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Sample records for probe studying dark

  1. Supernova Acceleration Probe: Studying Dark Energy with Type Ia Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, J.; Aldering, G.; Allam, S.; Althouse, W.; Amanullah, R.; Annis, J.; Astier, P.; Aumeunier, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bebek, C.; Bergstom, L.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Besuner, B.; Bigelow, B.; Blandford, R.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; /Caltech /LBL, Berkeley /Fermilab /SLAC /Stockholm U. /Paris, IN2P3 /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, Lab. Astrophys. /Yale U. /Pennsylvania U. /UC, Berkeley /Michigan U. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Indiana U. /Caltech, JPL /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /American Astron. Society /Chicago U. /Cambridge U. /Saclay /Lyon, IPN

    2005-08-08

    The Supernova Acceleration Probe (SNAP) will use Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) as distance indicators to measure the effect of dark energy on the expansion history of the Universe. (SNAP's weak-lensing program is described in a separate White Paper.) The experiment exploits supernova distance measurements up to their fundamental systematic limit; strict requirements on the monitoring of each supernova's properties leads to the need for a space-based mission. Results from pre-SNAP experiments, which characterize fundamental SN Ia properties, will be used to optimize the SNAP observing strategy to yield data, which minimize both systematic and statistical uncertainties. With early R&D funding, we have achieved technological readiness and the collaboration is poised to begin construction. Pre-JDEM AO R&D support will further reduce technical and cost risk. Specific details on the SNAP mission can be found in Aldering et al. (2004, 2005). The primary goal of the SNAP supernova program is to provide a dataset which gives tight constraints on parameters which characterize the dark-energy, e.g. w{sub 0} and w{sub a} where w(a) = w{sub 0} + w{sub a}(1-a). SNAP data can also be used to directly test and discriminate among specific dark energy models. We will do so by building the Hubble diagram of high-redshift supernovae, the same methodology used in the original discovery of the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe that established the existence of dark energy (Perlmutter et al. 1998; Garnavich et al. 1998; Riess et al. 1998; Perlmutter et al. 1999). The SNAP SN Ia program focuses on minimizing the systematic floor of the supernova method through the use of characterized supernovae that can be sorted into subsets based on subtle signatures of heterogeneity. Subsets may be defined based on host-galaxy morphology, spectral-feature strength and velocity, early-time behavior, inter alia. Independent cosmological analysis of each subset of ''like'' supernovae can be

  2. Probing gravitational dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jing; He, Hong-Jian

    2015-03-01

    So far all evidences of dark matter (DM) come from astrophysical and cosmological observations, due to the gravitational interactions of DM. It is possible that the true DM particle in the universe joins gravitational interactions only, but nothing else. Such a Gravitational DM (GDM) may act as a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP), which is conceptually simple and attractive. In this work, we explore this direction by constructing the simplest scalar GDM particle χs. It is a Bbb Z2 odd singlet under the standard model (SM) gauge group, and naturally joins the unique dimension-4 interaction with Ricci curvature, ξsχs2Script R, where ξs is the dimensionless nonminimal coupling. We demonstrate that this gravitational interaction ξsχs2Script R, together with Higgs-curvature nonminimal coupling term ξhH†HScript R, induces effective couplings between χs2 and SM fields, and can account for the observed DM thermal relic abundance. We analyze the annihilation cross sections of GDM particles and derive the viable parameter space for realizing the DM thermal relic density. We further study the direct/indirect detections and the collider signatures of such a scalar GDM. These turn out to be highly predictive and testable.

  3. Probing gravitational dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Jing; He, Hong-Jian E-mail: hjhe@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2015-03-01

    So far all evidences of dark matter (DM) come from astrophysical and cosmological observations, due to the gravitational interactions of DM. It is possible that the true DM particle in the universe joins gravitational interactions only, but nothing else. Such a Gravitational DM (GDM) may act as a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP), which is conceptually simple and attractive. In this work, we explore this direction by constructing the simplest scalar GDM particle χ{sub s}. It is a Z{sub 2} odd singlet under the standard model (SM) gauge group, and naturally joins the unique dimension-4 interaction with Ricci curvature, ξ{sub s}χ{sub s}{sup 2}R, where ξ{sub s} is the dimensionless nonminimal coupling. We demonstrate that this gravitational interaction ξ{sub s}χ{sub s}{sup 2}R, together with Higgs-curvature nonminimal coupling term ξ{sub h}H{sup †}HR, induces effective couplings between χ{sub s}{sup 2} and SM fields, and can account for the observed DM thermal relic abundance. We analyze the annihilation cross sections of GDM particles and derive the viable parameter space for realizing the DM thermal relic density. We further study the direct/indirect detections and the collider signatures of such a scalar GDM. These turn out to be highly predictive and testable.

  4. Probing gravitational dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Jing; He, Hong-Jian

    2015-03-27

    So far all evidences of dark matter (DM) come from astrophysical and cosmological observations, due to the gravitational interactions of DM. It is possible that the true DM particle in the universe joins gravitational interactions only, but nothing else. Such a Gravitational DM (GDM) may act as a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP), which is conceptually simple and attractive. In this work, we explore this direction by constructing the simplest scalar GDM particle χ{sub s}. It is a ℤ{sub 2} odd singlet under the standard model (SM) gauge group, and naturally joins the unique dimension-4 interaction with Ricci curvature, ξ{sub s}χ{sub s}{sup 2}R, where ξ{sub s} is the dimensionless nonminimal coupling. We demonstrate that this gravitational interaction ξ{sub s}χ{sub s}{sup 2}R, together with Higgs-curvature nonminimal coupling term ξ{sub h}H{sup †}HR, induces effective couplings between χ{sub s}{sup 2} and SM fields, and can account for the observed DM thermal relic abundance. We analyze the annihilation cross sections of GDM particles and derive the viable parameter space for realizing the DM thermal relic density. We further study the direct/indirect detections and the collider signatures of such a scalar GDM. These turn out to be highly predictive and testable.

  5. Supernova / Acceleration Probe: a Satellite Experiment to Study the Nature of the Dark Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Aldering, G.; Althouse, W.; Amanullah, R.; Annis, J.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bigelow, B.; Blandford, R.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Brown, M.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; /LBL, Berkeley /SLAC /Stockholm U. /Fermilab /Paris U., VI-VII /Yale U. /Pennsylvania U. /UC, Berkeley /Michigan U. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Marseille, CPPM /Indiana U. /American Astron. Society /Caltech /Case Western Reserve U. /Cambridge U. /Saclay /Lyon, IPN

    2005-08-15

    The Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) is a proposed space-based experiment designed to study the dark energy and alternative explanations of the acceleration of the Universe's expansion by performing a series of complementary systematics-controlled astrophysical measurements. We here describe a self-consistent reference mission design that can accomplish this goal with the two leading measurement approaches being the Type Ia supernova Hubble diagram and a wide-area weak gravitational lensing survey. This design has been optimized to first order and is now under study for further modification and optimization. A 2-m three-mirror anastigmat wide-field telescope feeds a focal plane consisting of a 0.7 square-degree imager tiled with equal areas of optical CCDs and near infrared sensors, and a high-efficiency low-resolution integral field spectrograph. The instrumentation suite provides simultaneous discovery and light-curve measurements of supernovae and then can target individual objects for detailed spectral characterization. The SNAP mission will discover thousands of Type Ia supernovae out to z = 3 and will obtain high-signal-to-noise calibrated light-curves and spectra for a subset of > 2000 supernovae at redshifts between z = 0.1 and 1.7 in a northern field and in a southern field. A wide-field survey covering one thousand square degrees in both northern and southern fields resolves {approx} 100 galaxies per square arcminute, or a total of more than 300 million galaxies. With the PSF stability afforded by a space observatory, SNAP will provide precise and accurate measurements of gravitational lensing. The high-quality data available in space, combined with the large sample of supernovae, will enable stringent control of systematic uncertainties. The resulting data set will be used to determine the energy density of dark energy and parameters that describe its dynamical behavior. The data also provide a direct test of theoretical models for the dark energy

  6. Supernova/Acceleration Probe: A Satellite Experiment to Study the Nature of the Dark Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Aldering, G.; Althouse, W.; Amanullah, R.; Annis, J.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bigelow, C.; Blandford, R.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Brown, M.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Craig, W.; Day, C.; DeJongh, F.; Deustua, S.; Diehl, T.; Dodelson, S.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmet, W.; Fouchez, D.; Frieman, J.; Fruchter, A.; Gerdes, D.; Gladney, L.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Hoff, M.; Holland, S.; Huffer, M.; Hui, L.; Huterer, D.; Jain, B.; Jelinsky, P.; Karcher, A.; Kent, S.; Kahn, S.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Kushner, G.; Kuznetsova, N.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Lampton, M.; Le Fevre, O.; Levi, M.; Limon, P.; Lin, H.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Lorenzon, W.; Malina, R.; Marriner, J.; Marshall, P.; Massey, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Peoples, J.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz, D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Roe, N.; Rusin, D.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Samdja, G.; Smith, R.M.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Stebbine, A.; Stoughton, C.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle, G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Tucker, D.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.; Wester, W.

    2004-05-12

    The Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) is a proposed space-based experiment designed to study the dark energy and alternative explanations of the acceleration of the Universes expansion by performing a series of complementary systematics-controlled astrophysical measurements. We here describe a self-consistent reference mission design that can accomplish this goal with the two leading measurement approaches being the Type Ia supernova Hubble diagram and a wide-area weak gravitational lensing survey. This design has been optimized to first order and is now under study for further modification and optimization. A 2-m three-mirror anastigmat wide-field telescope feeds a focal plane consisting of a 0.7 square-degree imager tiled with equal areas of optical CCDs and near infrared sensors, and a high efficiency low-resolution integral field spectrograph. The instrumentation suite provides simultaneous discovery and light-curve measurements of supernovae and then can target individual objects for detailed spectral characterization. The SNAP mission will discover thousands of Type Ia supernovae out to z = 3 and will obtain high-signal-to-noise calibrated light-curves and spectra for a subset of > 2000 supernovae at redshifts between z = 0.1 and 1.7 in a northern field and in a southern field. A wide-field survey covering one thousand square degrees in both northern and southern fields resolves {approx} 100 galaxies per square arcminute, or a total of more than 300 million galaxies. With the PSF stability afforded by a space observatory, SNAP will provide precise and accurate measurements of gravitational lensing. The high-quality data available in space, combined with the large sample of supernovae, will enable stringent control of systematic uncertainties. The resulting data set will be used to determine the energy density of dark energy and parameters that describe its dynamical behavior. The data also provide a direct test of theoretical models for the dark energy

  7. Distance probes of dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, A. G.; Padmanabhan, N.; Aldering, G.; Allen, S. W.; Baltay, C.; Cahn, R. N.; D’Andrea, C. B.; Dalal, N.; Dawson, K. S.; Denney, K. D.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Finley, D. A.; Freedman, W. L.; Ho, S.; Holz, D. E.; Kasen, D.; Kent, S. M.; Kessler, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Linder, E. V.; Martini, P.; Nugent, P. E.; Perlmutter, S.; Peterson, B. M.; Riess, A. G.; Rubin, D.; Sako, M.; Suntzeff, N. V.; Suzuki, N.; Thomas, R. C.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Woosley, S. E.

    2015-03-01

    This document presents the results from the Distances subgroup of the Cosmic Frontier Community Planning Study (Snowmass 2013). We summarize the current state of the field as well as future prospects and challenges. In addition to the established probes using Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations, we also consider prospective methods based on clusters, active galactic nuclei, gravitational wave sirens and strong lensing time delays.

  8. Distance Probes of Dark Energy

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, A. G.; Padmanabhan, N.; Aldering, G.; ...

    2015-03-15

    We present the results from the Distances subgroup of the Cosmic Frontier Community Planning Study (Snowmass 2013). This document summarizes the current state of the field as well as future prospects and challenges. In addition to the established probes using Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations, we also consider prospective methods based on clusters, active galactic nuclei, gravitational wave sirens and strong lensing time delays.

  9. Astrophysical Probes of Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Profumo, S.

    2013-08-01

    What is the connection between how the dark matter was produced in the early universe and how we can detect it today? Where does the WIMP miracle come from, and is it really a "WIMP" miracle? What brackets the mass range for thermal relics? Where does <συ> come from, and what does it mean? What is the difference between chemical and kinetic decoupling? Why do some people think that dark matter cannot be lighter than 40 GeV? Why is bbar b such a popular annihilation final state? Why is antimatter a good way to look for dark matter? Why should the cosmic-ray positron fraction decline with energy? How do you calculate the flux of neutrinos from dark matter annihilation in a celestial body, and when is it independent of the dark matter pair-annihilation rate? How does dark matter produce photons? -- Read these lecture notes, do the suggested 10 exercises, and you will find answers to all of these questions (and to many more on what You Always Wanted to Know About Dark Matter But Were Afraid to Ask).

  10. Distance probes of dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, A. G.; Padmanabhan, N.; Aldering, G.; Allen, S. W.; Baltay, C.; Cahn, R. N.; D'Andrea, C. B.; Dalal, N.; Dawson, K. S.; Denney, K. D.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Finley, D. A.; Freedman, W. L.; Ho, S.; Holz, D. E.; Kasen, D.; Kent, S. M.; Kessler, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Linder, E. V.; Martini, P.; Nugent, P. E.; Perlmutter, S.; Peterson, B. M.; Riess, A. G.; Rubin, D.; Sako, M.; Suntzeff, N. V.; Suzuki, N.; Thomas, R. C.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Woosley, S. E.

    2015-03-01

    This document presents the results from the Distances subgroup of the Cosmic Frontier Community Planning Study (Snowmass 2013). We summarize the current state of the field as well as future prospects and challenges. In addition to the established probes using Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations, we also consider prospective methods based on clusters, active galactic nuclei, gravitational wave sirens and strong lensing time delays. We note that these three elements together make a comprehensive DOE SN program, with a well- sequenced combination of R&D, construction, operations and analysis projects. The DOE SN researchers will be involved in several of these at any given time, since the precision SN cosmology measurement requires an in-depth understanding and use of SN data from all the redshift ranges simultaneously. A future Stage IV space-based SNe project would be the simplest way to match, at high redshift, these precision measurements of Type Ia supernovae at low redshift -measurements needed to provide the same systematics control over the entire redshift range from z ∼ 0.01 to z ∼ 2 . With modest investments in spectroscopic capabilities and a small fraction of mission time, WFIRST-AFTA could be upgraded [Editor's note: and has been upgraded in the current baseline; see Footnote2] to become this project, and would be complementary to the lensing programs of LSST/EUCLID. However, given the timescales and many difficulties of a space mission, there is now a need to explore vigorously a ground-based alternative to fill this important missing element in the DOE program. In particular, an R&D effort to explore the potential of novel ground-based techniques, combining near-IR technology with OH sky-line suppression, could make it possible to accomplish the precision measurements for SNe from SCP, DES, and LSST, complementing and strengthening these currently approved DOE projects.

  11. New probes of dark matter and dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Rae

    We use N -body simulations of a LCDM universe to study dark matter and dark energy. First, we examine the possibility of detecting the gravitational effect on the total redshift observed for galaxies. For clusters of mass M ~ 10 15 [Special characters omitted.] , the difference in gravitational redshift between the brightest galaxy and the rest of the cluster members is ~ 10 kms - 1 . The most efficient way to detect gravitational redshifts using information from galaxies only involves using the full gravitational redshift profile of clusters. Test on our simulated clusters show that we need at least ~ 2500 clusters/groups with M > 5 x 10 13 [Special characters omitted.] for a detection of gravitational redshifts at the 2s level. Secondly, we investigate the possibility of probing dark energy by measuring the isotropy of the galaxy cluster autocorrelation function (an Alcock-Paczynski test). We assume that the redshift distortion due to peculiar velocities can be removed by measuring kSZ effect. We use the hydrodynamic simulation results of Nagai et al. (2003) to simulate various kSZ surveys. We find by model fitting that a measurement of the correlation function distortion can be used to recover the cosmological parameters that have been used to generate the simulation. With the simulated SPT and ACT surveys, O L could be measured to within 0.1 and 0.2 respectively at one sigma, but only upper limits on the equation of state parameter w will be possible. Finally, using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations we measure the mean transmitted flux in the Lya forest for quasar sightlines that pass near a foreground quasar. We find that the trend of absorption with pixel- quasar separation distance can be fitted using a simple power law form including the usual correlation function parameters r 0 and g so that ([left angle bracket] F ( r )[right angle bracket] = SUMexp(-t eff (1 + [Special characters omitted.] ))). From the simulations we find the relation between r 0

  12. Probing Dark Energy with Constellation-X

    SciTech Connect

    Rapetti, David; Allen, Steven W.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-09-08

    Constellation-X (Con-X) will carry out two powerful and independent sets of tests of dark energy based on X-ray observations of galaxy clusters, providing comparable accuracy to other leading dark energy probes. The first group of tests will measure the absolute distances to clusters, primarily using measurements of the X-ray gas mass fraction in the largest, dynamically relaxed clusters, but with additional constraining power provided by follow-up observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. As with supernovae studies, such data determine the transformation between redshift and true distance, d(z), allowing cosmic acceleration to be measured directly. The second, independent group of tests will use the exquisite spectroscopic capabilities of Con-X to determine scaling relations between X-ray observables and mass. Together with forthcoming X-ray and SZ cluster surveys, these data will help to constrain the growth of structure, which is also a strong function of cosmological parameters.

  13. Astrophysical Probes of Dark Matter Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reece, Matthew

    The majority of matter in the universe is dark matter, made up of some particle beyond those in the Standard Model of particle physics. So far we have very little information about what dark matter is and how it interacts, except through gravity. Constraints from halo shapes and the Bullet Cluster give upper bounds on the self-interaction strength of dark matter, but these bounds are very weak: roughly the same size as nuclear physics cross sections, which are very large by the standards of particle physics. Given how little we know about dark matter, it is important to search for it in as broad a context as possible. Existing direct and indirect detection analyses are typically motivated by simple particle physics models like WIMP dark matter. This research will aim to widen the scope of searches for dark matter by considering a more complete range of particle physics models, working out their implications for astrophysical data, and interpreting existing data in terms of these new models. New models of dark matter can affect searches in a variety of ways. Signals may show up in conventional indirect detection searches, e.g. in gamma rays detected by Fermi-LAT or in antiprotons detected by AMS-02. The new particle physics content of the models could be reflected in surprising spectral shapes or other features of such signals, or in gamma rays with a different profile on the sky than expected in typical models. The PI has worked, for example, on a model in which signals may arise from a dark disk, which is just one of many possibilities. Signals of new dark matter models might also arise in more subtle ways. Structure in the dark sector could influence the development of structure in the visible sector, indirectly. For instance, a dark matter disk or other dark structures could alter the orbits of stars in the galaxy and may be detectable through detailed studies of the kinematics of stellar populations. Dark accretion disks could exist around astrophysical objects

  14. New astrophysical probes of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mei-Yu

    In my thesis, I present four studies to explore astrophysical methods for understanding dark matter properties. To understand the nature of dark matter, I explore a few unstable dark matter models that are invoked as ways to address apparent discrepancies between the predictions of standard cold dark matter and observations of small-scale galactic structure. My studies are aimed at developing independent large-scale constraints on these models. One of the model is a decaying dark matter model such that one dark matter particle decays into two relativistic non-interacting particles. In the second model, a dark matter particle decays into a less massive, stable dark matter particle with a recoil kick velocity Vk and a relativistic non-interacting particle. I consider two types of experiments: one is weak lensing cosmic shear with future or forthcoming surveys like Dark Energy Survey (DES) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST); the other one is Lyman-alpha forest spectrum, which has contemporary data from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and other observations. I found that large-scale structure growth is sensitive to the change of dark matter properties due to these decay processes, and they can provide competitive constraints comparing to other existing limits. On small scale, the gravitational interplay of baryon and dark matter can affect the clustering of dark matter. I examine adiabatic contraction (AC) models what are traditionally used to parametrize the dark matter response to the cooling of baryons by investigating a suite of numerical simulations. We found that the errors in AC reconstructions are correlated with baryonic physics and certain halo properties. Our results indicate that existing AC models need significant calibration in order to predicting realistic matter distribution.

  15. Probing dark exciton diffusion using photovoltage

    PubMed Central

    Mullenbach, Tyler K.; Curtin, Ian J.; Zhang, Tao; Holmes, Russell J.

    2017-01-01

    The migration of weakly and non-luminescent (dark) excitons remains an understudied subset of exciton dynamics in molecular thin films. Inaccessible via photoluminescence, these states are often probed using photocurrent methods that require efficient charge collection. Here we probe exciton harvesting in both luminescent and dark materials using a photovoltage-based technique. Transient photovoltage permits a real-time measurement of the number of charges in an organic photovoltaic cell, while avoiding non-geminate recombination losses. The extracted exciton diffusion lengths are found to be similar to those determined using photocurrent. For the luminescent material boron subphthalocyanine chloride, the photovoltage determined diffusion length is less than that extracted from photoluminescence. This indicates that while photovoltage circumvents non-geminate losses, geminate recombination at the donor–acceptor interface remains the primary recombination pathway. Photovoltage thus offers a general approach for extracting a device-relevant diffusion length, while also providing insight in to the dominant carrier recombination pathways. PMID:28128206

  16. Probing dark exciton diffusion using photovoltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullenbach, Tyler K.; Curtin, Ian J.; Zhang, Tao; Holmes, Russell J.

    2017-01-01

    The migration of weakly and non-luminescent (dark) excitons remains an understudied subset of exciton dynamics in molecular thin films. Inaccessible via photoluminescence, these states are often probed using photocurrent methods that require efficient charge collection. Here we probe exciton harvesting in both luminescent and dark materials using a photovoltage-based technique. Transient photovoltage permits a real-time measurement of the number of charges in an organic photovoltaic cell, while avoiding non-geminate recombination losses. The extracted exciton diffusion lengths are found to be similar to those determined using photocurrent. For the luminescent material boron subphthalocyanine chloride, the photovoltage determined diffusion length is less than that extracted from photoluminescence. This indicates that while photovoltage circumvents non-geminate losses, geminate recombination at the donor-acceptor interface remains the primary recombination pathway. Photovoltage thus offers a general approach for extracting a device-relevant diffusion length, while also providing insight in to the dominant carrier recombination pathways.

  17. Novel Probes of Gravity and Dark Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Bhuvnesh; et al.

    2013-09-20

    The discovery of cosmic acceleration has stimulated theorists to consider dark energy or modifications to Einstein's General Relativity as possible explanations. The last decade has seen advances in theories that go beyond smooth dark energy -- modified gravity and interactions of dark energy. While the theoretical terrain is being actively explored, the generic presence of fifth forces and dark sector couplings suggests a set of distinct observational signatures. This report focuses on observations that differ from the conventional probes that map the expansion history or large-scale structure. Examples of such novel probes are: detection of scalar fields via lab experiments, tests of modified gravity using stars and galaxies in the nearby universe, comparison of lensing and dynamical masses of galaxies and clusters, and the measurements of fundamental constants at high redshift. The observational expertise involved is very broad as it spans laboratory experiments, high resolution astronomical imaging and spectroscopy and radio observations. In the coming decade, searches for these effects have the potential for discovering fundamental new physics. We discuss how the searches can be carried out using experiments that are already under way or with modest adaptations of existing telescopes or planned experiments. The accompanying paper on the Growth of Cosmic Structure describes complementary tests of gravity with observations of large-scale structure.

  18. Direct probe of dark energy through gravitational lensing effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong-Jian; Zhang, Zhen

    2017-08-01

    We show that gravitational lensing can provide a direct method to probe the nature of dark energy at astrophysical scales. For lensing system as an isolated astrophysical object, we derive the dark energy contribution to gravitational potential as a repulsive power-law term, containing a generic equation of state parameter w. We find that it generates w-dependent and position-dependent modification to the conventional light orbital equation of w=‑1. With post-Newtonian approximation, we compute its direct effect for an isolated lensing system at astrophysical scales and find that the dark energy force can deflect the path of incident light rays. We demonstrate that the dark-energy-induced deflection angle ΔαDEpropto M(1+1/3w) (with 1+1/3w > 0), which increases with the lensing mass M and consistently approaches zero in the limit M→ 0. This effect is distinctive because dark energy tends to diffuse the rays and generates concave lensing effect. This is in contrast to the conventional convex lensing effect caused by both visible and dark matter. Measuring such concave lensing effect can directly probe the existence and nature of dark energy. We estimate this effect and show that the current gravitational lensing experiments are sensitive to the direct probe of dark energy at astrophysical scales. For the special case w=‑1, our independent study favors the previous works that the cosmological constant can affect light bending, but our prediction qualitatively and quantitatively differ from the literature, including our consistent realization of ΔαDE → 0 (under 0M→ ) at the leading order.

  19. Voids as a precision probe of dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Rahul; Alizadeh, Esfandiar; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2010-07-15

    The shapes of cosmic voids, as measured in spectroscopic galaxy redshift surveys, constitute a promising new probe of dark energy (DE). We forecast constraints on the DE equation of state and its variation from current and future surveys and find that the promise of void shape measurements compares favorably to that of standard methods such as supernovae and cluster counts even for currently available data. Owing to the complementary nature of the constraints, void shape measurements improve the Dark Energy Task Force figure of merit by 2 orders of magnitude for a future large scale experiment such as EUCLID when combined with other probes of dark energy available on a similar time scale. Modeling several observational and theoretical systematics has only moderate effects on these forecasts. We discuss additional systematics which will require further study using simulations.

  20. Probing leptophilic dark sectors with hadronic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Eramo, Francesco; Kavanagh, Bradley J.; Panci, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    We study vector portal dark matter models where the mediator couples only to leptons. In spite of the lack of tree-level couplings to colored states, radiative effects generate interactions with quark fields that could give rise to a signal in current and future experiments. We identify such experimental signatures: scattering of nuclei in dark matter direct detection; resonant production of lepton-antilepton pairs at the Large Hadron Collider; and hadronic final states in dark matter indirect searches. Furthermore, radiative effects also generate an irreducible mass mixing between the vector mediator and the Z boson, severely bounded by ElectroWeak Precision Tests. We use current experimental results to put bounds on this class of models, accounting for both radiatively induced and tree-level processes. Remarkably, the former often overwhelm the latter.

  1. Probing dark energy beyond z=2 with CODEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vielzeuf, P. E.; Martins, C. J. A. P.

    2012-04-01

    Precision measurements of nature’s fundamental couplings and a first measurement of the cosmological redshift drift are two of the key targets for future high-resolution ultrastable spectrographs such as CODEX. Being able to do both gives CODEX a unique advantage, allowing it to probe dynamical dark energy models (by measuring the behavior of their equation of state) deep in the matter era and thereby testing classes of models that would otherwise be difficult to distinguish from the standard lambda-cold dark matter paradigm. We illustrate this point with two simple case studies.

  2. Probing dark particles indirectly at the CEPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Qing-Hong; Li, Yang; Yan, Bin; Zhang, Ya; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-08-01

    When dark matter candidate and its parent particles are nearly degenerate, it would be difficult to probe them at the Large Hadron Collider directly. We propose to explore their quantum loop effects at the CEPC through the golden channel process e+e- →μ+μ-. We use a renormalizable toy model consisting of a new scalar and a fermion to describe new physics beyond the Standard Model. The new scalar and fermion are general multiplets of the SU(2)L × U(1)Y symmetry, and couple to the muon lepton through Yukawa interaction. We calculate their loop contributions to anomalous γμ+μ- and Zμ+μ- couplings which can be applied to many new physics models. The prospects of their effects at the CEPC are also examined assuming a 2‰ accuracy in the cross section measurement.

  3. GALAXY CLUSTERS AS A PROBE OF EARLY DARK ENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Ujjaini; Lukic, Zarija; Bhattacharya, Suman E-mail: zarija@lanl.gov

    2011-02-01

    We study a class of early dark energy (EDE) models, in which, unlike in standard dark energy models, a substantial amount of dark energy exists in the matter-dominated era. We self-consistently include dark energy perturbations, and show that these models may be successfully constrained using future observations of galaxy clusters, in particular the redshift abundance, and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) power spectrum. We make predictions for EDE models, as well as {Lambda}CDM for incoming X-ray (eROSITA) and microwave (South Pole Telescope) observations. We show that galaxy clusters' mass function and the SZ power spectrum will put strong constraints both on the equation of state of dark energy today and the redshift at which EDE transits to present-day {Lambda}CDM-like behavior for these models, thus providing complementary information to the geometric probes of dark energy. Not including perturbations in EDE models leads to those models being practically indistinguishable from {Lambda}CDM. An MCMC analysis of future galaxy cluster surveys provides constraints for EDE parameters that are competitive with and complementary to background expansion observations such as supernovae.

  4. Probing the Dark Sector with Dark Matter Bound States.

    PubMed

    An, Haipeng; Echenard, Bertrand; Pospelov, Maxim; Zhang, Yue

    2016-04-15

    A model of the dark sector where O(few  GeV) mass dark matter particles χ couple to a lighter dark force mediator V, m_{V}≪m_{χ}, is motivated by the recently discovered mismatch between simulated and observed shapes of galactic halos. Such models, in general, provide a challenge for direct detection efforts and collider searches. We show that for a large range of coupling constants and masses, the production and decay of the bound states of χ, such as 0^{-+} and 1^{--} states, η_{D} and ϒ_{D}, is an important search channel. We show that e^{+}e^{-}→η_{D}+V or ϒ_{D}+γ production at B factories for α_{D}>0.1 is sufficiently strong to result in multiple pairs of charged leptons and pions via η_{D}→2V→2(l^{+}l^{-}) and ϒ_{D}→3V→3(l^{+}l^{-}) (l=e,μ,π). The absence of such final states in the existing searches performed at BABAR and Belle sets new constraints on the parameter space of the model. We also show that a search for multiple bremsstrahlung of dark force mediators, e^{+}e^{-}→χχ[over ¯]+nV, resulting in missing energy and multiple leptons, will further improve the sensitivity to self-interacting dark matter.

  5. Probing the Dark Sector with Dark Matter Bound States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Haipeng; Echenard, Bertrand; Pospelov, Maxim; Zhang, Yue

    2016-04-01

    A model of the dark sector where O (few GeV ) mass dark matter particles χ couple to a lighter dark force mediator V , mV≪mχ, is motivated by the recently discovered mismatch between simulated and observed shapes of galactic halos. Such models, in general, provide a challenge for direct detection efforts and collider searches. We show that for a large range of coupling constants and masses, the production and decay of the bound states of χ , such as 0-+ and 1-- states, ηD and ϒD, is an important search channel. We show that e+e-→ηD+V or ϒD+γ production at B factories for αD>0.1 is sufficiently strong to result in multiple pairs of charged leptons and pions via ηD→2 V →2 (l+l-) and ϒD→3 V →3 (l+l-) (l =e ,μ ,π ). The absence of such final states in the existing searches performed at BABAR and Belle sets new constraints on the parameter space of the model. We also show that a search for multiple bremsstrahlung of dark force mediators, e+e-→χ χ ¯+n V , resulting in missing energy and multiple leptons, will further improve the sensitivity to self-interacting dark matter.

  6. Astrophysical Probes of New Models of Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, Kathryn

    One of the most pressing and relevant cosmological questions is on the nature of the dark matter. I propose a comprehensive program at the boundary of astrophysics and cosmology with particle physics, focused on the question on the nature of the Dark Matter (DM). Research at the boundary of the two fields is critically important as a plethora of experiments in both particle physics and astrophysics, such as direct and indirect detection of Dark Matter (DM) by the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope (FGST), AMS-02, and Cosmic Microwave Background probes such as Planck, come online. At the same time, data from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will probe fundamental questions about Electroweak Symmetry Breaking and its implications for astrophysics and cosmology, as concerns especially the nature of the DM and the generation of the baryon asymmetry. Physics beyond the Standard Model (SM) is required to explain the astrophysical observation that DM dominates over ordinary matter by a ratio 5:1, as we learned through WMAP, as well as large scale structure surveys. Despite lacking an understanding of the properties of the DM, its presence is crucial for the formation of structure in the universe. Particle physics provides a framework for understanding what the DM could be. This proposal centers on building new models of DM, as well as studying their signatures both in the galaxy and on earth. While particle physics has provided a few popular candidates for DM (such as the supersymmetric neutralino), whose signatures have been extensively studied in the literature, it is important to consider other theoretically motivated candidates which provide distinct signatures. This proposal focuses on such new models of DM, especially models of DM from hidden sectors. For example, recently, the PAMELA experiment has observed a rise in the ratio of positron to electron flux at high energies. The flux may likely come from astrophysical objects nearby, such as pulsars. An intriguing

  7. Probing Sub-GeV Dark Matter with Conventional Detectors.

    PubMed

    Kouvaris, Chris; Pradler, Josef

    2017-01-20

    The direct detection of dark matter particles with mass below the GeV scale is hampered by soft nuclear recoil energies and finite detector thresholds. For a given maximum relative velocity, the kinematics of elastic dark matter nucleus scattering sets a principal limit on detectability. Here, we propose to bypass the kinematic limitations by considering the inelastic channel of photon emission from bremsstrahlung in the nuclear recoil. Our proposed method allows us to set the first limits on dark matter below 500 MeV in the plane of dark matter mass and cross section with nucleons. In situations where a dark-matter-electron coupling is suppressed, bremsstrahlung may constitute the only path to probe low-mass dark matter awaiting new detector technologies with lowered recoil energy thresholds.

  8. Probing Sub-GeV Dark Matter with Conventional Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouvaris, Chris; Pradler, Josef

    2017-01-01

    The direct detection of dark matter particles with mass below the GeV scale is hampered by soft nuclear recoil energies and finite detector thresholds. For a given maximum relative velocity, the kinematics of elastic dark matter nucleus scattering sets a principal limit on detectability. Here, we propose to bypass the kinematic limitations by considering the inelastic channel of photon emission from bremsstrahlung in the nuclear recoil. Our proposed method allows us to set the first limits on dark matter below 500 MeV in the plane of dark matter mass and cross section with nucleons. In situations where a dark-matter-electron coupling is suppressed, bremsstrahlung may constitute the only path to probe low-mass dark matter awaiting new detector technologies with lowered recoil energy thresholds.

  9. Probing the inert doublet dark matter model with Cherenkov telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Cely, Camilo; Gustafsson, Michael; Ibarra, Alejandro E-mail: michael.gustafsson@theorie.physik.uni-goettingen.de

    2016-02-01

    We present a detailed study of the annihilation signals of the inert dark matter doublet model in its high mass regime. Concretely, we study the prospects to observe gamma-ray signals of the model in current and projected Cherenkov telescopes taking into account the Sommerfeld effect and including the contribution to the spectrum from gamma-ray lines as well as from internal bremsstrahlung. We show that present observations of the galactic center by the H.E.S.S. instrument are able to exclude regions of the parameter space that give the correct dark matter relic abundance. In particular, models with the charged and the neutral components of the inert doublet nearly degenerate in mass have strong gamma-ray signals. Furthermore, for dark matter particle masses above 1 TeV, we find that the non-observation of the continuum of photons generated by the hadronization of the annihilation products typically give stronger constraints on the model parameters than the sharp spectral features associated to annihilation into monochromatic photons and the internal bremsstrahlung process. Lastly, we also analyze the interplay between indirect and direct detection searches for this model, concluding that the prospects for the former are more promising. In particular, we find that the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array will be able to probe a significant part of the high mass regime of the model.

  10. Probing gravitation, dark energy, and acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, Eric V.

    2004-02-20

    The acceleration of the expansion of the universe arises from unknown physical processes involving either new fields in high energy physics or modifications of gravitation theory. It is crucial for our understanding to characterize the properties of the dark energy or gravity through cosmological observations and compare and distinguish between them. In fact, close consistencies exist between a dark energy equation of state function w(z) and changes to the framework of the Friedmann cosmological equations as well as direct spacetime geometry quantities involving the acceleration, such as ''geometric dark energy'' from the Ricci scalar. We investigate these interrelationships, including for the case of super acceleration or phantom energy where the fate of the universe may be more gentle than the Big Rip.

  11. Dark-matter decay as a complementary probe of multicomponent dark sectors.

    PubMed

    Dienes, Keith R; Kumar, Jason; Thomas, Brooks; Yaylali, David

    2015-02-06

    In single-component theories of dark matter, the 2→2 amplitudes for dark-matter production, annihilation, and scattering can be related to each other through various crossing symmetries. The detection techniques based on these processes are thus complementary. However, multicomponent theories exhibit an additional direction for dark-matter complementarity: the possibility of dark-matter decay from heavier to lighter components. We discuss how this new detection channel may be correlated with the others, and demonstrate that the enhanced complementarity which emerges can be an important ingredient in probing and constraining the parameter spaces of such models.

  12. Probing dark matter at the LHC using vector boson fusion processes.

    PubMed

    Delannoy, Andres G; Dutta, Bhaskar; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Will; Kamon, Teruki; Luiggi, Eduardo; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Sinha, Kuver; Wang, Kechen; Wu, Sean

    2013-08-09

    Vector boson fusion processes at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) provide a unique opportunity to search for new physics with electroweak couplings. A feasibility study for the search of supersymmetric dark matter in the final state of two vector boson fusion jets and large missing transverse energy is presented at 14 TeV. Prospects for determining the dark matter relic density are studied for the cases of wino and bino-Higgsino dark matter. The LHC could probe wino dark matter with mass up to approximately 600 GeV with a luminosity of 1000  fb(-1).

  13. Probing dark energy with atom interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Burrage, Clare; Copeland, Edmund J.; Hinds, E.A. E-mail: Edmund.Copeland@nottingham.ac.uk

    2015-03-01

    Theories of dark energy require a screening mechanism to explain why the associated scalar fields do not mediate observable long range fifth forces. The archetype of this is the chameleon field. Here we show that individual atoms are too small to screen the chameleon field inside a large high-vacuum chamber, and therefore can detect the field with high sensitivity. We derive new limits on the chameleon parameters from existing experiments, and show that most of the remaining chameleon parameter space is readily accessible using atom interferometry.

  14. Probing dark energy with atom interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrage, Clare; Copeland, Edmund J.; Hinds, E. A.

    2015-03-01

    Theories of dark energy require a screening mechanism to explain why the associated scalar fields do not mediate observable long range fifth forces. The archetype of this is the chameleon field. Here we show that individual atoms are too small to screen the chameleon field inside a large high-vacuum chamber, and therefore can detect the field with high sensitivity. We derive new limits on the chameleon parameters from existing experiments, and show that most of the remaining chameleon parameter space is readily accessible using atom interferometry.

  15. Black holes are neither particle accelerators nor dark matter probes.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Sean T

    2013-01-04

    It has been suggested that maximally spinning black holes can serve as particle accelerators, reaching arbitrarily high center-of-mass energies. Despite several objections regarding the practical achievability of such high energies, and demonstrations past and present that such large energies could never reach a distant observer, interest in this problem has remained substantial. We show that, unfortunately, a maximally spinning black hole can never serve as a probe of high energy collisions, even in principle and despite the correctness of the original diverging energy calculation. Black holes can indeed facilitate dark matter annihilation, but the most energetic photons can carry little more than the rest energy of the dark matter particles to a distant observer, and those photons are actually generated relatively far from the black hole where relativistic effects are negligible. Therefore, any strong gravitational potential could probe dark matter equally well, and an appeal to black holes for facilitating such collisions is unnecessary.

  16. Probing Dark Energy with High Redshift Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlmutter, S.

    2003-05-01

    The Hubble diagram of Type Ia Supernovae provides the most direct current measurement of the expansion history of the universe, including the present acceleration and the transition to matter-dominated deceleration. Recent measurements already yield statistical uncertainties small enough that we are close to being limited by systematics. I will review the anticipated improvement in systematics attainable by the next generations of experiments from ground and space that promise a systematics-controlled prize: a detailed expansion history of the universe that can teach us about the nature of the mysterious "dark energy" that accelerates the universe. This work is supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Science, under contract DE-AC03-76SF00098.

  17. Probing the dark energy with quasar clustering.

    PubMed

    Calvão, M O; de Mello Neto, J R T; Waga, I

    2002-03-04

    We show through Monte Carlo simulations that the Alcock-Paczyński test, as applied to quasar clustering, is a powerful tool to probe the cosmological density and equation of state parameters Omega(m0), Omega(x0), and w. By taking into account the effect of peculiar velocities upon the correlation function we obtain for the Two-Degree Field QSO Redshift Survey the predicted confidence contours for the cosmological constant (w = -1) and spatially flat (Omega(m0)+Omega(x0) = 1) cases. For w = -1, the test is especially sensitive to the difference Omega(m0)-Omega(Lambda0), thus being ideal to combine with cosmic microwave background results. For the flat case, it is competitive with future supernova and galaxy number count tests, besides being complementary to them.

  18. Constraints on dark radiation from cosmological probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Graziano; Yèche, Christophe; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Lesgourgues, Julien

    2015-09-01

    We present joint constraints on the number of effective neutrino species Neff and the sum of neutrino masses ∑mν, based on a technique which exploits the full information contained in the one-dimensional Lyman-α forest flux power spectrum, complemented by additional cosmological probes. In particular, we obtain Neff=2.9 1-0.22+0.21 (95% C.L.) and ∑mν<0.15 eV (95% C.L.) when we combine BOSS Lyman-α forest data with CMB (Planck+ACT +SPT +WMAP polarization) measurements, and Neff=2.88 ±0.20 (95% C.L.) and ∑mν<0.14 eV (95% C.L.) when we further add baryon acoustic oscillations. Our results provide strong evidence for the cosmic neutrino background from Neff˜3 (Neff=0 is rejected at more than 14 σ ), and rule out the possibility of a sterile neutrino thermalized with active neutrinos (i.e., Neff=4 )—or more generally any decoupled relativistic relic with Δ Neff≃1 —at a significance of over 5 σ , the strongest bound to date, implying that there is no need for exotic neutrino physics in the concordance Λ CDM model.

  19. Charged Higgs Probes of Dark Bosons at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Kyoungchul; Lee, Hye-Sung; Park, Myeonghun

    2014-08-01

    A very light (GeV scale) dark gauge boson (Z') is a recently highlighted hypothetical particle that can address some astrophysical anomalies as well as the 3.6σ deviation in the muon g-2 measurement. We suggest top quark decays as a venue to search for light dark force carriers at the LHC. Such Z's can be easily boosted, and they can decay into highly collimated leptons (lepton-jet) with large branching ratio. We investigate a scenario where a top quark decays to bW accompanied by one or multiple dark force carriers and find that such a scenario could be easily probed at the early stage of LHC Run 2.

  20. Growth of Cosmic Structure: Probing Dark Energy Beyond Expansion

    DOE PAGES

    Huterer, Dragan; Kirkby, David; Bean, Rachel; ...

    2014-03-15

    The quantity and quality of cosmic structure observations have greatly accelerated in recent years, and further leaps forward will be facilitated by imminent projects. These will enable us to map the evolution of dark and baryonic matter density fluctuations over cosmic history. The way that these fluctuations vary over space and time is sensitive to several pieces of fundamental physics: the primordial perturbations generated by GUT-scale physics; neutrino masses and interactions; the nature of dark matter and dark energy. We focus on the last of these here: the ways that combining probes of growth with those of the cosmic expansionmore » such as distance-redshift relations will pin down the mechanism driving the acceleration of the Universe.« less

  1. Solar γ rays as a complementary probe of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arina, Chiara; Backović, Mihailo; Heisig, Jan; Lucente, Michele

    2017-09-01

    We show that observations of solar γ rays offer a novel probe of dark matter in scenarios where interactions with the visible sector proceed via a long-lived mediator. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that there exists a class of models which yield solar γ -ray fluxes observable with the next generation of γ -ray telescopes, while being allowed by a variety of current experimental constraints. The parameter space allowed by big bang nucleosynthesis and beam dump experiments naturally leads to mediator lifetimes sufficient to produce observable solar γ -ray signals. The model allows for solar γ -ray fluxes up to orders of magnitude larger compared to dwarf spheroidal galaxies, without reaching equilibrium between dark matter annihilation and capture rate. Our results suggest that solar γ -ray observations are complementary, and in some cases superior, to existing and future dark matter detection efforts.

  2. Growth of Cosmic Structure: Probing Dark Energy Beyond Expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Huterer, Dragan; Kirkby, David; Bean, Rachel; Connolly, Andrew; Dawson, Kyle; Dodelson, Scott; Evrard, August; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Jarvis, Michael; Linder, Eric; Mandelbaum, Rachel; May, Morgan; Raccanelli, Alvise; Reid, Beth; Rozo, Eduardo; Schmidt, Fabian; Sehgal, Neelima; Slosar, Anze; Van Engelen, Alex; Wu, Hao-Yi; Zhao, Gongbo

    2014-03-15

    The quantity and quality of cosmic structure observations have greatly accelerated in recent years, and further leaps forward will be facilitated by imminent projects. These will enable us to map the evolution of dark and baryonic matter density fluctuations over cosmic history. The way that these fluctuations vary over space and time is sensitive to several pieces of fundamental physics: the primordial perturbations generated by GUT-scale physics; neutrino masses and interactions; the nature of dark matter and dark energy. We focus on the last of these here: the ways that combining probes of growth with those of the cosmic expansion such as distance-redshift relations will pin down the mechanism driving the acceleration of the Universe.

  3. Growth of cosmic structure: Probing dark energy beyond expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Huterer, Dragan; Kirkby, David; Bean, Rachel; Connolly, Andrew; Dawson, Kyle; Dodelson, Scott; Evrard, August; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Jarvis, Michael; Linder, Eric; Mandelbaum, Rachel; May, Morgan; Raccanelli, Alvise; Reid, Beth; Rozo, Eduardo; Schmidt, Fabian; Sehgal, Neelima; Slosar, Anže; van Engelen, Alex; Wu, Hao-Yi; Zhao, Gongbo

    2015-03-01

    The quantity and quality of cosmic structure observations have greatly accelerated in recent years, and further leaps forward will be facilitated by imminent projects. These will enable us to map the evolution of dark and baryonic matter density fluctuations over cosmic history. The way that these fluctuations vary over space and time is sensitive to several pieces of fundamental physics: the primordial perturbations generated by GUT-scale physics; neutrino masses and interactions; the nature of dark matter and dark energy. We focus on the last of these here: the ways that combining probes of growth with those of the cosmic expansion such as distance-redshift relations will pin down the mechanism driving the acceleration of the Universe.

  4. Gamma-ray probes of dark matter substructure

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Sheldon

    2014-06-24

    The substructure content of dark matter halos is interesting because it can be affected by complex galaxy physics and dark matter particle physics. However, observing the small scale structure of dark matter is a challenge. The subhalo abundance (mass function, minimum mass) and morphology (density profile, subhalo shape, subsubstructure) contain information about complex astrophysics (halo formation processes) and new exotic fundamental physics (dark matter interactions). Indirect detection of dark matter annihilation radiation (DMAR) in gamma rays may be the most direct method for observing small scale structure. I outline the ways in which gamma rays may probe halo substructure. If substructure is bountiful, it may be responsible for the eventual discovery of DMAR, for instance in galaxy clusters or the diffuse gamma-ray background. Otherwise, the observation of DMAR in places without much substructure, such as the Galactic center, would lead to strict limits on the properties of small scale structure. Properties of the gamma-ray angular power spectrum will also provide information or constraints on Milky Way halo substructure.

  5. Gravitational wave sirens as a triple probe of dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, Eric V.

    2008-03-01

    Gravitational wave standard sirens have been considered as precision distance indicators of high redshift; however, at high redshift standard sirens or standard candles such as supernovae suffer from lensing noise. We investigate lensing noise as a signal instead and show how measurements of the maximum demagnification (minimum convergence) probe cosmology in a manner highly complementary to the distance itself. Revisiting the original form for minimum convergence we quantify the bias arising from the commonly used approximation. Furthermore, after presenting a new lensing probability function we discuss how the width of the lensed standard siren amplitude distribution also probes growth of structure. Thus standard sirens and candles can serve as triple probes of dark energy, measuring both the cosmic expansion history and growth history.

  6. Gravitational wave sirens as a triple probe of dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, Eric V

    2008-03-15

    Gravitational wave standard sirens have been considered as precision distance indicators of high redshift; however, at high redshift standard sirens or standard candles such as supernovae suffer from lensing noise. We investigate lensing noise as a signal instead and show how measurements of the maximum demagnification (minimum convergence) probe cosmology in a manner highly complementary to the distance itself. Revisiting the original form for minimum convergence we quantify the bias arising from the commonly used approximation. Furthermore, after presenting a new lensing probability function we discuss how the width of the lensed standard siren amplitude distribution also probes growth of structure. Thus standard sirens and candles can serve as triple probes of dark energy, measuring both the cosmic expansion history and growth history.

  7. LSST as a precision probe of dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, Tony; Wittman, David; Hennawi, Joe; Spergel, David

    2002-04-01

    The distortion of images of high-redshift background galaxies can be used to probe the intervening mass distribution. This weak gravitational lens effect can be used to detect clusters of dark matter, weigh them, image their mass distribution, and determine their 3-D location. The number of mass clusters detected and their redshift distribution are very sensitive to the density of matter Ωm and the equation of state of dark energy w. The degeneracy curve in the Ωm -- w plane is nearly orthogonal to that from the CMB measurements, so that a combination of CMB data with weak lensing by clusters can yield precision measurements of Ωm and w, independently of the supernova observations. The planned Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will repeatedly survey 14,000 square degrees of the sky to unprecedented depths. LSST will create a 3-D mass tomographic assay of mass overdensities back to half the age of the universe by measuring the weak gravitational shear and color-redshift of billions of high redshift galaxies. LSST measurements of shear versus source redshift and lens redshift constrain the dark energy density and equation of state. By simultaneously measuring a range of properties of cosmic shear and cluster abundance, the LSST is able to provide a number of independent constraints on the dark energy density and the equation of state. LSST will determine the dark energy equation of state w to within one percent, sharply constraining the nature of dark energy. See the web site http://lssto.org for plots.

  8. Calibrating CHIME: a new radio interferometer to probe dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newburgh, Laura B.; Addison, Graeme E.; Amiri, Mandana; Bandura, Kevin; Bond, J. Richard; Connor, Liam; Cliche, Jean-François; Davis, Greg; Deng, Meiling; Denman, Nolan; Dobbs, Matt; Fandino, Mateus; Fong, Heather; Gibbs, Kenneth; Gilbert, Adam; Griffin, Elizabeth; Halpern, Mark; Hanna, David; Hincks, Adam D.; Hinshaw, Gary; Höfer, Carolin; Klages, Peter; Landecker, Tom; Masui, Kiyoshi; Parra, Juan Mena; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeff; Recnik, Andre; Shaw, J. Richard; Sigurdson, Kris; Sitwell, Micheal; Smecher, Graeme; Smegal, Rick; Vanderlinde, Keith; Wiebe, Don

    2014-07-01

    The Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) is a transit interferometer currently being built at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) in Penticton, BC, Canada. We will use CHIME to map neutral hydrogen in the frequency range 400 { 800MHz over half of the sky, producing a measurement of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) at redshifts between 0.8 { 2.5 to probe dark energy. We have deployed a pathfinder version of CHIME that will yield constraints on the BAO power spectrum and provide a test-bed for our calibration scheme. I will discuss the CHIME calibration requirements and describe instrumentation we are developing to meet these requirements.

  9. Neutrino probes of the nature of light dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Mena, Olga; Blennow, Mattias; Martinez, Enrique Fernandez E-mail: blennow@mppmu.mpg.de E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es

    2011-09-01

    Dark matter particles gravitationally trapped inside the Sun may annihilate into Standard Model particles, producing a flux of neutrinos. The prospects of detecting these neutrinos in future multi-kt neutrino detectors designed for other physics searches are explored here. We study the capabilities of a 34/100 kt liquid argon detector and a 100 kt magnetized iron calorimeter detector. These detectors are expected to determine the energy and the direction of the incoming neutrino with unprecedented precision allowing for tests of the dark matter nature at very low dark matter masses, in the range of 10–25 GeV. By suppressing the atmospheric background with angular cuts, these techniques would be sensitive to dark matter-nucleon spin-dependent cross sections at the fb level, reaching down to a few ab for the most favorable annihilation channels and detector technology.

  10. Growth of cosmic structure: Probing dark energy beyond expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huterer, Dragan; Kirkby, David; Bean, Rachel; Connolly, Andrew; Dawson, Kyle; Dodelson, Scott; Evrard, August; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Jarvis, Michael; Linder, Eric; Mandelbaum, Rachel; May, Morgan; Raccanelli, Alvise; Reid, Beth; Rozo, Eduardo; Schmidt, Fabian; Sehgal, Neelima; Slosar, Anže; van Engelen, Alex; Wu, Hao-Yi; Zhao, Gongbo

    2015-03-01

    The quantity and quality of cosmic structure observations have greatly accelerated in recent years, and further leaps forward will be facilitated by imminent projects. These will enable us to map the evolution of dark and baryonic matter density fluctuations over cosmic history. The way that these fluctuations vary over space and time is sensitive to several pieces of fundamental physics: the primordial perturbations generated by GUT-scale physics; neutrino masses and interactions; the nature of dark matter and dark energy. We focus on the last of these here: the ways that combining probes of growth with those of the cosmic expansion such as distance-redshift relations will pin down the mechanism driving the acceleration of the Universe. One way to explain the acceleration of the Universe is invoke dark energy parameterized by an equation of state w. Distance measurements provide one set of constraints on w, but dark energy also affects how rapidly structure grows; the greater the acceleration, the more suppressed the growth of structure. Upcoming surveys are therefore designed to probe w with direct observations of the distance scale and the growth of structure, each complementing the other on systematic errors and constraints on dark energy. A consistent set of results will greatly increase the reliability of the final answer. Another possibility is that there is no dark energy, but that General Relativity does not describe the laws of physics accurately on large scales. While the properties of gravity have been measured with exquisite precision at stellar system scales and densities, within our solar system and by binary pulsar systems, its properties in different environments are poorly constrained. To fully understand if General Relativity is the complete theory of gravity we must test gravity across a spectrum of scales and densities. Rapid developments in gravitational wave astronomy and numerical relativity are directed at testing gravity in the high

  11. Dark quenched matrix metalloproteinase fluorogenic probe for imaging osteoarthritis development in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seulki; Park, Kyeongsoon; Lee, Seung-Young; Ryu, Ju Hee; Park, Jong Woong; Ahn, Hyung Jun; Kwon, Ick Chan; Youn, In-Chan; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Choi, Kuiwon

    2008-09-01

    The early detection of osteoarthritis (OA) is currently a key challenge in the field of rheumatology. Biochemical studies of OA have indicated that matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) plays a central role in cartilage degradation. In this study, we describe the potential use of a dark-quenched fluorogenic MMP-13 probe to image MMP-13 in both in vitro and rat models. The imaging technique involved using a MMP-13 peptide substrate, near-infrared (NIR) dye, and a NIR dark quencher. The results from this study demonstrate that the use of a dark-quenched fluorogenic probe allows for the visual detection of MMP-13 in vitro and in OA-induced rat models. In particular, by targeting this OA biomarker, the symptoms of the early and late stages of OA can be readily monitored, imaged, and analyzed in a rapid and efficient fashion. We anticipate that this simple and highly efficient fluorogenic probe will assist in the clinical management of patients with OA, not only for early diagnosis but also to assess individual patient responses to new drug treatments.

  12. Higgs production as a probe of chameleon dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Brax, Philippe; Burrage, Clare; Davis, Anne-Christine; Seery, David; Weltman, Amanda

    2010-05-15

    In this paper we study various particle physics effects of a light, scalar dark energy field with chameleonlike couplings to matter. We show that a chameleon model with only matter couplings will induce a coupling to photons. In doing so, we derive the first microphysical realization of a chameleonic dark energy model coupled to the electromagnetic field strength. This analysis provides additional motivation for current and near-future tests of axionlike and chameleon particles. We find a new bound on the coupling strength of chameleons in uniformly coupled models. We also study the effect of chameleon fields on Higgs production, which is relevant for hadron colliders. These are expected to manufacture Higgs particles through weak boson fusion, or associated production with a Z or W{sup {+-}.} We show that, like the Tevatron, the LHC will not be able to rule out or observe chameleons through this mechanism, because gauge invariance of the low energy Lagrangian suppresses the corrections that may arise.

