the pilot GMES services, Sentinel-1 data products need to maintain and in some ways to improve data quality levels of the Agency

  17. Sentinel Mission: Forest Fire Products Evaluation over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M.; Sanz, J.; Salvador, P.; Molina, V.; Cassanova, J.-P.; Qin, Xianlin

    2016-08-01

    Sentinel-2a and Sentinel-3a were launch the 23 June 2015 and 16 February 2016 respectively. These two platforms constitute a great improvement in the surface monitoring, especially in forest fires emergency management, evaluation and recovery.The multispectral sensor on board Sentinel-2a is a perfect tool to delineate burnt areas and identify severity with great spatial and temporal resolution while the surface thermal information provided by Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) on board Sentinel-3a constitute a source of hotspots. Both platforms will be complemented with their respective twins Sentinel-2b and Sentinel-3b in order to improve temporal resolution.This work tries to evaluate the constellation capacity to provide reliable forest fires products over China by comparison with Earth Observing System (EOS) and Landsat constellation products.

  18. The predictive value of single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography for sentinel lymph node localization in head and neck cutaneous malignancy.

    PubMed

    Remenschneider, Aaron K; Dilger, Amanda E; Wang, Yingbing; Palmer, Edwin L; Scott, James A; Emerick, Kevin S

    2015-04-01

    Preoperative localization of sentinel lymph nodes in head and neck cutaneous malignancies can be aided by single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT); however, its true predictive value for identifying lymph nodes intraoperatively remains unquantified. This study aims to understand the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of SPECT/CT in sentinel lymph node biopsy for cutaneous malignancies of the head and neck. Blinded retrospective imaging review with comparison to intraoperative gamma probe confirmed sentinel lymph nodes. A consecutive series of patients with a head and neck cutaneous malignancy underwent preoperative SPECT/CT followed by sentinel lymph node biopsy with a gamma probe. Two nuclear medicine physicians, blinded to clinical data, independently reviewed each SPECT/CT. Activity within radiographically defined nodal basins was recorded and compared to intraoperative gamma probe findings. Sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values were calculated with subgroup stratification by primary tumor site. Ninety-two imaging reads were performed on 47 patients with cutaneous malignancy who underwent SPECT/CT followed by sentinel lymph node biopsy. Overall sensitivity was 73%, specificity 92%, positive predictive value 54%, and negative predictive value 96%. The predictive ability of SPECT/CT to identify the basin or an adjacent basin containing the single hottest node was 92%. SPECT/CT overestimated uptake by an average of one nodal basin. In the head and neck, SPECT/CT has higher reliability for primary lesions of the eyelid, scalp, and cheek. SPECT/CT has high sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value, but may overestimate relevant nodal basins in sentinel lymph node biopsy. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Enhanced SAR Data Compressor for Sentinel-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algra, T.; Bierens, L.

    2007-08-01

    This paper presents a new on-board SAR data compressor which outperforms the conventionally used Block Adaptive Quantization (BAQ) compressor. The system applies improved entropy-constrained block adaptive quantization of raw Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data in the frequency domain. For advanced multi-mode satellite SAR instruments, such as the one to be implemented on-board of Sentinel- , the average compression ratio can be doubled as compared to BAQ. Space borne implementation with a high-speed data throughput is feasible due to the advent of advanced space FPGA's and ASIC's including the powerFFT, a fast FFT-oriented DSP. The complete compressor module can be implemented on a 6U Eurocard that fits in the SAR Electronics System crate of Sentinel-1.

  20. Sentinel-1 Support in the GAMMA Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegmuller, Urs; Werner, Charles; Stroozzi, Tazio; Wiesmann, Andreas; Frey, Othmar; Santoro, Maurizio

    2015-05-01

    First results using the new Sentinel-1 SAR look very promising but the special interferometric wide-swath data acquired in the TOPS mode makes InSAR processing challenging. The steep azimuth spectra ramp in each burst results in very stringent co-registration requirements. Combining the data of the individual bursts and sub-swaths into consistent mosaics requires careful “book-keeping” in the handling of the data and meta data and the large file sizes and high data throughputs require also a good performance. Considering these challenges good support from software is getting increasingly important. In this contribution we describe the Sentinel-1 support in the GAMMA Software, a high-level software package used by researchers, service providers and operational users in their SAR, InSAR and PSI work.

  1. CTC Sentinel. Volume 8, Issue 8. August 2015

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    State Affiliates Press Hamas By Samar Batrawi 28 CTC Sentinel Staff & Contacts About the CTC Sentinel The Combating Terrorism Center is an...Sentinel harnesses the Center’s global network of scholars and practitioners to understand and confront contemporary threats posed by terrorism ...ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Military Academy,Combating Terrorism Center,607 Cullum Road, Lincoln Hall,West Point,NY,10996 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT

  2. Fish and wildlife species as sentinels of environmental endocrine disruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheffield, S.R.; Matter, J.M.; Rattner, B.A.; Guiney, P.D.; Kendall, Ronald J.; Dickerson, Richard L.; Giesy, John P.; Suk, William P.

    1998-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the history and criteria for use of captive and free-ranging fish and wildlife (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) species as sentinels of potential environmental endocrine disruption. Biochemical, behavioral, physiological, immunological, genetic, reproductive, developmental, and ecological correlates of endocrine disruption in these sentinels are presented and reviewed. In addition, data needs to promote better use of sentinel species in the assessment of endocrine disruption are discussed.

  3. CTC Sentinel. Volume 9, Issue 7

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    Combating Terrorism Center at West Point Objective • Relevant • Rigorous | July 2016 • Volume 9, Issue 7 v A VIEW FROM THE CT FOXHOLE...the Arm’s-Length Proxy of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party Metin Gurcan On July 21 al-Qa`ida issued arguably its strongest rebuke ever to the...Turkey’s major cities. Paul Cruickshank, Editor in Chief JULY 2016 C TC SENTINEL 1 Fractures between jihadist groups like al-Qa`ida and the

  4. Flip Mirror Device for Sentinel-3 SLSTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arregui, Ibon; Eguidazu, Ivan; Gonzalez, Antonio; Lobato, Gonzalo; Pena, Jorge; de Gopegui, Juan Ruiz

    2015-09-01

    The Sentinel-3 mission is encompassed in the Copernicus programme and its main objective is to measure sea-surface topography, sea and land surface temperature and ocean and land surface colour with high-end accuracy and reliability.SENER is contractor for the delivery of the Flip Mirror Subsystem (FMS) for the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) and it is composed by a mechanism, the Flip Mirror Device (FMD), and its control electronics called Flip Mirror Control (FMC).

  5. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ribero, Simone; Sportoletti Baduel, Eugenio; Osella-Abate, Simona; Dika, Emi; Quaglino, Pietro; Picciotto, Franco; Macripò, Giuseppe; Bataille, Veronique

    2017-08-01

    The management of melanoma is constantly evolving. New therapies and surgical advances have changed the landscape over the last years. Since being introduced by Dr Donald Morton, the role of sentinel lymph node has been debated. In many melanoma centers, sentinel node biopsy is not a standard of care for melanoma above 1 mm in thickness. The results of the MSLT-II Trial are not available for a while and in the meantime, this procedure is offered as a prognostic indicator as it has been shown to be very useful for assessing risk of relapse. The biology of lymph node spread in melanoma is a complex field and there are many factors which influence it such as age, melanoma body site, thickness but other factors such as regression, ulceration and gender need further evaluation. In this review, we address the clinical value of sentinel lymph node biopsy and how its indication has changed over the years especially recently with the setup of many adjuvant trials which are offered to stage 3 melanomas.

  6. Sentinel-1 SAR DEM Deployment Mechanisms Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Laura; Compositzo, Carlos; Arregui, Ibon

    2015-09-01

    The Sentinel-1 mission is encompassed in the Copernicus programme and each of the satellites carries a C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to provide an all-weather, day-and-night supply of imagery of Earth’s surface.This paper is prepared to inform of the development of the Deployment Mechanisms (DEM) of the SAR that are launched packed in stacks and have to deploy in orbit.SENER has designed, manufactured, integrated and tested 8 deployment mechanisms (DEM), 4 for Sentinel- 1A, that were successfully deployed some hours after it was launched in April 2014 and another 4 for Sentinel- 1B that is envisaged to be launched next year 2016. Previously, GAIA satellite was launched in December 2013, the Sunshield that was successfully deployed after launch, was equipped, as the DEMs, with two Sener’s Harmonic Drive Rotary Actuators (HDRA’s). Hence, SENER HDRA actuators have now the flight heritage of six units.Each antenna consisted of 5 stacks (named A to E panels) that are stored around the satellite and deployed once in orbit as per Fig.1:Figure 1.SAR in stowed and deployed configuration.

  7. The Sentinel-3 Mission: Overview and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donlon, Craig; Berruti, Bruno; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Nieke, Jens; Rebhan, Helge; Klein, Ulf; Mavrocordatos, Constantin; Frerick, Johannes; Seitz, Bernd

    2013-04-01

    Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) is a joint initiative of the European Commission (EC) and European Space Agency (ESA), which aims at achieving an autonomous and operational Earth observation capacity. GMES marks the transition from R&D oriented efforts in earth observation towards operational services. The development of the space infrastructure i.e. the GMES "space segment" for the provision of Earth remote sensing data is led by ESA partly in cooperation with EUMETSAT. Sentinel-3 is an operational mission in high-inclination, low earth orbit for the provision of observational data to marine and land monitoring services. These services include the generation of sea, ice and land surface altimetry products, land and ocean colour products, sea and land surface temperature products, and the vegetation products. The operational character of the mission implies a high level of availability of the data products and fast delivery time, which have been important design drivers for the mission. The Sentinel-3 spacecraft accommodates two large optical instruments - the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) with 21 spectral channels from 0.4 to 1.0_m, and the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer instrument (SLSTR) with 9 spectral channels from 0.5m to 13m in nadir and oblique view directions, and a topography payload consisting of a SAR Radar Altimeter (SRAL) and a Microwave Radiometer (MWR) plus a suite of instruments for precise orbit determination (POD). These instruments will ensure the continuation of important data streams established with ESA's ERS and ENVISAT satellites. Full performance will be achieved with a constellation of two identical satellites, separated by 180 degrees in the same orbital plane. Two Sentinel-3 satellites are in development with the second satellite expected approximately 18 months after the first. The overall service duration is planned to be 20 years with several satellites. Currently, the launch of the first

  8. Axillary and internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiao-Shan; Li, Hui-Juan; Cong, Bin-Bin; Sun, Xiao; Qiu, Peng-Fei; Liu, Yan-Bing; Wang, Chun-Jian; Wang, Yong-Sheng

    2016-11-08

    With the improvement of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), the proportion of pathological complete response (pCR) in the breast and axillary lymph node (ALN) is increasing. The evaluation of pCR does not include the status of internal mammary lymph node (IMLN). This study is to evaluate the roles of both axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy (ASLNB) and internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) in breast cancer patients after NAC. There were 74 patients enrolled into this study. IM-SLNB was performed on patients with radioactive internal mammary sentinel lymph node (IM-SLN). Patients (n = 8) with cN0 and ycN0 received ASLNB, and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in cases of positive axillary sentinel lymph node (ASLN). Patients (n = 48) with cN+ but ycN0 received ASLNB and ALND. Patients (n = 18) with ycN+ received ALND without ASLNB. The visualization rate of IM-SLN was 56.8% (42/74). The success rate of IM-SLNB was 97.6% (41/42) and the metastasis rate of IM-SLN was 7.3% (3/41). The success rate of ASLNB was 100% (56/56). The false negative rate (FNR) of ASLNB was 17.2% (5/29). The FNR in patients with 1, 2 and ≥ 3ASLNs examined was 27.3% (3/11), 20.0% (2/10) and 0% (0/8) respectively. ASLNB could be performed on ycN0 after NAC, and ALND should be performed on initially ALN-positive patients. IM-SLNB should be considered after NAC, especially for patients with clinically positive axillary nodes before NAC, which might help make clear of the pathological nodal staging of both ALN and IMLN, improve the definition of nodal pCR, and guide the individual adjuvant regional and systemic therapy.

  9. Axillary and internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiao-Shan; Li, Hui-Juan; Cong, Bin-Bin; Sun, Xiao; Qiu, Peng-Fei; Liu, Yan-Bing; Wang, Chun-Jian; Wang, Yong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    With the improvement of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), the proportion of pathological complete response (pCR) in the breast and axillary lymph node (ALN) is increasing. The evaluation of pCR does not include the status of internal mammary lymph node (IMLN). This study is to evaluate the roles of both axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy (ASLNB) and internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) in breast cancer patients after NAC. There were 74 patients enrolled into this study. IM-SLNB was performed on patients with radioactive internal mammary sentinel lymph node (IM-SLN). Patients (n = 8) with cN0 and ycN0 received ASLNB, and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in cases of positive axillary sentinel lymph node (ASLN). Patients (n = 48) with cN+ but ycN0 received ASLNB and ALND. Patients (n = 18) with ycN+ received ALND without ASLNB. The visualization rate of IM-SLN was 56.8% (42/74). The success rate of IM-SLNB was 97.6% (41/42) and the metastasis rate of IM-SLN was 7.3% (3/41). The success rate of ASLNB was 100% (56/56). The false negative rate (FNR) of ASLNB was 17.2% (5/29). The FNR in patients with 1, 2 and ≥ 3ASLNs examined was 27.3% (3/11), 20.0% (2/10) and 0% (0/8) respectively. ASLNB could be performed on ycN0 after NAC, and ALND should be performed on initially ALN-positive patients. IM-SLNB should be considered after NAC, especially for patients with clinically positive axillary nodes before NAC, which might help make clear of the pathological nodal staging of both ALN and IMLN, improve the definition of nodal pCR, and guide the individual adjuvant regional and systemic therapy. PMID:27738336

  10. Sentinel Lymph Nodes for Breast Carcinoma: A Paradigm Shift.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Aoife; Brogi, Edi

    2016-08-01

    -Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been established as the new standard of care for axillary staging in most patients with invasive breast carcinoma. Historically, all patients with a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy result underwent axillary lymph node dissection. Recent trials show that axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in women with clinically node negative, T1 or T2 invasive breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast radiotherapy. This change in practice also has implications on the pathologic examination and reporting of sentinel lymph nodes. -To review recent clinical and pathologic studies of sentinel lymph nodes and explore how these findings influence the pathologic evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes. -Sources were published articles from peer-reviewed journals in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) and published guidelines from the American Joint Committee on Cancer, the Union for International Cancer Control, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. -The main goal of sentinel lymph node examination should be to detect all macrometastases (>2 mm). Grossly sectioning sentinel lymph nodes at 2-mm intervals and evaluation of one hematoxylin-eosin-stained section from each block is the preferred method of pathologic evaluation. Axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in clinically node-negative patients with negative sentinel lymph nodes, as well as in a selected group of patients with limited sentinel lymph node involvement. The pathologic features of the primary carcinoma and its sentinel lymph node metastases contribute to estimate the extent of non-sentinel lymph node involvement. This information is important to decide on further axillary treatment.

  11. Sentinel Lymph Nodes for Breast Carcinoma A Paradigm Shift

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Aoife; Brogi, Edi

    2016-01-01

    Context Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been established as the new standard of care for axillary staging in most patients with invasive breast carcinoma. Historically, all patients with a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy result underwent axillary lymph node dissection. Recent trials show that axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in women with clinically node negative, T1 or T2 invasive breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast radiotherapy. This change in practice also has implications on the pathologic examination and reporting of sentinel lymph nodes. Objective To review recent clinical and pathologic studies of sentinel lymph nodes and explore how these findings influence the pathologic evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes. Data Sources Sources were published articles from peer-reviewed journals in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) and published guidelines from the American Joint Committee on Cancer, the Union for International Cancer Control, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Conclusions The main goal of sentinel lymph node examination should be to detect all macrometastases (>2 mm). Grossly sectioning sentinel lymph nodes at 2-mm intervals and evaluation of one hematoxylin-eosin–stained section from each block is the preferred method of pathologic evaluation. Axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in clinically node-negative patients with negative sentinel lymph nodes, as well as in a selected group of patients with limited sentinel lymph node involvement. The pathologic features of the primary carcinoma and its sentinel lymph node metastases contribute to estimate the extent of non–sentinel lymph node involvement. This information is important to decide on further axillary treatment. PMID:27472237

  12. Sentinel nodes of malignancies originating in the alimentary tract.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hirofumi; Kitagawa, Yuko; Kitajima, Masaki; Kubo, Atsushi

    2004-02-01

    The feasibility of the sentinel node concept for malignancies originating in the alimentary tract is attracting much interest among researchers in the field of gastrointestinal oncology. We have tested more than 350 such cases and obtained favorable and promising initial results. The detectability of sentinel nodes using endoscopically injected Tc-99m tin colloid for these tumors exceeded 90%. Although the false negative ratio was not so low (approximately 10%), most of these cases had an inaccurate preoperative evaluation of mural invasion and/or a technically unfavorable injection. When the indication is restricted to patients with early-stage disease, and when the radioactive colloid is properly administered, sentinel node navigation therapy would be applicable for gastrointestinal malignancies. To achieve successful sentinel node navigation surgery it is essential to accurately identify sentinel nodes, and lymphoscintigraphy is a very useful test to confirm the location of sentinel nodes preoperatively. However, image processing is required for lymphoscintigrams because the original image depicts only high activity at the injection site and faint radioactivity in the sentinel nodes. We have clearly imaged the silhouette of the body using Compton scattered photons, and have also proposed several methods to improve the contrast between the injection sites and sentinel nodes. Many sentinel nodes can be clearly visualized by subtraction of the background activity with heterogeneous distribution. The development of the portable gamma camera, enabling intraoperative imaging, also contributes to less invasive biopsy of sentinel nodes. We have obtained promising initial results using a portable imaging device with semiconductor detectors. These promising results suggest that sentinel node navigation therapy including radiotherapy will be a new therapy for early-stage gastrointestinal malignancies in the near future, with nuclear medicine contributing to the

  13. Comparison between one day and two days protocols for sentinel node mapping of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ali, Jangijoo; Alireza, Rezapanah; Mostafa, Mehrabibahar; Naser, Forghani Mohammad; Bahram, Memar; Ramin, Sadeghi

    2011-01-01

    previous excisional biopsy. For patients with excisional biopsy two intradermal injections of 0.5Bq/0.2mL (99m)Tc-SbSC were used on both sides of the incision line. All injections were followed by gentle massage for 1min. For Group II, the same injection techniques were used but the dose of the tracer was doubled. Anterior, and lateral spot views were acquired 30min after the injection (5min/image, 128Χ128 matrix) using a dual head gamma camera (E.CAM Siemens) and parallel hole low energy high resolution collimator. The operation was performed 4h (for Group I) or 20h (for Group II) post radiotracer injection. All patients received 2mL patent blue V dye in a subdermal and periareolar fashion, 2min after general anesthesia. A surgical gamma probe (EUROPROBE, France) was used for harvesting the sentinel lymph nodes during surgery. As sentinel node was defined any blue node or any node with an ex vivo radioisotope count of twofold or greater than the axillary background. After completion of sentinel node biopsy, all patients underwent standard axillary lymph node dissection. The study was approved by our local ethical committee and all patients gave their informed consent before inclusion into the study. Quantitative data were expressed as mean±SD. For comparison between groups, independent sample student's t-test for quantitative variables, and chi-square or Fisher's exact tests for categorical variables were used. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. SPSS version 11.5 was used for statistical analyses. The patients characteristics are shown in Table I. These general characteristics were not significantly different between the study groups (P>0.05). Detection rate was 100% for both Groups. The median number of sentinel nodes in both Groups was one sentinel node. The mean number of detected sentinel nodes during surgery was not statistically different between groups (1.28±0.7 and 1.32±0.6 for Group I and II respectively). One false negative

  14. The role of sentinel node biopsy in male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Maráz, Róbert; Boross, Gábor; Pap-Szekeres, József; Markó, László; Rajtár, Mária; Ambrózay, Éva; Bori, Rita; Cserni, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a standard procedure in women with breast cancer. The risk of morbidity related to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is similar for men and women with breast cancer and SLNB could minimize this risk. Between January 2004 and August 2013, 25 men with primary breast cancer were operated on at the Bács-Kiskun County Teaching Hospital. These were reviewed retrospectively. SLNB was performed following lymphoscintigraphy with intraoperative gamma probe detection and blue dye mapping. SLNB was successful in all 16 male patients (100 %), in whom it was attempted. The SLNs were negative in 4 cases (25 %) and were involved in 12. Intraoperative imprint cytology was positive in 9 of the 12 involved cases (75 %) and resulted immediate completion ALND. In 7 patients, the intraoperative imprint cytology was negative, with 3 false-negative results that resulted in delayed completion ALND. After a median follow-up of 48 months, there was only one axillary recurrence after ALND and none in the SLNB group. SLNB is successful and accurate in male breast cancer patients too. Although compared to women a larger proportion of men have positive nodes, for men with negative nodes, ALND-related morbidity may be reduced by SLNB. We recommend SLNB in male patients with breast cancer and clinically negative axilla.

  15. Probabilistic issues with sentinel lymph nodes in malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Robin T

    2015-09-01

    To address issues of probability for sentinel lymph node results in melanoma and provide details about the probabilistic nature of the numbers of sentinel nodes as well as to address how these issues relate to tumor thickness and patient outcomes. Analysis of the probability of observing sentinel node metastases uses the discrete exponential probability distribution to address the number of observed positive sentinel nodes. In addition, mathematical functions derived from survival analysis are used. Data are then chosen from the literature to illustrate the approach and to derive results. Observations about the numbers of positive and negative sentinel nodes closely follow discrete exponential probability distributions, and the relationship between the probability of a positive sentinel node and tumor thickness follows closely a function derived from survival analysis. Sentinel node results relate to tumor thickness as well as to the total number of nodes harvested but fall short of identifying all those who eventually develop metastatic melanoma. Probability analyses provide useful insight into the success and failure of the sentinel node biopsy procedure in patients with melanoma. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  16. Calling by concluding sentinels: coordinating cooperation or revealing risk?

    PubMed

    Hollén, Linda I; Bell, Matthew B V; Russell, Alexis; Niven, Fraser; Ridley, Amanda R; Radford, Andrew N

    2011-01-01

    Efficient cooperation requires effective coordination of individual contributions to the cooperative behaviour. Most social birds and mammals involved in cooperation produce a range of vocalisations, which may be important in regulating both individual contributions and the combined group effort. Here we investigate the role of a specific call in regulating cooperative sentinel behaviour in pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor). 'Fast-rate chuck' calls are often given by sentinels as they finish guard bouts and may potentially coordinate the rotation of individuals as sentinels, minimising time without a sentinel, or may signal the presence or absence of predators, regulating the onset of the subsequent sentinel bout. We ask (i) when fast-rate chuck calls are given and (ii) what effect they have on the interval between sentinel bouts. Contrary to expectation, we find little evidence that these calls are involved in regulating the pied babbler sentinel system: observations revealed that their utterance is influenced only marginally by wind conditions and not at all by habitat, while observations and experimental playback showed that the giving of these calls has no effect on inter-bout interval. We conclude that pied babblers do not seem to call at the end of a sentinel bout to maximise the efficiency of this cooperative act, but may use vocalisations at this stage to influence more individually driven behaviours.

  17. Utility of sentinel flaps in assessing facial allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Kueckelhaus, Maximilian; Fischer, Sebastian; Lian, Christine G; Bueno, Ericka M; Marty, Francisco M; Tullius, Stefan G; Pribaz, Julian J; Murphy, George J; Pomahac, Bohdan

    2015-01-01

    Skin biopsies are critical for histologic evaluation of rejection and proper treatment after facial allotransplantation. Many facial allografts provide only limited skin area, and frequent biopsies may also compromise aesthetic outcome. Sentinel flaps, recovered as free fasciocutaneous radial forearm flaps, have been used for remote-site rejection monitoring. They maintain their axial blood supply, similar to facial allografts. The correlation between facial allografts and sentinel flaps in cases of rejection is presented. The authors analyzed the experience of the Boston team's use of four sentinel flaps. Rejection was evaluated and results were compared for each time point. Sentinel flaps were used as functional flaps whenever possible. Results showed a reliable correlation between biopsy specimens taken from the facial allograft and sentinel flaps. During severe rejection episodes in 100 percent of biopsy pairs, both sites displayed a similar grade of rejection. In one case, clinical findings suggested rejection in the facial allograft but were unraveled as rosacea, because clinically there was no rejection displayed in the sentinel flap. The sentinel flap shows a reliable correlation to the facial allograft in cases of severe rejection, therefore providing a valuable tool for rejection monitoring in facial allotransplantation. Advantages of using these flaps include the avoidance of further surgical procedures to the primary vascularized composite allotransplant, additional use of the sentinel flap to repair damaged nonfacial sites, and its utility as both a clinical and histopathologic barometer of rejection and predictor of the potential existence of facial dermatitis unrelated to rejection. Therapeutic, IV.

  18. Radioguided localisation of impalpable breast lesions using 99m-Technetium macroaggregated albumin: Lessons learnt during introduction of a new technique to guide preoperative localisation

    SciTech Connect

    Landman, Joanne; Kulawansa, Sagarika; McCarthy, Michael; Troedson, Russell; Phillips, Michael; Tinning, Jill; Taylor, Donna

    2015-03-15

    Preoperative wire-guided localisation (WGL) of impalpable breast lesions is widely used but can be technically difficult. Risks include wire migration, inaccurate placement, and inadequate surgical margins. Research shows that radioguided occult lesion localisation (ROLL) is quicker, easier, and can improve surgical and cosmetic outcomes. An audited introduction of ROLL was conducted to validate the technique as a feasible alternative to WGL. Fifty patients with single impalpable lesions and biopsy proven malignancy or indeterminate histology underwent WGL followed by intralesional radiopharmaceutical injection of 99m-Technetium macroaggregated albumin. Postprocedural mammography was performed to demonstrate wire position, and scintigraphy to evaluate radiopharmaceutical migration. Lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative sentinel node biopsy were performed if indicated, followed by lesion localisation and excision using a gamma probe. Specimen imaging was performed, with immediate reexcision for visibly inadequate margins. Accurate localisation was achieved in 86% of patients with ROLL compared to 72% with WGL. All lesions were successfully removed, with clear margins in 71.8% of malignant lesions. Reexcision and intraoperative sentinel node localisation rates were equivalent to preaudit figures for WGL. ROLL was easy to perform and problems were infrequent. Inaccurate radiopharmaceutical placement necessitating WGL occurred in four patients. Minor radiopharmaceutical migration was common, but precluded using ROLL in only two cases. ROLL is effective, simple, inexpensive, and easily learnt; however, preoperative confirmation of correct radiopharmaceutical placement using mammography and the gamma probe is important to help ensure successful lesion removal. Insertion of a backup hookwire is recommended during the initial introduction of ROLL.

  19. Preparation for Snow Cover Monitoring Using Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-3 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagler, Thomas; Rott, Helmut; Bippus, Gabriele; Ripper, Elisabeth

    2013-04-01

    Seasonal snow is a key element of the water cycle in high and mid latitudes, characterized by high spatial and temporal variability. Melt water is an important water resource in many mountain areas and also in lowlands downstream. Accurate observations of snow extent and physical properties of snow are not only of interest for climate change research, but are of great socio-economic importance. The Sentinel satellite series, including SAR and multispectral optical satellite data enable to monitor the snow extent from regional to global scale with high temporal sampling. Automatic processing lines of multispectral optical satellite data including rectification, calibration, cloud masking and snow detection have been implemented for generation of snow information and tested with various satellite sensors. Ongoing work is related with adapting and optimizing the snow retrieval algorithm for Sentinel 3 SLSTR and OCLI, making use of the full spectral capabilities of these sensors for generating high quality snow maps. The algorithm for mapping snow makes use of the typical spectral signature of snow in the visible (VIS) and short wave infrared (SWIR) region of the spectrum, which enables a clear discrimination against other surfaces. The baseline products include binary snow extent maps derived from combinations of VIS and SWIR bands and maps of fractional snow extent. The preliminary version of the retrieval algorithm uses dual-sensor Sentinel-3 SLSTR and OCLI data for mapping the snow extent and applies the multi-spectral un-mixing method and cloud screening making use of the various spectral channels of the two sensors. Snow conditions (wet/dry) can be retrieved from SAR observations as provided by Sentinel-1. The algorithm builds on the multi-temporal change detection technique for mapping melting snow areas and improved to make use of the dual-polarisation acquisition capabilities of Sentinel-1. In the presentation we will show first examples of the improved

  20. Simple Method for Soil Moisture Estimation from Sentinel-1 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilewski, Pawei Grzegorz; Kedzior, Mateusz Andrzej; Zawadzki, Jaroslaw

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, authors calculated high resolution volumetric soil moisture (SM) by means of the Sentinel- 1 data for the Kampinos National Park in Poland and verified obtained results.To do so, linear regression coefficients (LRC) between in-situ SM measurements and Sentinel-1 radar backscatter values were calculated. Next, LRC were applied to obtain SM estimates from Sentinel-1 data. Sentinel-1 SM was verified against in-situ measurements and low-resolution SMOS SM estimates using Pearson's linear correlation coefficient. Simple SM retrieval method from radar data used in this study gives better results for meadows and when Sentinel-1 data in VH polarisation are used.Further research should be conducted to prove usefulness of proposed method.

  1. Explaining the Sentinel-3 Marine Centre and related services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonekamp, Hans; Wilson, Hilary; Munro, Rosemary; Montagner, Francois; Provost, Dany

    2014-05-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Sentinel-3 Marine Centre and related services and topics. In phase E of the Sentinel-3 program, EUMETSAT will be the Sentinel-3 satellite and Sentinel-3 Marine Centre operator. Verification and validation activities for the Marine Centre have recently started at EUMETSAT. The cal/val plans and mission performance set-up have been defined, together with ESA, to ensure that the core mission performance and operational products will be state of the art, and that new product definitions can be taken on board for operational services. To support the discussions in this session and ensure familiarity with the planned operational data streams, we will provide an overview of the set-up of product monitoring and services originating from the EUMETSAT premises. Major recent developments regarding EUMETSAT involvement in other areas of the sentinel program will also be presented.

  2. Estimating influenza vaccine effectiveness in Spain using sentinel surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Jorge, S; de Mateo, S; Delgado-Sanz, C; Pozo, F; Casas, I; Garcia-Cenoz, M; Castilla, J; Rodriguez, C; Vega, T; Quinones, C; Martinez, E; Vanrell, J M; Gimenez, J; Castrillejo, D; Altzibar, J M; Carril, F; Ramos, J M; Serrano, M C; Martinez, A; Torner, N; Perez, E; Gallardo, V; Larrauri, A

    2015-07-16

    We aimed to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against laboratory-confirmed influenza during three influenza seasons (2010/11 to 2012/2013) in Spain using surveillance data and to compare the results with data obtained by the cycEVA study, the Spanish component of the Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness (I-MOVE) network. We used the test-negative case–control design, with data from the Spanish Influenza Sentinel Surveillance System (SISS) or from the cycEVA study. Cases were laboratory-confirmed influenza patients with the predominant influenza virus of each season, and controls were those testing negative for any influenza virus. We calculated the overall and age-specific adjusted VE. Although the number of patients recorded in the SISS was three times higher than that in the cycEVA study, the quality of information for important variables, i.e. vaccination status and laboratory results, was high in both studies. Overall, the SISS and cycEVA influenza VE estimates were largely similar during the study period. For elderly patients (> 59 years), the SISS estimates were slightly lower than those of cycEVA, and estimates for children (0–14 years) were higher using SISS in two of the three seasons studied. Enhancing the SISS by collecting the date of influenza vaccination and reducing the percentage of patients with incomplete information would optimise the system to provide reliable annual influenza VE estimates to guide influenza vaccination policies.

  3. GeoSentinel: the global emerging infections sentinel network of the International Society of Travel Medicine.

    PubMed

    Freedman, D O; Kozarsky, P E; Weld, L H; Cetron, M S

    1999-06-01

    GeoSentinel is a network of 22 member travel/tropical medicine clinics (14 in the United States and 8 in other countries) initiated in 1995 by the International Society of Travel Medicine (ISTM). GeoSentinel is based on the concept that these clinics are ideally situated to effectively detect geographic and temporal trends in morbidity among travelers. The core surveillance tool is a single-page faxable form submitted to a central data site for each post-travel patient, including immigrants, refugees, and foreign visitors. Diagnoses are entered either as specific etiologies or as syndromes and are then linked to geographic locations, reference dates, and clinical presentations. In addition, electronic communication with the larger body of worldwide ISTM member clinics is periodically done to obtain broader data collection in response to specific inquiries. The scope of GeoSentinel has broadened from the initial vision of a provider-based sentinel network tracking emerging infections at their point of entry into developed countries. Its present goals are (1) to monitor global trends in disease occurrence among travelers; (2) to ascertain risk factors and morbidity in groups of travelers categorized by travel purpose and type of traveler; (3) to respond to urgent public health queries; (4) to develop educational priorities for travelers' health; and (5) to effect a rapid response by electronically disseminating alerts to surveillance sites, to all ISTM members in 55 countries, and to public health authorities. In addition, a major byproduct of the network, and now one of its strongest assets, has been the growth of partnerships between ISTM, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and health-care providers around the world, as well as other medical societies, government, and private organizations. The demographic data, travel patterns, and clinical presentations for the first 2813 patient records analyzed from the GeoSentinel sites are summarized in this paper.

  4. Potential of Sentinel Satellites for Schistosomiasis Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.-R.; Tang, L.-L.; Niu, H.-B.; Zhou, X.-N.; Liu, Z.-Y.; Ma, L.-L.; Zhou, Y.-S.

    2012-04-01

    densities is developed. The new model is validated with field data of Dongting Lake and the dynamic monitoring of schistosomiasis breeding in Dongting Lake region is presented. Finally, emphasis are placed on analyzing the potential of Sentinel satellites for schistosomiasis monitoring. The requirements of optical high resolution data on spectral resolution, spatial resolution, radiometric resolution/accuracy, as well as the requirements of synthetic aperture radar data on operation frequency, spatial resolution, polarization, radiometric accuracy, repeat cycle are presented and then compared with the parameters of Sentinel satellites. The parameters of Sentinel satellites are also compared with those of available remote satellites, such as Envisat, Landsat, whose data are being used for schistosomiasis monitoring. The application potential of Sentinel satellites for the schistosomiasis monitoring will be concluded in the end, which will benefit for the mission operation, model development, etc.

  5. Added value of blue dye in sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Snoj, M; Golouh, R; Movrin-Stanovnik, T; Vidergar-Kralj, B

    2003-12-01

    Sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer is a new rapidly advancing minimal invasive procedure which enables nodal staging of clinically node negative breast cancer patients without performing complete axillary dissection. There are still controversies over the added value of Blue Dye when lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe are used. In our series, 91 consecutive patients with invasive breast carcinoma were operated by a single surgeon, using lymphoscintigraphy, gamma probe and Blue Dye. The sentinel nodes (SLN) were histologically examined by HE and immunohistochemistry. Lymphoscintigraphy was succesful in 81 patients (89%). After the injection of Blue Dye, SLN could be identified in all 91 patients. Metastases in the SLN were present in 35 patients. We retrieved 128 SLN, of these 93 were hot and blue, 19 only hot and 16 only blue. The distribution of metastatic and nonmetastatic SLN between these three labeling groups was not different (P = 0.9361). We could not show any difference in the metastatic involvement of SLN in patients in whom preoperative lymphoscintigraphy could visualise the SLN preoperatively compared to those in whom it could not (P = 0.7315). False negativity calculated in our initial series of 36 patients was 0%. Our study showed added value of Blue Dye in detection of metastatic and nonmetastatic SLN.

  6. Sentinel Lymph Nodes Mapping in Cervical Cancer a Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Diab, Yasser

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive literature search for more recent studies pertaining to sentinel lymph node mapping in the surveillance of cervical cancer to assess if sentinel lymph node mapping has sensitivity and specificity for evaluation of the disease; assessment of posttreatment response and disease recurrence in cervical cancer. The literature review has been constructed on a step wise study design that includes 5 major steps. This includes search for relevant publications in various available databases, application of inclusion and exclusion criteria for the selection of relevant publications, assessment of quality of the studies included, extraction of the relevant data and coherent synthesis of the data. The search yielded numerous studies pertaining to sentinel lymph node mapping, especially on the recent trends, comparison between various modalities and evaluation of the technique. Evaluation studies have appraised high sensitivity, high negative predictive values and low false-negative rate for metastasis detection using sentinel lymph node mapping. Comparative studies have established that of all the modalities for sentinel lymph node mapping, indocyanine green sentinel lymph node mapping has higher overall and bilateral detection rates. Corroboration of the deductions of these studies further establishes that the sentinel node detection rate and sensitivity are strongly correlated to the method or technique of mapping and the history of preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The review takes us to the strong conclusion that sentinel lymph node mapping is an ideal technique for detection of sentinel lymph nodes in cervical cancer patients with excellent detection rates and high sensitivity. The review also takes us to the supposition that a routine clinical evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes is feasible and a real-time florescence mapping with indocyanine green dye gives better statistically significant overall and bilateral detection than methylene blue.