  13. Probing dark energy using convergence power spectrum and bi-spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinda, Bikash R.

    2017-09-01

    Weak lensing convergence statistics is a powerful tool to probe dark energy. Dark energy plays an important role to the structure formation and the effects can be detected through the convergence power spectrum, bi-spectrum etc. One of the most promising and simplest dark energy model is the ΛCDM . However, it is worth investigating different dark energy models with evolving equation of state of the dark energy. In this work, detectability of different dark energy models from ΛCDM model has been explored through convergence power spectrum and bi-spectrum.

  14. Neutrino oscillations as a probe of dark energy.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, David B; Nelson, Ann E; Weiner, Neal

    2004-08-27

    We consider a class of theories in which neutrino masses depend significantly on environment, as a result of interactions with the dark sector. Such theories of mass varying neutrinos were recently introduced to explain the origin of the cosmological dark energy density and why its magnitude is apparently coincidental with that of neutrino mass splittings. In this Letter we argue that in such theories neutrinos can exhibit different masses in matter and in vacuum, dramatically affecting neutrino oscillations. As an example of modifications to the standard picture, we consider simple models that may simultaneously account for the LSND anomaly, KamLAND, K2K, and studies of solar and atmospheric neutrinos, while providing motivation to continue to search for neutrino oscillations in short baseline experiments such as BooNE.

  15. Probing dark energy perturbations: The dark energy equation of state and speed of sound as measured by WMAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, Rachel; Doré, Olivier

    2004-04-01

    We review the implications of having a nontrivial matter component in the Universe and the potential for detecting such a component through the matter power spectrum and integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. We adopt a phenomenological approach and consider the mysterious dark energy to be a cosmic fluid. It is thus fully characterized, up to linear order, by its equation of state and its speed of sound. Whereas the equation of state has been widely studied in the literature, less interest has been devoted to the speed of sound. Its observational consequences come predominantly from very large scale modes of dark matter perturbations (k<0.01h Mpc-1). Since these modes have hardly been probed so far by large scale galaxy surveys, we investigate whether joint constraints can be placed on those two quantities using the recent cosmic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations measurements by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe as well as the recently measured CMB large scale structure cross correlation. We find only a tentative 1 sigma detection of the speed of sound, from CMB alone, c2s<0.04 at this low significance level. Furthermore, the current uncertainties in bias in the matter power spectrum preclude any constraints being placed using the cross correlation of CMB with the NRAO VLA Sky Survey radio survey.

  16. Strategies for probing nonminimal dark sectors at colliders: The interplay between cuts and kinematic distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dienes, Keith R.; Su, Shufang; Thomas, Brooks

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we examine the strategies and prospects for distinguishing between traditional dark-matter models and models with nonminimal dark sectors—including models of Dynamical Dark Matter—at hadron colliders. For concreteness, we focus on events with two hadronic jets and large missing transverse energy at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As we discuss, simple "bump-hunting" searches are not sufficient; probing nonminimal dark sectors typically requires an analysis of the actual shapes of the distributions of relevant kinematic variables. We therefore begin by identifying those kinematic variables whose distributions are particularly suited to this task. However, as we demonstrate, this then leads to a number of additional subtleties, since cuts imposed on the data for the purpose of background reduction can at the same time have the unintended consequence of distorting these distributions in unexpected ways, thereby obscuring signals of new physics. We therefore proceed to study the correlations between several of the most popular relevant kinematic variables currently on the market, and investigate how imposing cuts on one or more of these variables can impact the distributions of others. Finally, we combine our results in order to assess the prospects for distinguishing nonminimal dark sectors in this channel at the upgraded LHC.

  17. HIRAX: a probe of dark energy and radio transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newburgh, L. B.; Bandura, K.; Bucher, M. A.; Chang, T.-C.; Chiang, H. C.; Cliche, J. F.; Davé, R.; Dobbs, M.; Clarkson, C.; Ganga, K. M.; Gogo, T.; Gumba, A.; Gupta, N.; Hilton, M.; Johnstone, B.; Karastergiou, A.; Kunz, M.; Lokhorst, D.; Maartens, R.; Macpherson, S.; Mdlalose, M.; Moodley, K.; Ngwenya, L.; Parra, J. M.; Peterson, J.; Recnik, O.; Saliwanchik, B.; Santos, M. G.; Sievers, J. L.; Smirnov, O.; Stronkhorst, P.; Taylor, R.; Vanderlinde, K.; Van Vuuren, G.; Weltman, A.; Witzemann, A.

    2016-08-01

    The Hydrogen Intensity and Real-time Analysis eXperiment (HIRAX) is a new 400{800MHz radio interferometer under development for deployment in South Africa. HIRAX will comprise 1024 six meter parabolic dishes on a compact grid and will map most of the southern sky over the course of four years. HIRAX has two primary science goals: to constrain Dark Energy and measure structure at high redshift, and to study radio transients and pulsars. HIRAX will observe unresolved sources of neutral hydrogen via their redshifted 21-cm emission line (`hydrogen intensity mapping'). The resulting maps of large-scale structure at redshifts 0.8{2.5 will be used to measure Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO). BAO are a preferential length scale in the matter distribution that can be used to characterize the expansion history of the Universe and thus understand the properties of Dark Energy. HIRAX will improve upon current BAO measurements from galaxy surveys by observing a larger cosmological volume (larger in both survey area and redshift range) and by measuring BAO at higher redshift when the expansion of the universe transitioned to Dark Energy domination. HIRAX will complement CHIME, a hydrogen intensity mapping experiment in the Northern Hemisphere, by completing the sky coverage in the same redshift range. HIRAX's location in the Southern Hemisphere also allows a variety of cross-correlation measurements with large-scale structure surveys at many wavelengths. Daily maps of a few thousand square degrees of the Southern Hemisphere, encompassing much of the Milky Way galaxy, will also open new opportunities for discovering and monitoring radio transients. The HIRAX correlator will have the ability to rapidly and efficiently detect transient events. This new data will shed light on the poorly understood nature of fast radio bursts (FRBs), enable pulsar monitoring to enhance long-wavelength gravitational wave searches, and provide a rich data set for new radio transient phenomena

  18. Probing Dark Matter with a New Class of Merging Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittman, David

    2013-10-01

    We will obtain multiband imaging in support of a weak lensing analysis of a new radio-selected sample of merging galaxy clusters. After first pericenter passage, merging clusters exhibit a dissociation between gas {which remains in the center of the system due to its collisional nature} and galaxies and dark matter {which are collisionless or nearly so, and continue outbound}. Self-interaction of dark matter {DM} will cause the DM to lag the galaxies slightly. Weak lensing analyses with the proposed imaging {using multiband photometry to exclude foreground and cluster member galaxies} will yield measurements of the DM-galaxy offset accurate to 5", sufficient to test current suggestions that the self-interaction cross section of dark matter may be in the range 0.1-0.5 cm2/gm. Only HST can provide this level of weak lensing precision.Other merging systems are being studied with similar goals in mind, but this sample is unique in being radio-selected. The "radio relics" represent shocks which are vital in constraining the dynamics of the systems; only a few other mergers have clear evidence of shocks. A further key strength of this proposal is the ensemble approach: each system's unique set of dynamical properties {merger velocity, time since pericenter, etc} provides a unique test of the self-interacting DM {SIDM} hypothesis, so the constraints from the ensemble are powerful. We will derive constraints from the ensemble of these three clusters plus the Musket Ball Cluster {observed by us in a previous cycle}, which shows a DM-galaxy offset at a level detectable only by HST.

  19. Probing dark matter crests with white dwarfs and IMBHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro-Seoane, P.; Casanellas, J.; Schödel, R.; Davidson, E.; Cuadra, J.

    2016-06-01

    White dwarfs (WDs) are the most promising captors of dark matter (DM) particles in the crests that are expected to build up in the cores of dense stellar clusters. The DM particles could reach sufficient densities in WD cores to liberate energy through self-annihilation. The extinction associated with our Galactic Centre makes it impossible to detect the potential-associated luminosities, contrary to smaller stellar systems which are close enough to us and not heavily extincted, such as -Cen. We investigate the prospects of detection of DM-burning WDs in a stellar cluster harbouring an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH), which leads to higher densities of DM at the centre. We calculate the capture rate and estimate the luminosity that a WD would emit depending on its distance to the centre of the cluster. Direct-summation N-body simulations of -Cen yield a non-negligible number of WDs in the range of radii of interest. We apply our assumption to published Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys observations of stars in the centre of -Cen and, although we are not able to identify any evident candidate, we proof that their bunching up at high luminosities would be unique. We predict that DM burning will lead to a truncation of the cooling sequence at the faint end. The detection of DM burning in future observations of dense stellar clusters could allow us to probe different models of DM distributions and characteristics. On the other hand, if DM-burning WDs really exist, their number and properties could give hints to the existence of IMBHs.

  20. Solar neutrinos as a probe of dark matter-neutrino interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzi, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.; Vecchi, Luca

    2017-07-01

    Sterile neutrinos at the eV scale have long been studied in the context of anomalies in short baseline neutrino experiments. Their cosmology can be made compatible with our understanding of the early Universe provided the sterile neutrino sector enjoys a nontrivial dynamics with exotic interactions, possibly providing a link to the Dark Matter (DM) puzzle. Interactions between DM and neutrinos have also been proposed to address the long-standing "missing satellites" problem in the field of large scale structure formation. Motivated by these considerations, in this paper we discuss realistic scenarios with light steriles coupled to DM . We point out that within this framework active neutrinos acquire an effective coupling to DM that manifests itself as a new matter potential in the propagation within a medium of asymmetric DM . Assuming that at least a small fraction of asymmetric DM has been captured by the Sun, we show that a sizable region of the parameter space of these scenarios can be probed by solar neutrino experiments, especially in the regime of small couplings and light mediators where all other probes become inefficient. In the latter regime these scenarios behave as familiar 3+1 models in all channels except for solar data, where a Solar Dark MSW effect takes place. Solar Dark MSW is characterized by modifications of the most energetic 8B and CNO neutrinos, whereas the other fluxes remain largely unaffected.

  1. Probing Dark Energy via Weak Gravitational Lensing with the Supernova Acceleration Probe (SNAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, J.; Aldering, G.; Allam, S.; Althouse, W.; Amanullah, R.; Annis, J.; Astier, P.; Aumeunier, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bebek, C.; Bergstom, L.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Besuner, B.; Bigelow, B.; Blandford, R.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; /Caltech /LBL, Berkeley /Fermilab /SLAC /Stockholm U. /Paris, IN2P3 /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, Lab. Astrophys. /Yale U. /Pennsylvania U. /UC, Berkeley /Michigan U. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Indiana U. /Caltech, JPL /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /American Astron. Society /Chicago U. /Cambridge U. /Saclay /Lyon, IPN

    2005-08-08

    SNAP is a candidate for the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) that seeks to place constraints on the dark energy using two distinct methods. The first, Type Ia SN, is discussed in a separate white paper. The second method is weak gravitational lensing, which relies on the coherent distortions in the shapes of background galaxies by foreground mass structures. The excellent spatial resolution and photometric accuracy afforded by a 2-meter space-based observatory are crucial for achieving the high surface density of resolved galaxies, the tight control of systematic errors in the telescope's Point Spread Function (PSF), and the exquisite redshift accuracy and depth required by this project. These are achieved by the elimination of atmospheric distortion and much of the thermal and gravity loads on the telescope. The SN and WL methods for probing dark energy are highly complementary and the error contours from the two methods are largely orthogonal. The nominal SNAP weak lensing survey covers 1000 square degrees per year of operation in six optical and three near infrared filters (NIR) spanning the range 350 nm to 1.7 {micro}m. This survey will reach a depth of 26.6 AB magnitude in each of the nine filters and allow for approximately 100 resolved galaxies per square arcminute, {approx} 3 times that available from the best ground-based surveys. Photometric redshifts will be measured with statistical accuracy that enables scientific applications for even the faint, high redshift end of the sample. Ongoing work aims to meet the requirements on systematics in galaxy shape measurement, photometric redshift biases, and theoretical predictions.

  2. Probing for Dark Energy Perturbations using the CMB and Large Scale Structure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, Rachel; Doré, Olivier

    2004-12-01

    We review the implications of having a non-trivial matter component in the universe and the potential for detecting such a component through the matter power spectrum and ISW effect. We adopt a phenomenological approach and consider the mysterious dark energy to be a cosmic fluid. It is thus fully characterized, up to linear order, by its equation of state and its speed of sound. Whereas the equation of state has been widely studied in the literature, less interest has been devoted to the speed of sound. Its observational consequences come predominantly from very large scale modes of dark matter perturbations (k < 0.01hMpc-1). Since these modes have hardly been probed so far by large scale galaxy surveys, we investigate whether joint constraints that can be placed on those two quantities using the recent CMB fluctuations measurements by WMAP as well as the recently measured CMB large scale structure cross-correlation.

  3. Hypercharged dark matter and direct detection as a probe of reheating.

    PubMed

    Feldstein, Brian; Ibe, Masahiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu T

    2014-03-14

    The lack of new physics at the LHC so far weakens the argument for TeV scale thermal dark matter. On the other hand, heavier, nonthermal dark matter is generally difficult to test experimentally. Here we consider the interesting and generic case of hypercharged dark matter, which can allow for heavy dark matter masses without spoiling testability. Planned direct detection experiments will be able to see a signal for masses up to an incredible 1010  GeV, and this can further serve to probe the reheating temperature up to about 109  GeV, as determined by the nonthermal dark matter relic abundance. The Z-mediated nature of the dark matter scattering may be determined in principle by comparing scattering rates on different detector nuclei, which in turn can reveal the dark matter mass. We will discuss the extent to which future experiments may be able to make such a determination.

  4. Probing excitonic dark states in single-layer tungsten disulphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ziliang; Cao, Ting; O'Brien, Kevin; Zhu, Hanyu; Yin, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuan; Louie, Steven G.; Zhang, Xiang

    2014-09-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) monolayers have recently emerged as an important class of two-dimensional semiconductors with potential for electronic and optoelectronic devices. Unlike semi-metallic graphene, layered TMDCs have a sizeable bandgap. More interestingly, when thinned down to a monolayer, TMDCs transform from indirect-bandgap to direct-bandgap semiconductors, exhibiting a number of intriguing optical phenomena such as valley-selective circular dichroism, doping-dependent charged excitons and strong photocurrent responses. However, the fundamental mechanism underlying such a strong light-matter interaction is still under intensive investigation. First-principles calculations have predicted a quasiparticle bandgap much larger than the measured optical gap, and an optical response dominated by excitonic effects. In particular, a recent study based on a GW plus Bethe-Salpeter equation (GW-BSE) approach, which employed many-body Green's-function methodology to address electron-electron and electron-hole interactions, theoretically predicted a diversity of strongly bound excitons. Here we report experimental evidence of a series of excitonic dark states in single-layer WS2 using two-photon excitation spectroscopy. In combination with GW-BSE theory, we prove that the excitons are of Wannier type, meaning that each exciton wavefunction extends over multiple unit cells, but with extraordinarily large binding energy (~0.7 electronvolts), leading to a quasiparticle bandgap of 2.7 electronvolts. These strongly bound exciton states are observed to be stable even at room temperature. We reveal an exciton series that deviates substantially from hydrogen models, with a novel energy dependence on the orbital angular momentum. These excitonic energy levels are experimentally found to be robust against environmental perturbations. The discovery of excitonic dark states and exceptionally large binding energy not only sheds light on the importance of many

  5. Neutrino Oscillations as a Probe of Light Scalar Dark Matter.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Asher

    2016-12-02

    We consider a class of models involving interactions between ultralight scalar dark matter and standard model neutrinos. Such couplings modify the neutrino mass splittings and mixing angles to include additional components that vary in time periodically with a frequency and amplitude set by the mass and energy density of the dark matter. Null results from recent searches for anomalous periodicities in the solar neutrino flux strongly constrain the dark matter-neutrino coupling to be orders of magnitude below current and projected limits derived from observations of the cosmic microwave background.

  6. Neutrino Oscillations as a Probe of Light Scalar Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlin, Asher

    2016-12-01

    We consider a class of models involving interactions between ultralight scalar dark matter and standard model neutrinos. Such couplings modify the neutrino mass splittings and mixing angles to include additional components that vary in time periodically with a frequency and amplitude set by the mass and energy density of the dark matter. Null results from recent searches for anomalous periodicities in the solar neutrino flux strongly constrain the dark matter-neutrino coupling to be orders of magnitude below current and projected limits derived from observations of the cosmic microwave background.

  7. Probing excitonic dark states in single-layer tungsten disulphide.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ziliang; Cao, Ting; O'Brien, Kevin; Zhu, Hanyu; Yin, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuan; Louie, Steven G; Zhang, Xiang

    2014-09-11

    Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) monolayers have recently emerged as an important class of two-dimensional semiconductors with potential for electronic and optoelectronic devices. Unlike semi-metallic graphene, layered TMDCs have a sizeable bandgap. More interestingly, when thinned down to a monolayer, TMDCs transform from indirect-bandgap to direct-bandgap semiconductors, exhibiting a number of intriguing optical phenomena such as valley-selective circular dichroism, doping-dependent charged excitons and strong photocurrent responses. However, the fundamental mechanism underlying such a strong light-matter interaction is still under intensive investigation. First-principles calculations have predicted a quasiparticle bandgap much larger than the measured optical gap, and an optical response dominated by excitonic effects. In particular, a recent study based on a GW plus Bethe-Salpeter equation (GW-BSE) approach, which employed many-body Green's-function methodology to address electron-electron and electron-hole interactions, theoretically predicted a diversity of strongly bound excitons. Here we report experimental evidence of a series of excitonic dark states in single-layer WS2 using two-photon excitation spectroscopy. In combination with GW-BSE theory, we prove that the excitons are of Wannier type, meaning that each exciton wavefunction extends over multiple unit cells, but with extraordinarily large binding energy (∼0.7 electronvolts), leading to a quasiparticle bandgap of 2.7 electronvolts. These strongly bound exciton states are observed to be stable even at room temperature. We reveal an exciton series that deviates substantially from hydrogen models, with a novel energy dependence on the orbital angular momentum. These excitonic energy levels are experimentally found to be robust against environmental perturbations. The discovery of excitonic dark states and exceptionally large binding energy not only sheds light on the importance of many

  8. Probing light thermal dark matter with a Higgs portal mediator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krnjaic, Gordan

    2016-10-01

    We systematically study light (dark matter (DM) models that thermalize with visible matter through the Higgs portal and identify the remaining gaps in the viable parameter space. Such models require a comparably light scalar mediator that mixes with the Higgs to avoid DM overproduction and can be classified according to whether this mediator decays (in)visibly. In a representative benchmark model with Dirac fermion DM, we find that, even with conservative assumptions about the DM-mediator coupling and mass ratio, the regime in which the mediator is heavier than the DM is fully ruled out by a combination of collider, rare meson decay, and direct detection limits; future and planned experiments including NA62 can further improve sensitivity to scenarios in which the Higgs portal interaction does not determine the DM abundance. The opposite regime in which the mediator is lighter than the DM and the latter annihilates to pairs of visibly decaying mediators is still viable, but much of the parameter space is covered by rare meson decay, supernova cooling, beam dump, and direct detection constraints. Nearly all of these conclusions apply broadly to the simplest variations (e.g., scalar or asymmetric DM). Future experiments including SHiP, NEWS, and Super-CDMS SNOLAB can greatly improve coverage to this class of models.

  9. Probing light thermal dark matter with a Higgs portal mediator

    SciTech Connect

    Krnjaic, Gordan

    2016-10-26

    We systematically study light (dark matter (DM) models that thermalize with visible matter through the Higgs portal and identify the remaining gaps in the viable parameter space. Such models require a comparably light scalar mediator that mixes with the Higgs to avoid DM overproduction and can be classified according to whether this mediator decays (in)visibly. In a representative benchmark model with Dirac fermion DM, we find that, even with conservative assumptions about the DM-mediator coupling and mass ratio, the regime in which the mediator is heavier than the DM is fully ruled out by a combination of collider, rare meson decay, and direct detection limits; future and planned experiments including NA62 can further improve sensitivity to scenarios in which the Higgs portal interaction does not determine the DM abundance. The opposite regime in which the mediator is lighter than the DM and the latter annihilates to pairs of visibly decaying mediators is still viable, but much of the parameter space is covered by rare meson decay, supernova cooling, beam dump, and direct detection constraints. Nearly all of these conclusions apply broadly to the simplest variations (e.g., scalar or asymmetric DM). Future experiments including SHiP, NEWS, and Super-CDMS SNOLAB can greatly improve coverage to this class of models.

  10. Testing dark energy with the Advanced Liquid-mirror Probe of Asteroids, Cosmology and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corasaniti, Pier Stefano; LoVerde, Marilena; Crotts, Arlin; Blake, Chris

    2006-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid-mirror Probe of Asteroids, Cosmology and Astrophysics (ALPACA) is a proposed 8-m liquid-mirror telescope surveying ~1000deg2 of the Southern hemisphere sky. It will be a remarkably simple and inexpensive telescope that none the less will deliver a powerful sample of optical data for studying dark energy. The bulk of the cosmological data consist of nightly, high signal-to-noise ratio, multiband light curves of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). At the end of the 3-yr run, ALPACA is expected to collect >~100000 SNe Ia up to z ~ 1. This will allow us to reduce present systematic uncertainties affecting the standard-candle relation. The survey will also provide several other data sets such as the detection of baryon acoustic oscillations in the matter power spectrum and shear weak-lensing measurements. In this preliminary analysis, we forecast constraints on dark energy parameters from SNe Ia and baryon acoustic oscillations. The combination of these two data sets will provide competitive constraints on the dark energy parameters under minimal prior assumptions. Further studies are needed to address the accuracy of weak-lensing measurements.

  11. Testing Dark Energy with the Advanced Liquid-Mirror Probe of Asteroids, Cosmology and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoVerde, M.; Corasaniti, P. S.; Crotts, A.; Blake, C.

    2006-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid-Mirror Probe of Asteroids, Cosmology and Astrophysics (ALPACA) is a proposed 8-meter liquid mirror telescope surveying ˜ 1000 deg2 of the southern-hemisphere sky. It will be a remarkably simple and inexpensive telescope that will nonetheless deliver a powerful sample of optical data for studying dark energy. The bulk of the cosmological data consists of nightly, high signal-to-noise, multiband light curves of SN Ia. At the end of the three-year run ALPACA is expected to collect ˜ 100,000 SN Ia up to z ˜ 1. This will allow accurate calibration of the standard-candle relation and reduce the systematic uncertainties. The survey will also provide several other datasets such as the detection of baryon acoustic oscillations in the matter power spectrum and shear weak lensing measurements. In this preliminary analysis we forecast constraints on dark energy parameters from SN Ia and baryon acoustic oscillations. The combination of these two datasets will provide competitive constraints on the dark energy parameters with minimal prior assumptions. Further studies are needed to address the accuracy of weak lensing measurements.

  12. Gravitational waves as a probe of dark matter minispikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eda, Kazunari; Itoh, Yousuke; Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Silk, Joseph

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies show that an intermediate mass black hole (IMBH) may develop a dark matter (DM) minihalo according to some BH formation scenarios. We consider a binary system composed of an IMBH surrounded by a DM minispike and a stellar mass object orbiting around the IMBH. The binary evolves due to gravitational pull and dynamical friction from the DM minispike and backreaction from its gravitational wave (GW) radiation which can be detected by future space-borne GW experiments such as eLISA/NGO. We consider a single power-law model for the DM minispike which is assumed to consist of nonannihilating DM particles and derive GW waveforms including the DM effects analytically. We demonstrate that a detection of GWs from such a binary with eLISA/NGO is affected by the DM effects and enables us to measure the DM minispike parameters accurately. For instance, in our reference case originally advocated by Zhao and Silk [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 011301 (2005)] and Bertone et al. [Phys. Rev. D 72, 103517 (2005)], we could determine the power-law index α of the DM minispike radial profile with a 1 σ relative error of ±5 ×1 0-6 for a GW signal with signal-to-noise ratio 10 and assuming a five-year observation with eLISA. We also investigate how accurately the DM parameters can be determined for various values of the slope of the DM minispike and the masses of the IMBH-stellar mass object binary surrounded by the DM minispike. We find that the power-law index α is measurable at 10% level even for a slightly flatter radial distribution of α ˜1.7 . We clarify that the larger masses of the IMBH and the stellar object lead to the worse measurement accuracies of the DM parameters because the number of GW cycles becomes smaller.

  13. Probing a dark photon using rare leptonic kaon and pion decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Cheng-Wei; Tseng, Po-Yan

    2017-04-01

    Rare leptonic kaon and pion decays K+ (π+) →μ+νμe+e- can be used to probe a dark photon of mass O (10) MeV, with the background coming from the mediation of a virtual photon. This is most relevant for the 16.7-MeV dark photon proposed to explain a 6.8σ anomaly recently observed in 8Be transitions by the Atomki Collaboration. We evaluate the reach of future experiments for the dark photon with vectorial couplings to the standard model fermions except for the neutrinos, and show that a great portion of the preferred 16.7-MeV dark photon parameter space can be decisively probed. We also show the use of angular distributions to further distinguish the signal from the background.

  14. A general holographic insulator/superconductor model with dark matter sector away from the probe limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yan; Pan, Qiyuan; Liu, Yunqi

    2017-02-01

    We investigate holographic phase transitions with dark matter sector in the AdS soliton background away from the probe limit. In cases of weak backreaction, we find that the larger coupling parameter α makes the gap of condensation shallower and the critical chemical potential keeps as a constant. In contrast, for very heavy backreaction, the dark matter sector could affect the critical chemical potential and the order of phase transitions. We also find the jump of the holographic topological entanglement entropy corresponds to a first order transition between superconducting states in this model with dark matter sector. More importantly, for certain sets of parameters, we observe novel phenomenon of retrograde condensation. In a word, the dark matter sector provides richer physics in the phase structure and the holographic superconductor properties are helpful in understanding dark matter.

  15. Probing dark energy dynamics from current and future cosmological observations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Gongbo; Zhang Xinmin

    2010-02-15

    We report the constraints on the dark energy equation-of-state w(z) using the latest 'Constitution' SNe sample combined with the WMAP5 and Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. Assuming a flat Universe, and utilizing the localized principal component analysis and the model selection criteria, we find that the {Lambda}CDM model is generally consistent with the current data, yet there exists a weak hint of the possible dynamics of dark energy. In particular, a model predicting w(z)<-1 at z is an element of [0.25,0.5) and w(z)>-1 at z is an element of [0.5,0.75), which means that w(z) crosses -1 in the range of z is an element of [0.25,0.75), is mildly favored at 95% confidence level. Given the best fit model for current data as a fiducial model, we make future forecast from the joint data sets of Joint Dark Energy Mission, Planck, and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, and we find that the future surveys can reduce the error bars on the w bins by roughly a factor of 10 for a 5-w-bin model.

  16. Probing interaction and spatial curvature in the holographic dark energy model

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Miao; Li, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Shuang; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Xin E-mail: renzhe@mail.ustc.edu.cn E-mail: wangyi@hep.physics.mcgill.ca

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we place observational constraints on the interaction and spatial curvature in the holographic dark energy model. We consider three kinds of phenomenological interactions between holographic dark energy and matter, i.e., the interaction term Q is proportional to the energy densities of dark energy (ρ{sub Λ}), matter (ρ{sub m}), and matter plus dark energy (ρ{sub m}+ρ{sub Λ}). For probing the interaction and spatial curvature in the holographic dark energy model, we use the latest observational data including the type Ia supernovae (SNIa) Constitution data, the shift parameter of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) given by the five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP5) observations, and the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurement from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Our results show that the interaction and spatial curvature in the holographic dark energy model are both rather small. Besides, it is interesting to find that there exists significant degeneracy between the phenomenological interaction and the spatial curvature in the holographic dark energy model.

  17. Probing dark energy with lensing magnification in photometric surveys.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Michael D

    2014-02-14

    I present an estimator for the angular cross correlation of two tracers of the cosmological large-scale structure that utilizes redshift information to isolate separate physical contributions. The estimator is derived by solving the Limber equation for a reweighting of the foreground tracer that nulls either clustering or lensing contributions to the cross correlation function. Applied to future photometric surveys, the estimator can enhance the measurement of gravitational lensing magnification effects to provide a competitive independent constraint on the dark energy equation of state.

  18. Probing dark forces and light hidden sectors at low-energy e+e- colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essig, Rouven; Schuster, Philip; Toro, Natalia

    2009-07-01

    A dark sector—a new non-Abelian gauge group Higgsed or confined near the GeV scale—can be spectacularly probed in low-energy e+e- collisions. A low-mass dark sector can explain the annual modulation signal reported by DAMA/LIBRA and the PAMELA, ATIC, and INTEGRAL observations by generating small mass splittings and new interactions for weak-scale dark matter. Some of these observations may be the first signs of a low-mass dark sector that collider searches can definitively confirm. Production and decay of O(GeV)-mass dark states is mediated by a Higgsed Abelian gauge boson that mixes kinetically with hypercharge. Existing data from BABAR, BELLE, CLEO-c, and KLOE may contain thousands of striking dark-sector events with a high multiplicity of leptons that reconstruct mass resonances and possibly displaced vertices. We discuss the production and decay phenomenology of Higgsed and confined dark sectors and propose e+e- collider search strategies. We also use the DAMA/LIBRA signal to estimate the production cross sections and decay lifetimes for dark-sector states.

  19. Probing Dark Forces and Light Hidden Sectors at Low-Energy e+e- Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Essig, Rouven; Schuster, Philip; Toro, Natalia; /Stanford U., ITP

    2009-06-19

    A dark sector - a new non-Abelian gauge group Higgsed or confined near the GeV scale - can be spectacularly probed in low-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions. A low-mass dark sector can explain the annual modulation signal reported by DAMA/LIBRA and the PAMELA, ATIC, and INTEGRAL observations by generating small mass splittings and new interactions for weak-scale dark matter. Some of these observations may be the first signs of a low-mass dark sector that collider searches can definitively confirm. Production and decay of {Omicron}(GeV)-mass dark states is mediated by a Higgsed Abelian gauge boson that mixes kinetically with hypercharge. Existing data from BaBar, BELLE, CLEO-c, and KLOE may contain thousands of striking dark-sector events with a high multiplicity of leptons that reconstruct mass resonances and possibly displaced vertices. We discuss the production and decay phenomenology of Higgsed and confined dark sectors and propose e{sup +}e{sup -} collider search strategies. We also use the DAMA/LIBRA signal to estimate the production cross-sections and decay lifetimes for dark-sector states.

  20. Light bending as a probe of the nature of dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Finelli, F.; Galaverni, M.; Gruppuso, A.

    2007-02-15

    We study the bending of light for static spherically symmetric (SSS) space-times which include a dark energy contribution. Geometric dark energy models generically predict a correction to the Einstein angle written in terms of the distance to the closest approach, whereas a cosmological constant {lambda} does not. While dark energy is associated with a repulsive force in cosmological context, its effect on null geodesics in SSS space-times can be attractive as for the Newtonian term. This dark energy contribution may not be negligible with respect to the Einstein prediction in lensing involving clusters of galaxies. Strong lensing may therefore be useful to distinguish {lambda} from other dark energy models.

  1. Secondary antiprotons as a Galactic Dark Matter probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evoli, Carmelo; Gaggero, Daniele; Grasso, Dario

    2015-12-01

    We present a novel determination of the astrophysical uncertainties associated to the secondary antiproton flux originating from cosmic-ray spallation on the interstellar gas. We select a set of propagation models compatible with the recent B/C data from PAMELA, and find those providing minimal and maximal antiproton fluxes in different energy ranges. We use this result to determine the most conservative bounds on relevant Dark Matter (DM) annihilation channels: we find that the recent claim of a DM interpretation of a gamma-ray excess in the Galactic Center region cannot be ruled out by current antiproton data. Finally, we discuss the impact of the recently released preliminary data from AMS-02. In particular, we provide a reference model compatible with proton, helium and B/C spectra from this experiment. Remarkably, the main propagation parameters of this model are in agreement with the best fit presented in our earlier statistical analyses. We also show that the antiproton-to-proton ratio does not exhibit any significant anomaly at high energy with respect to our predictions.

  2. Muon beam experiments to probe the dark sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Yi; Pospelov, Maxim; Zhong, Yi-Ming

    2017-06-01

    A persistence of several anomalies in muon physics, such as the muon anomalous magnetic moment and the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift, hints at new light particles beyond the Standard Model. We address a subset of these models that have a new light scalar state with sizable couplings to muons and suppressed couplings to electrons. A novel way to search for such particles would be through muon beam-dump experiments by (1) missing momentum searches; (2) searches for decays with displaced vertices. The muon beams available at CERN and Fermilab present attractive opportunities for exploring the new scalar with a mass below the dimuon threshold, and potentially covering a range of relevant candidate models. For the models considered in this paper, both types of signals, muon missing momentum and anomalous energy deposition at a distance, can probe a substantial fraction of the unexplored parameter space of the new light scalar, including a region that can explain the muon anomalous magnetic moment discrepancy.

  3. Gravitational lensing: a unique probe of dark matter and dark energy

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    I review the development of gravitational lensing as a powerful tool of the observational cosmologist. After the historic eclipse expedition organized by Arthur Eddington and Frank Dyson, the subject lay observationally dormant for 60 years. However, subsequent progress has been astonishingly rapid, especially in the past decade, so that gravitational lensing now holds the key to unravelling the two most profound mysteries of our Universe—the nature and distribution of dark matter, and the origin of the puzzling cosmic acceleration first identified in the late 1990s. In this non-specialist review, I focus on the unusual history and achievements of gravitational lensing and its future observational prospects. PMID:20123743

  4. Gravitational lensing: a unique probe of dark matter and dark energy.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Richard S

    2010-03-13

    I review the development of gravitational lensing as a powerful tool of the observational cosmologist. After the historic eclipse expedition organized by Arthur Eddington and Frank Dyson, the subject lay observationally dormant for 60 years. However, subsequent progress has been astonishingly rapid, especially in the past decade, so that gravitational lensing now holds the key to unravelling the two most profound mysteries of our Universe-the nature and distribution of dark matter, and the origin of the puzzling cosmic acceleration first identified in the late 1990s. In this non-specialist review, I focus on the unusual history and achievements of gravitational lensing and its future observational prospects.

  5. Diffraction modeling of finite subband EFC probing on dark hole contrast with WFIRST-CGI shaped pupil coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hanying; Krist, John; Nemati, Bijan

    2016-08-01

    Current coronagraph instrument design (CGI), as a part of a proposed NASA WFIRST (Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope) mission, allocates two subband filters per full science band in order to contain system complexity and cost. We present our detailed investigation results on the adequacy of such limited number of finite subband filters in achieving full band dark hole contrast with shaped pupil coronagraph. The study is based on diffraction propagation modeling with realistic WFIRST optics, where each subband's complex field estimation is obtained, using Electric Field Conjugation (EFC) wavefront sensing / control algorithm, from pairwise pupil plane deformable mirror (DM) probing and image plane intensity averaging of the resulting fields of multiple (subband) wavelengths. Multiple subband choices and probing and control strategies are explored, including standard subband probing; mixed wavelength and/or weighted Jacobian matrix; subband probing with intensity subtraction; and extended subband probing with intensity subtraction. Overall, the investigation shows that the achievable contrast with limited number of finite subband EFC probing is about 2 2.5x worse than the designed post-EFC contrast for current SPC design. The result suggests that for future shaped pupil design, slightly larger over intended full bandwidth should be considered if it will be used with limited subbands for probing.

  6. Laboratory plasma probe studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heikkila, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    Diagnostic experiments performed in a collisionless plasma using CO2 as the working gas are described. In particular, simultaneous measurements that have been performed by means of Langmuir- and RF-probes are presented. A resonance occurring above the parallel resonance in the frequency characteristic of a two electrode system is interpreted as being due to the resonant excitation of electroacoustic waves.

  7. Unique probe of dark matter in the core of M87 with the Event Horizon Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, Thomas; Karami, Mansour; Broderick, Avery E.; Silk, Joseph; BÅ`hm, Céline

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate the unprecedented capabilities of the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) to image the innermost dark matter profile in the vicinity of the supermassive black hole at the center of the M87 radio galaxy. We present the first model of the synchrotron emission induced by dark matter annihilations from a spiky profile in the close vicinity of a supermassive black hole, accounting for strong gravitational lensing effects. Our results show that the EHT should readily resolve dark matter spikes if present. Moreover, the photon ring surrounding the silhouette of the black hole is clearly visible in the spike emission, which introduces observable small-scale structure into the signal. We find that the dark matter-induced emission provides an adequate fit to the existing EHT data, implying that in addition to the jet, a dark matter spike may account for a sizable portion of the millimeter emission from the innermost (subparsec) region of M87. Regardless, our results show that the EHT can probe very weakly annihilating dark matter. Current EHT observations already constrain very small cross sections, typically down to a few 10-31 cm3 s-1 for a 10 GeV candidate, close to characteristic values for p-wave-suppressed annihilation. Future EHT observations will further improve constraints on the DM scenario.

  8. Probing dark energy with an atom interferometer in an optical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Matthew; Haslinger, Philipp; Hamilton, Paul; Mueller, Holger; Khoury, Justin; Elder, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    If dark energy -- which drives the accelerated expansion of the universe -- consists of a light scalar field, it might be detectable as a ``fifth force'' between normal-matter objects, in potential conflict with precision tests of gravity. Chameleon fields and other theories with screening mechanisms can evade such tests by suppressing this force in regions of high density, such as the laboratory. Our experiments constrain these dark energy models using atoms in an ultrahigh-vacuum chamber as probes to expose the screened fields. Using a cesium matter wave interferometer in an optical cavity, we set stringent bounds on coupling screened theories to matter. A further 4 to 5 orders of magnitude would completely rule out chameleon and f(R) theories. I will describe this first tabletop dark energy search, and present the hundredfold boost in sensitivity we have since achieved.

  9. Probing dark excitons in atomically thin semiconductors via near-field coupling to surface plasmon polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, You; Scuri, Giovanni; Wild, Dominik S.; High, Alexander A.; Dibos, Alan; Jauregui, Luis A.; Shu, Chi; de Greve, Kristiaan; Pistunova, Kateryna; Joe, Andrew Y.; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Kim, Philip; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Park, Hongkun

    2017-09-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayers with a direct bandgap feature tightly bound excitons, strong spin-orbit coupling and spin-valley degrees of freedom. Depending on the spin configuration of the electron-hole pairs, intra-valley excitons of TMD monolayers can be either optically bright or dark. Dark excitons involve nominally spin-forbidden optical transitions with a zero in-plane transition dipole moment, making their detection with conventional far-field optical techniques challenging. Here, we introduce a method for probing the optical properties of two-dimensional materials via near-field coupling to surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). This coupling selectively enhances optical transitions with dipole moments normal to the two-dimensional plane, enabling direct detection of dark excitons in TMD monolayers. When a WSe2 monolayer is placed on top of a single-crystal silver film, its emission into near-field-coupled SPPs displays new spectral features whose energies and dipole orientations are consistent with dark neutral and charged excitons. The SPP-based near-field spectroscopy significantly improves experimental capabilities for probing and manipulating exciton dynamics of atomically thin materials, thus opening up new avenues for realizing active metasurfaces and robust optoelectronic systems, with potential applications in information processing and communication.

  10. Probing dark excitons in atomically thin semiconductors via near-field coupling to surface plasmon polaritons.

    PubMed

    Zhou, You; Scuri, Giovanni; Wild, Dominik S; High, Alexander A; Dibos, Alan; Jauregui, Luis A; Shu, Chi; De Greve, Kristiaan; Pistunova, Kateryna; Joe, Andrew Y; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Kim, Philip; Lukin, Mikhail D; Park, Hongkun

    2017-09-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayers with a direct bandgap feature tightly bound excitons, strong spin-orbit coupling and spin-valley degrees of freedom. Depending on the spin configuration of the electron-hole pairs, intra-valley excitons of TMD monolayers can be either optically bright or dark. Dark excitons involve nominally spin-forbidden optical transitions with a zero in-plane transition dipole moment, making their detection with conventional far-field optical techniques challenging. Here, we introduce a method for probing the optical properties of two-dimensional materials via near-field coupling to surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). This coupling selectively enhances optical transitions with dipole moments normal to the two-dimensional plane, enabling direct detection of dark excitons in TMD monolayers. When a WSe2 monolayer is placed on top of a single-crystal silver film, its emission into near-field-coupled SPPs displays new spectral features whose energies and dipole orientations are consistent with dark neutral and charged excitons. The SPP-based near-field spectroscopy significantly improves experimental capabilities for probing and manipulating exciton dynamics of atomically thin materials, thus opening up new avenues for realizing active metasurfaces and robust optoelectronic systems, with potential applications in information processing and communication.

  11. Observational probes of the connection between Star Formation Efficiency and Dark Matter halo mass of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinova, Veselina; Colombo, Dario; Rosolowsky, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Modern simulations predict that the stellar mass and the star formation efficiency of a galaxy are tightly linked to the dark matter (DM) halo mass of that galaxy. This prediction relies on a specific model of galaxy evolution and so testing this prediction directly tests our best models of galaxy formation and evolution. Recent DM numerical studies propose relationships between star formation efficiency and the DM halo mass with two domains based on SF feedback (low-mass) vs. AGN feedback (high-mass), see Moster et al. (2013). The observational probe of such parameters in the relationship imply globally important physics that are fundamental as, e.g., the star formation law (e.g., Kennicutt et al., 1998), the universal depletion time (Leroy et al. 2008), and the origin of the cold gas phase with respect to the stellar disc (Davis et al.2011). Thus, we can directly measure whether this parameterization is correct by estimating the stellar mass, star formation efficiency and dynamical (DM) mass for a set of galaxies at strategically selected points to test if they fall on the predicted relationship.We use CO data from the Extragalactic Database for Galaxy Evolution survey (EDGE) in conjunction with archival 21-cm data and spectroscopic data from Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field spectroscopy Area survey (CALIFA) to measure the stellar vs. halo mass and star-formation-efficiency vs. halo mass relations of the galaxies. We also analyze archival 21-cm spectra to estimate rotation speeds, atomic gas masses and halo masses for a set of EDGE galaxies. Data from CALIFA are used for high quality star formation efficiency and stellar mass measurements. By linking these three parameters - stellar mass, star formation efficiency (SFE) and DM halo mass - we can test the simulation models of how the gas is cooling in the potential wells of the dark matter halos and then forms stars.

  12. ESA Venus Entry Probe Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vandenBerg, M. L.; Falkner, P.; Phipps, A.; Underwood, J. C.; Lingard, J. S.; Moorhouse, J.; Kraft, S.; Peacock, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Venus Entry Probe is one of ESA s Technology Reference Studies (TRS). The purpose of the Technology Reference Studies is to provide a focus for the development of strategically important technologies that are of likely relevance for future scientific missions. The aim of the Venus Entry Probe TRS is to study approaches for low cost in-situ exploration of Venus and other planetary bodies with a significant atmosphere. In this paper, the mission objectives and an outline of the mission concept of the Venus Entry Probe TRS are presented.

  13. SIRTF: Probing the dark corners of the galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, Michael W.; Willoughby, Dora S.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is planned for launch by NASA in the mid-1990's. It will be a cryogenically-cooled observatory for infrared astronomy and will carry several focal plane instruments which will provide a wide range of imaging, photometric, and spectroscopic capabilities. SIRTF will build on the scientific and technical progress of the successful IRAS mission and take the next step in the exploration of the Universe at infrared wavelengths. Most of the observing time during the five-to-ten year SIRTF mission will be available to General Investigators, so there will be ample opportunities for the pursuit of problems originating from within the Space Life Sciences community. Here, a review is given of the capabilities of SIRTF for this style of investigation, using the study of carbon in the Galaxy as a specific example. The very high sensitivity of SIRTF's spectrometers to diffuse emission will allow studies of carbon in both the gaseous and solid phase in the interstellar medium and should be of particular importance for the identification of the carbon-bearing macromolecules believed to be responsible for the emission features identified in the near infrared. SIRTF will also carry out studies of a wide variety of evolved stars which are returning gas and solid phase carbon to the interstellar medium and contribute to our understanding of the carbon budget in the Galaxy. These studies in the area of galactic astronomy will be complemented by detailed investigations of carbon-bearing compounds in solar system objects, including the surfaces of distant asteroids and cometary nuclei which are too faint to be studied in any other way.

  14. Galaxy clusters as probes for cosmology and dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistelli, Elia S.; Burigana, Carlo; de Bernardis, Paolo; Kirillov, Alexander A.; Neto, Gastao B. Lima; Masi, Silvia; Norgaard-Nielsen, Hans U.; Ostermann, Peter; Roman, Matthieu; Rosati, Piero; Rossetti, Mariachiara

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, significant progress has been made in building new galaxy clusters samples, at low and high redshifts, from wide-area surveys, particularly exploiting the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) effect. A large effort is underway to identify and characterize these new systems with optical/NIR and X-ray facilities, thus opening new avenues to constraint cosmological models using structure growth and geometrical tests. A census of galaxy clusters sets constraints on reionization mechanisms and epochs, which need to be reconciled with recent limits on the reionization optical depth from cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. Future advances in SZ effect measurements will include the possibility to (unambiguously) measure directly the kinematic SZ effect, to build an even larger catalogue of galaxy clusters able to study the high redshift universe, and to make (spatially-)resolved galaxy cluster maps with even spectral capability to (spectrally-)resolve the relativistic corrections of the SZ effect.

  15. Galaxy peculiar velocities from large-scale supernova surveys as a dark energy probe

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Suman; Kosowsky, Arthur; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Zentner, Andrew R.

    2011-02-15

    Upcoming imaging surveys such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will repeatedly scan large areas of sky and have the potential to yield million-supernova catalogs. Type Ia supernovae are excellent standard candles and will provide distance measures that suffice to detect mean pairwise velocities of their host galaxies. We show that when combining these distance measures with photometric redshifts for either the supernovae or their host galaxies, the mean pairwise velocities of the host galaxies will provide a dark energy probe which is competitive with other widely discussed methods. Adding information from this test to type Ia supernova photometric luminosity distances from the same experiment, plus the cosmic microwave background power spectrum from the Planck satellite, improves the Dark Energy Task Force figure of merit by a factor of 1.8. Pairwise velocity measurements require no additional observational effort beyond that required to perform the traditional supernova luminosity distance test, but may provide complementary constraints on dark energy parameters and the nature of gravity. Incorporating additional spectroscopic redshift follow-up observations could provide important dark energy constraints from pairwise velocities alone. Mean pairwise velocities are much less sensitive to systematic redshift errors than the luminosity distance test or weak lensing techniques, and also are only mildly affected by systematic evolution of supernova luminosity.

  16. A MAGNIFIED GLANCE INTO THE DARK SECTOR: PROBING COSMOLOGICAL MODELS WITH STRONG LENSING IN A1689

    SciTech Connect

    Magaña, Juan; Motta, V.; Cárdenas, Victor H.; Verdugo, T.; Jullo, Eric E-mail: veronica.motta@uv.cl E-mail: tomasverdugo@gmail.com

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we constrain four alternative models to the late cosmic acceleration in the universe: Chevallier–Polarski–Linder (CPL), interacting dark energy (IDE), Ricci holographic dark energy (HDE), and modified polytropic Cardassian (MPC). Strong lensing (SL) images of background galaxies produced by the galaxy cluster Abell 1689 are used to test these models. To perform this analysis we modify the LENSTOOL lens modeling code. The value added by this probe is compared with other complementary probes: Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), and cosmic microwave background (CMB). We found that the CPL constraints obtained for the SL data are consistent with those estimated using the other probes. The IDE constraints are consistent with the complementary bounds only if large errors in the SL measurements are considered. The Ricci HDE and MPC constraints are weak, but they are similar to the BAO, SN Ia, and CMB estimations. We also compute the figure of merit as a tool to quantify the goodness of fit of the data. Our results suggest that the SL method provides statistically significant constraints on the CPL parameters but is weak for those of the other models. Finally, we show that the use of the SL measurements in galaxy clusters is a promising and powerful technique to constrain cosmological models. The advantage of this method is that cosmological parameters are estimated by modeling the SL features for each underlying cosmology. These estimations could be further improved by SL constraints coming from other galaxy clusters.

  17. A Magnified Glance into the Dark Sector: Probing Cosmological Models with Strong Lensing in A1689

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magaña, Juan; Motta, V.; Cárdenas, Víctor H.; Verdugo, T.; Jullo, Eric

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we constrain four alternative models to the late cosmic acceleration in the universe: Chevallier-Polarski-Linder (CPL), interacting dark energy (IDE), Ricci holographic dark energy (HDE), and modified polytropic Cardassian (MPC). Strong lensing (SL) images of background galaxies produced by the galaxy cluster Abell 1689 are used to test these models. To perform this analysis we modify the LENSTOOL lens modeling code. The value added by this probe is compared with other complementary probes: Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), and cosmic microwave background (CMB). We found that the CPL constraints obtained for the SL data are consistent with those estimated using the other probes. The IDE constraints are consistent with the complementary bounds only if large errors in the SL measurements are considered. The Ricci HDE and MPC constraints are weak, but they are similar to the BAO, SN Ia, and CMB estimations. We also compute the figure of merit as a tool to quantify the goodness of fit of the data. Our results suggest that the SL method provides statistically significant constraints on the CPL parameters but is weak for those of the other models. Finally, we show that the use of the SL measurements in galaxy clusters is a promising and powerful technique to constrain cosmological models. The advantage of this method is that cosmological parameters are estimated by modeling the SL features for each underlying cosmology. These estimations could be further improved by SL constraints coming from other galaxy clusters.

  18. Neutrino spectroscopy can probe the dark matter content in the Sun.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ilídio; Silk, Joseph

    2010-10-22

    After being gravitationally captured, low-mass cold dark-matter particles (mass range from 5 to ~50 × 10(9) electron volts) are thought to drift to the center of the Sun and affect its internal structure. Solar neutrinos provide a way to probe the physical processes occurring in the Sun's core. Solar neutrino spectroscopy, in particular, is expected to measure the neutrino fluxes produced in nuclear reactions in the Sun. Here, we show how the presence of dark-matter particles inside the Sun will produce unique neutrino flux distributions in (7)Be-ν and (8)B-ν, as well as (13)N-ν, (15)O-ν, and (17)F-ν.

  19. A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR COMBINING TECHNIQUES THAT PROBE THE LINK BETWEEN GALAXIES AND DARK MATTER

    SciTech Connect

    Leauthaud, Alexie; Tinker, Jeremy; Behroozi, Peter S.; Busha, Michael T.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2011-09-01

    We develop a theoretical framework that combines measurements of galaxy-galaxy lensing, galaxy clustering, and the galaxy stellar mass function in a self-consistent manner. While considerable effort has been invested in exploring each of these probes individually, attempts to combine them are still in their infancy. These combinations have the potential to elucidate the galaxy-dark matter connection and the galaxy formation physics responsible for it, as well as to constrain cosmological parameters and to test the nature of gravity. In this paper, we focus on a theoretical model that describes the galaxy-dark matter connection based on standard halo occupation distribution techniques. Several key modifications enable us to extract additional parameters that determine the stellar-to-halo mass relation and to simultaneously fit data from multiple probes while allowing for independent binning schemes for each probe. We construct mock catalogs from numerical simulations to investigate the effects of sample variance and covariance for each probe. Finally, we analyze how trends in each of the three observables impact the derived parameters of the model. In particular, we investigate various features of the observed galaxy stellar mass function (low-mass slope, 'plateau', knee, and high-mass cutoff) and show how each feature is related to the underlying relationship between stellar and halo mass. We demonstrate that the observed 'plateau' feature in the stellar mass function at M{sub *} {approx} 2 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun} is due to the transition that occurs in the stellar-to-halo mass relation at M{sub h} {approx} 10{sup 12} M{sub sun} from a low-mass power-law regime to a sub-exponential function at higher stellar mass.

  20. A Theoretical Framework for Combining Techniques that Probe the Link Between Galaxies and Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leauthaud, Alexie; Tinker, Jeremy; Behroozi, Peter S.; Busha, Michael T.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2011-09-01

    We develop a theoretical framework that combines measurements of galaxy-galaxy lensing, galaxy clustering, and the galaxy stellar mass function in a self-consistent manner. While considerable effort has been invested in exploring each of these probes individually, attempts to combine them are still in their infancy. These combinations have the potential to elucidate the galaxy-dark matter connection and the galaxy formation physics responsible for it, as well as to constrain cosmological parameters and to test the nature of gravity. In this paper, we focus on a theoretical model that describes the galaxy-dark matter connection based on standard halo occupation distribution techniques. Several key modifications enable us to extract additional parameters that determine the stellar-to-halo mass relation and to simultaneously fit data from multiple probes while allowing for independent binning schemes for each probe. We construct mock catalogs from numerical simulations to investigate the effects of sample variance and covariance for each probe. Finally, we analyze how trends in each of the three observables impact the derived parameters of the model. In particular, we investigate various features of the observed galaxy stellar mass function (low-mass slope, "plateau," knee, and high-mass cutoff) and show how each feature is related to the underlying relationship between stellar and halo mass. We demonstrate that the observed "plateau" feature in the stellar mass function at M * ~ 2 × 1010 M sun is due to the transition that occurs in the stellar-to-halo mass relation at Mh ~ 1012 M sun from a low-mass power-law regime to a sub-exponential function at higher stellar mass.

  1. Indirect probes of dark matter and globular cluster properties from dark matter annihilation within the coolest white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, Travis J.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Natarajan, Aravind; Badenes, Carles

    2015-05-01

    White dwarfs (WD) capture dark matter (DM) as they orbit within their host halos. These captured particles may subsequently annihilate, heating the stellar core and preventing the WD from cooling. The potential wells of WDs are considerably deeper and core temperatures significantly cooler than those of main sequence stars. Consequently, DM evaporation is less important in WDs and DM with masses Mχ≳100 keV , and annihilation cross sections orders of magnitude below the canonical thermal cross section (⟨σav ⟩≳1 0-46 cm3/s ) can significantly alter WD cooling in particular astrophysical environments. We consider WDs in globular clusters (GCs) and dwarf galaxies. If the parameters of the DM particle are known, then the temperature of the coolest WD in a GC can be used to constrain the DM density of the cluster's halo (potentially even ruling out the presence of a halo if the inferred density is of order the ambient Galactic density). Recently, several direct detection experiments have seen signals whose origins might be due to low mass DM. In this paper, we show that if these claims from CRESST, DAMA, CDMS-Si, and CoGeNT could be interpreted as DM, then observations of NGC 6397 limit the fraction of DM in that cluster to be fDM≲1 0-3 . This would be an improvement over existing constraints of 3 orders of magnitude and would clearly rule out a significant DM halo for this cluster. More generally, we show how such observations constrain combinations of DM and GC properties. Building on previous work, we also show how observations of WDs in dwarf galaxies, such as Segue I, can provide novel constraints on low-mass DM or DM with very low contemporary annihilation cross sections as may be realized in models in which s -wave annihilation is suppressed and p -wave annihilation dominates. This paper provides further motivation for high-quality observations of stellar populations as a probe of dark matter.