  7. Sentinel Lymph Nodes Mapping in Cervical Cancer a Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Diab, Yasser

    2017-01-01

    Objective A comprehensive literature search for more recent studies pertaining to sentinel lymph node mapping in the surveillance of cervical cancer to assess if sentinel lymph node mapping has sensitivity and specificity for evaluation of the disease; assessment of posttreatment response and disease recurrence in cervical cancer. Materials and Methods The literature review has been constructed on a step wise study design that includes 5 major steps. This includes search for relevant publications in various available databases, application of inclusion and exclusion criteria for the selection of relevant publications, assessment of quality of the studies included, extraction of the relevant data and coherent synthesis of the data. Results The search yielded numerous studies pertaining to sentinel lymph node mapping, especially on the recent trends, comparison between various modalities and evaluation of the technique. Evaluation studies have appraised high sensitivity, high negative predictive values and low false-negative rate for metastasis detection using sentinel lymph node mapping. Comparative studies have established that of all the modalities for sentinel lymph node mapping, indocyanine green sentinel lymph node mapping has higher overall and bilateral detection rates. Corroboration of the deductions of these studies further establishes that the sentinel node detection rate and sensitivity are strongly correlated to the method or technique of mapping and the history of preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusions The review takes us to the strong conclusion that sentinel lymph node mapping is an ideal technique for detection of sentinel lymph nodes in cervical cancer patients with excellent detection rates and high sensitivity. The review also takes us to the supposition that a routine clinical evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes is feasible and a real-time florescence mapping with indocyanine green dye gives better statistically significant overall and

  8. First Experiences with Navigated Radio-Guided Surgery Using Freehand SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, A.; Saeckl, J.; Belloni, B.; Hein, R.; Okur, A.; Scheidhauer, K.; Wendler, T.; Traub, J.; Friess, H.; Martignoni, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in melanoma using one-dimensional gamma probes is a standard of care worldwide. Reports on the performance are claimed by most groups to successfully detect the SLNs during the surgical procedure in almost 100% of the patients. In clinical practice, however, several issues remain which are usually not addressed: the difficulty of intraoperative detection of deeply located nodes, SLN detection in obese patients or in the groin and the impossibility to make a scan of the entire wound after SLN resection to avoid false negative testing for eventually remaining SLNs. Materials and Methods The concept behind freehand SPECT is to combine a gamma probe as used for conventional radio-guided surgery with a tracking system as used in neurosurgical navigation. From this combination and a proper algorithm framework the 3D reconstruction of radioactivity distributions and displaying these intraoperatively is possible. Conclusion In summary, the feasibility of freehand SPECT could be shown and provides an image-guided SLNB and a truly minimally invasive and optimized surgical procedure. PMID:21941492

  9. Lakes as sentinels of climate change

    PubMed Central

    Adrian, Rita; O’Reilly, Catherine M.; Zagarese, Horacio; Baines, Stephen B.; Hessen, Dag O.; Keller, Wendel; Livingstone, David M.; Sommaruga, Ruben; Straile, Dietmar; Van Donk, Ellen; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Winder, Monika

    2010-01-01

    While there is a general sense that lakes can act as sentinels of climate change, their efficacy has not been thoroughly analyzed. We identified the key response variables within a lake that act as indicators of the effects of climate change on both the lake and the catchment. These variables reflect a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological responses to climate. However, the efficacy of the different indicators is affected by regional response to climate change, characteristics of the catchment, and lake mixing regimes. Thus, particular indicators or combinations of indicators are more effective for different lake types and geographic regions. The extraction of climate signals can be further complicated by the influence of other environmental changes, such as eutrophication or acidification, and the equivalent reverse phenomena, in addition to other land-use influences. In many cases, however, confounding factors can be addressed through analytical tools such as detrending or filtering. Lakes are effective sentinels for climate change because they are sensitive to climate, respond rapidly to change, and integrate information about changes in the catchment. PMID:20396409

  10. HiSentinel: A Stratospheric Airship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, I.; Lew, T.; Perry, W.; Smith, M.

    On December 4 2005 a team led by Southwest Research Institute SwRI successfully demonstrated powered flight of the HiSentinel stratospheric airship at an altitude of 74 000 feet The development team of Aerostar International the Air Force Research Laboratory AFRL and SwRI launched the airship from Roswell N M for a five-hour technology demonstration flight The 146-foot-long airship carried a 60-pound equipment pod and propulsion system when it became only the second airship in history to achieve powered flight in the stratosphere Designed for launch from remote sites these airships do not require large hangars or special facilities Unlike most stratospheric airship concepts HiSentinel is launched flaccid with the hull only partially inflated with helium As the airship rises the helium expands until it completely inflates the hull to the rigid aerodynamic shape required for operation A description of previous Team development results of the test flight plans for future development and applicability to future science missions will be presented

  11. Mapping Mediterranean seagrasses with Sentinel-2 imagery.

    PubMed

    Traganos, Dimosthenis; Reinartz, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Mediterranean seagrasses have been hailed for their numerous ecosystem services, yet they are undergoing a decline in their coverage. The major complication with resolving this tendency is the sparsity of data on their overall distribution. This study addresses the suitability of the recently launched Sentinel-2 satellite for mapping the distribution of Mediterranean seagrass meadows. A comprehensive methodology is presented which applies atmospheric and analytical water column corrections and compares the performance of three different supervised classifiers. Remote sensing of the Thermaikos Gulf, northwestern Aegean Sea (Greece, eastern Mediterranean Sea) reveals that the utilization of Support Vector Machines on water column corrected reflectances yields best accuracies. Two Mediterranean seagrasses, Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa, cover a total submerged area of 1.48km(2) between depths of 1.4-16.5m. With its 10-m spatial resolution and 5-day revisit frequency, Sentinel-2 imagery can mitigate the Mediterranean seagrass distribution data gap and allow better management and conservation in the future in a retrospective, time- and cost-effective fashion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sentinel-1 In-Orbit Calibration Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Østergaard, A.; Navas-Traver, I.; Snoeij, P.; Brown, M.; Rommen, B.; Geudtner, D.; Bibby, D.; Torres, R.; Schied, E.; Rostan, F.; Schwerdt, M.; Zink, M.; Bauleo, A.; Croci, R.; Pietropaolo, A.

    2013-12-01

    ESA is developing the Sentinel-1 European Radar Observatory, a constellation of two polar orbiting satellites that provide C-band SAR products for operational applications. The Sentinel-1 mission has been designed to comply with stringent radiometric stability and accuracy requirements. To ensure these requirements are achieved, the mission relies on an efficient and robust strategy for in-flight calibration. This consists of (a) pulse-coded Internal Calibration pulses that achieve leakage cancellation and robust estimation and separation of different types of leakage signals and (b) an Antenna Model that estimates very accurately the antenna radiation patterns based on the instrument configuration and pre-launch measurements. Usage of calibration data and the Antenna Model supports maintaining the long-term absolute radiometric accuracy and enables a graceful degradation of performance in the event of unrecoverable failures of individual transmit/receive modules. During the commissioning phase, calibration also relies on precise external calibration transponders and measurements with notch patterns over the rainforest and transponders for accurate pointing determination.

  13. MTF Determination of SENTINEL-4 Detector Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reulke, R.; Sebastian, I.; Williges, C.; Hohn, R.

    2017-05-01

    The Institute for Optical Sensor Systems was involved in many international space projects in recent years. These include, for example, the fokal plane array (FPA) of the hyperspectral sensors ENMAP or Sentinel-4, but also the FPA for the high resolution FPA for Kompsat-3. An important requirement of the customer is the measurement of the detector MTF for different wavelengths. A measuring station under clean room conditions and evaluation algorithms was developed for these measurements. The measurement setup consist of a collimator with slit target in focus for illumination at infinity, a gimbal mounted detector facing an auxiliary lens in front, a halogen lamp with monochromator or filter, as well as optical and electrical ground support equipment. Different targets and therefore also different measurement and data evaluation opportunities are possible with this setup. Examples are slit, edge, pin hole but also a Siemens star. The article describes the measurement setup, the different measuring and evaluation procedures and exemplary results for Sentinel-4 detector.

  14. Internal Mammary Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy With Modified Injection Technique: High Visualization Rate and Accurate Staging.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Peng-Fei; Cong, Bin-Bin; Zhao, Rong-Rong; Yang, Guo-Ren; Liu, Yan-Bing; Chen, Peng; Wang, Yong-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    Although the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer incorporated the internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) concept, there has been little change in surgical practice patterns because of the low visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes (IMSLN) with the traditional radiotracer injection technique. In this study, various injection techniques were evaluated in term of the IMSLN visualization rate, and the impact of IM-SLNB on the diagnostic and prognostic value were analyzed.Clinically, axillary lymph nodes (ALN) negative patients (n = 407) were divided into group A (traditional peritumoral intraparenchymal injection) and group B (modified periareolar intraparenchymal injection). Group B was then separated into group B1 (low volume) and group B2 (high volume) according to the injection volume. Clinically, ALN-positive patients (n = 63) were managed as group B2. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed for patients with IMSLN visualized.The IMSLN visualization rate was significantly higher in group B than that in group A (71.1% versus 15.5%, P < 0.001), whereas the axillary sentinel lymph nodes were reliably identified in both groups (98.9% versus 98.3%, P = 0.712). With high injection volume, group B2 was found to have higher IMSLN visualization rate than group B1 (75.1% versus 45.8%, P < 0.001). The IMSLN metastasis rate was only 8.1% (12/149) in clinically ALN-negative patients with successful IM-SLNB, and adjuvant treatment was altered in a small proportion. The IMSLN visualization rate was 69.8% (44/63) in clinically ALN-positive patients with the IMSLN metastasis rate up to 20.5% (9/44), and individual radiotherapy strategy could be guided with the IM-SLNB results.The modified injection technique (periareolar intraparenchymal, high volume, and ultrasound guidance) significantly improved the IMSLN visualization rate, making the routine IM-SLNB possible in daily practice. Internal mammary

  15. The clinical value of hybrid sentinel lymphoscintigraphy to predict metastatic sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Na, Chang Ju; Kim, Jeonghun; Choi, Sehun; Han, Yeon-Hee; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Youn, Hyun Jo; Lim, Seok Tae

    2015-03-01

    Hybrid imaging techniques can provide functional and anatomical information about sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer. Our aim in this study was to evaluate which imaging parameters on hybrid sentinel lymphoscintigraphy predicted metastatic involvement of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with breast cancer. Among 56 patients who underwent conventional sentinel lymphoscintigraphy, 45 patients (age, 53.1 ± 9.5 years) underwent hybrid sentinel lymphoscintigraphy using a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) gamma camera. On hybrid SPECT/CT images, we compared the shape and size (long-to-short axis [L/S] ratio) of the SLN, and SLN/periareolar injection site (S/P) count ratio between metastatic and non-metastatic SLNs. Metastatic involvement of sentinel lymph nodes was confirmed by pathological biopsy. Pathological biopsy revealed that 21 patients (46.7 %) had metastatic SLNs, while 24 (53.3 %) had non-metastatic SLNs. In the 21 patients with metastatic SLNs, the SLN was mostly round (57.1 %) or had an eccentric cortical rim (38.1 %). Of 24 patients with non-metastatic SLNs, 13 patients (54.1 %) had an SLN with a C-shape rim or eccentric cortex. L/S ratio was 2.04 for metastatic SLNs and 2.38 for non-metastatic SLNs. Seven (33 %) patients had T1 primary tumors and 14 (66 %) had T2 primary tumors in the metastatic SLN group. In contrast, 18 (75 %) patients had T1 primary tumors and six (25 %) had T2 tumors in the non-metastatic SLN group. S/P count ratio was significantly lower in the metastatic SLN group than the non-metastatic SLN group for those patients with a T1 primary tumor (p = 0.007). Hybrid SPECT/CT offers the physiologic data of SPECT together with the anatomic data of CT in a single image. This hybrid imaging improved the anatomic localization of SLNs in breast cancer patients and predicted the metastatic involvement of SLNs in the subgroup of breast cancer patients with T1 primary tumors.

  16. Use of sentinel mallards for epizootiologic studies of avian botulism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Brand, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    Captive-reared mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were used as sentinels to study the epizootiology of avian botulism at the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, Willows, California (USA) from 1986 to 1989. Sentinel mallards were wing-clipped, and 40 to 50 birds were confined in 1.6-ha enclosures in 11 selected wetlands (pools). Enclosures were searched intensively three to four times weekly from July through October. Sick and dead wild and sentinel birds were collected, necropsied, and tested for type C botulism toxin. Botulism epizootics occurred in sentinel mallards in 1986, 1987, and 1989, but only a few isolated cases of botulism were detected in 1988. In most epizootics, botulism also was detected simultaneously in wild birds using the same pool outside the enclosure. Epizootics in sentinels were initiated and perpetuated in the absence of vertebrate carcasses. A sex-specific trend in the probability of intoxication was detected, with males contracting botulism at a higher rate than females. Daily mortality rates of sentinels during botulism epizootics ranged from 0.0006 to 0.0600, with a mean of 0.0190. These rates would result in the daily loss of 0.6 to 60 birds per thousand at risk. The use of sentinel birds provided an effective means of gathering site-specific epizootiologic data.

  17. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and melanoma: 2010 update Part I.

    PubMed

    Stebbins, William G; Garibyan, Lilit; Sober, Arthur J

    2010-05-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma was introduced in the early 1990s as a minimally invasive method of identifying and pathologically staging regional lymph node basins in patients with clinical stage I/II melanoma. Numerous large trials have demonstrated that sentinel lymph node evaluation has utility in improving accuracy of prognostication and for risk stratifying patients into appropriate groups for clinical trials. However, there remains a great deal of controversy regarding the therapeutic role of removal of the remainder of locoregional lymph nodes should metastatic cells be identified in the sentinel node. This CME article will outline a brief history of the sentinel node concept before reviewing updates in surgical technique, histopathologic evaluation of nodal tissue, and cost effectiveness of sentinel node biopsy. After completing this learning activity, participants should be able to describe the concept of sentinel lymph node biopsy, to discuss the risks and benefits associated with this procedure, and to summarize the role of sentinel lymph node biopsy in management of patients with melanoma. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Operational marine products from Copernicus Sentinel-3 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomazic, Igor; Montagner, Francois; O'Carroll, Anne; Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Scharroo, Remko; Nogueira Loddo, Carolina; Martin-Puig, Cristina; Bonekamp, Hans; Lucas, Bruno; Dinardo, Salvatore; Dash, Prasanjit; Taberner, Malcolm; Coto Cabaleiro, Eva; Santacesaria, Vincenzo; Wilson, Hilary

    2017-04-01

    The first Copernicus Sentinel-3 satellite, Sentinel-3A, was launched in early 2016, with the mission to provide a consistent, long-term collection of marine and land data for operational analysis, forecasting and environmental and climate monitoring. The marine centre is part of the Sentinel-3 Payload Data Ground Segment, located at EUMETSAT. This centre together with the existing EUMETSAT facilities provides a routine centralised service for operational meteorology, oceanography, and other Sentinel-3 marine users as part of the European Commission's Copernicus programme. The EUMETSAT marine centre delivers operational Sea Surface Temperature, Ocean Colour and Sea Surface Topography data products based on the measurements from the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR), Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) and Synthetic Aperture Radar Altimeter (SRAL), respectively, all aboard Sentinel-3. All products have been developed together with ESA and industry partners and EUMETSAT is responsible for the production, distribution, and future evolution of Level-2 marine products. We will give an overview of the scientific characteristics and algorithms of all marine Level-2 products, as well as instrument calibration and product validation results based on on-going Sentinel-3 Cal/Val activities. Information will be also provided about the current status of the product dissemination and the future evolutions that are envisaged. Also, we will provide information how to access Sentinel-3 data from EUMETSAT and where to look for further information.

  19. Axillary and internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy in male breast cancer patients: case series and review.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaoshan; Wang, Chunjian; Liu, Yanbing; Qiu, Pengfei; Cong, Binbin; Wang, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is considered as a rare disease that accounts for less than 1% of all breast cancers, and its treatment has been based on the evidence available from female breast cancer. Axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is now regarded as the standard of care for both female and male patients without clinical and imaging evidence of axillary lymph node metastases, while internal mammary SLNB has rarely been performed. Internal mammary chain metastasis is an independent prognostic predictor. Internal mammary SLNB should be performed to complete nodal staging and guide adjuvant therapy in MBC patients with preoperative lymphoscintigraphic internal mammary chain drainage. We report both axillary and internal mammary SLNB in two cases with MBC. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node did contain metastasis in one case.

  20. Fusion of Data from Sentinel-2/MSI and Sentinel-3/OLCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korosov, Anton A.; Pozdnyakov, Dmitry V.

    2016-08-01

    Multisensor image fusion is the process of combining relevant information from two or more satellite images into a single image. The fused image can have complementary spatial and spectral resolution characteristics. We suggest a method for fusion of data from Sentinel-2 multi spectral imager (MSI) and Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Color Instrument (OLCI). In the visible range MSI measures radiance with 10 m resolution at 490, 560 and 665 nm; with 20 m resolution at 705 nm; and with 60 m resolution at 443 nm. In the visible range OLCI measures with 300 m spatial resolution at 400, 412, 443, 490, 510, 560, 620, 665, 673, 681, 708 nm. The data from the visible from both sensors is fused to get products with values of remote sensing reflectance wavelengths of OLCI and with spatial resolution of 60 m using an artificial neural network.

  1. Sentinel Lymph Node Evaluation in Women with Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Laura L.; Levenback, Charles F.; Frumovitz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Lymph node status is the most important prognosticator of survival among women with early stage cervical cancer. This means that many cervical cancer patients will undergo pelvic lymphadenectomy as part of their treatment. Unfortunately, this procedure is associated with significant morbidity. Utilizing the sentinel lymph node technique for women with cervical cancer has the potential to decrease this morbidity. Multiple studies have suggested that sentinel lymph node mapping in these patients is feasible with excellent detection rates and sensitivity. This review examines the current body of literature regarding sentinel lymph node biopsy among women with cervical cancer. PMID:24407177

  2. Factors affecting sentinel node localization during preoperative breast lymphoscintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Haigh, P I; Hansen, N M; Giuliano, A E; Edwards, G K; Ye, W; Glass, E C

    2000-10-01

    Variable success rates for identifying axillary (AX) sentinel nodes in breast cancer patients using preoperative lymphoscintigraphy have been reported. We evaluated the effects of age, weight, breast size, method of biopsy, interval after biopsy, and imaging view on the success of sentinel node identification and on the kinetics of radiopharmaceutical migration. Preoperative breast lymphoscintigraphy was performed in consecutive breast cancer patients from February 1998 to December 1998. The ipsilateral shoulder was elevated on a foam wedge and the arm was abducted and elevated overhead. Imaging using this modified oblique view of the axilla (MOVA) started immediately after peritumoral injection of Millipore-filtered 99mTc-sulfur colloid and continued until AX sentinel nodes were identified. Anterior views were obtained after MOVA. AX, internal mammary (IM), and clavicular (CL) basins were monitored in all patients. MOVA was compared with the anterior view for sentinel node identification. Age, weight, breast size, method of biopsy, interval after biopsy, and primary tumor location were evaluated for their effects on sentinel node localization and transit times from injection to arrival at the sentinel nodes. Seventy-six lymphoscintigrams were obtained for 75 patients. AX sentinel nodes were revealed in 75 (99%) cases. IM or CL sentinel nodes were found in 19 (25%) cases and were not related to tumor location; exclusive IM drainage was present in 1 (1%) case. Identification of AX sentinel nodes was equivalent with MOVA and anterior views in 18 (24%) patients, was better with MOVA in 20 (26%) patients, and was accomplished only with MOVA in 38 (50%) patients. Median transit time was 17.5 min (range, 1 min to 18 h) after injection, and larger breast size was associated with increased transit time. No effect of age, weight, biopsy method, interval from biopsy, or tumor location on transit time was found. Use of MOVA can improve identification of AX sentinel nodes

  3. Hematoma in Retzius' space following US-guided prostate biopsy: evidence of the diagnostic accuracy using transrectal end-fire probe in the anterior prostate gland.

    PubMed

    Dell'atti, Lucio

    2014-03-01

    We report a rare case of hematoma in Retzius' space in a 62-year-old man who underwent transrectal prostate biopsy using an endocavitary, end-fire, convex probe. Clinical symptoms resolved spontaneously after catheter placement and appropriate antibiotic therapy. Transrectal ultrasound 1 month later showed partial resolution of the hematoma. Based on the analysis of this unusual complication, we demonstrate the effectiveness of transrectal biopsy as compared to transperineal biopsy in detecting cancer of the anterior prostate. We have also analyzed the various factors that may be the reason why core biopsy harvested in this "hidden" area may be inadequate.

  4. Spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    Prather, William S.; O'Rourke, Patrick E.

    1994-01-01

    A support structure bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe.

  5. Spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    Prather, W.S.; O'Rourke, P.E.

    1994-08-02

    A support structure is described bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe. 3 figs.

  6. Surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Faries, Mark B; Morton, Donald L

    2007-12-01

    In patients with melanoma, surgery is pivotal not only for the primary tumor but also for regional and often distant metastases. The minimally invasive technique of sentinel node (SN) biopsy has become standard for detection of occult regional node metastasis in patients with intermediate-thickness primary melanoma; in these patients it has a central role in determining prognosis and a significant impact on survival when biopsy results are positive. Its role in thin melanoma remains under evaluation. The regional tumor-draining SN also is a useful model for studies of melanoma-induced immunosuppression. Although completion lymphadenectomy remains the standard of care for patients with SN metastasis, results of ongoing phase III trials will indicate whether SN biopsy without further lymph node surgery is adequate therapy for certain patients with minimal regional node disease.

  7. Animal Sentinels for Environmental and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Reif, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the effects of environmental exposures on domestic and wild animals can corroborate or inform epidemiologic studies in humans. Animals may be sensitive indicators of environmental hazards and provide an early warning system for public health intervention, as exemplified by the iconic canary in the coal mine. This article illustrates the application of animal sentinel research to elucidate the effects of exposure to traditional and emerging contaminants on human health. Focusing on environmental issues at the forefront of current public health research, the article describes exposures to community air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, and pesticides and associations with cancer, reproductive outcomes, and infectious diseases. Finally, it covers the role of marine mammals in monitoring the health of the oceans and humans. PMID:21563712

  8. Sentinel-1 SAR Deployment Testing- Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Sebastian; Alberti, Mathias V.

    2015-09-01

    On April 3rd 2014, ESA has launched the Sentinel-1A spacecraft with its SAR instrument payload. During the first 12 hours in space, the antenna was released and successfully deployed to its operational configuration. Almost 6 years before that date, the first conceptual considerations regarding integration, alignment and on- ground deployment testing took place. Starting in these early phases of the project, the paper contains an overview of the concepts and trades which were performed to identify the most suitable off-loading MGSE for this heavy and fragile antenna. Following that, the challenges and lessons learned during the different developments of this test setup are discussed. This includes MGSE specific topics, such as the minimization of structural deformation under load or the optimization of the pulley arrangement as result of a coupled multibody analysis. On the other hand, load and deformation control strategies for the flight hardware, as well as safety related aspects are covered.

  9. Validation study for the hypothesis of internal mammary sentinel lymph node lymphatic drainage in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cong, Bin-Bin; Qiu, Peng-Fei; Liu, Yan-Bing; Zhao, Tong; Chen, Peng; Cao, Xiao-Shan; Wang, Chun-Jian; Zhang, Zhao-Peng; Sun, Xiao; Yu, Jin-Ming; Wang, Yong-Sheng

    2016-07-05

    According to axilla sentinel lymph node lymphatic drainage pattern, we hypothesized that internal mammary sentinel lymph node (IM-SLN) receives lymphatic drainage from not only the primary tumor area, but also the entire breast parenchyma. Based on the hypothesis a modified radiotracer injection technique was established and could increase the visualization rate of the IM-SLN significantly. To verify the hypothesis, two kinds of tracers were injected at different sites of breast. The radiotracer was injected with the modified technique, and the fluorescence tracer was injected in the peritumoral intra-parenchyma. The location of IM-SLN was identified by preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative gamma probe. Then, internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) was performed. The fluorescence status of IM-SLN was identified by the fluorescence imaging system. A total of 216 patients were enrolled from September 2013 to July 2015. The overall visualization rate of IM-SLN was 71.8% (155/216). The success rate of IM-SLNB was 97.3% (145/149). The radiotracer and the fluorescence tracer were identified in the same IM-SLN in 127 cases, the correlation and the agreement is significant (Case-base, rs=0.836, P<0.001; Kappa=0.823, P<0.001). Different tracers injected into the different sites of the intra-parenchyma reached the same IM-SLN, which demonstrates the hypothesis that IM-SLN receives the lymphatic drainage from not only the primary tumor area but also the entire breast parenchyma.

  10. Radiolabeled γ-polyglutamic acid complex as a nano-platform for sentinel lymph node imaging.

    PubMed

    Sano, Kohei; Iwamiya, Yuriko; Kurosaki, Tomoaki; Ogawa, Mikako; Magata, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Ohshima, Takashi; Maeda, Minoru; Mukai, Takahiro

    2014-11-28

    We established a ternary anionic complex constructed with polyamidoamine dendrimer (4th generation; G4) modified with chelating agents (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) derivative), polyethyleneimine (PEI), and γ-polyglutamic acid (PGA) as a safe nano-platform for molecular imaging. We prepared indium-111-labeled DTPA-G4/PEI/γ-PGA, and evaluated the effectiveness as a nuclear imaging probe for sentinel lymph node (LN), the first LN that drains the primary tumor. (111)In-DTPA-G4/PEI with strong cationic charge agglutinated with erythrocytes and showed extremely high cytotoxicity. By contrast, the anionic (111)In-DTPA-G4/PEI/γ-PGA had little agglutination activity with erythrocytes and no cytotoxicity, indicating their high biocompatibility. (111)In-DTPA-G4/PEI/γ-PGA was highly taken up by macrophage cells (high populations in LNs) comparable to (111)In-DTPA-G4/PEI. The uptake mechanisms of (111)In-DTPA-G4/PEI/γ-PGA were suggested to be both phagocytosis and γ-PGA-specific pathway. Upon administration of each (111)In-labeled nano-platform into rat footpads intradermally, significantly higher radioactivity of (111)In-DTPA-G4/PEI/γ-PGA was observed in the first draining popliteal LN when compared with that of (111)In-DTPA-G4/PEI. Moreover, (111)In-DTPA-G4/PEI/γ-PGA clearly visualized the sentinel LN with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) compared with (111)In-DTPA-G4/PEI. Thus, (111)In-DTPA-G4/PEI/γ-PGA can be useful as a nano-platform for molecular imaging including sentinel LN imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sentinel node biopsy using a magnetic tracer versus standard technique: the SentiMAG Multicentre Trial.

    PubMed

    Douek, Michael; Klaase, Joost; Monypenny, Ian; Kothari, Ashutosh; Zechmeister, Katalin; Brown, Douglas; Wyld, Lynda; Drew, Philip; Garmo, Hans; Agbaje, Olorunsola; Pankhurst, Quentin; Anninga, Bauke; Grootendorst, Maarten; Ten Haken, Bennie; Hall-Craggs, Margaret A; Purushotham, Arnie; Pinder, Sarah

    2014-04-01

    The SentiMAG Multicentre Trial evaluated a new magnetic technique for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) against the standard (radioisotope and blue dye or radioisotope alone). The magnetic technique does not use radiation and provides both a color change (brown dye) and a handheld probe for node localization. The primary end point of this trial was defined as the proportion of sentinel nodes detected with each technique (identification rate). A total of 160 women with breast cancer scheduled for SLNB, who were clinically and radiologically node negative, were recruited from seven centers in the United Kingdom and The Netherlands. SLNB was undertaken after administration of both the magnetic and standard tracers (radioisotope with or without blue dye). A total of 170 SLNB procedures were undertaken on 161 patients, and 1 patient was excluded, leaving 160 patients for further analysis. The identification rate was 95.0 % (152 of 160) with the standard technique and 94.4 % (151 of 160) with the magnetic technique (0.6 % difference; 95 % upper confidence limit 4.4 %; 6.9 % discordance). Of the 22 % (35 of 160) of patients with lymph node involvement, 16 % (25 of 160) had at least 1 macrometastasis, and 6 % (10 of 160) had at least a micrometastasis. Another 2.5 % (4 of 160) had isolated tumor cells. Of 404 lymph nodes removed, 297 (74 %) were true sentinel nodes. The lymph node retrieval rate was 2.5 nodes per patient overall, 1.9 nodes per patient with the standard technique, and 2.0 nodes per patient with the magnetic technique. The magnetic technique is a feasible technique for SLNB, with an identification rate that is not inferior to the standard technique.

  12. Internal Mammary Sentinel Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer. Is it Indicated?

    PubMed

    Maráz, R; Boross, G; Pap-Szekeres, J; Rajtár, M; Ambrózay, E; Cserni, G

    2014-01-01

    Axillary sentinel node (A-SN) biopsy is a standard procedure in breast cancer surgery. Sampling of intenal mammary sentinel nodes (IM-SN) is not performed routinly, although it is also considered an important prognostic factor of breast cancer. The role of this latter procedure was investigated in cases of IM-SN visualized on lymphoscintigraphy. Between January 2001 and June 2012 1542 patients with clinically node negative operable primary breast cancer had sentinel node biopsy (SNB). Both axillary and IM-SN were sampled (whenever detected), based on lymphoscintigraphy, intraoperative gamma probe detection and blu dye mapping. Lymphoscintigraphy showed IM-SN in 83 cases. IM-SN biopsy (IM-SNB) was succesfull in 77 patients (93%). A total of 86 IM-SNs were removed. IM-SN involvement was identified in 14 cases, representing 18% of patients who underwent IM-SNB. This included macrometastases (MAC) in 5 cases, micrometastases (MIC) in 2 cases, isolated tumor cells (ITC) in 7 cases. No significant differences were found between patients with and without IM-SN involvement in terms of age, tumor location, tumor size, axillary involvement, tumor grade or estrogen receptor status. The IM-SN involvement has lead to new therapeutic indications in 2 cases (2.6%), both of them due to MAC in the IM-SN: in 1 case change in chemotherapy and in 1 case change in radiotherapy, with the addition of iradiation of the internal mammary chain. Based on this series and information from the literature, we conclude that the indication for an IM-SNB procedure is very limited and its routine use should not be recommended.

  13. Processing Sentinel-2 data with ATCOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pflug, Bringfried; Makarau, Aliaksei; Richter, Rudolf

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric correction of satellite images is necessary for many applications of remote sensing. Among them are applications for agriculture, forestry, land cover and land cover change, urban mapping, emergency and inland water. ATCOR is a widely used atmospheric correction tool which can process data of many optical satellite sensors, for instance Landsat, Sentinel-2, SPOT and RapidEye. ATCOR includes a terrain and adjacency correction of satellite images and several special algorithms like haze detection, haze correction, cirrus correction, de-shadowing and empirical methods for BRDF correction. The atmospheric correction tool ATCOR starts with an estimation of the vertical column Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT550) at 550 nm. The mean uncertainty of the ATCOR-AOT550-estimation was estimated using Landsat and RapidEye data by direct comparison with sunphotometer data as a reference. For Landsat and RapidEye the uncertainty is ΔAOT550nm ≈ 0.03±0.02 for cloudless conditions with a cloud+haze fraction below 1%. Inclusion of cloudy and hazy satellite images into the analysis results in mean ΔAOT550nm ≈ 0.04±0.03 for both RapidEye and Landsat imagery. About 1/3 of the samples perform with the AOT uncertainty better than 0.02 and about 2/3 perform with AOT uncertainty better than 0.05. An accuracy of the retrieved surface reflectance of ±2% (for reflectance <10%) and ±4% reflectance units (for reflectance > 40%) can be achieved for flat terrain, and avoiding the specular and backscattering regions. ATCOR also supports the processing of Sentinel-2 data. First results of processing S2 data and a comparison with AERONET AOT values will be presented.

  14. 5. GLACIER POINT ROAD VIEW AT SENTINEL DOME PARKING AREA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GLACIER POINT ROAD VIEW AT SENTINEL DOME PARKING AREA. LOOKING E. GIS: N-37 42 43.8 / W-119 35 12.1 - Glacier Point Road, Between Chinquapin Flat & Glacier Point, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  15. Ship Detection Using Sentinel-1A in the High North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannevik, Tonje Nanette Arnesen; Olsen, Richard B.; Viken, Kjell

    2016-08-01

    The Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-1B Synthetic Aperture Radar satellites are part of the European Space Agency's new European remote sensing mission, and provide data for European Union's Copernicus program. Norway uses SAR satellites operationally to monitor the vast ocean areas in the High North. This paper presents the use of Sentinel-1A modes over Norwegian waters and the use of Sentinel-1A for ship detection. Ship detection is done in all available polarisation channels. The contrast between a vessel and the ocean background is calculated in two ways: 1) Ship to sea contrast - maximum amplitude divided by mean sea background and 2) Target to Clutter Ratio - Radar Cross Section of the vessel divided by the mean sea background. The contrasts are analysed for different incidence angles and are compared with results from RADARSAT-2, which Norway uses operationally. Combing the available polarisation channels is shown to enhance the contrast between ship and sea.

  16. Copernicus POD Service: Orbit Determination of the Sentinel Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Heike; Fernández, Jaime; Ayuga, Francisco; Féménias, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The Copernicus POD (Precise Orbit Determination) Service is part of the Copernicus Processing Data Ground Segment (PDGS) of the Sentinel-1, -2 and -3 missions. A GMV-led consortium is operating the Copernicus POD Service being in charge of generating precise orbital products and auxiliary data files for their use as part of the processing chains of the respective Sentinel PDGS. Sentinel-1A was launched in April 2014 while Sentinel-2A was on June 2015 and both are routinely operated since then. Sentinel-3A is expected to be launched in February 2016 and Sentinel-1B is planned for spring 2016. Thus the CPOD Service will be operating three to four satellites simultaneously in spring 2016. The satellites of the Sentinel-1, -2, and -3 missions are all equipped with dual frequency high precision GPS receivers delivering the main observables for POD. Sentinel-3 satellites will additionally be equipped with a laser retro reflector for Satellite Laser Ranging and a receiver for DORIS tracking. All three types of observables (GPS, SLR and DORIS) will be used routinely for POD. The POD core of the CPOD Service is NAPEOS (Navigation Package for Earth Orbiting Satellites) the leading ESA/ESOC software for precise orbit determination. The careful selection of models and inputs is important to achieve the different but very demanding requirements in terms of orbital accuracy and timeliness for the Sentinel -1, -2 & -3 missions. The three missions require orbital products with various latencies from 30 minutes up to 20-30 days. The accuracy requirements are also different and partly very challenging, targeting 5 cm in 3D for Sentinel-1 and 2-3 cm in radial direction for Sentinel-3. Although the characteristics and the requirements are different for the three missions the same core POD setup is used to the largest extent possible. This strategy facilitates maintenance of the complex system of the CPOD Service. Updates in the dynamical modelling of the satellite orbits, e

  17. History of sentinel node and validation of the technique

    PubMed Central

    Tanis, Pieter J; Nieweg, Omgo E; Valdés Olmos, Renato A; Th Rutgers, Emiel J; Kroon, Bin BR

    2001-01-01

    Sentinel node biopsy is a minimally invasive technique to select patients with occult lymph node metastases who may benefit from further regional or systemic therapy. The sentinel node is the first lymph node reached by metastasising cells from a primary tumour. Attempts to remove this node with a procedure based on standard anatomical patterns did not become popular. The development of the dynamic technique of intraoperative lymphatic mapping in the 1990s resulted in general acceptance of the sentinel node concept. This hypothesis of sequential tumour dissemination seems to be valid according to numerous studies of sentinel node biopsy with confirmatory regional lymph node dissection. This report describes the history and the validation of the technique, with particular reference to breast cancer. PMID:11250756

  18. 7. YOSEMITE VALLEY SHUTTLE BUS AT SENTINEL BRIDGE SHUTTLE BUS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. YOSEMITE VALLEY SHUTTLE BUS AT SENTINEL BRIDGE SHUTTLE BUS AND PARKING LOT AREA. LOOKING WNW. GIS: N-37 40 36.2 / W-119 44 45.0 - Yosemite National Park Roads & Bridges, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  19. The impact of previous para-areolar incision in the upper outer quadrant of the breast on the localization of the sentinel lymph node in a canine model

    PubMed Central

    Vasques, Paulo Henrique Diógenes; Pinheiro, Luiz Gonzaga Porto; de Meneses e Silva, João Marcos; de Moura Torres-de-Melo, José Ricardo; Pinheiro, Karine Bessa Porto; Rocha, João Ivo Xavier

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper discusses the influence of a para-areolar incision in the upper outer quadrant of the breast on the location of the sentinel lymph node in a canine model. METHODS: The sentinel lymph node was marked with technetium-99, which was injected into the subareolar skin of the cranial breast. After the marker had migrated to the axilla, an arcuate para-areolar incision was performed 2 cm from the nipple in the upper outer quadrant. Patent blue dye was then injected above the upper border of the incision. At the marked site, an axillary incision was made, and the sentinel lymph node was identified by gamma probe and/or by direct visualization of the dye. The agreement between the two injection sites and the two sentinel lymph node identification methods was determined. Our sample group consisted of 40 cranial breasts of 23 adult females of the species Canis familiaris. The data were analyzed by using the McNemar test and by determining the kappa agreement coefficient. RESULT: Our findings showed that in 95% of the breasts, the sentinel lymph node was identified by the injection of technetium-99 m into the subareolar region, and in 82% of the cases, the sentinel lymph node was identified by the injection of patent blue dye above the upper border of the incision. The methods agreed 82% of the time. CONCLUSIONS: Previous para-areolar incisions in the upper outer quadrant did not interfere significantly with the biopsy when the dye was injected above the upper border of the incision. PMID:21915493

  20. CTC Sentinel. Volume 8, Issue 6, June 2015

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    great lengths to suppress religious and political violence and has greatly reduced terrorism and insurgent activity in the area under his direct...Wilson 24 CTC Sentinel Staff & Contacts About the CTC Sentinel The Combating Terrorism Center is an independent educational and research...network of scholars and practitioners to understand and confront contemporary threats posed by terrorism and other forms of political violence. People

  1. CTC Sentinel. Volume 3, Number 10, October 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    Highlights in Terrorist Activity 20 CTC Sentinel Staff & Contacts OCTOBER 2010 . Vol 3 . Issue 10 About the CTC Sentinel The Combating Terrorism Center is an...population flow and transit trade to and from Afghanistan. 38 Personal interviews, staff of the political agent in Khy- ber Agency, May 2010. These...energy firm Areva . Al-Qa`ida in the Islamic Maghreb claimed responsibility. – Reuters, September 16; BBC, September 17; AFP, September 21 September 17

  2. Animals as sentinels of human health hazards of environmental chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    van der Schalie, W H; Gardner, H S; Bantle, J A; De Rosa, C T; Finch, R A; Reif, J S; Reuter, R H; Backer, L C; Burger, J; Folmar, L C; Stokes, W S

    1999-01-01

    A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environment," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, was held to consider the use of sentinel and surrogate animal species data for evaluating the potential human health effects of chemicals in the environment. The workshop took a broad view of the sentinel species concept, and included mammalian and nonmammalian species, companion animals, food animals, fish, amphibians, and other wildlife. Sentinel species data included observations of wild animals in field situations as well as experimental animal data. Workshop participants identified potential applications for sentinel species data derived from monitoring programs or serendipitous observations and explored the potential use of such information in human health hazard and risk assessments and for evaluating causes or mechanisms of effect. Although it is unlikely that sentinel species data will be used as the sole determinative factor in evaluating human health concerns, such data can be useful as for additional weight of evidence in a risk assessment, for providing early warning of situations requiring further study, or for monitoring the course of remedial activities. Attention was given to the factors impeding the application of sentinel species approaches and their acceptance in the scientific and regulatory communities. Workshop participants identified a number of critical research needs and opportunities for interagency collaboration that could help advance the use of sentinel species approaches. PMID:10090711

  3. [Magnetic Sentinel Lymph Node Detection in Prostate Cancer after intraprostatic Injection of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles].