  2. Probing the Truncation of Galaxy Dark Matter Halos in High-Density Environments from Hydrodynamical N-Body Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limousin, Marceau; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Milvang-Jensen, Bo

    2009-05-01

    We analyze high-resolution, N-body hydrodynamical simulations of fiducial galaxy clusters to probe tidal stripping of the dark matter subhalos. These simulations include a prescription for star formation allowing us to track the fate of the stellar component as well. We investigate the effect of tidal stripping on cluster galaxies hosted in these dark matter subhalos as a function of projected cluster-centric radius. To quantify the extent of the dark matter halos of cluster galaxies, we introduce the half-mass radius r 1/2 as a diagnostic, and study its evolution with projected cluster-centric distance R as a function of redshift. We find a well-defined trend for (r 1/2, R): the closer the galaxies are to the center of the cluster, the smaller the half-mass radius. Interestingly, this trend is inferred in all redshift frames examined in this work ranging from z = 0 to z = 0.7. At z = 0, galaxy halos in the central regions of clusters are found to be highly truncated, with the most compact half-mass radius of 10 kpc. We also find that r 1/2 depends on luminosity and we present scaling relations of r 1/2 with galaxy luminosity. The corresponding total mass of the cluster galaxies is also found to increase with projected cluster-centric distance and luminosity, but with more scatter than the (r 1/2, R) trend. Comparing the distribution of stellar mass to total mass for cluster galaxies, we find that the dark matter component is preferentially stripped, whereas the stellar component is much less affected by tidal forces. We compare these results with galaxy-galaxy lensing probes of r 1/2 and find qualitative agreement. Future surveys with space-based telescopes such as DUNE and SNAP, that combine wide-field and high-resolution imaging, will be able to probe the predicted (r 1/2, R) relation observationally.

  3. A comprehensive approach to dark matter studies: exploration of simplified top-philic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arina, Chiara; Backović, Mihailo; Conte, Eric; Fuks, Benjamin; Guo, Jun; Heisig, Jan; Hespel, Benoît; Krämer, Michael; Maltoni, Fabio; Martini, Antony; Mawatari, Kentarou; Pellen, Mathieu; Vryonidou, Eleni

    2016-11-01

    Studies of dark matter lie at the interface of collider physics, astrophysics and cosmology. Constraining models featuring dark matter candidates entails the capability to provide accurate predictions for large sets of observables and compare them to a wide spectrum of data. We present a framework which, starting from a model Lagrangian, allows one to consistently and systematically make predictions, as well as to confront those predictions with a multitude of experimental results. As an application, we consider a class of simplified dark matter models where a scalar mediator couples only to the top quark and a fermionic dark sector (i.e. the simplified top-philic dark matter model). We study in detail the complementarity of relic density, direct/indirect detection and collider searches in constraining the multi-dimensional model parameter space, and efficiently identify regions where individual approaches to dark matter detection provide the most stringent bounds. In the context of collider studies of dark matter, we point out the complementarity of LHC searches in probing different regions of the model parameter space with final states involving top quarks, photons, jets and/or missing energy. Our study of dark matter production at the LHC goes beyond the tree-level approximation and we show examples of how higher-order corrections to dark matter production processes can affect the interpretation of the experimental results.

  4. Short GRB and binary black hole standard sirens as a probe of dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Dalal, Neal; Holz, Daniel E.; Hughes, Scott A.; Jain, Bhuvnesh

    2006-09-15

    Observations of the gravitational radiation from well-localized, inspiraling compact-object binaries can measure absolute source distances with high accuracy. When coupled with an independent determination of redshift through an electromagnetic counterpart, these standard sirens can provide an excellent probe of the expansion history of the Universe and the dark energy. Short {gamma}-ray bursts, if produced by merging neutron star binaries, would be standard sirens with known redshifts detectable by ground-based gravitational wave (GW) networks such as Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO), Virgo, and Australian International Gravitational Observatory (AIGO). Depending upon the collimation of these GRBs, the measurement of about 10 GW-GRB events (corresponding to about 1 yr of observation with an advanced GW detector network and an all-sky GRB monitor) can measure the Hubble constant h to {approx}2-3%. When combined with measurement of the absolute distance to the last scattering surface of the cosmic microwave background, this determines the dark energy equation of state parameter w to {approx}9%. Similarly, supermassive binary black hole inspirals will be standard sirens detectable by Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). Depending upon the precise redshift distribution, {approx}100 sources could measure w at the {approx}4% level.

  5. Short GRB and binary black hole standard sirens as a probe of dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalal, Neal; Holz, Daniel E.; Hughes, Scott A.; Jain, Bhuvnesh

    2006-09-01

    Observations of the gravitational radiation from well-localized, inspiraling compact-object binaries can measure absolute source distances with high accuracy. When coupled with an independent determination of redshift through an electromagnetic counterpart, these standard sirens can provide an excellent probe of the expansion history of the Universe and the dark energy. Short γ-ray bursts, if produced by merging neutron star binaries, would be standard sirens with known redshifts detectable by ground-based gravitational wave (GW) networks such as Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO), Virgo, and Australian International Gravitational Observatory (AIGO). Depending upon the collimation of these GRBs, the measurement of about 10 GW-GRB events (corresponding to about 1 yr of observation with an advanced GW detector network and an all-sky GRB monitor) can measure the Hubble constant h to ˜2 3%. When combined with measurement of the absolute distance to the last scattering surface of the cosmic microwave background, this determines the dark energy equation of state parameter w to ˜9%. Similarly, supermassive binary black hole inspirals will be standard sirens detectable by Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). Depending upon the precise redshift distribution, ˜100 sources could measure w at the ˜4% level.

  6. CHILES Con Pol: Probing galaxy evolution, the dark Universe, and cosmic magnetism with a deep 1000 hour Jansky VLA survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Christopher A.; Chiles Con Pol Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    We recently started a 1000 hour campaign to observe 0.2 square degrees of the COSMOS field in full polarization continuum at 1.4 GHz with the Jansky VLA, as part of a joint program with the spectral line COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES). When complete, we expect our CHILES Continuum Polarization (CHILES Con Pol) survey to reach an unprecedented SKA-era sensitivity of 0.7 uJy per 4 arcsecond FWHM beam. Here we present the key goals of CHILES Con Pol, which are to (i) produce a source catalog of legacy value to the astronomical community, (ii) measure differential source counts in total intensity, linear polarization, and circular polarization in order to constrain the redshift and luminosity distributions of source populations, (iii) perform a novel weak lensing study using radio polarization as an indicator of intrinsic alignment to better study dark energy and dark matter, and (iv) probe the unknown origin of cosmic magnetism by measuring the strength and structure of intergalactic magnetic fields in the filaments of large scale structure. The CHILES Con Pol source catalog will be a useful resource for upcoming wide-field surveys by acting as a training set for machine learning algorithms, which can then be used to identify and classify radio sources in regions lacking deep multiwavelength coverage.

  7. Second derivative Langmuir probe measurements in Faraday dark space in Argon d.c. gas discharge at intermediate pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, M.; Popov, Tsv K.; Todorovand, J.; Naydenova, Tsv G.

    2006-07-01

    In a d.c. discharge tube with sectional cathodes and a common grid anode, second derivative Langmuir probe measurements were performed in the Faraday dark space in argon gas discharge at intermediate pressures. Experimental results for different radial probe positions and different distances from the cathode in axial direction are presented. It is shown that the electron energy distribution function is bi-Maxwellian. Taking into account the electron depletion caused by their sinking on the probe surface, an extension of the Druyvesteyn formula is applied for more accurate determination of the electron temperature value, T, the electron density, n, and the plasma potential, Upl, from the experimental results acquired.

  8. Solar probe: an engineering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedini, P.; Potocki, K.

    2003-04-01

    Solar Probe, a program to study the origins of the solar wind and the heating of the Sun’s corona, is currently a mission under study in NASA’s Sun-Earth Connection Theme. The availability of the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) and Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators has enabled the development of an implementable Solar Probe mission concept that now offers substantial resources (55 kg and 47 W) for its science payload. The mission design assumes a launch on an EELV and uses a direct Jupiter Gravity Assist to reach a perihelion of 4 RS. The mission affords two polar solar passes with Earth in quadrature within 7.1 years from launch. A large (2.7-m diameter × 5.1-m), conical Carbon-Carbon thermal protection system harbors a complement of in situ and remote-sensing instruments (based on the 1999 Solar Probe Science Definition Team straw-man payload). A Ka-band telecommunications system allows uninterrupted real-time data downlink at perihelion (p) despite coronal scintillation effects, providing > 25 kbps even at closest approach. The 43.2 Gbits of data down-linked during each pass (p -- 10 days through p + 10 days) is augmented by as much as another 128 Gbits of data recorded on redundant solid-state recorders for post-perihelion playback. The capability exists to download cruise mode science as well. Fault tolerance is achieved using redundant avionics and a dedicated attitude control unit to assure that the proper orientation of the spacecraft is maintained throughout the passes. Viable opportunities begin with a 2010 launch, provided new start authority is obtained in FY-05.

  9. Lyman Alpha Emitting Galaxies at 2 < z < 3: Towards a Calibrated Probe of Dark Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Caryl Gronwall

    2012-12-03

    The goal of this project was to establish the physical properties of Ly{alpha} emitting galaxies from redshifts of 2 to 3 in order to better calibrate the use of LAEs as probes of the large scale structure of the universe for upcoming dark energy experiments, such as the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). We have obtained narrow-band imaging of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDF-S) in two different narrow-band filters centered at Ly{alpha} at z=2.1 and 3.1. The resulting of samples of LAEs were used to determine the LAE luminosity function, equivalent width distribution and clustering properties (bias) of LAEs at these redshifts. While the results from the ECDF-S appear robust, they are based on a single field. To explore the effects of cosmic variance and galaxy environment on the physical properties of LAEs, we have also obtained narrow-band data at both redshifts (z = 2:1 and 3:1) in three additional fields (SDSS 1030+-05, the Extended Hubble Deep Field South, and CW 1255+01). The narrow-band imaging data has been reduced and LAE catalogs are being generated. We have calculated preliminary luminosity functions, equivalent width distributions, and clustering properties. We have also obtained follow-up spectroscopy in the optical (using VLT/FORS) and in the near-infrared (using Magellan/MMIRS). Since individual LAEs have too little S/N to enable meaningful fits for stellar population parameters, our previous work has analyzed stacked Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs). SED fitting was performed on several subsets of LAEs selected by their rest-UV luminosity, UV spectral slope, Ly alpha luminosity, Equivalent Width, or rest-optical (IRAC) luminosity.

  10. Study of alternative probe technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A number of implied technologies for a deep probe mission was examined; i.e., one that would provide the capability to scientifically examine planetary atmospheres at the 1000 bar level. Conditions imposed by current Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus atmospheric models were considered. The major thrust of the measurements was to determine lower atmosphere composition, even to trace constituents of one part per billion. Two types of instruments having the necessary accuracy to meet the science objectives were considered and integrated into a deep probe configuration. One deep probe option that resulted was identified as a Minimum Technology Development approach. The significant feature of this option is that only three technology developments are required to enable the mission, i.e., (1) science instrument development, (2) advanced data processing, and (3) external high pressure/thermal insulation. It is concluded that a probe designed for a Jupiter mission could, with minor changes, be used for a Saturn or Uranus mission.

  11. Wandering in the Lyman-alpha forest: a study of dark matter-dark radiation interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krall, Rebecca; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Dvorkin, Cora

    2017-09-01

    The amplitude of large-scale matter fluctuations inferred from the observed Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) cluster mass function and from weak gravitational lensing studies, when taken at face value, is in tension with measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO). In this work, we revisit whether this possible discrepancy can be attributed to new interactions in the dark matter sector. Focusing on a cosmological model where dark matter interacts with a dark radiation species until the epoch of matter-radiation equality, we find that measurements of the Lyman-alpha flux power spectrum from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey provide no support to the hypothesis that new dark matter interactions can resolve the possible tension between CMB and large-scale structure (LSS). Indeed, while the addition of dark matter-dark radiation interactions leads to an improvement of 2Δ&ln;Script L=12 with respect to the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model when only CMB, BAO, and LSS data are considered, the inclusion of Lyman-alpha data reduces the improvement of the fit to 2Δ&ln;Script L=6 relative to ΛCDM . We thus conclude that the statistical evidence for new dark matter interactions (largely driven by the Planck SZ dataset) is marginal at best, and likely caused by systematics in the data. We also perform a Fisher forecast analysis for the reach of a future dataset composed of a CMB-S4 experiment combined with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope galaxy survey. We find that the constraint on the effective number of fluid-like dark radiation species, Δ Nfluid, will be improved by an order of magnitude compared to current bounds.

  12. Analytic study of the effect of dark energy-dark matter interaction on the growth of structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcondes, Rafael J. F.; Landim, Ricardo C. G.; Costa, André A.; Wang, Bin; Abdalla, Elcio

    2016-12-01

    Large-scale structure has been shown as a promising cosmic probe for distinguishing and constraining dark energy models. Using the growth index parametrization, we obtain an analytic formula for the growth rate of structures in a coupled dark energy model in which the exchange of energy-momentum is proportional to the dark energy density. We find that the evolution of fσ8 can be determined analytically once we know the coupling, the dark energy equation of state, the present value of the dark energy density parameter and the current mean amplitude of dark matter fluctuations. After correcting the growth function for the correspondence with the velocity field through the continuity equation in the interacting model, we use our analytic result to compare the model's predictions with large-scale structure observations.

  13. Designing a space-based galaxy redshift survey to probe dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun; Percival, Will; Cimatti, Andrea; Mukherjee, Pia; Guzzo, Luigi; Baugh, Carlton M.; Carbone, Carmelita; Franzetti, Paolo; Garilli, Bianca; Geach, James E.; Lacey, Cedric G.; Majerotto, Elisabetta; Orsi, Alvaro; Rosati, Piero; Samushia, Lado; Zamorani, Giovanni

    2010-12-01

    A space-based galaxy redshift survey would have enormous power in constraining dark energy and testing general relativity, provided that its parameters are suitably optimized. We study viable space-based galaxy redshift surveys, exploring the dependence of the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF) figure-of-merit (FoM) on redshift accuracy, redshift range, survey area, target selection and forecast method. Fitting formulae are provided for convenience. We also consider the dependence on the information used: the full galaxy power spectrum P(k), P(k) marginalized over its shape, or just the Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO). We find that the inclusion of growth rate information (extracted using redshift space distortion and galaxy clustering amplitude measurements) leads to a factor of ~3 improvement in the FoM, assuming general relativity is not modified. This inclusion partially compensates for the loss of information when only the BAO are used to give geometrical constraints, rather than using the full P(k) as a standard ruler. We find that a space-based galaxy redshift survey covering ~20000deg2 over with σz/(1 + z) <= 0.001 exploits a redshift range that is only easily accessible from space, extends to sufficiently low redshifts to allow both a vast 3D map of the universe using a single tracer population, and overlaps with ground-based surveys to enable robust modelling of systematic effects. We argue that these parameters are close to their optimal values given current instrumental and practical constraints.

  14. Nitroxides as redox probes of melanins: dark-induced and photoinduced changes in redox equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Sarna, T.; Korytowski, W.; Sealy, R.C.

    1985-05-15

    The interaction of nitroxide free radicals and their reduced products (hydroxylamines) with synthetic and natural melanins has been studied. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy was used to measure changes in radical concentration in the dark and during irradiation with visible or uv light. Some reduction of nitroxide occurs in the dark, and is reversible: the nitroxide can be completely regenerated by the one-electron oxidant ferricyanide. The kinetics of the process depend strongly on radical charge and pH. For positively charged nitroxides the rate is much faster than for either neutral or anionic radicals. At pH 10 the rate is about 20 times faster than at pH 5. Oxidation of hydroxylamine also can occur so that a redox equilibrium is established. The equilibrium constant has been estimated for the reaction between a nitroxide and melanin from autoxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine. Results are also dependent upon the type of melanin used and chemical modification (oxidation or reduction) of the melanin. Redox equilibria are altered during irradiation with either visible or uv light. Rapid oxidation of hydroxylamine to nitroxide is apparent, together with a slower reduction of nitroxide. Action spectra for these processes are related to those for melanin radical production and oxygen consumption in nitroxide-free melanin systems. Reduction of nitroxide is inhibited by oxygen, suggesting a competition between nitroxide and oxygen for photoinduced reducing equivalents.

  15. Probing the stability of superheavy dark matter particles with high-energy neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Esmaili, Arman; Peres, Orlando L.G.; Ibarra, Alejandro E-mail: ibarra@tum.de

    2012-11-01

    Two of the most fundamental properties of the dark matter particle, the mass and the lifetime, are only weakly constrained by the astronomical and cosmological evidence of dark matter. We derive in this paper lower limits on the lifetime of dark matter particles with masses in the range 10TeV−10{sup 15}TeV from the non-observation of ultrahigh energy neutrinos in the AMANDA, IceCube, Auger and ANITA experiments. For dark matter particles which produce neutrinos in a two body or a three body leptonic decay, we find that the dark matter lifetime must be longer than O(10{sup 26}−10{sup 28})s for masses between 10 TeV and the Grand Unification scale. Finally, we also calculate, for concrete particle physics scenarios, the limits on the strength of the interactions that induce the dark matter decay.

  16. N-body simulations of supercluster dynamics to test the viability of large scale structure as a probe of dark energy and dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, David William

    Many parameters of modern cosmology have been determined to incredible precision at present, including tight constraints on two rather mysterious components of the Universe, dark matter and dark energy. Large Scale structure may be uniquely able to place constraints on both of these components, particularly structures that are loosely gravitationally bound. In such structures, the effects of dark energy's outward push is only slightly less than gravity's inward pull, giving the best chance for detection of dark energy in their dynamics. This work aims to answer whether these structures could potentially serve as a laboratory for studying dark energy, by simulating the dynamics of superclusters both including and excluding its effects. Also, by comparing simulation results with an observational dynamical analysis, dark matter content and possibly the effects of dark energy can be constrained. For this purpose four potentially bound superclusters were identified: the Aquarius, Corona Borealis, Microscopium, and Shapley superclusters. Their dynamics were simulated with N-body software written by the author. It is shown that there is a difference in the line-of-sight velocity dispersions of superclusters depending on whether the effects of dark energy are included or not, but this difference is small enough that it would not be detectable due to observational uncertainties. A new method of supercluster mass estimation, named SCM+FP, is presented, combining knowledge of the dynamics and the spherical collapse model to determine the mass. Also, a new analytical model for the extent of gravitationally bound structure is presented, arising from a simple modification of the spherical collapse model which is supported by simulation results. Further results include the most conclusive evidence to date of extended bound structure in the Corona Borealis supercluster along with evidence that there is extended bound structure in the Shapley supercluster, each with a core of five

  17. Charge asymmetric cosmic rays as a probe of flavor violating asymmetric dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco E-mail: sannino@cp3-origins.net

    2011-09-01

    The recently introduced cosmic sum rules combine the data from PAMELA and Fermi-LAT cosmic ray experiments in a way that permits to neatly investigate whether the experimentally observed lepton excesses violate charge symmetry. One can in a simple way determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays. Here we attribute a potential charge asymmetry to the dark sector. In particular we provide models of asymmetric dark matter able to produce charge asymmetric cosmic rays. We consider spin zero, spin one and spin one-half decaying dark matter candidates. We show that lepton flavor violation and asymmetric dark matter are both required to have a charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses. Therefore, an experimental evidence of charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses implies that dark matter is asymmetric.

  18. The dynamics of the Local Group as a probe of dark energy and modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlesi, Edoardo; Mota, David F.; Winther, Hans A.

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we study the dynamics of the Local Group (LG) within the context of cosmological models beyond General Relativity (GR). Using observable kinematic quantities to identify candidate pairs, we build up samples of simulated LG-like objects drawing from f(R), symmetron, Dvali, Gabadadze & Porrati and quintessence N-body simulations together with their Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) counterparts featuring the same initial random phase realizations. The variables and intervals used to define LG-like objects are referred to as LG model; different models are used throughout this work and adapted to study their dynamical and kinematic properties. The aim is to determine how well the observed LG dynamics can be reproduced within cosmological theories beyond GR, We compute kinematic properties of samples drawn from alternative theories and ΛCDM and compare them to actual observations of the LG mass, velocity and position. As a consequence of the additional pull, pairwise tangential and radial velocities are enhanced in modified gravity and coupled dark energy with respect to ΛCDM inducing significant changes to the total angular momentum and energy of the LG. For example, in models such as f(R) and the symmetron this increase can be as large as 60 per cent, peaking well outside of the 95 per cent confidence region allowed by the data. This shows how simple considerations about the LG dynamics can lead to clear small-scale observational signatures for alternative scenarios, without the need of expensive high-resolution simulations.

  19. Darkness

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-22

    Saturn's main rings, seen here on their "lit" face, appear much darker than normal. That's because they tend to scatter light back toward its source -- in this case, the Sun. Usually, when taking images of the rings in geometries like this, exposures times are increased to make the rings more visible. Here, the requirement to not over-expose Saturn's lit crescent reveals just how dark the rings actually become. Scientists are interested in images in this sunward-facing ("high phase") geometry because the way that the rings scatter sunlight can tell us much about the ring particles' physical make-up. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 6 degrees above the ringplane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on Jan. 12, 2014. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 1.4 million miles (2.3 million kilometers) from Saturn and at a Sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 152 degrees. Image scale is 86 miles (138 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18294

  20. Probing dark matter annihilation to primary neutrinos with IceCube

    SciTech Connect

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh

    2014-06-24

    We investigate the prospects for discovery and discrimination of dark matter annihilation into primary neutrinos from other final states at IceCube/DeepCore. By taking detector considerations into account, we perform a fit to obtain sensitivity limits for the primary neutrino final states from annihilation of dark matter particles gravitationally captured inside the Sun. We show that for dark matter in the 50 GeV–1 TeV mass range, primary neutrinos can be distinguished from other final states at a statistically significant level with multi-year data from IceCube/DeepCore.

  1. Probing decaying heavy dark matter with the 4-year IceCube HESE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atri; Esmaili, Arman; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Sarcevic, Ina

    2017-07-01

    After the first four years of data taking, the IceCube neutrino telescope has observed 54 high-energy starting events (HESE) with deposited energies between 20 TeV and 2 PeV . The background from atmospheric muons and neutrinos is expected to be of about 20 events, all below 100 TeV, thus pointing towards the astrophysical origin of about 8 events per year in that data set. However, their precise origin remains unknown. Here, we perform a detailed analysis of this event sample (considering simultaneously the energy, hemisphere and topology of the events) by assuming two contributions for the signal events: an isotropic power-law flux and a flux from decaying heavy dark matter. We fit the mass and lifetime of the dark matter and the normalization and spectral index of an isotropic power-law flux, for various decay channels of dark matter. We find that a significant contribution from dark matter decay is always slightly favored, either to explain the excess below 100 TeV, as in the case of decays to quarks or, as in the case of neutrino channels, to explain the three multi-PeV events. Also, we consider the possibility to interpret all the data by dark matter decays only, considering various combinations of two decay channels. We show that the decaying dark matter scenario provides a better fit to HESE data than the isotropic power-law flux.

  2. Final Scientific/Technical Report, DE-FG02-08ER41561: "Lyman-alpha Emitting Galaxies at 2Probe of Dark Energy"

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Gawiser

    2010-03-19

    Lyman Alpha Emitting (LAE) galaxies are a powerful tracer of large scale structure, making them an excellent probe of baryonic acoustic oscillations, which constrain the expansion history of the universe and hence the nature of the dark energy. The HETDEX Stage III dark energy experiment will utilize LAEs for this purpose, and they are under consideration as a tracer of structure for Stage IV ground- and space-based dark energy missions. Our successful investigation of LAEs at z=2.1 and z=3.1 now provides the best information on the number density and clustering bias of these galaxies over the redshift range that HETDEX will study. Connecting these star-forming galaxies to their host dark matter halos represents a major increase in scientific understanding, as we can now proceed with confidence in studying the spatial distribution of significantly larger samples. Our data also provided an empirical test of the Lyman Alpha Tomography technique, which has proven effective and can now be used to design future experiments to probe dark energy and dark matter properties.

  3. Study of Majorana fermionic dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, Chun-Khiang; Wong, Gwo-Guang

    2016-08-01

    We construct a generic model of Majorana fermionic dark matter (DM). Starting with two Weyl spinor multiplets η1 ,2˜(I ,∓Y ) coupled to the Standard Model Higgs, six additional Weyl spinor multiplets with (I ±1 /2 ,±(Y ±1 /2 )) are needed in general. It has 13 parameters in total, five mass parameters and eight Yukawa couplings. The DM sector of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model is a special case of the model with (I ,Y )=(1 /2 ,1 /2 ). Therefore, this model can be viewed as an extension of the neutralino DM sector. We consider three typical cases: the neutralinolike, the reduced, and the extended cases. For each case, we survey the DM mass mχ in the range of (1,2500) GeV by random sampling from the model parameter space and study the constraints from the observed DM relic density; the direct search of LUX, XENON100, and PICO experiments; and the indirect search of Fermi-LAT data. We investigate the interplay of these constraints and the differences among these cases. It is found that the direct detection of spin-independent DM scattering off nuclei and the indirect detection of DM annihilation to the W+W- channel will be more sensitive to the DM searches in the near future. The allowed mass for finding H ˜-, B ˜-, W ˜-, and non-neutralino-like DM particles and the predictions on ⟨σ (χ χ →Z Z ,Z H ,t t ¯)v ⟩ in the indirect search are given.

  4. Studies in scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarid, Dror

    1995-06-01

    The following is a final report on our work in the field of Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM), which has been funded by the AFOSR under Contract #F49620-92-J-0164. The AFOSR funding was instrumental in the establishment of a multi-lab facility at the Optical Sciences Center, which performs research in SPM using two ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) STM facilities, and several Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) facilities. The fabrication and characterization work performed in the SPM Laboratory is supplemented by infrared (IR) spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), available in other departments on campus. The report covers the following areas: (1) GaAs and CdSe Structures, (2) Optical Interactions on a nm and nsec Scales, (3) Fullerenes on Gold, (4) Fullerenes on MoS2, (5) Fullerenes on Si, (6) SiC, (7) Nanotubes, (8) Scanning Force Microscopy, and (9) Biology.

  5. The dynamics of the local group as a probe of Dark Energy and Modified Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlesi, Edoardo; Mota, David F.; Winther, Hans A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work we study the dynamics of the Local Group (LG) within the context of cosmological models beyond General Relativity (GR). Using observable kinematic quantities to identify candidate pairs we build up samples of simulated LG-like objects drawing from f(R), symmetron, DGP and quintessence N-body simulations together with their ΛCDM counterparts featuring the same initial random phase realisations. The variables and intervals used to define LG-like objects are referred to as Local Group model; different models are used throughout this work and adapted to study their dynamical and kinematic properties. The aim is to determine how well the observed LG-dynamics can be reproduced within cosmological theories beyond GR, We compute kinematic properties of samples drawn from alternative theories and ΛCDM and compare them to actual observations of the LG mass, velocity and position. As a consequence of the additional pull, pairwise tangential and radial velocities are enhanced in modified gravity and coupled dark energy with respect to ΛCDM inducing significant changes to the total angular momentum and energy of the LG. For example, in models such as f(R) and the symmetron this increase can be as large as 60%, peaking well outside of the 95% confidence region allowed by the data. This shows how simple considerations about the LG dynamics can lead to clear small-scale observational signatures for alternative scenarios, without the need of expensive high-resolution simulations.

  6. Probing Light Thermal Dark-Matter With a Higgs Portal Mediator

    SciTech Connect

    Krnjaic, Gordan

    2015-12-13

    We systematically study light (< few GeV) Dark Matter (DM) models that thermalize with visible matter through the Higgs portal and identify the remaining gaps in the viable parameter space. Such models require a comparably light scalar mediator that mixes with the Higgs to avoid DM overproduction and can be classified according to whether this mediator decays (in)visibly. In a representative benchmark model with Dirac fermion DM, we find that, even with conservative assumptions about the DM-mediator coupling and mass ratio, the regime in which the mediator is heavier than the DM is fully ruled out by a combination of collider, rare meson decay, and direct detection limits; future and planned experiments including NA62 can further improve sensitivity to scenarios in which the Higgs portal interaction does not determine the DM abundance. The opposite, regime in which the mediator is lighter than the DM and the latter annihilates to pairs of visibly-decaying mediators is still viable, but much of the parameter space is covered by rare meson decay, supernova cooling, beam dump, and direct detection constraints. Nearly all of these conclusions apply broadly to the simplest variations (e.g. scalar or asymmetric DM). Future experiments including SHiP, NEWS, and Super-CDMS SNOLAB can greatly improve coverage to this class of models.

  7. PROBING THE WARM DARK MATTER WITH THE HIGH-z QUASAR LUMINOSITY FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Hyunmi; Lee, Jounghun

    2009-09-20

    In a warm dark matter (WDM) cosmology, the first objects to form at z >= 20 are one-dimensional filaments with mean length on the order of the WDM free-streaming scale. Gao and Theuns recently claimed by using high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations that the eventual collapse of these WDM filaments along their longest axes may seed the supermassive black holes that power high-z quasars. In this picture, it is supposed that the high-z quasar luminosity function should reflect how abundant the WDM filaments are in the early universe. We derive analytically the mass function of early-universe filaments with the help of the Zel'dovich approximation. Then, we determine the rate of its decrease in the mass section corresponding to the free-streaming scale of a WDM particle of mass m {sub n}u. Adjusting the value of m{sub n}u, we fit the slope of the analytic model to that of the high-z quasar luminosity function measured from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR3. A new WDM constraint from this feasibility study is found to be consistent with the lightest super-symmetric partner.

  8. Probing dark matter self-interaction in the Sun with IceCube-PINGU

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chian-Shu; Lee, Fei-Fan; Lin, Guey-Lin; Lin, Yen-Hsun E-mail: fflee@mail.nctu.edu.tw E-mail: chris.py99g@g2.nctu.edu.tw

    2014-10-01

    We study the capture, annihilation and evaporation of dark matter (DM) inside the Sun. It has been shown that the DM self-interaction can increase the DM number inside the Sun. We demonstrate that this enhancement becomes more significant in the regime of small DM mass, given a fixed DM self-interaction cross section. This leads to the enhancement of neutrino flux from DM annihilation. On the other hand, for DM mass as low as as a few GeVs, not only the DM-nuclei scatterings can cause the DM evaporation, DM self-interaction also provides non-negligible contributions to this effect. Consequently, the critical mass for DM evaporation (typically 3 ∼ 4 GeV without the DM self-interaction) can be slightly increased. We discuss the prospect of detecting DM self-interaction in IceCube-PINGU using the annihilation channels χχ → τ{sup +}τ{sup -}, νν-bar as examples. The PINGU sensitivities to DM self-interaction cross section σ{sub χχ} are estimated for track and cascade events.

  9. Collider study on the loop-induced dark matter mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Yuhsin

    2016-06-01

    Collider experiments are one of the most promising ways to constrain Dark Matter (DM) interactions. For DM couplings involving light mediators, especially for the loop-mediated interactions, a meaningful interpretation of the results requires to go beyond effective field theory. In this note we discuss the study of the magnetic dipole interacting DM, focusing on a model with anarchic dark flavor structure. By including the momentum-dependent form factors that mediate the coupling - given by the Dark Penguin - in collider processes, we study bounds from monophoton, diphoton, and non-pointing photon searches at the LHC. We also compare our results to constraints from the direct detection experiments.

  10. Collider study on the loop-induced dark matter mediation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Yuhsin

    2016-06-21

    Collider experiments are one of the most promising ways to constrain Dark Matter (DM) interactions. For DM couplings involving light mediators, especially for the loop-mediated interactions, a meaningful interpretation of the results requires to go beyond effective field theory. In this note we discuss the study of the magnetic dipole interacting DM, focusing on a model with anarchic dark flavor structure. By including the momentum-dependent form factors that mediate the coupling – given by the Dark Penguin – in collider processes, we study bounds from monophoton, diphoton, and non-pointing photon searches at the LHC. We also compare our results to constraints from the direct detection experiments.

  11. Matter-parity as a residual gauge symmetry: Probing a theory of cosmological dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Alexandre; Arcadi, Giorgio; Dong, P. V.; Duarte, Laura; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.; Valle, José W. F.

    2017-09-01

    We discuss a non-supersymmetric scenario which addresses the origin of the matter-parity symmetry, PM =(- 1) 3 (B - L) + 2 s, leading to a viable Dirac fermion dark matter candidate. Implications to electroweak precision, muon anomalous magnetic moment, flavor changing interactions, lepton flavor violation, dark matter and collider physics are discussed in detail. We show that this non-supersymmetric model is capable of generating the matter-parity symmetry in agreement with existing data with gripping implications to particle physics and cosmology.

  12. Probing sub-GeV dark sectors via high energy proton beams at LBNF/DUNE and MiniBooNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frugiuele, Claudia

    2017-07-01

    We study the sensitivity to sub-GeV dark sectors of high energy (≥100 GeV ) proton fixed target experiments such as the Main Injector and the future Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF). We focus on off-axis detectors since they have been shown to be the ideal location to reduce the neutrino background. We consider MiniBooNE as an off-axis detector for the NuMI facility and a hyphotetical detector for LBNF located 200 m away from the target and 6.5 degrees off-axis. We find that with the existing data, MiniBooNE can explore new regions of the parameter space for leptophobic dark forces in the 100 MeV-few GeV mass range. The dedicated MiniBooNE run in beam dump mode would further improve the reach for even lighter masses. Therefore, MiniBooNE has the potential to be one of the most sensitive probes of leptophobic dark forces for masses between 1 MeV-10 GeV. Hence we encourage MiniBooNE collaboration to perform a DM dedicated analysis of the existing data coming from neutrinos produced at the Main Injector.

  13. Renormalization group study of the minimal Majoronic dark radiation and dark matter model

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, We-Fu; Ng, John N.

    2016-07-18

    We study the 1-loop renormalization group equation running in the simplest singlet Majoron model constructed by us earlier to accommodate the dark radiation and dark matter content in the universe. A comprehensive numerical study was performed to explore the whole model parameter space. A smaller effective number of neutrinos △N{sub eff}∼0.05, or a Majoron decoupling temperature higher than the charm quark mass, is preferred. We found that a heavy scalar dark matter, ρ, of mass 1.5–4 TeV is required by the stability of the scalar potential and an operational type-I see-saw mechanism for neutrino masses. A neutral scalar, S, of mass in the 10–100 GeV range and its mixing with the standard model Higgs as large as 0.1 is also predicted. The dominant decay modes are S into bb-bar and/or ωω. A sensitive search will come from rare Z decays via the chain Z→S+ff-bar, where f is a Standard Model fermion, followed by S into a pair of Majoron and/or b-quarks. The interesting consequences of dark matter bound state due to the sizable Sρρ-coupling are discussed as well. In particular, shower-like events with an apparent neutrino energy at M{sub ρ} could contribute to the observed effective neutrino flux in underground neutrino detectors such as IceCube.

  14. Renormalization group study of the minimal Majoronic dark radiation and dark matter model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, We-Fu; Ng, John N.

    2016-07-01

    We study the 1-loop renormalization group equation running in the simplest singlet Majoron model constructed by us earlier to accommodate the dark radiation and dark matter content in the universe. A comprehensive numerical study was performed to explore the whole model parameter space. A smaller effective number of neutrinos triangle Neff~ 0.05, or a Majoron decoupling temperature higher than the charm quark mass, is preferred. We found that a heavy scalar dark matter, ρ, of mass 1.5-4 TeV is required by the stability of the scalar potential and an operational type-I see-saw mechanism for neutrino masses. A neutral scalar, S, of mass in the 10-100 GeV range and its mixing with the standard model Higgs as large as 0.1 is also predicted. The dominant decay modes are S into bbar b and/or ωω. A sensitive search will come from rare Z decays via the chain Z → S+ fbar f, where f is a Standard Model fermion, followed by S into a pair of Majoron and/or b-quarks. The interesting consequences of dark matter bound state due to the sizable Sρ ρ-coupling are discussed as well. In particular, shower-like events with an apparent neutrino energy at Mρ could contribute to the observed effective neutrino flux in underground neutrino detectors such as IceCube.

  15. Studies of dark energy with X-ray observatories.

    PubMed

    Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2010-04-20

    I review the contribution of Chandra X-ray Observatory to studies of dark energy. There are two broad classes of observable effects of dark energy: evolution of the expansion rate of the Universe, and slow down in the rate of growth of cosmic structures. Chandra has detected and measured both of these effects through observations of galaxy clusters. A combination of the Chandra results with other cosmological datasets leads to 5% constraints on the dark energy equation-of-state parameter, and limits possible deviations of gravity on large scales from general relativity.

  16. Studies of dark energy with x-ray observatories

    PubMed Central

    Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2010-01-01

    I review the contribution of Chandra X-ray Observatory to studies of dark energy. There are two broad classes of observable effects of dark energy: evolution of the expansion rate of the Universe, and slow down in the rate of growth of cosmic structures. Chandra has detected and measured both of these effects through observations of galaxy clusters. A combination of the Chandra results with other cosmological datasets leads to 5% constraints on the dark energy equation-of-state parameter, and limits possible deviations of gravity on large scales from general relativity. PMID:20404207

  17. PROBING THE DARK FLOW SIGNAL IN WMAP 9 -YEAR AND PLANCK COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND MAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Atrio-Barandela, F.; Kashlinsky, A.; Ebeling, H.; Fixsen, D. J.; Kocevski, D. E-mail: Alexander.Kashlinsky@nasa.gov E-mail: Dale.Fixsen@nasa.gov

    2015-09-10

    The “dark flow” dipole is a statistically significant dipole found at the position of galaxy clusters in filtered maps of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropies. The dipole measured in WMAP 3-, 5-, and 7- year data releases was (1) mutually consistent, (2) roughly aligned with the all-sky CMB dipole, and (3) correlated with clusters’ X-ray luminosities. We analyzed WMAP 9 -year and Planck 1st- year data releases using a catalog of 980 clusters outside of the Kp0 mask to test our earlier findings. The dipoles measured on these new data sets are fully compatible with our earlier estimates, are similar in amplitude and direction to our previous results, and are in disagreement with the results of an earlier study by the Planck Collaboration. Furthermore, in the Planck data sets dipoles are found to be independent of frequency, ruling out the thermal Sunyaev–Zeldovich as the source of the effect. In the data of both WMAP and Planck we find a clear correlation between the dipole measured at the cluster location in filtered maps and the average anisotropy on the original maps, further proving that the dipole is associated with clusters. The dipole signal is dominated by the most massive clusters, with a statistical significance that is better than 99%, slightly larger than in WMAP. Since both data sets differ in foreground contributions, instrumental noise, and other systematics, the agreement between the WMAP and Planck dipoles argues against them being due to systematic effects in either of the experiments.

  18. Outer planet entry probe system study. Volume 4: Common Saturn/Uranus probe studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Results are summarized of a common scientific probe study to explore the atmospheres of Saturn and Uranus. This was a three-month follow-on effort to the Outer Planet Entry Probe System study. The report presents: (1) a summary, conclusions and recommendations of this study, (2) parametric analysis conducted to support the two system definitions, (3) common Saturn/Uranus probe system definition using the Science Advisory Group's exploratory payload and, (4) common Saturn/Uranus probe system definition using an expanded science complement. Each of the probe system definitions consists of detailed discussions of the mission, science, system and subsystems including telecommunications, data handling, power, pyrotechnics, attitude control, structures, propulsion, thermal control and probe-to-spacecraft integration. References are made to the contents of the first three volumes where it is feasible to do so.

  19. Three-point galaxy-galaxy lensing as a probe of dark matter halo shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, Susmita; Chue, Chun Yin Ricky; Dalal, Neal E-mail: chue2@illinois.edu

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method to measure the ellipticities of dark matter halos using the lens-shear-shear 3-point correlation function. This method is immune to effects of galaxy-halo misalignments that can potentially limit 2-point galaxy-galaxy lensing measurements of halo anisotropy. Using a simple model for the projected mass distributions of dark matter halos, we construct an ellipticity estimator that sums over all possible triangular configurations of the 3-point function. By applying our estimator to halos from N-body simulations, we find that systematic errors in the recovered ellipticity will be at the ∼< 5% fractional level. We estimate that future imaging surveys like LSST will have sufficient statistics to detect halo ellipticities using 3-point lensing.

  20. Dark chocolate and blood pressure: a novel study from Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Safi, Saafan A; Ayoub, Nehad M; Al-Doghim, Imad; Aboul-Enein, Faisal H

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of dark chocolate intake on cardiovascular parameters like blood pressure and heart rate values in a normotensive population. This is a randomized cross-sectional study involving a total of 14,310 adults that were selected from various regions of Jordan. Well-trained pharmacy students interviewed participants in the outpatient settings. Participants reported their weekly intake of dark chocolate that has been further classified into mild (1-2 bars/week), moderate (3-4 bars/week), and high intake ( > 4 bars/week). For each participant, the systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate were measured three times with (10-15) minute intervals in the sitting position and the resting state. The arterial blood pressure (ABP) was calculated from the measured SBP and DBP values. All measured blood pressure values were significantly decreased for participants who reported higher dark chocolate consumption. Our results showed that heart rate values were not affected by variable intake of dark chocolate. In addition, increasing dark chocolate intake was associated with a significant decrease of blood pressure values in participants irrespective of the family history of hypertension or the age of the individual. However, heart rate values were unaffected. Higher intake of dark chocolate can be associated with lower values of blood pressure, while its effect on heart rate values was not consistent.

  1. Lensing of Fast Radio Bursts as a Probe of Compact Dark Matter.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Julian B; Kovetz, Ely D; Dai, Liang; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2016-08-26

    The possibility that part of the dark matter is made of massive compact halo objects (MACHOs) remains poorly constrained over a wide range of masses, and especially in the 20-100  M_{⊙} window. We show that strong gravitational lensing of extragalactic fast radio bursts (FRBs) by MACHOs of masses larger than ∼20  M_{⊙} would result in repeated FRBs with an observable time delay. Strong lensing of a FRB by a lens of mass M_{L} induces two images, separated by a typical time delay ∼few×(M_{L}/30  M_{⊙})  msec. Considering the expected FRB detection rate by upcoming experiments, such as canadian hydrogen intensity mapping experiment (CHIME), of 10^{4} FRBs per year, we should observe from tens to hundreds of repeated bursts yearly, if MACHOs in this window make up all the dark matter. A null search for echoes with just 10^{4} FRBs would constrain the fraction f_{DM} of dark matter in MACHOs to f_{DM}≲0.08 for M_{L}≳20  M_{⊙}.

  2. Colliders as a simultaneous probe of supersymmetric dark matter and Terascale cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    Terascale supersymmetry has the potential to provide a natural explanation of the dominant dark matter component of the standard {Lambda}CDM cosmology. However once we impose the constraints on minimal supersymmetry parameters from current particle physics data, a satisfactory dark matter abundance is no longer prima facie natural. This Neutralino Tuning Problem could be a hint of nonstandard cosmology during and/or after the Terascale era. To quantify this possibility, we introduce an alternative cosmological benchmark based upon a simple model of quintessential inflation. This benchmark has no free parameters, so for a given supersymmetry model it allows an unambiguous prediction of the dark matter relic density. As a example, we scan over the parameter space of the CMSSM, comparing the neutralino relic density predictions with the bounds from WMAP. We find that the WMAP-allowed regions of the CMSSM are an order of magnitude larger if we use the alternative cosmological benchmark, as opposed to {Lambda}CDM. Initial results from the CERN Large Hadron Collider will distinguish between the two allowed regions.

  3. Probing the dark matter issue in f( R)-gravity via gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubini, M.; Tortora, C.; Näf, J.; Jetzer, Ph.; Capozziello, S.

    2011-12-01

    For a general class of analytic f( R)-gravity theories, we discuss the weak field limit in view of gravitational lensing. Though an additional Yukawa term in the gravitational potential modifies dynamics with respect to the standard Newtonian limit of General Relativity, the motion of massless particles results unaffected thanks to suitable cancellations in the post-Newtonian limit. Thus, all the lensing observables are equal to the ones known from General Relativity. Since f( R)-gravity is claimed, among other things, to be a possible solution to overcome for the need of dark matter in virialized systems, we discuss the impact of our results on the dynamical and gravitational lensing analyses. In this framework, dynamics could, in principle, be able to reproduce the astrophysical observations without recurring to dark matter, but in the case of gravitational lensing we find that dark matter is an unavoidable ingredient. Another important implication is that gravitational lensing, in the post-Newtonian limit, is not able to constrain these extended theories, since their predictions do not differ from General Relativity.

  4. Lensing of Fast Radio Bursts as a Probe of Compact Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Julian B.; Kovetz, Ely D.; Dai, Liang; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2016-08-01

    The possibility that part of the dark matter is made of massive compact halo objects (MACHOs) remains poorly constrained over a wide range of masses, and especially in the 20 - 100 M⊙ window. We show that strong gravitational lensing of extragalactic fast radio bursts (FRBs) by MACHOs of masses larger than ˜20 M⊙ would result in repeated FRBs with an observable time delay. Strong lensing of a FRB by a lens of mass ML induces two images, separated by a typical time delay ˜few×(ML/30 M⊙) msec . Considering the expected FRB detection rate by upcoming experiments, such as canadian hydrogen intensity mapping experiment (CHIME), of 1 04 FRBs per year, we should observe from tens to hundreds of repeated bursts yearly, if MACHOs in this window make up all the dark matter. A null search for echoes with just 1 04 FRBs would constrain the fraction fDM of dark matter in MACHOs to fDM≲0.08 for ML≳20 M⊙ .

  5. Luminescence Probe Studies of Nafion Polyelectrolytes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-07

    I iD-Ri33 519 LUMINESCENCE PROBE STUDIES OF NRFION FOLYELECTROLYTES i/i (U) TEXAS A AND M UNIV COLLEGE STATION DEPT OF CHEMIISTRY N E PRIETO ET AL...Task No. NR 627-838 TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 2 *Luminescence Probe Studi s of Nafion Polyelectrolytes Pby Nelson E. Prieto and Charles R. Martin 41...E. Prieto and Charles R. Martin N00014-82K-0612 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS _%. -PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORKC UNIT

  6. Studies Probe Power of "Personalization"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    While "personalization" has become a buzzword in education, it can be hard to determine what really makes a subject relevant to individual children in the classroom. An ongoing series of studies at Southern Methodist University suggests learning students' interests upfront and incorporating them into lessons can get struggling students to try…

  7. New probe of dark-matter properties: gravitational waves from an intermediate-mass black hole embedded in a dark-matter minispike.

    PubMed

    Eda, Kazunari; Itoh, Yousuke; Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Silk, Joseph

    2013-05-31

    An intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) may have a dark-matter (DM) minihalo around it and develop a spiky structure within less than a parsec from the IMBH. When a stellar mass object is captured by the minihalo, it eventually infalls into such an IMBH due to gravitational wave backreaction which in turn could be observed directly by future space-borne gravitational wave experiments such as eLISA and NGO. In this Letter, we show that the gravitational wave (GW) detectability strongly depends on the radial profile of the DM distribution. So if the GW is detected, the power index, that is, the DM density distribution, would be determined very accurately. The DM density distribution obtained would make it clear how the IMBH has evolved from a seed black hole and whether the IMBH has experienced major mergers in the past. Unlike the γ-ray observations of DM annihilation, GW is just sensitive to the radial profile of the DM distribution and even to noninteracting DM. Hence, the effect we demonstrate here can be used as a new and powerful probe into DM properties.

  8. Indirect Detection Analysis: Wino Dark Matter Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hryczuk, Andrzej; Cholis, Ilias; Iengo, Roberto; Tavakoli, Maryam; Ullio, Piero

    2014-07-15

    We perform a multichannel analysis of the indirect signals for the Wino Dark Matter, including one-loop electroweak and Sommerfeld enhancement corrections. We derive limits from cosmic ray antiprotons and positrons, from continuum galactic and extragalactic diffuse γ-ray spectra, from the absence of γ-ray line features at the galactic center above 500 GeV in energy, from γ-rays toward nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies and galaxy clusters, and from CMB power-spectra. Additionally, we show the future prospects for neutrino observations toward the inner Galaxy and from antideuteron searches. For each of these indirect detection probes we include and discuss the relevance of the most important astrophysical uncertainties that can impact the strength of the derived limits. We find that the Wino as a dark matter candidate is excluded in the mass range bellow simeq 800 GeV from antiprotons and between 1.8 and 3.5 TeV from the absence of a γ-ray line feature toward the galactic center. Limits from other indirect detection probes confirm the main bulk of the excluded mass ranges.

  9. Indirect detection analysis: wino dark matter case study

    SciTech Connect

    Hryczuk, Andrzej; Cholis, Ilias; Iengo, Roberto; Ullio, Piero; Tavakoli, Maryam E-mail: cholis@fnal.gov E-mail: maryam.tavakoli@desy.de

    2014-07-01

    We perform a multichannel analysis of the indirect signals for the Wino Dark Matter, including one-loop electroweak and Sommerfeld enhancement corrections. We derive limits from cosmic ray antiprotons and positrons, from continuum galactic and extragalactic diffuse γ-ray spectra, from the absence of γ-ray line features at the galactic center above 500 GeV in energy, from γ-rays toward nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies and galaxy clusters, and from CMB power-spectra. Additionally, we show the future prospects for neutrino observations toward the inner Galaxy and from antideuteron searches. For each of these indirect detection probes we include and discuss the relevance of the most important astrophysical uncertainties that can impact the strength of the derived limits. We find that the Wino as a dark matter candidate is excluded in the mass range bellow ≅ 800 GeV from antiprotons and between 1.8 and 3.5 TeV from the absence of a γ-ray line feature toward the galactic center. Limits from other indirect detection probes confirm the main bulk of the excluded mass ranges.

  10. THE RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF ISOLATED CLUSTERS AS A PROBE OF DARK ENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jounghun

    2012-06-10

    Those galaxy clusters that do not belong to superclusters are referred to as isolated clusters. Their relative abundance at a given epoch may be a powerful constraint of the dark energy equation of state since it depends strongly on how fast the structures grow on the largest scale in the universe. We note that the mass function of isolated clusters can be separately evaluated through modification of the recently developed Corasaniti-Achitouv (CA) theory according to which the stochastic collapse barrier is quantified by two coefficients: the drifting average coefficient ({beta}) and the diffusion coefficient (D{sub B} ). Regarding {beta} in the CA formalism as an adjustable parameter and assuming that the formation of isolated clusters corresponds to the case of D{sub B} = 0, we determine the mass function of isolated clusters by fitting the numerical results from the MICE simulations to the modified CA formula. It is found that the best-fit value of {beta} changes with redshift and that the CA mass function with D{sub B} = 0 agrees very well with the numerical results at various redshifts. Defining the relative abundance of isolated clusters, {xi}{sub I}, as the ratio of the cumulative mass function of isolated clusters to that of non-isolated clusters at a given epoch, we finally show how sensitively {xi}{sub I} changes with the dark energy equation of state. It is also discussed how {xi}{sub I} can help break the degeneracy between the dark energy equation of state and the other key cosmological parameters.

  11. Apparent clustering of intermediate-redshift galaxies as a probe of dark energy.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Takahiko; Szalay, Alexander S

    2003-01-17

    We show that the apparent redshift-space clustering of galaxies in the redshift range of 0.2-0.4 provides surprisingly useful constraints on dark-energy components in the Universe, because of the right balance between the density of objects and the survey depth. We apply Fisher matrix analysis to the luminous red galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, as a concrete example. Possible degeneracies in the evolution of the equation of state and the other cosmological parameters are clarified.

  12. New generation low-energy probes for ultralight axion and scalar dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadnik, Yevgeny V.; Flambaum, Victor V.

    2017-05-01

    We present a brief overview of a new generation of high-precision laboratory and astrophysical measurements to search for ultralight (sub-eV) axion, axion-like pseudoscalar and scalar dark matter (DM), which form either a coherently oscillating classical field or topological defects (solitons). In these new detection methods, the sought effects are linear in the interaction constant between DM and ordinary matter, which is in stark contrast to traditional searches for DM, where the sought effects are quadratic or higher order in the underlying interaction constants (which are extremely small).

  13. Implantable hydrogel embedded dark-gold nanoswitch as a theranostic probe to sense and overcome cancer multidrug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Conde, João; Oliva, Nuria; Artzi, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells is a substantial limitation to the success of chemotherapy. Here, we describe facile means to overcome resistance by silencing the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1), before chemotherapeutic drug delivery in vivo with a single local application. Our platform contains hydrogel embedded with dark-gold nanoparticles modified with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-intercalated nanobeacons that serve as an ON/OFF molecular nanoswitch triggered by the increased MRP1 expression within the tumor tissue microenvironment. This nanoswitch can sense and overcome MDR prior to local drug release. The nanobeacons comprise a 5-FU intercalated DNA hairpin, which is labeled with a near-infrared (NIR) dye and a dark-quencher. The nanobeacons are designed to open and release the intercalated drug only upon hybridization of the DNA hairpin to a complementary target, an event that restores fluorescence emission due to nanobeacons conformational reorganization. Despite the cross-resistance to 5-FU, more than 90% tumor reduction is achieved in vivo in a triple-negative breast cancer model following 80% MRP1 silencing compared with the continuous tumor growth following only drug or nanobeacon administration. Our approach can be applied to reverse cross-resistance to other chemotherapeutic drugs and restore treatment efficacy. As a universal nanotheranostic probe, this platform can pave the way to early cancer detection and treatment. PMID:25733851

  14. Dark Energy Studies with LSST Image Simulations, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, John Russell

    2016-07-26

    This grant funded the development and dissemination of the Photon Simulator (PhoSim) for the purpose of studying dark energy at high precision with the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) astronomical survey. The work was in collaboration with the LSST Dark Energy Science Collaboration (DESC). Several detailed physics improvements were made in the optics, atmosphere, and sensor, a number of validation studies were performed, and a significant number of usability features were implemented. Future work in DESC will use PhoSim as the image simulation tool for data challenges used by the analysis groups.

  15. The dark matter distribution in high redshift clusters: probing evolution. GO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaud, Monique

    2009-10-01

    We have been awarded a Large Program in AO7 (373 ksec) to assess the evolution of the dark matter concentration at cluster scales, a critical test of theoretical scenario of structure formation. To do this, we measure the mass profiles of a sample of massive, relaxed galaxy clusters at z greater than 0.5, with a precision equal to that currently obtained for local objects. In the resubmitted LP category, we propose to re-observe RX J0257.1-2325, the observation of which was dramatically affected by flares. WITH THIS PROPOSAL, IN THE GO CATEGORY, we further propose to observe the 2 targets for which no time was allocated in AO7, to reach the original precision goal of our project. The scientific justification is common to both proposals.

  16. The dark matter distribution in high redshift clusters: probing evolution. LP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaud, Monique

    2009-10-01

    We have been awarded a Large Program in AO7 (373 ksec) to assess the evolution of the dark matter concentration at cluster scales, a critical test of theoretical scenario of structure formation. To do this, we measure the mass profiles of a sample of massive, relaxed galaxy clusters at z greater than 0.5, with a precision equal to that currently obtained for local objects. WITH THIS PROPOSAL, IN THE RESUBMITTED LARGE PROGRAM CATEGORY, we propose to re-observe RX J0257.1-2325, the observation of which was dramatically affected by flares. In the GO category, we propose to observe the 2 targets for which no time was allocated in AO7, to reach the original precision goal of our project. The scientific justification is common to both proposals

  17. Old Neutron Stars as Probes of Isospin-Violating Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hao; Sun, Kai-Jia; Chen, Lie-Wen

    2015-02-01

    Isospin-violating dark matter (IVDM), which couples differently with protons and neutrons, provides a promising mechanism to ameliorate the tension among recent direct detection experiments. Assuming dark matter (DM) is non-interacting bosonic asymmetric IVDM, we investigate how the existence of old neutron stars limits the DM-proton scattering cross-section {{σ }p}, especially the effects of the isospin-violating DM-nucleon interactions and the symmetry energy in the equation of state (EOS) of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. Our calculations are completely based on general relativity and the structure of neutron stars is obtained by solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations with nuclear matter EOS constrained by terrestrial experiments. We find that, by considering the more realistic neutron star model rather than a simple uniform neutron sphere as usual, the {{σ }p} bounds from old neutron stars can be varied by more than an order of magnitude depending on the specific values of the DM neutron-to-proton coupling ratio {{f}n}/{{f}p}, and they can be further varied by more than a factor of two depending on the density dependence of the symmetry energy. In particular, we demonstrate that the observed nearby isolated old neutron star PSR B1257+12 can set a very strong limit on {{σ }p} for low-mass DM particles (≤slant 20 GeV) that reaches a sensitivity beyond the current best limits from direct detection experiments and disfavors the DM interpretation of previously reported positive experimental results, including the IVDM.