    PubMed

    Winter, Alexander; Engels, Svenja; Kowald, Tobias; Paulo, Tina Susanne; Gerullis, Holger; Chavan, Ajay; Wawroschek, Friedhelm

    2017-04-01

    In prostate cancer, reliable information about the lymph node status is of great importance for accurate staging and the optimal planning of treatment. Despite recent advances in imaging, the histological detection of metastases, or pelvic lymphadenectomy (PLND), continues to be the most reliable method for lymph node staging in clinically localised prostate cancer, especially as this procedure enables the detection of small or micrometastases. Radioisotope-guided sentinel PLND (sPLND) demonstrates high sensitivity in the detection of lymph node metastases as well as low morbidity in prostate cancer because of the targeted removal of a relatively small number of lymph nodes. However, radioactive labelling is associated with limitations such as strict legal regulations, the need for a nuclear medicine department and the radioactive exposure of patients and medical staff. In order to take advantage of the targeted sentinel method while avoiding the disadvantages of radioactive labelling, the identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) by means of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) was studied in breast carcinoma, and its non-inferiority compared with the established procedure with (99m)technetium nanocolloid was demonstrated. Just like the radioactive identification of SLNs, this innovative new method for magnetic labelling and the intraoperative identification of SLNs using a hand-held magnetometer were successfully transferred to prostate cancer. Initial studies demonstrated high sensitivity in the detection of lymph node-positive patients. This method offers the additional advantage of being safe and easy to perform for a single urologist. In addition, the visualisation of SPION-marked SLNs through magnetic resonance tomography enables a precise preoperative SLN identification comparable to lymphoscintigraphy in the radioactive approach. Therefore, SLNs can be identified before and during surgical procedures in prostate cancer patients without

  4. The Utility of Sentinel Node Biopsy for Sinonasal Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Michael S; Price, Daniel L

    2017-10-01

    Objective  Report two positive sentinel node biopsies for sinonasal melanoma. Design  Retrospective review. Setting  Academic tertiary care center. Participants  Patients who underwent sentinel node biopsy for sinonasal melanoma between November 1, 2014 and November 1, 2015. Main Outcome Measures  Clinical course. Results  Two patients were identified. Patient 1 (83M) presented with a sinonasal melanoma anterior to the left inferior turbinate and was clinically N0 neck. Lymphoscintigraphy revealed two sentinel nodes in the ipsilateral and three in the contralateral cervical basins. The left level I sentinel node was positive for melanoma and lymphadenectomy showed no additional metastases. Patient 2 (71F) presented after incomplete resection of a sinonasal melanoma of the left posterior maxillary sinus wall and was clinically N0 neck. Lymphoscintigraphy with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT/CT) localization revealed one sentinel node in the parapharyngeal space and another in the ipsilateral cervical basin. Metastatic melanoma was found in both nodes and completion lymphadenectomy was negative for additional disease. Both patients developed distant metastasis in less than 1 year after surgical resection but responded well to adjuvant immunomodulatory chemotherapeutic agents. Conclusion  Sentinel node biopsy for sinonasal melanoma can provide crucial clinical evidence of regional metastasis prior to overt clinical signs and symptoms. This intraoperative tool has the potential to improve detection of regional metastasis and improve long-term outcomes of this aggressive malignancy.

  5. Human and Animal Sentinels for Shared Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitz, Peter; Scotch, Matthew; Conti, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Summary The tracking of sentinel health events in humans in order to detect and manage disease risks facing a larger population is a well accepted technique applied to influenza, occupational conditions, and emerging infectious diseases. Similarly, animal health professionals routinely track disease events in sentinel animal colonies and sentinel herds. The use of animals as sentinels for human health threats, or of humans as sentinels for animal disease risk, dates back at least to the era when coal miners brought caged canaries into mines to provide early warning of toxic gases. Yet the full potential of linking animal and human health information to provide warning of such “shared risks” from environmental hazards has not been realized. Reasons appear to include the professional segregation of human and animal health communities, the separation of human and animal surveillance data, and evidence gaps in the linkages between human and animal responses to environmental health hazards. The One Health initiative and growing international collaboration in response to pandemic threats, coupled with development the fields of informatics and genomics, hold promise for improved sharing of knowledge about sentinel events in order to detect and reduce environmental health threats shared between species. PMID:20148187

  6. Assessment of the Geometric Quality of SENTINEL-2 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandžic, M.; Mihajlovic, D.; Pandžic, J.; Pfeifer, N.

    2016-06-01

    High resolution (10 m and 20 m) optical imagery satellite Sentinel-2 brings a new perspective to Earth observation. Its frequent revisit time enables monitoring the Earth surface with high reliability. Since Sentinel-2 data is provided free of charge by the European Space Agency, its mass use for variety of purposes is expected. Quality evaluation of Sentinel-2 data is thus necessary. Quality analysis in this experiment is based on comparison of Sentinel-2 imagery with reference data (orthophoto). From the possible set of features to compare (point features, texture lines, objects, etc.) line segments were chosen because visual analysis suggested that scale differences matter least for these features. The experiment was thus designed to compare long line segments (e.g. airstrips, roads, etc.) in both datasets as the most representative entities. Edge detection was applied to both images and corresponding edges were manually selected. The statistical parameter which describes the geometrical relation between different images (and between datasets in general) covering the same area is calculated as the distance between corresponding curves in two datasets. The experiment was conducted for two different test sites, Austria and Serbia. From 21 lines with a total length of ca. 120 km the average offset of 6.031 m (0.60 pixel of Sentinel-2) was obtained for Austria, whereas for Serbia the average offset of 12.720 m (1.27 pixel of Sentinel-2) was obtained out of 10 lines with a total length of ca. 38 km.

  7. Sentinel Asia step 2 utilization for disaster management in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moslin, S. I.; Wahap, N. A.; Han, O. W.

    2014-02-01

    With the installation of Wideband InterNetworking engineering test and Demonstration Satellite (WINDS) communication system in the National Space Centre, Banting; officially Malaysia is one of the twelve Sentinel Asia Step2 System Regional Servers in the Asia Pacific region. The system will be dedicated to receive and deliver images of disaster struck areas observed by Asia Pacific earth observation satellites by request of the Sentinel Asia members via WINDS satellite or 'Kizuna'. Sentinel Asia is an initiative of collaboration between space agencies and disaster management agencies, applying remote sensing and web-GIS technologies to assist disaster management in Asia Pacific. When a disaster occurred, participating members will make an Emergency Observation Request (EOR) to the Asian Disaster Reduction Centre (ADRC). Subsequently, the Data Provider Node (DPN) will execute the emergency observation using the participating earth observation satellites. The requested images then will be processed and analysed and later it will be uploaded on the Sentinel Asia website to be utilised for disaster management and mitigation by the requestor and any other international agencies related to the disaster. Although the occurrences of large scale natural disasters are statistically seldom in Malaysia, but we can never be sure with the unpredictable earth climate nowadays. This paper will demonstrate the advantage of using Sentinel Asia Step2 for local disaster management. Case study will be from the recent local disaster occurrences. In addition, this paper also will recommend a local disaster management support system by using the Sentinel Asia Step2 facilities in ANGKASA.

  8. Can Breast Cancer Biopsy Influence Sentinel Lymph Node Status?

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Michela; Patrolecco, Federica; Rella, Rossella; Di Giovanni, Silvia Eleonora; Infante, Amato; Rinaldi, Pierluigi; Romani, Maurizio; Mulè, Antonino; Arciuolo, Damiano; Belli, Paolo; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated whether the needle size could influence metastasis occurrence in the axillary sentinel lymph node (SLN) in ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (US-CNB) of breast cancer (BC). The data from all patients with breast lesions who had undergone US-CNB at our institution from January 2011 to January 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 377 BC cases were included using the following criteria: (1) percutaneous biopsy-proven invasive BC; and (2) SLN dissection with histopathologic examination. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the needle size used: 14 gauge versus 16 or 18 gauge. SLN metastasis classification followed the 7th American Joint Committee on Cancer (2010) TNM pathologic staging factors: macrometastases, micrometastases, isolated tumor cells, or negative. Only macrometastases and micrometastases were considered positive, and the positive and negative rates were calculated for the overall population and for both needle size groups. Of the 377 BC cases, 268 US-CNB procedures were performed using a 14-gauge needle and 109 with a 16- or 18-gauge needle, respectively. The negative rate was significantly related statistically with the needle size, with a greater prevalence in the 14-gauge group on both extemporaneous analysis (P = .019) and definitive analysis (P = .002). The macrometastasis rate was 17% (63 of 377) for the 14-gauge and 3% (12 of 377) for the 16- and 18-gauge needles, respectively. Our preliminary results have suggested that use of a large needle size in CNB does not influence SLN status; thus, preoperative breast biopsy can be considered a safe procedure in the diagnosis of malignant breast lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of sentinel lymph node size and shape as a predictor of occult metastasis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Langhans, Linnea; Bilde, Anders; Charabi, Birgitte; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton; von Buchwald, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate sentinel lymph node size as a predictor of metastasis in N0 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma treated by individual sentinel node biopsy (SNB) guided neck dissection. In addition, to evaluate lymph node shape as an indicator of malignancy. A retrospective study based on data from 50 patients with clinically N0 neck and oral squamous cell carcinoma stage T1-2N0M0, SNB and consecutive neck dissection was performed. Excised sentinel nodes were measured in three axes by the surgeons before undergoing histopathological examination. Measured sentinel node axis lengths were compared with the histopathological results. Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel 2008 for Mac, version 12.0. A total of 167 sentinel nodes was excised with a median of 3.3 per patient. Following SNB 18% of the patients was upstaged at the subsequent histopathological examination. This correlates to 7% of the total number of sentinel nodes. The diameters of all three axes were compared for both negative and positive nodes. The positive nodes were not significantly larger. The sensitivity and specificity of lymph node size as a criterion for staging were calculated at several thresholds. There was no tendency that lymph node shape changed towards spherical when positive for metastases. There is a tendency that the risk of metastases and upstaging increases with increasing maximum and partly minimum diameter. However, in this study it was not possible to establish a suitable threshold level with both high sensitivity and specificity based on size and shape. Other features of the lymph node must be considered if an accurate staging of N0 patients is to be performed.

  10. Comparing the hybrid fluorescent-radioactive tracer indocyanine green-99mTc-nanocolloid with 99mTc-nanocolloid for sentinel node identification: a validation study using lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Oscar R; Buckle, Tessa; Vermeeren, Lenka; Klop, W Martin C; Balm, Alfons J M; van der Poel, Henk G; van Rhijn, Bas W; Horenblas, Simon; Nieweg, Omgo E; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B; Valdés Olmos, Renato A

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the lymphoscintigraphic drainage patterns of a hybrid sentinel node tracer consisting of the fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid with the drainage pattern of (99m)Tc-nanocolloid alone, the current standard tracer in many European countries. Twenty-five patients with a melanoma in the head and neck region (n = 10), a melanoma on the trunk (n = 6), or penile carcinoma (n = 9) who were scheduled for sentinel node biopsy were prospectively included. First, the standard (99m)Tc-nanocolloid procedure was performed. After injection at the lesion site, lymphoscintigraphy was performed with a 10-min dynamic study and static planar images at 10 min and 2 h after injection, followed by SPECT/CT. The same scintigraphic procedure was repeated after injection of hybrid ICG-(99m)Tc-nanocolloid the same afternoon in 10 patients or the next morning in 15 patients. The paired images of both injections were evaluated, and count rates in the sentinel nodes were calculated and compared. Sentinel nodes were surgically localized using blue dye, a γ-ray detection probe, a portable γ-camera, and a fluorescence camera. Lymphatic drainage was visualized in all 25 patients using (99m)Tc-nanocolloid, leading to the identification of 66 sentinel nodes in total. These same sentinel nodes were also identified during the second scintigraphic procedure with ICG-(99m)Tc-nanocolloid. Moreover, a high correlation between the radioactive counting rates in the sentinel nodes of both scintigraphic studies was observed (mean R(2) = 0.83). Intraoperatively (4-23 h after the second injection), all preoperatively identified sentinel nodes could be localized using radio- and fluorescence guidance combined. In total, 95% of the sentinel nodes could be intraoperatively visualized by means of fluorescence imaging, whereas merely 54% stained blue. Ex vivo, all radioactive sentinel nodes were fluorescent and vice versa. No adverse reactions

  11. The history of sentinel node biopsy in head and neck cancer: From visualization of lymphatic vessels to sentinel nodes.

    PubMed

    de Bree, Remco; Nieweg, Omgo E

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this report is to describe the history of sentinel node biopsy in head and neck cancer. Sentinel node biopsy is a minimally invasive technique to select patients for treatment of metastatic lymph nodes in the neck. Although this procedure has only recently been accepted for early oral cancer, the first studies on visualization of the cervical lymphatic vessels were reported in the 1960s. In the 1980s mapping of lymphatic drainage from specific head and neck sites was introduced. Sentinel node biopsy was further developed in the 1990s and after validation in this century the procedure is routinely performed in early oral cancer in several head and neck centers. New techniques may improve the accuracy of sentinel node biopsy further, particularly in difficult subsites like the floor of mouth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A handheld SPIO-based sentinel lymph node mapping device using differential magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waanders, S.; Visscher, M.; Wildeboer, R. R.; Oderkerk, T. O. B.; Krooshoop, H. J. G.; ten Haken, B.

    2016-11-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy has become a staple tool in the diagnosis of breast cancer. By replacing the morbidity-plagued axillary node clearance with removing only those nodes most likely to contain metastases, it has greatly improved the quality of life of many breast cancer patients. However, due to the use of ionizing radiation emitted by the technetium-based tracer material, the current sentinel lymph node biopsy has serious drawbacks. Most urgently, the reliance on radioisotopes limits the application of this procedure to small parts of the developed world, and it imposes restrictions on patient planning and hospital logistics. Magnetic alternatives have been tested in recent years, but all have their own drawbacks, mostly related to interference from metallic instruments and electromagnetic noise coming from the human body. In this paper, we demonstrate an alternative approach that utilizes the unique nonlinear magnetic properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles to eliminate the drawbacks of both the traditional gamma-radiation centered approach and the novel magnetic techniques pioneered by others. Contrary to many other nonlinear magnetic approaches however, field amplitudes are limited to 5 mT, which enables handheld operation without additional cooling. We show that excellent mass sensitivity can be obtained without the need for external re-balancing of the probe to negate any influences from the human body. Additionally, we show how this approach can be used to suppress artefacts resulting from the presence of metallic instruments, which are a significant dealbreaker when using conventional magnetometry-based approaches.

  13. Sentinel lymph node scintigraphy in cutaneous melanoma using a planar calibration phantom filled with Tc-99m pertechnetate solution for body contouring.

    PubMed

    Peştean, Claudiu; Bărbuş, Elena; Piciu, Andra; Larg, Maria Iulia; Sabo, Alexandrina; Moisescu-Goia, Cristina; Piciu, Doina

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is a disease that has an increasing incidence worldwide. Sentinel lymph node scintigraphy is a diagnostic tool that offers important information regarding the localization of the sentinel lymph nodes offering important input data to establish a pertinent and personalized therapeutic strategy. The golden standard in body contouring for sentinel lymph node scintigraphy is to use a planar flood source of Cobalt-57 (Co-57) placed behind the patients, against the gamma camera. The purpose of the study was to determine the performance of the procedure using a flood calibration planar phantom filled with aqueous solution of Technetion-99m (Tc-99m) in comparison with the published data in literature where the gold standard was used. The study was conducted in the Department of Nuclear Medicine of Oncology Institute "Prof. Dr. Ion Chiricuţă" Cluj-Napoca in 95 patients, 31 males and 64 females. The localization of the lesions was grouped by anatomical regions as follows: 23 on lower limbs, 17 on upper limbs, 45 on thorax and 10 on abdomen. The calibration flood phantom containing aqueous solution of Tc-99m pertechnetate was used as planar source to visualize the body contour of the patients for a proper anatomic localization of detected sentinel lymph nodes. The radiopharmaceutical uptake in sentinel lymph nodes has been recorded in serial images following peritumoral injection of 1 ml solution of Tc-99m albumin nanocolloids with an activity of 1 mCi (37 MBq). The used protocol consisted in early acquired planar images within 15 minutes post-injection and delayed images at 2-3 hours and when necessary, additional images at 6-7 hours. The acquisition matrix used was 128×128 pixels for an acquisition time of 5 - 7 minutes. The skin projection of the sentinel lymph nodes was marked on the skin and surgical removal of detected sentinel lymph nodes was performed the next day using a gamma probe for detection and measurements. The sentinel lymph nodes were detected in

  14. Sentinel lymph node scintigraphy in cutaneous melanoma using a planar calibration phantom filled with Tc-99m pertechnetate solution for body contouring

    PubMed Central

    PEŞTEAN, CLAUDIU; BĂRBUŞ, ELENA; PICIU, ANDRA; LARG, MARIA IULIA; SABO, ALEXANDRINA; MOISESCU-GOIA, CRISTINA; PICIU, DOINA

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Melanoma is a disease that has an increasing incidence worldwide. Sentinel lymph node scintigraphy is a diagnostic tool that offers important information regarding the localization of the sentinel lymph nodes offering important input data to establish a pertinent and personalized therapeutic strategy. The golden standard in body contouring for sentinel lymph node scintigraphy is to use a planar flood source of Cobalt-57 (Co-57) placed behind the patients, against the gamma camera. The purpose of the study was to determine the performance of the procedure using a flood calibration planar phantom filled with aqueous solution of Technetion-99m (Tc-99m) in comparison with the published data in literature where the gold standard was used. Methods The study was conducted in the Department of Nuclear Medicine of Oncology Institute “Prof. Dr. Ion Chiricuţă” Cluj-Napoca in 95 patients, 31 males and 64 females. The localization of the lesions was grouped by anatomical regions as follows: 23 on lower limbs, 17 on upper limbs, 45 on thorax and 10 on abdomen. The calibration flood phantom containing aqueous solution of Tc-99m pertechnetate was used as planar source to visualize the body contour of the patients for a proper anatomic localization of detected sentinel lymph nodes. The radiopharmaceutical uptake in sentinel lymph nodes has been recorded in serial images following peritumoral injection of 1 ml solution of Tc-99m albumin nanocolloids with an activity of 1 mCi (37 MBq). The used protocol consisted in early acquired planar images within 15 minutes post-injection and delayed images at 2–3 hours and when necessary, additional images at 6–7 hours. The acquisition matrix used was 128×128 pixels for an acquisition time of 5 – 7 minutes. The skin projection of the sentinel lymph nodes was marked on the skin and surgical removal of detected sentinel lymph nodes was performed the next day using a gamma probe for detection and measurements

  15. In vivo photoacoustic and ultrasonic mapping of rat sentinel lymph nodes with a modified commercial ultrasound imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erpelding, Todd N.; Kim, Chulhong; Pramanik, Manojit; Guo, Zijian; Dean, John; Jankovic, Ladislav; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2010-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become the standard method for axillary staging in breast cancer patients, relying on invasive identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) following injection of blue dye and radioactive tracers. While SLNB achieves a low false negative rate (5-10%), it is an invasive procedure requiring ionizing radiation. As an alternative to SLNB, ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy has been tested clinically. However, ultrasound alone is unable to accurately identify which lymph nodes are sentinel. Therefore, a non-ionizing and noninvasive detection method for accurate SLN mapping is needed. In this study, we successfully imaged methylene blue dye accumulation in vivo in rat axillary lymph nodes using a Phillips iU22 ultrasound imaging system adapted for photoacoustic imaging with an Nd:YAG pumped, tunable dye laser. Photoacoustic images of rat SLNs clearly identify methylene blue dye accumulation within minutes following intradermal dye injection and co-registered photoacoustic/ultrasound images illustrate lymph node position relative to surrounding anatomy. To investigate clinical translation, the imaging depth was extended up to 2.5 cm by adding chicken breast tissue on top of the rat skin surface. These results raise confidence that photoacoustic imaging can be used clinically for accurate, noninvasive SLN mapping.

  16. A dual-modality photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system for noninvasive sentinel lymph node detection: preliminary clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erpelding, Todd N.; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Krumholz, Arie; Ke, Haixin; Maslov, Konstantin; Appleton, Catherine; Margenthaler, Julie; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has emerged as an accurate, less invasive alternative to axillary lymph node dissection, and it has rapidly become the standard of care for patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) hypothesis states that the pathological status of the axilla can be accurately predicted by determining the status of the first (i.e., sentinel) lymph nodes that drain from the primary tumor. Physicians use radio-labeled sulfur colloid and/or methylene blue dye to identify the SLN, which is most likely to contain metastatic cancer cells. However, the surgical procedure causes morbidity and associated expenses. To overcome these limitations, we developed a dual-modality photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system to noninvasively detect SLNs based on the accumulation of methylene blue dye. Ultimately, we aim to guide percutaneous needle biopsies and provide a minimally invasive method for axillary staging of breast cancer. The system consists of a tunable dye laser pumped by a Nd:YAG laser, a commercial ultrasound imaging system (Philips iU22), and a multichannel data acquisition system which displays co-registered photoacoustic and ultrasound images in real-time. Our clinical results demonstrate that real-time photoacoustic imaging can provide sensitive and specific detection of methylene blue dye in vivo. While preliminary studies have shown that in vivo detection of SLNs by using co-registered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging is feasible, further investigation is needed to demonstrate robust SLN detection.

  17. Electronic clinical laboratory test results data tables: lessons from Mini-Sentinel.

    PubMed

    Raebel, Marsha A; Haynes, Kevin; Woodworth, Tiffany S; Saylor, Gwyn; Cavagnaro, Elizabeth; Coughlin, Kara O; Curtis, Lesley H; Weiner, Mark G; Archdeacon, Patrick; Brown, Jeffrey S

    2014-06-01

    Developing electronic clinical data into a common data model posed substantial challenges unique from those encountered with administrative data. We present here the design, implementation, and use of the Mini-Sentinel Distributed Database laboratory results table (LRT). We developed the LRT and guided Mini-Sentinel data partners (DPs) in populating it from their source data. Data sources included electronic health records and internal and contracted clinical laboratory systems databases. We employed the Logical Observation Identifiers, Names, and Codes (LOINC®) results reporting standards. We evaluated transformed results data using data checks and an iterative, ongoing characterization and harmonization process. Key LRT variables included test name, subcategory, specimen source, LOINC, patient location, specimen date and time, result unit, and unique person identifier. Selected blood and urine chemistry, hematology, coagulation, and influenza tests were included. Twelve DPs with outpatient test results participated; four also contributed inpatient test results. As of September 2013, the LRT included 385,516,239 laboratory test results; data are refreshed at least quarterly. LOINC availability and use varied across DP. Multiple data quality and content issues were identified and addressed. Developing the LRT brought together disparate data sources with no common coding structure. Clinical laboratory test results obtained during routine healthcare delivery are neither uniformly coded nor documented in a standardized manner. Applying a systematic approach with data harmonization efforts and ongoing oversight and management is necessary for a clinical laboratory results data table to remain valid and useful. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Sentinel European Node Trial (SENT): 3-year results of sentinel node biopsy in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Clare; Stoeckli, Sandro J; Haerle, Stephan K; Broglie, Martina A; Huber, Gerhard F; Sorensen, Jens Ahm; Bakholdt, Vivi; Krogdahl, Annelise; von Buchwald, Christian; Bilde, Anders; Sebbesen, Lars R; Odell, Edward; Gurney, Benjamin; O'Doherty, Michael; de Bree, Remco; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Flach, Geke B; Villarreal, Pedro M; Fresno Forcelledo, Manuel Florentino; Junquera Gutiérrez, Luis Manuel; Amézaga, Julio Alvarez; Barbier, Luis; Santamaría-Zuazua, Joseba; Moreira, Augusto; Jacome, Manuel; Vigili, Maurizio Giovanni; Rahimi, Siavash; Tartaglione, Girolamo; Lawson, Georges; Nollevaux, Marie-Cecile; Grandi, Cesare; Donner, Davide; Bragantini, Emma; Dequanter, Didier; Lothaire, Philippe; Poli, Tito; Silini, Enrico M; Sesenna, Erinco; Dolivet, Giles; Mastronicola, Romina; Leroux, Agnes; Sassoon, Isabel; Sloan, Philip; McGurk, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Optimum management of the N0 neck is unresolved in oral cancer. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) can reliably detect microscopic lymph node metastasis. The object of this study was to establish whether the technique was both reliable in staging the N0 neck and a safe oncological procedure in patients with early-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma. An European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-approved prospective, observational study commenced in 2005. Fourteen European centres recruited 415 patients with radiologically staged T1-T2N0 squamous cell carcinoma. SNB was undertaken with an average of 3.2 nodes removed per patient. Patients were excluded if the sentinel node (SN) could not be identified. A positive SN led to a neck dissection within 3 weeks. Analysis was performed at 3-year follow-up. An SN was found in 99.5% of cases. Positive SNs were found in 23% (94 in 415). A false-negative result occurred in 14% (15 in 109) of patients, of whom eight were subsequently rescued by salvage therapy. Recurrence after a positive SNB and subsequent neck dissection occurred in 22 patients, of which 16 (73%) were in the neck and just six patients were rescued. Only minor complications (3%) were reported following SNB. Disease-specific survival was 94%. The sensitivity of SNB was 86% and the negative predictive value 95%. These data show that SNB is a reliable and safe oncological technique for staging the clinically N0 neck in patients with T1 and T2 oral cancer. EORTC Protocol 24021: Sentinel Node Biopsy in the Management of Oral and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. [Presence of intramammary lymph nodes in the preoperative lymphoscintigraphy to locate the sentinel lymph node. Clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Nogareda, Z; Álvarez, A; Perlaza, P; Caparrós, F X; Alonso, I; Paredes, P; Vidal-Sicart, S

    2015-01-01

    The routes of lymphatic drainage from a breast cancer are the axilla (the most frequent) and the extra axillary regions. Among the latter, there are the so-called intrammamary lymph nodes (IMLN). This study has aimed to assess the incidence of IMLNs in our patients and study the evolution of these cases with IMLN in the lymphoscintigraphy. Thirty-eight patients (out of 1725) with IMLN in the pre-operative lymphoscintigraphy were assessed. During the surgical procedure, using a gamma probe, IMLNs were located and excised. After their harvesting, a meticulous surgical field scan was performed. When the axillary sentinel node was positive for metastasis, a complete axillary lymphadenectomy was performed. In those where the axillary sentinel node was negative and IMLN was positive (IMLN+), axillary lymphadenectomy was also performed, except for one case. Thirty-four out of the 38 IMLNs were obtained (89.5%), because no lymphatic tissue was found in pathology analysis in three cases (8%) and in one patient (3%) IMLN was not found during surgery. Ten (26%) metastatic IMLNs were located and the remaining 24 IMLNs cases (63%) were metastasis-free. During the clinical follow-up, one patient with IMLN+ developed hepatic metastases. The remaining 33 patients did not present any recurrence. No follow-up data were available for three patients. IMLN and axillary sentinel node biopsy are recommended when both are depicted in preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. The axilla treatment will only depend on the axillary sentinel node status. Based on the data from other authors and our own experience, avoiding the axillary lymphadenectomy when a metastatic IMLN without axillary involvement seems reasonable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  20. Transgenic zebrafish as sentinels for aquatic pollution.

    PubMed

    Carvan, M J; Dalton, T P; Stuart, G W; Nebert, D W

    2000-01-01

    Using the golden mutant zebrafish having a decrease in interfering pigmentation, we are developing transgenic lines in which DNA motifs that respond to selected environmental pollutants are capable of activating a reporter gene that can be easily assayed. We have begun with three response elements that recognize three important classes of foreign chemicals. Aromatic hydrocarbon response elements (AHREs) respond to numerous polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated coplanar molecules such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; dioxin) and polychlorinated biphenyls. Electrophile response elements (EPREs) respond to quinones and numerous other potent electrophilic oxidants. Metal response elements (MREs) respond to heavy metal cations such as mercury, copper, nickel, cadmium, and zinc. Soon, we will include estrogen response elements (EREs) to detect the effects of environmental endocrine disruptors, and retinoic acid response elements (RARE, RXRE) to detect the effects of retinoids in the environment. Each of these substances is known to be bioconcentrated in fish to varying degrees; for example, 10(-17) M TCDD in a body of water becomes concentrated to approximately 10(-12) M TCDD in a fish, where it would act upon the AHRE motif and turn on the luciferase (LUC) reporter gene. The living fish as a sentinel will not only be assayed intact in the luminometer, but--upon several days or weeks of depuration--would be usable again. To date, we have established that zebrafish transcription factors are able to recognize both mammalian and trout AHRE, EPRE, and MRE sequences in a dose-dependent and chemical-class-specific manner, and that expression of both the LUC and jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter genes is easily detected in zebrafish cell cultures and in the intact live zebrafish. Variations in sensitivity of this model system can be achieved by increasing the copy number of response elements and perhaps by altering the sequence of each core

  1. [Measles surveillance in Germany. From sentinel to mandatory surveillance].

    PubMed

    Siedler, A; Grüber, A; Mankertz, A

    2013-09-01

    From September 1999 to March 2011, sentinel surveillance of measles was conducted by a self-selected sample of private physicians in Germany. From 2001, when mandatory surveillance for measles was established, two surveillance systems worked in parallel. The aim of this article is to summarize the strengths and limitations of sentinel versus mandatory surveillance. Active monthly reporting included case-based questionnaires on patients with (suspected) measles or zeroreporting. For confirmation of measles, the diagnostic patient specimens were sent to regional laboratories for serological tests or to the National Reference Laboratory (NRC). In the NRC in addition to serological tests measles-virus (MV) detection by PCR in urine, throat swabs, and oral fluid (since 2003) as well as MVgenotyping was offered. From January 2000 to December 2010, 934 out of 1,488 participating sentinel-practices did not see any measles case, while 554 reported 3,573 suspected cases. Measles was confirmed by laboratory testing in 801 cases, excluded in 473 cases, and the diagnosis remained uncertain in 215 cases. Of 3,100 analyzed cases, 2,712 (87 %) were unvaccinated, 217 (7 %) and 32 (1 %) were vaccinated with one or two doses, respectively, and for 139 (4 %) cases the vaccination status was unknown. The main reason for not being vaccinated against measles was refusal (n = 1,383). The confirmation rate was lower in the vaccinated than in the unvaccinated patients (19 % vs. 63 %). Since 2006, sentinel-cases have differed from notified cases by region and age. The proportion of sentinel cases from all NRC-investigated cases decreased from more than  50 % (2002) to less than  5 % (since 2007). Sentinel surveillance allowed for the detection of trends, delivered additional information for measles prevention, and played a major role in measles diagnostics. Since mandatory surveillance was established and sentinel surveillance no longer reflected the epidemiologic

  2. Sentinel lymph nodes fluorescence detection and imaging using Patent Blue V bound to human serum albumin

    PubMed Central

    Tellier, Franklin; Steibel, Jérôme; Chabrier, Renée; Blé, François Xavier; Tubaldo, Hervé; Rasata, Ravelo; Chambron, Jacques; Duportail, Guy; Simon, Hervé; Rodier, Jean-François; Poulet, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Patent Blue V (PBV), a dye used clinically for sentinel lymph node detection, was mixed with human serum albumin (HSA). After binding to HSA, the fluorescence quantum yield increased from 5 × 10−4 to 1.7 × 10−2, which was enough to allow fluorescence detection and imaging of its distribution. A detection threshold, evaluated in scattering test objects, lower than 2.5 nmol × L−1 was obtained, using a single-probe setup with a 5-mW incident light power. The detection sensitivity using a fluorescence imaging device was in the µmol × L−1 range, with a noncooled CCD camera. Preclinical evaluation was performed on a rat model and permitted to observe inflamed nodes on all animals. PMID:23024922

  3. Sentinel lymph nodes fluorescence detection and imaging using Patent Blue V bound to human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Tellier, Franklin; Steibel, Jérôme; Chabrier, Renée; Blé, François Xavier; Tubaldo, Hervé; Rasata, Ravelo; Chambron, Jacques; Duportail, Guy; Simon, Hervé; Rodier, Jean-François; Poulet, Patrick

    2012-09-01

    Patent Blue V (PBV), a dye used clinically for sentinel lymph node detection, was mixed with human serum albumin (HSA). After binding to HSA, the fluorescence quantum yield increased from 5 × 10(-4) to 1.7 × 10(-2), which was enough to allow fluorescence detection and imaging of its distribution. A detection threshold, evaluated in scattering test objects, lower than 2.5 nmol × L(-1) was obtained, using a single-probe setup with a 5-mW incident light power. The detection sensitivity using a fluorescence imaging device was in the µmol × L(-1) range, with a noncooled CCD camera. Preclinical evaluation was performed on a rat model and permitted to observe inflamed nodes on all animals.

  4. Initial results with preoperative tattooing of biopsied axillary lymph nodes and correlation to sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Choy, Nicole; Lipson, Jafi; Porter, Catherine; Ozawa, Michael; Kieryn, Anne; Pal, Sunita; Kao, Jennifer; Trinh, Long; Wheeler, Amanda; Ikeda, Debra; Jensen, Kristin; Allison, Kimberly; Wapnir, Irene

    2015-02-01

    Pretreatment evaluation of axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) and marking of biopsied nodes in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer is becoming routine practice. We sought to test tattooing of biopsied ALNs with a sterile black carbon suspension (Spot™). The intraoperative success of identifying tattooed ALNs and their concordance to sentinel nodes was determined. Women with suspicious ALNs and newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent palpation and/or ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration or core needle biopsy, followed by injection of 0.1 to 0.5 ml of Spot™ ink into the cortex of ALNs and adjacent soft tissue. Group I underwent surgery first, and group II underwent neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery. Identification of black pigment and concordance between sentinel and tattooed nodes was evaluated. Twenty-eight patients were tattooed, 16 in group I and 12 in group II. Seventeen cases had evidence of atypia or metastases, 8 (50 %) in group I and 9 (75 %) in group II. Average number of days from tattooing to surgery was 22.9 (group I) and 130 (group II). Black tattoo ink was visualized intraoperatively in all cases, except one case with microscopic black pigment only. Fourteen group I and 10 group II patients had black pigment on histological examination of ALNs. Sentinel nodes corresponded to tattooed nodes in all except one group I patient with a tattooed non-sentinel node. Tattooed nodes are visible intraoperatively, even months later. This approach obviates the need for additional localization procedures during axillary staging.

  5. Unveiling NIR Aza-Boron-Dipyrromethene (BODIPY) Dyes as Raman Probes: Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS)-Guided Selective Detection and Imaging of Human Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Adarsh, Nagappanpillai; Ramya, Adukkadan N; Maiti, Kaustabh Kumar; Ramaiah, Danaboyina

    2017-08-10

    The development of new Raman reporters has attracted immense attention in diagnostic research based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) techniques, which is a well established method for ultrasensitive detection through molecular fingerprinting and imaging. Herein, for the first time, we report the unique and efficient Raman active features of the selected aza-BODIPY dyes 1-6. These distinctive attributes could be extended at the molecular level to allow detection through SERS upon adsorption onto nano-roughened gold surface. Among the newly revealed Raman reporters, the amino substituted derivative 4 showed high signal intensity at very low concentrations (ca. 0.4 μm for 4-Au). Interestingly, an efficient nanoprobe has been constructed by using gold nanoparticles as SERS substrate, and 4 as the Raman reporter (4-Au@PEG), which unexpectedly showed efficient recognition of three human cancer cells (lung: A549, cervical: HeLa, Fibrosarcoma: HT-1080) without any specific surface marker. We observed well reflected and resolved Raman mapping and characteristic signature peaks whereas, such recognition was not observed in normal fibroblast (3T3L1) cells. To confirm these findings, a SERS nanoprobe was conjugated with a specific tumour targeting marker, EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor), a well known targeted agent for Human Fibrosarcoma (HT1080). This nanoprobe efficiently targeted the surface marker of HT1080 cells, threreby demonstrating its use as an ultrasensitive Raman probe for detection and targeted imaging, leaving normal cells unaffected. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. SAIC SENTINEL acoustic counter-sniper system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoughton, Roland B.

    1997-02-01

    An acoustic surveillance system tailored to the detection and location of sniper fire was designed and a prototype built and tested. The SENTINEL system by Science Applications International Corporation exploits 100 kHz 16- bit digitization of signals from 16 condenser microphones in two volumetric arrays to make robust determinations of bearing, range, bullet trajectory, weapon caliber, and muzzle velocity. Signal processing is accomplished on VME hardware with C40 DSPs. Solutions are displayed within three seconds of a detected event on a ruggedized full-daylight- readable color laptop console. Typical accuracies are 1 degree to 2 degrees in azimuth and 2% to 10% in range, depending on range and environmental conditions. The large bandwidth and dynamic range, and exploitation of shock waveform period and amplitude estimates, give the system good capability even in difficult geometries and highly reverberant environments. In-depth study of the phenomenology of the ballistic shock wave was undertaken during the design phase. Results of this study are summarized.