  18. Probing the Dark Matter Content of Local Group Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies with FLAMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Mark I.; Kleyna, Jan T.; Gilmore, Gerard F.; Evans, N. Wyn; Koch, Andreas; Grebel, Eva K.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Harbeck, Daniel R.

    2006-06-01

    We present preliminary kinematic results from our VLT programme of spectroscopic observations in the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy using the FLAMES multi-object spectrograph. These new data suggest that the dark matter halo of this galaxy has a uniform density core. The implications for our understanding of the nature of the dark matter are discussed. Z% Aaronson M. 1983, ApJ 266, L11 Belokurov V. et al. 2006, ApJL, submitted, astro-ph/0604355 Goerdt T. et al. 2006, MNNRAS 368, 1073 Harbeck D. et al. 2001, AJ 122, 3092 Kleyna J. T. et al. 2001, ApJ 564, L115 Kleyna J. T. et al. 2003, ApJ 588, L21 Koch A. et al. 2006a, The Messenger 123, 38 Koch A. et al. 2006b, AJ 131, 895 Majewski S. R. et al. 2005, AJ 130, 2677 Martin N. et al. 2006, MNRAS 367, L69 Mateo M. et al. 1993, AJ 105, 510 Mateo M. 1997, ASP Conf. Ser. 116, 259 Mateo M. et al. 1998, AJ 116, 2315 Monelli M. et al. 2003, AJ 126, 218 Munoz R. R. et al. 2005, ApJ 631, L137 Shetrone M. D. et al. 2001, ApJ 548, 592 Tolstoy E. et al. 2006, The Messenger 123, 33 Wilkinson M. I. et al. 2002, MNRAS 330, 778 Wilkinson M. I. et al. 2004, MNRAS 611, L21 Wilkinson M. I. et al. 2006, in proceedings of XXIst IAP meeting, EDP sciences, astro-ph/0602186 Willman B. et al. 2005, ApJ 626, L85 Wyse R. F. G. et al. 2006, ApJ 639, L13 Zucker D. B. et al. 2006, ApJ 643, L103

  19. The Solar Probe Mission Study: 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, D. M.; Solar Probe Science and Technology Definition STDT* Team

    2004-05-01

    Solar Probe will experience first hand the processes and conditions in the solar atmosphere that ultimately impact our planet and shape the harsh solar system environment. It will be humanity's first visit to a star and will explore a previously inaccessible region of the inner heliosphere. The 2003 Space Science Enterprise Strategy called for study of a Solar Probe to "fly through the solar atmosphere to answer fundamental questions that can be answered in no other way." The mission received highest priority in the National Academy of Sciences' decadal research strategy in solar and space physics in 2002. Significant advances have been made in the areas of solar and solar wind science, instrument technology, mission resources, and the mission environment since the previous Solar Probe Science Definition Team reports of 1989, 1995, and 1999. Therefore, with the strong support from the international community, NASA's Office of Space Science (OSS) has formed a new Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) to develop an exciting and achievable new mission concept for a Solar Probe mission. It is hoped that this study will be completed this fall with a final report by the end of 2004. This talk provides an update on the progress of the STDT's efforts. *Solar Probe Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT): Loren Acton, Marianne Balat, Volker Bothmer, Ray Dirling, Bill Feldman, George Gloeckler, Shadia Habbal, Don Hassler, Geoffrey Landis, Ingrid Mann, Bill Matthaeus, Dave McComas, Ralph McNutt, Dick Mewaldt, Neil Murphy, Leon Ofman, Ed Sittler, Chuck Smith, Marco Velli, and Thomas Zurbuchen

  20. Study of Several Potentials as Scalar Field Dark Matter Candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Matos, Tonatiuh; Vazquez-Gonzalez, Alberto; Magan a, Juan

    2008-12-04

    In this work we study several scalar field potentials as a plausible candidate to be the dark matter in the universe. The main idea is the following; if the scalar field is an ultralight boson particle, it condensates like a Bose-Einstein system at very early times and forms the basic structure of the Universe. Real scalar fields collapse in equilibrium configurations which oscillate in space-time (oscillatons). The cosmological behavior of the field equations are solved using the dynamical system formalism. We use the current cosmological parameters as constraints for the free parameters of the scalar field potentials. We are able to reproduce very well the cosmological predictions of the standard {lambda}CDM model with some scalar field potentials. Therefore, scalar field dark matter seems to be a good alternative to be the nature of the dark matter of the universe.

  1. Importance of Supernovae at z<0.1 for Probing Dark Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Jeanne M; Linder, E.V.

    2007-02-20

    Supernova experiments to characterize dark energy require a well designed low redshift program; we consider this for both ongoing/near term (e.g. Supernova Legacy Survey) and comprehensive future (e.g., SNAP) experiments. The derived criteria are: a supernova sample centered near z=0.05 comprising 150-500 (in the former case) and 300-900 (in the latter case) well measured supernovae. Low redshift Type Ia supernovae play two important roles for cosmological use of the supernova distance-redshift relation: as an anchor for the Hubble diagram and as an indicator of possible systematics. An innate degeneracy in cosmological distances implies that 300 nearby supernovae nearly saturate their cosmological leverage for the first use, and their optimum central redshift is z=0.05. This conclusion is strengthened upon including velocity flow and magnitude offset systematics. Limiting cosmological parameter bias due to supernova population drift (evolution) systematics plausibly increases the requirement for the second use to less than about 900 supernovae.

  2. End User Study on BRS/After Dark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trzebiatowski, Elaine

    1984-01-01

    Presents results of study evaluating reactions of 20 university students and faculty to first-time online database searching on the Bibliographic Retrieval Service's menu-driven BRS/After Dark. Background information on participants, search analysis and problems, end user education needs, and the role of the intermediary are discussed. Four…

  3. Probing the transient dark state of substrate binding to GroEL by relaxation-based solution NMR.

    PubMed

    Libich, David S; Fawzi, Nicolas L; Ying, Jinfa; Clore, G Marius

    2013-07-09

    The mechanism whereby the prototypical chaperonin GroEL performs work on substrate proteins has not yet been fully elucidated, hindered by lack of detailed structural and dynamic information on the bound substrate. Previous investigations have produced conflicting reports on the state of GroEL-bound polypeptides, largely due to the transient and dynamic nature of these complexes. Here, we present a unique approach, based on combined analysis of four complementary relaxation-based NMR experiments, to probe directly the "dark" NMR-invisible state of the model, intrinsically disordered, polypeptide amyloid β (Aβ40) bound to GroEL. The four NMR experiments, lifetime line-broadening, dark-state exchange saturation transfer, relaxation dispersion, and small exchange-induced chemical shifts, are dependent in different ways on the overall exchange rates and populations of the free and bound states of the substrate, as well as on residue-specific dynamics and structure within the bound state as reported by transverse magnetization relaxation rates and backbone chemical shifts, respectively. Global fitting of all the NMR data shows that the complex is transient with a lifetime of <1 ms, that binding involves two predominantly hydrophobic segments corresponding to predicted GroEL consensus binding sequences, and that the structure of the bound polypeptide remains intrinsically and dynamically disordered with minimal changes in secondary structure propensity relative to the free state. Our results establish a unique method to observe NMR-invisible dynamic states of GroEL-bound substrates and to describe at atomic resolution the events between substrate binding and encapsulation that are crucial for understanding the normal and stress-related metabolic function of chaperonins.

  4. Surface Studies by Scanning Probe Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ho-Seob

    The scanning probe microscopy reported here includes scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The scanning tunneling microscope is a novel tool which can reveal the atomic structure and electronic properties of surfaces using a probe with a sharp tip. An additional technique, atomic force microscopy has the potential to record geometric structures for both conducting and non -conducting materials. The first AFM designs utilized short range forces between a small stylus and a sample surface to produce high resolution images of defects and structural features of the surface. The current-voltage characteristics were also investigated during dynamic changes of the tunnel current and barrier height with an additional technology, tunneling spectroscopy. An advanced design for an AFM has been developed which utilizes a dielectric tunnel junction to retain the high sensitivity of tunnel current control over force ranges between 10^{-6} and 10 ^{-11}N. This AFM has been successfully applied to physical and biological samples. Scanning probe techniques have been developed and applied to a range of sample types including conductors, semi-conductors and non-conductors. Each technique utilizes the same electronics, computers, and imaging facilities. A fundamental problem of the atomic structure of graphite has existed since the inception of STM images. The experimental and theoretical hypotheses have been considered and a resolution of the problem has been developed as reported in this dissertation. Unprecedented resolving power, greater than 1A, has confirmed our hypothesis and has been correctly correlated with the structure of graphite surface. This dissertation also presents the results from studies of the surface structure of: MoS_2 , Cu, Au, Ag, Si, CdTe, HgTe, Fe_2 O_3, mica, gypsum, purple membranes with protein chains, and an organic photoconducting material, by scanning probe microscopes.

  5. What Is a pH Probe Study?

    MedlinePlus

    What is a pH Probe Study ? What is pH a probe study? M easuring the pH in the esophagus helps determine whether or not acid is coming up from the stomach. A pH probe study is usually done in patients where ...

  6. James Webb Space Telescope Studies of Dark Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.; Stiavelli, Massimo; Mather, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has contributed significantly to studies of dark energy. It was used to find the first evidence of deceleration at z=1.8 (Riess et al. 2001) through the serendipitous discovery of a type 1a supernova (SN1a) in the Hubble Deep Field. The discovery of deceleration at z greater than 1 was confirmation that the apparent acceleration at low redshift (Riess et al. 1998; Perlmutter et al. 1999) was due to dark energy rather than observational or astrophysical effects such as systematic errors, evolution in the SN1a population or intergalactic dust. The GOODS project and associated follow-up discovered 21 SN1a, expanding on this result (Riess et al. 2007). HST has also been used to constrain cosmological parameters and dark energy through weak lensing measurements in the COSMOS survey (Massey et al 2007; Schrabback et al 2009) and strong gravitational lensing with measured time delays (Suyu et al 2010). Constraints on dark energy are often parameterized as the equation of state, w = P/p. For the cosmological constant model, w = -1 at all times; other models predict a change with time, sometimes parameterized generally as w(a) or approximated as w(sub 0)+(1-a)w(sub a), where a = (1+z)(sup -1) is the scale factor of the universe relative to its current scale. Dark energy can be constrained through several measurements. Standard candles, such as SN1a, provide a direct measurement of the luminosity distance as a function of redshift, which can be converted to H(z), the change in the Hubble constant with redshift. An analysis of weak lensing in a galaxy field can be used to derive the angular-diameter distance from the weak-lensing equation and to measure the power spectrum of dark-matter halos, which constrains the growth of structure in the Universe. Baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO), imprinted on the distribution of matter at recombination, provide a standard rod for measuring the cosmological geometry. Strong gravitational lensing of a

  7. Dark current study for CMOS fully integrated-PIN-photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teva, Jordi; Jessenig, Stefan; Jonak-Auer, Ingrid; Schrank, Franz; Wachmann, Ewald

    2011-05-01

    PIN photodiodes are semiconductor devices widely used in a huge range of applications, such as photoconductors, charge-coupled devices and pulse oximeters for medical applications. The possibility to combine and to integrate the fabrication of the sensor with its signal conditioning circuitry in a CMOS process allows device miniaturization in addition to enhance its properties lowering the production and assembly costs. This paper presents the design and characterization of silicon based PIN photodiodes integrated in a CMOS commercial process. A high-resistivity, low impurity substrate is chosen as the start material for the PIN photodiode array fabrication in order to fabricate devices with a minimum dark current. The dark current is studied, analyzed and measured for two different starting materials and for different geometries. A model previously proposed is reviewed and compared with experimental data.

  8. Proposed Dark Current Studies at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Antipov, S.P.; Conde, Manoel Eduardo; Gai, Wei; Power, John Gorham; Yusof, Z.M.; Spentzouris, L.K.; Dolgashev, V.A.; /SLAC

    2008-01-18

    A study of dark currents has been initiated at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator Facility (AWA). Emission of dark current is closely related to a breakdown. Breakdown may include several factors such as local field enhancement, explosive electron emission, Ohmic heating, tensile stress produced by electric field, and others. The AWA is building a dedicated facility to test various models for breakdown mechanisms and to determine the roles of different factors in the breakdown. An imaging system is being put together to identify single emitters on the cathode surface. This will allow us to study dark current properties in the gun. We also plan to trigger breakdown events with a high-powered laser at various wavelengths (IR to UV). Another experimental idea follows from the recent work on a Schottky-enabled photoemission in an RF photoinjector that allows us to determine in situ the field enhancement factor on a cathode surface. Monitoring the field enhancement factor before and after can shed some light on a modification of metal surface after the breakdown.

  9. An Extinction Study of the Taurus Dark Cloud Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arce, Héctor G.; Goodman, Alyssa A.

    1999-05-01

    We present a study of the detailed distribution of extinction in a region of the Taurus dark cloud complex. Our study uses new BVR images of the region, spectral classification data for 95 stars, and IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA) 60 and 100 μm images. We study the extinction of the region in four different ways, and we present the first intercomparison of all these methods, which are as follows: (1) using the color excess of background stars for which spectral types are known, (2) using the ISSA 60 and 100 μm images, (3) using star counts, and (4) using an optical (V and R) version of the average color excess method used by Lada et al. We find that all four methods give generally similar results--with important exceptions. As expected, all the methods show an increase in extinction due to dense dusty regions (i.e., dark clouds and IRAS cores) and a general increase in extinction with increasing declination, due to a larger content of dust in the northern regions of the Taurus dark cloud complex. Some of the discrepancies between the methods are caused by assuming a constant dust temperature for each line of sight in the ISSA extinction maps and not correcting for unexpected changes in the background stellar population (i.e., the presence of a cluster or Galactic gradients in the stellar density and average V-R color). To study the structure in the dust distribution, we compare the ISSA extinction and the extinction measured for individual stars. From the comparison, we conclude that in the relatively low-extinction regions studied, with 0.9dark clouds and IRAS cores), there are no fluctuations in the dust column density greater than 45% (at the 99.7% confidence level), on scales smaller than 0.2 pc. We also report the discovery of a previously unknown open cluster of stars behind the Taurus dark cloud near R.A. 4h19m, decl. 27°30' (B1950).

  10. Possible evidence for dark matter annihilations from the excess microwave emission around the center of the Galaxy seen by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Dan; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Dobler, Gregory

    2007-10-15

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) experiment has revealed an excess of microwave emission from the region around the center of our Galaxy. It has been suggested that this signal, known as the 'WMAP haze', could be synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons and positrons generated in dark matter annihilations. In this article, we revisit this possibility. We find that the angular distribution of the WMAP haze matches the prediction for dark matter annihilations with a cusped density profile, {rho}(r){proportional_to}r{sup -1.2} in the inner kiloparsecs. Comparing the intensity in different WMAP frequency bands, we find that a wide range of possible weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) annihilation modes are consistent with the spectrum of the haze for a WIMP with a mass in the 100 GeV to multi-TeV range. Most interestingly, we find that to generate the observed intensity of the haze, the dark matter annihilation cross section is required to be approximately equal to the value needed for a thermal relic, {sigma}v{approx}3x10{sup -26} cm{sup 3}/s. No boost factors are required. If dark matter annihilations are in fact responsible for the WMAP haze, and the slope of the halo profile continues into the inner Galaxy, GLAST is expected to detect gamma rays from the dark matter annihilations in the galactic center if the WIMP mass is less than several hundred GeV.

  11. Probing the unified origin of dark matter and baryon asymmetry at PAMELA and Fermi Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Sahu, Narendra; Stephens, Philip; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2009-09-15

    We propose an unified model of dark matter and baryon asymmetry in a leptophilic world above the electroweak scale. We provide an example where the inflaton decay products subsequently generate a lepton asymmetry and a dark matter abundance with an unique coupling in the early Universe, while the present day decay of the dark matter through the same coupling gives rise the observed cosmic ray anomalies at PAMELA and Fermi Large Area Telescope.

  12. Microslot NMR probe for metabolomics studies.

    PubMed

    Krojanski, Hans Georg; Lambert, Jörg; Gerikalan, Yilmaz; Suter, Dieter; Hergenröder, Roland

    2008-11-15

    A NMR microprobe based on microstrip technology suitable for investigations of volume-limited samples in the low nanoliter range was designed. NMR spectra of sample quantities in the 100 pmol range can be obtained with this probe in a few seconds. The planar geometry of the probe is easily adaptable to the size and geometry requirements of the samples.

  13. Ultrafast Terahertz Probes of Interacting Dark Excitons in Chirality-Specific Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Liang; Chatzakis, Ioannis; Patz, Aaron; Wang, Jigang

    2015-03-01

    Ultrafast terahertz spectroscopy accesses the dark excitonic ground state in resonantly excited (6,5) single-walled carbon nanotubes via internal, direct dipole-allowed transitions between the lowest-lying dark-bright pair state of ˜6 meV . An analytical model reproduces the response that enables the quantitative analysis of transient densities of dark excitons and e -h plasma, oscillator strength, transition energy renormalization, and dynamics. Nonequilibrium, yet stable, quasi-one-dimensional quantum states with dark excitonic correlations rapidly emerge even with increasing off-resonance photoexcitation and experience a unique crossover to complex phase-space filling of both dark and bright pair states, different from dense two- and three-dimensional excitons influenced by the thermalization, cooling, and ionization to free carriers.

  14. Ultrafast terahertz probes of interacting dark excitons in chirality-specific semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Liang; Chatzakis, Ioannis; Patz, Aaron; Wang, Jigang

    2015-03-13

    Ultrafast terahertz spectroscopy accesses the dark excitonic ground state in resonantly excited (6,5) single-walled carbon nanotubes via internal, direct dipole-allowed transitions between the lowest-lying dark-bright pair state of ∼6  meV. An analytical model reproduces the response that enables the quantitative analysis of transient densities of dark excitons and e-h plasma, oscillator strength, transition energy renormalization, and dynamics. Nonequilibrium, yet stable, quasi-one-dimensional quantum states with dark excitonic correlations rapidly emerge even with increasing off-resonance photoexcitation and experience a unique crossover to complex phase-space filling of both dark and bright pair states, different from dense two- and three-dimensional excitons influenced by the thermalization, cooling, and ionization to free carriers.

  15. Optimizing New Dark Energy Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Tyson, J. Anthony

    2013-08-26

    Next generation “Stage IV” dark energy experiments under design during this grant, and now under construction, will enable the determination of the properties of dark energy and dark matter to unprecedented precision using multiple complementary probes. The most pressing challenge in these experiments is the characterization and understanding of the systematic errors present within any given experimental configuration and the resulting impact on the accuracy of our constraints on dark energy physics. The DETF and the P5 panel in their reports recommended “Expanded support for ancillary measurements required for the long-term program and for projects that will improve our understanding and reduction of the dominant systematic measurement errors.” Looking forward to the next generation Stage IV experiments we have developed a program to address the most important potential systematic errors within these experiments. Using data from current facilities it has been feasible and timely to undertake a detailed investigation of the systematic errors. In this DOE grant we studied of the source and impact of the dominant systematic effects in dark energy measurements, and developed new analysis tools and techniques to minimize their impact. Progress under this grant is briefly reviewed in this technical report. This work was a necessary precursor to the coming generations of wide-deep probes of the nature of dark energy and dark matter. The research has already had an impact on improving the efficiencies of all Stage III and IV dark energy experiments.

  16. Titanium pigmentation. An electron probe microanalysis study

    SciTech Connect

    Dupre, A.; Touron, P.; Daste, J.; Lassere, J.; Bonafe, J.L.; Viraben, R.

    1985-05-01

    A patient had an unusual pigmentary disease induced by titanium dioxide. The use of a topical cream containing titanium dioxide caused a xanthomalike appearance on the patient's penis. Electron probe microanalysis was valuable in establishing the cause of this balanitis.

  17. Study of new systems concepts for a Titan atmospheric probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, Doug; Citron, Todd; Drean, Robert; Lewis, Scott; Lo, Martin; Mccarthy, John; Soderblom, Robert; Steffy, Dave; Vargas, Tina; Wolff, Marty

    1986-01-01

    Results of a systems concepts study for a Titan Probe were examined. The key tradeoffs performed are described in detail. Mass breakdown of each Probe subsystem or major element were given. The mission analysis performed to determine compliance with the high altitude sampling and descent time requirements are described. The baseline Descent Module design was derived. The element of the Probe System left on the Carrier after separation were described.

  18. Constraining the dark fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David; Gao Changjun

    2009-10-15

    Cosmological observations are normally fit under the assumption that the dark sector can be decomposed into dark matter and dark energy components. However, as long as the probes remain purely gravitational, there is no unique decomposition and observations can only constrain a single dark fluid; this is known as the dark degeneracy. We use observations to directly constrain this dark fluid in a model-independent way, demonstrating, in particular, that the data cannot be fit by a dark fluid with a single constant equation of state. Parametrizing the dark fluid equation of state by a variety of polynomials in the scale factor a, we use current kinematical data to constrain the parameters. While the simplest interpretation of the dark fluid remains that it is comprised of separate dark matter and cosmological constant contributions, our results cover other model types including unified dark energy/matter scenarios.

  19. The effect of probe inaccuracies on the quantitative model-based analysis of high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Martinez, G T; De Backer, A; Rosenauer, A; Verbeeck, J; Van Aert, S

    2014-08-01

    Quantitative structural and chemical information can be obtained from high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM) images when using statistical parameter estimation theory. In this approach, we assume an empirical parameterized imaging model for which the total scattered intensities of the atomic columns are estimated. These intensities can be related to the material structure or composition. Since the experimental probe profile is assumed to be known in the description of the imaging model, we will explore how the uncertainties in the probe profile affect the estimation of the total scattered intensities. Using multislice image simulations, we analyze this effect for Cs corrected and non-Cs corrected microscopes as a function of inaccuracies in cylindrically symmetric aberrations, such as defocus and spherical aberration of third and fifth order, and non-cylindrically symmetric aberrations, such as 2-fold and 3-fold astigmatism and coma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Resting in darkness improves downbeat nystagmus: evidence from an observational study.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Rainer; Claassen, Jens; Teufel, Julian; Bardins, Stanislav; Schneider, Erich; Lehrer Rettinger, Nicole; Jahn, Klaus; da Silva, Fábio Anciães; Hahn, Ales; Farahmand, Parvis; Brandt, Thomas; Strupp, Michael; Kalla, Roger

    2016-07-01

    Resting in an upright position during daytime decreases downbeat nystagmus (DBN). When measured in brightness only, that is, without intermitting exposure to darkness, it does not make a significant difference whether patients have previously rested in brightness or in darkness. In real-world scenarios, people are often exposed to brightness and darkness intermittently. The aim of this study was to analyze whether resting in brightness or resting in darkness was associated with a lower post-resting DBN after intermitting exposures to brightness and darkness. Eight patients were recorded with three-dimensional video-oculography in brightness and darkness conditions, each following two 2-h resting intervals under either brightness or darkness resting conditions. The dependent variable was DBN intensity, measured in mean slow phase velocity. A repeated measures ANOVA with the factors measurement condition (brightness vs. darkness), resting condition (brightness vs. darkness), and time (after first vs. second resting interval) showed a significant effect for the factor resting condition, where previous resting in darkness was associated with a significantly lower DBN relative to previous resting in brightness (P < 0.01). The clinical relevance is to advise patients with DBN to rest in darkness. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Androgen receptor location in the dark-eyed junco using a probe for in situ hybridization histochemistry generated from zebra finch cDNA.

    PubMed

    Satre, Danielle; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Corbitt, Cynthia

    2011-09-30

    Due to the role of sex steroids, namely testosterone (T), in the development and production of song in songbirds, androgen receptor (AR) densities in the brain regions controlling this behavior (i.e., the song control system) have long been studied. Many methods have been used to determine AR density and location to investigate the functional role of T in song development and production; however, a riboprobe developed from zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) cDNA was shown to be much more sensitive than previous methods. The zebra finch is a common model for song development and is sexually dimorphic, but does not breed seasonally or display seasonal changes in song control region volume. In this study, we used this riboprobe for in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH) to describe AR mRNA location in the brain of the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), a seasonally breeding model for which T has been shown to be important. Additionally, we provide a detailed comparison of AR mRNA location between these species. We found that this probe is indeed highly sensitive. We detected AR mRNA in four major regions of the song control system (HVC, MAN, RA and Area X). Additionally, we found that the location of AR mRNA in other regions varied only slightly between these two species. These findings suggest that this method is suitable for use across songbirds and it could be useful in the ongoing attempts to elucidate the roles of sex steroid hormones on the development of this and other sex steroid dependent behaviors in songbirds.

  2. Radio Astronomers Develop New Technique for Studying Dark Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-07-01

    Pioneering observations with the National Science Foundation's giant Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) have given astronomers a new tool for mapping large cosmic structures. The new tool promises to provide valuable clues about the nature of the mysterious "dark energy" believed to constitute nearly three-fourths of the mass and energy of the Universe. Dark energy is the label scientists have given to what is causing the Universe to expand at an accelerating rate. While the acceleration was discovered in 1998, its cause remains unknown. Physicists have advanced competing theories to explain the acceleration, and believe the best way to test those theories is to precisely measure large-scale cosmic structures. Sound waves in the matter-energy soup of the extremely early Universe are thought to have left detectable imprints on the large-scale distribution of galaxies in the Universe. The researchers developed a way to measure such imprints by observing the radio emission of hydrogen gas. Their technique, called intensity mapping, when applied to greater areas of the Universe, could reveal how such large-scale structure has changed over the last few billion years, giving insight into which theory of dark energy is the most accurate. "Our project mapped hydrogen gas to greater cosmic distances than ever before, and shows that the techniques we developed can be used to map huge volumes of the Universe in three dimensions and to test the competing theories of dark energy," said Tzu-Ching Chang, of the Academia Sinica in Taiwan and the University of Toronto. To get their results, the researchers used the GBT to study a region of sky that previously had been surveyed in detail in visible light by the Keck II telescope in Hawaii. This optical survey used spectroscopy to map the locations of thousands of galaxies in three dimensions. With the GBT, instead of looking for hydrogen gas in these individual, distant galaxies -- a daunting challenge beyond the technical

  3. Dark Matter Searches in Milky Way Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mei-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Gamma-ray observations of Milky Way satellite provide one of the most sensitive and robust ways to probe WIMP dark matter. Satellite galaxies are compelling targets for dark matter searches due to their proximity, high dark matter content, and low astrophysical backgrounds. Detailed studies of the stellar kinematics of satellite galaxies precisely determine their dark matter content. In this talk, I will discuss the systematic uncertainties in determining the dark matter content of satellite galaxies from stellar kinematics, and the impacts on WIMP dark matter annihilation/decay cross section limits. I will discuss the modeling of new satellites recently discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (DES), and their impact on indirect dark matter searches. Finally I will discuss how current and future optical imaging surveys will improve our understanding of satellites dark matter distributions.

  4. PROBING THE LARGE SCALE OUTFLOWS OF THE DARK SIDE OF THE LMC BY PIERCING THROUGH THE DISK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, Kathleen A.; Howk, J. C.; Lehner, N.

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy interactions have greatly disturbed the Large Magellanic Cloud, triggering intense star formation throughout this galaxy. Evidence for a widespread gaseous outflow driven by this star formation has been seen in previous absorption-line studies toward stars in the disk, with only a small fraction of the sight lines showing gas at velocities consistent with inflow. However, there was some ambiguity in this interpretation since these absorption line studies toward LMC disk stars were sensitive only to the near side of the LMC. We provide compelling evidence that the LMC drives a global, large scale wind that permeates from its entire disk based on Hubble Space Telescope/COS UV absorption line observations of a quasar sight line that probes both the near and far side of the disk in a relatively quiescent region of this galaxy. Comparison of this sight line with our HST/STIS observations toward a star projected ~100 pc away allows us to break the ambiguities in interpreting the velocities of the absorption. The outflowing gas is flowing outward at speeds of 100 km/s. At these velocities, much of this ionized gas will escape from the galaxy. K. A. Barger is supported through the NSF Astronomy and Astrophysical Postdoctoral Fellowship award AST 1203059.

  5. Lunar regional dark mantle deposits: Geologic, multispectral, and modeling studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitz, Catherine M.; Head, James W.; Pieters, Carle M.

    1998-09-01

    Clementine five-channel UV-visible (UVVIS) data have been used to study seven regional dark mantle deposits (DMDs) on the Moon. The DMDs were mapped in distribution to determine their extent and stratigraphic relationship to other geologic units. Based upon the spectral properties for each DMD, the crystallization of the beads in each deposit was inferred and used to estimate cooling rates in the volcanic plumes that emplaced the deposits. Deposits with a high concentration of glasses reflect volcanic plumes that had low optical densities and high cooling rates, whereas deposits dominated by crystallized beads indicate plumes with slower cooling rates due to higher optical densities. Spectral data from each of the regional DMDs show that their glass:crystallized bead ratio can be estimated based upon their 415/750 and 750/950 nm values and comparison to laboratory spectra for the beads. Patches of young dark mantle in the Sinus Aestuum DMD represent one extreme with the bluest color (highest 415/750) and weakest glass band absorption (lowest 750/950) of all the DMDs. At the other extreme is the Aristarchus Plateau DMD with the reddest color and strongest glass band absorption. The other nearside DMDs, including Taurus-Littrow, Sulpicius Gallus, Rima Bode, and Mare Vaporum lie between these two extremes due to intermediate mixtures of the crystallized beads and glasses with other local soils. The Orientale Ring DMD on the western limb is dominated by volcanic glasses and is spectrally similar to the localized DMDs found in Alphonsus crater. We have identified a central vent for the Orientale Ring DMD and model the eruption as degassing of a near-surface dike to produce a 20-km-high umbrella-shaped plume with ejection velocities of 360 m/s and deposition of the glasses at an average radius of 80 km from the vent. Although we cannot identify the exact sources for the other regional DMDs (probably because they are buried beneath younger mare), the eruptions most likely

  6. Study of entry and landing probes for exploration of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Saturn's largest moon, Titan, is a totally unique planetary body which is certain to yield exciting new phenomena. Current information is lacking in detail to distinguish between a thin methane rich atmosphere and a thick nitrogen rich atmosphere. Therefore, both the thin and thick atmospheric models were used for the study of various Titan probe classes described in this report. The technical requirements, conceptual design, science return, schedule, cost and mission implications of three probe classes that could be used for exploration of Titan are defined. The three probe classes were based on a wide range of exploration mission possibilities.

  7. Constraining Dark Matter Through the Study of Merging Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, William Anthony

    2013-03-01

    Context: The majority (~85%) of the matter in the universe is composed of dark matter, a mysterious particle that does not interact via the electromagnetic force yet does interact with all other matter via the gravitational force. Many direct detection experiments have been devoted to finding interactions of dark matter with baryonic matter via the weak force. It is still possible that dark matter interacts with itself via a strong scale force and has a self-scattering cross-section of ~0.5 cm2g -1. In fact such a strong scale scattering force could resolve several outstanding astronomical mysteries: a discrepancy between the cuspy density profiles seen in ΛCDM simulations and the cored density profiles observed in low surface brightness galaxies, dwarf spheroidal galaxies, and galaxy clusters, as well as the discrepancy between the significant number of massive Milky Way dwarf spheroidal halos predicted by ΛCDM and the dearth of observed Milky Way dwarf spheroidal halos. Need: While such observations are in conflict with ΛCDM and suggest that dark matter may self-scatter, each suffers from a baryonic degeneracy, where the observations might be explained by various baryonic processes (e.g., AGN or supernove feedback, stellar winds, etc.) rather than self-interacting dark matter (SIDM). If dark matter lags behind the effectively collisionless galaxies then this is clear evidence that dark matter self-interacts. The expected galaxy-dark matter offset is typically >25 kpc (for cross-sections that would explain the other aforementioned issues with ΛCDM), this is larger than the scales of that are plagued by the baryonic degeneracies. Task: To test whether dark matter self-interacts we have carried out a comprehensive survey of the dissociative merging galaxy cluster DLSCL J0916.2+2951 (also known as the Musket Ball Cluster). This survey includes photometric and spectroscopic observations to quantify the position and velocity of the cluster galaxies, weak

  8. Precision Photometry to Study the Nature of Dark Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Schubnell, Michael

    2011-01-30

    Over the past decade scientists have collected convincing evidence that the expansion of the universe is accelerating, leading to the conclusion that the content of our universe is dominated by a mysterious 'dark energy'. The fact that present theory cannot account for the dark energy has made the determination of the nature of dark energy central to the field of high energy physics. It is expected that nothing short of a revolution in our understanding of the fundamental laws of physics is required to fully understand the accelerating universe. Discovering the nature of dark energy is a very difficult task, and requires experiments that employ a combination of different observational techniques, such as type-Ia supernovae, gravitational weak lensing surveys, galaxy and galaxy cluster surveys, and baryon acoustic oscillations. A critical component of any approach to understanding the nature of dark energy is precision photometry. This report addresses just that. Most dark energy missions will require photometric calibration over a wide range of intensities using standardized stars and internal reference sources. All of the techniques proposed for these missions rely on a complete understanding of the linearity of the detectors. The technical report focuses on the investigation and characterization of 'reciprocity failure', a newly discovered count-rate dependent nonlinearity in the NICMOS cameras on the Hubble Space Telescope. In order to quantify reciprocity failure for modern astronomical detectors, we built a dedicated reciprocity test setup that produced a known amount of light on a detector, and to measured its response as a function of light intensity and wavelength.

  9. Measuring the Thickness and Potential Profiles of the Space-Charge Layer at Organic/Organic Interfaces under Illumination and in the Dark by Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Geoffrey A; Wu, Yanfei; Haugstad, Greg; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2016-03-09

    Scanning Kelvin probe microscopy was used to measure band-bending at the model donor/acceptor heterojunction poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/fullerene (C60). Specifically, we measured the variation in the surface potential of C60 films with increasing thicknesses grown on P3HT to produce a surface potential profile normal to the substrate both in the dark and under illumination. The results confirm a space-charge carrier region with a thickness of 10 nm, consistent with previous observations. We discuss the possibility that the domain size in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells, which is comparable to the space-charge layer thickness, is actually partly responsible for less than expected electron/hole recombination rates.

  10. Constraining dark photon model with dark matter from CMB spectral distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ki-Young; Kadota, Kenji; Park, Inwoo

    2017-08-01

    Many extensions of Standard Model (SM) include a dark sector which can interact with the SM sector via a light mediator. We explore the possibilities to probe such a dark sector by studying the distortion of the CMB spectrum from the blackbody shape due to the elastic scatterings between the dark matter and baryons through a hidden light mediator. We in particular focus on the model where the dark sector gauge boson kinetically mixes with the SM and present the future experimental prospect for a PIXIE-like experiment along with its comparison to the existing bounds from complementary terrestrial experiments.

  11. Developing a Taxonomy of Dark Triad Triggers at Work – A Grounded Theory Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Nübold, Annika; Bader, Josef; Bozin, Nera; Depala, Romil; Eidast, Helena; Johannessen, Elisabeth A.; Prinz, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    In past years, research and corporate scandals have evidenced the destructive effects of the dark triad at work, consisting of narcissism (extreme self-centeredness), psychopathy (lack of empathy and remorse) and Machiavellianism (a sense of duplicity and manipulativeness). The dark triad dimensions have typically been conceptualized as stable personality traits, ignoring the accumulating evidence that momentary personality expressions – personality states – may change due to the characteristics of the situation. The present research protocol describes a qualitative study that aims to identify triggers of dark triad states at work by following a grounded theory approach using semi-structured interviews. By building a comprehensive categorization of dark triad triggers at work scholars may study these triggers in a parsimonious and structured way and organizations may derive more effective interventions to buffer or prevent the detrimental effects of dark personality at work. PMID:28326048

  12. Study of dark matter physics in non-universal gaugino mass scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Junichiro; Omura, Yuji

    2017-08-01

    We study dark matter physics in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with non-universal gaugino masses at the unification scale. In this scenario, the specific ratio of wino and gluino masses realizes the electro-weak scale naturally and achieves 125 GeV Higgs boson mass. Then, relatively light higgsino is predicted and the lightest neutral particle, that is dominantly given by the neutral component of higgsino, is a good dark matter candidate. The direct detection of the dark matter is sensitive to not only a higgsino mass but also gaugino masses significantly. The upcoming XENON1T experiment excludes the parameter region where bino or gluino is lighter than about 2.5 TeV if the higgsino and the gaugino mass parameters have same signs. We see that the direct detection of dark matter gives stronger bound than the direct search at the LHC experiment when higgsino gives sizable contribution to the dark matter abundance.

  13. Hubble Expansion Parameter in a New Model of Dark Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadat, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we consider new model of dark energy based on Taylor expansion of its density and calculate the Hubble expansion parameter for various parameterizations of equation of state. This model is useful to probe a possible evolving of dark energy component in comparison with current observational data.

  14. Search for low-mass dark matter at BABAR

    SciTech Connect

    Echenard, Bertrand

    2012-05-31

    This study briefly describes light dark matter searches performed by the BABAR experiment. Although dark matter candidates have traditionally been associated with heavy particles appearing in extensions of the Standard Model, a lighter component remains a well-motivated alternative, and many scenarios of light dark matter have been recently proposed. Thanks to their large luminosities, B factories offer an ideal environment to probe these possibilities, complementing searches from direct detection and satellite experiments.

  15. A study of nuclear recoil backgrounds in dark matter detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerdale, Shawn S.

    Despite the great success of the Standard Model of particle physics, a preponderance of astrophysical evidence suggests that it cannot explain most of the matter in the universe. This so-called dark matter has eluded direct detection, though many theoretical extensions to the Standard Model predict the existence of particles with a mass on the 1-1000 GeV scale that interact only via the weak nuclear force. Particles in this class are referred to as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), and their high masses and low scattering cross sections make them viable dark matter candidates. The rarity of WIMP-nucleus interactions makes them challenging to detect: any background can mask the signal they produce. Background rejection is therefore a major problem in dark matter detection. Many experiments greatly reduce their backgrounds by employing techniques to reject electron recoils. However, nuclear recoil backgrounds, which produce signals similar to what we expect from WIMPs, remain problematic. There are two primary sources of such backgrounds: surface backgrounds and neutron recoils. Surface backgrounds result from radioactivity on the inner surfaces of the detector sending recoiling nuclei into the detector. These backgrounds can be removed with fiducial cuts, at some cost to the experiment's exposure. In this dissertation we briefly discuss a novel technique for rejecting these events based on signals they make in the wavelength shifter coating on the inner surfaces of some detectors. Neutron recoils result from neutrons scattering off of nuclei in the detector. These backgrounds may produce a signal identical to what we expect from WIMPs and are extensively discussed here. We additionally present a new tool for calculating (alpha, n) yields in various materials. We introduce the concept of a neutron veto system designed to shield against, measure, and provide an anti-coincidence veto signal for background neutrons. We discuss the research and development

  16. A Study of Nuclear Recoil Backgrounds in Dark Matter Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Westerdale, Shawn S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the great success of the Standard Model of particle physics, a preponderance of astrophysical evidence suggests that it cannot explain most of the matter in the universe. This so-called dark matter has eluded direct detection, though many theoretical extensions to the Standard Model predict the existence of particles with a mass on the $1-1000$ GeV scale that interact only via the weak nuclear force. Particles in this class are referred to as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), and their high masses and low scattering cross sections make them viable dark matter candidates. The rarity of WIMP-nucleus interactions makes them challenging to detect: any background can mask the signal they produce. Background rejection is therefore a major problem in dark matter detection. Many experiments greatly reduce their backgrounds by employing techniques to reject electron recoils. However, nuclear recoil backgrounds, which produce signals similar to what we expect from WIMPs, remain problematic. There are two primary sources of such backgrounds: surface backgrounds and neutron recoils. Surface backgrounds result from radioactivity on the inner surfaces of the detector sending recoiling nuclei into the detector. These backgrounds can be removed with fiducial cuts, at some cost to the experiment's exposure. In this dissertation we briefly discuss a novel technique for rejecting these events based on signals they make in the wavelength shifter coating on the inner surfaces of some detectors. Neutron recoils result from neutrons scattering from nuclei in the detector. These backgrounds may produce a signal identical to what we expect from WIMPs and are extensively discussed here. We additionally present a new tool for calculating ($\\alpha$, n)yields in various materials. We introduce the concept of a neutron veto system designed to shield against, measure, and provide an anti-coincidence veto signal for background neutrons. We discuss the research and development

  17. Probing dark matter, galaxies and the expansion history of the Universe with Lyα in absorption and emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haehnelt, M. G.

    2010-05-01

    Lyα radiation is an important diagnostic tool in a wide range of astrophysical environments. I will first describe here how measurements of the matter power spectrum on small scales from Lyα forest data constrain the mass of dark matter particles. I then will report on an ambitious program of searching for very faint spatially extended Lyα emission at z ˜ 3 which has led to the discovery of a new population of faint Lyα emitters which I will argue should be identified with the long searched for host galaxies of damped Lyα absorbers. Finally, I will discuss the possibility of measuring the redshift drift of Lyα absorption features and therefore the change of the expansion rate of the Universe in real time with the ultra-stable high-resolution spectrograph CODEX proposed for the E-ELT.

  18. Probing dark matter substructure in the gravitational lens HE 0435-1223 with the WFC3 grism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nierenberg, A. M.; Treu, T.; Brammer, G.; Peter, A. H. G.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Keeton, C. R.; Kochanek, C. S.; Schmidt, K. B.; Sluse, D.; Wright, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    Strong gravitational lensing provides a powerful test of cold dark matter (CDM) as it enables the detection and mass measurement of low-mass haloes even if they do not contain baryons. Compact lensed sources such as active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are particularly sensitive to perturbing subhaloes, but their use as a test of CDM has been limited by the small number of systems which have significant radio emission that is extended enough to avoid significant lensing by stars in the plane of the lens galaxy, and red enough to be minimally affected by differential dust extinction. Narrow-line emission is a promising alternative as it is also extended and, unlike radio, detectable in virtually all optically selected AGN lenses. We present first results from a Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) grism narrow-line survey of lensed quasars, for the quadruply lensed AGN HE 0435-1223. Using a forward modelling pipeline that enables us to robustly account for spatial blending, we measure the [O III] 5007 Å flux ratios of the four images. We find that the [O III] fluxes and positions are well fit by a simple smooth mass model for the main lens. Our data rule out a M600 > 108(107.2) M⊙ Navarro-Frenk-White perturber projected within ∼1.0 (0.1) arcsec of each of the lensed images, where M600 is the perturber mass within its central 600 pc. The non-detection is broadly consistent with the expectations of ΛCDM for a single system. The sensitivity achieved demonstrates that powerful limits on the nature of dark matter can be obtained with the analysis of ∼20 narrow-line lenses.

  19. Nuclear structure studies with intermediate energy probes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.S.H.

    1993-10-01

    Nuclear structure studies with pions are reviewed. Results from a recent study of 1 p-shell nuclei using (e,e{prime}), ({pi}, {pi}{prime}), and ({gamma},{pi}) reactions are reported. Future nuclear structure studies with GeV electrons at CEBAF are also briefly discussed.

  20. Chiral Dark Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Co, Raymond T.; Harigaya, Keisuke; Nomura, Yasunori

    2017-03-01

    We present a simple and natural dark sector model in which dark matter particles arise as composite states of hidden strong dynamics and their stability is ensured by accidental symmetries. The model has only a few free parameters. In particular, the gauge symmetry of the model forbids the masses of dark quarks, and the confinement scale of the dynamics provides the unique mass scale of the model. The gauge group contains an Abelian symmetry U (1 )D , which couples the dark and standard model sectors through kinetic mixing. This model, despite its simple structure, has rich and distinctive phenomenology. In the case where the dark pion becomes massive due to U (1 )D quantum corrections, direct and indirect detection experiments can probe thermal relic dark matter which is generically a mixture of the dark pion and the dark baryon, and the Large Hadron Collider can discover the U (1 )D gauge boson. Alternatively, if the dark pion stays light due to a specific U (1 )D charge assignment of the dark quarks, then the dark pion constitutes dark radiation. The signal of this radiation is highly correlated with that of dark baryons in dark matter direct detection.

  1. Future studies of planetary rings by space probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    Recent space probe observations of the rings of Jupiter and Saturn have furnished a substantial enhancement of the current understanding of the outer planets' rings. Voyager 2 offers further opportunities for the study of the Neptune and Uranus ring systems. The Galileo mission to Jupiter furnishes the first opportunity for long term space probe studies of a planetary ring system. It is suggested that an appropriately instrumented Saturn orbiter would not only provide a similar opportunity for the study of the Saturn rings, but may also be the only means by which to adequately address the nature of the diverse phenomena displayed by this prototypical planetary ring system.

  2. Dark Energy simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, Marco

    2012-11-01

    Cosmology is presently facing the deep mystery of the origin of the observed accelerated expansion of the Universe. Be it a cosmological constant, a homogeneous scalar field, or a more complex inhomogeneous field possibly inducing effective modifications of the laws of gravity, such elusive physical entity is indicated with the general term of “Dark Energy”. The growing role played by numerical N-body simulations in cosmological studies as a fundamental connection between theoretical modeling and direct observations has led to impressive advancements also in the development and application of specific algorithms designed to probe a wide range of Dark Energy scenarios. Over the last decade, a large number of independent and complementary investigations have been carried out in the field of Dark Energy N-body simulations, starting from the simplest case of homogeneous Dark Energy models up to the recent development of highly sophisticated iterative solvers for a variety of Modified Gravity theories. In this review -which is meant to be complementary to the general Review by Kuhlen et al. (2012) [1] published in this Volume - I will discuss the range of scenarios for the cosmic acceleration that have been successfully investigated by means of dedicated N-body simulations, and I will provide a broad summary of the main results that have been obtained in this rather new research field. I will focus the discussion on a few selected studies that have led to particularly significant advancements in the field, and I will provide a comprehensive list of references for a larger number of related works. Due to the vastness of the topic, the discussion will not enter into the finest details of the different implementations and will mainly focus on the outcomes of the various simulations studies. Although quite recent, the field of Dark Energy simulations has witnessed huge developments in the last few years, and presently stands as a reliable approach to the investigation

  3. Cosmological study in loop quantum cosmology through dark energy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawad, Abdul; Rani, Shamaila; Salako, Ines G.; Gulshan, Faiza

    The interacting generalized ghost version of pilgrim dark energy (GGPDE) is discussed in the framework of loop quantum cosmology (LQC). We analyze the behavior of cosmological parameters (Hubble, equation of state (EoS), deceleration) and cosmological planes (ωD ‑ ωD‧ and r-s) in the present scenario (ωD represents the EoS parameter and ωD‧ indicates the evolution of the EoS parameter, r,s are statefinder parameters). It is observed that the deceleration parameter corresponds to the accelerated expansion of the universe. The EoS parameter lies in vacuum and phantom regions for all cases of u (pilgrim dark energy (PDE) parameter). The ωD ‑ ωD‧ plane lies in thawing region for all cases of u. The r ‑ s plane corresponds to Λ cold dark matter (CDM) and Chaplygin gas model. We have also mentioned the constraints on calculated cosmological parameters and found that all the trajectories of cosmological parameters and planes show the consistence behavior with the observational schemes.

  4. Combined Impedance Probe and Langmuir Probe Studies of the Low-Latitude E Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowland, D. E.; Pfaff, R. F.; Steigies, C. T.

    2008-01-01

    The EQUIS-2 sounding rocket and radar campaign, launched from Kwajalein Atoll in 2004, included a mission to study low-latitude irregularities and electrodynamics, led by NASA GSFC. This mission included two instrumented rockets launched into the nighttime E region (apogee near 120 km), which included comprehensive electrodynamics and neutral density instrumentation. These rockets carried the first of a new generation of impedance probes, that utilize a wide-band drive signal to simultaneously measure the impedance of an antenna in a plasma as a function of frequency from 7 kEIz to 4 MHz. at a rapid cadence. This technique promises to permit true plasma spectroscopy, and resulted in the identification of multiple plasma resonances and accurate measurements of the plasma density, even in the low density nighttime E region. We present analyses of the technique and resulting spectra, and show how these data may be combined with fixed-bias Langmuir Probe data to infer the temperature structure of the E region as well as providing accurate absolute calibrations for the very high time resolution fixed-bias probe data. The data is shown to agree well with data from ionosonde, the ALTAIR radar, and the Peruvian beacon experiment.

  5. Analytical and numerical studies of dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Crystal Gayle

    This dissertation focuses on the evolution and structure of dark matter halos of galaxies, groups and clusters of galaxies. I explore the dependence of the final halo's properties on the initial conditions and the physical processes that guide the halo to equilibrium, with special focus on the power-law nature of the r/s 3 profile, where r is the density profile and s is the velocity dispersion profile. As the astronomy community does not yet fully understand these processes, this research expands our understanding of collisionless, gravitationally-interacting systems. In the initial chapters, I study the collisionless semi-analytic halo simulations and show that the final properties are sensitive to the initial conditions, such as the power-spectra filtering scale, the secondary velocities' magnitudes and directions, and the accretion rate. The general conclusions are that semi-analytic halos are in hydrostatic equilibrium and have a power-law r/s 3 profile. If there were discontinuities in the initial conditions, the power-law feature in r/s 3 breaks. Because of this, hydrostatic equilibrium is a less restrictive condition than the r/s 3 profile. These halos can recover from moderate discontinuities by either correcting a single profile by sacrificing other quantities or by sufficient post-accretion. Finally, I compare collisionless semi-analytic and N-body simulations directly. This novel comparison is useful because these techniques use different physics to collapse the proto-halo. The physical differences between these two methods are used to determine causes of the final halo profiles. Specifically, I find the NFW density profile and power-law r/s 3 are due to the slow rate of evolution, which is determined from the initial conditions and cosmology. The density slope-velocity anisotropy relationship is dependent, rather, on the physical processes (notably the radial orbit instability) and three-dimensional evolution used to collapse the proto-halos. We also

  6. SNLS3: CONSTRAINTS ON DARK ENERGY COMBINING THE SUPERNOVA LEGACY SURVEY THREE-YEAR DATA WITH OTHER PROBES

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.; Hook, I. M.; Guy, J.; Regnault, N.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Conley, A.; Carlberg, R. G.; Perrett, K. M.; Basa, S.; Fouchez, D.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Rich, J.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Baumont, S.

    2011-08-20

    We present observational constraints on the nature of dark energy using the Supernova Legacy Survey three-year sample (SNLS3) of Guy et al. and Conley et al. We use the 472 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in this sample, accounting for recently discovered correlations between SN Ia luminosity and host galaxy properties, and include the effects of all identified systematic uncertainties directly in the cosmological fits. Combining the SNLS3 data with the full WMAP7 power spectrum, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey luminous red galaxy power spectrum, and a prior on the Hubble constant H{sub 0} from SHOES, in a flat universe we find {Omega}{sub m} = 0.269 {+-} 0.015 and w = -1.061{sup +0.069}{sub -} 0{sub .068} (where the uncertainties include all statistical and SN Ia systematic errors)-a 6.5% measure of the dark energy equation-of-state parameter w. The statistical and systematic uncertainties are approximately equal, with the systematic uncertainties dominated by the photometric calibration of the SN Ia fluxes-without these calibration effects, systematics contribute only a {approx}2% error in w. When relaxing the assumption of flatness, we find {Omega}{sub m} = 0.271 {+-} 0.015, {Omega}{sub k} = -0.002 {+-} 0.006, and w = -1.069{sup +0.091}{sub -0.092}. Parameterizing the time evolution of w as w(a) = w{sub 0} + w{sub a} (1 - a) gives w{sub 0} = -0.905 {+-} 0.196, w{sub a} = -0.984{sup +1.094}{sub -1.097} in a flat universe. All of our results are consistent with a flat, w = -1 universe. The size of the SNLS3 sample allows various tests to be performed with the SNe segregated according to their light curve and host galaxy properties. We find that the cosmological constraints derived from these different subsamples are consistent. There is evidence that the coefficient, {beta}, relating SN Ia luminosity and color, varies with host parameters at >4{sigma} significance (in addition to the known SN luminosity-host relation); however, this has only a small effect on the

  7. SNLS3: Constraints on Dark Energy Combining the Supernova Legacy Survey Three-year Data with Other Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, M.; Guy, J.; Conley, A.; Regnault, N.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fouchez, D.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perrett, K. M.; Pritchet, C. J.; Rich, J.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Balam, D.; Baumont, S.; Ellis, R. S.; Fabbro, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Fourmanoit, N.; González-Gaitán, S.; Graham, M. L.; Hudson, M. J.; Hsiao, E.; Kronborg, T.; Lidman, C.; Mourao, A. M.; Neill, J. D.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Suzuki, N.; Walker, E. S.

    2011-08-01

    We present observational constraints on the nature of dark energy using the Supernova Legacy Survey three-year sample (SNLS3) of Guy et al. and Conley et al. We use the 472 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in this sample, accounting for recently discovered correlations between SN Ia luminosity and host galaxy properties, and include the effects of all identified systematic uncertainties directly in the cosmological fits. Combining the SNLS3 data with the full WMAP7 power spectrum, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey luminous red galaxy power spectrum, and a prior on the Hubble constant H 0 from SHOES, in a flat universe we find Ω m = 0.269 ± 0.015 and w = -1.061+0.069 - 0.068 (where the uncertainties include all statistical and SN Ia systematic errors)—a 6.5% measure of the dark energy equation-of-state parameter w. The statistical and systematic uncertainties are approximately equal, with the systematic uncertainties dominated by the photometric calibration of the SN Ia fluxes—without these calibration effects, systematics contribute only a ~2% error in w. When relaxing the assumption of flatness, we find Ω m = 0.271 ± 0.015, Ω k = -0.002 ± 0.006, and w = -1.069+0.091 - 0.092. Parameterizing the time evolution of w as w(a) = w 0 + wa (1 - a) gives w 0 = -0.905 ± 0.196, wa = -0.984+1.094 - 1.097 in a flat universe. All of our results are consistent with a flat, w = -1 universe. The size of the SNLS3 sample allows various tests to be performed with the SNe segregated according to their light curve and host galaxy properties. We find that the cosmological constraints derived from these different subsamples are consistent. There is evidence that the coefficient, β, relating SN Ia luminosity and color, varies with host parameters at >4σ significance (in addition to the known SN luminosity-host relation); however, this has only a small effect on the cosmological results and is currently a subdominant systematic.

  8. Probing the supersymmetric inflaton and dark matter link via the CMB, LHC, and XENON1T experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bœhm, Céline; Da Silva, Jonathan; Mazumdar, Anupam; Pukartas, Ernestas

    2013-01-01

    The primordial inflation dilutes all matter except the quantum fluctuations which we see in the cosmic microwave background radiation. Therefore the last phases of inflation must be embedded within a beyond the Standard Model sector where the inflaton can directly excite the Standard Model quarks and leptons. In this paper we consider two inflaton candidates L˜L˜e˜ and u˜d˜d˜ whose decay can naturally excite all the relevant degrees of freedom besides thermalizing the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) during and after reheating. In particular, we present the regions of the parameter space which can yield successful inflation with the right temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background, the observed relic density for the neutralino LSP, and the recent Higgs mass constraints from LHC within the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model with nonuniversal Higgs masses—referred to as the NUHM2 model. We found that in most scenarios the LSP seems strongly mass degenerated with the next to lightest LSP and the branching ratio Bs→μ+μ- very close to the present bound, thus leading to falsifiable predictions. Also the dark matter interactions with XENON nuclei would fall within the projected range for the XENON1T experiment. In the case of a positive signal of low-scale supersymmetry at the LHC, one would be able to potentially pin down the inflaton mass by using the associated values for the mass of the stau, the stop, and the neutralino.

  9. Dark Energy in the Dark Ages

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, Eric V.