  7. Are carnivores universally good sentinels of plague?

    PubMed

    Brinkerhoff, R Jory; Collinge, Sharon K; Bai, Ying; Ray, Chris

    2009-10-01

    Sylvatic plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a flea-borne disease that primarily affects rodents but has been detected in over 200 mammal species worldwide. Mammalian carnivores are routinely surveyed as sentinels of local plague activity, since they can present antibodies to Y. pestis infection but show few clinical signs. In Boulder County, Colorado, USA, plague epizootic events are episodic and occur in black-tailed prairie dogs. Enzootic hosts are unidentified as are plague foci. For three years, we systematically sampled carnivores in two distinct habitat types to determine whether carnivores may play a role in maintenance or transmission of Y. pestis and to identify habitats associated with increased plague prevalence. We sampled 83 individuals representing six carnivore species and found only two that had been exposed to Y. pestis. The low overall rate of plague exposure in carnivores suggests that plague may be ephemeral in this study system, and thus we cannot draw any conclusions regarding habitat-associated plague foci or temporal changes in plague activity. Plague epizootics involving prairie dogs were confirmed in this study system during two of the three years of this study, and we therefore suggest that the targeting carnivores to survey for plague may not be appropriate in all ecological systems.

  8. Satellites as Sentinels for Climate and Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Remotely-sensed data and observations are providing powerful new tools for addressing climate and environment-related human health problems through increased capabilities for monitoring, risk mapping, and surveillance of parameters useful to such problems as vector- borne and infectious diseases, air and water quality,. harmful algal blooms, W radiation, contaminant and pathogen transport in air and water, and thermal stress. Remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIs), global positioning systems (GPS), improved computation capabilities, and interdisciplinary research between the Earth and health science communities, together with local knowledge, are being combined in rich collaborative efforts resulting in more rapid problem-solving, early warning, and prevention in global climate and health issues. These collaborative efforts are enabling increased understanding of the relationships among changes in temperature, rainfall, wind, soil moisture, solar radiation, vegetation, and the patterns of extreme weather events and health issues. This increased understanding and improved information and data sharing, in turn, empowers local health and environmental decision-makers to better predict climate-related health problems, decrease vulnerability, take preventive measures, and improve response actions. This paper provides a number of recent examples of how satellites - from their unique vantage point in space - can serve as sentinels for climate and health.

  9. Satellites as Sentinels for Environment & Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2002-01-01

    Satellites as Sentinels for Environment & Health Remotely-sensed data and observations are providing powerful new tools for addressing human and ecosystem health by enabling improved understanding of the relationships and linkages between health-related environmental parameters and society as well as techniques for early warning of potential health problems. NASA Office of Earth Science Applications Program has established a new initiative to utilize its data, expertise, and observations of the Earth for public health applications. In this initiative, lead by Goddard Space Flight Center, remote sensing, geographic information systems, improved computational capabilities, and interdisciplinary research between the Earth and health science communities are being combined in rich collaborative efforts resulting in more rapid problem-solving, early warning, and prevention in global health issues. This presentation provides a number of recent examples of applications of advanced remote sensing and other technologies to health.and security issues related to the following: infectious and vector-borne diseases; urban, regional and global air pollution; African and Asian airborne dust; heat stress; UV radiation; water-borne disease; extreme weather; contaminant pathways (ocean, atmosphere, ice)

  10. First Sentinel-1 detections of avalanche debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malnes, E.; Eckerstorfer, M.; Vickers, H.

    2015-03-01

    Snow avalanches are natural hazards, occurring in snow covered mountain terrain worldwide. Present avalanche research and forecasting relies on complete avalanche activity records in a given area over an entire winter season, which cannot be provided with traditional, mainly field based methods. Remote sensing, using weather, and light independent SAR satellites has the potential of filling these data gaps, however, to date their use was limited by high acquisition costs, long repeat cycles, and small ground swath. Sentinel-1A (S1A), on the other hand, operational since October 2014 provides free-of-charge, 20 m spatial resolution, 250 km × 150 km ground swath images every 12 days. In this paper, we present for the first time, that it is possible to detect avalanche debris using S1A images. We successfully apply a change detection method that enhances avalanche debris zones, by comparing repeat pass images before and after the avalanche occurred. Due to the increase in backscatter from avalanche debris, manual detection is possible. With this first proof-of-concept, we show the detection of 489 avalanche debris zones in a S1A image from 6 January 2015, covering the counties Troms and parts of Nordland in Northern Norway. We validate our avalanche detection using very high resolution Radarsat-2 Ultrafine images, as well as extensive field reconnaissance. Our results give us confidence, that S1A detection of avalanches is a critical step towards operational use of SAR avalanche detection in avalanche forecasting.

  11. Satellites as Sentinels for Environment & Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2002-01-01

    Satellites as Sentinels for Environment & Health Remotely-sensed data and observations are providing powerful new tools for addressing human and ecosystem health by enabling improved understanding of the relationships and linkages between health-related environmental parameters and society as well as techniques for early warning of potential health problems. NASA Office of Earth Science Applications Program has established a new initiative to utilize its data, expertise, and observations of the Earth for public health applications. In this initiative, lead by Goddard Space Flight Center, remote sensing, geographic information systems, improved computational capabilities, and interdisciplinary research between the Earth and health science communities are being combined in rich collaborative efforts resulting in more rapid problem-solving, early warning, and prevention in global health issues. This presentation provides a number of recent examples of applications of advanced remote sensing and other technologies to health.and security issues related to the following: infectious and vector-borne diseases; urban, regional and global air pollution; African and Asian airborne dust; heat stress; UV radiation; water-borne disease; extreme weather; contaminant pathways (ocean, atmosphere, ice)

  12. Sentinel Node Biopsy in Early Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Basso, Stefano M M; Chiara, Giordano B; Lumachi, Franco

    2016-01-01

    The approach to the axilla is an evolving paradigm, and recognition of the complexity of breast cancer (BC) biology is changing treatment options. The sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) technique is based on the excision and histological examination of the axillary lymph nodes(s), which is assumed to be the first one draining from the primary tumor. SLNB can accurately stage the axilla, and several trials have shown that there are no significant differences in local recurrence and overall survival between patients treated with or without axillary node dissection (ALND) after a negative SLNB. Surgical morbidity was significantly reduced in terms of rates of lymphedema and neuropathy, with reduced hospital stay and better quality of life after the SLNB procedure. ALND can safely be omitted in patients with ≥2 positive nodes who received conservative surgery and radiotherapy, while ALND is still recommended in clinically N1 BCs, in case of ≥3 positive nodes, and when the number of positive nodes would be crucial for the choice of chemotherapy. Micrometastatic disease can be safely managed with SLNB alone, and additional identification of micrometastases with immunohistochemistry does not affect disease-free survival or overall survival. An appropriate management of the axilla is crucial for the outcome of patients with early BC, and SLNB introduction into the clinical practice dramatically changed the surgical treatment, reducing morbidity without decreasing survival. A tailored approach should be suggested in each patient with BC, considering the biology of the tumor rather than nodal involvement.

  13. Are Carnivores Universally Good Sentinels of Plague?

    PubMed Central

    Collinge, Sharon K.; Bai, Ying; Ray, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Sylvatic plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a flea-borne disease that primarily affects rodents but has been detected in over 200 mammal species worldwide. Mammalian carnivores are routinely surveyed as sentinels of local plague activity, since they can present antibodies to Y. pestis infection but show few clinical signs. In Boulder County, Colorado, USA, plague epizootic events are episodic and occur in black-tailed prairie dogs. Enzootic hosts are unidentified as are plague foci. For three years, we systematically sampled carnivores in two distinct habitat types to determine whether carnivores may play a role in maintenance or transmission of Y. pestis and to identify habitats associated with increased plague prevalence. We sampled 83 individuals representing six carnivore species and found only two that had been exposed to Y. pestis. The low overall rate of plague exposure in carnivores suggests that plague may be ephemeral in this study system, and thus we cannot draw any conclusions regarding habitat-associated plague foci or temporal changes in plague activity. Plague epizootics involving prairie dogs were confirmed in this study system during two of the three years of this study, and we therefore suggest that the targeting carnivores to survey for plague may not be appropriate in all ecological systems. PMID:18973449

  14. Satellites as Sentinels for Climate and Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Remotely-sensed data and observations are providing powerful new tools for addressing climate and environment-related human health problems through increased capabilities for monitoring, risk mapping, and surveillance of parameters useful to such problems as vector- borne and infectious diseases, air and water quality,. harmful algal blooms, W radiation, contaminant and pathogen transport in air and water, and thermal stress. Remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIs), global positioning systems (GPS), improved computation capabilities, and interdisciplinary research between the Earth and health science communities, together with local knowledge, are being combined in rich collaborative efforts resulting in more rapid problem-solving, early warning, and prevention in global climate and health issues. These collaborative efforts are enabling increased understanding of the relationships among changes in temperature, rainfall, wind, soil moisture, solar radiation, vegetation, and the patterns of extreme weather events and health issues. This increased understanding and improved information and data sharing, in turn, empowers local health and environmental decision-makers to better predict climate-related health problems, decrease vulnerability, take preventive measures, and improve response actions. This paper provides a number of recent examples of how satellites - from their unique vantage point in space - can serve as sentinels for climate and health.

  15. Sentinel node biopsy: ALARA and other considerations.

    PubMed

    Strzelczyk, I; Finlayson, C

    2004-02-01

    For a majority of solid tumors, the most powerful and predictive prognostic factor is the status of the regional lymph nodes. Sentinel lymph node sampling continues to gain in popularity as patients and their physicians seek to avoid the potential morbidity associated with standard axillary node dissection. Lymphoscintigraphy, one of the recently explored techniques of lymphatic mapping, involves pre-operative intradermal or subcutaneous administration of a radiopharmaceutical. While this approach is gaining widely spread acceptance, there is still a lack of consensus on which radiopharmaceutical agent has the most ideal properties. By far, the most commonly used agents are 99mTc labeled colloids, but other agents are also used clinically and are under investigation or development worldwide. A number of other clinical, technical, dosimetric, and logistical considerations regarding this procedure remain. They include questions such as who should be performing the procedure, what precautions to take during surgery, how to better isolate "hot" nodes and thus improve the efficacy of determining metastases to the draining lymph node, what precautions to take when handling surgical specimens, etc. There is clearly a need to review as low as reasonably achievable considerations and other issues that arise as this technique evolves and finds its role in the evaluation of various types of cancers. This paper, based on our own experiences and those of others, fills this gap.

  16. Intraoperative Imaging Guidance for Sentinel Node Biopsy in Melanoma Using a Mobile Gamma Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Dengel, Lynn T; Judy, Patricia G; Petroni, Gina R; Smolkin, Mark E; Rehm, Patrice K; Majewski, Stan; Williams, Mark B; Slingluff Jr., Craig L

    2011-04-01

    The objective is to evaluate the sensitivity and clinical utility of intraoperative mobile gamma camera (MGC) imaging in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in melanoma. The false-negative rate for SLNB for melanoma is approximately 17%, for which failure to identify the sentinel lymph node (SLN) is a major cause. Intraoperative imaging may aid in detection of SLN near the primary site, in ambiguous locations, and after excision of each SLN. The present pilot study reports outcomes with a prototype MGC designed for rapid intraoperative image acquisition. We hypothesized that intraoperative use of the MGC would be feasible and that sensitivity would be at least 90%. From April to September 2008, 20 patients underwent Tc99 sulfur colloid lymphoscintigraphy, and SLNB was performed with use of a conventional fixed gamma camera (FGC), and gamma probe followed by intraoperative MGC imaging. Sensitivity was calculated for each detection method. Intraoperative logistical challenges were scored. Cases in which MGC provided clinical benefit were recorded. Sensitivity for detecting SLN basins was 97% for the FGC and 90% for the MGC. A total of 46 SLN were identified: 32 (70%) were identified as distinct hot spots by preoperative FGC imaging, 31 (67%) by preoperative MGC imaging, and 43 (93%) by MGC imaging pre- or intraoperatively. The gamma probe identified 44 (96%) independent of MGC imaging. The MGC provided defined clinical benefit as an addition to standard practice in 5 (25%) of 20 patients. Mean score for MGC logistic feasibility was 2 on a scale of 1-9 (1 = best). Intraoperative MGC imaging provides additional information when standard techniques fail or are ambiguous. Sensitivity is 90% and can be increased. This pilot study has identified ways to improve the usefulness of an MGC for intraoperative imaging, which holds promise for reducing false negatives of SLNB for melanoma.

  17. Zika beyond the Americas: Travelers as sentinels of Zika virus transmission. A GeoSentinel analysis, 2012 to 2016.

    PubMed

    Leder, Karin; Grobusch, Martin P; Gautret, Philippe; Chen, Lin H; Kuhn, Susan; Lim, Poh Lian; Yates, Johnnie; McCarthy, Anne E; Rothe, Camilla; Kato, Yasuyuki; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Huber, Kristina; Schwartz, Eli; Stauffer, William; Malvy, Denis; Shaw, Marc T M; Rapp, Christophe; Blumberg, Lucille; Jensenius, Mogens; van Genderen, Perry J J; Hamer, Davidson H

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) was first isolated in Africa; decades later, caused large outbreaks in the Pacific, and is considered endemic in Asia. We aim to describe ZIKV disease epidemiology outside the Americas, the importance of travelers as sentinels of disease transmission, and discrepancies in travel advisories from major international health organizations. This descriptive analysis using GeoSentinel Surveillance Network records involves sixty-four travel and tropical medicine clinics in 29 countries. Ill returned travelers with a confirmed or probable diagnosis of ZIKV disease acquired in Africa, Asia and the Pacific seen between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2016 are included, and the frequencies of demographic, trip, and diagnostic characteristics described. ZIKV was acquired in Asia (18), the Pacific (10) and Africa (1). For five countries (Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, Cameroon), GeoSentinel patients were sentinel markers of recent Zika activity. Additionally, the first confirmed ZIKV infection acquired in Kiribati was reported to GeoSentinel (2015), and a probable case was reported from Timor Leste (April 2016), representing the only case known to date. Review of Zika situation updates from major international health authorities for country risk classifications shows heterogeneity in ZIKV country travel advisories. Travelers are integral to the global spread of ZIKV, serving as sentinel markers of disease activity. Although GeoSentinel data are collected by specialized clinics and do not capture all imported cases, we show that surveillance of imported infections by returned travelers augments local surveillance system data regarding ZIKV epidemiology and can assist with risk categorization by international authorities. However, travel advisories are variable due to risk uncertainties.

  18. Synergetic Use of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 Data for Soil Moisture Mapping at 100 m Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qi; Zribi, Mehrez

    2017-01-01

    The recent deployment of ESA’s Sentinel operational satellites has established a new paradigm for remote sensing applications. In this context, Sentinel-1 radar images have made it possible to retrieve surface soil moisture with a high spatial and temporal resolution. This paper presents two methodologies for the retrieval of soil moisture from remotely-sensed SAR images, with a spatial resolution of 100 m. These algorithms are based on the interpretation of Sentinel-1 data recorded in the VV polarization, which is combined with Sentinel-2 optical data for the analysis of vegetation effects over a site in Urgell (Catalunya, Spain). The first algorithm has already been applied to observations in West Africa by Zribi et al., 2008, using low spatial resolution ERS scatterometer data, and is based on change detection approach. In the present study, this approach is applied to Sentinel-1 data and optimizes the inversion process by taking advantage of the high repeat frequency of the Sentinel observations. The second algorithm relies on a new method, based on the difference between backscattered Sentinel-1 radar signals observed on two consecutive days, expressed as a function of NDVI optical index. Both methods are applied to almost 1.5 years of satellite data (July 2015–November 2016), and are validated using field data acquired at a study site. This leads to an RMS error in volumetric moisture of approximately 0.087 m3/m3 and 0.059 m3/m3 for the first and second methods, respectively. No site calibrations are needed with these techniques, and they can be applied to any vegetation-covered area for which time series of SAR data have been recorded. PMID:28846601

  19. The mink is not a reliable sentinel species.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Jeff; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2009-10-01

    In a recent review paper, Basu et al. [Basu, N., Scheuhammer, A.M., Bursian, S.J., Elliott, J., Rouvinen-Watt, K., Chan, H.M., 2007. Mink as a sentinel species in environmental health. Environ. Res. 103, 130-144] suggested that the American mink (formerly Mustela vison, now Neovison vison) should be used as a sentinel species for studies of the effects of pollution on environmental health. They based this assertion in large part on their conclusion that mink meet a set of criteria required by a sentinel species. In this commentary, we suggest that Basu et al. overlooked an important criterion for sentinel species - that the species must be a continuous resident of the environment under evaluation. Across their native range and beyond, mink are commonly farmed for the fur industry, and a long history of studies has shown that where they are farmed, they escape. For example, in southern Ontario, Canada, 64% of the mink have been genetically identified as domestic in origin, or domestic-wild hybrids. Thus, we argue that mink do not meet the criterion of continuous residence, and cannot be reliably used as sentinel species. There is a strong likelihood of biased inference when mink are used for such purposes.

  20. Marine mammals as sentinel species for oceans and human health.

    PubMed

    Bossart, G D

    2011-05-01

    The long-term consequences of climate change and potential environmental degradation are likely to include aspects of disease emergence in marine plants and animals. In turn, these emerging diseases may have epizootic potential, zoonotic implications, and a complex pathogenesis involving other cofactors such as anthropogenic contaminant burden, genetics, and immunologic dysfunction. The concept of marine sentinel organisms provides one approach to evaluating aquatic ecosystem health. Such sentinels are barometers for current or potential negative impacts on individual- and population-level animal health. In turn, using marine sentinels permits better characterization and management of impacts that ultimately affect animal and human health associated with the oceans. Marine mammals are prime sentinel species because many species have long life spans, are long-term coastal residents, feed at a high trophic level, and have unique fat stores that can serve as depots for anthropogenic toxins. Marine mammals may be exposed to environmental stressors such as chemical pollutants, harmful algal biotoxins, and emerging or resurging pathogens. Since many marine mammal species share the coastal environment with humans and consume the same food, they also may serve as effective sentinels for public health problems. Finally, marine mammals are charismatic megafauna that typically stimulate an exaggerated human behavioral response and are thus more likely to be observed.

  1. The NASA living with a star (LWS) sentinels mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, R. P.; Szabo, A.

    2005-08-01

    The NASA Living With a Star (LWS) Sentinels mission is presently being defined by its Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT). Sentinels is the third element of the LWS program. Its primary scientific objective is to discover, understand and model the connection between solar phenomena and the interplanetary/geospace disturbances, specifically, the heliospheric initiation, propagation and solar connection of those energetic phenomena that adversely affect space exploration and life and society here on Earth. Sentinels will play a particularly important role in support of NASA's new Vision for Space Exploration (VSE), in providing key new measurements required to understand the production of Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) that are hazardous to human and robotic missions to the Moon and Mars. Here we describe the planning for Sentinels, and the preliminary design of the first phase, the Inner Heliosphere Sentinels, a four spacecraft mission to provide multi-point longitudinally and radially distributed in situ observations of SEPs, plasma, fields, and X-rays/gamma-rays/neutrons in the inner heliosphere (~0.25-0.76 AU), close to the site of SEP acceleration and rapid transient evolution.

  2. Silica-coated gold nanoplates as stable photoacoustic contrast agents for sentinel lymph node imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luke, Geoffrey P.; Bashyam, Ashvin; Homan, Kimberly A.; Makhija, Suraj; Chen, Yun-Sheng; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2013-11-01

    A biopsy of the first lymph node to which a tumor drains—the sentinel lymph node (SLN)—is commonly performed to identify micrometastases. Image guidance of the SLN biopsy procedure has the potential to improve its accuracy and decrease its morbidity. We have developed a new stable contrast agent for photoacoustic image-guided SLN biopsy: silica-coated gold nanoplates (Si-AuNPs). The Si-AuNPs exhibit high photothermal stability when exposed to pulsed and continuous wave laser irradiation. This makes them well suited for in vivo photoacoustic imaging. Furthermore, Si-AuNPs are shown to have low cytotoxicity. We tested the Si-AuNPs for SLN mapping in a mouse model where they exhibited a strong, sustained photoacoustic signal. Real-time ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging revealed that the Si-AuNPs quickly drain to the SLN, gradually spreading throughout a large portion of the node.

  3. Efficacy of 'radioguided occult lesion localisation' (ROLL) versus 'wire-guided localisation' (WGL) in breast conserving surgery for non-palpable breast cancer: a randomised controlled multicentre trial.

    PubMed

    Postma, E L; Verkooijen, H M; van Esser, S; Hobbelink, M G; van der Schelling, G P; Koelemij, R; Witkamp, A J; Contant, C; van Diest, P J; Willems, S M; Borel Rinkes, I H M; van den Bosch, M A A J; Mali, W P; van Hillegersberg, R

    2012-11-01

    For the management of non-palpable breast cancer, accurate pre-operative localisation is essential to achieve complete resection with optimal cosmetic results. Radioguided occult lesions localisation (ROLL) uses the radiotracer, injected intra-tumourally for sentinel lymph node identification to guide surgical excision of the primary tumour. In a multicentre randomised controlled trial, we determined if ROLL is superior to the standard of care (i.e. wire-guided localisation, WGL) for preoperative tumour localisation. Women (>18 years.) with histologically proven non-palpable breast cancer and eligible for breast conserving treatment with sentinel node procedure were randomised to ROLL or WGL. Patients allocated to ROLL received an intra-tumoural dose of 120 Mbq technetium-99 m nanocolloid. The tumour was surgically removed, guided by gamma probe detection. In the WGL group, ultrasound- or mammography-guided insertion of a hooked wire provided surgical guidance for excision of the primary tumour. Primary outcome measures were the proportion of complete tumour excisions (i.e. with negative margins), the proportion of patients requiring re-excision and the volume of tissue removed. Data were analysed according to intention-to-treat principle. This study is registered at ClinincalTrials.gov, number NCT00539474. In total, 314 patients with 316 invasive breast cancers were enrolled. Complete tumour removal with negative margins was achieved in 140/162 (86 %) patients in the ROLL group versus 134/152 (88 %) patients in the WGL group (P = 0.644). Re-excision was required in 19/162 (12 %) patients in the ROLL group versus 15/152 (10 %) (P = 0.587) in the WGL group. Specimen volumes in the ROLL arm were significantly larger than those in the WGL arm (71 vs. 64 cm(3), P = 0.017). No significant differences were seen in the duration and difficulty of the radiological and surgical procedures, the success rate of the sentinel node procedure, and cosmetic outcomes. In this first

  4. Intra-operative sentinel lymph node identification using a novel receptor-binding agent (technetium-99m neomannosyl human serum albumin, 99mTc-MSA) in stage I non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungeun; Kim, Hyun Koo; Kang, Du-Young; Jeong, Jae Min; Choi, Young Ho

    2010-06-01

    In the previous report, to simplify the synthesis and labelling procedures and to improve the biological properties, we developed a novel mannose receptor-binding agent, technetium-99m human serum albumin (99mTc-MSA), for sentinel lymph node detection. This study is the first clinical trial designed to test the reliability and feasibility of sentinel node detection using this new radioactive agent in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Forty-two patients (30 men, 12 women; mean age 63.3 + or - 8.9 years) that were candidates for lobectomy with mediastinal lymph node dissection for stage I non-small cell lung cancer were enrolled. A total dose of 1mCi of 99mTc-MSA in 0.2 ml was administered in one shot at the peritumoural region approximately 3h before surgery. The radioactivity in the lymph nodes was counted before (in vivo) and after (ex vivo) dissection with a hand-held gamma probe. A sentinel lymph node was defined as any node for which the radioactivity count was 5 times that of the resected lung tissue with the lowest count for the ex vivo counts. All harvested lymph nodes were cut into 2-mm slices and ultimately diagnosed by using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections with haematoxylin and eosin staining. 99mTc-MSA was taken up by the lymph nodes and its detection did not change until 21 h after the injection. The number of dissected lymph nodes per patient was 22.1 + or - 11.6 (range 4-57). Among 42 patients, the sentinel lymph nodes could be identified in 40 patients (95.2%). The number of sentinel lymph nodes identified was 2.3 + or - 1.1 stations (range 1-5) per patient. Ten out of 40 patients (25.0%) had metastases in 11 sentinel lymph nodes. Three of these 11 sentinel lymph nodes (27.3%) had skip metastases. No false-negative sentinel lymph nodes were detected in any of the 10 patients with N1 or N2 disease (0%). The relationship between in vivo and ex vivo results for mediastinal sentinel lymph nodes showed concurrence in 29 out

  5. A case report of local treatment of inoperable squamous cell lung carcinoma with convex-probe endobronchial ultrasound-guided intratumoral injection of cisplatin in a patient with severe COPD.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaochen; Liu, Xiansheng; Rao, Xiaoling; Zhao, Jianping; Xu, Yongjian; Xie, Min

    2017-06-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound as a powerful diagnostic technology can also be used to perform intratumoral chemotherapy for extraluminal tumor. A 69-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presented with worsening dyspnea. A pulmonary function test showed severe airway obstruction and that forced expiratory volume in 1 s was 43% of the predicted value after a bronchodilator. A bronchoscopy and histopathological analyses revealed a squamous cell carcinoma mostly located outside of the lumen with central airway obstruction. Due to the poor pulmonary function, he cannot tolerate conventional active treatments, such as surgery, full dose systemic chemotherapy, or radiotherapy. Local treatments including argon plasma coagulation, cryotherapy, and bronchoscopic endobronchial intratumoral chemotherapy with cisplatin were performed to debulk intraluminal component of the tumor and recanalize occlusive airways in the left upper lobe. Convex-probe endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle injection (EBUS-TBNI) delivered cisplatin into the extraluminal component of the tumor to relieve the symptom of dyspnea and opened up the opportunity for systemic chemotherapy without severe systemic complications. The patient had a good response to the comprehensive therapy of 4 cycles of low-dose intravenous chemotherapy and bronchoscopic interventions. EBUS-TBNI is proven an effective and safe method to treat inoperable extraluminal central pulmonary carcinoma complicated with severe COPD. In the future, EBUS-TBNI may offer more treatment indications outlined in the existing publications.

  6. [Intraoperative detection of the sentinel lymph nodes in lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Akopov, A L; Papayan, G V; Chistyakov, I V

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of the scientific data was made. It was used the literature devoted to the intraoperative visualization of the sentinel lymph nodes in patients with lung cancer. Correct detection of such lymph nodes with following pathologic investigation allowed limiting the volume of lympho-dissection in a number of patients. There is the possibility of maximal in-depth study of the sentinel lymph nodes by purposeful application of most sensible pathologic and molecular methods for detection their micrometastatic lesions. At the same time the treatment strategy and prognosis could be determined. The authors present the results of an application of dye techniques, radioactive preparation and fluorescence imaging for sentinel lymph node detection. Advantages and disadvantages of the methods are shown in the article. There are validated the prospects of technical development, study of information value of new applications and the most perspective method of fluorescence indocyanine green visualization by lymph outflow.

  7. Sentinel-3A: first commissioning results of its optical payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieke, J.; Mavrocordatos, C.; Berruti, B.

    2016-10-01

    The Sentinel-3A satellite, the first of a series of four satellites from the European Commission's Copernicus Programme, was launched on the 16th of February 2016. Sentinel-3 is a multi-instrument mission to measure sea-surface topography, sea- and land-surface temperature, ocean colour and land colour to support ocean forecasting systems, as well as environmental and climate monitoring. The presentation will focus on Sentinel-3 optical instruments, namely the Ocean Land Colour Imager (OLCI) and the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR). The results of the five-month commissioning phase (concluded in July 2016) are presented. The Level-1 product quality is presented as well as preliminary verification and validation results of the Level-2 ocean products.

  8. Getting ready for the arrival of Sentinel data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschbacher, Josef; Milagro Perez, Maria Pilar

    2013-04-01

    The European Union (EU) and the European Space Agency (ESA) have developed the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES), being renamed to Copernicus, programme as Europe's answer to the vital need for joined-up data about our climate, environment and security. Through a unique combination of satellite, atmospheric and Earth-based monitoring systems, the initiative will provide new insight into the state of the land, sea and air, providing policymakers, scientists, businesses and the public with accurate and timely information. GMES capabilities include monitoring and forecasting of climatic change, flood risks, soil and coastal erosion, crop and fish resources, air pollution, greenhouse gases, iceberg distribution and snow cover, among others. To accomplish this, GMES has been divided into three main components: Space, In-situ and Services. The Space Component, led by ESA, comprises five types of new dedicated satellites called Sentinels. These missions carry a range of technologies, such as radar and multi-spectral imaging instruments for land, ocean and atmospheric monitoring. While the Sentinel satellites are currently being developed by ESA specifically to meet the needs of GMES, the Contributing Missions, operated by national agencies or commercial entities, are already providing a wealth of data for GMES services, and will continue to deliver complementary data after the Sentinels are in orbit. An integrated Ground Segment ensures access to Sentinels and Contributing Missions data. Access to Sentinel data is governed by the Sentinel data policy, which is part of a wider GMES data and information access policy. The Sentinel data policy envisages free and open access, subject to restrictions only if security or other European interests need to be preserved. As regards the Contributing Missions, the data policy of the mission owners will be respected for the purpose of providing data to GMES service users. The first in the fleet of dedicated

  9. Gas flare characterisation with Sentinel-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caseiro, Alexandre; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Ruecker, Gernot; Tiemann, Joachim; Leimbach, David

    2017-04-01

    Gas Flaring (GF) is the process of burning waste gases at the tip of a stack. It is widely used in the upstream oil and gas industry. It is a contributor to the imbalance of the greenhouse gases (GHG) concentration in the earth's atmosphere, which prompts global warming. Besides GHG, GF also emits black carbon (BC), a known carcinogen and climate active species. At higher latitudes, GF has been estimated as the main input of atmospheric BC, alongside vegetation fires. The consideration of GF as a source to global budgets has been hindered by technical difficulties of in-situ measurements and the inexistence of a systematic reporting system. Remote sensing offers the possibility of a continuous, global and systematic monitoring of GF over extended periods. Being a high temperature process, GF can be detected from space using measurements at appropriate wavelengths. Considering 1800K as a typical GF temperature and Wien's displacement law, the peak emission will be in the short-wave infrared region. This spectral region is observed by two channels (S5 and S6) of the SLSTR instrument aboard ESA's newly launched Sentinel-3 satellite. Because of solar contamination, only night-time observations are used. In order to characterise the identified gas flares in terms of temperature and area, two Planck curves are fitted to SLSTR radiance observations in five spectral channels (S5 through S9, with F1 and F2). In this work, we present the methodology in detail as well as results for known flaring regions around the world. A comparison with VIIRS on Suomi-NPP and with HSRS on TET-1 over known GF locations is also considered.

  10. DIEP flap sentinel skin paddle positioning algorithm.

    PubMed

    Laporta, Rosaria; Longo, Benedetto; Sorotos, Michail; Pagnoni, Marco; Santanelli Di Pompeo, Fabio

    2015-02-01

    Although clinical examination alone or in combination with other techniques is the only ubiquitous method for flap monitoring, it becomes problematic with buried free-tissue transfer. We present a DIEP flap sentinel skin paddle (SSP) positioning algorithm and its reliability is also investigated using a standardized monitoring protocol. All DIEP flaps were monitored with hand-held Doppler examination and clinical observation beginning immediately after surgery in recovery room and continued postoperatively at the ward. Skin paddle (SP) position was preoperatively drawn following mastectomy type incisions; in skin-sparing mastectomies types I-III a small SP (sSP) replaces nipple-areola complex; in skin-sparing mastectomy type IV, SSP is positioned between wise-pattern branches while in type V between medial/lateral branches. In case of nipple-sparing mastectomy SSP is positioned at inframammary fold or in lateral/medial branches of omega/inverted omega incision if used. Three hundred forty-seven DIEP flap breast reconstructions were reviewed and stratified according to SP type into group A including 216 flaps with large SP and group B including 131 flaps with SSP and sSP. Sixteen flaps (4.6%) were taken back for pedicle compromise, 13 of which were salvaged (81.25%), 11 among 13 from group A and 2 among 3 from group B. There was no statistical difference between the groups concerning microvascular complication rate (P = 0.108), and time until take-back (P = 0.521) and flap salvage rate (P = 0.473) resulted independent of SP type. Our results suggest that early detection of perfusion impairment and successful flaps salvage could be achieved using SSP for buried DIEP flap monitoring, without adjunctive expensive monitoring tests.

  11. Avian wildlife as sentinels of ecosystem health.

    PubMed

    Smits, Judit E G; Fernie, Kimberly J

    2013-05-01

    Birds have been widely used as sentinels of ecosystem health reflecting changes in habitat quality, increased incidence of disease, and exposure to and effects of chemical contaminants. Numerous studies addressing these issues focus on the breeding period, since hormonal, behavioural, reproductive, and developmental aspects of the health can be observed over a relatively short time-span. Many body systems within individuals are tightly integrated and interdependent, and can be affected by contaminant chemicals, disease, and habitat changes in complex ways. Animals higher in the food web will reflect cumulative effects of multiple stressors. Such features make birds ideal indicators for assessing environmental health in areas of environmental concern. Five case studies are presented, highlighting the use of different species which have provided insight into ecosystem sustainability, including (i) the consequences of anthropogenic disturbances of sagebrush habitat on the greater northern sage grouse Centrocercus urophasianus; (ii) the high prevalence of disease in very specific passerine species in the Canary Islands closely paralleling deterioration of formerly productive desert habitat and ensuing interspecific stressors; (iii) fractures, abnormal bone structure, and associated biochemical aberrations in nestling storks exposed to acidic tailings mud from a dyke rupture at an iron pyrite mine near Sevilla, Spain; (iv) newly presented data demonstrating biochemical changes in nestling peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus and associations with exposure to major chemical classes in the Great Lakes Basin of Canada; and (v) the variability in responses of tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor to contaminants, biological and meteorological challenges when breeding in the Athabasca oil sands. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sentinel-2 diffuser on-ground calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazy, E.; Camus, F.; Chorvalli, V.; Domken, I.; Laborie, A.; Marcotte, S.; Stockman, Y.

    2013-10-01

    The Sentinel-2 multi-spectral instrument (MSI) will provide Earth imagery in the frame of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) initiative which is a joint undertaking of the European Commission and the Agency. MSI instrument, under Astrium SAS responsibility, is a push-broom spectro imager in 13 spectral channels in VNIR and SWIR. The instrument radiometric calibration is based on in-flight calibration with sunlight through a quasi Lambertian diffuser. The diffuser covers the full pupil and the full field of view of the instrument. The on-ground calibration of the diffuser BRDF is mandatory to fulfil the in-flight performances. The diffuser is a 779 x 278 mm2 rectangular flat area in Zenith-A material. It is mounted on a motorised door in front of the instrument optical system entrance. The diffuser manufacturing and calibration is under the Centre Spatial of Liege (CSL) responsibility. The CSL has designed and built a completely remote controlled BRDF test bench able to handle large diffusers in their mount. As the diffuser is calibrated directly in its mount with respect to a reference cube, the error budget is significantly improved. The BRDF calibration is performed directly in MSI instrument spectral bands by using dedicated band-pass filters (VNIR and SWIR up to 2200 nm). Absolute accuracy is better than 0.5% in VNIR spectral bands and 1% in SWIR spectral bands. Performances were cross checked with other laboratories. The first MSI diffuser for flight model was calibrated mid 2013 on CSL BRDF measurement bench. The calibration of the diffuser consists mainly in thermal vacuum cycles, BRDF uniformity characterisation and BRDF angular characterisation. The total amount of measurement for the first flight model diffuser corresponds to more than 17500 BRDF acquisitions. Performance results are discussed in comparison with requirements.

  13. [Identification of sentinel events in primary care].

    PubMed

    Olivera Cañadas, G; Cañada Dorado, A; Drake Canela, M; Fernández-Martínez, B; Ordóñez León, G; Cimas Ballesteros, M

    2017-05-17

    To identify and describe a list of sentinel events (SEs) for Primary Care (PC). A structured experts' consensus was obtained by using two online questionnaires. The participants were selected because of their expertise in PC and patient safety. The first questionnaire assessed the suitability of the hospital SEs established in the National Quality Forum 2006 for use in PC via responses of "yes", "no", or "yes but with modification". In the latter case, a re-wording of the SE was requested. Additionally, inclusion of new SEs was also allowed. The second questionnaire included those SEs with positive responses ("yes", "yes with modification"), so that the experts could choose between the original and alternative drafts, and evaluate the newly described SEs. The questionnaires were completed by 44 out of a total of the 47 experts asked to participate, and a total of 17 SEs were identified as suitable for PC. For the first questionnaire, 12 of the 28 hospital SEs were considered adaptable to PC, of which 11 were re-drafts. Thirty-seven experts proposed new SEs. These mainly concerned problems with medication and vaccines, delay, or lack of assistance, diagnostic delays, and problems with diagnostic tests, and were finally summarised in 5 SEs. In the second questionnaire, ≥65% of the experts chose the alternative wording against the original cases for the 11 SEs suitable for PC. The 5 newly included SEs were considered adequate with a positive response of 70-85%. Having a list of SEs available in PC will help to improve the management of health care risks. Copyright © 2017 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of (99m)Tc-Tilmanocept as a Single Agent for Sentinel Lymph Node Identification in Breast Cancer: A Retrospective Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Unkart, Jonathan T; Wallace, Anne M

    2017-09-01

    (99m)Tc-tilmanocept received recent Food and Drug Administration approval for lymphatic mapping in 2013. However, to our knowledge, no prior studies have evaluated the use of (99m)Tc-tilmanocept as a single agent in sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in breast cancer. Methods: We executed this retrospective pilot study to assess the ability of (99m)Tc-tilmanocept to identify sentinel nodes as a single agent in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients. Patients received a single intradermal injection overlying the tumor of either 18.5 MBq (0.5 mCi) of (99m)Tc-tilmanocept on the day of surgery or 74.0 MBq (2.0 mCi) on the day before surgery by a radiologist. Immediate 3-view lymphoscintigraphy was performed. Intraoperatively, SLNs were identified with a portable γ-probe. A node was classified as hot if the count (per second) of the node was more than 3 times the background count. Descriptive statistics are reported. Results: Nineteen patients underwent SLN biopsy with single-agent (99m)Tc-tilmanocept. Immediate lymphoscintigraphy identified at least 1 sentinel node in 13 of 17 patients (76.5%). Intraoperatively, at least 1 (mean, 1.7 ± 0.8; range, 1-3) hot node was identified in all patients. Three patients (15.8%) had 1 disease-positive SLN. Conclusion: In this small, retrospective pilot study, (99m)Tc-tilmanocept performed well as a single agent for intraoperative sentinel node identification in breast cancer. A larger, randomized clinical trial is warranted to compare (99m)Tc-tilmanocept as a single agent with other radiopharmaceuticals for sentinel node identification in breast cancer. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  15. BioSentinel: Developing a Space Radiation Biosensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santa Maria, Sergio R.