    2006-04-11

    Non-negligible dark energy density at high redshifts would indicate dark energy physics distinct from a cosmological constant or"reasonable'" canonical scalar fields. Such dark energy can be constrained tightly through investigation of the growth of structure, with limits of<~;;2percent of total energy density at z>> 1 for many models. Intermediate dark energy can have effects distinct from its energy density; the dark ages acceleration can be constrained to last less than 5percent of a Hubble e-fold time, exacerbating the coincidence problem. Both the total linear growth, or equivalently sigma 8, and the shape and evolution of the nonlinear mass power spectrum for z<2 (using the Linder-White nonlinear mapping prescription) provide important windows. Probes of growth, such as weak gravitational lensing, can interact with supernovae and CMB distance measurements to scan dark energy behavior over the entire range z=0-1100.

  10. FIRST STUDY OF DARK MATTER PROPERTIES WITH DETECTED SOLAR GRAVITY MODES AND NEUTRINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Turck-Chieze, S.; Garcia, R. A.; Ballot, J.; Couvidat, S.; Mathur, S.; Salabert, D.; Silk, J.

    2012-02-10

    We derive new limits on the cold dark matter properties for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), potentially trapped in the solar core by using for the first time the central temperature constrained by boron neutrinos and the central density constrained by the dipolar gravity modes detected with the Global Oscillations at Low Frequency/Solar Helioseismic Observatory instrument. These detections disfavor the presence of non-annihilating WIMPs for masses {<=}10 GeV and spin dependent cross-sections >5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -36} cm{sup 2} in the solar core but cannot constrain WIMP annihilation models. We suggest that in the coming years helio- and asteroseismology will provide complementary probes of dark matter.

  11. Holographic dark energy reexamined

    SciTech Connect

    Gong Yungui; Wang Bin; Zhang Yuanzhong

    2005-08-15

    We have reexamined the holographic dark energy model by considering the spatial curvature. We have refined the model parameter and observed that the holographic dark energy model does not behave as phantom model. Comparing the holographic dark energy model to the supernova observation alone, we found that the closed Universe is favored. Combining with the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) data, we obtained the reasonable value of the spatial curvature of our Universe.

  12. Studies of enzyme mechanism using isotopic probes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.

    1987-01-01

    The isotope partitioning studies of the Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme reaction were examined with five transitory complexes including E:NAD, E:NAD:Mg, E:malate, E:Mg:malate, and E:NAD:malate. Three productive complexes, E:NAD, E:NAD:Mg, and E:Mg:malate, were obtained, suggesting a steady-state random mechanism. Data for trapping with E:/sup 14/C-NAD indicate a rapid equilibrium addition of Mg/sup 2 +/ prior to the addition of malate. Trapping with /sup 14/C-malate could only be obtained from the E:Mg/sup 2 +/:/sup 14/C-malate complex, while no trapping from E:/sup 14/C-malate was obtained under feasible experimental conditions. The equations for the isotope partitioning studies varying two substrates in the chase solution in an ordered terreactant reaction were derived, allowing a determination of the relative rates of substrate dissociation to the catalytic reaction for each of the productive transitory complexes. NAD and malate are released from the central complex at an identical rate, equal to the catalytic rate. The release of NAD from E:NAD and E:NAD:Mg complexes is 2- to 4-fold and 5- to 9-fold V/sub max//E/sub t/, respectively. The release of malate from the E:Mg:malate complex is 0.1- to 0.3-fold of V/sub max//E/sub t/. The individual rate constants for association and dissociation of the substrates, NAD and malate have been estimated.

  13. Probing deeper into first American studies

    PubMed Central

    Dillehay, Tom D.

    2009-01-01

    The initial peopling of the Americas has proved one of the most challenging episodes in reconstructing global prehistory, challenging because researchers struggle with the vagaries of early archaeological site preservation, and debates continue over the date and place of human entry, the rapidity and direction of dispersion, and the variety of cultural responses to climatic change during the terminal Pleistocene period. Despite many recent advances in our understanding of these issues, especially in the areas of genetics and new archaeological discoveries, the field continues facing limitations in the sampling and quality of data, the research problems defined, and the epistemologies and theories applied. Theoretical development of first American studies has been uneven, and its contribution to global issues of early human migration has been restricted. This essay discusses what is known and not known about the process of the first peopling of the Americas from the perspective of archaeology, genetics, and bioanthropology. Some approaches to fill voids in data, methods, and the broader conceptualization of the process also are considered. PMID:19164556

  14. DEUTERIUM FRACTIONATION AS AN EVOLUTIONARY PROBE IN THE INFRARED DARK CLOUD G28.34+0.06

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.-R.; Liu, S.-Y.; Su, Y.-N.; Zhang Qizhou

    2010-04-10

    We have observed the J = 3 - 2 transition of N{sub 2}H{sup +} and N{sub 2}D{sup +} to investigate the trend of deuterium fractionation with evolutionary stage in three selected regions in the infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G28.34+0.06 with the Submillimeter Telescope and the Submillimeter Array. A comprehensible enhancement of roughly 3 orders of magnitude in deuterium fractionation over the local interstellar D/H ratio is observed in all sources. In particular, our sample of massive star-forming cores in G28.34+0.06 shows a moderate decreasing trend over a factor of 3 in the N(N{sub 2}D{sup +})/N(N{sub 2}H{sup +}) ratio with evolutionary stage, a behavior resembling that previously found in low-mass protostellar cores. This suggests a possible extension for the use of the N(N{sub 2}D{sup +})/N(N{sub 2}H{sup +}) ratio as an evolutionary tracer to high-mass protostellar candidates. In the most evolved core, MM1, the N{sub 2}H{sup +}(3-2) emission appears to avoid the warm region traced by dust continuum emission and emission of {sup 13}CO sublimated from grain mantles, indicating an instant release of gas-phase CO. The majority of the N{sub 2}H{sup +} and N{sub 2}D{sup +} emission is associated with extended structures larger than 8'' ({approx}0.2 pc)

  15. Holographic Grating Relaxation Studies of Probe Diffusion in Amorphous Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-15

    Relaxation, Chromophore Diffusion in PS, PMMA, PVAc, Polybutadiene, Polyethylmethacryla ;% PRICE cooE Effects of Glass Transition, chain branching. 17...properties such as molecular weight, glass transition temperature (Tg) and chain conformation on the probe diffusion coefficient, and effects of polymer...crosslinking and plasticising on the same process are also studied. Page 4 Experimental Matels • Camphorquinone (CQ), thymorquinone (TM) and diacetyl (DA

  16. On the Dark Rim Artifact in Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI Myocardial Perfusion Studies

    PubMed Central

    Di Bella, E.V.R.; Parker, D.L.; Sinusas, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    A dark band or rim along parts of the subendocardial border of the left ventricle (LV) and the myocardium has been noticed in some dynamic contrast-enhanced MR perfusion studies. The artifact is thought to be due to susceptibility effects from the gadolinium bolus, motion, or resolution, or a combination of these. Here motionless ex vivo hearts in which the cavity was filled with gadolinium are used to show that dark rim artifacts can be consistent with resolution effects alone. PMID:16200553

  17. Polarimetric study of the interstellar medium in Taurus Dark Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.

    1985-01-01

    An optical linear polarimetric survey was completed for more than 300 stars in an area of 6.5/sup 0/ x 10/sup 0/ toward the Taurus Dark Clouds Complex. It was found that the orientation of the magnetic field is roughly perpendicular to the elongation direction of the dust lanes, indicating cloud contraction along the magnetic field lines. The distance to the front edge of the dark clouds in Taurus is determined to be 126 pc. There is only insignificant amount of obscuring material between the cloud complex and the Sun. Besides the polarization data, the reddenings of about 250 stars were also obtained from the UBV photometry. The mean polarization to reddening ratio in the Taurus region is 4.6, which is similar to that of the general interstellar matter. The wavelengths of maximum polarization were determined for 30 stars in Taurus. They show an average value of lambda/sub max/ = 0.57 ..mu..m, which is only slightly higher than the mean value of the general interstellar medium, lambda/sub max/ = 0.55 ..mu..m. A few stars that show higher values of lambda/sub max/ are found near the small isolated regions of very high extinction. One such highly obscured small region where very complex long chain molecules have been discovered in the ratio spectra, is the Taurus Molecular Cloud 1.

  18. Hypersensitive radical probe studies of chloroperoxidase-catalyzed hydroxylation reactions.

    PubMed

    Toy, P H; Newcomb, M; Hager, L P

    1998-07-01

    The oxidation of hypersensitive radical probes by chloroperoxidase from Caldariomyces fumago (CPO) was studied in an attempt to "time" a putative radical intermediate. Oxidation of (trans-2-phenylcyclopropyl)methane, previously studied by Zaks and Dodds [Zaks, A., and Dodds, D. R. (1995) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 10419-10424] was reinvestigated. Unrearranged oxidation products were found as previously reported, and control experiments demonstrated that the cyclic alcohol from oxidation at the cyclopropylcarbinyl position, while subject to further oxidation, survives CPO oxidation as detectable species. However, in contrast to the report by Zaks and Dodds, the rearranged alcohol product expected from ring opening of a cyclopropylcarbinyl radical intermediate was shown to be unstable toward the enzyme oxidation reaction. Because of this instability, two new hypersensitive radical probes, (trans-2-phenylcyclopropyl)ethane and 2-(trans-2-phenylcyclopropyl)propane, and their potential cyclic and acyclic products from oxidation at the cyclopropylcarbinyl position were synthesized and tested. Oxidation of both of these probes at the cyclopropylcarbinyl position by CPO gave unrearranged alcohol products only, but control experiments again demonstrated that the rearranged alcohol products were unstable toward CPO oxidation conditions. From the combination of the probe and control studies, the lifetime of a putative radical intermediate must be less than 3 ps. Whereas the results are consistent with an insertion mechanism for production of alcohol product, they do not exclude a very short-lived intermediate.

  19. Bioconjugatable azo-based dark-quencher dyes: synthesis and application to protease-activatable far-red fluorescent probes.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Arnaud; Massif, Cédrik; Renard, Pierre-Yves; Romieu, Anthony

    2013-01-28

    We describe the efficient synthesis and one-step derivatization of novel, nonfluorescent azo dyes based on the Black Hole Quencher-3 (BHQ-3) scaffold. These dyes were equipped with various reactive and/or bioconjugatable groups (azido, α-iodoacetyl, ketone, terminal alkyne, vicinal diol). The azido derivative was found to be highly reactive in the context of copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reactions and allowed easy synthetic access to the first water-soluble (sulfonated derivative) and aldehyde-modified BHQ-3 dyes, the direct preparation of which failed by means of conventional azo-coupling reactions. The aldehyde- and α-iodoacetyl-containing fluorescence quenchers were readily conjugated to aminooxy- and cysteine-containing peptides by the formation of a stable oxime or thioether linkage, respectively. Further fluorescent labeling of the resultant peptide conjugates with red- or far-red-emitting rhodamine or cyanine dyes through sequential and/or one-pot bioconjugations, led to novel Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) based probes suitable for the in vivo detection and imaging of urokinase plasminogen activator, a key protease in cancer invasion and metastasis. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Detection of GRB 060927 at zeta = 5.47: Implications for the Use of Gamma-Ray Bursts as Probes of the End of the Dark Ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz-Velasco, A. E.; Swan, H.; Troja, E.; Malesani, D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Sterling, R. L. C.; Xu, D.; Aharonian, F.; Akerlof, C.; Andersen, M. I.; hide

    2007-01-01

    We report on follow-up observations of the gamma-ray burst GRB 060927 using the robotic ROTSE-IIIa telescope and a suite of larger aperture groundbased telescopes. An optical afterglow was detected 20 s after the burst, the earliest rest-frame detection of optical emission from any GRB. Spectroscopy performed with the VLT about 13 hours after the trigger shows a continuum break at lambda approx. equals 8070 A, produced by neutral hydrogen absorption at zeta = 5.6. We also detect an absorption line at 8158 A which we interpret as Si II lambda 1260 at zeta = 5.467. Hence, GRB 060927 is the second most distant GRB with a spectroscopically measured redshift. The shape of the red wing of the spectral break can be fitted by a damped Ly(alpha) profile with a column density with log(N(sub HI)/sq cm) = 22.50 +/- 0.15. We discuss the implications of this work for the use of GRBs as probes of the end of the dark ages and draw three main conclusions: i) GRB afterglows originating from zeta greater than or approx. equal to 6 should be relatively easy to detect from the ground, but rapid near-infrared monitoring is necessary to ensure that they are found; ii) The presence of large H I column densities in some GRBs host galaxies at zeta > 5 makes the use of GRBs to probe the reionization epoch via spectroscopy of the red damping wing challenging; iii) GRBs appear crucial to locate typical star-forming galaxies at zeta > 5 and therefore the type of galaxies responsible for the reionization of the universe.

  1. Detection of GRB 060927 at z = 5.47: Implications for the Use of Gamma-Ray Bursts as Probes of the End of the Dark Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Velasco, A. E.; Swan, H.; Troja, E.; Malesani, D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Starling, R. L. C.; Xu, D.; Aharonian, F.; Akerlof, C.; Andersen, M. I.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Bersier, D.; Castro Cerón, J. M.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Gehrels, N.; Göǧüş, E.; Gorosabel, J.; Guidorzi, C.; Güver, T.; Hjorth, J.; Horns, D.; Huang, K. Y.; Jakobsson, P.; Jensen, B. L.; Kızıloǧlu, Ü.; Kouveliotou, C.; Krimm, H. A.; Ledoux, C.; Levan, A. J.; Marsh, T.; McKay, T.; Melandri, A.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Mundell, C. G.; O'Brien, P. T.; Özel, M.; Phillips, A.; Quimby, R.; Rowell, G.; Rujopakarn, W.; Rykoff, E. S.; Schaefer, B. E.; Sollerman, J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Thöne, C. C.; Urata, Y.; Vestrand, W. T.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Watson, D.; Wheeler, J. C.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wren, J.; Yost, S. A.; Yuan, F.; Zhai, M.; Zheng, W. K.

    2007-11-01

    We report on follow-up observations of the gamma-ray burst GRB 060927 using the robotic ROTSE-IIIa telescope and a suite of larger aperture ground-based telescopes. An optical afterglow was detected 20 s after the burst, the earliest rest-frame detection of optical emission from any GRB. Spectroscopy performed with the VLT about 13 hr after the trigger shows a continuum break at λ~8070 Å, produced by neutral hydrogen absorption at z~5.6. We also detect an absorption line at 8158 Å, which we interpret as Si II λ1260 at z=5.467. Hence, GRB 060927 is the second most distant GRB with a spectroscopically measured redshift. The shape of the red wing of the spectral break can be fitted by a damped Lyα profile with a column density with log(NH/cm-2)=22.50+/-0.15. We discuss the implications of this work for the use of GRBs as probes of the end of the dark ages and draw three main conclusions: (1) GRB afterglows originating from z>~6 should be relatively easy to detect from the ground, but rapid near-infrared monitoring is necessary to ensure that they are found; (2) the presence of large H I column densities in some GRB host galaxies at z>5 makes the use of GRBs to probe the reionization epoch via spectroscopy of the red damping wing challenging; and (3) GRBs appear crucial to locate typical star-forming galaxies at z>5, and therefore the type of galaxies responsible for the reionization of the universe. Partly based on observations carried out with the ESO telescopes under programs 077.D-0661, 077.A-0667, 078.D-0416, and the large program 177.A-f0591.

  2. Novel approaches to the study of particle dark matter in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Argüelles, C. R.; Ruffini, R. Rueda, J. A.; Mavromatos, N. E.

    2015-12-17

    A deep understanding of the role of the dark matter in the different astrophysical scenarios of the local Universe such as galaxies, represent a crucial step to describe in a more consistent way the role of dark matter in cosmology. This kind of studies requires the interconnection between particle physics within and beyond the Standard Model, and fundamental physics such as thermodynamics and statistics, within a fully relativistic treatment of Gravity. After giving a comprehensive summary of the different types of dark matter and their role in astrophysics, we discuss the recent efforts in describing the distribution of dark matter in the center and halo of galaxies from first principles such as gravitational interactions, quantum statistics and particle physics; and its implications with the observations.

  3. A comparative study of electrical probe techniques for plasma diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szuszczewicz, E. P.

    1972-01-01

    Techniques for using electrical probes for plasma diagnostics are reviewed. Specific consideration is given to the simple Langmuir probe, the symmetric double probe of Johnson and Malter, the variable-area probe of Fetz and Oeschsner, and a floating probe technique. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique are discussed.

  4. Probing ultrafast molecular dynamics in O2 using XUV/IR pump-probe studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, D.; Sturm, F. P.; Wright, T. W.; Ranitovic, P.; Shivaram, N. H.; Bocharova, I.; Belkacem, A.; Weber, Th.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the molecular dynamics via different dissociative and autoionizing pathways in molecular oxygen using a pump-probe scheme with ultrashort extreme ultraviolet (XUV) laser pulses. Our primary focus is to study the molecular dynamics in the superexcited Rydberg states in a time-resolved manner. The O2 molecules are pumped by 20.2 eV and 23.1 eV XUV pulses (13th and 15th harmonics). Probing the relaxation dynamics with an infrared (IR) pulse at very long delays (100s of fs) enables us to measure the lifetimes of these Rydberg states. We also observe an enhancement and suppression of vibrational levels of the O2+ion due to the presence of IR. The high flux XUV pulses used for this experiment are generated in an Ar gas by IR pulses from our state-of-the-art 30 mJ, 50 Hz laser system. The pulses are overlapped with the supersonic jet in our Momentum Imaging for TimE Resolved Studies (MISTERS) setup. The cold target in our setup, combined with a very tight focussing geometry and a 3D momentum detection capability gives a high kinetic energy resolution. Molecular dynamics in other polyatomic molecules are also under investigation. Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  5. Hunting the dark Higgs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerr, Michael; Grohsjean, Alexander; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Penning, Bjoern; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Schwanenberger, Christian

    2017-04-01

    We discuss a novel signature of dark matter production at the LHC resulting from the emission of an additional Higgs boson in the dark sector. The presence of such a dark Higgs boson is motivated simultaneously by the need to generate the masses of the particles in the dark sector and the possibility to relax constraints from the dark matter relic abundance by opening up a new annihilation channel. If the dark Higgs boson decays into Standard Model states via a small mixing with the Standard Model Higgs boson, one obtains characteristic large-radius jets in association with missing transverse momentum that can be used to efficiently discriminate signal from backgrounds. We present the sensitivities achievable in LHC searches for dark Higgs bosons with already collected data and demonstrate that such searches can probe large regions of parameter space that are inaccessible to conventional mono-jet or di-jet searches.

  6. Eating dark and milk chocolate: a randomized crossover study of effects on appetite and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, L B; Astrup, A

    2011-12-05

    To compare the effect of dark and milk chocolate on appetite sensations and energy intake at an ad libitum test meal in healthy, normal-weight men. A total of 16 young, healthy, normal-weight men participated in a randomized, crossover study. Test meals were 100 g of either milk (2285 kJ) or dark chocolate (2502 kJ). Visual-analogue scales were used to record appetite sensations before and after the test meal was consumed and subsequently every 30 min for 5 h. An ad libitum meal was served 2 h after the test meal had been consumed. The participants felt more satiated, less hungry, and had lower ratings of prospective food consumption after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate. Ratings of the desire to eat something sweet, fatty or savoury were all lower after consumption of the dark chocolate. Energy intake at the ad libitum meal was 17% lower after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate (P=0.002). If the energy provided by the chocolate is included in the calculation, the energy intake after consumption of the dark chocolate was still 8% lower than after the milk chocolate (P=0.01). The dark chocolate load resulted in an overall energy difference of -584 kJ (95% confidence interval (-1027;-141)) during the test period. In the present study, dark chocolate promotes satiety, lowers the desire to eat something sweet, and suppresses energy intake compared with milk chocolate.

  7. Eating dark and milk chocolate: a randomized crossover study of effects on appetite and energy intake

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, L B; Astrup, A

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of dark and milk chocolate on appetite sensations and energy intake at an ad libitum test meal in healthy, normal-weight men. Subjects/methods: A total of 16 young, healthy, normal-weight men participated in a randomized, crossover study. Test meals were 100 g of either milk (2285 kJ) or dark chocolate (2502 kJ). Visual-analogue scales were used to record appetite sensations before and after the test meal was consumed and subsequently every 30 min for 5 h. An ad libitum meal was served 2 h after the test meal had been consumed. Results: The participants felt more satiated, less hungry, and had lower ratings of prospective food consumption after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate. Ratings of the desire to eat something sweet, fatty or savoury were all lower after consumption of the dark chocolate. Energy intake at the ad libitum meal was 17% lower after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate (P=0.002). If the energy provided by the chocolate is included in the calculation, the energy intake after consumption of the dark chocolate was still 8% lower than after the milk chocolate (P=0.01). The dark chocolate load resulted in an overall energy difference of −584 kJ (95% confidence interval (−1027;−141)) during the test period. Conclusion: In the present study, dark chocolate promotes satiety, lowers the desire to eat something sweet, and suppresses energy intake compared with milk chocolate. PMID:23455041

  8. Determination of dark matter mass at lepton colliders and experimental studies in two dimensional turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanus

    In Ch. 1 - 5 we present a study of antler decay in determining dark matter mass. It was shown that the cusps and endpoints in some kinematic distributions of the antler decay at the LHC can probe the masses of the parity-odd missing energy particles as well as the intermediate particles. We extend this study into the high energy e+e-- (or more generally lepton) linear collider, which will provide unambiguous center of mass frame and energy. We found new and more powerful cusp structures of new kinematic observables, possible only at the International Linear Collider (ILC). As a benchmark scenario, we study e+e -- decays in the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. Ch. 6 presents a new way to characterize turbulence through a search for conformal invariance in vorticity isolines of two-dimensional compressible turbulence. The conformal invariance theory being tested here is related to the behavior of equilibrium systems near a critical point. This theory is associated with the work of Lowner, Schramm and others and is usually referred to as Schramm-Lowner Evolution (SLE). The system was exposed to several tests of SLE. In Ch. 7 we introduce a photon correlation method for measuring components of the shear rate tensor in a turbulent soap film. The technique yields the mean shear rate s, its standard deviation pi, and a simple mathematical transform of the probability density function P(s) of the shear rate itself. Ch. 8 presents a computer algebra package to automatically generate particle physics Lagrangians based on group symmetries input by the user.

  9. An in situ probe for on-line monitoring of cell density and viability on the basis of dark field microscopy in conjunction with image processing and supervised machine learning.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ning; You, Jia; Friehs, Karl; Flaschel, Erwin; Nattkemper, Tim Wilhelm

    2007-08-15

    Fermentation industries would benefit from on-line monitoring of important parameters describing cell growth such as cell density and viability during fermentation processes. For this purpose, an in situ probe has been developed, which utilizes a dark field illumination unit to obtain high contrast images with an integrated CCD camera. To test the probe, brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is chosen as the target microorganism. Images of the yeast cells in the bioreactors are captured, processed, and analyzed automatically by means of mechatronics, image processing, and machine learning. Two support vector machine based classifiers are used for separating cells from background, and for distinguishing live from dead cells afterwards. The evaluation of the in situ experiments showed strong correlation between results obtained by the probe and those by widely accepted standard methods. Thus, the in situ probe has been proved to be a feasible device for on-line monitoring of both cell density and viability with high accuracy and stability.

  10. Development of an autofluorescent probe for brain cancer: probe characterization thanks to phantom studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leh, B.; Charon, Y.; Duval, M.-A.; Lefebvre, F.; Linden, S.; Menard, L.; Siebert, R.

    2010-02-01

    Glioblastoma are brain tumors currently incurable, however, optimized treatment gives better prognosis and quality of life. In case of surgical treatment, there is still need to help surgeons to determine whether a tissue is tumorous or not. Within the framework of the design of a new autofluorescence probe for this issue, optically calibrated gel phantoms have been developed using "tumorous" inclusions in a "healthy" environment. Depending on "tumor" shape, size and localization, the sensitivity of the probe is evaluated. The probe sensitivity for fluorescence spectroscopy will be presented. The probe configuration is also taken into account and compared to simulated results.

  11. Theoretical Study of the Effect of Probe Shape on Adhesion Force Between Probe and Substrate in Atomic Force Microscope Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li; Hu, Junhui; Kong, Lingjiang

    2013-12-01

    The quantitative description of adhesion force dependence on the probe shape is of importance in many scientific and industrial fields. We performed a theoretical study on the influences of the probe shape (the sphere and parabolic probe) on the adhesion force at different humidity in order to elucidate how the adhesion force varied with the probe shape in atomic force microscope manipulation experiment. We found that the combined action of the triple point and the Kelvin radius is the guiding trend of the adhesion force, and these two fundamental parameters are closely related to the probe shape. Meanwhile, the theoretical results demonstrated that the adhesion force are in a good agreement with the experiment data if the van der Waals force is take into account.

  12. ESR/spin probe study of ice cream.

    PubMed

    Gillies, Duncan G; Greenley, Katherine R; Sutcliffe, Leslie H

    2006-07-12

    Spin probes based on the 1,1,3,3-tetramethylisoindolin-2-yl structure have been used, in conjunction with electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR), to study the physical changes occurring in ice cream during freezing and melting. The ESR measurements allowed the rotational correlation times, tau(B), of the spin probes to be determined. Two probes were used together in a given sample of ice cream, namely, 1,1,3,3-tetramethylisoindolin-2-yl (TMIO), which samples the fat phase, and the sodium salt of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylisoindolin-2-yloxyl-5-sulfonate (NaTMIOS), which samples the aqueous phase. Data from the TMIO probe showed that when ice cream is cooled, the fat phase is a mixture of solid and liquid fat until a temperature of approximately -60 degrees C is reached. The water-soluble probe NaTMIOS showed that the aqueous phase changes completely from liquid to solid within 1 degrees C of -18 degrees C. On cooling further to -24.7 degrees C and then allowing it to warm to +25.0 degrees C, the rotational correlation times of the NaTMIOS were slow to recover to their previous values. For the lipid phase, tau(B)(298) was found to be 65.7 +/- 2.0 ps and the corresponding activation enthalpy, DeltaH, was 32.5 +/- 0.9 kJ mol(-)(1): These values are typical of those expected to be found in the type of fat used to make ice cream. The water phase gave corresponding values of 32.2 +/- 0.5 ps and 24.5 +/- 0.4 kJ mol(-)(1) values, which are those expected for a sucrose concentration of 24%.

  13. Models for SIMP dark matter and dark photon

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyun Min; Seo, Min-Seok

    2016-06-21

    We give a review on the SIMP paradigm and discuss a consistent model for SIMP dark mesons in the context of a dark QCD with flavor symmetry. The Z′-portal interaction is introduced being compatible with stable dark mesons and is responsible for making the SIMP dark mesons remain in kinetic equilibrium with the SM during the freeze-out process. The SIMP parameter space of the Z′ gauge boson can be probed by future collider and direct detection experiments.

  14. Comparison of TaqMan and Epoch Dark Quenchers during real-time reverse transcription PCR.

    PubMed

    Daum, Luke T; Ye, Keying; Chambers, James P; Santiago, Jose; Hickman, John R; Barnes, William J; Kruzelock, Russell P; Atchley, Daniel H

    2004-06-01

    Several biotechnology companies have recently introduced novel quencher fluors for use with dual-labeled fluorogenic hydrolysis probes. The Epoch Dark Quencher trade mark fluorochrome consists of a non-fluorescent moiety capable of absorption at higher wavelengths (400-650 nm). The aim of this study was to: (1) evaluate the feasibility of using Epoch Dark Quencher fluorochromes in real-time PCR pathogen detection assays that were previously optimized with TaqMan (TAMRA) quenching fluors, and (2) compare the sensitivity based on cycle threshold (CT) between probes containing either TaqMan or Epoch Dark Quencher fluors. Our data indicate Epoch Dark Quencher probes can be used in place of TaqMan probes and their performance was not better than traditional TaqMan (TAMRA) quenchers. Marginal differences observed between quenching fluorochromes may arise from concentration differences during probe synthesis.

  15. Outer planet entry probe system study. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    General mission considerations and science prospectus, which are of a general nature that applies to several or all planetary applications, are presented. Five probe systems are defined: nominal Jupiter probe system, and Jupiter probe-dedicated alternative probe system, Jupiter spacecraft radiation-compatible alternative probe system, Saturn probe system, and Saturn probe applicability for Uranus. Parametric analysis is summarized for mission analysis of a general nature, and then for specific missions to Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The program is also discussed from the hardware availability viewpoint and the aspect of commonality.

  16. Multifrequency scanning probe microscopy study of nanodiamond agglomerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravind, Vasudeva; Lippold, Stephen; Li, Qian; Strelcov, Evgheny; Okatan, Baris; Legum, Benjamin; Kalinin, Sergei; Clarion University Team; Oak Ridge National Laboratory Team

    Due to their rich surface chemistry and excellent mechanical properties and non-toxic nature, nanodiamond particles have found applications such as biomedicine, tribology and lubrication, targeted drug delivery systems, tissue scaffolds and surgical implants. Although single nanodiamond particles have diameters about 4-5nm, they tend to form agglomerates. While these agglomerates can be useful for some purposes, many applications of nanodiamonds require single particle, disaggregated nanodiamonds. This work is oriented towards studying forces and interactions that contribute to agglomeration in nanodiamonds. In this work, using multifrequency scanning probe microscopy techniques, we show that agglomerate sizes can vary between 50-100nm in raw nanodiamonds. Extremeties of particles and Interfaces between agglomerates show dissipative forces with scanning probe microscope tip, indicating agglomerates could act as points of increased adhesion, thus reducing lubricating efficiency when nanodiamonds are used as lubricant additives. This research was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

  17. Can dark matter decay in dark energy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, S. H.; Jesus, J. F.

    2009-02-01

    We analyze the interaction between dark energy and dark matter from a thermodynamical perspective. By assuming they have different temperatures, we study the possibility of occurring a decay from dark matter into dark energy, characterized by a negative parameter Q. We find that, if at least one of the fluids has nonvanishing chemical potential, for instance μx<0 and μdm=0 or μx=0 and μdm>0, the decay is possible, where μx and μdm are the chemical potentials of dark energy and dark matter, respectively. Using recent cosmological data, we find that, for a fairly simple interaction, the dark matter decay is favored with a probability of ˜93% over the dark energy decay. This result comes from a likelihood analysis where only background evolution has been considered.

  18. Interacting Dark Energy Models and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shojaei, Hamed; Urioste, Jazmin

    2017-01-01

    Dark energy is one of the mysteries of the twenty first century. Although there are candidates resembling some features of dark energy, there is no single model describing all the properties of dark energy. Dark energy is believed to be the most dominant component of the cosmic inventory, but a lot of models do not consider any interaction between dark energy and other constituents of the cosmic inventory. Introducing an interaction will change the equation governing the behavior of dark energy and matter and creates new ways to explain cosmic coincidence problem. In this work we studied how the Hubble parameter and density parameters evolve with time in the presence of certain types of interaction. The interaction serves as a way to convert dark energy into matter to avoid a dark energy-dominated universe by creating new equilibrium points for the differential equations. Then we will use numerical analysis to predict the values of distance moduli at different redshifts and compare them to the values for the distance moduli obtained by WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe). Undergraduate Student

  19. Preentry communications study. Outer planets atmospheric entry probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinrichs, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    A pre-entry communications study is presented for a relay link between a Jupiter entry probe and a spacecraft in hyperbolic orbit. Two generic communications links of interest are described: a pre-entry link to a spun spacecraft antenna, and a pre-entry link to a despun spacecraft antenna. The propagation environment of Jupiter is defined. Although this is one of the least well known features of Jupiter, enough information exists to reasonably establish bounds on the performance of a communications link. Within these bounds, optimal carrier frequencies are defined. The next step is to identify optimal relative geometries between the probe and the spacecraft. Optimal trajectories are established for both spun and despun spacecraft antennas. Given the optimal carrier frequencies, and the optimal trajectories, the data carrying capacities of the pre-entry links are defined. The impact of incorporating pre-entry communications into a basic post entry probe is then assessed. This assessment covers the disciplines of thermal control, power source, mass properties and design layout. A conceptual design is developed of an electronically despun antenna for use on a Pioneer class of spacecraft.

  20. Dark sectors of the Universe: A Euclid survey approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutusaus, Isaac; Lamine, Brahim; Blanchard, Alain; Dupays, Arnaud; Rousset, Yvan; Zolnierowski, Yves

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we study the consequences of relaxing the hypothesis of the pressureless nature of the dark matter component when determining constraints on dark energy. To this aim we consider simple generalized dark matter models with constant equation of state parameter. We find that present-day low-redshift probes (type-Ia supernovae and baryonic acoustic oscillations) lead to a complete degeneracy between the dark energy and the dark matter sectors. However, adding the cosmic microwave background (CMB) high-redshift probe restores constraints similar to those on the standard Λ CDM model. We then examine the anticipated constraints from the future Euclid survey on the same class of models, using a Fisher forecast estimation. We show that the Euclid survey allows us to break the degeneracy between the dark sectors, although the constraints on dark energy are much weaker than with standard dark matter. The use of CMB in combination allows us to restore the high precision on the dark energy sector constraints.

  1. Study of nuclear matter density distributions using hadronic probes

    SciTech Connect

    Kohama, Akihisa; Iida, Kei; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro

    2011-05-06

    We briefly review our formula for a proton-nucleus total reaction cross section, {sigma}{sub R}, constructed in the black-sphere approximation of nuclei, in which a nucleus is viewed as a 'black' sphere of radius 'a'. Some years ago, using the Glauber model, one of the authors (A.K.) and his collaborators performed numerical simulations to examine the possibility to probe the nuclear matter density distributions of neutron-rich unstable nuclei from proton elastic scatterings 'model-independently'. The present study is another attempt to seek a 'model-independent' framework for systematically analyzing scattering data for studying the matter density distributions of atomic nuclei.

  2. Probe Microscopic Studies of DNA Molecules on Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Umemura, Kazuo; Izumi, Katsuki; Oura, Shusuke

    2016-01-01

    Hybrids of DNA and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising nanobioconjugates for nanobiosensors, carriers for drug delivery, and other biological applications. In this review, nanoscopic characterization of DNA-CNT hybrids, in particular, characterization by scanning probe microscopy (SPM), is summarized. In many studies, topographical imaging by atomic force microscopy has been performed. However, some researchers have demonstrated advanced SPM operations in order to maximize its unique and valuable functions. Such sophisticated approaches are attractive and will have a significant impact on future studies of DNA-CNT hybrids. PMID:28335308

  3. Effective theory for electroweak doublet dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedes, A.; Karamitros, D.; Spanos, V. C.

    2016-11-01

    We perform a detailed study of an effective field theory which includes the standard model particle content extended by a pair of Weyl fermionic SU(2) doublets with opposite hypercharges. A discrete symmetry guarantees that a linear combination of the doublet components is stable and can act as a candidate particle for dark matter. The dark sector fermions interact with the Higgs and gauge bosons through renormalizable d =4 operators, and nonrenormalizable d =5 operators that appear after integrating out extra degrees of freedom above the TeV scale. We study collider, cosmological and astrophysical probes for this effective theory of dark matter. We find that a weakly interacting dark matter particle with a mass nearby the electroweak scale, and thus observable at the LHC, is consistent with collider and astrophysical data only when fairly large magnetic dipole moment transition operators with the gauge bosons exist, together with moderate Yukawa interactions.

  4. Two-singlet model for light cold dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Abada, Abdessamad; Ghaffor, Djamal; Nasri, Salah

    2011-05-01

    We extend the standard model by adding two gauge-singlet Z{sub 2}-symmetric scalar fields that interact with visible matter only through the Higgs particle. One is a stable dark matter WIMP, and the other one undergoes a spontaneous breaking of the symmetry that opens new channels for the dark matter annihilation, hence lowering the mass of the WIMP. We study the effects of the observed dark matter relic abundance on the WIMP annihilation cross section and find that in most regions of the parameters' space, light dark matter is viable. We also compare the elastic-scattering cross section of our dark matter candidate off a nucleus with existing (CDMSII and XENON100) and projected (SuperCDMS and XENON1T) experimental exclusion bounds. We find that most of the allowed mass range for light dark matter will be probed by the projected sensitivity of the XENON1T experiment.

  5. Xenophobic dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Kumar, Jason; Sanford, David

    2013-07-01

    We consider models of xenophobic dark matter, in which isospin-violating dark matter-nucleon interactions significantly degrade the response of xenon direct detection experiments. For models of near-maximal xenophobia, with neutron-to-proton coupling ratio fn/fp≈-0.64, and dark matter mass near 8 GeV, the regions of interest for CoGeNT and CDMS-Si and the region of interest identified by Collar and Fields in CDMS-Ge data can be brought into agreement. This model may be tested in future direct, indirect, and collider searches. Interestingly, because the natural isotope abundance of xenon implies that xenophobia has its limits, we find that this xenophobic model may be probed in the near future by xenon experiments. Near-future data from the LHC and Fermi-LAT may also provide interesting alternative probes of xenophobic dark matter.

  6. β-Glucan and dark chocolate: a randomized crossover study on short-term satiety and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Akyol, Asli; Dasgin, Halil; Ayaz, Aylin; Buyuktuncer, Zehra; Besler, H Tanju

    2014-09-23

    The aims of this study were to adapt a traditional recipe into a healthier form by adding 3 g of oat β-glucan, substituting milk chocolate to dark chocolate with 70% cocoa, and to examine the effect of these alterations on short-term satiety and energy intake. Study subjects (n = 25) were tested in a randomized, crossover design with four products closely matched for energy content. Four different versions of a traditional recipe including milk chocolate-control (CON), oat β-glucan (B-GLU), dark chocolate (DARK) or oat β-glucan and dark chocolate (B-GLU + DARK) were given to subjects on different test days. After subjects were asked to report visual analog scale (VAS) scores on sensory outcomes and related satiety for four hours ad libitum, lunch was served and energy intake of individuals was measured. VAS scores indicated that none of the test foods exerted an improved effect on satiety feelings. However, energy intake of individuals during ad libitum lunch was significantly lower in dark chocolate groups (CON: 849.46 ± 47.45 kcal versus DARK: 677.69 ± 48.45 kcal and B-GLU + DARK: 691.08 ± 47.45 kcal, p = 0.014). The study demonstrated that substituting dark chocolate for milk chocolate is more effective in inducing satiety during subsequent food intake in healthy subjects.

  7. β-Glucan and Dark Chocolate: A Randomized Crossover Study on Short-Term Satiety and Energy Intake

    PubMed Central

    Akyol, Asli; Dasgin, Halil; Ayaz, Aylin; Buyuktuncer, Zehra; Besler, H. Tanju

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aims of this study were to adapt a traditional recipe into a healthier form by adding 3 g of oat β-glucan, substituting milk chocolate to dark chocolate with 70% cocoa, and to examine the effect of these alterations on short-term satiety and energy intake. Materials and Methods: Study subjects (n = 25) were tested in a randomized, crossover design with four products closely matched for energy content. Four different versions of a traditional recipe including milk chocolate-control (CON), oat β-glucan (B-GLU), dark chocolate (DARK) or oat β-glucan and dark chocolate (B-GLU + DARK) were given to subjects on different test days. After subjects were asked to report visual analog scale (VAS) scores on sensory outcomes and related satiety for four hours ad libitum, lunch was served and energy intake of individuals was measured. Results: VAS scores indicated that none of the test foods exerted an improved effect on satiety feelings. However, energy intake of individuals during ad libitum lunch was significantly lower in dark chocolate groups (CON: 849.46 ± 47.45 kcal versus DARK: 677.69 ± 48.45 kcal and B-GLU + DARK: 691.08 ± 47.45 kcal, p = 0.014). Conclusion: The study demonstrated that substituting dark chocolate for milk chocolate is more effective in inducing satiety during subsequent food intake in healthy subjects. PMID:25251294

  8. Monochromatic neutrino lines from sneutrino dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arina, Chiara; Kulkarni, Suchita; Silk, Joseph

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the possibility of observing monochromatic neutrino lines originating from annihilation of dark matter. We analyze several astrophysical sources with overdensities of dark matter that can amplify the signal. As a case study, we consider mixed left- and right-handed sneutrino dark matter. We demonstrate that in the physically viable region of the model, one can obtain a prominent monochromatic neutrino line. We propose a search strategy to observe these neutrino lines in future generations of neutrino telescopes that is especially sensitive to dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We demonstrate that the presence of massive black holes in the cores of dwarfs as well as of more massive galaxies substantially boosts any putative signal. In particular, dark matter in dwarf galaxies spiked by an intermediate massive black hole provides a powerful means of probing low-annihilation cross sections well below 10-26 cm3 s-1 that are otherwise inaccessible by any future direct detection or collider experiment.

  9. Using XENON100 Data to Probe Dark Matter-Induced Electronic Recoils as an Explanation of the DAMA/LIBRA Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes, Mayra; Xenon Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    We use data from the XENON100 dark matter search to test the claim of the DAMA/LIBRA collaboration of a dark matter-induced signal in their detector. In the same (2 ? 6) keV window, the total background spectrum in XENON100 is lower than the total background in DAMA/LIBRA, and even lower than the observed DAMA/LIBRA modulation amplitude. We test three representative dark matter models that induce electronic recoils, in particular, WIMPs coupling to electrons through axial-vector interactions, mirror dark matter, and luminous dark matter. Furthermore, we analyze XENON100 data to set the first direct limit on WIMP axial-vector coupling to electrons.

  10. Secretly asymmetric dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Kilic, Can; Swaminathan, Sivaramakrishnan; Trendafilova, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    We study a mechanism where the dark matter number density today arises from asymmetries generated in the dark sector in the early Universe, even though the total dark matter number remains zero throughout the history of the Universe. The dark matter population today can be completely symmetric, with annihilation rates above those expected from thermal weakly interacting massive particles. We give a simple example of this mechanism using a benchmark model of flavored dark matter. We discuss the experimental signatures of this setup, which arise mainly from the sector that annihilates the symmetric component of dark matter.

  11. Studies of the Effects of Control Bandwidth and Dark-Hole Size on the HCIT Contrast Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidick, Erkin; Shaklan, Stuart; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatha; Cady, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We have carried out both theoretical and experimental studies of the sensitivity of dark hole contrast to the control bandwidth and dark-hole dimensions in high-contrast broadband stellar coronagraphy. We have evaluated the performance of DM actuator solutions in the presence of occulting mask defects using one to five 2% -wide bands spanning a 10% bandpass. We have also investigated the dependence of the HCIT contrast performance on the size of dark -hole area including large dark holes formed at the Nyquist limit of the DM.

  12. Dark Matter Hunters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Annika

    2017-06-01

    We know just enough about dark matter to design beautiful and plausible particle models for it, but not enough to sharpen searches in this vast theoretical parameter space. In this talk, I will highlight new ideas from the community to cover this large parameter space, and how new laboratory measurements and techniques are helping the community probe previously inaccessible types of dark matter microphysics. I will discuss open questions and possible future directions.

  13. Seeking the light in the dark: Quests for identifying Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Chun Yu

    The night sky is a beautiful display of stars and galaxies. We have come a long way to realize that they are made with substances that can be produced and studied on Earth. However, it has been discovered that those substances make up only 5% of the observable Universe, with the remaining 95% being mysterious substances called dark matter and dark energy, both of which have never been observed directly. Their nature is among the most profound questions in modern science, and unquestionably holds the key to the fundamentals of the Universe and laws of physics. In this dissertation, I discuss a series of papers related to studies of dark matter. I revisit the problem of dark matter annihilation in the extragalactic background radiation, and show that they are sensitive to the properties of the smallest dark matter halos. I show that the newly discovered high-energy astrophysical neutrinos can be used to test secret neutrino interactions through their propagation in the Cosmic Neutrino Background. I discuss how we use the Fermi-GBM to search for sterile neutrino dark matter in a region of parameter space that is not probed otherwise. I discuss a novel method for testing dark matter annihilation/decay signals with a line spectrum. Lastly, I discuss new and interesting results from gamma-ray observations of the Sun, and how this is related to future dark matter searches from the Sun.

  14. A bola-phospholipid bearing tetrafluorophenylazido chromophore as a promising lipid probe for biomembrane photolabeling studies.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yi; Sengupta, Kheya; Maggiani, Alain; Qu, Fanqi; Peng, Ling

    2013-08-14

    A bola-phospholipid probe, carrying a tetrafluorophenylazido chromophore in the middle of the transmembrane diacyl chain, was synthesized and characterized with a view to studying biomembranes by a photolabeling approach. This probe shows the advantageous stability of bola-lipids in giant vesicle formation alongside excellent photochemical properties conferred by the tetrafluorophenylazido chromophore, and thus constitutes a promising probe for biomembrane photolabeling studies.

  15. Neutron background studies and results from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennings-Yeomans, Raul

    2006-04-01

    Non-baryonic dark matter makes one quarter of the energy density of the Universe. The Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) is a dark matter candidate with a scattering cross section with an atomic nucleus of the order of the weak interaction and a mass comparable to that of an atomic nucleus. Results of the two tower run from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II), consisting of a total exposure of 34 kg-d for germanium and 12 kg-d for silicon, at the Soudan Underground Laboratory are presented. Also we present studies of the neutron background relevant for our upcoming 10-fold more sensitive 5-tower run, as well as for other experiments in search of dark matter. During the two-tower run, no nuclear-recoil events exceeding expected background were observed for a WIMP mass of 60 GeV/c^2. The limit from Ge (Si) is a factor of 2.5 (10) lower than previous results, allowing to set further constraints on the predictions of supersymetric models. Our further studies of the muon-induced neutron background based on Monte Carlo simulations show that by replacing part of the outer polyethylene of the CDMS II shield by a neutron multiplicity meter, for example by Gd-loaded liquid scintillator (0.5% gadolinium content) with a PMT read out would allow us to better predict the absolute number of unvetoed nuclear recoils compared with present methods which rely on multiple nuclear recoil events.

  16. Outer planet entry probe system study. Volume 2: Supporting technical studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The environment, science investigations, and general mission analysis considerations are given first. These data are followed by discussions of the studies pertaining to the planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Except for Neptune, each planet discussion is divided into two parts: (1) parametric activities and (2) probe definition for that planet, or the application of a given probe for that planet. The Neptune discussion is limited to parametrics in the area of science and mission analysis. Each of the probe system definitions consists of system and subsystem details including telecommunications, data handling, power pyrotechnics, attitude control, structures, propulsion, thermal control, and probe to spacecraft integration. The first configuration is discussed in detail and the subsequent configuration discussions are limited to the differences. Finally, the hardware availability to support a probe system and commonality of science, missions, and subsystems for use at the various planets are considered.

  17. Terrestrial effects on dark matter-electron scattering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emken, Timon; Kouvaris, Chris; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2017-07-01

    A well-studied possibility is that dark matter may reside in a sector secluded from the Standard Model, except for the so-called photon portal: kinetic mixing between the ordinary and dark photons. Such interactions can be probed in dark matter direct detection experiments, and new experimental techniques involving detection of dark matter-electron scattering offer new sensitivity to sub-GeV dark matter. Typically however it is implicitly assumed that the dark matter is not altered as it traverses the Earth to arrive at the detector. In this paper we study in detail the effects of terrestrial stopping on dark photon models of dark matter, and find that they significantly reduce the sensitivity of XENON10 and DAMIC. In particular we find that XENON10 only excludes masses in the range (5-3000) MeV while DAMIC only probes (20-50) MeV. Their corresponding cross section sensitivity is reduced to a window of cross sections between (5 ×10-38- 10-30) cm2 for XENON10 and a small window around ˜10-31 cm2 for DAMIC. We also examine implications for a future DAMIC run.

  18. Nuclear structure studies with medium energy probes. [Northwestern Univ

    SciTech Connect

    Seth, Kamal K.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the continuing program of experimental research in nuclear structure with medium-energy probes during the year 1979-1980 is reviewed, and the research activities planned for the year 1980-1981 are discussed. In the study of pion-induced reactions emphasis is placed on investigation of isovector characteristics of nuclear excitations and on double charge exchange reactions. Pion production studies form the major part of the program of experiments with proton beams of 400 to 800 MeV at LAMPF. Current emphasis is on the bearing of these investigations on di-baryon existence. The study of high-spin states and magnetic scattering constitute the main goals of the electron scattering program at Bates. Representative results are presented; completed work is reported in the usual publications. (RWR)

  19. New atom probe approaches to studying segregation in nanocrystalline materials.

    PubMed

    Samudrala, S K; Felfer, P J; Araullo-Peters, V J; Cao, Y; Liao, X Z; Cairney, J M

    2013-09-01

    Atom probe is a technique that is highly suited to the study of nanocrystalline materials. It can provide accurate atomic-scale information about the composition of grain boundaries in three dimensions. In this paper we have analysed the microstructure of a nanocrystalline super-duplex stainless steel prepared by high pressure torsion (HPT). Not all of the grain boundaries in this alloy display obvious segregation, making visualisation of the microstructure challenging. In addition, the grain boundaries present in the atom probe data acquired from this alloy have complex shapes that are curved at the scale of the dataset and the interfacial excess varies considerably over the boundaries, making the accurate characterisation of the distribution of solute challenging using existing analysis techniques. In this paper we present two new data treatment methods that allow the visualisation of boundaries with little or no segregation, the delineation of boundaries for further analysis and the quantitative analysis of Gibbsian interfacial excess at boundaries, including the capability of excess mapping.

  20. Vibrational and NMR probe studies of S Az-1 montmorillonite

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, C.T.; Erickson, C.; Earl, W.L.

    1992-09-01

    This paper reports a study of the interactions of exchangeable metal cations with mineral surfaces using a combined spectroscopic/macroscopic approach. Objectives were to examine the use of water molecules and metal cations as molecular probes of smectite water interactions. The {nu}{sub 2} mode of water is used as a diagnostic vibrational band. An FTIR-gravimetric cell is used to examine the FTIR spectra of water on homoionic smectites. The {sup 23}Na NMR resonance is used to probe metal-water interactions on the surface. Results show that there are strong changes in both position and absorption coefficient of the H-O-H bending mode of water sorbed on SAz-1 montmorillonite as a function of water content. These changes are attributed to strong electrostatic forces and mobility changes that occur when the water in the interlammelar space is associated with the metal ion. The clay surface is viewed as having at least two distinct sites to which a hydrated Na{sup +} can bind. 32 refs, 5 figs. (DLC)

  1. Vibrational and NMR probe studies of S Az-1 montmorillonite

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, C.T.; Erickson, C. . Dept. of Soil Science); Earl, W.L. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports a study of the interactions of exchangeable metal cations with mineral surfaces using a combined spectroscopic/macroscopic approach. Objectives were to examine the use of water molecules and metal cations as molecular probes of smectite water interactions. The {nu}{sub 2} mode of water is used as a diagnostic vibrational band. An FTIR-gravimetric cell is used to examine the FTIR spectra of water on homoionic smectites. The {sup 23}Na NMR resonance is used to probe metal-water interactions on the surface. Results show that there are strong changes in both position and absorption coefficient of the H-O-H bending mode of water sorbed on SAz-1 montmorillonite as a function of water content. These changes are attributed to strong electrostatic forces and mobility changes that occur when the water in the interlammelar space is associated with the metal ion. The clay surface is viewed as having at least two distinct sites to which a hydrated Na{sup +} can bind. 32 refs, 5 figs. (DLC)

  2. Update on the Fire (solar probe) mission study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. Veron; Forman, Miriam A.

    1995-01-01

    Since mid-1994 the U.S. and Russia have been studying the technical feasibility of a joint solar probe mission as part of the 'Fire and Ice' concept to explore close to the Sun, and Pluto, together. In the current concept of the 'Fire' mission, separate spacecraft built by each country would be launched together, fly by Jupiter to shed orbital angular momentum and achieve a solar polar orbit, and arrive 3.6 years later at 4 and 10 R(sub s). The Fire mission would measure basic parameters of the modes of energy and momentum flow and transfer to the coronal plasma that are not observable remotely. Specifically, measurement of magnetic fields, waves, suprathermal particles, and critical features of the plasma particle composition and distribution function would be made from 4 to 30 R(sub s) where the solar wind is known to be accelerated. In addition, the Fire spacecraft should image coronal structures unambiguously and relate the underlying and flown-through structures to plasma characteristics measured in situ. Each country is developing a backup plan to pursue the solar probe objectives alone if the other side is unable to carry out its mission.

  3. Synthetic fluorescent probes for studying copper in biological systems

    PubMed Central

    Cotruvo, Joseph A.; Aron, Allegra T.; Ramos-Torres, Karla M.; Chang, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The potent redox activity of copper is required for sustaining life. Mismanagement of its cellular pools, however, can result in oxidative stress and damage connected to aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and metabolic disorders. Therefore, copper homeostasis is tightly regulated by cells and tissues. Whereas copper and other transition metal ions are commonly thought of as static cofactors buried within protein active sites, emerging data points to the presence of additional loosely bound, labile pools that can participate in dynamic signalling pathways. Against this backdrop, we review advances in sensing labile copper pools and understanding their functions using synthetic fluorescent indicators. Following brief introductions to cellular copper homeostasis and considerations in sensor design, we survey available fluorescent copper probes and evaluate their properties in the context of their utility as effective biological screening tools. We emphasize the need for combined chemical and biological evaluation of these reagents, as well as the value of complementing probe data with other techniques for characterizing the different pools of metal ions in biological systems. This holistic approach will maximize the exciting opportunities for these and related chemical technologies in the study and discovery of novel biology of metals. PMID:25692243

  4. Does epicatechin contribute to the acute vascular function effects of dark chocolate? A randomized, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Dower, James I; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Kroon, Paul A; Philo, Mark; Mensink, Marco; Kromhout, Daan; Hollman, Peter C H

    2016-11-01

    Cocoa, rich in flavan-3-ols, improves vascular function, but the contribution of specific flavan-3-ols is unknown. We compared the effects of pure epicatechin, a major cocoa flavan-3-ol, and chocolate. In a randomized crossover study, twenty healthy men (40-80 years) were supplemented with: (1) 70g dark chocolate (150 mg epicatechin) with placebo capsules; (2) pure epicatechin capsules (2 × 50 mg epicatechin) with 75g white chocolate; and (3) placebo capsules with 75 g white chocolate (0 mg epicatechin). Vascular function (flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and augmentation index (AIx)) were measured before and 2 hours after interventions. Epicatechin metabolites time-profiles were measured in blood to calculate the bioavailability. Pure epicatechin did not significantly improve FMD (+0.75%; p = 0.10) or AIx (-2.2%; p = 0.23) compared to placebo. Dark chocolate significantly improved FMD (+0.96%; p = 0.04) and AIx (-4.6%; p = 0.02). Differences in improvements in FMD (+ 0.21%; p = 0.65) or Aix (-2.4%; p = 0.20) between pure epicatechin and dark chocolate were not significant. The bioavailability of epicatechin did not differ between pure epicatechin and dark chocolate (p = 0.14). Despite differences in epicatechin dose, improvements in vascular function after pure epicatechin and chocolate were similar and the bioavailability did not differ, suggesting a role for epicatechin. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Dark cosmic rays

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Ping-Kai; Kusenko, Alexander; Takhistov, Volodymyr

    2017-02-22

    If dark matter particles have an electric charge, as in models of millicharged dark matter, such particles should be accelerated in the same astrophysical accelerators that produce ordinary cosmic rays, and their spectra should have a predictable rigidity dependence. Depending on the charge, the resulting “dark cosmic rays” can be detected as muon-like or neutrino-like events in Super-Kamiokande, IceCube, and other detectors. We present new limits and propose several new analyses, in particular, for the Super-Kamiokande experiment, which can probe a previously unexplored portion of the millicharged dark matter parameter space. Here, most of our results are fairly general andmore » apply to a broad class of dark matter models.« less

  6. Social Studies in the Dark: Using Docudramas to Teach History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Sa, Benicia

    2005-01-01

    This article, discusses the rationale for using films, specifically docudramas, for teaching social studies and presents guidelines and resources for helping teachers to do so. Included are several Web resources that assist teachers in the selection and use of specific films to complement classroom instruction. The author has also incorporated the…

  7. Social Studies in the Dark: Using Docudramas to Teach History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Sa, Benicia

    2005-01-01

    This article, discusses the rationale for using films, specifically docudramas, for teaching social studies and presents guidelines and resources for helping teachers to do so. Included are several Web resources that assist teachers in the selection and use of specific films to complement classroom instruction. The author has also incorporated the…

  8. Ultra-broadband NMR probe: numerical and experimental study of transmission line NMR probe.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Atsushi; Ichikawa, Shinji

    2003-06-01

    We have reinvestigated a transmission line NMR probe first published by Lowe and co-workers in 1970s [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45 (1974) 631; 48 (1977) 268] numerically and experimentally. The probe is expected to be ultra-broadband, thus might enable new types of solid-state NMR experiments. The NMR probe consists of a coil and capacitors which are connected to the coil at regular intervals. The circuit is the same as a cascaded LC low-pass filter, except there are nonzero mutual inductances between different coil sections. We evaluated the mutual inductances by Neumann's formula and calculated the electrical characteristics of the probe as a function of a carrier frequency. We found that they were almost the same as those of a cascaded LC low-pass filter, when the inductance L of a section was estimated from the inductance of the whole coil divided by the number of the sections, and if C was set to the capacitance in a section. For example, the characteristic impedance of a transmission line coil is given by Z=(L/C)(1/2). We also calculated the magnitude and the distribution of RF magnetic field inside the probe. The magnitude of RF field decreases when the carrier frequency is increased because the phase delay between neighboring sections is proportional to the carrier frequency. For cylindrical coils, the RF field is proportional to (pinu/2nu(d))(1/2)exp(-nu/nu(d)), where the decay frequency nu(d) is determined by the dimensions of the coil. The observed carrier frequency thus must be much smaller than the decay frequency. This condition restricts the size of transmission line coils. We made a cylindrical coil for a 1H NMR probe operating below 400 MHz. It had a diameter 2.3mm and a pitch 1.2mm. Five capacitors of 6pF were connected at every three turns. The RF field strength was 40 and 60 kHz at the input RF power 100 W by a calculation and by experiments, respectively. The calculations showed that the RF field inhomogeneity along the coil axis was caused by a

  9. [Study on an optimized patch probe and its biomedical application].

    PubMed

    Yan, Liping; Huang, Kama; Liu, Changjun; Wang, Chengrong

    2006-12-01

    A wide-band patch probe excited by coaxial line, which is useful for noninvasive measurement of superficial tissues at high frequencies, is presented in this paper. Optimization of the probe is performed by genetic algorithm (GA) combined with Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD). Then the optimized round patch probe is used to measure reflection coefficient for 1-7 GHz. The measured results show some interesting phenomena, which are very useful for reconstruction of electric properties of superficial tissues.

  10. Challenges in Cosmology from the Big Bang to Dark Energy, Dark Matter and Galaxy Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silk, Joseph

    I review the current status of Big Bang Cosmology, with emphasis on current issues in dark matter, dark energy, and galaxy formation. These topics motivate many of the current goals of experimental cosmology which range from targeting the nature of dark energy and dark matter to probing the epoch of the first stars and galaxies.

  11. The contribution of micromorphology to study Dark Earth: the example of Brussels (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devos, Yannick; Vrydaghs, Luc

    2010-05-01

    For a long time Dark Earth, has been considered as a poorly stratified enigmatic phenomenon of rather ephemeral interest for the archaeological record. Last decades, however, interdisciplinary studies in have demonstrated their huge archaeological potential for studying the medieval urban development (MACPHAIL, 1994; CAMMAS, 2000; DAVID et al., 2000; MACPHAIL, 2003; VERSLYPE & BRULET, 2004; NICOSIA, 2006). Especially micromorphology has proven to be a rather powerful tool to understand the formation processes of these homogeneous units. Besides classical micromorphological analysis and description, the study of the Brussels' Dark Earth involved the development of phytolith analysis of soil thin sections (VRYDAGHS et al., 2007). Such integrated studies contribute significantly to demonstrate that the formation of the Dark Earth results from multiphased processes whereby various human actions interact with natural phenomena. The formation and transformation of Dark Earth can be understood as an ongoing process of accumulation, erosion, decomposition and homogenisation that stops once the Dark Earth gets sealed. Among the identified human activities pasture, agriculture, quarrying, destruction and middening can be cited. Taken into account that the Dark Earth results from such a variable amalgam of activities and natural phenomena, it can be concluded Dark Earth should be investigated on a individual basis. Their systematic study can enhance our knowledge of the diversity of human and natural events that took place in medieval Brussels, and as such contribute to the understanding of its emergence and development. Acknowledgements The authors want to thank the Brussels Capital Region who financed this research. Bibliography CAMMAS, C., 2000. Apports et perspectives de l'analyse micromorphologique des "terres noires". In: Terres Noires - 1. Maison des sciences de la ville, de l'urbanisme et des paysages, Tours, pp. 45-60. (= Documents Sciences de la Ville, 6, 2000

  12. Holographic Dark Energy Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadat, Hassan

    2011-06-01

    In this article we consider the cosmological model based on the holographic dark energy. We study dark energy density in Universe with arbitrary spatially curvature described by the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric. We use Chevallier-Polarski-Linder parametrization to specify dark energy density.

  13. NUV Detector Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Colin

    2011-10-01

    Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

  14. NUV Detector Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, Justin

    2012-10-01

    Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

  15. NUV Detector Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, Justin

    2013-10-01

    Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

  16. NUV Detector Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei

    2010-09-01

    Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

  17. Embrace the Dark Side: Advancing the Dark Energy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchyta, Eric

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is an ongoing cosmological survey intended to study the properties of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. In this dissertation, I present work of mine that has advanced the progress of DES. First is an introduction, which explores the physics of the cosmos, as well as how DES intends to probe it. Attention is given to developing the theoretical framework cosmologists use to describe the Universe, and to explaining observational evidence which has furnished our current conception of the cosmos. Emphasis is placed on the dark sector - dark matter and dark energy - the content of the Universe not explained by the Standard Model of particle physics. As its name suggests, the Dark Energy Survey has been specially designed to measure the properties of dark energy. DES will use a combination of galaxy cluster, weak gravitational lensing, angular clustering, and supernovae measurements to derive its state of the art constraints, each of which is discussed in the text. The work described in this dissertation includes science measurements directly related to the first three of these probes. The dissertation presents my contributions to the readout and control system of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam); the name of this software is SISPI. SISPI uses client-server and publish-subscribe communication patterns to coordinate and command actions among the many hardware components of DECam - the survey instrument for DES, a 570 megapixel CCD camera, mounted at prime focus of the Blanco 4-m Telescope. The SISPI work I discuss includes coding applications for DECam's filter changer mechanism and hexapod, as well as developing the Scripts Editor, a GUI application for DECam users to edit and export observing sequence SISPI can load and execute. Next, the dissertation describes the processing of early DES data, which I contributed. This furnished the data products used in the first-completed DES science analysis, and contributed to improving the

  18. Study of borehole probing methods to improve the ground characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeimipour, Ali

    partially condition of discontinuities. Two of the more promising tools have been tested during this project, which are QL40OBI Optical TV and Slim Borehole Scanner (SBS) manufacture by ALT-Mount Sopris and DMT, respectively. The field experiment with QL40OBI showed that the images generated for downward and sub-horizontal boreholes are of good quality and can be used to evaluate the joint conditions. However, this device is not suitable for use inside the upward drillholes. The Slim Borehole Scanner (SBS) manufactured by DMT in Germany has the required features for borescoping the roofbolt holes. This includes the ease of operation and suitable geometry along with an unwrapped 360-degree picture of the borehole wall. This instrument was concluded to be the best option yet for obtaining images from boreholes with any arbitrary orientation. In addition, a new tool, called Rock Strength Borehole Probe (RSBP), was developed for estimation of the rock strength through scratching the rock surface in the borehole. This device is designed to be a light, flexible, quick, non-disruptive, and cost effective alternative to estimate the rock strength inside the boreholes in underground mines and tunnels. An extensive number of laboratory tests under variable conditions were conducted to develop equations to estimate the Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS) and Brazilian Tensile Strength (BTS) of the rock from measured cutting forces. In these experiments, 27 different rock types were tested by full scale scratch tests, including the cutting tests by a miniature disc. The results show a good correlation between the normal force and the compressive strength of sedimentary/metamorphic rock if the depth of scratch is known. No significant correlation was observed for igneous rocks, due to the impacts of grain size. Current studies show promising results for using RSBP. The laboratory and field tests proved the functionality of this tool. This probe is capable of entering boreholes of 45 mm

  19. Lidar and radar measurements of the melting layer in the frame of the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study: observations of dark and bright band phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Girolamo, P.; Summa, D.; Bhawar, R.; di Iorio, T.; Norton, E. G.; Peters, G.; Dufournet, Y.

    2011-11-01

    During the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS), lidar dark and bright bands were observed by the University of BASILicata Raman lidar system (BASIL) during several intensive (IOPs) and special (SOPs) observation periods (among others, 23 July, 15 August, and 17 August 2007). Lidar data were supported by measurements from the University of Hamburg cloud radar MIRA 36 (36 GHz), the University of Hamburg dual-polarization micro rain radars (24.1 GHz) and the University of Manchester UHF wind profiler (1.29 GHz). Results from BASIL and the radars for 23 July 2007 are illustrated and discussed to support the comprehension of the microphysical and scattering processes responsible for the appearance of the lidar and radar dark and bright bands. Simulations of the lidar dark and bright band based on the application of concentric/eccentric sphere Lorentz-Mie codes and a melting layer model are also provided. Lidar and radar measurements and model results are also compared with measurements from a disdrometer on ground and a two-dimensional cloud (2DC) probe on-board the ATR42 SAFIRE.

  20. Comparison of objective refraction in darkness to cycloplegic refraction: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Balamurali; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J; Meehan, Kelly; Grk, Dejana; Cox, Misty

    2016-03-01

    The aim was to assess non-cycloplegic objective refraction in darkness using an open-field auto-refractor, and furthermore to compare it with distance cycloplegic subjective refraction and distance cycloplegic retinoscopy in the light, in children and young adults. Twenty-three, visually-normal, young-adults (46 eyes) ages 23 to 31 years, and five children (10 eyes) ages five to 12 years, participated in the study. The spherical component of their refraction ranged from -2.25 D to +3.75 D with a mean of +1.80 D, and a mean cylinder of -0.70 D. Three techniques were used to assess refractive error. An objective measure of the non-cycloplegic refractive state was obtained using an open-field autorefractor (WAM-5500) after five minutes in the dark to allow for dissipation of accommodative transients and relaxation of accommodation. In addition, both distance retinoscopy and subjective distance refraction were performed following cycloplegia (Cyclopentolate, 1%) using conventional clinical procedures. All measurements were obtained on the same day within a single session. The spherical component of the refraction was compared among the three techniques in both the children and adults. There was no significant difference in spherical refraction among the three techniques: non-cycloplegic objective refraction in the dark, distance cycloplegic retinoscopy and distance cycloplegic subjective refraction, in either the adults [F(2, 137) = 0.79, p = 0.45] or the children [F(2, 27) = 0.47, p = 0.62]. Mean difference in the spherical component between refraction in the dark and the cycloplegic distance retinoscopy was -0.34 D (r = 0.89) in the adults and +0.14 D (r = 0.96) in the children. The mean difference in spherical component between refraction in the dark and the cycloplegic distance subjective refraction was -0.25 D (r = 0.92) in the adults and -0.05 D (r = 0.95) in the children. Comparison of the spherical refractive component between the three techniques was not

  1. Dark stars: a review.

    PubMed

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only [Formula: see text]0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (∼10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ∼10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ∼[Formula: see text] as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >[Formula: see text] and luminosities  >[Formula: see text], making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  2. Dark stars: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only ≲ 0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (˜10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ˜10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ˜1{{M}⊙} as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >{{10}6}{{M}⊙} and luminosities  >{{10}10}{{L}⊙} , making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  3. When dark matter interacts with cosmic rays or interstellar matter: A morphological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Eric; Profumo, Stefano

    2015-09-01

    Excess emission over expected diffuse astrophysical backgrounds in the direction of the Galactic center region has been claimed at various wavelengths, from radio to gamma rays. Among particle models advocated to explain such observations, a few invoke interactions between dark matter particles and ordinary matter, such as cosmic rays, interstellar gas or free electrons. Depending on the specific interstellar matter particles' species and energy, such models predict distinct morphological features. In this study we make detailed, model-independent predictions for the morphology of models where the relevant electromagnetic emission is proportional to the product of the dark matter density profile and the density of interstellar matter or cosmic rays. We compare the predicted latitudinal and longitudinal distributions with observations, and provide the associated set of relevant spatial templates.

  4. Acoustic studies for alpha background rejection in dark matter bubble chamber detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bou-Cabo, M.; Felis, I.; Ardid, M.; Collaboration: COUPP Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    COUPP (Chicagoland Observatory for Underground Particle Physics) is an experiment with bubble chambers able to detect dark matter directly either with Spin-Dependent or with Spin-Independent interactions. The target material is a superheated liquid (usually CF3I) that can be bubble nucleated due to nuclear recoils produced by elastic collisions of dark matter particles. The bubble growth inside the chamber is accompanied with an acoustic signature. The acoustic technique has been successfully used to have a good alpha discrimination (about 99%). In this paper, we present different studies and results related with the characterization of the acoustic properties of the detector and the different phenomena involved in the acoustic measurements of the bubble growth, such as sound generation, sound transmission and optimization of piezoelectric transducers.

  5. Theoretical study of the dark-oxidation reaction mechanisms for organic polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guixiu; Zhu, Rongxiu; Zhang, Dongju; Liu, Chengbu

    2006-08-01

    To model the dark-oxidation mechanism of organic polymers, the reactions of the corresponding model compounds, including cumene, methyl 2-methylbutyrate, methyl methacrylate and methylacrylic acid, with triplet O 2 molecule, have been studied by performing density functional theory calculations at the UB3LYP/6-31G(d) level. The calculated results show that these model compounds can be oxygenated by O 2 via an H-abstract mechanism. The structures of initial contact charge transfer complexes, transition states, intermediates of cage-like pairs of radicals, and final hydro-peroxides involved in the reactions have been shown in details. The present results are expected to provide a general guidance for understanding the dark-oxidation mechanism of organic polymers.

  6. A behavioral genetic study of the dark triad of personality and moral development.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jennifer; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Villani, Vanessa C; Nguyen, Brenda; Vickers, Leanne; Vernon, Philip A

    2009-04-01

    The present study is the first behavioral genetic investigation of relationships between the Dark Triad of personality--Machiavellianism, narcissism, and subclinical psychopathy--and moral development. Participants were 154 monozygotic twin pairs and 82 same-sex dizygotic twin pairs. Higher scores on Machiavellianism and psychopathy were positively correlated with low levels of moral development; high psychopathy scores also correlated negatively with high levels of moral development. Individual differences in lower levels of moral development were attributable to genetic and nonshared environmental factors but, very interestingly, individual differences in the highest levels of moral development showed no genetic basis but were entirely attributable to shared and nonshared environmental factors. Finally, correlations between the Dark Triad and moral development variables showed no genetic basis while correlations among the moral development variables were variously attributable to correlated genetic and correlated environmental factors.

  7. Synchronization of Green Algae by Light and Dark Regimes for Cell Cycle and Cell Division Studies.

    PubMed

    Hlavová, Monika; Vítová, Milada; Bišová, Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    A synchronous population of cells is one of the prerequisites for studying cell cycle processes such as DNA replication, nuclear and cellular division. Green algae dividing by multiple fission represent a unique single cell system enabling the preparation of highly synchronous cultures by application of a light-dark regime similar to what they experience in nature. This chapter provides detailed protocols for synchronization of different algal species by alternating light-dark cycles; all critical points are discussed extensively. Moreover, detailed information on basic analysis of cell cycle progression in such cultures is presented, including analyses of nuclear, cellular, and chloroplast divisions. Modifications of basic protocols that enable changes in cell cycle progression are also suggested so that nuclear or chloroplast divisions can be followed separately.

  8. A Study of Holographic Dark Energy Models in Chern-Simon Modified Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Sarfraz; Amir, M. Jamil

    2016-12-01

    This paper is devoted to study some holographic dark energy models in the context of Chern-Simon modified gravity by considering FRW universe. We analyze the equation of state parameter using Granda and Oliveros infrared cut-off proposal which describes the accelerated expansion of the universe under the restrictions on the parameter α. It is shown that for the accelerated expansion phase -1<ω _{Λ }<-1/3, the parameter α varies according as 1<α <2/3. Furthermore, for 0< α<1, the holographic energy and pressure density illustrates phantom-like theory of the evolution when ω Λ<-1. Also, we discuss the correspondence between the quintessence, K-essence, tachyon and dilaton field models and holographic dark energy models on similar fashion. To discuss the accelerated expansion of the universe, we explore the potential and the dynamics of quintessence, K-essence, tachyon and dilaton field models.

  9. Titan probe technology assessment and technology development plan study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    The need for technology advances to accomplish the Titan probe mission was determined by defining mission conditions and requirements and evaluating the technology impact on the baseline probe configuration. Mission characteristics found to be technology drivers include (1) ten years dormant life in space vacuum; (2) unknown surface conditions, various sample materials, and a surface temperature; and (3) mission constraints of the Saturn Orbiter Dual Probe mission regarding weight allocation. The following areas were identified for further development: surface sample acquisition system; battery powered system; nonmetallic materials; magnetic bubble memory devices, and the landing system. Preentry science, reliability, and weight reduction and redundancy must also be considered.

  10. Measuring the speed of dark: Detecting dark energy perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Putter, Roland de; Huterer, Dragan; Linder, Eric V.

    2010-05-15

    The nature of dark energy can be probed not only through its equation of state but also through its microphysics, characterized by the sound speed of perturbations to the dark energy density and pressure. As the sound speed drops below the speed of light, dark energy inhomogeneities increase, affecting both cosmic microwave background and matter power spectra. We show that current data can put no significant constraints on the value of the sound speed when dark energy is purely a recent phenomenon, but can begin to show more interesting results for early dark energy models. For example, the best fit model for current data has a slight preference for dynamics [w(a){ne}-1], degrees of freedom distinct from quintessence (c{sub s{ne}}1), and early presence of dark energy [{Omega}{sub de}(a<<1){ne}0]. Future data may open a new window on dark energy by measuring its spatial as well as time variation.

  11. Dark matter and dark energy: summary and future directions.

    PubMed

    Ellis, John

    2003-11-15

    This paper reviews the progress reported at the Discussion Meeting and advertises some possible future directions in our drive to understand dark matter and dark energy. Additionally, a first attempt is made to place in context the exciting new results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe satellite, which were published shortly after this meeting. In the first part of this paper, pieces of observational evidence shown here that bear on the amounts of dark matter and dark energy are reviewed. Subsequently, particle candidates for dark matter are mentioned, and detection strategies are discussed. Finally, ideas are presented for calculating the amounts of dark matter and dark energy, and possibly relating them to laboratory data.

  12. Femtosecond infrared studies of solvation by directly probing the solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, H.; Lian, T.; Asplund, M.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we report studies of solvation dynamics by directly probing solvent vibrational motions. The IR spectral changes in the CN stretching mode region of a series of nitrile solvents were studied after excitation of solute dye molecules from the S{sub 0} to S{sub 1} state. For LDS750 molecules that have a large dipole moment change from the ground to excited state, the observed signal consists of (1) a time-dependent spectral shift of the CN stretching band, and (2) a broad feature with an instrument response limited rise and multiexponential decays. The decay time constants correspond well to the solvation times of these solvents. However, these solvent spectral changes were not observed for dye molecules that have small dipole moment changes such as R6G, or short lived (<1 ps) excited states such as phenol blue. We assign these signals to the change of solvent vibrational spectra in response to the change of solute dipole field, although the origin of these solvents modes is still not clear. Presently, these solvent responses are being studied by molecular dynamics simulations that include solvent vibrational modes.

  13. Fluorescence probes for studying the mechanisms of transcription activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyduk, Tomasz; Callaci, Sandhya

    1994-08-01

    Regulation of transcription involves a complex interplay between protein-ligand, protein-DNA, and protein-protein interactions. Fluorescence probes seem to be very well suited to study such complex systems since the selectivity and sensitivity of fluorescence makes possible to select only a part of the system for observation leaving the rest of it transparent to the technique. We have used fluorescence spectroscopy to study the activation of E.coli RNA polymerase by cAMP receptor protein (CRP). The cAMP interactions with CRP, domain flexibility in CRP molecule, the structure of CRP-DNA complex, and interaction of CRP with RNA-polymerase have been studied. Here we report the preparation and properties of 5-OH-Trp derivative of the sigma subunit of E.coli RNA polymerase. This subunit is responsible for specific promoter recognition. The obtained results show that the biological activities of the derivative are identical as observed for the native protein. Comparison of fluorescence properties of the 5-OH-Trp sigma derivative free and bound to the core RNA polymerase suggests a conformational change in the sigma protein induced by this interaction. These data show that replacement of Trp residues with 5-OH-Trp can be a very useful approach to prepare specific fluorescence derivatives of multimeric proteins.

  14. Dark chocolate and reduced snack consumption in mildly hypertensive adults: an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Koli, Raika; Köhler, Klaus; Tonteri, Elina; Peltonen, Juha; Tikkanen, Heikki; Fogelholm, Mikael

    2015-08-22

    Several studies have shown that cocoa and cocoa-containing foods have the potential to lower blood pressure and improve endothelial function. Most of the studies reporting the beneficial effects of dark chocolate on blood pressure have been short (≤ 4 weeks). The aim of the present 8-wks (weeks) study was to assess the effects of regular consumption of dark chocolate during a reduced snack consumption intervention on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in mildly hypertensive individuals. This was a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial involving 22 adults (8 women, 14 men), aged 33-64 y, BMI 27.7 ± 3.7 kg/m(2) with mild hypertension. During the intervention period (8-wks) the participants reduced the intake of habitual snacks and replaced them with dark chocolate (49 g/day). In the control period, they only reduced the snacks without any added chocolate. Data (blood lipid profile, glucose, insulin, 24 h blood pressure) was collected in the beginning and end of both periods (intervention and control), and some variables also in the run-in and run-out periods (weight, body fat percentage, blood pressure, arterial stiffness index, diet and physical activity). Daily consumption of dark chocolate had no effects on 24 h blood pressure, resting blood pressure (mean ± SD, pre 142 ± 11.5/89 ± 8.4 mmHg vs. post 142 ± 14.2/88 ± 9.4 mmHg in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively) or arterial stiffness (mean ± SD, pre 7.68 ± 0.88 vs. post 7.76 ± 0.89). Weight was reduced by 1.0 ± 2.2 kg during the control (reduced snack only) period, but was unchanged while eating chocolate (p < 0.027 between the treatments). The data collected in this study indicates that inclusion of dark chocolate daily in the diet had no significant effects on blood pressure or other cardiovascular risk factors during a reduced snack period. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02130141.

  15. Optical pump terahertz probe studies of semiconducting polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Paul D.

    Optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy (OPTP) has been applied to study charge generation, transport and the evolution of the photo-induced excited states in thin film organic semiconductors, with emphasis on their relevance to photovoltaic technology. In these experiments the response of the photoexcited material to the AC electric field of a terahertz (THz) pulse was measured. From this response, the evolution of the complex conductivity in the far-infrared was monitored. OPTP presents advantages over other techniques by being an all-optical probe of the complex conductivity over nanometer scale distances with sub-picosecond resolution and exhibits particular sensitivity to carrier scattering rates, which typically lay in the THz range. Conductivity models were applied to the extracted conductivity curves in order to determine technologically relevant quantities like the charge carrier mobility and external quantum yield of charge carrier generation. We observed charge carriers generated on a subpicosecond time scale in thin films of polyhexylthiophene (P3HT). Through application of the Drude-Smith model (DSM) over the 0-2 THz band, we determined a room temperature intrinsic mobility of about 30 cm2/Vs. The temperature dependence of the conductivity dynamics showed signs of thermally activated polaron hopping influenced by torsional disorder. Both above and below gap excitation resulted in similar dynamics, showing that the majority of carriers recombine within 1 ps. We were able to observe charge transfer occurring on a sub-ps timescale to the soluble fullerene, PCBM, for both excited states, demonstrating that narrow gap polymers can be blended with PCBM for photovoltaic applications. We observed charge carrier generated on a sub-ps time scale in thin amorphous films of metalated polymers. The time evolution of the conductivity showed that charge carriers recombine and only excitons persist after 100 ps. This characteristic appears to be common to amorphous

  16. The Dark Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario

    2010-04-01

    1. A brief history of dark matter Vera Rubin; 2. Microlensing towards the Magellanic Clouds Kailash Sahu; 3. Searching for galactic dark matter Harvey Richer; 4. Hot gas in clusters of galaxies and Omega Megan Donahue; 5. Tracking the Baryon density from the Big Bang to the present Gary Steigman; 6. Modified Newtonian dynamics and its implications Bob Sanders; 7. Cosmological parameters and quintessence from radio galaxies Ruth Daly and Eric Guerra; 8. The mass density of the Universe Neta Bahcall; 9. Growth of structure in the Universe John Peacock; 10. Cosmological implications of the most distant supernova (known) Adam Riess; 11. Dynamical probes of the Halo mass function Chris Kochanek; 12. Detection of gravitational waves from inflation Marc Kamionkowski and Andrew Jaffe; 13. Cosmological constant problems and their solution Alex Vilenkin; 14. Dark Matter and dark energy: a physicist's perspective Michael Dine.

  17. Resonant Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Yang; Fox, Patrick J.; /Fermilab

    2009-09-01

    It is usually assumed that dark matter direct detection is sensitive to a large fraction of the dark matter (DM) velocity distribution. We propose an alternative form of dark matter-nucleus scattering which only probes a narrow range of DM velocities due to the existence of a resonance, a DM-nucleus bound state, in the scattering - resonant dark matter (rDM). The scattering cross section becomes highly element dependent, has increased modulation and as a result can explain the DAMA/LIBRA results whilst not being in conflict with other direct detection experiments. We describe a simple model that realizes the dynamics of rDM, where the DM is the neutral component of a fermionic weak triplet whose charged partners differ in mass by approximately 10 MeV.

  18. Dark energy: recent observations and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Perlmutter, Saul

    2003-11-15

    Dark energy presents us with a challenging puzzle: understanding the new physics seen in the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe. Measurements using type-Ia supernovae (SNe) first detected this acceleration, and this approach remains the most direct route to studying the details of the Universe's expansion history that can teach us more about the nature of the dark energy. Such measurements are, however, extremely demanding in both precision and accuracy, since the different dark-energy models predict very small differences in the expansion history. While several cosmological probes may reach the required statistical uncertainties, the key measurement limit will be the systematic uncertainty. The supernova-measurement approach has the advantage of well-studied systematic uncertainties, allowing a next-generation experiment to be pursued. We briefly review the progress to date and examine the promise of future surveys with large numbers of SNe and well-bounded systematics.

  19. The Light Dark Matter eXperiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colegrove, Owen; LDMX Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Light Dark Matter eXperiment (LDMX) proposes a high-statistics search for low-mass dark matter at a new experimental facility, Dark Sector Experiments at LCLS-II (DASEL), at SLAC. LDMX employs the missing momentum technique, where electrons scattering in a thin target can produce dark matter via ``dark bremsstrahlung'' that are not observed in the detector. To identify these rare signal events, LDMX individually tags incoming beam-energy electrons, unambiguously associates them with low energy, moderate transverse-momentum recoils of the incoming electron, and establishes the absence of any additional forward-recoiling charged particles or neutral hadrons. LDMX will employ low mass tracking to tag incoming beam-energy electrons with high purity and cleanly reconstruct recoils. A high-speed, granular calorimeter with MIP sensitivity is used to reject the high rate of bremsstrahlung background at trigger level while working in tandem with a hadronic calorimeter to veto rare photo nuclear reactions. Ultimately, LDMX aims to probe thermal dark matter over most of the viable sub-GeV mass range to a decisive level of sensitivity. This talk will summarize the current status of the LDMX design and performance studies and progress in developing the DASEL beamline.

  20. Chemical Biology Probes for Extracellular Vesicles Facilitate Studies of Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lei; Liang, Jiaqi; Yin, Hang

    2016-04-20

    Neuroinflammation has been conceived as an important cause for or contributor to neurological diseases. With major strides in new technology, scientists can use chemical biology tools developed in non-neuronal systems to research neuroinflammation. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a vital role in mediating neuroinflammation via carrying pathogenic misfolded proteins as well as nucleic acids, suggesting important biological functions. Nonetheless, it is a daunting goal to study these ultramicroscopic EVs in part due to the technical hurdle of specific labeling and preparation. Therefore, development of new detection methods of EVs will promote further understanding of EVs in the nervous system, thereby expediting the diagnosis and therapy development for neurological disorders. Recent progress toward a new class of chemical biology probes simultaneously targeting the highly curved surface and the particular lipid compositions of EVs may offer an alternative strategy for their detection, isolation, and purification, which not only will facilitate research on their mechanism in neuroinflammation and neurological diseases, but also may lay the groundwork for the next generation of diagnostics and prognostics.

  1. GeV-scale dark matter: Production at the main injector

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Frugiuele, Claudia

    2015-02-03

    In this study, assuming that dark matter particles interact with quarks via a GeV-scale mediator, we study dark matter production in fixed target collisions. The ensuing signal in a neutrino near detector consists of neutral-current events with an energy distribution peaked at higher values than the neutrino background. We find that for a Z' boson of mass around a few GeV that decays to dark matter particles, the dark matter beam produced by the Main Injector at Fermilab allows the exploration of a range of values for the gauge coupling that currently satisfy all experimental constraints. The NOνA near detector is well positioned for probing the presence of a dark matter beam, and future LBNF near detectors would provide more sensitive probes.

  2. GeV-scale dark matter: Production at the main injector

    DOE PAGES

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Frugiuele, Claudia

    2015-02-03

    In this study, assuming that dark matter particles interact with quarks via a GeV-scale mediator, we study dark matter production in fixed target collisions. The ensuing signal in a neutrino near detector consists of neutral-current events with an energy distribution peaked at higher values than the neutrino background. We find that for a Z' boson of mass around a few GeV that decays to dark matter particles, the dark matter beam produced by the Main Injector at Fermilab allows the exploration of a range of values for the gauge coupling that currently satisfy all experimental constraints. The NOνA near detectormore » is well positioned for probing the presence of a dark matter beam, and future LBNF near detectors would provide more sensitive probes.« less

  3. Probing the Dark Matter Radial Profile in Lens Galaxies and the Size of X-Ray Emitting Region in Quasars with Microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Vicente, J.; Mediavilla, E.; Kochanek, C. S.; Muñoz, J. A.

    2015-06-01

    We use X-ray and optical microlensing measurements to study the shape of the dark matter density profile in the lens galaxies and the size of the (soft) X-ray emission region. We show that single epoch X-ray microlensing is sensitive to the source size. Our results, in good agreement with previous estimates, show that the size of the X-ray emission region scales roughly linearly with the black hole mass, with a half-light radius of {{R}}1/2≃ (24+/- 14){{r}}{\\boldsymbol{g}} where {r}g={{GM}}{BH}/{c}2. This corresponds to a size of {log}({{R}}1/2/{cm})={15.6}-0.3+0.3 or ˜1 lt-day for a black hole mass of {M}{BH}={10}9 {M}⊙ . We simultaneously estimated the fraction of the local surface mass density in stars, finding that the stellar mass fraction is α = 0.20 ± 0.05 at an average radius of ˜ 1.9{R}e, where Re is the effective radius of the lens. This stellar mass fraction is insensitive to the X-ray source size and in excellent agreement with our earlier results based on optical data. By combining X-ray and optical microlensing data, we can divide this larger sample into two radial bins. We find that the surface mass density in the form of stars is α = 0.31 ± 0.15 and α = 0.13 ± 0.05 at (1.3+/- 0.3){R}e and (2.3+/- 0.3){R}e, respectively, in good agreement with expectations and some previous results.

  4. Q-Probes studies in anatomic pathology: quality improvement through targeted benchmarking.

    PubMed

    Tworek, Joseph A; Volmar, Keith E; McCall, Shannon J; Bashleben, Christine P; Howanitz, Peter J

    2014-09-01

    The Q-Probes program is a peer-comparison quality assurance service offered by the College of American Pathologists that was created in 1989. To establish national benchmarks around a specific quality metric at a specific point in time in anatomic pathology (AP). Q-Probes are based on a voluntary subscription for an individual study. Hospital-based laboratories in the United States, Canada, and 16 other countries have participated. Approximately one-third of all Q-Probes studies address AP metrics. Each Q-Probes study has a primary quality indicator and additional minor indicators. There have been 52 AP Q-Probes studies addressing process-, outcome-, and structure-related quality assurance issues. These Q-Probes studies often represented the first standardized national benchmark for specific metrics in the disciplines of cytopathology, surgical pathology, and autopsy pathology, and as such have been cited more than 1700 times in peer-reviewed literature. The AP Q-Probes studies that have been repeated over time demonstrate improvement in laboratory performance across an international spectrum. The Q-Probes program has produced important national benchmarks in AP, addressing preanalytic, analytic, and postanalytic factors in the disciplines of cytopathology, surgical pathology, and autopsy pathology. Q-Probes study data have been published, cited, and used in the creation of laboratory accreditation standards and other national guidelines.

  5. Constraining Dark Matter and Dark Energy Models using Astrophysical Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieplak, Agnieszka M.

    This thesis addresses astrophysical probes to constrain dark matter (DM) and dark energy models. Primordial black holes (PBHs) remain one of the few DM candidates within the Standard Model of Particle Physics. This thesis presents a new probe of this PBH DM, using the microlensing of the source stars monitored by the already existing Kepler satellite. With its photometric precision and the large projected cross section of the nearby stars, it is found that previous constraints on PBH DM could theoretically be extended by two orders of magnitude. Correcting a well-known microlensing formula, a limb-darkening analysis is included, and a new approximation is calculated for future star selection. A preliminary prediction is calculated for the planned Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope. A preliminary study of the first two years of publicly available Kepler data is presented. The investigation yields many new sources of background error not predicted in the theoretical calculations, such as stellar flares and comets in the field of view. Since no PBH candidates are detected, an efficiency of detection is therefore calculated by running a Monte Carlo with fake limb-darkened finite-source microlensing events. It is found that with just the first 8 quarters of data, a full order of magnitude of the PBH mass range can be already constrained. Finally, one of the astrophysical probes of dark energy is also addressed - specifically, the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) measurement in the gas distribution, as detected in quasar absorption lines. This unique measurement of dark energy at intermediate redshifts is being measured by current telescope surveys. The last part of this thesis therefore focuses on understanding the systematic effects in such a detection. Since the bias between the underlying dark matter distribution and the measured gas flux distribution is based on gas physics, hydrodynamic simulations are used to understand the evolution of neutral hydrogen over

  6. Rational design and studies of excimer forming novel dual probes to target RNA.

    PubMed

    Krasheninina, O A; Lomzov, A A; Fishman, V S; Novopashina, D S; Venyaminova, A G

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we report structure-based rational design and physico-chemical and biological studies of novel pyrene excimer forming dual probes for visualization of intracellular RNAs. Herein, the probes based on 2'-O-methyl RNA with linkers of different structure and length between pyrene moiety and ribose are studied with respect to their hybridization and spectral properties. We found optimal linkers that provide more intense excimer emission (at ∼480nm) of RNA-bound probes; particularly, the length of the linker arm of the 3'-component of dual probes plays a key role in formation of pyrene excimer. Calculated molecular dynamics trajectories and probability distributions of pyrene-pyrene dimer formation upon hybridization of the dual probes with RNA target are in agreement with the obtained fluorescence spectroscopy data for the corresponding duplexes. Our study demonstrates the excellent binding properties of new dual probes to structured RNA and their feasibility for the visualization of intracellular RNA targets.

  7. Intra-operative probe for brain cancer: feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu Thi, M. H.; Charon, Y.; Duval, M. A.; Lefebvre, F.; Menard, L.; Pitre, S.; Pinot, L.; Siebert, R.

    2007-07-01

    The present work aims a new medical probe for surgeons devoted to brain cancers, in particular glioblastoma multiforme. Within the last years, our group has started the development of a new intra-operative beta imaging probe. More recently, we took an alternative approach for the same application: a fluorescence probe. In both cases the purpose is to differentiate normal from tumor brain tissue. In a first step, we developed set-ups capable to measure autofluorescence. They are based on a dedicated epi-fluorescence design and on specific fiber optic probes. Relative signal amplitude, spectral shape and fluorescence lifetime measurements are foreseen to distinguish normal and cancer tissue by analyzing fluorophores like NADH, lipopigments and porphyrines. The autofluorescence spectra are recorded in the 460-640 nm range with a low resolution spectrometer. For lifetime measurements a fast detector (APD) is used together with a TCSPC-carte. Intrinsic wavelength- and time-resolutions are a few nm and 200 ps, respectively. Different samples have been analyzed to validate our new detection system and to allow a first configuration of our medical fluorescence probe. First results from the tissue measurements are shown.

  8. Is the Dark Triad Better Studied Using a Variable- or a Person-Centered Approach? An Exploratory Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Chester Chun Seng; Zhou, Mingming

    2016-01-01

    Despite Allport’s early call to study personality as a coordinated system of traits within individual rather than separate traits, researchers often assume personality variables are largely distinct, independent characteristics. In the current research, we examined the usual assumption that Dark Triad traits (narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism) are best studied using a variable-centered (dimensional), rather than a person-centered (taxonic), approach. Results showed that a variable-centered approach is appropriate in understanding the Dark Triad, and yet individuals scoring high on one Dark Triad dimension also tend to score high on other dimensions. Based on these results, we concluded that it is appropriate to study individual differences in the Dark Triad (inferences based on persons) by capturing the common variance among the three traits using a variable-centered approach, rather than treating these traits as independent or uncoordinated characteristics. PMID:27580224

  9. Pseudoscalar portal dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlin, Asher; Gori, Stefania; Lin, Tongyan; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2015-07-01

    A fermion dark matter candidate with a relic abundance set by annihilation through a pseudoscalar can evade constraints from direct detection experiments. We present simplified models that realize this fact by coupling a fermion dark sector to a two-Higgs doublet model. These models are generalizations of mixed bino-Higgsino dark matter in the minimal supersymmetric standard model, with more freedom in the couplings and scalar spectra. Annihilation near a pseudoscalar resonance allows a significant amount of parameter space for thermal relic dark matter compared to singlet-doublet dark matter, in which the fermions couple only to the standard model (SM) Higgs doublet. In a general two-Higgs doublet model, there is also freedom for the pseudoscalar to be relatively light and it is possible to obtain thermal relic dark matter candidates even below 100 GeV. In particular, we find ample room to obtain dark matter with mass around 50 GeV and fitting the Galactic center excess in gamma-rays. This region of parameter space can be probed by LHC searches for heavy pseudoscalars or electroweakinos, and possibly by other new collider signals.

  10. Various types of holographic metal/superconductor phase transitions with dark matter sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yan; Chen, Tao; Liu, Guohua; Ma, Pengwei

    We generalize the holographic superconductor model with dark matter sector by including the Stückelberg mechanism in the four-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole background away from the probe limit. We study effects of the dark matter sector on the s-wave scalar condensation and find that the dark matter sector affects the critical phase transition temperature and also the order of phase transitions. At last, we conclude that the dark matter sector brings richer physics in this general metal/superconductor system.

  11. Astrophysical Probes of Fundamental Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, C. J. A. P.

    I review the theoretical motivation for varying fundamental couplings and discuss how these measurements can be used to constrain a number of fundamental physics scenarios that would otherwise be inacessible to experiment. As a case study I will focus on the relation between varying couplings and dark energy, and explain how varying coupling measurements can be used to probe the nature of dark energy, with important advantages over the standard methods. Assuming that the current observational evidence for varying α. and μ is correct, a several-sigma detection of dynamical dark energy is feasible within a few years, using currently operational ground-based facilities. With forthcoming instruments like CODEX, a high-accuracy reconstruction of the equation of state may be possible all the way up to redshift z ˜ 4.

  12. Saturn Uranus atmospheric entry probe mission spacecraft system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The modifications required of the Pioneer F/G spacecraft design for it to deliver an atmospheric entry probe to the planets Saturn and Uranus are investigated. It is concluded that it is feasible to conduct such a mission within the constraints and interfaces defined. The spacecraft required to perform the mission is derived from the Pioneer F/G design, and the modifications required are generally routinely conceived and executed. The entry probe is necessarily a new design, although it draws on the technology of past, present, and imminent programs of planetary atmospheric investigations.

  13. Axion dark matter from topological defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Saikawa, Ken'ichi; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu

    2015-03-01

    The cosmological scenario where the Peccei-Quinn symmetry is broken after inflation is investigated. In this scenario, topological defects such as strings and domain walls produce a large number of axions, which contribute to the cold dark matter of the Universe. The previous estimations of the cold dark matter abundance are updated and refined based on the field-theoretic simulations with improved grid sizes. The possible uncertainties originated in the numerical calculations are also discussed. It is found that axions can be responsible for the cold dark matter in the mass range ma=(0.9 - 1.4 )×1 0-4 eV for the models with the domain wall number NDW=1 , and ma≈O (1 0-4- 1 0-2) eV with a mild tuning of parameters for the models with NDW>1 . Such higher mass ranges can be probed in future experimental studies.

  14. Design study for electronic system for Jupiter Orbit Probe (JOP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elero, B. P., Jr.; Carignan, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    The conceptual design of the Jupiter probe spectrometer is presented. Block and circuit diagrams are presented along with tabulated parts lists. Problem areas are considered to be (1) the schedule, (2) weight limitations for the electronic systems, and (3) radiation hardness of the electronic devices.

  15. Fluorescence Studies Of A Cholesterol-Analogue Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drew, Jacinta; Szabo, Arthur G.; Morand, Peter

    1988-06-01

    A novel cholesterol-analogue probe1,2 with a diene-(2-naphthyl) fluorophore in the sidechain (Figure 1), hereafter referred to as DN-Chol, has had its steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence properties characterized in solvents and in various viscosity mineral oils.

  16. Effect of grain boundary on nanoscale electronic properties of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon studied by Kelvin probe force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priti, Rubana B.; Mahat, Sandeep; Bommisetty, Venkat

    2013-03-01

    Hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) based alloys have strong potential in cost-effective and flexible photovoltaics. However, nc-Si:H undergoes light induced degradation (LID), which degrades the device efficiency by over 15%. The microstructural processes responsible for the LID are still under debate. Several recent studies suggest that the generation of metastable defects at grain/ grain-boundary (GB) interface enhances density of traps, which limits the charge collection efficiency. Conventional characterization techniques can measure transport properties such as electrical conductivity or carrier mobility averaged over large sample volumes. However, nanoscale characterization tools, such as Scanning Kelvin probe Force Microscopy (KFM), reveal local electronic properties of grains and GBs which may lead to better understanding of microscopic process of metastability. The optoelectronic properties of nc-Si:H films were measured in dark and under illumination to study the effect of LID at the nanoscale. The surface potential and charge distribution were measured in as-deposited and photo-degraded samples using a custom-designed scanning probe microscopy tool installed in an environment controlled glove-box. Photodegradation resulted in an upward bending of the conduction band edge, suggesting accumulation of photo-generated charges at GBs. This effect is attributed to the generation of acceptor like defects (traps) at GBs during illumination. Density of defects is estimated from grain/GB width and absolute value of band bending.

  17. Shining the light on the dark side of medical leadership - a qualitative study in Australia.

    PubMed

    Loh, Erwin; Morris, Jennifer; Thomas, Laura; Bismark, Marie Magdaleen; Phelps, Grant; Dickinson, Helen

    2016-07-04

    Purpose The paper aims to explore the beliefs of doctors in leadership roles of the concept of "the dark side", using data collected from interviews carried out with 45 doctors in medical leadership roles across Australia. The paper looks at the beliefs from the perspectives of doctors who are already in leadership roles themselves; to identify potential barriers they might have encountered and to arrive at better-informed strategies to engage more doctors in the leadership of the Australian health system. The research question is: "What are the beliefs of medical leaders that form the key themes or dimensions of the negative perception of the 'dark side'?". Design/methodology/approach The paper analysed data from two similar qualitative studies examining medical leadership and engagement in Australia by the same author, in collaboration with other researchers, which used in-depth semi-structured interviews with 45 purposively sampled senior medical leaders in leadership roles across Australia in health services, private and public hospitals, professional associations and health departments. The data were analysed using deductive and inductive approaches through a coding framework based on the interview data and literature review, with all sections of coded data grouped into themes. Findings Medical leaders had four key beliefs about the "dark side" as perceived through the eyes of their own past clinical experience and/or their clinical colleagues. These four beliefs or dimensions of the negative perception colloquially known as "the dark side" are the belief that they lack both managerial and clinical credibility, they have confused identities, they may be in conflict with clinicians, their clinical colleagues lack insight into the complexities of medical leadership and, as a result, doctors are actively discouraged from making the transition from clinical practice to medical leadership roles in the first place. Research limitations/implications This research was

  18. Study of the adaptability of existing hardware designs to a Pioneer Saturn/Uranus probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The basic concept of designing a scientific entry probe for the expected range of environments at Saturn or Uranus and making the probe compatible with the interface constraints of the Pioneer spacecraft was investigated for launches in the early 1980's. It was found that the amount of hardware commonality between that used in the Pioneer Venus program and that for the Saturn/Uranus probe was approximately 85%. It is recommended that additional development studies be conducted to improve the hardware definitions of the probe design for the following: heat shield, battery, nose cap jettisoning, and thermal control insulation.

  19. Double-resonance 14N nuclear-magnetic-resonance probe for single-crystal studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Akira; McDowell, Charles A.

    1989-06-01

    A double-resonance 14N nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) probe suitable for single-crystal studies is described. The 14N and 1H sample coils are wound as coaxial solenoids and used instead of a doubly tuned single coil to tune over the required frequency range of the 14N channel. The choice of materials for the probe body and the wire size for the sample and impedance matching coils were chosen carefully to minimize spurious ringing phenomena, which is troublesome in probe designs for solid-state NMR. The probe has a very accurate goniometer since the resolution of 14N NMR signals is high.

  20. A Study on the Tactical Safety of Endotracheal Intubation Under Darkness.

    PubMed

    Bilge, Sedat; Aydin, Attila; Bilge, Meltem; Aydin, Cemile; Cevik, Erdem; Eryilmaz, Mehmet

    2017-07-01

    Strict blackout discipline is extremely important for all military units. To be able to effectively determine wound characteristics and perform the necessary interventions at nighttime, vision and light restrictions can be mitigated through the use of tactical night vision goggles (NVGs). The lamp of the classical laryngoscope (CL) can be seen with the naked eye; infrared light, on the other hand, cannot be perceived without the use of NVGs. The aim of the study is to evaluate the safety of endotracheal intubation (ETI) procedures in the dark under tactically safe conditions with modified laryngoscope (ML) model. We developed an ML model by changing the standard lamp on a CL with an infrared light-emitting diode lamp to obtain a tool which can be used to perform ETI under night conditions in combination with NVGs. We first evaluated the safety of ETI procedures in prehospital conditions under darkness by using both the CL and the ML for the study, and then researched the procedures and methods by which ETI procedure could be performed in the dark under tactically safe conditions. In addition, to better ensure light discipline in the field of combat, we also researched the benefits, from a light discipline standpoint, of using the poncho liner (PL) and of taking advantage of the oropharyngeal region during ETIs performed by opening the laryngoscope blades directly in the mouth and using a cover. During the ETI procedures performed on the field, two experienced combatant staff simulated the enemy by determining whether the light from the two different types of laryngoscope could be seen at 100-m intervals up to 1,500 m. In all scenarios, performing observations with an NVG was more advantageous for the enemy than with the naked eye. The best measure that can be taken against this threat by the paramedic is to ensure tactical safety by having an ML and by opening the ML inside the mouth with the aid of a PL. The findings of the study are likely to shed light on the

  1. Dark Matters

    ScienceCinema

    Joseph Silk

    2016-07-12

    One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark.  Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious, but pervasive dark matter which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe.  I will describe the complex interplay between galaxy formation and dark matter detectability and review recent attempts to measure particle dark matter by direct and indirect means.

  2. Dark matter in a bouncing universe

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E.; Kang, Jin U; Li, Changhong E-mail: jin.u.kang2@gmail.com

    2014-11-01

    We investigate a new scenario of dark matter production in a bouncing universe, in which dark matter was produced completely out of equilibrium in the contracting as well as expanding phase. We explore possibilities of using dark matter as a probe of the bouncing universe, focusing on the relationship between a critical temperature of the bouncing universe and the present relic abundance of dark matter.

  3. An epidemiological study of the risk of cycling in the dark: the role of visual perception, conspicuity and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Twisk, D A M; Reurings, Martine

    2013-11-01

    To curtail the rising numbers of cyclists seriously injured in road crashes, more insights are needed into the factors that contribute to these crashes. For instance, darkness is known to be associated with higher injury rates, but little is known about the relative influence of factors such as poor conspicuity, impaired perception and alcohol use among cyclists. To examine these factors, the present study analyzed the epidemiological crash data for three meteorological light conditions: daylight, late evening darkness and early morning darkness; for two crash types: crashes with (M-crashes) and without motorized traffic (NM-crashes); and for different age groups. The relative injury rates (injury risk per distance travelled in darkness corrected for daylight injury risks for each age group) confirmed findings from earlier studies that cycling in late evening darkness is associated with higher injury rates than cycling in daylight conditions. This is the case for both crash types with only small differences between the age groups suggesting that poor conspicuity (M-crashes) and impaired perception (NM-crashes) may play a role. In comparison to late evening darkness, relative injury rates in early morning darkness are much higher. This is the case for both crash types with large differences among the age groups, suggesting that in addition to the absence of daylight also age related risk factors are at play. Support for this hypothesis was found from the analyses of hospital records, showing that the proportion of seriously injured cyclists who have been drinking is highest in early morning darkness and has strongly increased over the last decades. These insights provide input for the selection of countermeasures such as improved lighting (both street and bicycle lights) and interventions targeting alcohol use among cyclists. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dark Energy, Dark Matter and Science with Constellation-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardiff, Ann Hornschemeier

    2005-01-01

    Constellation-X, with more than 100 times the collecting area of any previous spectroscopic mission operating in the 0.25-40 keV bandpass, will enable highthroughput, high spectral resolution studies of sources ranging from the most luminous accreting supermassive black holes in the Universe to the disks around young stars where planets form. This talk will review the updated Constellation-X science case, released in booklet form during summer 2005. The science areas where Constellation-X will have major impact include the exploration of the space-time geometry of black holes spanning nine orders of magnitude in mass and the nature of the dark energy and dark matter which govern the expansion and ultimate fate of the Universe. Constellation-X will also explore processes referred to as "cosmic feedback" whereby mechanical energy, radiation, and chemical elements from star formation and black holes are returned to interstellar and intergalactic medium, profoundly affecting the development of structure in the Universe, and will also probe all the important life cycles of matter, from stellar and planetary birth to stellar death via supernova to stellar endpoints in the form of accreting binaries and supernova remnants. This talk will touch upon all these areas, with particular emphasis on Constellation-X's role in the study of Dark Energy.

  5. Dark Energy, Dark Matter and Science with Constellation-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardiff, Ann Hornschemeier

    2005-01-01

    Constellation-X, with more than 100 times the collecting area of any previous spectroscopic mission operating in the 0.25-40 keV bandpass, will enable highthroughput, high spectral resolution studies of sources ranging from the most luminous accreting supermassive black holes in the Universe to the disks around young stars where planets form. This talk will review the updated Constellation-X science case, released in booklet form during summer 2005. The science areas where Constellation-X will have major impact include the exploration of the space-time geometry of black holes spanning nine orders of magnitude in mass and the nature of the dark energy and dark matter which govern the expansion and ultimate fate of the Universe. Constellation-X will also explore processes referred to as "cosmic feedback" whereby mechanical energy, radiation, and chemical elements from star formation and black holes are returned to interstellar and intergalactic medium, profoundly affecting the development of structure in the Universe, and will also probe all the important life cycles of matter, from stellar and planetary birth to stellar death via supernova to stellar endpoints in the form of accreting binaries and supernova remnants. This talk will touch upon all these areas, with particular emphasis on Constellation-X's role in the study of Dark Energy.

  6. Review of dark photon searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denig, Achim

    2016-11-01

    Dark Photons are hypothetical extra-U(1) gauge bosons, which are motivated by a number of astrophysical anomalies as well as the presently seen deviation between the Standard Model prediction and the direct measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, (g - 2)μ. The Dark Photon does not serve as the Dark Matter particle itself, but acts as a messenger particle of a hypothetical Dark Sector with residual interaction to the Standard Model. We review recent Dark Photon searches, which were carried out in a global effort at various hadron and particle physics facilities. We also comment on the perspectives for future invisble searches, which directly probe the existence of Light Dark Matter particles.

  7. Enter the DarkSide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davini, Stefano

    2014-04-01

    A wide range of astrophysical measurements evidence that the stars and gas in all galaxies are immersed in a much larger cloud of non-luminous and non-baryonic dark matter. The nature of the dark matter is still totally unknown, and the resolution of the dark matter puzzle is of fundamental importance to cosmology, astrophysics, and elementary particle physics. One of the major lines of researches directing their efforts at detection of dark matter is direct searches of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) with detectors operated in deep underground laboratories. The new generation of direct searches of WIMPs promises to probe the most interesting region of parameters for the dark matter candidates. I will review and describe the DarkSide-50 underground Argon detector at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso.

  8. Dark adaptation in relation to choroidal thickness in healthy young subjects: a cross-sectional, observational study.

    PubMed

    Munch, Inger Christine; Altuntas, Cigdem; Li, Xiao Qiang; Jackson, Gregory R; Klefter, Oliver Niels; Larsen, Michael

    2016-07-11

    Dark adaptation is an energy-requiring process in the outer retina nourished by the profusely perfused choroid. We hypothesized that variations in choroidal thickness might affect the rate of dark adaptation. Cross-sectional, observational study of 42 healthy university students (mean age 25 ± 2.0 years, 29 % men) who were examined using an abbreviated automated dark adaptometry protocol with a 2° diameter stimulus centered 5° above the point of fixation. The early, linear part of the rod-mediated dark adaptation curve was analyzed to extract the time required to reach a sensitivity of 5.0 × 10(-3) cd/m2 (time to rod intercept) and the slope (rod adaptation rate). The choroid was imaged using enhanced-depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). The time to the rod intercept was 7.3 ± 0.94 (range 5.1 - 10.2) min. Choroidal thickness 2.5° above the fovea was 348 ± 104 (range 153-534) μm. There was no significant correlation between any of the two measures of rod-mediated dark adaptation and choroidal thickness (time to rod intercept versus choroidal thickness 0.072 (CI95 -0.23 to 0.38) min/100 μm, P = 0.64, adjusted for age and sex). There was no association between the time-to-rod-intercept or the dark adaptation rate and axial length, refraction, gender or age. Choroidal thickness, refraction and ocular axial length had no detectable effect on rod-mediated dark adaptation in healthy young subjects. Our results do not support that variations in dark adaptation can be attributed to variations in choroidal thickness.

  9. Scalar dark matter in the B−L model

    SciTech Connect

    Rodejohann, Werner; Yaguna, Carlos E.

    2015-12-15

    The U(1){sub B−L} extension of the Standard Model requires the existence of right-handed neutrinos and naturally realizes the seesaw mechanism of neutrino mass generation. We study the possibility of explaining the dark matter in this model with an additional scalar field, ϕ{sub DM}, that is a singlet of the Standard Model but charged under U(1){sub B−L}. An advantage of this scenario is that the stability of ϕ{sub DM} can be guaranteed by appropriately choosing its B−L charge, without the need of an extra ad hoc discrete symmetry. We investigate in detail the dark matter phenomenology of this model. We show that the observed dark matter density can be obtained via gauge or scalar interactions, and that semi-annihilations could play an important role in the latter case. The regions consistent with the dark matter density are determined in each instance and the prospects for detection in future experiments are analyzed. If dark matter annihilations are controlled by the B−L gauge interaction, the mass of the dark matter particle should lie below 5 TeV and its direct detection cross section can be easily probed by XENON1T; if instead they are controlled by scalar interactions, the dark matter mass can be much larger and the detection prospects are less certain. Finally, we show that this scenario can be readily extended to accommodate multiple dark matter particles.