    2015-01-01

    BioSentinel is an autonomous fully self-contained science mission that will conduct the first study of the biological response to space radiation outside low Earth orbit (LEO) in over 40 years. The 4-unit (4U) BioSentinel biosensor system, is housed within a 6-Unit (6U) spacecraft, and uses yeast cells in multiple independent microfluidic cards to detect and measure DNA damage that occurs in response to ambient space radiation. Cell growth and metabolic activity will be measured using a 3-color LED detection system and a metabolic indicator dye with a dedicated thermal control system per fluidic card.

  16. Landslide Inventory and Monitoring Using Sentinel-1 SAR Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monserrat, Oriol; Crosetto, Michele; Devanthery, Nuria; Cuevas-Gonzalez, Maria; Barra, Anna; Crippa, Bruno

    2016-08-01

    An important application of differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) and Persistent Scatterer Interferometry is landslide detection and monitoring. Several studies have been published, which make use of the entire spectrum of SAR data types available in the last 25 years. This paper describes a procedure to update landslide inventory maps using Sentinel-1 data. The paper briefly discusses the main advantages of the Sentinel-1 SAR data. Then it describes the data analysis procedure used to update landslide inventory maps using interferometric data and a number of additional information layers. The effectiveness of the procedure is illustrated by the results of a study area located in the Molise region, in Southern Italy.

  17. Soil moisture retrieval from Sentinel-1 satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benninga, Harm-Jan; van der Velde, Rogier; Su, Zhongbo

    2016-04-01

    Reliable up-to-date information on the current water availability and models to evaluate management scenarios are indispensable for skilful water management. The Sentinel-1 radar satellite programme provides an opportunity to monitor water availability (as surface soil moisture) from space on an operational basis at unprecedented fine spatial and temporal resolutions. However, the influences of soil roughness and vegetation cover complicate the retrieval of soil moisture states from radar data. In this contribution, we investigate the sensitivity of Sentinel-1 radar backscatter to soil moisture states and vegetation conditions. The analyses are based on 105 Sentinel-1 images in the period from October 2014 to January 2016 covering the Twente region in the Netherlands. This area is almost flat and has a heterogeneous landscape, including agricultural (mainly grass, cereal and corn), forested and urban land covers. In-situ measurements at 5 cm depth collected from the Twente soil moisture monitoring network are used as reference. This network consists of twenty measurement stations (most of them at agricultural fields) distributed across an area of 50 km × 40 km. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from optical images is adopted as proxy to represent seasonal variability in vegetation conditions. The results from this sensitivity study provide insight into the potential capability of Sentinel-1 data for the estimation of soil moisture states and they will facilitate the further development of operational retrieval methods. An operationally applicable soil moisture retrieval method requires an algorithm that is usable without the need for area specific model calibration with detailed field information (regarding roughness and vegetation). Because it is not yet clear which method provides the most reliable soil moisture retrievals from Sentinel-1 data, multiple soil moisture retrieval methods will be studied in which the fine spatiotemporal

  18. STAGTOPS: Enhancing the Azimuth Resolution of Sentinel1 TOPSAR Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudici, D.; Piantanida, R.; Rocca, F.; Monti Guarnieri, A.; Recchia, A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper introduces a technique for the enhanced processing of TOPSAR data. It is based on repeated passes of the sensor over the same area and is aimed at obtaining "enhanced resolution" images of coherent scatterers in the scene by combining two "de- synchronized" acquisitions, useless for interferometric purposes. The paper introduces the STAGTOPS concept and provides a first demonstration exploiting a couple of 12 days apart Sentinel-1A TOPSAR IW images with a synchronization issue. The proposed technique could be further tested by exploiting the novel Sentinel-1B sensor (launch 25th April 2016), reducing the revisit time to 6 days.

  19. Nuclear probes and intraoperative gamma cameras.

    PubMed

    Heller, Sherman; Zanzonico, Pat

    2011-05-01

    Gamma probes are now an important, well-established technology in the management of cancer, particularly in the detection of sentinel lymph nodes. Intraoperative sentinel lymph node as well as tumor detection may be improved under some circumstances by the use of beta (negatron or positron), rather than gamma detection, because the very short range (∼ 1 mm or less) of such particulate radiations eliminates the contribution of confounding counts from activity other than in the immediate vicinity of the detector. This has led to the development of intraoperative beta probes. Gamma camera imaging also benefits from short source-to-detector distances and minimal overlying tissue, and intraoperative small field-of-view gamma cameras have therefore been developed as well. Radiation detectors for intraoperative probes can generally be characterized as either scintillation or ionization detectors. Scintillators used in scintillation-detector probes include thallium-doped sodium iodide, thallium- and sodium-doped cesium iodide, and cerium-doped lutecium orthooxysilicate. Alternatives to inorganic scintillators are plastic scintillators, solutions of organic scintillation compounds dissolved in an organic solvent that is subsequently polymerized to form a solid. Their combined high counting efficiency for beta particles and low counting efficiency for 511-keV annihilation γ-rays make plastic scintillators well-suited as intraoperative beta probes in general and positron probes in particular Semiconductors used in ionization-detector probes include cadmium telluride, cadmium zinc telluride, and mercuric iodide. Clinical studies directly comparing scintillation and semiconductor intraoperative probes have not provided a clear choice between scintillation and ionization detector-based probes. The earliest small field-of-view intraoperative gamma camera systems were hand-held devices having fields of view of only 1.5-2.5 cm in diameter that used conventional thallium

  20. Clinicopathologic features predicting involvement of non- sentinel axillary lymph nodes in Iranian women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Moosavi, Seyed Alireza; Abdirad, Afshin; Omranipour, Ramesh; Hadji, Maryam; Razavi, Amirnader Emami; Najafi, Massoome

    2014-01-01

    Almost half of the breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes have no additional disease in the remaining axillary lymph nodes. This group of patients do not benefit from complete axillary lymph node dissection. This study was designed to assess the clinicopathologic factors that predict non-sentinel lymph node metastasis in Iranian breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes. The records of patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy, between 2003 and 2012, were reviewed. Patients with at least one positive sentinel lymph node who underwent completion axillary lymph node dissection were enrolled in the present study. Demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics including age, primary tumor size, histological and nuclear grade, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, extracapsular invasion, and number of harvested lymph nodes, were evaluated. The data of 167 patients were analyzed. A total of 92 (55.1%) had non-sentinel lymph node metastasis. Univariate analysis of data revealed that age, primary tumor size, histological grade, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, extracapsular invasion, and the number of positive sentinel lymph nodes to the total number of harvested sentinel lymph nodes ratio, were associated with non-sentinel lymph node metastasis. After logistic regression analysis, age (OR=0.13; 95% CI, 0.02-0.8), primary tumor size (OR=7.7; 95% CI, 1.4-42.2), lymphovascular invasion (OR=19.4; 95% CI, 1.4- 268.6), extracapsular invasion (OR=13.3; 95% CI, 2.3-76), and the number of positive sentinel lymph nodes to the total number of harvested sentinel lymph nodes ratio (OR=20.2; 95% CI, 3.4-121.9), were significantly associated with non-sentinel lymph node metastasis. According to this study, age, primary tumor size, lymphovascular invasion, extracapsular invasion, and the ratio of positive sentinel lymph nodes to the total number of harvested sentinel lymph nodes, were found to be independent predictors of

  1. Optical probe

    DOEpatents

    Hencken, Kenneth; Flower, William L.

    1999-01-01

    A compact optical probe is disclosed particularly useful for analysis of emissions in industrial environments. The instant invention provides a geometry for optically-based measurements that allows all optical components (source, detector, rely optics, etc.) to be located in proximity to one another. The geometry of the probe disclosed herein provides a means for making optical measurements in environments where it is difficult and/or expensive to gain access to the vicinity of a flow stream to be measured. Significantly, the lens geometry of the optical probe allows the analysis location within a flow stream being monitored to be moved while maintaining optical alignment of all components even when the optical probe is focused on a plurality of different analysis points within the flow stream.

  2. Clinical significance of microscopic melanoma metastases in the nonhottest sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Su; Lobo, Alice Z C; Tanabe, Kenneth K; Muzikansky, Alona; Durazzo, Tyler; Sober, Arthur; Tsao, Hensin; Cosimi, A Benedict; Lawrence, Donald P; Duncan, Lyn M

    2015-05-01

    A practice gap exists in the surgical removal of sentinel lymph nodes, from removal of only the most radioactive (hottest) lymph node to removal of all lymph nodes with radioactivity greater than 10% of the hottest lymph node. To determine the clinical significance of melanoma in sentinel lymph nodes that are not the hottest sentinel node and to determine the risk for disease progression based on sentinel lymph node status and primary tumor characteristics. Consecutive patients with cutaneous melanoma with sentinel lymph nodes resected from January 5, 2004, to June 30, 2008, with a mean follow-up of 59 months, at Massachusetts General Hospital were included in this retrospective review. The last year of follow-up was 2012. The operative protocol led to resection of all sentinel lymph nodes with radioactivity greater than 10% of the hottest lymph node. The number of lymph nodes removed, technetium-99m counts for each sentinel lymph node, presence or absence of sentinel lymph node metastases, primary tumor characteristics, disease progression, and melanoma-specific survival were recorded. Microscopic melanoma metastases in the hottest and nonhottest sentinel lymph nodes and factors that correlate with disease progression and mortality. A total of 1575 sentinel lymph nodes were analyzed in 475 patients. Ninety-one patients (19%) had positive sentinel lymph nodes. Of these, 72 (79%) had metastases in the hottest sentinel lymph node. Of 19 cases with tumor present, but not in the hottest sentinel lymph node, counts ranged from 26% to 97% of the hottest node. Progression occurred in 43% of patients with sentinel node metastasis, regardless of whether the hottest lymph node was positive. In patients with negative sentinel lymph nodes, 11% developed metastases beyond the sentinel lymph node basin and 3.4% recurred in the basin. Mitogenicity of the primary tumor was associated with mortality (odds ratio, 2.435; 95% CI, 1.351-4.391; P < .001). Removing only the hottest

  3. The use of 99mTc-Al2O3 for detection of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinilkin, I.; Chernov, V.; Medvedeva, A.; Zeltchan, R.; Slonimskaya, E.; Doroshenko, A.; Varlamova, N.; Skuridin, V.

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: to study the feasibility of using the new radiopharmaceutical based on the technetium-99m-labeled gamma-alumina for identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in breast cancer patients. The study included two groups of breast cancer patients who underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and intraoperaive gamma probe identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). To identify SLNs, the day before surgery Group I patients (n = 34) were injected with radioactive 99mTc-Al2O3, and Group II patients (n = 30) received 99mTc-labeled phytate colloid. A total of 37 SLNs were detected in Group I patients. The number of identified SLNs per patient ranged from 1 to 2 (the average number of identified SLNs was 1.08). Axillary lymph nodes were the most common site of SLN localization. 18 hours after 99mTc-Al2O3 injection, the percentage of its accumulation in the SLN was 7-11% (of the counts in the injection site) by SPECT and 17-31% by gamma probe detection. In Group II SLNs were detected in 27 patients. 18 hours after injection of the phytate colloid the percentage of its accumulation in the SLN was 1.5-2% out of the counts in the injection site by SPECT and 4-7% by gamma probe. The new radiopharmaceutical based on the 99mTc-Al2O3 demonstrates high accumulation in SLNs without redistribution through the entire lymphatic basin. The sensitivity and specificity of 99mTc-Al2O3 were 100% for both SPECT and intraoperative gamma probe identification.

  4. Endocavity Ultrasound Probe Manipulators.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Schäfer, Felix; Huang, Chien-Ming; Zuo, Yihe; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop

    2013-06-01

    We developed two similar structure manipulators for medical endocavity ultrasound probes with 3 and 4 degrees of freedom (DoF). These robots allow scanning with ultrasound for 3-D imaging and enable robot-assisted image-guided procedures. Both robots use remote center of motion kinematics, characteristic of medical robots. The 4-DoF robot provides unrestricted manipulation of the endocavity probe. With the 3-DoF robot the insertion motion of the probe must be adjusted manually, but the device is simpler and may also be used to manipulate external-body probes. The robots enabled a novel surgical approach of using intraoperative image-based navigation during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), performed with concurrent use of two robotic systems (Tandem, T-RALP). Thus far, a clinical trial for evaluation of safety and feasibility has been performed successfully on 46 patients. This paper describes the architecture and design of the robots, the two prototypes, control features related to safety, preclinical experiments, and the T-RALP procedure.

  5. Endocavity Ultrasound Probe Manipulators

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Schäfer, Felix; Huang, Chien-Ming; Zuo, Yihe; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop

    2014-01-01

    We developed two similar structure manipulators for medical endocavity ultrasound probes with 3 and 4 degrees of freedom (DoF). These robots allow scanning with ultrasound for 3-D imaging and enable robot-assisted image-guided procedures. Both robots use remote center of motion kinematics, characteristic of medical robots. The 4-DoF robot provides unrestricted manipulation of the endocavity probe. With the 3-DoF robot the insertion motion of the probe must be adjusted manually, but the device is simpler and may also be used to manipulate external-body probes. The robots enabled a novel surgical approach of using intraoperative image-based navigation during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), performed with concurrent use of two robotic systems (Tandem, T-RALP). Thus far, a clinical trial for evaluation of safety and feasibility has been performed successfully on 46 patients. This paper describes the architecture and design of the robots, the two prototypes, control features related to safety, preclinical experiments, and the T-RALP procedure. PMID:24795525

  6. The use of mammals as sentinels for human exposure to toxic contaminants in the environment.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, D J; Kaneene, J B; Poppenga, R H

    1993-01-01

    The use of sentinel species shows the potential to bridge the gap between animal-based and human-based environmental health research. With regard to the assessment of environmental contamination, the use of the terms "indicator," "monitor," and "sentinel" has often been confusing and ambiguous. A set of definitions is proposed as a standard to rectify this situation. The advantages of the use of sentinel species are provided, as well as criteria for sentinel selection, based on species characteristics. The recent use of mammals as sentinels for human exposure to toxic environmental contaminants is reviewed. A tabulated review of mammals proposed as indicators or monitors is included, as these may act as a database for the selection of sentinel species for future research efforts. The complexity and subtlety of factors interacting between an organism and its environment make it imperative that one provide a focused definition of what one wants the sentinel to assess and for what particular aspect of human health. Some examples of how sentinels might be selected for particular research questions are provided. While the potential for sentinel use in the field of environmental health is enormous, future investigators need to choose sentinels carefully, based on well-defined research questions, and confine conclusions drawn to the particular problem the sentinel was chosen to assess. PMID:8319652

  7. EO4Urban: First-Year Results on Sentinel-1A SAR and Sentinel-2A MSI Data for Global Urban Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Yifang; Gamba, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    The overall objective of this research is to evaluate multitemporal Sentinel-1A SAR and Sentinel-2A MSI data for global urban services using innovative methods and algorithms, namely KTH-Pavia Urban Extractor, a robust algorithm for urban extent extraction and KTH- SEG, a novel object-based classification method for detailed urban land cover mapping. Ten cities around the world in different geographical and environmental conditions were selected as study areas. Large volume of Sentinel-1A SAR and Sentinel-2A MSI data were acquired during vegetation season in 2015 and 2016. The preliminary urban extraction results showed that urban areas and small towns could be well extracted using multitemporal Sentinel-1A SAR data with the KTH-Pavia Urban Extractor. For urban land cover mapping, multitemporal Sentinel-1A SAR data alone yielded an overall classification accuracy of 60% for Stockholm. Sentinel-2A MSI data as well as the fusion of Sentinel-1A SAR and Sentinel-2A MSI data, however, produced much higher classification accuracies, both reached 80%.

  8. Advances in sentinel node dissection in prostate cancer from a technical perspective.

    PubMed

    Acar, Cenk; Kleinjan, Gijs H; van den Berg, Nynke S; Wit, Esther Mk; van Leeuwen, Fijs Wb; van der Poel, Henk G

    2015-10-01

    The most important feature of sentinel node biopsy for prostate cancer procedure is that staging can be improved. Sentinel nodes might be found outside the extended pelvic lymph node dissection template what renders the sentinel node additive of extended pelvic lymph node dissection. At the same time, staging within the template can be further refined. We reviewed the literature regarding the sentinel node biopsy procedure for prostate cancer. PubMed and Embase were searched for all English-language publications from January 1999 to September 2014 by using the keywords as "prostate cancer" and "sentinel lymph node" plus "biopsy" "dissection" and/or "procedure." The present review discusses step-by-step sentinel node biopsy for prostate cancer. Topics of discussion are: (i) preoperative sentinel node mapping (tracers and imaging); (ii) intraoperative sentinel node identification (surgical procedure and outcome); and (iii) novelties to improve sentinel node identification (pre- and intraoperative approaches). Conventional sentinel node mapping is carried out after the injection of a (99m) Tc-based tracer and subsequent preoperative imaging; for example, lymphoscintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography. This approach allowed the detection of sentinel nodes outside the extended lymph node dissection template in 3.6-36% of men with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer. Hereby, an overall false negative rate of sentinel nodes was reported between 0% and 24.4%. To further refine the intraoperative sampling procedure, novel imaging methods such as fluorescence imaging have been introduced. Prospective randomized comparison studies are required to confirm the added benefit of sentinel template directed nodal dissection. A proper and obtainable end-point of such a study could be the number of removed positive nodes for carrying out nodal dissection with or without sentinel template directed dissection. Similarly, the clinical

  9. Unexpected locations of sentinel lymph nodes in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    How, Jeffrey; Boldeanu, Irina; Lau, Susie; Salvador, Shannon; How, Emily; Gotlieb, Raphael; Abitbol, Jeremie; Halder, Ajay; Amajoud, Zainab; Probst, Stephan; Brin, Sonya; Gotlieb, Walter

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the anatomical location of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) following intra-operative cervical injection in endometrial cancer. All consecutive patients with endometrial cancer undergoing sentinel lymph node mapping were included in this prospective study following intra-operative cervical injection of tracers. Areas of SLN detection distribution were mapped. Among 436 patients undergoing SLN mapping, there were 1095 SLNs removed, and 7.9% of these SLNs found in 13.1% of patients, were detected in areas not routinely harvested during a standard lymph node dissection. These included the internal iliac vein, parametrial, and pre-sacral areas. The SLN was the only positive node in 46.1% (15/36) of cases with successful mapping and completion lymphadenectomy, including 3 cases where the sentinel node in the atypical location was the only node with metastatic disease. SLN mapping using intra-operative cervical injection is capable to map out areas not typically included in a standard lymphadenectomy. The sentinel node is the most relevant lymph node to analyze and may enable to discover metastatic disease in unusual areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node location with magnetite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Chu W.; Rogers, James M.; Groman, Ernest V.

    1999-04-01

    Subcutaneously administered magnetite nanoparticles were used to locate sentinel lymph nodes in normal rats. Nanoparticles sequestered in brachial and axillary lymph nodes produced magnetic susceptibility artifacts in gradient recall echo magnetic resonance images. The artifact sizes enabled the determination of nanoparticle nodal uptake rates and lymphatic drainage patterns. These studies were confirmed by use of 59Fe labeled magnetite nanoparticles.

  11. Verification of the SENTINEL-4 Focal Plane Subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williges, C.; Hohn, R.; Rossmann, H.; Hilbert, S.; Uhlig, M.; Buchwinkler, K.; Reulke, R.

    2017-05-01

    The Sentinel-4 payload is a multi-spectral camera system which is designed to monitor atmospheric conditions over Europe. The German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Berlin, Germany conducted the verification campaign of the Focal Plane Subsystem (FPS) on behalf of Airbus Defense and Space GmbH, Ottobrunn, Germany. The FPS consists, inter alia, of two Focal Plane Assemblies (FPAs), one for the UV-VIS spectral range (305 nm … 500 nm), the second for NIR (750 nm … 775 nm). In this publication, we will present in detail the opto-mechanical laboratory set-up of the verification campaign of the Sentinel-4 Qualification Model (QM) which will also be used for the upcoming Flight Model (FM) verification. The test campaign consists mainly of radiometric tests performed with an integrating sphere as homogenous light source. The FPAs have mainly to be operated at 215 K ± 5 K, making it necessary to exploit a thermal vacuum chamber (TVC) for the test accomplishment. This publication focuses on the challenge to remotely illuminate both Sentinel-4 detectors as well as a reference detector homogeneously over a distance of approximately 1 m from outside the TVC. Furthermore selected test analyses and results will be presented, showing that the Sentinel-4 FPS meets specifications.

  12. ANIMALS AS SENTINELS OF HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environmnet," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxi...

  13. Evaluation of registration accuracy between Sentinel-2 and Landsat 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barazzetti, Luigi; Cuca, Branka; Previtali, Mattia

    2016-08-01

    Starting from June 2015, Sentinel-2A is delivering high resolution optical images (ground resolution up to 10 meters) to provide a global coverage of the Earth's land surface every 10 days. The planned launch of Sentinel-2B along with the integration of Landsat images will provide time series with an unprecedented revisit time indispensable for numerous monitoring applications, in which high resolution multi-temporal information is required. They include agriculture, water bodies, natural hazards to name a few. However, the combined use of multi-temporal images requires an accurate geometric registration, i.e. pixel-to-pixel correspondence for terrain-corrected products. This paper presents an analysis of spatial co-registration accuracy for several datasets of Sentinel-2 and Landsat 8 images distributed all around the world. Images were compared with digital correlation techniques for image matching, obtaining an evaluation of registration accuracy with an affine transformation as geometrical model. Results demonstrate that sub-pixel accuracy was achieved between 10 m resolution Sentinel-2 bands (band 3) and 15 m resolution panchromatic Landsat images (band 8).

  14. Popliteal lymphadenectomy on sentinel lymph node melanoma metastasis.

    PubMed

    Barrasa Shaw, Antonio; Sancho Merle, Francisca; Fuster Diana, Carlos; Campos Máñez, Jorge; Vázquez Albadalejo, Carlos

    2006-03-01

    Popliteal lymph node dissection is a procedure that surgeons rarely perform and, therefore, scarcely represented in bibliography. In this paper we present the case of a patient with melanoma metastasis to popliteal sentinel lymph nodes showing the surgical procedure and discussing some epidemiological and technical issues.

  15. Red Fox as Sentinel for Blastomyces dermatitidis, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Nicole M; Campbell, G Douglas; Oesterle, Paul T; Shirose, Lenny; McEwen, Beverly; Jardine, Claire M

    2016-07-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis, a fungus that can cause fatal infection in humans and other mammals, is not readily recoverable from soil, its environmental reservoir. Because of the red fox's widespread distribution, susceptibility to B. dermatitidis, close association with soil, and well-defined home ranges, this animal has potential utility as a sentinel for this fungus.

  16. Acolite for Sentinel-2: Aquatic Applications of MSI Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhellmont, Quinten; Ruddick, Kevin

    2016-08-01

    Here we present the application of Sentinel-2 imagery for coastal and inland waters, and the ACOLITE processor and atmospheric correction developed in the EC-FP7 HIGHROC project. The MultiSpectral Imager (MSI) on board of Sentinel-2 has a pair of 20 m SWIR bands at 1.6 and 2.2 μm, allowing for a robust image- based atmospheric correction, even over extremely turbid waters. One of the main advantages of Sentinel-2 over Landsat-8 is the inclusion of a 20 m resolution red- edge band at around 705 nm, allowing for the determination of chlorophyll a absorption in turbid and productive waters, where open ocean blue-green ratio algorithms fail. MSI has red (665 nm) and NIR (842 nm) bands at 10 m spatial resolution, allowing for the retrieval of turbidity or suspended particulate matter concentration, even in narrow inlets and ports. This makes it an invaluable dataset for validating sediment transport models that are needed for optimization of dredging operations and coastal defence around ports. The spectral, spatial, and radiometric resolutions of Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 are compared and discussed. For many aquatic applications these missions will typically be combined as a virtual constellation to improve temporal coverage. We provide here one example of using both sensors to track a cyanobacterial bloom in an Australian lake.

  17. Solar Sentinels: Report of the Science and Technology Definition Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The goal of NASA s Living With a Star (LWS) program is to develop the scientific understanding necessary to effectively address those aspects of the connected Sun Earth system that directly affect life and society. Along with the other elements of LWS, Solar Sentinels aims to discover, understand, and model the heliospheric initiation, propagation, and solar connection of those energetic phenomena that adversely affect space exploration and life and society here on Earth. The Solar Sentinels mission will address the following questions: (1) How, where, and under what circumstances are solar energetic particles (SEPs) accelerated to high energies and how do they propagate through the heliosphere? And (2) How are solar wind structures associated with these SEPs, like CMEs, shocks, and high-speed streams, initiated, propagate, evolve, and interact in the inner heliosphere? The Sentinels STDT recommends implementing this mission in two portions, one optimized for inner heliospheric in-situ measurements and the other for solar remote observations. Sentinels will greatly enhance the overall LWS science return.

  18. Red Fox as Sentinel for Blastomyces dermatitidis, Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, G. Douglas; Oesterle, Paul T.; Shirose, Lenny; McEwen, Beverly; Jardine, Claire M.

    2016-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis, a fungus that can cause fatal infection in humans and other mammals, is not readily recoverable from soil, its environmental reservoir. Because of the red fox’s widespread distribution, susceptibility to B. dermatitidis, close association with soil, and well-defined home ranges, this animal has potential utility as a sentinel for this fungus. PMID:27314650

  19. Soil moisture retrival from Sentinel-1 and Modis synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qi; Zribi, Mehrez; Escorihuela, Maria Jose; Baghdadi, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    This study presents two methodologies retrieving soil moisture from SAR remote sensing data. The study is based on Sentinel-1 data in the VV polarization, over a site in Urgell, Catalunya (Spain). In the two methodologies using change detection techniques, preprocessed radar data are combined with normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) auxiliary data to estimate the mean soil moisture with a resolution of 1km. By modeling the relationship between the backscatter difference and NDVI, the soil moisture at a specific NDVI value is retrieved. The first algorithm is already developed on West Africa(Zribi et al., 2014) from ERS scatterometer data to estimate soil water status. In this study, it is adapted to Sentinel-1 data and take into account the high repetitiveness of data in optimizing the inversion approach. Another new method is developed based on the backscatter difference between two adjacent days of Sentinel-1 data w.r.t. NDVI, with smaller vegetation change, the backscatter difference is more sensitive to soil moisture. The proposed methodologies have been validated with the ground measurement in two demonstrative fields with RMS error about 0.05 (in volumetric moisture), and the coherence between soil moisture variations and rainfall events is observed. Soil moisture maps at 1km resolution are generated for the study area. The results demonstrate the potential of Sentinel-1 data for the retrieval of soil moisture at 1km or even better resolution.

  20. Sentinel-1 Sar Imagery for Finnish Agricultural Subsidy Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torma, Markus; Munck, Anders; Mattila, Olli-Pekka; Harma, Pekka; Arslan, Nadir

    2016-08-01

    Agricultural parcels were classified to six general plant groups (winter cereals, spring cereals, peas, potato, rapeseed and grasses) using Sentinel-1 Interferometric Wide swath SAR imagery. The results were encouraging; the best overall accuracy was about 95%. The division of parcels to ploughed or non-ploughed parcels was possible if images were available after snow melt and before greening.

  1. The Living With a Star (LWS) Sentinels Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Sentinels Mission, the heliospheric element of the NASA Living With a Star (LWS) program, is still rapidly evolving, especially as the Sentinels Science and Technology Definition Team is progressing with its work. With the Solar Dynamics Observatory, the solar component, and the Geospace elements taking a more finalized form, it becomes clearer what scientific and measurement objectives will be necessary to establish the solar-geospace connection in order to achieve the goals of the LWS program. Possible, early formulation designs of the Sentinels mission will be presented that includes the Inner Heliospheric Mappers, a four spacecraft mission to observe the inner heliosphere between 0.25 and 1.0 AUs along with a Far Side Sentinel that will perform remote solar observations from nearly the opposite side of the Sun. Moreover, the complementarity of the various planned international missions (e.g., ESA Solar Orbiter, and Beppi Colombo) along with NASA planetary projects (e.g., Mars program and MESSENGER) will be discussed and how they can form a coherent system. Finally, the importance of already available heliospheric data will be emphasized.

  2. The Living With a Star (LWS) Sentinels Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Sentinels Mission, the heliospheric element of the NASA Living With a Star (LWS) program, is still rapidly evolving, especially as the Sentinels Science and Technology Definition Team is progressing with its work. With the Solar Dynamics Observatory, the solar component, and the Geospace elements taking a more finalized form, it becomes clearer what scientific and measurement objectives will be necessary to establish the solar-geospace connection in order to achieve the goals of the LWS program. Possible, early formulation designs of the Sentinels mission will be presented that includes the Inner Heliospheric Mappers, a four spacecraft mission to observe the inner heliosphere between 0.25 and 1.0 AUs along with a Far Side Sentinel that will perform remote solar observations from nearly the opposite side of the Sun. Moreover, the complementarity of the various planned international missions (e.g., ESA Solar Orbiter, and Beppi Colombo) along with NASA planetary projects (e.g., Mars program and MESSENGER) will be discussed and how they can form a coherent system. Finally, the importance of already available heliospheric data will be emphasized.

  3. ANIMALS AS SENTINELS OF HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environmnet," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxi...

  4. Trace Chemical Detection through Vegetation Sentinels and Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Treesearch

    John E. Anderson; Robert L. Fischer; Jean D. Nelson

    2006-01-01

    Detection of environmental contaminants through vegetation sentinels has long been a goal of remote sensing scientists. A promising technique that should be scalable to wide-area applications is the combined use of genetically modified vascular plants and fluorescence imaging. The ultimate goal of our research is to produce a bioreporter that will express fluorescence...

  5. The Sentinel-4 Mission: Instrument Description and Atmospheric Composition Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veihelmann, Ben; Meijer, Yasjka; Ingmann, Paul; Koopman, Rob; Bazalgette Courrèges-Lacoste, Grégory; Stark, Hendrik

    2013-04-01

    The Sentinel-4 mission, together with Sentinel-5 and the Sentinel-5 Precursor missions, is part of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) space component covering the Earth's atmosphere. The primary objective of the Sentinel-4 mission is the observation of the diurnal cycle of tropospheric species in support of the air quality applications of GMES Atmosphere Services. The presentation focuses on the Sentinel-4/UVN instrument and its related Level-2 atmospheric composition products. The Sentinel-4 instrument is an Ultra-violet Visible Near infrared spectrometer (S4/UVN) which is embarked on the geostationary Meteosat Third Generation-Sounder (MTG-S) platforms. Key features of the S4/UVN instrument are the spectral range from 305 nm to 500 nm with a spectral resolution of 0.5 nm, and from 750 nm to 775 nm with a spectral resolution of 0.12 nm, in combination with a low polarization sensitivity and a high radiometric accuracy. The instrument shall observe Europe with a revisit time of one hour. The spatial sampling distance varies across the geographic coverage area and takes a value of 8 km at a reference location at 45˚ N. The expected launch date of the first MTG-S platform is 2019, and the expected lifetime is 15 years (two S4/UVN instruments in sequence on two MTG-S platforms). ESA will develop products based on the S4/UVN measurements for the key target species, which are NO2, O3, HCHO, SO2, aerosols, and CHOCHO, and for cloud and surface properties (mainly intermediate products). Also a synergetic O3 vertical profile product is foreseen based on observations from the S4/UVN and the MTG InfraRed Sounder (IRS) on-board the same platform. Synergetic aerosol and cloud products are foreseen based on observations from the S4/UVN and from the MTG Flexible Combined Imager (FCI) on-board the MTG-Imager (MTG-I) platform. Current pre-development studies are dedicated to a daily surface reflectance map product that treats the surface directionality as

  6. Intraoperative Fluorescence Imaging for Sentinel Lymph Node Detection: Prospective Clinical Trial to Compare the Usefulness of Indocyanine Green vs Technetium Tc 99m for Identification of Sentinel Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Stoffels, Ingo; Dissemond, Joachim; Pöppel, Thorsten; Schadendorf, Dirk; Klode, Joachim

    2015-07-01

    The metastatic status of regional lymph nodes is the most relevant prognostic factor in breast cancer, melanoma, and other solid organ tumors with a lymphatic spread. The current gold standard for detection and targeted excision of the sentinel lymph node is preoperative lymphoscintigraphy with technetium Tc 99m. Because of the worldwide shortage of technetium Tc 99m, physicians are looking for nonradioactive dyes for sentinel lymph node labeling. Based on several retrospective studies, the fluorescent dye indocyanine green is considered a possible alternative to technetium Tc 99m. To analyze the feasibility and clinical benefit of intraoperative near infrared fluorescence sentinel lymph node excision (SLNE) compared with standard technetium Tc 99m-guided SLNE using malignant melanoma in which SLNE is firmly established. Analysis of a prospective clinical trial at the Skin Cancer Center, University Hospital Essen. Eighty patients with malignant melanoma on the trunk or extremities (upper and lower) who were scheduled to undergo SLNE were included in this study from January 1, 2013, to June 27, 2014. Concordance of preoperative and intraoperative sentinel lymph node detection rates. During the study period, 80 patients were operated on with an additional intraoperative application of a near infrared fluorescent dye. In these 80 surgical procedures, 147 SLNs were excised. Detection of a technetium Tc 99m-marked SLN before surgery was possible in all cases. Intraoperative visualization of the SLN by indocyanine green before skin incision was successful in only 17 of 80 patients (21%). The number of SLNs identified using the near infrared fluorescence technique in the operative site after skin incision and initial tissue preparation was 141 of 147 (96%). Among patients in whom the lymph node basin cannot be predicted correctly (eg, in cutaneous melanoma on the trunk), the use of indocyanine green for SLN detection is severely limited compared with SLNE using standard

  7. Phantom study quantifying the depth performance of a handheld magnetometer for sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Pouw, Joost J; Bastiaan, Daniel M C; Klaase, Joost M; Ten Haken, Bennie

    2016-07-01

    The use of a magnetic nanoparticle tracer and handheld magnetometer for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) was recently introduced to overcome drawbacks associated with the use of radioisotope tracers. Unlike the gamma probe, the used magnetometers are not only sensitive to the tracer, but also the diamagnetic human body. This potentially limits the performance of the magnetometer when used clinically. A phantom, mimicking the magnetic and mechanical properties of the human axilla, was constructed. The depth performance of two current generation magnetometers was evaluated in this phantom. LN-phantoms with tracer uptake ranging from 5 to 500μg iron were placed at clinically relevant depths of 2.5, 4 and 5.5cm. Distance-response curves were obtained to quantify the depth performance of the probes. The depth performance of both probes was limited. In the absence of diamagnetic material and forces on the probe (ideal conditions) a LN-phantom with high uptake (500μg iron) could first be detected at 3.75cm distance. In the phantom, only superficially placed LNs (2.5cm) with high uptake (500μg iron) could be detected from the surface. The penetration depth was insufficient to detect LNs with lower uptake, or which were located deeper. The detection distance of the current generation magnetometers is limited, and does not meet the demands formulated by the European Association for Nuclear Medicine for successful transcutaneous SLN localization. Future clinical trials should evaluate whether the limited depth sensitivity is of influence to the clinical outcome of the SLNB procedure. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In vivo and ex vivo sentinel node mapping does not identify the same lymph nodes in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Helene Schou; Bennedsen, Astrid Louise Bjørn; Burgdorf, Stefan Kobbelgaard; Eriksen, Jens Ravn; Eiholm, Susanne; Toxværd, Anders; Riis, Lene Buhl; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2017-07-01

    Identification of lymph nodes and pathological analysis is crucial for the correct staging of colon cancer. Lymph nodes that drain directly from the tumor area are called "sentinel nodes" and are believed to be the first place for metastasis. The purpose of this study was to perform sentinel node mapping in vivo with indocyanine green and ex vivo with methylene blue in order to evaluate if the sentinel lymph nodes can be identified by both techniques. Patients with colon cancer UICC stage I-III were included from two institutions in Denmark from February 2015 to January 2016. In vivo sentinel node mapping with indocyanine green during laparoscopy and ex vivo sentinel node mapping with methylene blue were performed in all patients. Twenty-nine patients were included. The in vivo sentinel node mapping was successful in 19 cases, and ex vivo sentinel node mapping was successful in 13 cases. In seven cases, no sentinel nodes were identified. A total of 51 sentinel nodes were identified, only one of these where identified by both techniques (2.0%). In vivo sentinel node mapping identified 32 sentinel nodes, while 20 sentinel nodes were identified by ex vivo sentinel node mapping. Lymph node metastases were found in 10 patients, and only two had metastases in a sentinel node. Placing a deposit in relation to the tumor by indocyanine green in vivo or of methylene blue ex vivo could only identify sentinel lymph nodes in a small group of patients.

  9. Examples of Sentinel-2A Mission Exploitation Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koetz, Benjamin; Hoersch, Bianca; Gascon, Ferran; Desnos, Yves-Louis; Seifert, Frank Martin; Paganini, Marc; Ramoino, Fabrizio; Arino, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    The Sentinel-2 Copernicus mission will bring significant breakthrough in the exploitation of space borne optical data. Sentinel-2 time series will transform land cover, agriculture, forestry, in-land water and costal EO applications from mapping to monitoring, from snapshot to time series data analysis, from image-based to pixel-based processing. The 5-days temporal revisiting of the Sentinel-2 satellites, when both units will be operated together, will usher us in a new era for time series analysis at high spatial resolutions (HR) of 10-20 meters. The monitoring of seasonal variations and processes in phenology and hydrology are examples of the many R&D areas to be studied. The mission's large swath and systematic acquisitions will further support unprecedented coverage at the national scale addressing information requirements of national to regional policies. Within ESA programs, such as the Data User Element (DUE), Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) and Climate Change Initiative (CCI), several R&D activities are preparing the exploitation of the Sentinel-2 mission towards reliable measurements and monitoring of e.g. Essential Climate Variables and indicators for the Sustainable Development Goals. Early Sentinel-2 results will be presented related to a range of applications and scientific domains such as agricultural monitoring at national scale (DUE Sen2Agri), wetland extent and condition over African Ramsar sites (DUE GlobWetland-Africa), land cover mapping for climate change (CCI Land Cover), national land monitoring (Cadaster-Env), forest degradation (DUE ForMoSa), urban mapping (DUE EO4Urban), in-land water quality (DUE SPONGE), map of Mediterranean aquaculture (DUE SMART) and coral reef habitat mapping (SEOM S2-4Sci Coral). The above-mentioned activities are only a few examples from the very active international land imaging community building on the long-term Landsat and Spot heritage and knowledge.