  10. Scalar dark matter in the B−L model

    SciTech Connect

    Rodejohann, Werner; Yaguna, Carlos E. E-mail: carlos.yaguna@mpi-hd.mpg.de

    2015-12-01

    The U(1){sub B−L} extension of the Standard Model requires the existence of right-handed neutrinos and naturally realizes the seesaw mechanism of neutrino mass generation. We study the possibility of explaining the dark matter in this model with an additional scalar field, φ{sub DM}, that is a singlet of the Standard Model but charged under U(1){sub B−L}. An advantage of this scenario is that the stability of φ{sub DM} can be guaranteed by appropriately choosing its B−L charge, without the need of an extra ad hoc discrete symmetry. We investigate in detail the dark matter phenomenology of this model. We show that the observed dark matter density can be obtained via gauge or scalar interactions, and that semi-annihilations could play an important role in the latter case. The regions consistent with the dark matter density are determined in each instance and the prospects for detection in future experiments are analyzed. If dark matter annihilations are controlled by the B−L gauge interaction, the mass of the dark matter particle should lie below 5 TeV and its direct detection cross section can be easily probed by XENON1T; if instead they are controlled by scalar interactions, the dark matter mass can be much larger and the detection prospects are less certain. Finally, we show that this scenario can be readily extended to accommodate multiple dark matter particles.

  11. Diffusion studies on permeable nitroxyl spin probes through bilayer lipid membranes: A low frequency ESR study

    SciTech Connect

    Meenakumari, V.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin; Utsumi, Hideo; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Ken-ichi; Hyodo, Fuminori; Jawahar, A.

    2015-06-24

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies were carried out for permeable 2mM {sup 14}N-labeled deutrated 3 Methoxy carbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine-1-oxyl (MC-PROXYL) in pure water and 1mM, 2mM, 3mM, 4mM concentration of 14N-labeled deutrated MC-PROXYL in 400mM concentration of liposomal solution by using a 300 MHz ESR spectrometer. The ESR parameters such as linewidth, hyperfine coupling constant, g-factor, partition parameter and permeability were reported for these samples. The line broadening was observed for the nitroxyl spin probe in the liposomal solution. The line broadening indicates that the high viscous nature of the liposomal solution. The partition parameter and permeability values indicate the maximum diffusion of nitroxyl spin probes in the bilayer lipid membranes at 2 mM concentration of nitroxyl radical. This study illustrates that ESR can be used to differentiate between the intra and extra- membrane water by loading the liposome vesicles with a lipid-permeable nitroxyl spin probe. From the ESR results, the spin probe concentration was optimized as 2mM in liposomal solution for ESR phantom studies/imaging, invivo and invitro experiments.

  12. Diffusion studies on permeable nitroxyl spin probes through bilayer lipid membranes: A low frequency ESR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meenakumari, V.; Utsumi, Hideo; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Ken-ichi; Hyodo, Fuminori; Jawahar, A.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin

    2015-06-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies were carried out for permeable 2mM 14N-labeled deutrated 3 Methoxy carbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine-1-oxyl (MC-PROXYL) in pure water and 1mM, 2mM, 3mM, 4mM concentration of 14N-labeled deutrated MC-PROXYL in 400mM concentration of liposomal solution by using a 300 MHz ESR spectrometer. The ESR parameters such as linewidth, hyperfine coupling constant, g-factor, partition parameter and permeability were reported for these samples. The line broadening was observed for the nitroxyl spin probe in the liposomal solution. The line broadening indicates that the high viscous nature of the liposomal solution. The partition parameter and permeability values indicate the maximum diffusion of nitroxyl spin probes in the bilayer lipid membranes at 2 mM concentration of nitroxyl radical. This study illustrates that ESR can be used to differentiate between the intra and extra- membrane water by loading the liposome vesicles with a lipid-permeable nitroxyl spin probe. From the ESR results, the spin probe concentration was optimized as 2mM in liposomal solution for ESR phantom studies/imaging, invivo and invitro experiments.

  13. Nitric Oxide Measurement Study. Volume II. Probe Methods,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    reduction . Tuttle, et al., for example, report an anomaly observed by A. Nelson of Pratt and Whitney Aircraft . In this case, a span gas of 91 ppm NO in...Foley for data reduction and report preparation; and Messrs. P. N. Cheimets, M. E. Maziolek, W. T. Knose, and M. Cwikla for facilities support. G...111-2 a. The Bodenstein Reaction. ............. 111-4 2. NO . Reduction in Sampling Probe. ........... 111-8 3. Losses in Sampling Line

  14. Startle potentiation by threat of aversive stimuli and darkness in adolescents: a multi-site study.

    PubMed

    Grillon, C; Merikangas, K R; Dierker, L; Snidman, N; Arriaga, R I; Kagan, J; Donzella, B; Dikel, T; Nelson, C

    1999-04-01

    In recent years, the startle reflex has become an exciting new tool to investigate affective responses to aversive stimuli in humans. The popularity of this methodology is largely based on the substantial amount of animal research available on this topic. Several procedures have been developed to examine startle potentiation in humans, but most studies have been carried out in adults and may not be appropriate for children or adolescents. The present study is a multi-site project (Yale University, Harvard University, and the University of Minnesota) investigating two new procedures to examine the potentiation of startle in adolescents. The subjects were 50 male and female aged 13-17 years old. One procedure examined fear-potentiated startle to the threat of an unpleasant airblast directed to the larynx. The second examined the facilitation of startle in darkness. Potentiation was found using each procedure and the degree of potentiation was similar across laboratories. These results suggest that both the threat of an airblast and darkness can reliably be used to examine startle potentiation in young subjects.

  15. Free volume distribution of branched poly(methyl methacrylates): Conformational probes study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamalova, D. I.; Remizov, A. B.

    2016-12-01

    In this work we studied the free volume distribution of the branched poly (methylmethacrylates) by the method of conformational probes. The freezing temperatures of the conformational transitions of the probes introduced into branched polymers were determined by FTIR spectra. The influence of covalently connected fullerene C60 on the freezing temperatures of conformational transitions was shown.

  16. Clumpy cold dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph; Stebbins, Albert

    1993-01-01

    A study is conducted of cold dark matter (CDM) models in which clumpiness will inhere, using cosmic strings and textures suited to galaxy formation. CDM clumps of 10 million solar mass/cu pc density are generated at about z(eq) redshift, with a sizable fraction surviving. Observable implications encompass dark matter cores in globular clusters and in galactic nuclei. Results from terrestrial dark matter detection experiments may be affected by clumpiness in the Galactic halo.

  17. Clumpy cold dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph; Stebbins, Albert

    1993-01-01

    A study is conducted of cold dark matter (CDM) models in which clumpiness will inhere, using cosmic strings and textures suited to galaxy formation. CDM clumps of 10 million solar mass/cu pc density are generated at about z(eq) redshift, with a sizable fraction surviving. Observable implications encompass dark matter cores in globular clusters and in galactic nuclei. Results from terrestrial dark matter detection experiments may be affected by clumpiness in the Galactic halo.

  18. THE DETECTION OF ULTRA-FAINT LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS DWARF GALAXIES IN THE VIRGO CLUSTER: A PROBE OF DARK MATTER AND BARYONIC PHYSICS

    SciTech Connect

    Giallongo, E.; Menci, N.; Grazian, A.; Fassbender, R.; Fontana, A.; Paris, D.; Pentericci, L.

    2015-11-01

    We have discovered 11 ultra-faint (r ≲ 22.1) low surface brightness (LSB, central surface brightness 23 ≲ μ{sub r} ≲ 26) dwarf galaxy candidates in one deep Virgo field of just 576 arcmin{sup 2} obtained by the Large Binocular Camera at the Large Binocular Telescope. Their association with the Virgo cluster is supported by their distinct position in the central surface brightness—total magnitude plane with respect to the background galaxies of similar total magnitude. They have typical absolute magnitudes and scale sizes, if at the distance of Virgo, in the range −13 ≲ M{sub r} ≲ −9 and 250 ≲ r{sub s} ≲ 850 pc, respectively. Their colors are consistent with a gradually declining star formation history with a specific star formation rate of the order of 10{sup −11} yr{sup −1}, i.e., 10 times lower than that of main sequence star-forming galaxies. They are older than the cluster formation age and appear to be regular in morphology. They represent the faintest extremes of the population of low luminosity LSB dwarfs that has recently been detected in wider surveys of the Virgo cluster. Thanks to the depth of our observations, we are able to extend the Virgo luminosity function down to M{sub r} ∼ −9.3 (corresponding to total masses M ∼ 10{sup 7} M{sub ⊙}), finding an average faint-end slope α ≃ −1.4. This relatively steep slope puts interesting constraints on the nature of the dark matter and, in particular, on warm dark matter (WDM) often invoked to solve the overprediction of the dwarf number density by the standard cold dark matter scenario. We derive a lower limit on the WDM particle mass >1.5 keV.

  19. A comprehensive study of low-energy response for xenon-based dark matter experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Mei, D.-M.

    2017-05-01

    We report a comprehensive study of the energy response to low-energy recoils in dual-phase xenon-based dark matter experiments. A recombination model is developed to explain the recombination probability as a function of recoil energy at zero field and non-zero field. The role of e-ion recombination is discussed for both parent recombination and volume recombination. We find that the volume recombination under a non-zero field is constrained by a plasma effect, which is caused by a high density of charge carriers along the ionization track forming a plasma-like cloud of charge that shields the interior from the influence of the external electric field. Subsequently, the plasma time that determines the volume recombination probability at non-zero field is demonstrated to be different between electronic recoils (ERs) and nuclear recoils (NRs) due to the difference of ionization density between two processes. We show a weak field dependence of the plasma time for NRs and a stronger field dependence of the plasma time for ERs. As a result, the time-dependent recombination is implemented in the determination of charge and light yield with a generic model. Our model agrees well with the available experimental data from xenon-based dark matter experiments.

  20. A new parameter space study of the fermionic cold dark matter model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagherian, Z.; Ettefaghi, M. M.; Haghgouyan, Z.; Moazzemi, R.

    2014-10-01

    We consider the standard model (SM) extended by a gauge singlet fermion as cold dark matter (SFCDM) and a gauge singlet scalar (singlet Higgs) as a mediator. The parameter space of the SM is enlarged by seven new ones. We obtain the total annihilation cross section of singlet fermions to the SM particles and singlet Higgs at tree level. Regarding the relic abundance constraint obtained by WMAP observations, we study the dependency on each parameter separately, for dark matter masses up to 1 TeV. In particular, the coupling of SFCDM to singlet Higgs gs, the SFCDM mass mψ, the second Higgs mass mh2, and the Higgs bosons mixing angel θ are investigated accurately. Three other parameters play no significant role. For a maximal mixing of Higgs bosons or at resonances, gs is applicable for the perturbation theory at tree level. We also obtain the scattering cross section of SFCDM off nucleons and compare our results with experiments which have already reported data in this mass range; XENON100, LUX, COUPP and PICASSO collaborations. Our results show that the SFCDM is excluded by these experiments for choosing parameters which are consistent with perturbation theory and relic abundance constraints.

  1. A new parameter space study of the fermionic cold dark matter model

    SciTech Connect

    Bagherian, Z.; Ettefaghi, M.M.; Haghgouyan, Z.; Moazzemi, R. E-mail: mettefaghi@qom.ac.ir E-mail: r.moazzemi@qom.ac.ir

    2014-10-01

    We consider the standard model (SM) extended by a gauge singlet fermion as cold dark matter (SFCDM) and a gauge singlet scalar (singlet Higgs) as a mediator. The parameter space of the SM is enlarged by seven new ones. We obtain the total annihilation cross section of singlet fermions to the SM particles and singlet Higgs at tree level. Regarding the relic abundance constraint obtained by WMAP observations, we study the dependency on each parameter separately, for dark matter masses up to 1 TeV. In particular, the coupling of SFCDM to singlet Higgs g{sub s}, the SFCDM mass m{sub ψ}, the second Higgs mass m{sub h{sub 2}}, and the Higgs bosons mixing angel θ are investigated accurately. Three other parameters play no significant role. For a maximal mixing of Higgs bosons or at resonances, g{sub s} is applicable for the perturbation theory at tree level. We also obtain the scattering cross section of SFCDM off nucleons and compare our results with experiments which have already reported data in this mass range; XENON100, LUX, COUPP and PICASSO collaborations. Our results show that the SFCDM is excluded by these experiments for choosing parameters which are consistent with perturbation theory and relic abundance constraints.

  2. Linkages between coastal runoff and the Florida Keys ecosystem: A study of a dark plume event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chuanmin; Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Vargo, Gabriel A.; Neely, Merrie Beth; Johns, Elizabeth

    2004-08-01

    Using data collected by satellite sensors, rain and river gauges, and ship surveys, we studied the development and wind-driven transport of a dark water plume from near Charlotte Harbor, Florida, to the Dry Tortugas in the Florida Keys in mid-October 2003. MODIS and SeaWiFS imagery showed that the patch contained an extensive (~5,500 km2) phytoplankton bloom that formed originally near the central coast of Florida. The data linked the bloom to high nutrient coastal runoff caused by heavy rainfall in June and August. Total N and P required for the bloom, which may contain some Karenia brevis cells, was estimated to be 2.3 × 107 and 1.5 × 106 moles, respectively. The dark color became increasingly dominated by colored dissolved organic matter, toward the Dry Tortugas, where CDOM absorption coefficients (0.08-0.12 m-1 at 400 nm) were 2-3 times higher than the surrounding shelf waters, while chlorophyll and inorganic nutrients decreased to negligible levels.

  3. Charge-carrier relaxation in disordered organic semiconductors studied by dark injection: Experiment and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesta, M.; Schaefer, C.; de Groot, J.; Cottaar, J.; Coehoorn, R.; Bobbert, P. A.

    2013-11-01

    Understanding of stationary charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors has matured during recent years. However, charge-carrier relaxation in nonstationary situations is still poorly understood. Such relaxation can be studied in dark injection experiments, in which the bias applied over an unilluminated organic semiconductor device is abruptly increased. The resulting transient current reveals both charge-carrier transport and relaxation characteristics. We performed such experiments on hole-only devices of a polyfluorene-based organic semiconductor. Modeling the dark injection by solving a one-dimensional master equation using the equilibrium carrier mobility leads to a too-slow current transient, since this approach does not account for carrier relaxation. Modeling by solving a three-dimensional time-dependent master equation does take into account all carrier transport and relaxation effects. With this modeling, the time scale of the current transient is found to be in agreement with experiment. With a disorder strength somewhat smaller than extracted from the temperature-dependent stationary current-voltage characteristics, also the shape of the experimental transients is well described.

  4. European species of Clavaria (Agaricales, Agaricomycetes) with dark basidiomata - a morphological and molecular study.

    PubMed

    Kautmanová, I; Tomšovský, M; Dueñas, M; Martín, M P

    2012-12-01

    Clavaria species with dark basidiomata occurring in Europe were analysed using morphological and molecular methods. Morphological analyses revealed four groups containing seven Clavaria species with dark basidiomata. Phylogenetic analysis of the LSU nrDNA region confirmed the separate positions of all seven Clavaria species within the genus. All sequences were grouped in four well-supported clades, mostly corresponding to defined morphological species. The results of the molecular study are inconsistent with the infrageneric classification of Clavaria based on the presence or absence of clamps on the bases of basidia and two widely accepted subgenera. Clavaria and Holocoryne appear to be polyphyletic. A new approach in species delimitation is presented: 1) C. asperulispora and C. atrofusca are two distinct species recognized by the shape of their spores, and the name C. neo-nigrita is a possible synonym of C. asperulispora; 2) species with clustered fragile basidiomata, C. fumosa and Clavaria cf. fuscoferruginea, which are almost identical in shape and size of spores differing only in the darker basidiomata of the latter, are phylogenetically unrelated; 3) Clavaria atrobadia is a dubious species, the name being most likely a synonym of C. fuscoferruginea; 4) two species with close morphological and phylogenetic affinity, C. atroumbrina and C. pullei, are distinguished based on the more oblong and narrower spores of the former. Comparison of European and North American material suggests the transatlantic nature of the distribution of C. asperulispora, C. atroumbrina and C. fumosa.

  5. The Dark Energy Survey: More than dark energy - An overview

    DOE PAGES

    Abbott, T.

    2016-03-21

    This overview article describes the legacy prospect and discovery potential of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) beyond cosmological studies, illustrating it with examples from the DES early data. DES is using a wide-field camera (DECam) on the 4m Blanco Telescope in Chile to image 5000 sq deg of the sky in five filters (grizY). By its completion the survey is expected to have generated a catalogue of 300 million galaxies with photometric redshifts and 100 million stars. In addition, a time-domain survey search over 27 sq deg is expected to yield a sample of thousands of Type Ia supernovae andmore » other transients. The main goals of DES are to characterise dark energy and dark matter, and to test alternative models of gravity; these goals will be pursued by studying large scale structure, cluster counts, weak gravitational lensing and Type Ia supernovae. However, DES also provides a rich data set which allows us to study many other aspects of astrophysics. In this paper we focus on additional science with DES, emphasizing areas where the survey makes a difference with respect to other current surveys. The paper illustrates, using early data (from `Science Verification', and from the first, second and third seasons of observations), what DES can tell us about the solar system, the Milky Way, galaxy evolution, quasars, and other topics. In addition, we show that if the cosmological model is assumed to be Lambda+ Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) then important astrophysics can be deduced from the primary DES probes. Lastly, highlights from DES early data include the discovery of 34 Trans Neptunian Objects, 17 dwarf satellites of the Milky Way, one published z > 6 quasar (and more confirmed) and two published superluminous supernovae (and more confirmed).« less

  6. The Dark Energy Survey: more than dark energy - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Vikram, Vinu; Abbott, T; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Aleksic, J.; Amara, A.; Bacon, D.; Balbinot, E.; Banerji, M.; Bechtol, K.; Benoit-Levy, A.

    2016-08-01

    This overview paper describes the legacy prospect and discovery potential of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) beyond cosmological studies, illustrating it with examples from the DES early data. DES is using a wide-field camera (DECam) on the 4 m Blanco Telescope in Chile to image 5000 sq deg of the sky in five filters (grizY). By its completion, the survey is expected to have generated a catalogue of 300 million galaxies with photometric redshifts and 100 million stars. In addition, a time-domain survey search over 27 sq deg is expected to yield a sample of thousands of Type Ia supernovae and other transients. The main goals of DES are to characterize dark energy and dark matter, and to test alternative models of gravity; these goals will be pursued by studying large-scale structure, cluster counts, weak gravitational lensing and Type Ia supernovae. However, DES also provides a rich data set which allows us to study many other aspects of astrophysics. In this paper, we focus on additional science with DES, emphasizing areas where the survey makes a difference with respect to other current surveys. The paper illustrates, using early data (from ‘Science Verification’, and from the first, second and third seasons of observations), what DES can tell us about the Solar system, the Milky Way, galaxy evolution, quasars and other topics. In addition, we show that if the cosmological model is assumed to be Λ+cold dark matter, then important astrophysics can be deduced from the primary DES probes. Highlights from DES early data include the discovery of 34 trans-Neptunian objects, 17 dwarf satellites of the Milky Way, one published z > 6 quasar (and more confirmed) and two published superluminous supernovae (and more confirmed).

  7. The Dark Energy Survey: more than dark energy - an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dark Energy Survey Collaboration; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Aleksić, J.; Allam, S.; Amara, A.; Bacon, D.; Balbinot, E.; Banerji, M.; Bechtol, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Blazek, J.; Bonnett, C.; Bridle, S.; Brooks, D.; Brunner, R. J.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Caminha, G. B.; Capozzi, D.; Carlsen, J.; Carnero-Rosell, A.; Carollo, M.; Carrasco-Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Clerkin, L.; Collett, T.; Conselice, C.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Davis, T. M.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Dodelson, S.; Doel, P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Estrada, J.; Etherington, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fabbri, J.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Foley, R. J.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Giannantonio, T.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Guarnieri, P.; Gutierrez, G.; Hartley, W.; Honscheid, K.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Jeltema, T.; Jouvel, S.; Kessler, R.; King, A.; Kirk, D.; Kron, R.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Lin, H.; Maia, M. A. G.; Makler, M.; Manera, M.; Maraston, C.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; McMahon, R. G.; Melchior, P.; Merson, A.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Morice-Atkinson, X.; Naidoo, K.; Neilsen, E.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Ostrovski, F.; Palmese, A.; Papadopoulos, A.; Peiris, H. V.; Peoples, J.; Percival, W. J.; Plazas, A. A.; Reed, S. L.; Refregier, A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Ross, A.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sadeh, I.; Sako, M.; Sánchez, C.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Soumagnac, M.; Suchyta, E.; Sullivan, M.; Swanson, M.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, R. C.; Tucker, D.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.; Weller, J.; Wester, W.; Whiteway, L.; Wilcox, H.; Yanny, B.; Zhang, Y.; Zuntz, J.

    2016-08-01

    This overview paper describes the legacy prospect and discovery potential of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) beyond cosmological studies, illustrating it with examples from the DES early data. DES is using a wide-field camera (DECam) on the 4 m Blanco Telescope in Chile to image 5000 sq deg of the sky in five filters (grizY). By its completion, the survey is expected to have generated a catalogue of 300 million galaxies with photometric redshifts and 100 million stars. In addition, a time-domain survey search over 27 sq deg is expected to yield a sample of thousands of Type Ia supernovae and other transients. The main goals of DES are to characterize dark energy and dark matter, and to test alternative models of gravity; these goals will be pursued by studying large-scale structure, cluster counts, weak gravitational lensing and Type Ia supernovae. However, DES also provides a rich data set which allows us to study many other aspects of astrophysics. In this paper, we focus on additional science with DES, emphasizing areas where the survey makes a difference with respect to other current surveys. The paper illustrates, using early data (from `Science Verification', and from the first, second and third seasons of observations), what DES can tell us about the Solar system, the Milky Way, galaxy evolution, quasars and other topics. In addition, we show that if the cosmological model is assumed to be Λ+cold dark matter, then important astrophysics can be deduced from the primary DES probes. Highlights from DES early data include the discovery of 34 trans-Neptunian objects, 17 dwarf satellites of the Milky Way, one published z > 6 quasar (and more confirmed) and two published superluminous supernovae (and more confirmed).

  8. The Dark Energy Survey: More than dark energy - An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, T.

    2016-03-21

    This overview article describes the legacy prospect and discovery potential of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) beyond cosmological studies, illustrating it with examples from the DES early data. DES is using a wide-field camera (DECam) on the 4m Blanco Telescope in Chile to image 5000 sq deg of the sky in five filters (grizY). By its completion the survey is expected to have generated a catalogue of 300 million galaxies with photometric redshifts and 100 million stars. In addition, a time-domain survey search over 27 sq deg is expected to yield a sample of thousands of Type Ia supernovae and other transients. The main goals of DES are to characterise dark energy and dark matter, and to test alternative models of gravity; these goals will be pursued by studying large scale structure, cluster counts, weak gravitational lensing and Type Ia supernovae. However, DES also provides a rich data set which allows us to study many other aspects of astrophysics. In this paper we focus on additional science with DES, emphasizing areas where the survey makes a difference with respect to other current surveys. The paper illustrates, using early data (from `Science Verification', and from the first, second and third seasons of observations), what DES can tell us about the solar system, the Milky Way, galaxy evolution, quasars, and other topics. In addition, we show that if the cosmological model is assumed to be Lambda+ Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) then important astrophysics can be deduced from the primary DES probes. Lastly, highlights from DES early data include the discovery of 34 Trans Neptunian Objects, 17 dwarf satellites of the Milky Way, one published z > 6 quasar (and more confirmed) and two published superluminous supernovae (and more confirmed).

  9. Probing exchange kinetics and atomic resolution dynamics in high-molecular-weight complexes using dark-state exchange saturation transfer NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fawzi, Nicolas L; Ying, Jinfa; Torchia, Dennis A; Clore, G Marius

    2012-07-19

    We present the protocol for the measurement and analysis of dark-state exchange saturation transfer (DEST), a novel solution NMR method for characterizing, at atomic resolution, the interaction between an NMR-'visible' free species and an NMR-'invisible' species transiently bound to a very high-molecular-weight (>1 MDa) macromolecular entity. The reduced rate of reorientational motion in the bound state that precludes characterization by traditional NMR methods permits the observation of DEST. (15)N-DEST profiles are measured on a sample comprising the dark state in exchange with an NMR-visible species; in addition, the difference (ΔR(2)) in (15)N transverse relaxation rates between this sample and a control sample comprising only the NMR-visible species is also obtained. The (15)N-DEST and ΔR(2) data for all residues are then fitted simultaneously to the McConnell equations for various exchange models describing the residue-specific dynamics in the bound state(s) and the interconversion rate constants. Although the length of the experiments depends strongly on sample conditions, approximately 1 week of NMR spectrometer time was sufficient for full characterization of samples of amyloid-β (Aβ) at concentrations of ~100 μM.

  10. DARK ADAPTATION IN DINEUTES

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Leonard B.

    1938-01-01

    The level of dark adaptation of the whirligig beetle can be measured in terms of the threshold intensity calling forth a response. The course of dark adaptation was determined at levels of light adaptation of 6.5, 91.6, and 6100 foot-candles. All data can be fitted by the same curve. This indicates that dark adaptation follows parts of the same course irrespective of the level of light adaptation. The intensity of the adapting light determines the level at which dark adaptation will begin. The relation between log aI0 (instantaneous threshold) and log of adapting light intensity is linear over the range studied. PMID:19873056

  11. Cosmological evolution with interaction between dark energy and dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotin, Yuri L.; Kostenko, Alexander; Lemets, Oleg A.; Yerokhin, Danylo A.

    2015-12-01

    In this review we consider in detail different theoretical topics associated with interaction in the dark sector. We study linear and nonlinear interactions which depend on the dark matter and dark energy densities. We consider a number of different models (including the holographic dark energy and dark energy in a fractal universe), with interacting dark energy and dark matter, have done a thorough analysis of these models. The main task of this review was not only to give an idea about the modern set of different models of dark energy, but to show how much can be diverse dynamics of the universe in these models. We find that the dynamics of a universe that contains interaction in the dark sector can differ significantly from the Standard Cosmological Model.

  12. Multiscatter stellar capture of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramante, Joseph; Delgado, Antonio; Martin, Adam

    2017-09-01

    Dark matter may be discovered through its capture in stars and subsequent annihilation. It is usually assumed that dark matter is captured after a single scattering event in the star; however this assumption breaks down for heavy dark matter, which requires multiple collisions with the star to lose enough kinetic energy to become captured. We analytically compute how multiple scatters alter the capture rate of dark matter and identify the parameter space where the effect is largest. Using these results, we then show how multiscatter capture of dark matter on compact stars can be used to probe heavy mX≫TeV dark matter with remarkably small dark matter-nucleon scattering cross sections. As one example, it is demonstrated how measuring the temperature of old neutron stars in the Milky Way's center provides sensitivity to high mass dark matter with dark matter-nucleon scattering cross sections smaller than the xenon direct detection neutrino floor.

  13. Study of a high-resolution PET system using a Silicon detector probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzeziński, K.; Oliver, J. F.; Gillam, J.; Rafecas, M.

    2014-10-01

    A high-resolution silicon detector probe, in coincidence with a conventional PET scanner, is expected to provide images of higher quality than those achievable using the scanner alone. Spatial resolution should improve due to the finer pixelization of the probe detector, while increased sensitivity in the probe vicinity is expected to decrease noise. A PET-probe prototype is being developed utilizing this principle. The system includes a probe consisting of ten layers of silicon detectors, each a 80 × 52 array of 1 × 1 × 1 mm3 pixels, to be operated in coincidence with a modern clinical PET scanner. Detailed simulation studies of this system have been performed to assess the effect of the additional probe information on the quality of the reconstructed images. A grid of point sources was simulated to study the contribution of the probe to the system resolution at different locations over the field of view (FOV). A resolution phantom was used to demonstrate the effect on image resolution for two probe positions. A homogeneous source distribution with hot and cold regions was used to demonstrate that the localized improvement in resolution does not come at the expense of the overall quality of the image. Since the improvement is constrained to an area close to the probe, breast imaging is proposed as a potential application for the novel geometry. In this sense, a simplified breast phantom, adjacent to heart and torso compartments, was simulated and the effect of the probe on lesion detectability, through measurements of the local contrast recovery coefficient-to-noise ratio (CNR), was observed. The list-mode ML-EM algorithm was used for image reconstruction in all cases. As expected, the point spread function of the PET-probe system was found to be non-isotropic and vary with position, offering improvement in specific regions. Increase in resolution, of factors of up to 2, was observed in the region close to the probe. Images of the resolution phantom showed

  14. Analytical studies on holographic superconductor in the probe limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yan; Liu, Guohua

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the holographic superconductor model constructed in the (2+1)-dimensional AdS soliton background in the probe limit. With analytical methods, we obtain the formula of critical phase transition points with respect to the scalar mass. We also generalize this formula to higher-dimensional space-time. We mention that these formulas are precise compared to numerical results. In addition, we find a correspondence between the value of the charged scalar field at the tip and the scalar operator at infinity around the phase transition points.

  15. Study of proper conditions for quantitative atom-probe analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolander, Ulf; Andrén, Hans-Olof

    1994-03-01

    Atom-probe microanalysis is a truly quantitative method only if certain requirements are fulfilled. Field evaporation must only happen when the detector system is active; ions must travel from specimen to detector without being obstructed; and ions must be detected with the same probability regardless of mass and energy. Designs and methods to achieve these requirements are presented in the paper, such as a controlled high-voltage pulser, a detector with good and variable multi-hit resolution, ion optical alignment procedures, and a method to statistically correct for pile-up in the detector.

  16. Interacting warm dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, Norman; Palma, Guillermo; Zambrano, David; Avelino, Arturo E-mail: guillermo.palma@usach.cl E-mail: avelino@fisica.ugto.mx

    2013-05-01

    We explore a cosmological model composed by a dark matter fluid interacting with a dark energy fluid. The interaction term has the non-linear λρ{sub m}{sup α}ρ{sub e}{sup β} form, where ρ{sub m} and ρ{sub e} are the energy densities of the dark matter and dark energy, respectively. The parameters α and β are in principle not constrained to take any particular values, and were estimated from observations. We perform an analytical study of the evolution equations, finding the fixed points and their stability properties in order to characterize suitable physical regions in the phase space of the dark matter and dark energy densities. The constants (λ,α,β) as well as w{sub m} and w{sub e} of the EoS of dark matter and dark energy respectively, were estimated using the cosmological observations of the type Ia supernovae and the Hubble expansion rate H(z) data sets. We find that the best estimated values for the free parameters of the model correspond to a warm dark matter interacting with a phantom dark energy component, with a well goodness-of-fit to data. However, using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) we find that this model is overcame by a warm dark matter – phantom dark energy model without interaction, as well as by the ΛCDM model. We find also a large dispersion on the best estimated values of the (λ,α,β) parameters, so even if we are not able to set strong constraints on their values, given the goodness-of-fit to data of the model, we find that a large variety of theirs values are well compatible with the observational data used.

  17. Study on the SPR responses of various DNA probe concentrations by parallel scan spectral SPR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Suihua; Liu, Le; Lu, Weiping; Zhang, Yaou; He, Yonghong; Guo, Jihua

    2008-12-01

    SPR sensors have become a high sensitive and label free method for characterizing and quantifying chemical and biochemical interactions. However, the relations between the SPR refractive index response and the property (such as concentrations) of biochemical probes are still lacking. In this paper, an experimental study on the SPR responses of varies concentrations of Legionella pneumophila mip DNA probes is presented. We developed a novel two-dimensional SPR sensing technique-parallel scan spectral SPR imaging-to detect an array of mip gene probes. This technique offers quantitative refractive index information with a high sensing throughput. By detecting mip DNA probes with different concentrations, we obtained the relations between the SPR refractive index response and the concentrations of mip DNA probes. These results are valuable for design and developing SPR based mip gene biochips.

  18. Overlay metrology for dark hard mask process: simulation and experiment study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jangho; Chalykh, Roman; Kang, Hyunjae; Kim, SeongSue; Lee, SukJoo; Cho, Han-Ku

    2007-03-01

    Simulation and experimental study results are reported to solve align/overlay problem in dark hard mask process in lithography. For simulation part, an in-house simulator, which is based on rigorous coupled wave analysis and Fourier optics method of high NA imaging, is used. According to the simulation and experiment study, image quality of alignment and overlay marks can be optimized by choosing hard mask and sub-film thickness carefully for a given process condition. In addition, it is important to keep the specification of film thickness uniformity within a certain limit. Simulation results are confirmed by experiment using the state of art memory process in Samsung semiconductor R&D facility.

  19. The Experimental Probe of Inflationary Cosmology: A Mission Concept Study for NASA's Einstein Inflation Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    When we began our study we sought to answer five fundamental implementation questions: 1) can foregrounds be measured and subtracted to a sufficiently low level?; 2) can systematic errors be controlled?; 3) can we develop optics with sufficiently large throughput, low polarization, and frequency coverage from 30 to 300 GHz?; 4) is there a technical path to realizing the sensitivity and systematic error requirements?; and 5) what are the specific mission architecture parameters, including cost? Detailed answers to these questions are contained in this report.

  20. The Experimental Probe of Inflationary Cosmology: A Mission Concept Study for NASA's Einstein Inflation Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    When we began our study we sought to answer five fundamental implementation questions: 1) can foregrounds be measured and subtracted to a sufficiently low level?; 2) can systematic errors be controlled?; 3) can we develop optics with sufficiently large throughput, low polarization, and frequency coverage from 30 to 300 GHz?; 4) is there a technical path to realizing the sensitivity and systematic error requirements?; and 5) what are the specific mission architecture parameters, including cost? Detailed answers to these questions are contained in this report.

  1. Isotopic probes for chamber-based microphysics studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, E. J.; Möhler, O.; Ebert, V.; Morong, C. P.

    2008-12-01

    Measurements of the isotopic composition of water vapor are an underutilized potential probe of processes of ice crystal nucleation and growth and cirrus cloud evolution. We discuss a new laser- based absorption spectroscopy instrument for measurement of gas-phase water isotopologues (H2O, HDO, and H218O) currently under construction for use at the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber in Karlsruhe, Germany, the largest such facility in the world and the only one suitable for isotopic measurements. We discuss proposed chamber experiments and show how isotopic measurements can help discriminate between many current hypotheses proposed to explain observed high supersaturation in cold cirrus, which include inactivation of aerosols by glassification, growth inhibition due to aerosol coating with organic material, ice in cubic rather than hexagonal phase, unexpectedly low temperature-dependent mass accommodation coefficients, and NAT deposition on ice. Chamber experiments offer several advantages over field sampling in the atmosphere from aircraft. First, the limitations of natural isotopic ratios (1:10000 for HDO:H2O) are not a constraint in controlled chamber experiments, because chamber water can be doped to reduce the difference between concentrations of common and rare isotopologues and allow increased measurement sensitivity. Second, different water sources can be isotopically labeled, allowing explicit measurement of fluxes. The combination allows the use of isotopic probes in novel ways for understanding microphysics in cold cirrus.

  2. DNA binding studies of a solvatochromic fluorescence probe 3-methoxybenzanthrone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xin; Liu, Wan-Hui; Jin, Wei-Jun; Shen, Guo-Li; Yu, Ru-Qin

    1999-11-01

    A fluorescence probe of 3-methoxybenzanthrone (MBA) exhibits significant solvatochromic characteristics correlated with the polarity of solvents. The interaction of the solvatochromic fluorescence probe with calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) has been investigated. In the presence of ct-DNA the fluorescence of MBA is strongly quenched with a blue-shift of emission peak and a hypochromism in absorption spectra. The absorption spectra, fluorescence quenching and fluorescence polarization experiments show that the MBA molecule as an intercalator is inserted into the base-stacking domain of the ct-DNA double helix, and the interaction of the nucleobases with the MBA molecule causes quenching of fluorescence and hypochromism in the absorption spectra. The intrinsic binding constant and the binding site number were determined to be 1.70×10 5 mol l -1 in base pairs and six, respectively. The I0/ I versus [ct-DNA] plot shows linear relationship in the range covering 4.3×10 -7-1.02×10 -4 mol l -1 in base pairs which can be used for ct-DNA determination. The limit of detection was found to be 4.3×10 -7 mol l -1 in base pairs (0.5 μg ml -1).

  3. Slowing Down Downhill Folding: A Three-Probe Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Seung Joong; Matsumura, Yoshitaka; Dumont, Charles; Kihara, Hiroshi; Gruebele, Martin

    2009-09-11

    The mutant Tyr{sup 22}Trp/Glu{sup 33}Tyr/Gly{sup 46}Ala/Gly{sup 48}Ala of {lambda} repressor fragment {lambda}6-85 was previously assigned as an incipient downhill folder. We slow down its folding in a cryogenic water-ethylene-glycol solvent (-18 to -28 C). The refolding kinetics are probed by small-angle x-ray scattering, circular dichroism, and fluorescence to measure the radius of gyration, the average secondary structure content, and the native packing around the single tryptophan residue. The main resolved kinetic phase of the mutant is probe independent and faster than the main phase observed for the pseudo-wild-type. Excess helical structure formed early on by the mutant may reduce the formation of turns and prevent the formation of compact misfolded states, speeding up the overall folding process. Extrapolation of our main cryogenic folding phase and previous T-jump measurements to 37 C yields nearly the same refolding rate as extrapolated by Oas and co-workers from NMR line-shape data. Taken together, all the data consistently indicate a folding speed limit of {approx}4.5 {micro}s for this fast folder.

  4. Mines, prospects, mining claims, and sample localities of the Dark Canyon Instant Study Area and vicinity, San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, Thomas D.

    1981-01-01

    In conjunction with studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a mineral survey in 1979 of known mines, prospect workings, and mineralized zones in the Dark Canyon Instant Study Area, San Juan County, Utah.  This map is a supplement to the Mineral Resources of the Dark Canyon Instant Study Area (Weitz and Light, 1981)., and depicts the locations of mines, prospects, mining claims and sample localities for the area examined by the U.S. Bureau of Mines.

  5. Probing the light Higgs pole resonance annihilation of dark matter in the light of XENON100 and CDMS-II observations

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, Utpal; Ghosh, Dilip Kumar; Das, Debottam; Maity, Manas

    2010-10-01

    We consider the prospect of lightest neutralino ({chi}-tilde{sub 1}{sup 0}) as a dark matter candidate in light of recent interesting observations from the XENON100 and CDMS-II experiments in minimal supergravity framework with large tan{beta} and nonvanishing A{sub 0}. Within the WMAP satisfied zone, there is a large direct detection reach of lighter {chi}-tilde{sub 1}{sup 0} in the lighter Higgs boson mediated resonance annihilation domain of the above scenario. It is seen that the heavier Higgs boson plays a dominating role in the {chi}-tilde{sub 1}{sup 0}-p cross section in the associated zone of parameter space in spite of having a larger mass. Possible LHC signatures are discussed.

  6. A verification protocol for the probe sequences of Affymetrix genome arrays reveals high probe accuracy for studies in mouse, human and rat

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, Rudi; Terpstra, Peter; Hardonk, Menno; Bystrykh, Leonid V; de Haan, Gerald; Breitling, Rainer; Nap, Jan-Peter; Jansen, Ritsert C

    2007-01-01

    Background The Affymetrix GeneChip technology uses multiple probes per gene to measure its expression level. Individual probe signals can vary widely, which hampers proper interpretation. This variation can be caused by probes that do not properly match their target gene or that match multiple genes. To determine the accuracy of Affymetrix arrays, we developed an extensive verification protocol, for mouse arrays incorporating the NCBI RefSeq, NCBI UniGene Unique, NIA Mouse Gene Index, and UCSC mouse genome databases. Results Applying this protocol to Affymetrix Mouse Genome arrays (the earlier U74Av2 and the newer 430 2.0 array), the number of sequence-verified probes with perfect matches was no less than 85% and 95%, respectively; and for 74% and 85% of the probe sets all probes were sequence verified. The latter percentages increased to 80% and 94% after discarding one or two unverifiable probes per probe set, and even further to 84% and 97% when, in addition, allowing for one or two mismatches between probe and target gene. Similar results were obtained for other mouse arrays, as well as for human and rat arrays. Based on these data, refined chip definition files for all arrays are provided online. Researchers can choose the version appropriate for their study to (re)analyze expression data. Conclusion The accuracy of Affymetrix probe sequences is higher than previously reported, particularly on newer arrays. Yet, refined probe set definitions have clear effects on the detection of differentially expressed genes. We demonstrate that the interpretation of the results of Affymetrix arrays is improved when the new chip definition files are used. PMID:17448222

  7. Controlled Attenuation Parameter (CAP) with the XL Probe of the Fibroscan(®): A Comparative Study with the M Probe and Liver Biopsy.

    PubMed

    de Lédinghen, Victor; Hiriart, Jean-Baptiste; Vergniol, Julien; Merrouche, Wassil; Bedossa, Pierre; Paradis, Valérie

    2017-06-02

    Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) is a new method for the diagnosis of steatosis. Until now, CAP was available only with the M probe of the Fibroscan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of CAP with the XL probe versus CAP with the M probe, using liver biopsy (LB) as gold standard. A total of 236 patients with chronic liver disease undergoing LB had CAP measurement with M and XL probes the same day. All LB were analyzed independently by two experienced pathologists. Median CAP was 240.5 and 239.5 dB/m with the M and XL probes, respectively. For the detection of steatosis grade with the M and XL probes, AUROCs were 0.82/0.83 for S ≥ 1, 0.89/0.88 for S ≥ 2, and 0.92/0.93 for S3, respectively. Cutoffs were (M and XL probes) 246/242 for S ≥ 1, 269/267 for S ≥ 2, and 285/286 dB/m for S3, respectively. The factor significantly associated with CAP with the M and XL probes was steatosis grade. In multivariate analysis, a low CAP value with XL probe was negatively associated with waist circumference, triglycerides, albumin, and the alcohol consumption, and positively with alkaline phosphatases. In multivariate analysis, a high CAP value with the XL probe was positively associated with waist circumference and triglycerides. CAP with the XL probe is a new tool for the diagnosis of steatosis. This parameter could be useful for the diagnosis and the follow-up of obese patients.

  8. Dark strings

    SciTech Connect

    Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2009-09-15

    Recent astrophysical observations have motivated novel theoretical models of the dark matter sector. A class of such models predicts the existence of GeV scale cosmic strings that communicate with the standard model sector by Aharonov-Bohm interactions with electrically charged particles. We discuss the cosmology of these 'dark strings' and investigate possible observational signatures. More elaborate dark sector models are argued to contain hybrid topological defects that may also have observational signatures.

  9. Pharmacological study of the light/dark preference test in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Waterborne administration.

    PubMed

    Magno, Lílian Danielle Paiva; Fontes, Aldo; Gonçalves, Beatriz Maria Necy; Gouveia, Amauri

    2015-08-01

    Anxiety is a complex disorder; thus, its mechanisms remain unclear. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are a promising pharmacological model for anxiety research. Light/dark preference test is a behaviorally validated measure of anxiety in zebrafish; however, it requires pharmacological validation. We sought to evaluate the sensitivity of the light/dark preference test in adult zebrafish by immersing them in drug solutions containing clonazepam, buspirone, imipramine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, haloperidol, risperidone, propranolol, or ethanol. The time spent in the dark environment, the latency time to first crossing, and the number of midline crossings were analyzed. Intermediate concentrations of clonazepam administered for 600s decreased the time spent in the dark and increased locomotor activity. Buspirone reduced motor activity. Imipramine and fluoxetine increased time spent in the dark and the first latency, and decreased the number of alternations. Paroxetine did not alter the time in the dark; however, it increased the first latency time and decreased locomotor activity. Haloperidol decreased the time spent in the dark at low concentrations. Risperidone and propranolol did not change any parameters. Ethanol reduced the time spent in the dark and increased the number of crossings at intermediate concentrations. These results corroborate the previous work using intraperitoneal drug administration in zebrafish and rodents, suggesting that water drug delivery in zebrafish can effectively be used as an animal anxiety model.

  10. Dark-energy thermodynamic models

    SciTech Connect

    Besprosvany, Jaime; Izquierdo, German

    2010-12-07

    We study cosmological consequences of dark-energy thermodynamic models. The assumption that dark energy is conformed of quanta, and an extensivity argument generalize its equation of state. This implies that dark energy and another key component exchange energy. The energy densities of dark energy and the other component then tend asymptotically to a constant, thus explaining the coincidence of dark matter and dark energy today. On the other hand, a model of non-relativistic particles in a Bose-Einstein condensate, with a short-range attractive interaction, produces acceleration. It is shown that the phantom-acceleration regime, at the beginning of the universe, solves the horizon problem.

  11. New interactions in the dark sector mediated by dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Brookfield, Anthony W.; Bruck, Carsten van de; Hall, Lisa M. H.

    2008-02-15

    Cosmological observations have revealed the existence of a dark matter sector, which is commonly assumed to be made up of one particle species only. However, this sector might be more complicated than we currently believe: there might be more than one dark matter species (for example, two components of cold dark matter or a mixture of hot and cold dark matter) and there may be new interactions between these particles. In this paper we study the possibility of multiple dark matter species and interactions mediated by a dark energy field. We study both the background and the perturbation evolution in these scenarios. We find that the background evolution of a system of multiple dark matter particles (with constant couplings) mimics a single fluid with a time-varying coupling parameter. However, this is no longer true on the perturbative level. We study the case of attractive and repulsive forces as well as a mixture of cold and hot dark matter particles.

  12. Studies of new two-photon fluorescent probes suitable for multiphoton microscopy in biological settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvishi, Raz; Berkovic, Garry; Kotler, Zvi; Krief, Pnina; Shapiro, Lev; Klug, Jacob T.; Skorka, Jacqueline; Khodorkovsky, Vladimir

    2003-11-01

    Multi-Photon Laser Scanning Microscopy (MPLSM) requires efficient two-photon absorbing fluorescent (TPF) probes. In particular, probes exhibiting bio-functionality are very attractive for MPLSM studies of biological samples. We have synthesized and studied a new class of TPF probes capable of caging metal ions, such as Ca+2 and Na+, which play an important role in neuronal mechanisms. The TPF probes are based on a tetraketo derivative with a symmetric Donor-Acceptor-Donor (D-A-D) structure. The donor is an azacrown moiety, which also serves as a metal ion-caging unit. We studied the linear and the non-linear spectroscopic properties of these TPF probes as a function of conjugation length and the size of the crown ring. We find that this new class of TPF probes possesses very large two-photon excitation cross-section coefficients (~1000GM) at near IR wavelengths as well as affinity to metal ions. In the presence of changing sodium ion concentration the dye spectra reveals four distinguishable forms and the TPF efficiency changes strongly. We therefore conclude that the dye can perform as a sensitive metal ion TPF probe.

  13. Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir, A.; Cotti, U.; De Leon, C. L.; Raya, A; Villasenor, L.

    2008-07-02

    One of the biggest scientific mysteries of our time resides in the identification of the particles that constitute a large fraction of the mass of our Universe, generically known as dark matter. We review the observations and the experimental data that imply the existence of dark matter. We briefly discuss the properties of the two best dark-matter candidate particles and the experimental techniques presently used to try to discover them. Finally, we mention a proposed project that has recently emerged within the Mexican community to look for dark matter.

  14. Low pressure gas study for a direction-sensitive dark matter search experiment with MPGD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, K.; Miuchi, K.; Iwaki, S.; Kubo, H.; Mizumoto, T.; Nishimura, H.; Parker, J. D.; Sawano, T.; Takada, A.; Tanimori, T.; Sekiya, H.; Takeda, A.

    2012-02-01

    The NEWAGE project (NEw generation WIMP search with an Advanced Gaseous tracking device Experiment) is a direction-sensitive dark matter search experiment, searching for WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particle) via nuclear recoil. The NEWAGE detector, a micro time-projection-chamber with a 400μm pitch read out, detects three-dimensional nuclear tracks. A low-pressure gas study (76 torr) was performed in order to lower the energy threshold, one of the most effective improvements for the next underground measurement. We measured the gas gain, the angular resolution and the detection efficiency. We have consequently lowered the energy threshold from 100 keV to 50 keV by decreasing the gas pressure.

  15. Fundamental Particle Structure in the Cosmological Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlopov, Maxim

    2013-11-01

    The nonbaryonic dark matter of the universe is assumed to consist of new stable forms of matter. Their stability reflects symmetry of micro-world and mechanisms of its symmetry breaking. Particle candidates for cosmological dark matter are lightest particles that bear new conserved quantum numbers. Dark matter particles may represent ideal gas of noninteracting particles. Self-interacting dark matter weakly or superweakly coupled to ordinary matter is also possible, reflecting nontrivial pattern of particle symmetry in the hidden sector of particle theory. In the early universe the structure of particle symmetry breaking gives rise to cosmological phase transitions, from which macroscopic cosmological defects or primordial nonlinear structures can be originated. Primordial black holes (PBHs) can be not only a candidate for dark matter, but also represent a universal probe for superhigh energy physics in the early universe. Evaporating PBHs turn to be a source of even superweakly interacting particles, while clouds of massive PBHs can serve as nonlinear seeds for galaxy formation. The observed broken symmetry of the three known families may provide a simultaneous solution for the problems of the mass of neutrino and strong CP-violation in the unique framework of models of horizontal unification. Dark matter candidates can also appear in the new families of quarks and leptons and the existence of new stable charged leptons and quarks is possible, hidden in elusive "dark atoms." Such possibility, strongly restricted by the constraints on anomalous isotopes of light elements, is not excluded in scenarios that predict stable double charged particles. The excessive -2 charged particles are bound in these scenarios with primordial helium in O-helium "atoms," maintaining specific nuclear-interacting form of the dark matter, which may provide an interesting solution for the puzzles of the direct dark matter searches. In the context of cosmoparticle physics, studying

  16. Galactic Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, Benjamin P.

    The precise phase-space distribution and properties of Galactic dark matter necessary for its direct and indirect detection are currently unknown. Since the distributions of normal and dark matter in the Milky Way are coupled to each other as they both move in the same gravitational potential, constraints on the distribution and properties of dark matter can be derived by studying the distribution of visible matter in the Galaxy and making some general assumptions regarding the phase-space distribution of the dark matter. In this study, the visible components of the Galaxy have been comprehensively reviewed to create an axisymmetric model of the Galaxy that is consistent with the available observations, and the dark matter phase-space distribution is assumed to follow a lowered-isothermal form. Poisson's equations are then solved self-consistently to construct models of the spatial and velocity distribution of Galactic dark matter. The total gravitational potential from normal and dark matter are calculated and compared to the current observations of the rotation curve and to the radial velocity distributions of blue horizontal-branch and blue straggler stars. It is found that this analysis allows for a wide range of parameters for the dark matter. The implications for direct and indirect detection of dark matter are discussed in detail. In the appendices, two additional projects are presented. In Appendix A, the recent observations of the positron fraction and the total electron spectrum in cosmic rays are addressed by considering a nested leaky-box model for the propagation of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. This is found to obviate the need for exotic processes such as the annihilation or decay of dark matter to explain the recent observations. In Appendix B, we discuss a novel dark matter detector involving triggered cavitation in acoustic fields. The theory behind the detector is presented in detail, and we discuss the work than has been done to create a prototype

  17. Novel benzanthrone probes for membrane and protein studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhova, Olga; Vus, Kateryna; Trusova, Valeriya; Kirilova, Elena; Kirilov, Georgiy; Gorbenko, Galyna; Kinnunen, Paavo

    2016-09-01

    The applicability of a series of novel benzanthrone dyes to monitoring the changes in physicochemical properties of lipid bilayer and to differentiating between the native and aggregated protein states has been evaluated. Based on the quantitative parameters of the dye-membrane and dye-protein binding derived from the fluorimetric titration data, the most prospective membrane probes and amyloid tracers have been selected from the group of examined compounds. Analysis of the red edge excitation shifts of the membrane- and amyloid-bound dyes provided information on the properties of benzanthrone binding sites within the lipid and protein matrixes. To understand how amyloid specificity of benzanthrones correlates with their structure, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) analysis was performed involving a range of quantum chemical molecular descriptors. A statistically significant model was obtained for predicting the sensitivity of novel benzanthrone dyes to amyloid fibrils.

  18. Development of an autofluorescent probe for brain cancer: simulations and phantom studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leh, B.; Charon, Y.; Duval, M.-A.; Jean, F.; Lefebvre, F.; Menard, L.; Vu Thi, M. H.; Siebert, R.

    2009-07-01

    Autofluorescence spectroscopy from brain tissue may help to discriminate cancerous from healthy tissue. The characteristics of our probe are studied on phantoms and confronted to Monte Carlo simulations. Geometrical origins of fluorescence light are evaluated.

  19. Effects of the interaction between dark energy and dark matter on cosmological parameters

    SciTech Connect

    He, Jian-Hua; Wang, Bin E-mail: wangb@fudan.edu.cn

    2008-06-15

    We examine the effects of possible phenomenological interactions between dark energy and dark matter on cosmological parameters and their efficiency in solving the coincidence problem. We work with two simple parameterizations of the dynamical dark energy equation of state and the constant dark energy equation of state. Using observational data coming from the new 182 Gold type Ia supernova samples, the shift parameter of the Cosmic Microwave Background given by the three-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations and the baryon acoustic oscillation measurement from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we perform a statistical joint analysis of different forms of phenomenological interaction between dark energy and dark matter.

  20. Electrochemical studies under thin electrolyte layers using a Kelvin probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Bastian Sascha

    In this study, electrochemical experiments were performed under thin electrolyte layers using a Kelvin Probe (KP). In the first part of this dissertation, cathodic and anodic polarization experiments of stainless steel 304L were conducted under a thin layer of chloride containing solution. Cathodic polarization curves exhibited a limiting current density associated with oxygen reduction. The limiting current density varied with solution layer thickness over a finite range of thickness. Anodic polarization curves on 304L in a thin layer of chloride solution resulted in pitting corrosion. The breakdown potential did not vary with solution layer thickness. However, the thin layer was observed to increase in volume remarkably during pit growth owing to the absorption of water from the high humidity environment into the layer with ionic strength increased by the pit dissolution. Furthermore, pitting of stainless steel 304 under droplets of MgCl2 solution was monitored. Droplets of different volumes of MgCl2 solution were placed on the steel surface and exposed to a constant low relative humidity (RH). As the concentration increased during exposure of the drop to low RH, the open-circuit potential (OCP) and the shape change of the drop were monitored by the KP. Pit initiation was detected by a sudden decrease in the OCP. Pits initiated earlier under small droplets than under large drops. The chloride concentration at initiation was found to be between 3.0 and 8.4 M for droplets with a starting concentration of 0.88 M Cl-. The initiation concentration increased when the initial concentration of the droplet was higher. The anodic current demand of pits growing at OCP decreased with time as did the available cathodic current. When the current demand exceeded the available cathodic current, the active pit area decreased. The pit stability criterion for OCP pits as expressed by the product of the current density and the pit radius, i˙a, was found to be much lower than for

  1. Study of polarization properties of fiber-optics probes with use of a binary phase plate.

    PubMed

    Alferov, S V; Khonina, S N; Karpeev, S V

    2014-04-01

    We conduct a theoretical and experimental study of the distribution of the electric field components in the sharp focal domain when rotating a zone plate with a π-phase jump placed in the focused beam. Comparing the theoretical and experimental results for several kinds of near-field probes, an analysis of the polarization sensitivity of different types of metal-coated aperture probes is conducted. It is demonstrated that with increasing diameter of the non-metal-coated tip part there occurs an essential redistribution of sensitivity in favor of the transverse electric field components and an increase of the probe's energy throughput.