  10. Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission: products, algorithms and Cal/Val

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascon, F.; Cadau, E.; Colin, O.; Hoersch, B.; Isola, C.; López Fernández, B.; Martimort, P.

    2014-09-01

    The Copernicus programme is a European initiative for the implementation of information services dealing with environment and security, based on observation data received from Earth Observation (EO) satellites and ground based information. Within this context, ESA is responsible in particular, for the implementation of the Copernicus Sentinel missions, feeding the Copernicus services with operational EO data. The Sentinel-2 optical high-resolution imaging mission will be devoted to the operational and systematic monitoring of land and coastal areas. To maximize the products suitability and readiness to downstream usage for the majority of applications, the Sentinel-2 Payload Data Ground Segment (PDGS) will systematically generate, archive and distribute Level-1C products, which will provide Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance images, orthorectified using a global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and projected on Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinate system. A Level-1B product will also be available for expert users, providing radiance images in sensor geometry together with an appended geometric model. Additionally, a complementary atmospheric correction and enhanced cloud screening algorithm is being prototyped. This processor will allow converting the Level-1C TOA reflectance image into Bottom-of-Atmosphere (BOA) reflectance. The processor will be provided as plug-in software of the Sentinel-2 Toolbox that will run on user side. During the operational phase, the Sentinel-2 Mission Performance Centre (MPC), as integrating part of the mission ground segment, will be in charge of ensuring that mission performances are met in terms of data quality through the calibration and validation activities.

  11. [Influence of tumor location in patients with breast cancer on the sentinel node detection].

    PubMed

    González-Soto, M J; Bajén, M T; Pla, M J; Carrera, D; Gil, D; Benito, E; Ricart, Y; Roca, M; Martín-Comín, J

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of tumour quadrant localization on the sentinel node (SN) detection and the visualisation of internal mammary chain (IM) drainage by radioisotopic techniques. 316 patients with breast cancer were studied. Mean age 57 years (range 29-88). All patients received 37-74 MBq of 99mTc-albumin nanocolloid in 2 ml by peritumoral injection. The breast cancer was located in the upper outer quadrant in 189 patients, in the upper inner in 57, in the lower outer in 57, in the lower inner in 55 and in the subareolar area in 18 patients. At two hours p.i., anterior and lateral chest lymphographies were obtained. The SN location was marked on the patient skin with permanent ink. SN was identified intraoperatively by the gamma probe. Histopatological analysis included imprints, delayed hematoxilin-eosin, inmunohistochemistry CAM 19-2 and PCR. The scintigraphy and surgical detection was in the upper outer quadrant of 90 % and 93 % respectively; in the lower outer quadrant of 91 % and 95 %, in the upper inner quadrant of 93 % and 95 %, in the lower inner quadrant 87 % and 95 % and in the subareolar area in 94 % and 83 %. The IM chain drainage was of 6 % in the UO, in the LO of 5 %, in the UI of 12 %, in the LI of 20 % and none in subareolar. Our data suggest that sentinel node location (quadrant) is not a influential factor in the scintigraphy and surgical detection. Tumours localised in internal quadrant show a higher rate of IM chain drainage.

  12. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: predictors of axillary and non-sentinel lymph node involvement.

    PubMed

    Postacı, Hakan; Zengel, Baha; Yararbaş, Ulkem; Uslu, Adam; Eliyatkın, Nuket; Akpınar, Göksever; Cengiz, Fevzi; Durusoy, Raika

    2013-12-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a standard method for the evaluation of axillary status in patients with T1-2N0M0 breast cancers. To determine the prognostic significance of primary tumour-related clinico-histopathological factors on axillary and non-sentinel lymph node involvement of patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy. Retrospective clinical study. In the present study, 157 sentinel lymph node biopsies were performed in 151 consecutive patients with early stage breast cancer between June 2008 and December 2011. Successful lymphatic mapping was obtained in 157 of 158 procedures (99.4%). The incidence of larger tumour size (2.543±1.21 vs. 1.974±1.04), lymphatic vessel invasion (70.6% vs. 29.4%), blood vessel invasion (84.2% vs. 15.8%), and invasive lobular carcinoma subtype (72.7% vs. 27.3%) were statistically significantly higher in patients with positive SLNs. Logistic stepwise regression analysis disclosed tumour size (odds ratio: 1.51, p=0.0021) and lymphatic vessel invasion (odds ratio: 4.68, p=0.001) as significant primary tumour-related prognostic determinants of SLN metastasis. A close relationship was identified between tumour size and lymphatic vessel invasion of the primary tumour and axillary lymph node involvement. However, the positive predictive value of these two independent variables is low and there is no compelling evidence to recommend their use in routine clinical practice.

  13. Sentinel Node Mapping of VX2 Carcinoma in Rabbit Thigh with CT Lymphography Using Ethiodized Oil

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon Jin; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Park, Ji Hoon; Lee, Hye Seung; Jung, Seung Chai; Joo, Seung-Moon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility of computed tomography (CT) lymphography using ethiodized oil for sentinel node mapping in experimentally induced VX2 carcinoma in the rabbit thigh. Materials and Methods This experiment received approval from the institutional animal use and care administrative advisory committee. Twenty-three rabbits with VX2 carcinoma in the thigh underwent CT before and after (1 hour, 2 hour) peritumoral injection of 2 mL ethiodized oil. After the CT examination, sentinel nodes were identified by peritumoral injection of methylene blue and subsequently removed. The retrieved sentinel and non-sentinel lymph nodes were investigated with radiographic and pathologic examinations. Based on the comparison of CT findings with those of radiographic and pathologic examinations, the diagnostic performance of CT for sentinel node identification was assessed. Results All 23 rabbits showed 53 ethiodized oil retention nodes on post-injection CT and specimen radiography, and 52 methylene blue-stained nodes at the right femoroiliac area. Of the 52 blue-stained sentinel nodes, 50 nodes demonstrated ethiodized oil retention. Thus, the sentinel node detection rate of CT was 96% (50 of 52). On pathologic examination, 28 sentinel nodes in 17 rabbits (nodes/rabbit, mean ± standard deviation, 1.7 ± 0.6) harbored metastasis. Twenty seven of the 28 metastatic sentinel nodes were found to have ethiodized oil retention. Conclusion Computed tomography lymphography using ethiodized oil may be feasible for sentinel node mapping in experimentally induced VX2 carcinoma in the rabbit thigh. PMID:24497789

  14. Efficacy of Methylene Blue in Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Altan; Mayir, Burhan; Demirbakan, Kenan; Oygür, Nezihi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the recommended approach in the evaluation of axilla during breast cancer surgery. In this study, results of patients who underwent methylene blue sentinel lymph node biopsy were evaluated. Materials and Methods The study included 32 female patients with T1 and T2 tumors. 5 ml of 1% methylene blue was injected into the peritumoral area or around the cavity. The axillary sentinel lymph node was found and removed, and then axillary dissection was performed. The sentinel lymph node and axillary dissection specimen were histopathologically examined and the results were compared. Results The sentinel lymph node was found in 30 (94%) patients. Lymph node metastasis was not observed in 17 patients in both the sentinel lymph node and axilla. Two patients had metastasis in the axilla although this was not detected in sentinel lymph node. Eleven patients had metastasis both in the sentinel lymph node and in the axilla. The accuracy rate was 93%, and the false negativity rate was identified as 15%. Conclusion Sentinel lymph node biopsy by methylene blue is a method that can be applied with high accuracy. Methylene blue can be considered as an alternative to isosulphane blue in sentinel lymph node biopsy.

  15. Improved Survival in Male Melanoma Patients in the Era of Sentinel Node Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Koskivuo, I; Vihinen, P; Mäki, M; Talve, L; Vahlberg, T; Suominen, E

    2017-03-01

    Sentinel node biopsy is a standard method for nodal staging in patients with clinically localized cutaneous melanoma, but the survival advantage of sentinel node biopsy remains unsolved. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the survival benefit of sentinel node biopsy. A total of 305 prospective melanoma patients undergoing sentinel node biopsy were compared with 616 retrospective control patients with clinically localized melanoma whom have not undergone sentinel node biopsy. Survival differences were calculated with the median follow-up time of 71 months in sentinel node biopsy patients and 74 months in control patients. Analyses were calculated overall and separately in males and females. Overall, there were no differences in relapse-free survival or cancer-specific survival between sentinel node biopsy patients and control patients. Male sentinel node biopsy patients had significantly higher relapse-free survival ( P = 0.021) and cancer-specific survival ( P = 0.024) than control patients. In females, no differences were found. Cancer-specific survival rates at 5 years were 87.8% in sentinel node biopsy patients and 85.2% in controls overall with 88.3% in male sentinel node biopsy patients and 80.6% in male controls and 87.3% in female sentinel node biopsy patients and 89.8% in female controls. Sentinel node biopsy did not improve survival in melanoma patients overall. While females had no differences in survival, males had significantly improved relapse-free survival and cancer-specific survival following sentinel node biopsy.

  16. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  17. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  18. STM-SQUID probe microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Tadayuki; Tachiki, Minoru; Itozaki, Hideo

    2007-11-01

    We have developed a STM-SQUID probe microscope. A high TC SQUID probe microscope was combined with a scanning tunneling microscope for investigation of samples at room temperature in air. A high permeability probe needle was used as a magnetic flux guide to improve the spatial resolution. The probe with tip radius of less than 100 nm was prepared by microelectropolishing. The probe was also used as a scanning tunneling microscope tip. Topography of the sample surface could be measured by the scanning tunneling microscope with high spatial resolution prior to observation by SQUID microscopy. The SQUID probe microscope image could be observed while keeping the distance from the sample surface to the probe tip constant. We observed a topographic image and a magnetic image of Ni fine pattern and also a magnetically recorded hard disk. Furthermore we have investigated a sample vibration method of the static magnetic field emanating from a sample with the aim of achieving a higher signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio.

  19. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in bladder cancer: Systematic review and technology update

    PubMed Central

    Liss, Michael A.; Noguchi, Jonathan; Lee, Hak J.; Vera, David R.; Kader, A. Karim

    2015-01-01

    A sentinel lymph node (SLN) is the first lymph node to drain a solid tumor and likely the first place metastasis will travel. SLN biopsy has been well established as a staging tool for melanoma and breast cancer to guide lymph node dissection (LND); its utility in bladder cancer is debated. We performed a systematic search of PubMed for both human and animal studies that looked at SLN detection in cases of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. We identified a total of nine studies that assessed a variety of imaging techniques to identify SLNs in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Eight studies investigated human patients while one looked at animal (dog) models. Seven studies representing 156 patients noted the negative predictive value of the SLN to predict a metastasis free state was 92% (92/100). The SLN biopsy was less accurate in metastatic patients with a positive predictive value of only 77% (43/56) with a false negative range of in individual studies of 0-19%. Clinically, positive nodes routinely do not take up the pharmaceutical agent for SLN. Therefore, SLN biopsy is a promising concept with a 92% negative predictive value; however, the false negative rates are high which may be improved by standardizing populations and indications. Novel technologies are improving the detection of SLN and may provide the surgeon with an improved ability to detect micrometastasis, guide surgery, and reduce patient morbidity. PMID:26166959

  20. Biological Status Monitoring of European Fresh Water with Sentinel-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Romain; Mangin, Antoine; Fanton d'Andon, Odile Hembise; Lauters, Francois; Thomasset, Franck; Martin-Lauzer, Francois-Regis

    2016-08-01

    Thanks to a widening range of sensors available, the observation of continental water quality for lakes and reservoirs is gaining more and more consistency and accuracy.Consistency because back in 2012, the only free sensor with a sufficient resolution (30m) was Landsat-7 which has truncated data since 2003 and a 16-day revisit time. But today, Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A are now operating so depending on the latitude of interest, the combined revisit time dropped to 2 to 4 days which is more appropriate for such a monitoring (especially considering the cloud cover).Accuracy because Landsat-7 has a poor contrast over water whereas Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A have a better radiometric sensitivity (more bit) and moreover Sentinel-2 offers additional spectral bands in the visible which are helpful for Chlorophyll-A concentration assessment. To sum up, with Sentinel-2, continental water quality monitoring capabilities are making a giant leap and it is important to exploit this potential the sooner. ACRI-HE has already built a strong basis to prepare Sentinel-2 by using Landsat data.Indeed, more than 600 lakes are already constantly monitored using Landsat data and their biological statuses are available on EyeOnWater (see eyeonwater.eu). Chlorophyll-A retrieval from (fresh) water leaving reflectances is the result of research activities conducted by ACRI-HE in parallel with EDF (Electricité de France) to respond to an emerging very demanding environmental monitoring through European regulations (typically the Water Framework Directive). Two parallel and complementary algorithms have thus been derived for Chlorophyll-a retrieval.Upstream of Eyeonwater, there is a complex and complete system automatically collecting images, extracting areas of interest around lakes, applying atmospheric correction (very sensitive part as atmosphere can contribute to 90% of the signal at sensor level) and then algorithms to retrieve water transparency (Secchi disk), turbidity and Chlorophyll

  1. [The number of removed axillary sentinel lymph nodes and its impact on the diagnostic accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Zapletal, O; Coufal, O; Selingerová, I; Krsička, P; Vrtělová, P

    2013-01-01

    The number of lymph nodes removed during the sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with breast cancer usually ranges from 1 to 3. In some cases, multiple nodes are identified and removed, which could be associated with increased risk of postoperative morbidity. The objective of the study was to assess the number of sentinel lymph nodes removed in patients treated in our hospital, to analyze factors that may influence the amount of the removed nodes, and to find if there is an upper threshold number of lymph nodes that should be removed without sacrificing the diagnostic accuracy of the sentinel lymph node biopsy. Clinical data of four hundred and forty (440) breast cancer patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy in Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute during the year 2011 were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The number of sentinel lymph nodes ranged from 0 to 9 (average 1.7, median 1). The number of sentinel lymph nodes was significantly influenced by the age of the patient, the operating surgeon and the laterality of the surgery. In 275 cases the sentinel lymph nodes were negative, in the other cases macrometastases (n = 101), micrometastases (n = 46) or isolated tumor cells (n = 17) were found. In all the cases, but one, the staging of the axilla was determined by the status of the first three sentinel lymph nodes removed. Only in one case the first detected macrometastasis was present in the fifth node. In the vast majority of cases, the first three sentinel lymph nodes are sufficient to accurately assess the axillary status. However, with respect to the described case of first detected metastasis in the fifth node, to the present literary data and to the variability of clinical situations, we generally recommend to remove all lymph nodes meeting the criteria of the surgical definition of sentinel lymph node.

  2. Evaluation of a CdTe semiconductor based compact gamma camera for sentinel lymph node imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, Paolo; Curion, Assunta S.; Mettivier, Giovanni; Esposito, Michela; Aurilio, Michela; Caraco, Corradina; Aloj, Luigi; Lastoria, Secondo

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: The authors assembled a prototype compact gamma-ray imaging probe (MediPROBE) for sentinel lymph node (SLN) localization. This probe is based on a semiconductor pixel detector. Its basic performance was assessed in the laboratory and clinically in comparison with a conventional gamma camera. Methods: The room-temperature CdTe pixel detector (1 mm thick) has 256x256 square pixels arranged with a 55 {mu}m pitch (sensitive area 14.08x14.08 mm{sup 2}), coupled pixel-by-pixel via bump-bonding to the Medipix2 photon-counting readout CMOS integrated circuit. The imaging probe is equipped with a set of three interchangeable knife-edge pinhole collimators (0.94, 1.2, or 2.1 mm effective diameter at 140 keV) and its focal distance can be regulated in order to set a given field of view (FOV). A typical FOV of 70 mm at 50 mm skin-to-collimator distance corresponds to a minification factor 1:5. The detector is operated at a single low-energy threshold of about 20 keV. Results: For {sup 99m}Tc, at 50 mm distance, a background-subtracted sensitivity of 6.5x10{sup -3} cps/kBq and a system spatial resolution of 5.5 mm FWHM were obtained for the 0.94 mm pinhole; corresponding values for the 2.1 mm pinhole were 3.3x10{sup -2} cps/kBq and 12.6 mm. The dark count rate was 0.71 cps. Clinical images in three patients with melanoma indicate detection of the SLNs with acquisition times between 60 and 410 s with an injected activity of 26 MBq {sup 99m}Tc and prior localization with standard gamma camera lymphoscintigraphy. Conclusions: The laboratory performance of this imaging probe is limited by the pinhole collimator performance and the necessity of working in minification due to the limited detector size. However, in clinical operative conditions, the CdTe imaging probe was effective in detecting SLNs with adequate resolution and an acceptable sensitivity. Sensitivity is expected to improve with the future availability of a larger CdTe detector permitting operation at shorter

  3. Copernicus Sentinel-1 Satellite And C-SAR Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panetti, Aniceto; Rostan, Friedhelm; L'Abbate, Michelangelo; Bruno, Claudio; Bauleo, Antonio; Catalano, Toni; Cotogni, Marco; Galvagni, Luigi; Pietropaolo, Andrea; Taini, Giacomo; Venditti, Paolo; Huchler, Markus; Torres, Ramon; Lokaas, Svein; Bibby, David

    2013-12-01

    The Copernicus Sentinel-1 Earth Radar Observatory, a mission funded by the European Union and developed by ESA, is a constellation of two C-band radar satellites. The satellites have been conceived to be a continuous and reliable source of C-band SAR imagery for operational applications such as mapping of global landmasses, coastal zones and monitoring of shipping routes. The Sentinel-1 satellites are built by an industrial consortium led by Thales Alenia Space Italia as Prime Contractor and with Astrium GmbH as SAR Instrument Contractor. The paper describes the general satellite architecture, the spacecraft subsystems, AIT flow and the satellite key performances. It provides also an overview on the C-SAR Instrument, its development status and pre- launch SAR performance prediction.

  4. New Sentinel-2 radiometric validation approaches (SEOM program)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruniquel, Véronique; Lamquin, Nicolas; Ferron, Stéphane; Govaerts, Yves; Woolliams, Emma; Dilo, Arta; Gascon, Ferran

    2016-04-01

    SEOM is an ESA program element whose one of the objectives aims at launching state-of-the-art studies for the scientific exploitation of operational missions. In the frame of this program, ESA awarded ACRI-ST and its partners Rayference and National Physical Laboratory (NPL) early 2016 for a R&D study on the development and intercomparison of algorithms for validating the Sentinel-2 radiometric L1 data products beyond the baseline algorithms used operationally in the frame of the S2 Mission Performance Centre. In this context, several algorithms have been proposed and are currently in development: The first one is based on the exploitation of Deep Convective Cloud (DCC) observations over ocean. This method allows an inter-band radiometry validation from the blue to the NIR (typically from B1 to B8a) from a reference band already validated for example with the well-known Rayleigh method. Due to their physical properties, DCCs appear from the remote sensing point of view to have bright and cold tops and they can be used as invariant targets to monitor the radiometric response degradation of reflective solar bands. The DCC approach is statistical i.e. the method shall be applied on a large number of measurements to derive reliable statistics and decrease the impact of the perturbing contributors. The second radiometric validation method is based on the exploitation of matchups combining both concomitant in-situ measurements and Sentinel-2 observations. The in-situ measurements which are used here correspond to measurements acquired in the frame of the RadCalNet networks. The validation is performed for the Sentinel-2 bands similar to the bands of the instruments equipping the validation site. The measurements from the Cimel CE 318 12-filters BRDF Sun Photometer installed recently in the Gobabeb site near the Namib desert are used for this method. A comprehensive verification of the calibration requires an analysis of MSI radiances over the full dynamic range

  5. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and melanoma: 2010 update Part II.

    PubMed

    Stebbins, William G; Garibyan, Lilit; Sober, Arthur J

    2010-05-01

    This article will discuss the evidence for and against the therapeutic efficacy of early removal of potentially affected lymph nodes, morbidity associated with sentinel lymph node biopsy and completion lymphadenectomy, current guidelines regarding patient selection for sentinel lymph node biopsy, and the remaining questions that ongoing clinical trials are attempting to answer. The Sunbelt Melanoma Trial and the Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trials I and II will be discussed in detail. At the completion of this learning activity, participants should be able to discuss the data regarding early surgical removal of lymph nodes and its effect on the overall survival of melanoma patients, be able to discuss the potential benefits and morbidity associated with complete lymph node dissection, and to summarize the ongoing trials aimed at addressing the question of therapeutic value of early surgical treatment of regional lymph nodes that may contain micrometastases. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mining Land Subsidence Monitoring Using SENTINEL-1 SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, W.; Wang, Q.; Fan, J.; Li, H.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, DInSAR technique was used to monitor land subsidence in mining area. The study area was selected in the coal mine area located in Yuanbaoshan District, Chifeng City, and Sentinel-1 data were used to carry out DInSAR techniqu. We analyzed the interferometric results by Sentinel-1 data from December 2015 to May 2016. Through the comparison of the results of DInSAR technique and the location of the mine on the optical images, it is shown that DInSAR technique can be used to effectively monitor the land subsidence caused by underground mining, and it is an effective tool for law enforcement of over-mining.

  7. Treatment plan for breast cancer with sentinel node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Efrén Bolívar; Martinez, Pedro; Betancourt, Luis; Romero, Gabriel; Godoy, Ali; Bergamo, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Lymph node involvement is considered to be one of the most important independent prognostic factors in breast cancer. In patients without palpable lymphadenopathies, the method of choice for determining this involvement is the sentinel lymph node biopsy. In the presence of macrometastases, the current standard is to perform axillary lymph node dissection in spite of the knowledge that the involvement of non-sentinel lymph nodes is approximately 50%. When lymph node involvement is micrometastasic, the decision as to whether or not to proceed with lymphadenectomy remains in dispute. We set out, on the basis of the current scientific evidence and our own experience, to create guidelines that allow us to individualise each case and decide whether or not to perform a lymphadenectomy. We will discuss the arguments that support our position. PMID:24478806

  8. Chronic toxicity of environmental contaminants: sentinels and biomarkers.

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, G A; Bain, L J

    1997-01-01

    Due to the use of a limited number of species and subchronic exposures, current ecological hazard assessment processes can underestimate the chronic toxicity of environmental contaminants resulting in adverse responses of sentinel species. Several incidences where sentinel species have responded to the effects of chronic exposure to ambient levels of environmental contaminants are discussed, including the development of neoplasia in fish, immunosuppression in marine mammals, pseudohermaphrodism in invertebrates, teratogenicity in amphibians, and aberrations in the sexual development of fish and reptiles. Biomarkers of chronic toxicity, including DNA mutations, alterations in specific protein and mRNA levels, and perturbations in metabolism, are presented. The incorporation of appropriate surrogate species and biomarkers of chronic toxicity into standard toxicity characterizations is proposed as a means of significantly refining the ecological hazard assessment process. PMID:9114278

  9. Axillary web syndrome following sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nieves Maldonado, S M; Pubul Núñez, V; Argibay Vázquez, S; Macías Cortiñas, M; Ruibal Morell, Á

    2016-01-01

    A 49 year-old woman diagnosed with infiltrating lobular breast carcinoma, underwent a right mastectomy and sentinel node biopsy (SLNB). The resected sentinel lymph nodes were negative for malignancy, with an axillary lymphadenectomy not being performed. In the early post-operative period, the patient reported an axillary skin tension sensation, associated with a painful palpable cord. These are typical manifestations of axillary web syndrome (AWS), a poorly known axillary surgery complication, from both invasive and conservative interventions. By presenting this case we want to focus the attention on a pathological condition, for which its incidence may be underestimated by not including it in SLNB studies. It is important for nuclear medicine physicians to be aware of AWS as a more common complication than infection, seroma, or lymphoedema, and to discuss this possible event with the patient who is consenting to the procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  10. Water striders (family Gerridae): mercury sentinels in small freshwater ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Timothy D; Al, Tom A; MacQuarrie, Kerry T B; Ritchie, Charles D; Arp, Paul A; Maprani, Antu; Cunjak, Richard A

    2005-03-01

    To circumvent some of the previous limitations associated with contaminant-monitoring programs, we tested the suitability of the water strider (Hemiptera: Gerridae) as a mercury sentinel by comparing total mercury concentrations in water striders and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from a variety of stream sites in New Brunswick, Canada. There was a strong association between the two variables across sites (r(2)=0.81, P<0.001) in systems where both atmospheric deposition and a point source (an abandoned gold mine) were likely contributing to ambient mercury levels. In a small stream draining the gold mine tailings pile, water striders had mercury concentrations an order of magnitude higher than those from reference locations. Temporal variation at three southern New Brunswick stream sites was non-significant. These results suggest that water strider mercury levels accurately quantify food chain entry of the element. The use of sentinel species holds great potential for expanding contaminant-monitoring programs.

  11. Sentinel surveillance of HIV-1 infection in Tamilnadu, India.

    PubMed

    Solomon, S; Anuradha, S; Ganapathy, M; Jagadeeswari

    1994-01-01

    The objective was to determine the time trends in the prevalence of HIV infection and to evaluate appropriate preventive intervention in different population groups. Sentinel surveillance of HIV-1 infection by anonymous unlinked technique was carried out in Tamilnadu from December 1989 to March 1993. The sentinel population monitored were attendees of STD clinics, blood donors and antenatal mothers. The results of HIV seropositivity were compared for each 6-month period. During the study period there was 10-fold rise of HIV seropositivity among STD patients (1% to 10%), 2-fold rise among antenatal attendees (0.37% to 0.76%), and 3-fold rise in blood donors (0.24% to 0.72%). There was a steady increase in the incidence of HIV infection among those with high risk behaviour (STD attendees) as well as in the general population. This information is of value in planning and evaluation of preventive and control programmes in India.

  12. Sentinel lymph node mapping in melanoma of the ear.

    PubMed

    Wey, P D; De La Cruz, C; Goydos, J S; Choi, M L; Borah, G L

    1998-05-01

    Primary nodal drainage basins in melanoma of the head and neck are often unpredictable. The ear is a notorious example of an anatomic site with ambiguous patterns of lymphatic drainage. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy has recently emerged as one modality to assist in identifying clinically relevant nodes. We propose that the addition of intraoperative lymph node mapping techniques that utilize radioactive tracers ("intraoperative lymphoscintigraphy") can increase the accuracy of identifying sentinel nodes and help to determine which patients may benefit from a complete neck dissection. This report demonstrates the ambiguity in identifying drainage patterns in melanoma of the ear and offers a reliable method of sentinel lymph node mapping. This report also addresses current issues regarding treatment protocols of patients with micrometastatic disease in the periauricular region.

  13. Enhancements to the Sentinel Fireball Network Video Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Wayne

    2009-05-01

    The Sentinel Fireball Network that supports meteor imaging of bright meteors (fireballs) has been in existence for over ten years. Nearly five years ago it moved from gathering meteor data with a camera and VCR video tape to a fisheye lens attached to a hardware device, the Sentinel box, which allowed meteor data to be recorded on a PC operating under real-time Linux. In 2006, that software, sentuser, was made available on Apple, Linux, and Window operating systems using the Python computer language. It provides basic video and management functionality and a small amount of analytic software capability. This paper describes the new and attractive future features of the software, and, additionally, it reviews some of the research and networks from the past and present using video equipment to collect and analyze fireball data that have applicability to sentuser.

  14. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: review on various methodological approaches.

    PubMed

    Zengel, Baha; Yararbas, Ulkem; Sirinocak, Ahmet; Ozkok, Guliz; Denecli, Ali Galip; Postaci, Hakan; Uslu, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been accepted as a standard procedure for early stage breast cancer. In this retrospective analysis, the results obtained with different methodological approaches using radiocolloid with or without blue dye were examined. A total of 158 sentinel lymph node biopsies were performed in 152 patients. Group A (85 patients) underwent lymphatic mapping using a combination of periareolar intradermal radiocolloid and subareolar blue dye injections. Group B (73 patients) underwent only periareolar intradermal radiocolloid injection. One large tin colloid and two small radiocolloids (nanocolloid of serum albumin -NC- and colloidal rhenium sulphide -CS-) were used. Successful lymphatic mapping was attained in 157 of 158 procedures (99.4%). Radiocolloids localized sentinel lymph nodes in 99.4% and blue dye in 75.3% of the cases. The number of sentinel lymph nodes removed was greater in nanocolloid and colloidal rhenium sulphide groups (P ≤0.05). Among 60 metastatic sentinel lymph nodes, frozen section analysis using hematoxylin and eosin staining failed to detect 1 macro- and 10 micrometastasis. Radiocolloid uptake was higher in sentinel lymph nodes accumulating blue dye (1643 ± 3216 counts/10 sec vs 526 ± 1284 counts/10 sec, P <0.001). Higher count rates were obtained by using larger sized colloids (median and interquartile range: tin colloid, 2050 and 4548; nanocolloid, 835 and 1799; colloidal rhenium sulphide, 996 and 2079; P = 0.01). Only 2 extra-axillary sentinel lymph nodes were visualized using periareolar intradermal injection modality. Radiocolloids were more successful than blue dye in sentinel lymph node detection. More sentinel lymph nodes were harvested with small colloids, but different sized radiocolloids were similarly successful. Sentinel lymph nodes having higher radiocolloid uptake tended to accumulate blue dye more frequently. Sentinel lymph nodes manifested higher count rates when a larger colloid was used. Frozen section

  15. Sentinel chicken coop modification for canopy-level arbovirus disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Condon, George C; Healy, Sean P; Farajollahi, Ary

    2009-09-01

    A pulley-block system for elevating sentinel chicken coops was designed to conduct mosquito-borne virus surveillance in the forest canopy. This modified design allows traditional captive sentinel bird cages to be hoisted easily to the desired height and lowered at regular intervals for routine maintenance and sampling of the flocks. The design specifications of this canopy system are modifications that can easily be incorporated to existing rabbit hutches used in ground-level captive sentinel systems.

  16. Multifunctional Polymer Microbubbles for Advanced Sentinel Lymph Node Imaging and Mapping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Sentinel Lymph Node Imaging and Mapping PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Andrew P. Goodwin CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of California...Polymer Microbubbles for Advanced Sentinel Lymph Node Imaging and Mapping 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0215   5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...capacity for imaging and surgical labeling of sentinel lymph nodes . Second, the training plan sought to improve the PI’s scientific development

  17. Multifunctional Polymer Microbubbles for Advanced Sentinel Lymph Node Imaging and Mapping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    February 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Multifunctional Polymer Microbubbles for Advanced Sentinel Lymph Node Imaging and Mapping 5b...dye loading capacity for imaging and surgical labeling of sentinel lymph nodes . Second, the training plan seeks to improve the PI’s scientific... node for breast cancer patients. Current sentinel lymph node identification techniques have significant background signal at the injection site and

  18. Video-assisted breast surgery can sample the second and third sentinel nodes to omit axillary node dissection for sentinel-node-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, K; Shimizu, K

    2009-07-01

    The preservation of the axillary node (AN) has become standard therapy for early breast cancer patients with a metastasis-positive sentinel node (SN). However, about half of the patients with metastasis in the SN have no metastasis in the other AN. Late-phase three-dimensional computed tomographic lymphography (3D-CT LG) of the breast can show the axillary lymphatic architecture from the SN into the venous angle. These nodes are classified into five groups. For the sake of aesthetics, video-assisted breast surgery (VABS) was used to sample the second and third nodes shown by 3D-CT LG. For marking the SN on the skin, 3D-CT LG was performed the day before the surgery. Iopamiron 300 (2 ml) was injected subcutaneously. A 16-channel multidetector-row helical CT image was reconstructed to produce a 3D image of the lymph ducts and nodes. A biopsy of the SN was performed by the dye-staining method using Visiport-aided endoscopy for VABS. Stained nodes were located by following the dye in the lymph ducts on a video monitor. For SN-metastasis-positive patients, standard AN dissection was performed under video assistance. Since July 2002, the authors have performed SN biopsy for 186 patients as well as 3D-CT LG and VABS SN biopsy for 146 patients. Five chained-node groups were shown. Even in the multiple SN case, the lymph ducts were converging into the second node. The second and third nodes beyond the SN were detected and sampled in 82 patients (56.2%) by VABS assisted with 3D-CT LG. Sentinel node metastasis (n = 40) involved SN metastasis alone in 21 cases (52.5%) and SN, second-node, and third-node metastasis in eight cases. A reviewed lymphoid path by 3D-CT LG confirmed that metastasis occurred in order of lymph flow. The use of 3D-CT LG-guided VABS SN biopsy of the second and third nodes will predict SN metastasis alone and help to obviate the need for dissection of more nodes.

  19. CTC Sentinel. Volume 8, Issue 9, September 2015

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    the original al-Qa`ida, concerns are growing about affiliates Michael Morell Combating Terrorism Center at West Point Objective • Relevant...Academy,Combating Terrorism Center,607 Cullum Road, Lincoln Hall,West Point,NY,10996 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING...Combating Terrorism Center U.S. Military Academy 607 Cullum Road, Lincoln Hall West Point, NY 10996 Phone: (845) 938-8495 Email: sentinel@usma.edu

  20. GlobCurrent: Sentinel-3 Synergy in Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannessen, J. A.; Chapron, B.; Collard, F.; Rio, M.-H.; Piolle, J.-F.; Quartly, G.; Shutler, J.; Escola, R.; Donlon, C.; Danielson, R.; Korosov, A.; Raj, R. P.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Roca, M.; Tournadre, J.; Larnicol, G.; Labroue, S.; Miller, P.; Nencioli, F.; Warren, M.; Hansen, M.

    2015-12-01

    The ESA Data User Element (DUE) funded GlobCurrent project (http://www.globcurrent.org) aims to: (i) advance the quantitative estimation of ocean surface currents from satellite sensor synergy; and (ii) demonstrate impact in user-led scientific, operational and commercial applications that, in turn, will improve and strengthen the uptake of satellite measurements. Today, a synergetic approach for quantitative analysis can build on high-resolution imaging radar and spectrometer data, infrared radiometer data and radar altimeter measurements. It will further integrate Sentinel-3 in combination with Sentinel-1 SAR data. From existing and past missions, it is often demonstrated that sharp gradients in the sea surface temperature (SST) field and the ocean surface chlorophyll-a distribution are spatially correlated with the sea surface roughness anomaly fields at small spatial scales, in the sub-mesocale (1-10 km) to the mesoscale (30-80 km). At the larger mesoscale range (>50 km), information derived from radar altimeters often depict the presence of coherent structures and eddies. The variability often appears largest in regions where the intense surface current regimes (>100 - 200 km) are found. These 2-dimensional structures manifested in the satellite observations represent evidence of the upper ocean (~100-200 m) dynamics. Whereas the quasi geostrophic assumption is valid for the upper ocean dynamics at the larger scale (>100 km), possible triggering mechanisms for the expressions at the mesoscale-to-sub-mesoscale may include spiraling tracers of inertial motion and the interaction of the wind-driven Ekman layer with the quasi-geostrophic current field. This latter, in turn, produces bands of downwelling (convergence) and upwelling (divergence) near fronts. A regular utilization of the sensor synergy approach with the combination of Sentinel-3 and Sentinel-1 will provide a highly valuable data set for further research and development to better relate the 2

  1. Operational exploitation of the Sentinel-1 mission: implications for geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Y.; Marinkovic, P.; Dehls, J. F.; Hooper, A. J.; Wright, T. J.; Perski, Z.

    2016-12-01

    With the successful launch of the Copernicus Sentinel-1B satellite in April 2016, the two-satellite Sentinel-1 (S1) mission is now complete, and will become fully operational within the next year. While several other parts of the geophysical community have enjoyed operational data services for a long time, this is a many ways a new situation for scientists who rely on Interferometric SAR (InSAR) data for their research. The operational acquisition mode for S1 over land is the Terrain Observation by Progressive Scans (TOPS) mode. In the ESA SEOM project InSARap (http://www.insarap.org), our team has studied TOPS interferometric processing and its applications in detail, and the project continues with focus on the full two-satellite constellation. Here, we will present various characteristics of the S1 constellation, from the viewpoint of InSAR applications within geoscience. In particular, implications of the regular temporal sampling will be treated in detail. We will show examples from various land deformation phenomena with total deformation ranging from decimeters to sub-centimeters since October 2014 when the first data from Sentinel-1A became publicly available. As a demonstration of operational data exploitation, we will also show how the operational free and open data access provided by the USGS Earthquake Hazards Program (http://earthquake.usgs.gov) and the Sentinels Scientific Data Hub (http://scihub.copernicus.eu) can be combined to automatically provide InSAR data for significant earthquakes in a timely manner. Various statistics for historical co-seismic S1 interferograms will be presented, with emphasis on relevant quality parameters, as well as on the typical time from earthquake to available InSAR data.

  2. DRDC Starfish Acoustic Sentinel and Phase Gradient Histogram Tracking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    is powerful enough to perform real-time acquisition , storage, and signal processing of the sensor data. Target detection and tracking re- sults from...Histogram Tracking C.E. Lucas G.J. Heard N. Pelavas DRDC – Atlantic Research Centre Defence Research and Development Canada Scientific Report DRDC-RDDC-2015...R025 April 2015 DRDC Starfish Acoustic Sentinel and Phase Gradient Histogram Tracking C.E. Lucas G.J. Heard N. Pelavas DRDC – Atlantic Research

  3. Land Cover Mapping Using SENTINEL-1 SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdikan, S.; Sanli, F. B.; Ustuner, M.; Calò, F.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the potential of using free-of-charge Sentinel-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery for land cover mapping in urban areas is investigated. To this aim, we use dual-pol (VV+VH) Interferometric Wide swath mode (IW) data collected on September 16th 2015 along descending orbit over Istanbul megacity, Turkey. Data have been calibrated, terrain corrected, and filtered by a 5x5 kernel using gamma map approach. During terrain correction by using a 25m resolution SRTM DEM, SAR data has been resampled resulting into a pixel spacing of 20m. Support Vector Machines (SVM) method has been implemented as a supervised pixel based image classification to classify the dataset. During the classification, different scenarios have been applied to find out the performance of Sentinel-1 data. The training and test data have been collected from high resolution image of Google Earth. Different combinations of VV and VH polarizations have been analysed and the resulting classified images have been assessed using overall classification accuracy and Kappa coefficient. Results demonstrate that, combining opportunely dual polarization data, the overall accuracy increases up to 93.28% against 73.85% and 70.74% of using individual polarization VV and VH, respectively. Our preliminary analysis points out that dual polarimetric Sentinel-1SAR data can be effectively exploited for producing accurate land cover maps, with relevant advantages for urban planning and management of large cities.

  4. Sentinel-2 ArcGIS Tool for Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesoianu, Alin; Cosmin Sandric, Ionut; Anca, Paula; Vasile, Alexandru; Calugaru, Andreea; Vasile, Cristian; Zavate, Lucian

    2017-04-01

    This paper addresses one of the biggest challenges regarding Sentinel-2 data, related to the need of an efficient tool to access and process the large collection of images that are available. Consequently, developing a tool for the automation of Sentinel-2 data analysis is the most immediate need. We developed a series of tools for the automation of Sentinel-2 data download and processing for vegetation health monitoring. The tools automatically perform the following operations: downloading image tiles from ESA's Scientific Hub or other venders (Amazon), pre-processing of the images to extract the 10-m bands, creating image composites, applying a series of vegetation indexes (NDVI, OSAVI, etc.) and performing change detection analyses on different temporal data sets. All of these tools run in a dynamic way in the ArcGIS Platform, without the need of creating intermediate datasets (rasters, layers), as the images are processed on-the-fly in order to avoid data duplication. Finally, they allow complete integration with the ArcGIS environment and workflows

  5. Sentinel species for in-situ genotoxic environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Lower, W.R.; Yanders, A.F. ); Sandhu, S.S. )

    1988-09-01

    A sentinel species has been defined in a draft report of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry on Research Priorities in Environmental Risk as --- a plant, animal or microbe that can be used as an indicator of exposure or toxicity of a xenobiotic owing to its sensitivity, initial position in the community, likelihood of exposure, or abundance sufficient to allow statistical interpretation. Three organisms are presented here as candidates for sentinel species: the monocot Tradescantia (family Commelinacea, spiderwort), of which there are four strains or species used: Ictalurus nebulosus (family Ictaluraidae, the brown bullhead catfish); Peromyscus maniculatus, peromyscus leucopus (family Cricetidae, deer mouse, white-footed mouse) which occur over 85% of the continental US including Alaska, and with the two species sympatric over 60% of their geographic ranges. Candidates for consideration for sentinel bioassays presented here are the electron transport system of photosynthesis, sister chromatid exchange, micronuclei formation in animal cells, micronuclei formation in pollen mother cells, tumor formation, hemoglobin synthesis, nucleic acid and protein adduct formation and cytochrome P-450 dependent monoxygenase induction.

  6. EUMETSAT activities in preparation of the Sentinel-3 Marine Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonekamp, H.; O'Carroll, A.; Kwiatkowska, E.; Montagner, F.; Wilson, H.; Fournier Sicre, V.; Santacesaria, V.; Loddo, C.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the EUMETSAT preparations towards the operational phase of the sentinel-3A mission scheduled for launch in 2013. EUMETSAT is expanding its operational services for applications related to the marine environment and climate monitoring. In its phase E, EUMETSAT will be the Sentinel-3 satellite and Sentinel-3 Marine Centre operator. EUMETSAT has joined up with ESA for the definition of the cal val plans and systems, and to define the set-ups ensuring that the core mission performances and operational products will be state of the art. Specific aspects are the validation and monitoring against in-situ data, and different modes of operations. To support the science discussion in this session with a general familiarisation with the planned operational data streams, the presentation will provide an overview of the set-up of product monitoring and services originating from the EUMETSAT premises. Major recent developments of other marine missions involving EUMETSAT partnerships will also be debriefed.

  7. Biopsy of the sentinel node in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Uribe-Etxebarria Lugariza-Aresti, Naia; Barceló Galíndez, Ramón; Pac Ferrer, Joaquín; Méndez Martín, Jaime; Genollá Subirats, Jose; Casanova Viudez, Juan

    2017-03-22

    Mediastinal lymph node involvement can be understaged in cases of lung cancer (up to 20% in stage i). Sentinel node detection is a standard technique recommended in breast cancer and melanoma action guidelines, and could also be useful in cases of lung cancer. Considering the detection of the sentinel node in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as feasible, a prospective cohort study was carried out on 48 patients with resectable NSCLC, using the intraoperative injection of colloid sulphate technetium-99. The radioisotope migrated in all cases. The procedure's sensitivity was 88.24%, its accuracy was 95.83%, its negative predictive value was 93.94% and the false negative rate was 11.76%. No complications were associated with this technique. The detection of a sentinel node in NSCLC with the intraoperative injection of the isotope is feasible and safe, and allows for detection and sensitivity rates comparable to those of other tumour types. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Sentinel-1 Contribution to Monitoring Maritime Activity in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santamaria, Carlos; Greidanus, Harm; Fournier, Melanie; Eriksen, Torkild; Vespe, Michele; Alvarez, Marlene; Arguedas, Virginia Fernandez; Delaney, Conor; Argentieri, Pietro

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents results on the use of Sentinel-1 combined with satellite AIS to monitor maritime activity in the Arctic. Such activities are expected to increase, even if not uniformly across the Arctic, as the ice cover in the region retreats due to changes in climate. The objectives of monitoring efforts in the region can vary from country to country, but are generally related to increasing awareness on non- cooperative, small and cruise ships, fisheries, safety at sea, and Search and Rescue. A ship monitoring study has been conducted, involving more than 2,000 Sentinel-1 images acquired during one year in the central Arctic, where the ship densities are high. The main challenges to SAR-based monitoring in this area are described, solutions for some of them are proposed, and analyses of the results are shown. With the high detection thresholds needed to prevent false alarms from sea ice, 16% of the ships detected overall in the Sentinel-1 images have not been correlated to AIS- transmitting ships, and 48% of the AIS-transmitting ships are not correlated to ships detected in the images.

  9. Denominator estimation: approaches in the Hamburg paediatric sentinel network.

    PubMed Central

    Kellerhof, M; Gritz, K; Brand, H

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aims were to develop an estimator for the size of paediatric practices to be used as a denominator for purposes of comparison; to analyse the age structure of the patients attending paediatric practices and to check the necessity for an age specific denominator; and to validate the denominator information by other available data. DESIGN--This was an observational study. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS--A sentinel network was set up comprising 26 self selected paediatric practices. Weekly patient contacts in relation to age and sex were counted three times during the study period of two years. In addition, accounting data, including the total number of children treated in a given three month period (quarter), were available. MAIN RESULTS--Weekly patient contact counts were stable over time, not in terms of the absolute number of contacts but in the rank positions of the practices (rs = 0.86) and in their age structure. The age distribution of weekly patient contacts differed significantly between the practices. Cross validation of the weekly contact count by means of the quarterly accounting data resulted in a rank correlation of rs = 0.90. CONCLUSIONS--Sentinel networks with paediatric practices should use age specific denominator information. Weekly contact group, estimated by counts in a sample of weeks, is a stable and easily available denominator for sentinel practices in the context of the German health care system. Images PMID:7561666

  10. Towards Insar Everywhere, all the Time, with SENTINEL-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenhong; Wright, Tim; Hooper, Andrew; Crippa, Paola; Gonzalez, Pablo; Walters, Richard; Elliott, John; Ebmeier, Susanna; Hatton, Emma; Parsons, Barry

    2016-06-01

    Sentinel-1A was launched in April 2014, and has been collecting data routinely over more than one year. Sentinel-1B is set for launch on 22 April 2016. The Sentinel-1 constellation has several advantages over previous radar missions for InSAR applications: (1) Data are being acquired systematically for tectonic and volcanic areas, (2) Images cover a wide footprint, 250 km from near to far range in Interferometric Wide Swath (TOPS) mode, (3) Small perpendicular and temporal baselines greatly improve interferometric coherence at C-band, (4) Data are freely available to all users, (5) The mission is planned to be operational for 20 years, with 1C and 1D planned for future launches. These features enable us to map geological processes occurring in any place at anytime using InSAR. We will review progress within COMET towards our ultimate goal of building a fully-automated processing system that provides deformation results and derived products to the wide InSAR and Geophysics communities. In addition to high-resolution-ECMWFbased atmospheric correction model, we will show results of a systematic analysis of interferometric coherence in tectonic and volcanic areas, and discuss the future goals and timeline for the COMET InSAR automated processing system.

  11. Evaluation of the use of freehand SPECT for sentinel node biopsy in early stage oral carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Heuveling, Derrek A; van Weert, Stijn; Karagozoglu, K Hakki; de Bree, Remco

    2015-03-01

    Inadequate intraoperative visualization of the sentinel node can hamper its harvest. Freehand SPECT is a 3D tomographic imaging modality based on the concepts of SPECT, which can be used for intraoperative visualization and navigation towards the sentinel node in order to improve its localization and removal during surgery. The use of freehand SPECT was evaluated during 66 sentinel node biopsy procedures in early stage oral cancer patients. Intraoperative detection of sentinel nodes was compared with preoperative identified sentinel nodes on lymphoscinitigraphic examination. Additional value of freehand SPECT was subjectively scored by the surgeon directly following the biopsy procedure. Freehand SPECT was able to detect 94% of sentinel nodes intraoperatively. Most sentinel nodes not detected (7 out of 9) were located in level I of the neck. Freehand SPECT appeared to be of additional value for facilitating the intraoperative detection of the sentinel node in 24% of procedures. The use of the freehand SPECT system is feasible in the intraoperative detection of sentinel nodes in early stage oral cancer. Freehand SPECT provides helpful information facilitating the SN biopsy procedure in a quarter of cases. However, freehand SPECT cannot detect all SNs which are located in the vicinity of the injection site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Note of Caution: Variable Cytokeratin Staining in Sentinel Node Metastases.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jennifer; Alexander, Melissa Ann; Nimeh, Diana; Darvishian, Farbod

    2015-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the current standard procedure used to stage patients with breast cancer. The best histological method in evaluating sentinel nodes is highly debated among institutions and is thus not standardized. The optimal histological analysis is a balance between comprehensive evaluation of the sentinel nodes and cost effectiveness. One commonly used approach is serial sectioning and alternately staining with hemotoxylin and eosin and AE1/AE3 cytokeratin immunohistochemistry analysis. We report 2 cases of metastatic carcinoma demonstrating negative staining for AE1/AE3. This observation highlights a rare but potential pitfall to this commonly used strategy in assessing sentinel lymph node biopsies in breast cancer.

  13. Binocular Goggle Augmented Imaging and Navigation System provides real-time fluorescence image guidance for tumor resection and sentinel lymph node mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    B. Mondal, Suman; Gao, Shengkui; Zhu, Nan; Sudlow, Gail P.; Liang, Kexian; Som, Avik; Akers, Walter J.; Fields, Ryan C.; Margenthaler, Julie; Liang, Rongguang; Gruev, Viktor; Achilefu, Samuel

    2015-07-01

    The inability to identify microscopic tumors and assess surgical margins in real-time during oncologic surgery leads to incomplete tumor removal, increases the chances of tumor recurrence, and necessitates costly repeat surgery. To overcome these challenges, we have developed a wearable goggle augmented imaging and navigation system (GAINS) that can provide accurate intraoperative visualization of tumors and sentinel lymph nodes in real-time without disrupting normal surgical workflow. GAINS projects both near-infrared fluorescence from tumors and the natural color images of tissue onto a head-mounted display without latency. Aided by tumor-targeted contrast agents, the system detected tumors in subcutaneous and metastatic mouse models with high accuracy (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 98% ± 5% standard deviation). Human pilot studies in breast cancer and melanoma patients using a near-infrared dye show that the GAINS detected sentinel lymph nodes with 100% sensitivity. Clinical use of the GAINS to guide tumor resection and sentinel lymph node mapping promises to improve surgical outcomes, reduce rates of repeat surgery, and improve the accuracy of cancer staging.

  14. Binocular Goggle Augmented Imaging and Navigation System provides real-time fluorescence image guidance for tumor resection and sentinel lymph node mapping

    PubMed Central

    B. Mondal, Suman; Gao, Shengkui; Zhu, Nan; Sudlow, Gail P.; Liang, Kexian; Som, Avik; Akers, Walter J.; Fields, Ryan C.; Margenthaler, Julie; Liang, Rongguang; Gruev, Viktor; Achilefu, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The inability to identify microscopic tumors and assess surgical margins in real-time during oncologic surgery leads to incomplete tumor removal, increases the chances of tumor recurrence, and necessitates costly repeat surgery. To overcome these challenges, we have developed a wearable goggle augmented imaging and navigation system (GAINS) that can provide accurate intraoperative visualization of tumors and sentinel lymph nodes in real-time without disrupting normal surgical workflow. GAINS projects both near-infrared fluorescence from tumors and the natural color images of tissue onto a head-mounted display without latency. Aided by tumor-targeted contrast agents, the system detected tumors in subcutaneous and metastatic mouse models with high accuracy (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 98% ± 5% standard deviation). Human pilot studies in breast cancer and melanoma patients using a near-infrared dye show that the GAINS detected sentinel lymph nodes with 100% sensitivity. Clinical use of the GAINS to guide tumor resection and sentinel lymph node mapping promises to improve surgical outcomes, reduce rates of repeat surgery, and improve the accuracy of cancer staging. PMID:26179014

  15. Supine MRI for regional breast radiotherapy: imaging axillary lymph nodes before and after sentinel-node biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heijst, Tristan C. F.; Eschbach-Zandbergen, Debora; Hoekstra, Nienke; van Asselen, Bram; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; Verkooijen, Helena M.; Pijnappel, Ruud M.; de Waard, Stephanie N.; Witkamp, Arjen J.; van Dalen, Thijs; Desirée van den Bongard, H. J. G.; Philippens, Marielle E. P.

    2017-08-01

    Regional radiotherapy (RT) is increasingly used in breast cancer treatment. Conventionally, computed tomography (CT) is performed for RT planning. Lymph node (LN) target levels are delineated according to anatomical boundaries. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could enable individual LN delineation. The purpose was to evaluate the applicability of MRI for LN detection in supine treatment position, before and after sentinel-node biopsy (SNB). Twenty-three female breast cancer patients (cTis-3N0M0) underwent 1.5 T MRI, before and after SNB, in addition to CT. Endurance for MRI was monitored. Axillary levels were delineated. LNs were identified and delineated on MRI from before and after SNB, and on CT, and compared by Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. LN locations and LN-based volumes were related to axillary delineations and associated volumes. Although postoperative effects were visible, LN numbers on postoperative MRI (median 26 LNs) were highly reproducible compared to preoperative MRI when adding excised sentinel nodes, and higher than on CT (median 11, p  <  0.001). LN-based volumes were considerably smaller than respective axillary levels. Supine MRI of LNs is feasible and reproducible before and after SNB. This may lead to more accurate RT target definition compared to CT, with potentially lower toxicity. With the MRI techniques described here, initiation of novel MRI-guided RT strategies aiming at individual LNs could be possible.

  16. 99mTc-Evans blue dye for mapping contiguous lymph node sequences and discriminating the sentinel lymph node in an ovine model.

    PubMed

    Tsopelas, Chris; Bevington, Elaine; Kollias, James; Shibli, Sabah; Farshid, Gelareh; Coventry, Brendon; Chatterton, Barry E

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of (99m)Tc-Evans blue for discriminating the sentinel lymph node in multitiered lymph node sequences by using an ovine model. (99m)Tc-Evans blue is an agent that has both radioactive and color signals in a single dose. Previous studies in smaller animal models suggested that this agent could have advantages over the dual-injection technique of radiocolloid/blue dye. Doses of (99m)Tc-Evans blue ( approximately 21 MBq) containing Evans blue dye (approximately 4 mg) were administered to the hind limbs or fore limbs of sheep to map the lymphatic drainage patterns, validate its ability to identify the sentinel lymph node, and examine the reproducibility of the technique. The study protocol was repeated with (99m)Tc-antimony trisulfide colloid and Patent Blue V dye. After the operative exposure, lymph nodes were identified with the gamma probe and then excised and analyzed for radioactivity (percentage of injected dose) and blue color. After the administration of (99m)Tc-Evans blue, all lymph nodes harvested (35 of 35) in either short chains or long basins were hot and blue. The sentinel lymph nodes concentrated more radioactivity than the second-tier nodes to the extent of 2:1 to 215:1. For radiocolloid/Patent Blue V, the ratios were lower, at 2:1 to 3:1. (99m)Tc-Evans blue was found to better discriminate the sentinel lymph node than (99m)Tc-antimony trisulfide colloid/Patent Blue V in variable multitier lymph node anatomy, and it is an agent that promises to have positive clinical applications.

  17. Characterization of Akiyama probe applied to dual-probes atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hequn; Gao, Sitian; Li, Wei; Shi, Yushu; Li, Qi; Li, Shi; Zhu, Zhendong

    2016-10-01

    The measurement of nano-scale line-width has always been important and difficult in the field of nanometer measurements, while the rapid development of integrated circuit greatly raises the demand again. As one kind of scanning probe microscope (SPM), atomic force microscope (AFM) can realize quasi three-dimensional measurement, which is widely used in nanometer scale line-width measurement. Our team researched a dual-probes atomic force microscope, which can eliminate the prevalent effect of probe width on measurement results. In dual-probes AFM system, a novel head are newly designed. A kind of self-sensing and self-exciting probes which is Nanosensors cooperation's patented probe—Akiyama probe, is used in this novel head. The Akiyama probe applied to dual-probe atomic force microscope is one of the most important issues. The characterization of Akiyama probe would affect performance and accuracy of the whole system. The fundamental features of the Akiyama probe are electrically and optically characterized in "approach-withdraw" experiments. Further investigations include the frequency response of an Akiyama probe to small mechanical vibrations externally applied to the tip and the effective loading force yielding between the tip and the sample during the periodic contact. We hope that the characterization of the Akiyama probe described in this paper will guide application for dual-probe atomic force microscope.

  18. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer: Predictors of Axillary and Non-Sentinel Lymph Node Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Postacı, Hakan; Zengel, Baha; Yararbaş, Ülkem; Uslu, Adam; Eliyatkın, Nuket; Akpınar, Göksever; Cengiz, Fevzi; Durusoy, Raika

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a standard method for the evaluation of axillary status in patients with T1-2N0M0 breast cancers. Aims: To determine the prognostic significance of primary tumour-related clinico-histopathological factors on axillary and non-sentinel lymph node involvement of patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy. Study design: Retrospective clinical study. Methods: In the present study, 157 sentinel lymph node biopsies were performed in 151 consecutive patients with early stage breast cancer between June 2008 and December 2011. Results: Successful lymphatic mapping was obtained in 157 of 158 procedures (99.4%). The incidence of larger tumour size (2.543±1.21 vs. 1.974±1.04), lymphatic vessel invasion (70.6% vs. 29.4%), blood vessel invasion (84.2% vs. 15.8%), and invasive lobular carcinoma subtype (72.7% vs. 27.3%) were statistically significantly higher in patients with positive SLNs. Logistic stepwise regression analysis disclosed tumour size (odds ratio: 1.51, p=0.0021) and lymphatic vessel invasion (odds ratio: 4.68, p=0.001) as significant primary tumour-related prognostic determinants of SLN metastasis. Conclusion: A close relationship was identified between tumour size and lymphatic vessel invasion of the primary tumour and axillary lymph node involvement. However, the positive predictive value of these two independent variables is low and there is no compelling evidence to recommend their use in routine clinical practice. PMID:25207151

  19. Plate-scale measurement of interseismic strain from Sentinel-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, R. J.; Gonzalez, P. J.; Hatton, E. L.; Hooper, A. J.; Wright, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    The measurement of interseismic crustal deformation at high spatial resolution, with high accuracy and over large geographical areas is critical both for furthering our understanding of the mechanics of continental deformation and for improving forecasts of earthquake hazard, but to-date has been hampered by the limitations of current geodetic datasets. However, the launch of the European Space Agency's new pair of Sentinel-1 radar satellites, with a regular 24 day minimum revisit interval over global tectonic belts, is set to overcome these limitations, enabling global, high-resolution, high-accuracy measurements of crustal velocities from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). Here we make the first demonstration of Sentinel-1's ability to measure interseismic deformation at the tectonic-plate scale. We use the first 2 years of data from the Sentinel-1 mission to measure crustal velocity for a 400,000 km2 area of Turkey, including the majority of the Anatolian microplate and most of the onshore North and East Anatolian Faults (NAF and EAF). We map the westwards motion of Anatolia relative to Eurasia, and the associated strain accumulation along the NAF and EAF, at high spatial resolution. We also use these results as an opportunity to assess the future capability of Sentinel-1 for measuring interseismic deformation. We analyse how the accuracy of our crustal velocity measurements have increased over the last 2 years, and show that this agrees well with theoretical estimates of the temporal evolution of our measurement uncertainties. We use this to predict that for the 100 km lengthscales important for measuring interseismic deformation, uncertainty on InSAR line-of-sight velocities will reach 2 mm/yr within the next year, which is equivalent accuracy to past InSAR studies for this region, and will then rapidly surpass the accuracy that has been possible with previous InSAR datasets. Finally, based on these results, we estimate global detection

  20. Ice/water Classification of Sentinel-1 Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korosov, Anton; Zakhvatkina, Natalia; Muckenhuber, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Sea Ice monitoring and classification relies heavily on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. These sensors record data either only at horizontal polarization (RADARSAT-1) or vertically polarized (ERS-1 and ERS-2) or at dual polarization (Radarsat-2, Sentinel-1). Many algorithms have been developed to discriminate sea ice types and open water using single polarization images. Ice type classification, however, is still ambiguous in some cases. Sea ice classification in single polarization SAR images has been attempted using various methods since the beginning of the ERS programme. The robust classification using only SAR images that can provide useful results under varying sea ice types and open water tend to be not generally applicable in operational regime. The new generation SAR satellites have capability to deliver images in several polarizations. This gives improved possibility to develop sea ice classification algorithms. In this study we use data from Sentinel-1 at dual-polarization, i.e. HH (horizontally transmitted and horizontally received) and HV (horizontally transmitted, vertically received). This mode assembles wide SAR image from several narrower SAR beams, resulting to an image of 500 x 500 km with 50 m resolution. A non-linear scheme for classification of Sentinel-1 data has been developed. The processing allows to identify three classes: ice, calm water and rough water at 1 km spatial resolution. The raw sigma0 data in HH and HV polarization are first corrected for thermal and random noise by extracting the background thermal noise level and smoothing the image with several filters. At the next step texture characteristics are computed in a moving window using a Gray Level Co-occurence Matrix (GLCM). A neural network is applied at the last step for processing array of the most informative texture characteristics and ice/water classification. The main results are: * the most informative texture characteristics to be used for sea ice classification

  1. Sentinel surveillance system for early outbreak detection in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Following the outbreak of chikungunya in the Indian Ocean, the Ministry of Health directed the necessary development of an early outbreak detection system. A disease surveillance team including the Institut Pasteur in Madagascar (IPM) was organized to establish a sentinel syndromic-based surveillance system. The system, which was set up in March 2007, transmits patient data on a daily basis from the various voluntary general practitioners throughout the six provinces of the country to the IPM. We describe the challenges and steps involved in developing a sentinel surveillance system and the well-timed information it provides for improving public health decision-making. Methods Surveillance was based on data collected from sentinel general practitioners (SGP). The SGPs report the sex, age, visit date and time, and symptoms of each new patient weekly, using forms addressed to the management team. However, the system is original in that SGPs also report data at least once a day, from Monday to Friday (number of fever cases, rapid test confirmed malaria, influenza, arboviral syndromes or diarrhoeal disease), by cellular telephone (encrypted message SMS). Information can also be validated by the management team, by mobile phone. This data transmission costs 120 ariary per day, less than US$1 per month. Results In 2008, the sentinel surveillance system included 13 health centers, and identified 5 outbreaks. Of the 218,849 visits to SGPs, 12.2% were related to fever syndromes. Of these 26,669 fever cases, 12.3% were related to Dengue-like fever, 11.1% to Influenza-like illness and 9.7% to malaria cases confirmed by a specific rapid diagnostic test. Conclusion The sentinel surveillance system represents the first nationwide real-time-like surveillance system ever established in Madagascar. Our findings should encourage other African countries to develop their own syndromic surveillance systems. Prompt detection of an outbreak of infectious disease may lead to

  2. Sensitivity analysis of a bio-optical model for Italian lakes focused on Landsat-8, Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzo, Ciro; Bresciani, Mariano; Giardino, Claudia; Braga, Federica; Bassani, Cristiana

    2015-04-01

    In this work, a variance-based procedure was applied to study the sensitivity of a Case-2 bio-optical model which simulates the water reflectance of three Italian lakes - Garda, Mantua and Trasimeno - with different trophic conditions by analysing the main effect of single WQPs and their interactions. The water reflectance was simulated according to a four-components model [Brando and Dekker 2003] considering the SIOPs typical of each lake and the spectral characteristics of three optical sensors, on-board of Landsat-8, Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3, which can be potentially applied for lakes. Lakes Garda, Mantua and Trasimeno were selected as representative of different trophic levels; for these lakes long-term data of in situ measurements on water quality characteristics were also available. The bio-optical analytical model simulated the subsurface irradiance reflectance R(0-, λ) as a function of absorption and backscattering coefficients (a(λ), bb(λ)) given as a sum of the contribution of water and the water quality parameters. The sensitivity indices of water reflectance for three water types/trophic conditions were calculated decomposing output variance (V) in partial variances which represent the share of V that is explained by the bio-optical model inputs [Saltelli et al., 2010]. The results provide important information relating the sensitivity of the new generation sensors to different trophic statuses, and in particular confirmed that Sentinel-3 water reflectance is sensitive to WQPs in all the trophic conditions investigated.

  3. Updated Nomogram Incorporating Percentage of Positive Cores to Predict Probability of Lymph Node Invasion in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Sentinel Lymph Node Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Alexander; Kneib, Thomas; Wasylow, Clara; Reinhardt, Lena; Henke, Rolf-Peter; Engels, Svenja; Gerullis, Holger; Wawroschek, Friedhelm

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To update the first sentinel nomogram predicting the presence of lymph node invasion (LNI) in prostate cancer patients undergoing sentinel lymph node dissection (sPLND), taking into account the percentage of positive cores. Patients and Methods: Analysis included 1,870 prostate cancer patients who underwent radioisotope-guided sPLND and retropubic radical prostatectomy. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), clinical T category, primary and secondary biopsy Gleason grade, and percentage of positive cores were included in univariate and multivariate logistic regression models predicting LNI, and constituted the basis for the regression coefficient-based nomogram. Bootstrapping was applied to generate 95% confidence intervals for predicted probabilities. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) was obtained to quantify accuracy. Results: Median PSA was 7.68 ng/ml (interquartile range (IQR) 5.5-12.3). The number of lymph nodes removed was 10 (IQR 7-13). Overall, 352 patients (18.8%) had LNI. All preoperative prostate cancer characteristics differed significantly between LNI-positive and LNI-negative patients (P<0.001). In univariate accuracy analyses, the proportion of positive cores was the foremost predictor of LNI (AUC, 77%) followed by PSA (71.1%), clinical T category (69.9%), and primary and secondary Gleason grade (66.6% and 61.3%, respectively). For multivariate logistic regression models, all parameters were independent predictors of LNI (P<0.001). The nomogram exhibited a high predictive accuracy (AUC, 83.5%). Conclusion: The first update of the only available sentinel nomogram predicting LNI in prostate cancer patients demonstrates even better predictive accuracy and improved calibration. As an additional factor, the percentage of positive cores represents the leading predictor of LNI. This updated sentinel model should be externally validated and compared with results of extended PLND-based nomograms. PMID:28928857

  4. SENTINEL-2 Services Library - efficient way for exploration and exploitation of EO data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milcinski, Grega; Batic, Matej; Kadunc, Miha; Kolaric, Primoz; Mocnik, Rok; Repse, marko

    2017-04-01

    With more than 1.5 million scenes available covering over 11 billion sq. kilometers of area and containing half a quadrillion of pixels, Sentinel-2 is becoming one of the most important MSI datasets in the world. However, the vast amount of data makes it difficult to work with. This is certainly an important reason, why the number of Sentinel based applications is not as high as it could be at this point. We will present a Copernicus Award [1] winning service for archiving, processing and distribution of Sentinel data, Sentinel Hub [2]. It makes it easy for anyone to tap into global Sentinel archive and exploit its rich multi-sensor data to observe changes in the land. We will demonstrate, how one is able not just to observe imagery all over the world but also to create its own statistical analysis in a matter of seconds, performing comparison of different sensors through various time segments. The result can be immediately observed in any GIS tool or exported as a raster file for post-processing. All of these actions can be performed on a full, worldwide, S-2 archive (multi-temporal and multi-spectral). To demonstrate the technology, we created a publicly accessible web application, called "Sentinel Playground" [3], which makes it possible to query Sentinel-2 data anywhere in the world, and experts-oriented tool "EO Browser" [4], where it is also possible to observe land changes through longer period by using historical Landsat data as well. [1] http://www.copernicus-masters.com/index.php?anzeige=press-2016-03.html [2] http://www.sentinel-hub.com [3] http://apps.sentinel-hub.com/sentinel-playground/ [4] http://apps.eocloud.sentinel-hub.com/eo-browser/

  5. Radionavigated detection of sentinel nodes in breast carcinoma--first experiences of our department.

    PubMed

    Duchaj, B; Chvalny, P; Vesely, J; Makaiova, I; Durdik, S; Straka, V; Palaj, J; Procka, V; Aksamitova, K; Skraskova, S; Banki, P; Kovacova, S; Galbavy, S

    2010-01-01

    Biopsy and histological evaluation of sentinel lymphatic node limits the axillary node dissection only in cases of positive histological finding and decreases the occurrence of postoperative complications related to the axillary node dissection. We used radiotracer SentiScint, Medi-Radiopharma Ltd, Hungary and preoperatively administered blue dye--Blue Patenté V, Guebert, Aulnay-Sous-Bios, France. 11 (18%) patients were subdued to deep peritimorous application of radiotracer, 10 (16.4%) to sub/intradermal application over the lesions and n 40 (65.6%) patients the application was sub/intradermal and periareolar. The patients underwent an operation protocol of corresponding quadrantectomy, radionavigated blue-dye sentinel node biopsy and axillary dissection. From May 2006 to June 2008, we examined 61 patients with breast carcinoma. They underwent radionavigated and blue-dye sentinel node biopsy. We detected 57 (93.4%) sentinel nodes with preoperative scintigraphy, of which only 51 (83.6%) were detected peroperatively and underwent histological evaluation. In six (9.8%) cases, the "frozen cut" histology of the primary lesion had shown a benign lesion; hence no sentinel node biopsy or axillary disection was performed. 12 (19.7%) of 51 histologically evaluated sentinel nodes had metastatic invasion. We retrospectively compared the histological fund in sentinel and axillary nodes in patients with metastatic sentinel nodes. In 6 (16.6%) cases, the sentinel node was positive of metastatic invasion but axillary nodes were histologically negative, in 6 (16.6%) cases the sentinel node and axillary nodes were positive for metastatic invasion. We observed falsely negative findings in 3 (8.3%) patients with negative histological fund in the sentinel node, but positive axillary nodes (Tab. 3, Fig. 2, Ref. 11). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  6. Sentinel nodes identified by computed tomography-lymphography accurately stage the axilla in patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sentinel node biopsy often results in the identification and removal of multiple nodes as sentinel nodes, although most of these nodes could be non-sentinel nodes. This study investigated whether computed tomography-lymphography (CT-LG) can distinguish sentinel nodes from non-sentinel nodes and whether sentinel nodes identified by CT-LG can accurately stage the axilla in patients with breast cancer. Methods This study included 184 patients with breast cancer and clinically negative nodes. Contrast agent was injected interstitially. The location of sentinel nodes was marked on the skin surface using a CT laser light navigator system. Lymph nodes located just under the marks were first removed as sentinel nodes. Then, all dyed nodes or all hot nodes were removed. Results The mean number of sentinel nodes identified by CT-LG was significantly lower than that of dyed and/or hot nodes removed (1.1 vs 1.8, p <0.0001). Twenty-three (12.5%) patients had ≥2 sentinel nodes identified by CT-LG removed, whereas 94 (51.1%) of patients had ≥2 dyed and/or hot nodes removed (p <0.0001). Pathological evaluation demonstrated that 47 (25.5%) of 184 patients had metastasis to at least one node. All 47 patients demonstrated metastases to at least one of the sentinel nodes identified by CT-LG. Conclusions CT-LG can distinguish sentinel nodes from non-sentinel nodes, and sentinel nodes identified by CT-LG can accurately stage the axilla in patients with breast cancer. Successful identification of sentinel nodes using CT-LG may facilitate image-based diagnosis of metastasis, possibly leading to the omission of sentinel node biopsy. PMID:24321242

  7. Scanning elastic scattering spectroscopy detects metastatic breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austwick, Martin R.; Clark, Benjamin; Mosse, Charles A.; Johnson, Kristie; Chicken, D. Wayne; Somasundaram, Santosh K.; Calabro, Katherine W.; Zhu, Ying; Falzon, Mary; Kocjan, Gabrijela; Fearn, Tom; Bown, Stephen G.; Bigio, Irving J.; Keshtgar, Mohammed R. S.

    2010-07-01

    A novel method for rapidly detecting metastatic breast cancer within excised sentinel lymph node(s) of the axilla is presented. Elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS) is a point-contact technique that collects broadband optical spectra sensitive to absorption and scattering within the tissue. A statistical discrimination algorithm was generated from a training set of nearly 3000 clinical spectra and used to test clinical spectra collected from an independent set of nodes. Freshly excised nodes were bivalved and mounted under a fiber-optic plate. Stepper motors raster-scanned a fiber-optic probe over the plate to interrogate the node's cut surface, creating a 20×20 grid of spectra. These spectra were analyzed to create a map of cancer risk across the node surface. Rules were developed to convert these maps to a prediction for the presence of cancer in the node. Using these analyses, a leave-one-out cross-validation to optimize discrimination parameters on 128 scanned nodes gave a sensitivity of 69% for detection of clinically relevant metastases (71% for macrometastases) and a specificity of 96%, comparable to literature results for touch imprint cytology, a standard technique for intraoperative diagnosis. ESS has the advantage of not requiring a pathologist to review the tissue sample.

  8. Pigmentation in the sentinel node correlates with increased sentinel node tumor burden in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    van Lanschot, Cornelia G F; Koljenović, Senada; Grunhagen, Dirk-Jan; Verhoef, Cornelis; van Akkooi, Alexander C J

    2014-06-01

    The prognosis of sentinel node (SN)-positive melanoma patients is predicted by a number of characteristics such as size and site of the metastases in the SN. The pathway and prognosis of strong pigmentation of melanoma metastases in the SN is unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of pigmentation and growth pattern of metastases in the SN with respect to survival. A total of 389 patients underwent an SN procedure (1997-2011). Ninety-five patients had a positive SN and material from 75 patients was available for review. The median follow-up time was 75 months (range 6-164). Pigmentation was scored from 0 to 2 using the following scale: 0=absent, 1=slight, and 2=strong. Growth pattern was scored as either eccentric (1) or infiltrative (2). SN tumor burden was measured according to the Rotterdam criteria. The primary melanoma had a median Breslow thickness of 2.90 mm (0.8-12.00 mm). Ulceration was present in 34 patients (45.3%). There was a median SN tumor burden of 0.5 mm (0.05-7.00 mm). In a total of 75 patients, 59 patients (79%) had no pigmentation, 13 patients (17%) had slight pigmentation, and three patients (4%) had strong pigmentation in the SN. Because of the small numbers, the classification was modified to either absent 59 (79%) or present 16 (21%) pigmentation, respectively. The SN tumor burden was significantly higher (P=0.031) for patients with pigmentation. Patients with pigmentation had a 5-year melanoma-specific survival (MSS) of 47% and a 10-year MSS of 33%. Patients without pigmentation had a 5-year MSS of 70% and a 10-year MSS of 59% (P=0.06). There was no difference in MSS for patients with an eccentric or an infiltrative growth pattern, nor did it correlate with other prognostic factors. Multivariate analysis for MSS showed five significant factors associated with worse prognosis: male sex (P=0.036), nodular melanoma (P=0.001), truncal site (P=0.0001), SN tumor burden more than 1.0 mm (P=0.022), and positive completion lymph node

  9. 76 FR 22038 - Revision to the South Coast Portion of the California State Implementation Plan, CPV Sentinel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... transferred to the Sentinel Energy Project. While ultimately the Director of the Federal Register Office must..., CPV Sentinel Energy Project AB 1318 Tracking System AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... the CPV Sentinel Energy Project AB 1318 Tracking System. The SIP revision consists of...

  10. Citrullus lanatus `Sentinel' (Watermelon) Extract Reduces Atherosclerosis in LDL Receptor Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Poduri, Aruna; Rateri, Debra L.; Saha, Shubin K.; Saha, Sibu; Daugherty, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus or C. lanatus) has many potentially bioactive compounds including citrulline, which may influence atherosclerosis. In this study, we determined the effects of C. lanatus, provided as an extract of the cultivar `sentinel', on hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in mice. Male LDL receptor deficient mice at 8 weeks old were given either C. lanatus `sentinel' extract (2% vol/vol; n=10) or a mixture of matching carbohydrates (2% vol/vol; n=8) as the control in drinking water, while fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 12 weeks ad libitum. Mice consuming C. lanatus `sentinel' extract had significantly increased plasma citrulline concentrations. Systolic blood pressure was comparable between the two groups. Consumption of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract led to lower body weight and fat mass without influencing lean mass. There were no differences in food and water intake, and urine output between the two groups. C. lanatus `sentinel' extract administration decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations that were attributed to reductions of intermediate/low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of MCP-1 and IFN-γ were decreased and IL-10 increased in mice consuming C. lanatus `sentinel' extract. Intake of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract resulted in reductions of atherosclerosis in both aortic arch and thoracic regions. In conclusion, consumption of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract led to reduced body weight gain, decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations, improved homeostasis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and attenuated development of atherosclerosis without affecting systolic blood pressure in hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:22902326

  11. U.S. Geological Survey distribution of European Space Agency's Sentinel-2 data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pieschke, Renee L.

    2017-03-31

    A partnership established between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) allows for USGS storage and redistribution of images acquired by the MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) on the European Union's Sentinel-2 satellite mission. The MSI data are acquired from a pair of satellites, Sentinel-2A and Sentinel-2B, which are part of a larger set of ESA missions focusing on different aspects of Earth observation. The primary purpose of the Sentinel-2 series is to collect multispectral imagery over the Earth’s land surfaces, large islands, and inland and coastal waters. Sentinel-2A was launched in 2015 and Sentinel-2B launched in 2017.The collaborative effort between ESA and USGS provides for public access and redistribution of global acquisitions of Sentinel-2 data at no cost, which allows users to download the MSI imagery from USGS access systems such as Earth- Explorer, in addition to the ESA Sentinels Scientific Data Hub. The MSI sensor acquires 13 spectral bands that are highly complementary to data acquired by the USGS Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). The product options from USGS include a Full-Resolution Browse (FRB) image product generated by USGS, along with a 100-kilometer (km) by 100-km tile-based Level-1C top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance product that is very similar (but not identical) to the currently (2017) distributed ESA Level 1C product.

  12. Profound Hypotension after an Intradermal Injection of Indigo Carmine for Sentinel Node Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Youn Yi; Lee, Mi Geum; Yun, Soon Young

    2013-01-01

    Intradermal injections of indigo carmine for sentinel node mapping are considered safe and no report of an adverse reaction has been published. The authors described two cases of profound hypotension in women that underwent breast-conserving surgery after an intradermal injection of indigo carmine into the periareolar area for sentinel node mapping. PMID:23593094

  13. Profound hypotension after an intradermal injection of indigo carmine for sentinel node mapping.

    PubMed

    Jo, Youn Yi; Lee, Mi Geum; Yun, Soon Young; Lee, Kyung Cheon

    2013-03-01

    Intradermal injections of indigo carmine for sentinel node mapping are considered safe and no report of an adverse reaction has been published. The authors described two cases of profound hypotension in women that underwent breast-conserving surgery after an intradermal injection of indigo carmine into the periareolar area for sentinel node mapping.

  14. SENTINEL-2 Level 1 Products and Image Processing Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baillarin, S. J.; Meygret, A.; Dechoz, C.; Petrucci, B.; Lacherade, S.; Tremas, T.; Isola, C.; Martimort, P.; Spoto, F.

    2012-07-01

    In partnership with the European Commission and in the frame of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) program, the European Space Agency (ESA) is developing the Sentinel-2 optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a satellites constellation deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit. While ensuring data continuity of former SPOT and LANDSAT multi-spectral missions, Sentinel-2 will also offer wide improvements such as a unique combination of global coverage with a wide field of view (290 km), a high revisit (5 days with two satellites), a high resolution (10 m, 20 m and 60 m) and multi-spectral imagery (13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infra-red domains). In this context, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) supports ESA to define the system image products and to prototype the relevant image processing techniques. This paper offers, first, an overview of the Sentinel-2 system and then, introduces the image products delivered by the ground processing: the Level-0 and Level-1A are system products which correspond to respectively raw compressed and uncompressed data (limited to internal calibration purposes), the Level-1B is the first public product: it comprises radiometric corrections (dark signal, pixels response non uniformity, crosstalk, defective pixels, restoration, and binning for 60 m bands); and an enhanced physical geometric model appended to the product but not applied, the Level-1C provides ortho-rectified top of atmosphere reflectance with a sub-pixel multi-spectral and multi-date registration; a cloud and land/water mask is associated to the product. Note that the cloud mask also provides an indication about cirrus. The ground sampling distance of Level-1C product will be 10 m, 20 m or 60 m according to the band. The final Level-1C product is tiled following a pre-defined grid of 100x100 km2, based on UTM/WGS84 reference frame. The

  15. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Benson, John R; Jatoi, Ismail

    2014-03-01

    Patient selection and timing of sentinel lymph node (SLN) in the context of primary chemotherapy continues to evolve; there is some evidence that primary chemotherapy may modify lymphatic drainage patterns and cause differential downstaging between SLNs and non-SLNs. SLN biopsy undertaken prior to chemotherapy will minimize the risk of a false-negative result, may allow more accurate initial staging and provides important information on prognostication which can guide decisions about adjuvant radiotherapy. However, quantification of regional metastatic load is incomplete and some advocate SLN biopsy after primary chemotherapy to take advantage of nodal downstaging and avoidance of axillary dissection in up to 40% of patients. Initial reports on false-negative rates for SLN biopsy after primary chemotherapy in patients who had proven axillary node metastases at presentation based on needle core biopsy were relatively high and a cause for clinical concern. However, more recent data suggest that SLN biopsy is as accurate when performed post- as pre-neochemotherapy and current practice incorporates both approaches.

  16. Sentinel Health Events (occupational): a basis for physician recognition and public health surveillance.

    PubMed Central

    Rutstein, D D; Mullan, R J; Frazier, T M; Halperin, W E; Melius, J M; Sestito, J P

    1983-01-01

    A Sentinel Health Event (SHE) is a preventable disease, disability, or untimely death whose occurrence serves as a warning signal that the quality of preventive and/or therapeutic medical care may need to be improved. A SHE (Occupational) is a disease, disability, or untimely death which is occupationally related and whose occurrence may: 1) provide the impetus for epidemiologic or industrial hygiene studies; or 2) serve as a warning signal that materials substitution, engineering control, personal protection, or medical care may be required. The present SHE(O) list encompasses 50 disease conditions that are linked to the workplace. Only those conditions are included for which objective documentation of an associated agent, industry, and occupation exists in the scientific literature. The list will serve as a framework for developing a national system for occupational health surveillance that may be applied at the state and local level, and as a guide for practicing physicians caring for patients with occupational illnesses. We expect to update the list periodically to accommodate new occupational disease events which meet the criteria for inclusion. PMID:6881402

  17. SPICE: Sentinel-3 Performance Improvement for Ice Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Malcolm; Shepherd, Andrew; Roca, Monica; Escorihuela, Maria Jose; Thibaut, Pierre; Remy, Frederique; Escola, Roger; Benveniste, Jerome; Ambrozio, Americo; Restano, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Since the launch of ERS-1 in 1991, polar-orbiting satellite radar altimeters have provided a near continuous record of ice sheet elevation change, yielding estimates of ice sheet mass imbalance at the scale of individual ice sheet basins. One of the principle challenges associated with radar altimetry comes from the relatively large ground footprint of conventional pulse-limited radars, which limits their capacity to make reliable measurements in areas of complex topographic terrain. In recent years, progress has been made towards improving ground resolution, through the implementation of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), or Delay-Doppler, techniques. In 2010, the launch of CryoSat heralded the start of a new era of SAR altimetry, although full SAR coverage of the polar ice sheets will only be achieved with the launch of the first Sentinel-3 satellite in January 2016. Because of the heritage of SAR altimetry provided by CryoSat, current SAR altimeter processing techniques have to some extent been optimized and evaluated for water and sea ice surfaces. This leaves several outstanding issues related to the development and evaluation of SAR altimetry for ice sheets, including improvements to SAR processing algorithms and SAR altimetry waveform retracking procedures. Here we will outline SPICE (Sentinel-3 Performance Improvement for Ice Sheets), a 2 year project which began in September 2015 and is funded by ESA's SEOM (Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions) programme. This project aims to contribute to the development and understanding of ice sheet SAR altimetry through the emulation of Sentinel-3 data from dedicated CryoSat SAR acquisitions made at several sites in Antarctica. More specifically, the project aims to (1) evaluate and improve the current Delay-Doppler processing and SAR waveform retracking algorithms, (2) evaluate higher level SAR altimeter data, and (3) investigate radar wave interaction with the snowpack. We will provide a broad overview of

  18. The Safety project: Sentinel-1 for Civil Protection geohazars management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monserrat, Oriol; Herrera, Gerardo; Bianchini, Silvia; González-Alonso, Elena; Onori, Roberta; Reichenbach, Paola; Carralero, Innocente P.; Barra, Anna; María Mateos, Rosa; Solari, Lorenzo; Ligüérzana, Sergio; Pagliara, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca; Sarro, Roberto; Crosetto, Michele; Béjar-Pizarro, Marta; Moretti, Sandro; Lopez, Carmen; Garcia-Cañada, Laura; Benito-Saz, María Á.

    2017-04-01

    This work is aimed at presenting the ongoing project SAFETY (Sentinel for Geohazards regional monitoring and forecasting). The use of Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) in Natural Risks management is becoming more and more exploitable thanks to the experienced growth of the techniques. On one hand, since the DInSAR technique was proposed for the first time (1989) a wide number of data processing, analysis tools and methods have been developed, on the other hand the satellite data availability has increased and provides sensors with different characteristics of sensitivity and spatial and temporal resolutions. Nowadays, DInSAR allows to have a systematic overview about the spatio-temporal activity of a natural deformation phenomena, which is an important information for the risk management in terms of prevention, emergency response and post-emergency intervention. Specifically, Sentinel-1 (A and B) satellites data show two favourable characteristics: the wide covered area and the short revisit time (6 days). The last one, if compared with the other C band available sensors, results in a reduced temporal decorrelation, particularly in non-urbanized areas, in more robust processing results (due to the higher number of images) and in an higher temporal sampling i.e. a better monitoring and activity characterization. In this context, the European project SAFETY is focused on developing tools and implementing a methodology in order to better exploit Sentinel-1 data in the Civil Protection activities of natural risks prevention. The project is aimed at providing Civil Protection Authorities (CPA) with the capability of periodically evaluating and assessing the potential impact of geohazards (volcanic activity, earthquakes, landslides and subsidence) on urban areas. The first results over the two test-areas in Spain and Italy (respectively Canary Islands and Volterra Municipality) will be presented.

  19. Validation of Hotspots Detected by Satellites in Sentinel Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaku, K.; Kushida, K.; Fukuda, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Sentinel Asia (SA) initiative is a collaboration between space agencies and disaster management agencies, applying remote sensing and Web-GIS technologies to assist disaster management in the Asia- Pacific region. It aims to: "EImprove safety in society by ICT and space technology "EImprove speed and accuracy of disaster preparedness and early warning "EMinimize the number of victims and social/economic losses. SA is a voluntary initiative led by the Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum (APRSAF) to share disaster information in near-real-time across the Asia-Pacific region. Wildfire is a major and recurring phenomenon that has a serious impact on property and human health, affecting many countries in the Asia region. Compared to other disasters in the area, it does not necessarily cause many immediate fatalities. However, it causes serious impact on property and human health due to smoke. Furthermore, its effects are of great relevance both at a regional and global level, and accordingly bear substantial influence on global warming. Responding to requirements from Asian countries, under Sentinel Asia a dedicated Wildfire Working Group (WG) has been established to apply remote sensing technology to the management of wildfire. Having accurate information on the location and intensity of the fires, and subsequent control of wildfire, are therefore very important and urgent tasks across the region. SA primarily addresses the issue of near-real-time information distribution on wildfires in the region. Concerning hotspot data obtained by satellites, it is essential to validate and improve its accuracy. In the framework of Sentinel Asia Wildfire WG, various approaches to hotspot detection, including MOD14 algorithm for MODIS hotspots, were studied, and their validations were carried out, comparing them with active fires extracted from satellite imagery and ground truth data in Chiengmai, Thailand and in Kalimantan, Indonesia.

  20. [Predictive factors for non-sentinel lymph nodes affection in breast carcinoma--outcomes of a Czech multicenter study of sentinel lymph nodes].

    PubMed

    St'astný, K; Cervinka, V; Siller, J; Havlícek, K; Gatek, J; Vachtová, M; Zedníková, I; Narsanská, A; Sůvová, B; Treska, V; Kubala, O; Prokop, J; Ostruszka, P; Dostalík, J; Hornychová, H; Hovorková, E; Ryska, A; Hácová, M; Rothröckel, P; Vázan, P; Velecký, J; Hes, O; Michal, M; Horácek, J; Buzrla, P; Cegan, M; Tomanová, R; Dvorácková, J; Záhora, J

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess positivity nonsentinel lymph nodes in patients with macro, micro and submicrometastases in sentinel lymph nodes and find predictive factors of positivity nonsentinel lymph nodes. Study was conducted at the Department of Surgery in Pardubice, Pilsen, Ostrava and Zlín. Sentinel lymph nodes were assessed based on standards of Czech Pathological Society. Detection of sentinel lymph nodes was performed based on radionavigation or combination of radionavigation and blue dye method. In group N1 (macrometastases) there was found positivity of nonsentinel lymph nodes in 50% (45 from 90 patients). In group N1 Mi (micrometastases) there was found positivity of nonsentinel lymph nodes in 26.7% (16 from 60 patients). In group NO I+ (sub-micrometastases) there was found positivity of nonsentinel lymph nodes in 6.7% (1 from 15 patients). Predictive factors were size of metastasis, number of positive sentinel lymph nodes and grading. Size of tumor was not found to be a predictive factor of positivity nonsentinel lymph nodes. High positivity of nonsentinel lymph nodes in pacients with macro and micrometastases in sentinel lymph nodes advocates to perform axillary lymph nodes dissection. Due to small number of patients with submicrometastases it is not possible to assess if axillary dissection is necessary or not. Predictive factors of positivity of nonsentinel lymph nodes are size of metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes, number of positive sentinel lymph nodes and grading. Size of tumor was not found to be a predictive factor due to small tumors in the study. In spite of this it is necessary to consider it like a predictive factor of positivity nonsentinel lymph nodes. In patients with macro and micrometastases it is necessary to perform axillary dissection. In patients with submicrometastases in sentinel lymph nodes it is necessary to consider predictive factors.

  1. Sentinel node biopsy in the management of malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Russell-Jones, R; Acland, K

    2001-09-01

    The technique of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has been in use for almost a decade, but its effect on survival has not yet been established. It is however the most accurate method for staging patients with primary cutaneous melanoma who lack clinical evidence of metastatic disease. This article discusses the rationale and logistics of SLN biopsy, and the management strategies that can be employed in those patients who are SLN positive. Future therapeutic trial in patients with primary cutaneous melanoma will only be meaningful if the SLN status of the subjects is established.

  2. Arboviruses recovered from sentinel livestock in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Gard, G P; Shorthose, J E; Weir, R P; Walsh, S J; Melville, L F

    1988-10-01

    Over 700 arboviruses were recovered between 1981 and 1987 from the blood of sentinel livestock near Darwin. Twenty-three isolates were made from sheep, goats, swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and horses, and the remainder were from cattle. The isolates have been typed as 27 separate viruses belonging to the bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, Palyam, Simbu, bovine ephemeral fever, Tibrogargan and alphavirus groups. Ten of these viruses have not been isolated elsewhere in Australia and four have been isolated only in Darwin. Considerable annual variations in virus activity and in the durations of detectable viraemia were observed.

  3. Global Validation of Sentinel-3 Wind and Wave Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Saleh

    2016-08-01

    Wind and wave data from the radar altimeter instruments are of considerable importance for numerical weather prediction and in particular for the ocean waves. SRAL, which is the altimeter on-board the newly launched Copernicus Sentinel-3 satellite, implements the Doppler shift (or SAR) altimetry to provide this type of data with a superior quality compared to conventional altimeters. The results obtained from the limited SRAL data set that was made available a couple of weeks ago proved the very high quality of such data. The wave height data will be assimilated in the ECMWF IFS model after they become operationally available.

  4. Harmonizing Landsat and Sentinel-2 Reflectances for Better Land Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masek, Jeffrey; Vermote, Eric; Franch, Belen; Roger, Jean-Claude; Skakun, Sergii; Claverie, Martin; Dungan, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    When combined, Landsat and ESA Sentinel-2 observations can provide 2-4 day coverage for the global land area. A collaboration among NASA GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center), University of Maryland, and NASA Ames has developed a processing chain to create seamless, "harmonized" reflectance products using standardized atmospheric correction, BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) adjustment, spectral bandpass adjustment, and gridding algorithms. These products point the way to a "30-m MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer)" capability for agricultural and ecosystem monitoring by leveraging international sensors.

  5. SPICE: Sentinel-3 Performance Improvement for Ice Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, M.; Escola, R.; Roca, M.; Escorihuela, M. J.; Thibaut, P.; Shepherd, A.; Remy, F.; Benveniste, J.; Ambrozio, A.; Restano, M.

    2016-12-01

    Since the launch of ERS-1 in 1991, polar-orbiting satellite radar altimeters have provided a valuable record of ice sheet elevation change, yielding estimates of ice sheet mass imbalance at the scale of individual ice sheet basins. One of the principle challenges associated with radar altimetry comes from the relatively large ground footprint of conventional pulse-limited radars, which limits their capacity to make reliable measurements in areas of complex topographic terrain. In recent years, progress has been made towards improving ground resolution, through the implementation of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), or Delay-Doppler, techniques. In 2010, the launch of CryoSat-2 by the European Space Agency heralded the start of a new era of SAR altimetry, although full SAR coverage of the polar ice sheets has only been achieved with the launch of the first Sentinel-3 satellite in February 2016. Because of the heritage of SAR altimetry provided by CryoSat-2, many SAR altimeter processing techniques have been optimized and evaluated for water and sea ice surfaces only. This leaves several outstanding issues related to the development and evaluation of SAR altimetry for ice sheets, including improvements to Delay-Doppler processing algorithms and SAR altimetry waveform retracking procedures. Here we present results from SPICE (Sentinel-3 Performance Improvement for Ice Sheets), a 2 year project that focuses on the expected performance of Sentinel-3 SAR altimetry over the Polar ice sheets. The project, which began in September 2015 and is funded by ESA's SEOM (Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions) programme, aims to contribute to the development and understanding of ice sheet SAR altimetry through the emulation of Sentinel-3 data from dedicated CryoSat SAR acquisitions made at the Lake Vostok, Dome C and Spirit sites in East Antarctica, and from reprocessed SARIn data in Greenland. The principle aims of the project are to (1) evaluate and improve the current

  6. SPICE: Sentinel-3 Performance Improvement for Ice Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Escolà, Roger; Roca, Mònica; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; McMillan, Malcolm; Escorihuela, Maria Jose; Shepherd, Andrew; Thibaut, Pierre; Remy, Frederique

    2016-07-01

    Since the launch of ERS-1 in 1991, polar-orbiting satellite radar altimeters have provided a near continuous record of ice sheet elevation change, yielding estimates of ice sheet mass imbalance at the scale of individual ice sheet basins. One of the principle challenges associated with radar altimetry comes from the relatively large ground footprint of conventional pulse-limited radars, which limits their capacity to make reliable measurements in areas of complex topographic terrain. In recent years, progress has been made towards improving ground resolution, through the implementation of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), or Delay-Doppler, techniques. In 2010, the launch of CryoSat-2 by the European Space Agency heralded the start of a new era of SAR altimetry, although full SAR coverage of the polar ice sheets will only be achieved with the launch of the first Sentinel-3 satellite in February 2016. Because of the heritage of SAR altimetry provided by CryoSat-2, current SAR altimeter processing techniques have been optimized and evaluated for water and sea ice surfaces. This leaves several outstanding issues related to the development and evaluation of SAR altimetry for ice sheets, including improvements to SAR processing algorithms and SAR altimetry waveform retracking procedures. Here we will present interim results from SPICE (Sentinel-3 Performance Improvement for Ice Sheets), a 2 year project that focuses on the expected performance of Sentinel-3 SAR altimetry over the Polar ice sheets. The project, which began in September 2015 and is funded by ESA's SEOM (Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions) programme, aims to contribute to the development and understanding of ice sheet SAR altimetry through the emulation of Sentinel-3 data from dedicated CryoSat SAR acquisitions made at several sites in Antarctica and Greenland. More specifically, the project aims to (1) evaluate and improve the current Delay-Doppler processing and SAR waveform retracking

  7. Altimeter Products for the Sentinel-6/Jason-CS Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharroo, Remko; Bonekamp, Hans; Ponsard, Christelle; Nogueira Loddo, Carolina

    2015-12-01

    The Sentinel-6 mission will be developed and implemented through a partnership between the EU, ESA, EUMETSAT and NOAA . Its aim is to secure the continuity until 2030+ of critical high precision observations of ocean surface topography beyond Jason-3. The European contribution will be implemented through the combination of the ESA Copernicus Space Component, the EUMETSAT Jason-CS optional programme, and the EU Copernicus programme, for the joint benefits of the meteorological and Copernicus user communities in Europe. NASA and CNES will be supporting partners. The mission will start with the launch of Jason-CS A in 2020, followed by Jason-CS B in 2025.

  8. A protocol for validating Land Surface Temperature from Sentinel-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, D.

    2015-12-01

    One of the main objectives of the Sentinel-3 mission is to measure sea- and land-surface temperature with high-end accuracy and reliability in support of environmental and climate monitoring in an operational context. Calibration and validation are thus key criteria for operationalization within the framework of the Sentinel-3 Mission Performance Centre (S3MPC).Land surface temperature (LST) has a long heritage of satellite observations which have facilitated our understanding of land surface and climate change processes, such as desertification, urbanization, deforestation and land/atmosphere coupling. These observations have been acquired from a variety of satellite instruments on platforms in both low-earth orbit and in geostationary orbit. Retrieval accuracy can be a challenge though; surface emissivities can be highly variable owing to the heterogeneity of the land, and atmospheric effects caused by the presence of aerosols and by water vapour absorption can give a bias to the underlying LST. As such, a rigorous validation is critical in order to assess the quality of the data and the associated uncertainties. The Sentinel-3 Cal-Val Plan for evaluating the level-2 SL_2_LST product builds on an established validation protocol for satellite-based LST. This set of guidelines provides a standardized framework for structuring LST validation activities, and is rapidly gaining international recognition. The protocol introduces a four-pronged approach which can be summarised thus: i) in situ validation where ground-based observations are available; ii) radiance-based validation over sites that are homogeneous in emissivity; iii) intercomparison with retrievals from other satellite sensors; iv) time-series analysis to identify artefacts on an interannual time-scale. This multi-dimensional approach is a necessary requirement for assessing the performance of the LST algorithm for SLSTR which is designed around biome-based coefficients, thus emphasizing the importance of

  9. SPICE: Sentinel-3 Performance Improvement for Ice Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Malcolm; Escola, Roger; Roca, Monica; Escorihuela, Maria Jose; Thibaut, Pierre; Shepherd, Andrew; Remy, Frederique; Aublanc, Jeremie; Benveniste, Jerome; Restano, Marco; Ambrozio, Americo

    2017-04-01

    For the past 25 years, polar-orbiting satellite radar altimeters have provided a valuable record of ice sheet elevation change, yielding estimates of ice sheet mass imbalance at the scale of individual ice sheet basins. One of the principle challenges associated with radar altimetry comes from the relatively large ground footprint of conventional pulse-limited radars, which limits their capacity to make reliable measurements in areas of complex topographic terrain. In recent years, progress has been made towards improving ground resolution, through the implementation of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), or Delay-Doppler, techniques. In 2010, the launch of CryoSat-2 heralded the start of a new era of SAR altimetry, although full SAR coverage of the polar ice sheets has only been achieved with the launch of the first Sentinel-3 satellite in February 2016. Because of the heritage of SAR altimetry provided by CryoSat-2, many SAR altimeter processing techniques have been optimized and evaluated for water and sea ice surfaces only. This leaves several outstanding issues related to the development and evaluation of SAR altimetry for ice sheets, including improvements to Delay-Doppler processing algorithms and SAR altimetry waveform retracking procedures. Here we present results from SPICE (Sentinel-3 Performance Improvement for Ice Sheets), a 2 year project that focuses on the expected performance of Sentinel-3 SAR altimetry over the Polar ice sheets. The project, which began in September 2015 and is funded by ESA's SEOM (Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions) programme, aims to contribute to the development and understanding of ice sheet SAR altimetry through the emulation of Sentinel-3 data from dedicated CryoSat SAR acquisitions made at the Lake Vostok, Dome C and Spirit sites in East Antarctica, and from reprocessed interferometric SAR data in Greenland. More specifically, we will evaluate SAR elevation retrievals using different processing methodologies and

  10. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer patients using fluorescence navigation with indocyanine green

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There are various methods for detecting sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) using a vital dye is a convenient and safe, intraoperatively preparative method to assess lymph node status. However, the disadvantage of the dye method is that the success rate of sentinel lymph node detection depend on the surgeon's skills and preoperative mapping of the sentinel lymph node is not feasible. Currently, a vital dye, radioisotope, or a combination of both is used to detect sentinel nodes. Many surgeons have reported successful results using either method. In this study we have analyzed breast lymphatic drainage pathways using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging. Methods We examined the lymphatic courses, or lymphatic vessels, in the breast using ICG fluorescence imaging, and applied this method to SLNB in patients who underwent their first operative treatment for breast cancer between May 2006 and April 2008. Fluorescence images were obtained using a charge coupled device camera with a cut filter used as a detector, and light emitting diodes at 760 nm as a light source. When ICG was injected into the subareola and periareola, subcutaneous lymphatic vessels from the areola to the axilla became visible by fluorescence within a few minutes. The sentinel lymph node was then dissected with the help of fluorescence imaging navigation. Results The detection rate of sentinel nodes was 100%. 0 to 4 states of lymphatic drainage pathways from the areola were observed. The number of sentinel nodes was 3.41 on average. Conclusions This method using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging may possibly improve the detection rate of sentinel lymph nodes with high sensitivity and compensates for the deficiencies of other methods. The ICG fluorescence imaging technique enables observation of breast lymph vessels running in multiple directions and easily and accurately identification of sentinel lymph nodes. Thus, this technique can

  11. Sentinel events predicting later unwanted sex among girls: A national survey in Haiti, 2012.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Steven A; Marcelin, Louis H; Cela, Toni; Mercy, James A; Lea, Veronica; Kress, Howard; Hillis, Susan D

    2015-12-01

    Sexual violence against children is a significant global public health problem, yet limited studies exist from low-resource settings. In Haiti we conducted the country's first, nationally representative survey focused on childhood violence to help inform the development of a national action plan for violence against children. The Haiti Violence Against Children Survey was a household-level, multistage, cluster survey among youth age 13-24. In this analysis we sought to determine whether sexual violence sentinel events (unwanted sexual touching or unwanted attempted sex) were predictive of later unwanted, completed, penetrative sex in Haiti. We also sought to explore characteristics of sentinel events and help-seeking behavior among Haitian children. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test associations between sentinel events and later unwanted, completed, penetrative sex. Overall, 1,457 females reported on experiences of sexual violence occurring in childhood (before age 18). A sentinel event occurred in 40.4% of females who experienced subsequent unwanted completed sex. Females experiencing a sentinel event were approximately two and a half times more likely to experience later unwanted completed sex (adjusted odds ratio=2.40, p=.004) compared to individuals who did not experience a sentinel event. The mean lag time from first sentinel event to first unwanted completed sex was 2.3 years. Only half (54.6%) of children experiencing a sentinel event told someone about their experience of sexual violence. Among children, sentinel events occur frequently before later acts of completed unwanted sex and may represent a useful point of intervention. Reporting of sexual violence by children in Haiti is low and can be improved to better act on sentinel events. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. [Utility and advantages of single tracer subareolar injection in sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Armas, Fayna; Hernández, María Jesús; Vega, Víctor; Gutiérrez, Isabel; Jiménez, Concepción; Pavcovich, Marta; Báez, Beatriz; Pérez-Correa, Pedro; Núñez, Valentín

    2005-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is a reliable technique for determining axillary status in patients with early breast cancer. This technique is a minimally invasive procedure that can avoid the use of lymphadenectomy in patients without axillary involvement. We present a validation study of SLN biopsy with subareolar injection of 99mTc-nanocolloids. We studied 100 patients with early breast cancer (T1 and T2) over a 2-year period. All patients underwent deep subareolar-injection of 99mTc-nanocoloid for localization of the sentinel node. Images were obtained and when the sentinel node was seen, it was marked on the skin. All patients underwent tumor excision and radioguided SLN biopsy followed by complete lymphadenectomy. Histopathological analysis of sentinel nodes was performed by hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry with cytokeratins. The sentinel node was identified in all patients, and a mean of 1.95 sentinel nodes per patient were found. Lymphatic metastases in the sentinel node were found in 44 patients and in 15 of these tumoral spread was also found in the remaining axillary nodes. In the 56 remaining patients the sentinel node was free of metastasis, but in two of them a non-sentinel node was found to be positive (4.5% false negative rate). Sensitivity was 95.7% (44/46), specificity was 100% (54/54), the positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value was 96.4% (54/56). SLN biopsy is an accurate alternative to complete axillary lymph node dissection in patients with early-stage breast cancer. This technique improves the staging of these patients and decreases the morbidity associated with lymphadenectomy. The advantages of subareolar injection are that a single injection site is required, the tumor does not have to be located by other techniques, it allows rapid visualization of the sentinel node and avoids the "shine through phenomenon" when the tumor is located near the axilla.

  13. Sentinel node detection in N0 cancer of the pharynx and larynx

    PubMed Central

    Werner, J A; Dünne, A-A; Ramaswamy, A; Folz, B J; Lippert, B M; Moll, R; Behr, Th

    2002-01-01

    Neck lymph node status is the most important factor for prognosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Sentinel node detection reliably predicts the lymph node status in melanoma and breast cancer patients. This study evaluates the predictive value of sentinel node detection in 50 patients suffering from pharyngeal and laryngeal carcinomas with a N0 neck as assessed by ultrasound imaging. Following 99m-Technetium nanocolloid injection in the perimeter of the tumour intraoperative sentinel node detection was performed during lymph node dissection. Postoperatively the histological results of the sentinel nodes were compared with the excised neck dissection specimen. Identification of sentinel nodes was successful in all 50 patients with a sensitivity of 89%. In eight cases the sentinel node showed nodal disease (pN1). In 41 patients the sentinel node was tumour negative reflecting the correct neck lymph node status (pN0). We observed one false-negative result. In this case the sentinel node was free of tumour, whereas a neighbouring lymph node contained a lymph node metastasis (pN1). Although we have shown, that skipping of nodal basins can occur, this technique still reliably identifies the sentinel nodes of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the pharynx and larynx. Future studies must show, if sentinel node detection is suitable to limit the extent of lymph node dissection in clinically N0 necks of patients suffering from pharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 711–715. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600445 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12232751

  14. Tube curvature measuring probe and method

    DOEpatents

    Sokol, George J.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a probe and method for measuring the radius of curvature of a bend in a section of tubing. The probe includes a member with a pair of guide means, one located at each end of the member. A strain gauge is operatively connected to the member for detecting bending stress exrted on the member as the probe is drawn through and in engagement with the inner surface of a section of tubing having a bend. The method of the present invention includes steps utilizing a probe, like the aforementioned probe, which can be made to detect bends only in a single plane when having a fixed orientation relative the section of tubing to determine the maximum radius of curvature of the bend.

  15. Additional non-sentinel lymph node metastases in early oral cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Den Toom, Inne J; Bloemena, Elisabeth; van Weert, Stijn; Karagozoglu, K Hakki; Hoekstra, Otto S; de Bree, Remco

    2017-02-01

    To determine risk factors for additional non-sentinel lymph node metastases in neck dissection specimens of patients with early stage oral cancer and a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). A retrospective analysis of 36 previously untreated SLNB positive patients in our institution and investigation of currently available literature of positive SLNB patients in early stage oral cancer was done. Degree of metastatic involvement [classified as isolated tumor cells (ITC), micro- and macrometastasis] of the sentinel lymph node (SLN), the status of other SLNs, and additional non-SLN metastases in neck dissection specimens were analyzed. Of 27 studies, comprising 511 patients with positive SLNs, the pooled prevalence of non-SLN metastasis in patients with positive SLNs was 31 %. Non-SLN metastases were detected (available from 9 studies) in 13, 20, and 40 % of patients with ITC, micro-, and macrometastasis in the SLN, respectively. The probability of non-SLN metastasis seems to be higher in the case of more than one positive SLN (29 vs. 24 %), the absence of negative SLNs (40 vs. 19 %), and a positive SLN ratio of more than 50 % (38 vs. 19 %). Additional non-SLN metastases were found in 31 % of neck dissections following positive SLNB. The presence of multiple positive SLNs, the absence of negative SLNs, and a positive SLN ratio of more than 50 % may be predictive factors for non-SLN metastases. Classification of SLNs into ITC, micro-, and macrometastasis in the future SLNB studies is important to answer the question if treatment of the neck is always needed after positive SLNB.

  16. Body-mounted robotic instrument guide for image-guided cryotherapy of renal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hata, Nobuhiko; Song, Sang-Eun; Olubiyi, Olutayo; Arimitsu, Yasumichi; Fujimoto, Kosuke; Kato, Takahisa; Tuncali, Kemal; Tani, Soichiro; Tokuda, Junichi

    2016-02-01

    Image-guided cryotherapy of renal cancer is an emerging alternative to surgical nephrectomy, particularly for those who cannot sustain the physical burden of surgery. It is well known that the outcome of this therapy depends on the accurate placement of the cryotherapy probe. Therefore, a robotic instrument guide may help physicians aim the cryotherapy probe precisely to maximize the efficacy of the treatment and avoid damage to critical surrounding structures. The objective of this paper was to propose a robotic instrument guide for orienting cryotherapy probes in image-guided cryotherapy of renal cancers. The authors propose a body-mounted robotic guide that is expected to be less susceptible to guidance errors caused by the patient's whole body motion. Keeping the device's minimal footprint in mind, the authors developed and validated a body-mounted, robotic instrument guide that can maintain the geometrical relationship between the device and the patient's body, even in the presence of the patient's frequent body motions. The guide can orient the cryotherapy probe with the skin incision point as the remote-center-of-motion. The authors' validation studies included an evaluation of the mechanical accuracy and position repeatability of the robotic instrument guide. The authors also performed a mock MRI-guided cryotherapy procedure with a phantom to compare the advantage of robotically assisted probe replacements over a free-hand approach, by introducing organ motions to investigate their effects on the accurate placement of the cryotherapy probe. Measurements collected for performance analysis included accuracy and time taken for probe placements. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess if either or both organ motion and the robotic guide impacted these measurements. The mechanical accuracy and position repeatability of the probe placement using the robotic instrument guide were 0.3 and 0.1 mm, respectively, at a depth of 80 mm. The phantom test indicated

  17. Body-mounted robotic instrument guide for image-guided cryotherapy of renal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hata, Nobuhiko; Song, Sang-Eun; Olubiyi, Olutayo; Arimitsu, Yasumichi; Fujimoto, Kosuke; Kato, Takahisa; Tuncali, Kemal; Tani, Soichiro; Tokuda, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Image-guided cryotherapy of renal cancer is an emerging alternative to surgical nephrectomy, particularly for those who cannot sustain the physical burden of surgery. It is well known that the outcome of this therapy depends on the accurate placement of the cryotherapy probe. Therefore, a robotic instrument guide may help physicians aim the cryotherapy probe precisely to maximize the efficacy of the treatment and avoid damage to critical surrounding structures. The objective of this paper was to propose a robotic instrument guide for orienting cryotherapy probes in image-guided cryotherapy of renal cancers. The authors propose a body-mounted robotic guide that is expected to be less susceptible to guidance errors caused by the patient’s whole body motion. Methods: Keeping the device’s minimal footprint in mind, the authors developed and validated a body-mounted, robotic instrument guide that can maintain the geometrical relationship between the device and the patient’s body, even in the presence of the patient’s frequent body motions. The guide can orient the cryotherapy probe with the skin incision point as the remote-center-of-motion. The authors’ validation studies included an evaluation of the mechanical accuracy and position repeatability of the robotic instrument guide. The authors also performed a mock MRI-guided cryotherapy procedure with a phantom to compare the advantage of robotically assisted probe replacements over a free-hand approach, by introducing organ motions to investigate their effects on the accurate placement of the cryotherapy probe. Measurements collected for performance analysis included accuracy and time taken for probe placements. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess if either or both organ motion and the robotic guide impacted these measurements. Results: The mechanical accuracy and position repeatability of the probe placement using the robotic instrument guide were 0.3 and 0.1 mm, respectively, at a depth

  18. Deployment Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    family/unit briefings (to include POA/wills/ consumer law /insurance war clauses) - Provide fill-in-blank sheets to send coordinators of pre- deployment...services. 2. SGLI designations and "By Law" implications. 3. Wills for both spouses. 4. Powers of Attorney. 5. Consumer law issues. 1-7 B. Typically...Relief Act JA 261 Real Property Guide JA 262 Wills Guide JA 263 Family Law Guide JA 265 Consumer Law Guide JA 267 Legal Assistance Office Directory

  19. MIT validation probe acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Escamilla, S.A.

    1994-08-23

    As part of the Multi-Functional Instrument Trees (MITs) a Validation Probe is being fabricated by Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL). The Validation Probe assembly is equipped with a Winch, depth counter, and a Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) which will render a means for verifying the temperature readings of which will render a means for verifying the temperature readings of the MIT thermocouples. The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) is to provide verification that the Validation Probe functions properly and accordingly to LANL design and specification. This ATP will be used for all Validation Probes procured from LANL. The ATP consists of a receiving inspection, RTD ambient temperature; RTD electrical failure, RTD insulation resistance, and accurate depth counter operation inspections. The Validation Probe is composed of an intank probe, a cable and winching system, and a riser extension (probe guide) which bolts onto the MIT. The validation`s thermal sensor is an RTD that is housed in a 0.062 inch diameter, magnesium oxide fill, 316 stainless steel tube. The sheath configuration provides a means for spring loading the sensor firmly against the validation tube`s inner wall. A 45 pound cylindrical body is connected above the sheath and is used as a force to lower the probe into the tank. This cylindrical body also provides the means to interconnect both electrically and mechanically to the winch system which lowers the probe to a specified location within the validation tube located in the tank.

  20. The intraoperative gamma probe: basic principles and choices available.

    PubMed

    Zanzonico, P; Heller, S

    2000-01-01

    By taking advantage of the proximity to radioactive sentinel nodes and occult tumors achievable in an operative setting, intraoperative probes are becoming increasingly imp