  2. Reconstructing and deconstructing dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, Eric V.

    2004-06-07

    The acceleration of the expansion of the universe, ascribed to a dark energy, is one of the most intriguing discoveries in science. In addition to precise, systematics controlled data, clear, robust interpretation of the observations is required to reveal the nature of dark energy. Even for the simplest question: is the data consistent with the cosmological constant? there are important subtleties in the reconstruction of the dark energy properties. We discuss the roles of analysis both in terms of the Hubble expansion rate or dark energy density {rho}DE(z) and in terms of the dark energy equation of state w(z), arguing that each has its carefully defined place. Fitting the density is best for learning about the density, but using it to probe the equation of state can lead to instability and bias.

  3. Dark matter and dark radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, Lotty; Buckley, Matthew R.; Carroll, Sean M.; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2009-01-15

    We explore the feasibility and astrophysical consequences of a new long-range U(1) gauge field ('dark electromagnetism') that couples only to dark matter, not to the standard model. The dark matter consists of an equal number of positive and negative charges under the new force, but annihilations are suppressed if the dark-matter mass is sufficiently high and the dark fine-structure constant {alpha}-circumflex is sufficiently small. The correct relic abundance can be obtained if the dark matter also couples to the conventional weak interactions, and we verify that this is consistent with particle-physics constraints. The primary limit on {alpha}-circumflex comes from the demand that the dark matter be effectively collisionless in galactic dynamics, which implies {alpha}-circumflex < or approx. 10{sup -3} for TeV-scale dark matter. These values are easily compatible with constraints from structure formation and primordial nucleosynthesis. We raise the prospect of interesting new plasma effects in dark-matter dynamics, which remain to be explored.

  4. Parametric study of a pin-plane probe in moderately magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binwal, S.; Gandhi, S.; Kabariya, H.; Karkari, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    The application of a planar Langmuir probe in magnetized plasma is found to be problematic due to significant perturbation of plasma along the magnetic field lines intercepting the probe surface. This causes the Ampere-Volts ‘I e(U)’ characteristics of the probe to deviate from its usual exponential law; in conjunction the electron saturation current I es is significantly reduced. Moreover estimating the electron temperature T e by considering the entire semi-log plot of I e(U) gives ambiguous values of T e. To address this problem, Pitts and Stangeby developed a formula for the reduction factor for I es. This formula depends on a number of uncertain parameters, namely; the ion temperature T +, electron cross-field diffusion coefficient {{D}\\bot ,\\text{e}} and the local potential hill V h estimated by applying a floating pin probe in the vicinity of the planar probe. Due to implicit dependence of these parameters on T e, the resulting analysis is not straightforward. This paper presents a parametric study of different parameters that influence the characteristics of a planar probe in magnetized plasma. For this purpose a pin-plane probe is constructed and applied in the magnetized plasma column. A comprehensive discussion is presented that highlights the practical methodology of using this technique for extracting useful information of plasma parameters in magnetized plasmas.

  5. Real-time dark-field light scattering imaging to monitor the coupling reaction with gold nanorods as an optical probe.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong Zhi; Li, Rong Sheng; Gao, Peng Fei; Wang, Ni; Lei, Gang; Huang, Cheng Zhi; Wang, Jian

    2017-03-09

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) have opened up promising applications based on their reshaping, due to the fact that a tiny change in shape or size could directly lead to optical changes. Herein, we report chemical reshaping of GNRs induced by the coupling reaction between Au, ferric chloride and thiourea. In the coupling reaction, Fe(3+) oxidizes the GNRs to yield Au(i), which complexes with the thiourea ligand, lowering the Gibbs free energy of the gold species and promoting the reaction equilibrium to enable the chemical reshaping of the GNRs. This coupling reaction process was monitored using a light-scattering dark-field microscopy (DFM) imaging technique and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The light scattering underwent a colour change from bright red to yellow and finally to green, and the GNRs underwent a morphological change from rod-shaped to fusiform and finally to spherical, which is somewhat different from the results of other chemical etching processes of GNRs. It is believed that the coupling reaction induced chemical reshaping of GNRs not only provides an alternative way to monitor the coupling reaction, but also offers a facile way to obtain a desirable GNR morphology, which is important for the preparation of fusiform nanostructures.

  6. Sterile neutrino portal to Dark Matter II: exact dark symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, Miguel; Rius, Nuria; Sanz, Verónica

    2017-06-01

    We analyze a simple extension of the standard model (SM) with a dark sector composed of a scalar and a fermion, both singlets under the SM gauge group but charged under a dark sector symmetry group. Sterile neutrinos, which are singlets under both groups, mediate the interactions between the dark sector and the SM particles, and generate masses for the active neutrinos via the seesaw mechanism. We explore the parameter space region where the observed Dark Matter relic abundance is determined by the annihilation into sterile neutrinos, both for fermion and scalar Dark Matter particles. The scalar Dark Matter case provides an interesting alternative to the usual Higgs portal scenario. We also study the constraints from direct Dark Matter searches and the prospects for indirect detection via sterile neutrino decays to leptons, which may be able to rule out Dark Matter masses below and around 100 GeV.

  7. Light's Darkness

    ScienceCinema

    Padgett, Miles [University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland

    2016-07-12

    Optical vortices and orbital angular momentum are currently topical subjects in the optics literature. Although seemingly esoteric, they are, in fact, the generic state of light and arise whenever three or more plane waves interfere. To be observed by eye the light must be monochromatic. Laser speckle is one such example, where the optical energy circulates around each black spot, giving a local orbital angular momentum. This talk with report three on-going studies. First, when considering a volume of interfering waves, the laser specs map out threads of complete darkness embedded in the light. Do these threads form loops? Links? Or even knots? Second, when looking through a rapidly spinning window, the image of the world on the other side is rotated: true or false? Finally, the entanglement of orbital angular momentum states means measuring how the angular position of one photons sets the angular momentum of another: is this an angular version of the EPR (Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen) paradox?

  8. Interacting double dark resonances in a hot atomic vapor of helium

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S.; Ghosh, R.; Laupretre, T.; Bretenaker, F.; Goldfarb, F.

    2011-08-15

    We experimentally and theoretically study two different tripod configurations using metastable helium ({sup 4}He*), with the probe field polarization perpendicular and parallel to the quantization axis, defined by an applied weak magnetic field. In the first case, the two dark resonances interact incoherently and merge together into a single electromagnetically induced transparency peak with increasing coupling power. In the second case, we observe destructive interference between the two dark resonances inducing an extra absorption peak at the line center.

  9. Difference in thermodynamics between two types of esophageal temperature probes: Insights from an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Gianni, Carola; Atoui, Moustapha; Mohanty, Sanghamitra; Trivedi, Chintan; Bai, Rong; Al-Ahmad, Amin; Burkhardt, J David; Gallinghouse, G Joseph; Hranitzky, Patrick M; Horton, Rodney P; Sanchez, Javier E; Di Biase, Luigi; Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya R; Natale, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Luminal esophageal temperature monitoring is performed with a variety of temperature probes, but little is known about the relationship between the structure of a given probe and its thermodynamic characteristics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference in thermodynamics between a 9Fr standard esophageal probe and an 18Fr esophageal stethoscope. In the experimental setting, each probe was submerged in a constant temperature water bath maintained at 42°C; in the patient setting, we monitored the temperature with both probes at the same time. The time constant of the stethoscope was higher than that of the probe (33.5 vs 8.3 s). Compared to the probe, the mean temperature measured by the stethoscope at 10 seconds was significantly lower (22.5°C ± 0.4°C vs 33.5°C ± 0.3°C, P<.0001), whereas the time to reach the peak temperature was significantly longer (132.6 ± 5.9 s vs 38.8 ± 1.0 s, P<.0001). Even in the ablation cases we observed that when the esophageal probe reached a peak temperature of 39.6°C ± 0.3°C, the esophageal stethoscope still displayed a temperature of 37.3°C ± 0.2°C (a mean of 2.39°C ± 0.3°C lower, P<.0001), showing a <0.5°C increase in temperature half of the times. The 18Fr esophageal stethoscope has a significantly slower time response compared to the 9Fr esophageal probe. In the clinical setting, this might result in a considerable underestimation of the luminal esophageal temperature with potentially fatal consequences. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Condensate dark matter stars

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.Y.; Harko, T.; Cheng, K.S. E-mail: harko@hkucc.hku.hk

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the structure and stability properties of compact astrophysical objects that may be formed from the Bose-Einstein condensation of dark matter. Once the critical temperature of a boson gas is less than the critical temperature, a Bose-Einstein Condensation process can always take place during the cosmic history of the universe. Therefore we model the dark matter inside the star as a Bose-Einstein condensate. In the condensate dark matter star model, the dark matter equation of state can be described by a polytropic equation of state, with polytropic index equal to one. We derive the basic general relativistic equations describing the equilibrium structure of the condensate dark matter star with spherically symmetric static geometry. The structure equations of the condensate dark matter stars are studied numerically. The critical mass and radius of the dark matter star are given by M{sub crit} ≈ 2(l{sub a}/1fm){sup 1/2}(m{sub χ}/1 GeV){sup −3/2}M{sub s}un and R{sub crit} ≈ 1.1 × 10{sup 6}(l{sub a}/1 fm){sup 1/2}(m{sub χ}/1 GeV){sup −3/2} cm respectively, where l{sub a} and m{sub χ} are the scattering length and the mass of dark matter particle, respectively.

  11. Warm dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Horiuchi, Shunsaku

    2016-06-21

    The cold dark matter paradigm has been extremely successful in explaining the large-scale structure of the Universe. However, it continues to face issues when confronted by observations on sub-Galactic scales. A major caveat, now being addressed, has been the incomplete treatment of baryon physics. We first summarize the small-scale issues surrounding cold dark matter and discuss the solutions explored by modern state-of-the-art numerical simulations including treatment of baryonic physics. We identify the too big to fail in field galaxies as among the best targets to study modifications to dark matter, and discuss the particular connection with sterile neutrino warm dark matter. We also discuss how the recently detected anomalous 3.55 keV X-ray lines, when interpreted as sterile neutrino dark matter decay, provide a very good description of small-scale observations of the Local Group.

  12. Application of Electron Probe Microanalysis to the Study of Geological and Planetary Materials.

    PubMed

    McGee, James J.; Keil, Klaus

    2001-03-01

    The impact of electron probe microanalysis on the study of geological and planetary materials has been tremendous. Electron microprobes evolved into routine analytical instruments in geological research laboratories as instrument capabilities improved and applications to geologic/planetary materials expanded. The contributions of electron probe microanalysis to the characterization of minerals, both terrestrial and extraterrestrial, and to other significant geological research, such as light element analysis, trace element analysis, and element mapping, is described.

  13. Development of clinical and radiographic signs associated with dark discolored primary incisors following traumatic injuries: a prospective controlled study.

    PubMed

    Holan, Gideon

    2004-10-01

    The purpose was to evaluate late complications of asymptomatic traumatized primary incisors with dark coronal discoloration. The clinical and radiographic signs of 97 teeth of the study group were recorded along a follow-up period that ranged between 12 and 75 months (mean >36 months). Children's age at time of injury ranged between 18 and 72 months (mean 40). The control group consisted of 102 non-discolored maxillary primary central incisors in 51 children older than 54 months with no history of dental trauma. In 50 teeth (52%) the color faded or became yellowish and in 47 (48%) it remained dark. Clinical signs of infection, that were diagnosed 5-58 months after the injury, were associated significantly more with dark than yellowish hues (83 and 17%, respectively). Teeth that had changed their color to become yellow presented more PCO than teeth with black/gray/brown coronal discoloration (78 and 6%, respectively). Arrest of dentine apposition was found in 15 teeth, one had yellow coronal discoloration and the remaining 14 had a dark shade. Eleven teeth showed inflammatory root resorption all with dark discoloration. Two atypical types of root resorption were observed: a surface resorption restricted to the lateral aspects of the apical half of the root while the root length remained unchanged and in the other expansion of the follicle of the permanent successor was observed. Expansion of the dental follicle was observed in 72% of all teeth with no significant difference between the various types of coronal discoloration but only half of the cases were associated with resorption of the root of the primary incisor. The various pathologic findings observed in the study group were either absent or rarely seen in the control group. It can be concluded that more than 50% of the primary incisors that retain their dark coronal discoloration acquired after dental injuries remain clinically asymptomatic till the eruption of the permanent successor even if they present

  14. Hydration of the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II probed in the dark-stable S1 state using proton NMR dispersion profiles.

    PubMed

    Han, Guangye; Huang, Yang; Koua, Faisal Hammad Mekky; Shen, Jian-Ren; Westlund, Per-Olof; Messinger, Johannes

    2014-06-28

    The hydration of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) was characterized in the dark stable S1 state of photosystem II using water R1(ω) NMR dispersion (NMRD) profiles. The R1(ω) NMRD profiles were recorded over a frequency range from 0.01 MHz to 40 MHz for both intact and Mn-depleted photosystem II core complexes from Thermosynechococcus vulcanus (T. vulcanus). The intact-minus-(Mn)-depleted difference NMRD profiles show a characteristic dispersion from approximately 0.03 MHz to 1 MHz, which is interpreted on the basis of the Solomon-Bloembergen-Morgan (SBM) and the slow motion theories as being due to a paramagnetic enhanced relaxation (PRE) of water protons. Both theories are qualitatively consistent with the ST = 1, g = 4.9 paramagnetic state previously described for the S1 state of the OEC; however, an alternative explanation involving the loss of a separate class of long-lived internal waters due to the Mn-depletion procedure can presently not be ruled out. Using a point-dipole approximation the PRE-NMRD effect can be described as being caused by 1-2 water molecules that are located about 10 Å away from the spin center of the Mn4CaO5 cluster in the OEC. The application of the SBM theory to the dispersion observed for PSII in the S1 state is questionable, because the parameters extracted do not fulfil the presupposed perturbation criterion. In contrast, the slow motion theory gives a consistent picture indicating that the water molecules are in fast chemical exchange with the bulk (τw < 1 μs). The modulation of the zero-field splitting (ZFS) interaction suggests a (restricted) reorientation/structural equilibrium of the Mn4CaO5 cluster with a characteristic time constant of τZFS = 0.6-0.9 μs.

  15. Resonance Raman study of the dark-adapted form of the purple membrane protein.

    PubMed

    Aton, B; Doukas, A G; Callender, R H; Becher, B; Ebrey, T G

    1979-02-26

    The resonance Raman spectrum of the dark-adapted form of the purple membrane protein (bacteriorhodopsin) has been obtained and is compared to the light-adapted pigment and model chromophore spectra. As in the light-adapted form, the chromophore-protein linkage is found to be a protonated Schiff base. Electron delocalization appears to play the dominant role in color regulation. The dark-adapted spectrum indicates a conformation closer to 13-cis than the light-adapted spectrum.

  16. A study of the dark region in the western ablation zone of the Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wientjes, I. G. M.

    2011-10-01

    The western ablation zone of the Greenland ice sheet contains a region that is darker than the surrounding ice. This region is several tens of kilometres wide and stretched parallel to the margin of the ice sheet for more than 350 kilometres. The dark appearance implies low radiance and therefore low spectral albedos, leading to enhanced melting. An estimation of the influence of this dark region with a simple model shows that it can increase the local melt rate in this area by several tens per cent. Therefore, this dark region can significantly affect the total mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet. Satellite images reveal that the dark region is caused by outcropping layers of ice that contain more dust than the brighter surrounding ice. This dust was initially deposited in the accumulation zone of the Greenland ice sheet, transported through the ice sheet towards the margin and released in the ablation zone. Geochemical analyses of dust from the dark region and dust from brighter reference ice confirm this hypothesis and indicate a local source for the dust, probably the nearby tundra. In addition, abundant microorganisms were observed in the dark region. Part of these organisms formed granules together with the mineral dust. As the organic matter in the dust is known to have a high light absorbency, the dark region is not only caused by dust from the outcropping ice, but biological processes also contribute to the darkening of the surface. Finally, carbonaceous particles in the ice from the dark region reveal that the material is not modern, and settled on the accumulation zone during the Holocene, during periods of enhanced eolian activity. Therefore, dust fluxes towards the ice sheet in the past contribute to albedo variations in the ablation zone of the Greenland ice sheet at present and can enhance the melting of the Greenland ice sheet without external forcing.

  17. Preparation and quality test of superparamagnetic iron oxide labeled antisense oligodeoxynucleotide probe: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ming; Li, Bibo; Ouyang, Yu; Luo, Yi; Li, Shaolin

    2009-06-01

    Molecular imaging of tumor antisense gene techniques have been applied to the study of magnetic resonance (MR) gene imaging associated with malignant tumors. In this study, we designed, synthesized, and tested a novel molecular probe, in which the antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASODN) was labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO), and its efficiency was examined by in vitro MR imaging after SK-Br-3 mammary carcinoma cell lines (oncocytes) transfection. The SPIO-labeled ASODN probe was prepared through SPIO conjugated to ASODN using a chemical cross linking method. Its morphology and size were detected by atomic force microscope, size distribution were detected by laser granulometer, the conjugating rate and biological activity were determined by high performance liquid chromatography, and the stability was determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After that, the probes were transfected into the SK-Br-3 oncocytes, cellular iron uptake was analyzed qualitatively at light and electron microscopy and was quantified at atomic absorption spectrometry, and the signal change of the transfected cells was observed and measured using MR imaging. The morphology of the SPIO-labeled ASODN probe was mostly spherical with well-distributed scattering, and the diameters were between 25 and 40 nm (95%) by atomic force microscope and laser granulometer, the conjugating rate of the probe was 99%. Moreover, this probe kept its activity under physiological conditions and could conjugate with antisense oligodeoxynucleotide. In addition, light microscopy revealed an intracellular uptake of iron oxides in the cytosol and electron microscopic studies revealed a lysosomal deposition of iron oxides in the transfected SK-Br-3 oncocytes by antisense probes, some of them gathered stacks, and the iron content of the group of transfected SK-Br-3 oncocytes by antisense probe is significantly higher (18.37 +/- 0.42 pg) than other contrast groups, the MR imaging showed that

  18. Using the CMB angular power spectrum to study Dark Matter-photon interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, Ryan J.; Boehm, Céline; Lesgourgues, Julien E-mail: julien.lesgourgues@cern.ch

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we explore the impact of Dark Matter-photon interactions on the CMB angular power spectrum. Using the one-year data release of the Planck satellite, we derive an upper bound on the Dark Matter-photon elastic scattering cross section of σ{sub DM−γ} ≤ 8 × 10{sup −31} (m{sub DM}/GeV) cm{sup 2} (68% CL) if the cross section is constant and a present-day value of σ{sub DM−γ} ≤ 6 × 10{sup −40}(m{sub DM}/GeV) cm{sup 2} (68% CL) if it scales as the temperature squared. For such a limiting cross section, both the B-modes and the TT angular power spectrum are suppressed with respect to ΛCDM predictions for ℓ∼>500 and ℓ∼>3000 respectively, indicating that forthcoming data from CMB polarisation experiments and Planck could help to constrain and characterise the physics of the dark sector. This essentially initiates a new type of dark matter search that is independent of whether dark matter is annihilating, decaying or asymmetric. Thus, any CMB experiment with the ability to measure the temperature and/or polarisation power spectra at high ℓ should be able to investigate the potential interactions of dark matter and contribute to our fundamental understanding of its nature.

  19. Dark-gray soliton transformations: possibility to study microscopic quantum phenomena by nonlinear optical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Tenorio, C.; Serkin, V. N.; Belyaeva, T. L.; Peña-Moreno, R.; Morales-Lara, L.

    2015-01-01

    The nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) model with an external harmonic potential is one of the most important in modern science. This model makes it possible to analyze a variety of nonlinear phenomena, in nonlinear optics and laser physics, biophysics and in the theory of Bose-Einstein condensation of atoms. It is shown that the main specific feature of the dynamics of dark GP matter wave solitons in a parabolic trap is the formation of solitons with dynamically changing form-factors producing the periodic variation in the modulation depth (the degree of "blackness") of dark solitons. In general, the period of dark soliton oscillations in trapping potential depends on the specific conditions of the experiment and does not coincide with the oscillation period of a linear quantum-mechanical oscillator. In the case of an immobile pedestal in the trap, the oscillation period of the black soliton considerably increases because of the periodic transformation of the black soliton to the gray one and vice versa. Surprisingly, that if the dark soliton is superimposed on the base pedestal oscillating in the trap and displaced from the trap center, the oscillation period of the dark soliton coincides with the period of oscillations of the linear harmonic oscillator, while the dynamics of the dark soliton is similar to that of a classical particle obeying the Newton mechanics laws.

  20. Dark catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Randall, Lisa; Scholtz, Jakub

    2017-08-01

    Recently it was shown that dark matter with mass of order the weak scale can be charged under a new long-range force, decoupled from the Standard Model, with only weak constraints from early Universe cosmology. Here we consider the implications of an additional charged particle C that is light enough to lead to significant dissipative dynamics on galactic times scales. We highlight several novel features of this model, which can be relevant even when the C particle constitutes only a small fraction of the number density (and energy density). We assume a small asymmetric abundance of the C particle whose charge is compensated by a heavy X particle so that the relic abundance of dark matter consists mostly of symmetric X and bar X, with a small asymmetric component made up of X and C. As the universe cools, it undergoes asymmetric recombination binding the free Cs into (XC) dark atoms efficiently. Even with a tiny asymmetric component, the presence of C particles catalyzes tight coupling between the heavy dark matter X and the dark photon plasma that can lead to a significant suppression of the matter power spectrum on small scales and lead to some of the strongest bounds on such dark matter theories. We find a viable parameter space where structure formation constraints are satisfied and significant dissipative dynamics can occur in galactic haloes but show a large region is excluded. Our model shows that subdominant components in the dark sector can dramatically affect structure formation.

  1. Laser-Assisted Atom Probe Tomography of Deformed Minerals: A Zircon Case Study.

    PubMed

    La Fontaine, Alexandre; Piazolo, Sandra; Trimby, Patrick; Yang, Limei; Cairney, Julie M

    2017-01-30

    The application of atom probe tomography to the study of minerals is a rapidly growing area. Picosecond-pulsed, ultraviolet laser (UV-355 nm) assisted atom probe tomography has been used to analyze trace element mobility within dislocations and low-angle boundaries in plastically deformed specimens of the nonconductive mineral zircon (ZrSiO4), a key material to date the earth's geological events. Here we discuss important experimental aspects inherent in the atom probe tomography investigation of this important mineral, providing insights into the challenges in atom probe tomography characterization of minerals as a whole. We studied the influence of atom probe tomography analysis parameters on features of the mass spectra, such as the thermal tail, as well as the overall data quality. Three zircon samples with different uranium and lead content were analyzed, and particular attention was paid to ion identification in the mass spectra and detection limits of the key trace elements, lead and uranium. We also discuss the correlative use of electron backscattered diffraction in a scanning electron microscope to map the deformation in the zircon grains, and the combined use of transmission Kikuchi diffraction and focused ion beam sample preparation to assist preparation of the final atom probe tip.

  2. Study of Kink Modes and Error Fields using Rotation Control with a Biased Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoafer, Chris C.; Levesque, J. P.; Peng, Q.; Mauel, M. E.; Navratil, G. A.

    2015-11-01

    A bias probe has been installed in the High Beta Tokamak - Extended Pulse (HBT-EP) for studying MHD mode rotation and stability. When the probe is inserted into the edge of the plasma and a voltage applied, the rotation of long-wavelength kink instabilities is strongly modified. A large poloidal plasma flow results, measured with a bi-directional Mach probe, and changes in plasma flow correlate to changes in edge kink mode rotation. An active controller is used to adjust the probe voltage in real time for controlling both the plasma flow and mode rotation. Bias probe voltages are generated through an active GPU-based digital feedback system. Mode rotation control is desirable and allows for MHD stability studies under conditions of varying mode rotation rates. At large positive biases, the probe current induces a torque that opposes the natural direction of mode rotation. We are able to apply sufficiently large torque to induce a transition to a fast rotation state (both mode and plasma rotation). The bias required to induce the transition is shown to depend on an applied error field, establishing a technique to determine the natural error field on HBT-EP. Supported by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-86ER53222.

  3. Bayesian hierarchical structured variable selection methods with application to molecular inversion probe studies in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Mallick, Bani K.; Manyam, Ganiraju C.; Thompson, Patricia A.; Bondy, Melissa L.; Do, Kim-Anh

    2015-01-01

    Summary The analysis of alterations that may occur in nature when segments of chromosomes are copied (known as copy number alterations) has been a focus of research to identify genetic markers of cancer. One high-throughput technique recently adopted is the use of molecular inversion probes (MIPs) to measure probe copy number changes. The resulting data consist of high-dimensional copy number profiles that can be used to ascertain probe-specific copy number alterations in correlative studies with patient outcomes to guide risk stratification and future treatment. We propose a novel Bayesian variable selection method, the hierarchical structured variable selection (HSVS) method, which accounts for the natural gene and probe-within-gene architecture to identify important genes and probes associated with clinically relevant outcomes. We propose the HSVS model for grouped variable selection, where simultaneous selection of both groups and within-group variables is of interest. The HSVS model utilizes a discrete mixture prior distribution for group selection and group-specific Bayesian lasso hierarchies for variable selection within groups. We provide methods for accounting for serial correlations within groups that incorporate Bayesian fused lasso methods for within-group selection. Through simulations we establish that our method results in lower model errors than other methods when a natural grouping structure exists. We apply our method to an MIP study of breast cancer and show that it identifies genes and probes that are significantly associated with clinically relevant subtypes of breast cancer. PMID:25705056

  4. New limits on coupled dark energy from Planck

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Jun-Qing

    2013-11-01

    Recently, the Planck collaboration has released the first cosmological papers providing the high resolution, full sky, maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies. It is crucial to understand that whether the accelerating expansion of our universe at present is driven by an unknown energy component (Dark Energy) or a modification to general relativity (Modified Gravity). In this paper we study the coupled dark energy models, in which the quintessence scalar field nontrivially couples to the cold dark matter, with the strength parameter of interaction β. Using the Planck data alone, we obtain that the strength of interaction between dark sectors is constrained as β < 0.102 at 95% confidence level, which is tighter than that from the WMAP9 data alone. Combining the Planck data with other probes, like the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO), Type-Ia supernovae ''Union2.1 compilation'' and the CMB lensing data from Planck measurement, we find the tight constraint on the strength of interaction β < 0.052 (95% C.L.). Interestingly, we also find a non-zero coupling β = 0.078±0.022 (68% C.L.) when we use the Planck, the ''SNLS'' supernovae samples, and the prior on the Hubble constant from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) together. This evidence for the coupled dark energy models mainly comes from a tension between constraints on the Hubble constant from the Planck measurement and the local direct H{sub 0} probes from HST.

  5. Galaxy Cluster Studies with the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boada, Steven A.; Papovich, Casey J.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli S.; Gebhardt, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The study of clusters of galaxies has been argued to be a very effective way to measure cosmological parameters, including measuring dark energy and testing models of gravity. The Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) will observe many hundreds of square degrees, covering a large sample of galaxy clusters out to z = 0.5 based on their optical spectra (3500-5500 Å). The spectra will provide important measures of the clusters dynamics and may enable constraints on cosmological parameters, but only if the measurements provide accurate estimates of the total cluster masses. We have carried out a study to investigate the ability of HETDEX to recover accurate galaxy cluster masses over a wide range of masses and redshifts. We used a detailed mock galaxy catalog and present mock observations of two different scenarios: (1) We targeted individual galaxy clusters to investigate the recovery of parameters with such observations. (2) We created and evaluated a HETDEX-like selection "function'' of galaxies over a similarly sized portion of the sky and use well adopted techniques to recover the dynamical properties, such as velocity dispersion and mass. Using both observing strategies, we produce cluster mass probability density functions P(X|M,z), which can be used to determine the probability that a galaxy cluster of given mass (M), located at redshift (z) determined using observable parameter (X). We then applied these probability functions to ten galaxy clusters selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR8 and the Chandra-XMM X-ray Cluster Survey at z=0.2-0.3, and observed by the HETDEX spectrograph prototype instrument (VIRUS-p). We measured spectroscopic redshifts and line-of-sight velocities of the galaxies in and around each cluster, derived a line-of-sight velocity dispersion, and inferred a dynamical mass for each cluster which ranges from (0.4-24) x 1014 M⊙ (M200c). Using the mass probability density functions described above, we updated these

  6. X-ray phase computed tomography for nanoparticulated imaging probes and therapeutics: preliminary feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiangyang; Yang, Yi; Tang, Shaojie

    2011-03-01

    With the scientific progress in cancer biology, pharmacology and biomedical engineering, the nano-biotechnology based imaging probes and therapeutical agents (namely probes/agents) - a form of theranostics - are among the strategic solutions bearing the hope for the cure of cancer. The key feature distinguishing the nanoparticulated probes/agents from their conventional counterparts is their targeting capability. A large surface-to-volume ratio in nanoparticulated probes/agents enables the accommodation of multiple targeting, imaging and therapeutic components to cope with the intra- and inter-tumor heterogeneity. Most nanoparticulated probes/agents are synthesized with low atomic number materials and thus their x-ray attenuation are very similar to biological tissues. However, their microscopic structures are very different, which may result in significant differences in their refractive properties. Recently, the investigation in the x-ray grating-based differential phase contrast (DPC) CT has demonstrated its advantages in differentiating low-atomic materials over the conventional attenuation-based CT. We believe that a synergy of x-ray grating-based DPC CT and nanoparticulated imaging probes and therapeutic agents may play a significant role in extensive preclinical and clinical applications, or even become a modality for molecular imaging. Hence, we propose to image the refractive property of nanoparticulated imaging probes and therapeutical agents using x-ray grating-based DPC CT. In this work, we conduct a preliminary feasibility study with a focus to characterize the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and contrast-detail behavior of the x-ray grating-based DPC CT. The obtained data may be instructive to the architecture design and performance optimization of the x-ray grating-based DPC CT for imaging biomarker-targeted imaging probes and therapeutic agents, and even informative to the translation of preclinical research in theranostics into clinical applications.

  7. A Coaxial Dual-element Focused Ultrasound Probe for Guidance of Epidural Catheterization: An Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Dong, Guo-Chung; Chiu, Li-Chen; Ting, Chien-Kun; Hsu, Jia-Ruei; Huang, Chih-Chung; Chang, Yin; Chen, Gin-Shin

    2017-09-01

    Ultrasound guidance for epidural block has improved clinical blind-trial problems but the design of present ultrasonic probes poses operating difficulty of ultrasound-guided catheterization, increasing the failure rate. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel ultrasonic probe to avoid needle contact with vertebral bone during epidural catheterization. The probe has a central circular passage for needle insertion. Two focused annular transducers are deployed around the passage for on-axis guidance. A 17-gauge insulated Tuohy needle containing the self-developed fiber-optic-modified stylet was inserted into the back of the anesthetized pig, in the lumbar region under the guidance of our ultrasonic probe. The inner transducer of the probe detected the shallow echo signals of the peak-peak amplitude of 2.8 V over L3 at the depth of 2.4 cm, and the amplitude was decreased to 0.8 V directly over the L3 to L4 interspace. The outer transducer could detect the echoes from the deeper bone at the depth of 4.5 cm, which did not appear for the inner transducer. The operator tilted the probe slightly in left-right and cranial-caudal directions until the echoes at the depth of 4.5 cm disappeared, and the epidural needle was inserted through the central passage of the probe. The needle was advanced and stopped when the epidural space was identified by optical technique. The needle passed without bone contact. Designs of the hollow probe for needle pass and dual transducers with different focal lengths for detection of shallow and deep vertebrae may benefit operation, bone/nonbone identification, and cost.

  8. Sub-micron opto-chemical probes for studying living neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossein-Zadeh, M.; Delgado, J.; Schweizer, F.; Lieberman, R.

    2017-02-01

    We have fabricated sub-micron opto-chemical probes for pH, oxygen and calcium monitoring and demonstrated their application in intracellular and extracellular monitoring of neurons (cortical neuronal cultures and acute hippocampal slices). Using these probes, we have measured extracellular pH in the stratum radiatum of the CA1 region of mouse hippocampus upon stimulation of presynaptic Schaffer collateral axons. Synaptic transmission was monitored using standard electrophysiological techniques. We find that the local pH transiently changes in response to synaptic stimulation. In addition, the geometry of the functionalized region on the probe combined with high sensitivity imaging enables simultaneous monitoring of spatially adjacent but distinct compartments. As proof of concept we impaled cultured neurons with the probe measured calcium and pH inside as well as directly outside of neurons as we changed the pH and calcium concentration in the physiological solution in the perfusion chamber. As such these probes can be used to study the impact of the environment on both cellular and extra-cellular space. Additionally as the chemical properties of the surrounding medium can be controlled and monitored with high precision, these probes enable differential measurement of the target parameter referenced to a stable bath. This approach eliminates the uncertainties associated with non-chemical fluctuations in the fluorescent emission and result in a self-calibrated opto-chemical probe. We have also demonstrated multifunctional probes that are capable of measuring up to three parameters in the extracellular space in brain slices.

  9. Aspects of dark matter and Higgs phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edezhath, Ralph Angelus

    The existence of dark matter and the hierarchy problem motivates the search for new physics. The formulation of new search strategies and models is crucial in the hunt for physics beyond the Standard Model, and in this work we present three studies of new physics relevant for current and upcoming experiments. First, we study models that contain a singlet dark matter particle with cubic renormalizable couplings between standard model particles and 'partner' particles with the same gauge quantum numbers as the standard model quark. The dark matter has spin 0, ½, 12, or 1, and may or may not be its own antiparticle. Each model has 3 parameters: the masses of the dark matter and standard model partners, and the cubic coupling. Requiring the correct relic abundance gives a 2-dimensional parameter space where collider and direct detection constraints can be directly compared. We find that collider and direct detection searches are remarkably complementary for these models. Direct detection limits for the cases where the dark matter is not its own antiparticle require dark matter masses to be in the multi-TeV range, where they are extremely difficult to probe in collider experiments. The models where dark matter is its own antiparticle are strongly constrained by collider searches for monojet and jets + MET signals. These models are constrained by direct detection mainly near the limit where the dark matter and partner masses are nearly degenerate, where collider searches become more difficult. Second, we study the case where the singlet dark matter has trilinear couplings to leptons and a new "lepton partner'' particle. The most sensitive collider probe is the search for leptons + MET, while the most sensitive direct detection channel is scattering from nuclei arising from loop diagrams. Collider and direct detection searches are highly complementary: colliders give the only meaningful constraint when dark matter is its own antiparticle, while direct detection is

  10. Plasma dark matter direct detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, J. D.; Foot, R.

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter in spiral galaxies like the Milky Way may take the form of a dark plasma. Hidden sector dark matter charged under an unbroken U(1)' gauge interaction provides a simple and well defined particle physics model realising this possibility. The assumed U(1)' neutrality of the Universe then implies (at least) two oppositely charged dark matter components with self-interactions mediated via a massless "dark photon" (the U(1)' gauge boson). In addition to nuclear recoils such dark matter can give rise to keV electron recoils in direct detection experiments. In this context, the detailed physical properties of the dark matter plasma interacting with the Earth is required. This is a complex system, which is here modelled as a fluid governed by the magnetohydrodynamic equations. These equations are numerically solved for some illustrative examples, and implications for direct detection experiments discussed. In particular, the analysis presented here leaves open the intriguing possibility that the DAMA annual modulation signal is due primarily to electron recoils (or even a combination of electron recoils and nuclear recoils). The importance of diurnal modulation (in addition to annual modulation) as a means of probing this kind of dark matter is also emphasised.

  11. Make dark matter charged again

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Randall, Lisa; Scholtz, Jakub

    2017-05-01

    We revisit constraints on dark matter that is charged under a U(1) gauge group in the dark sector, decoupled from Standard Model forces. We find that the strongest constraints in the literature are subject to a number of mitigating factors. For instance, the naive dark matter thermalization timescale in halos is corrected by saturation effects that slow down isotropization for modest ellipticities. The weakened bounds uncover interesting parameter space, making models with weak-scale charged dark matter viable, even with electromagnetic strength interaction. This also leads to the intriguing possibility that dark matter self-interactions within small dwarf galaxies are extremely large, a relatively unexplored regime in current simulations. Such strong interactions suppress heat transfer over scales larger than the dark matter mean free path, inducing a dynamical cutoff length scale above which the system appears to have only feeble interactions. These effects must be taken into account to assess the viability of darkly-charged dark matter. Future analyses and measurements should probe a promising region of parameter space for this model.

  12. Plasma dark matter direct detection

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.D.; Foot, R. E-mail: rfoot@unimelb.edu.au

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter in spiral galaxies like the Milky Way may take the form of a dark plasma. Hidden sector dark matter charged under an unbroken U(1)' gauge interaction provides a simple and well defined particle physics model realising this possibility. The assumed U(1)' neutrality of the Universe then implies (at least) two oppositely charged dark matter components with self-interactions mediated via a massless 'dark photon' (the U(1)' gauge boson). In addition to nuclear recoils such dark matter can give rise to keV electron recoils in direct detection experiments. In this context, the detailed physical properties of the dark matter plasma interacting with the Earth is required. This is a complex system, which is here modelled as a fluid governed by the magnetohydrodynamic equations. These equations are numerically solved for some illustrative examples, and implications for direct detection experiments discussed. In particular, the analysis presented here leaves open the intriguing possibility that the DAMA annual modulation signal is due primarily to electron recoils (or even a combination of electron recoils and nuclear recoils). The importance of diurnal modulation (in addition to annual modulation) as a means of probing this kind of dark matter is also emphasised.

  13. Applications of a total dissolved gas pressure probe in ground water studies.

    PubMed

    Manning, Andrew H; Solomon, D Kip; Sheldon, Amy L

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of dissolved gases have numerous applications in ground water hydrology, and it is now possible to measure the total dissolved gas pressure in situ using a probe. Dissolved gas pressure is measured by submerging a headspace volume with a gas-permeable membrane, allowing dissolved gases in the water to equilibrate with gases in the headspace, then measuring the pressure in the headspace with a pressure transducer. Total dissolved gas pressure (TGP) probes have many potential uses in ground water studies employing dissolved gases, including: (1) determining approximate excess air levels, which may provide information about the time and location of recharge; (2) screening wells for air contamination, which can compromise the accuracy of dissolved gas tracer techniques: (3) detecting a trapped gas phase, which can significantly reduce hydraulic conductivity and impede the transport of dissolved solutes and gases; (4) enabling the use of gas-filled passive diffusion samplers for determining accurate dissolved gas concentrations; and (5) determining relative concentrations of CH4 and CO2 when they are known to be highly abundant. Although TGP probes designed for surface water have been available for several years, TGP probes suitable for ground water applications have only recently become available. Herein we present what are, to our knowledge, the first reported ground water dissolved gas data collected using a TGP probe. We also explain the basic operating principles of these probes and discuss the potential applications listed.

  14. Dark matter RNA illuminates the puzzle of genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, numerous studies have made connections between sequence variants in human genomes and predisposition to complex diseases. However, most of these variants lie outside of the charted regions of the human genome whose function we understand; that is, the sequences that encode proteins. Consequently, the general concept of a mechanism that translates these variants into predisposition to diseases has been lacking, potentially calling into question the validity of these studies. Here we make a connection between the growing class of apparently functional RNAs that do not encode proteins and whose function we do not yet understand (the so-called ‘dark matter’ RNAs) and the disease-associated variants. We review advances made in a different genomic mapping effort – unbiased profiling of all RNA transcribed from the human genome – and provide arguments that the disease-associated variants exert their effects via perturbation of regulatory properties of non-coding RNAs existing in mammalian cells. PMID:24924000

  15. A study of the large-scale infrared emission from a selected dark cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Erick T.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation of the infrared emission energetics and embedded population in the rho Ophiuchi dark cloud is summarized. With a distance of approximately 140 pc, the rho Ophiuchi cloud is one of the closest regions of recent star formation. It is also one of the best studied such regions with numerous observations at all wavelengths. The IRAS data of the cloud provided a new glimpse of the overall structure of the cloud. In particular, the interaction of radiation from the Sco-Oph OB Association on the external heating of the cloud was very evident on Skyflux and Survey Co-Add images produced by IRAS. The infrared survey also revealed a number of new embedded sources in the cloud which have subsequently been observed from the ground. An earlier study explored the overall energetics of the cloud using the IRAS data. The main conclusions of that work were: (1) the overall luminosity of the cloud is well explained by the emission of the known B-stars, HD 147889, SR-3, and S1, along with a 15 percent contribution from the external radiation field; (2) the dust physical temperatures were significantly lower than the observed CO gas temperatures; and (3) dust grains are heated to only 10 percent to 20 percent of the total depth into the cloud. This analysis is extended by drawing on data from large-scale CO maps and from near-infrared surveys of the embedded population.

  16. A study of the large-scale infrared emission from a selected dark cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Erick T.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of the infrared emission energetics and embedded population in the rho Ophiuchi dark cloud is summarized. With a distance of approximately 140 pc, the rho Ophiuchi cloud is one of the closest regions of recent star formation. It is also one of the best studied such regions with numerous observations at all wavelengths. The Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) data of the cloud provided a new glimpse of the overall structure of the cloud. In particular, the interaction of radiation from the Sco-Oph OB Association on the external heating of the cloud was very evident on Skyflux and Survey CO-Add images produced by IRAS. The infrared survey also revealed a number of new embedded sources in the cloud which have subsequently been observed from the ground. In earlier study, the overall energies of the cloud using the IRAS data was explored. The main conclusions of that work were: (1) the overall luminosity of the cloud is well explained by the emission of the known B-stars, HD 147889, SR-3, and S1, along with a 15 percent contribution from the external radiation field; (2) the dust physical temperatures were significantly lower than the observed CO gas temperatures; and (3) dust grains are heated to only 10 percent to 20 percent of the total depth into the cloud. This analysis was extended by drawing on data from large-scale CO maps of Loren (1989) and from near-infrared surveys of the embedded population.

  17. Dark coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Gavela, M.B.; Hernández, D.; Honorez, L. Lopez; Mena, O.; Rigolin, S. E-mail: d.hernandez@uam.es E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es

    2009-07-01

    The two dark sectors of the universe—dark matter and dark energy—may interact with each other. Background and linear density perturbation evolution equations are developed for a generic coupling. We then establish the general conditions necessary to obtain models free from non-adiabatic instabilities. As an application, we consider a viable universe in which the interaction strength is proportional to the dark energy density. The scenario does not exhibit ''phantom crossing'' and is free from instabilities, including early ones. A sizeable interaction strength is compatible with combined WMAP, HST, SN, LSS and H(z) data. Neutrino mass and/or cosmic curvature are allowed to be larger than in non-interacting models. Our analysis sheds light as well on unstable scenarios previously proposed.

  18. Activation of violaxanthin cycle in darkness is a common response to different abiotic stresses: a case study in Pelvetia canaliculata

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the violaxanthin (V) cycle, V is de-epoxidized to zeaxanthin (Z) when strong light or light combined with other stressors lead to an overexcitation of photosystems. However, plants can also suffer stress in darkness and recent reports have shown that dehydration triggers V-de-epoxidation in the absence of light. In this study, we used the highly stress-tolerant brown alga Pelvetia canaliculata as a model organism, due to its lack of lutein and its non-photochemical quenching independent of the transthylakoidal-ΔpH, to study the triggering of the V-cycle in darkness induced by abiotic stressors. Results We have shown that besides desiccation, other factors such as immersion, anoxia and high temperature also induced V-de-epoxidation in darkness. This process was reversible once the treatments had ceased (with the exception of heat, which caused lethal damage). Irrespective of the stressor applied, the resulting de-epoxidised xanthophylls correlated with a decrease in Fv/Fm, suggesting a common function in the down-regulation of photosynthetical efficiency. The implication of the redox-state of the plastoquinone-pool and of the differential activity of V-cycle enzymes on V-de-epoxidation in darkness was also examined. Current results suggest that both violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) and zeaxanthin-epoxidase (ZE) have a basal constitutive activity even in darkness, being ZE inhibited under stress. This inhibition leads to Z accumulation. Conclusion This study demonstrates that V-cycle activity is triggered by several abiotic stressors even when they occur in an absolute absence of light, leading to a decrease in Fv/Fm. This finding provides new insights into an understanding of the regulation mechanism of the V-cycle and of its ecophysiological roles. PMID:22269024

  19. Activation of violaxanthin cycle in darkness is a common response to different abiotic stresses: a case study in Pelvetia canaliculata.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Míguez, Fátima; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2011-12-26

    In the violaxanthin (V) cycle, V is de-epoxidized to zeaxanthin (Z) when strong light or light combined with other stressors lead to an overexcitation of photosystems. However, plants can also suffer stress in darkness and recent reports have shown that dehydration triggers V-de-epoxidation in the absence of light. In this study, we used the highly stress-tolerant brown alga Pelvetia canaliculata as a model organism, due to its lack of lutein and its non-photochemical quenching independent of the transthylakoidal-ΔpH, to study the triggering of the V-cycle in darkness induced by abiotic stressors. We have shown that besides desiccation, other factors such as immersion, anoxia and high temperature also induced V-de-epoxidation in darkness. This process was reversible once the treatments had ceased (with the exception of heat, which caused lethal damage). Irrespective of the stressor applied, the resulting de-epoxidised xanthophylls correlated with a decrease in Fv/Fm, suggesting a common function in the down-regulation of photosynthetical efficiency. The implication of the redox-state of the plastoquinone-pool and of the differential activity of V-cycle enzymes on V-de-epoxidation in darkness was also examined. Current results suggest that both violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) and zeaxanthin-epoxidase (ZE) have a basal constitutive activity even in darkness, being ZE inhibited under stress. This inhibition leads to Z accumulation. This study demonstrates that V-cycle activity is triggered by several abiotic stressors even when they occur in an absolute absence of light, leading to a decrease in Fv/Fm. This finding provides new insights into an understanding of the regulation mechanism of the V-cycle and of its ecophysiological roles.

  20. Electron spin echo modulation studies of doxylstearic acid spin probes in frozen vesicles: Interaction of the spin probe with D sub 2 O and effects of cholesterol addition

    SciTech Connect

    Hiff, T.; Kevan, L. )

    1989-02-23

    Electron spin echo studies have been carried out for a series of x-doxylstearic acid (x = 5, 7, 10, 12 and 16) spin probes in frozen deuteriated aqueous solutions of phospholipid vesicles and cationic dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride (DODAC) vesicles. Modulation effects due to interactions of the nitroxide group of the spin probes with D{sub 2}O give information about the conformations of the probes and the degree of hydration of the surfactant headgroups as well as about the degree of packing of the alkyl chain. We show that DODAC headgroups are more hydrated than choline headgroups and that the doxylstearic acid probes show a larger tendency for bending in DODAC vesicles than in phospholipid vesicles. Upon addition of cholesterol into phospholipid vesicles, the headgroups are separated and their degree of hydration increases.

  1. Probing the topography of the photosystem II oxygen evolving complex: PsbO is required for efficient calcium protection of the manganese cluster against dark-inhibition by an artificial reductant.

    PubMed

    Popelkova, Hana; Boswell, Nicholas; Yocum, Charles

    2011-12-01

    The photosystem II (PSII) manganese-stabilizing protein (PsbO) is known to be the essential PSII extrinsic subunit for stabilization and retention of the Mn and Cl(-) cofactors in the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of PSII, but its function relative to Ca(2+) is less clear. To obtain a better insight into the relationship, if any, between PsbO and Ca(2+) binding in the OEC, samples with altered PsbO-PSII binding properties were probed for their potential to promote the ability of Ca(2+) to protect the Mn cluster against dark-inhibition by an exogenous artificial reductant, N,N-dimethylhydroxylamine. In the absence of the PsbP and PsbQ extrinsic subunits, Ca(2+) and its surrogates (Sr(2+), Cd(2+)) shield Mn atoms from inhibitory reduction (Kuntzleman et al., Phys Chem Chem Phys 6:4897, 2004). The results presented here show that PsbO exhibits a positive effect on Ca(2+) binding in the OEC by facilitating the ability of the metal to prevent inhibition of activity by the reductant. The data presented here suggest that PsbO may have a role in the formation of the OEC-associated Ca(2+) binding site by promoting the equilibrium between bound and free Ca(2+) that favors the bound metal.

  2. Dark Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-01-01

    It's a dark, dark universe out there, and I don't mean because the night sky is black. After all, once you leave the shadow of the Earth and get out into space, you're surrounded by countless lights glittering everywhere you look. But for all of Sagan's billions and billions of stars and galaxies, it's a jaw-dropping fact that the ordinary kind of…

  3. Dark Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-01-01

    It's a dark, dark universe out there, and I don't mean because the night sky is black. After all, once you leave the shadow of the Earth and get out into space, you're surrounded by countless lights glittering everywhere you look. But for all of Sagan's billions and billions of stars and galaxies, it's a jaw-dropping fact that the ordinary kind of…

  4. Comparative Study of Quality Characteristics of Korean Soy Sauce Made with Soybeans Germinated Under Dark and Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ung-Kyu; Jeong, Yeon-Shin; Kwon, O-Jun; Park, Jong-Dae; Kim, Young-Chan

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of germinating soybeans under dark and light conditions on the quality characteristics of Korean soy sauce made with germinated soybeans. The germination rate of soybeans germinated under dark conditions (GSD) was higher than that of soybeans germinated under light conditions (GSL), whereas the lengths of sprouts and relative weights of GSL did not differ from those of GSD. The L, a, b, and ΔT values of GSL were significantly lower than GSD. The color of GSD remained yellow, while GSL changed to a green color due to photosynthesis by chlorophyll. The total amino acid contents in soy sauce fermented with soybeans germinated under dark conditions (SSGD) and soy sauce fermented with soybeans germinated under light conditions (SSGL) were lower than in soy sauce fermented with non-germinated soybeans (SNGS). The levels of isoflavone content in SSGD and SSGL were significantly increased compared to the SNGS. In conclusion, the germination of soybeans under dark and light conditions is not only an increasing organoleptic preference, but also has implications for the health benefits of Korean soy sauce. PMID:22174653

  5. Comparative study of quality characteristics of Korean soy sauce made with soybeans germinated under dark and light conditions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ung-Kyu; Jeong, Yeon-Shin; Kwon, O-Jun; Park, Jong-Dae; Kim, Young-Chan

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of germinating soybeans under dark and light conditions on the quality characteristics of Korean soy sauce made with germinated soybeans. The germination rate of soybeans germinated under dark conditions (GSD) was higher than that of soybeans germinated under light conditions (GSL), whereas the lengths of sprouts and relative weights of GSL did not differ from those of GSD. The L, a, b, and ΔT values of GSL were significantly lower than GSD. The color of GSD remained yellow, while GSL changed to a green color due to photosynthesis by chlorophyll. The total amino acid contents in soy sauce fermented with soybeans germinated under dark conditions (SSGD) and soy sauce fermented with soybeans germinated under light conditions (SSGL) were lower than in soy sauce fermented with non-germinated soybeans (SNGS). The levels of isoflavone content in SSGD and SSGL were significantly increased compared to the SNGS. In conclusion, the germination of soybeans under dark and light conditions is not only an increasing organoleptic preference, but also has implications for the health benefits of Korean soy sauce.

  6. Development of a microwave probe for the optical study of microwave-excited spin physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Yu-Sheng; Chiu, Yi-Hsin; Adur, Rohan; Odenthal, Patrick; Kawakami, Roland; Hammel, P. Chris; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel

    2014-03-01

    We have developed an experimental probe that allows simultaneous broadband microwave excitation and optical excitation/detection at variable temperature and magnetic field. Specifically, we have designed a unique sample probe with a microwave stripline based sample mount that allows for direct optical access to the sample under study within a magneto- optical cryostat. This powerful combination enables optical studies of spintronic systems under microwave excitation using both CW (e.g. photo- and electro-luminescence) and time resolved (e.g. time resolved absorption/transmission and time resolved Kerr rotation, TRKR) techniques. To benchmark the capabilities of this probe we present data demonstrating simultaneous ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and TRKR in a Fe/MgO/GaAs heterostructure. Such studies have potential applications in the study of FMR driven spin pumping and interaction of free carrier spins with native and engineered defects. MRSEC (DMR-0820414).

  7. Observational Studies of Pre-Stellar Cores and Infrared Dark Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caselli, Paola

    2011-12-01

    Stars like our Sun and planets like our Earth form in dense regions within interstellar molecular clouds, called pre-stellar cores (PSCs). PSCs provide the initial conditions in the process of star and planet formation. In the past 15 years, detailed observations of (low-mass) PSCs in nearby molecular cloud complexes have allowed us to find that they are cold (T < 10K) and quiescent (molecular line widths are close to thermal), with a chemistry profoundly affected by molecular freeze-out onto dust grains. In these conditions, deuterated molecules flourish, becoming the best tools to unveil the PSC physical and chemical structure. Despite their apparent simplicity, PSCs still offer puzzles to solve and they are far from being completely understood. For example, what is happening to the gas and dust in their nuclei (the future stellar cradles) is still a mystery that awaits for ALMA. Other important questions are: how do different environments and external conditions affect the PSC physical/chemical structure? Are PSCs in high-mass star forming regions similar to the well-known low-mass PSCs? Here I review observational and theoretical work on PSCs in nearby molecular cloud complexes and the ongoing search and study of massive PSCs embedded in infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), which host the initial conditions for stellar cluster and high-mass star formation.

  8. Dark current and radiation shielding studies for the ILC main linac

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, Nikolai V.; Rakhno, I. L.; Solyak, N. A.; Sukhanov, A.; Tropin, I. S.

    2016-12-05

    Electrons of dark current (DC), generated in high-gradient superconducting RF cavities (SRF) due to field emission, can be accelerated up to very high energies—19 GeV in the case of the International Linear Collider (ILC) main linac—before they are removed by focusing and steering magnets. Electromagnetic and hadron showers generated by such electrons can represent a significant radiation threat to the linac equipment and personnel. In our study, an operational scenario is analysed which is believed can be considered as the worst case scenario for the main linac regarding the DC contribution to the radiation environment in the main linac tunnel. A detailed modelling is performed for the DC electrons which are emitted from the surface of the SRF cavities and can be repeatedly accelerated in the high-gradient fields in many SRF cavities. Results of MARS15 Monte Carlo calculations, performed for the current main linac tunnel design, reveal that the prompt dose design level of 25 μSv/hr in the service tunnel can be provided by a 2.3-m thick concrete wall between the main and service ls.

  9. Axion cold dark matter in nonstandard cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Visinelli, Luca; Gondolo, Paolo

    2010-03-15

    We study the parameter space of cold dark matter axions in two cosmological scenarios with nonstandard thermal histories before big bang nucleosynthesis: the low-temperature reheating (LTR) cosmology and the kination cosmology. If the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaks during inflation, we find more allowed parameter space in the LTR cosmology than in the standard cosmology and less in the kination cosmology. On the contrary, if the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaks after inflation, the Peccei-Quinn scale is orders of magnitude higher than standard in the LTR cosmology and lower in the kination cosmology. We show that the axion velocity dispersion may be used to distinguish some of these nonstandard cosmologies. Thus, axion cold dark matter may be a good probe of the history of the Universe before big bang nucleosynthesis.

  10. A Rat Drinking in the Dark Model for Studying Ethanol and Sucrose Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Holgate, Joan Y.; Shariff, Masroor; Mu, Erica W. H.; Bartlett, Selena

    2017-01-01

    Background: The intermittent access 2-bottle choice (IA2BC) and drinking in the dark (DID) models were developed for studying rodent binge-like consumption. Traditionally, IA2BC was used with rats and DID with mice. Recently, IA2BC was adapted to study mouse ethanol consumption. However, it is unknown whether DID is suitable for rats or if one rat model is more advantageous than another for studying binge-like consumption. Methods: Male Wistar rats consumed 20% ethanol or 5% sucrose using IA2BC or DID for 12 weeks. IA2BC drinking sessions occurred on alternate days (Mondays–Fridays) and lasted 24 h, whereas DID sessions ran 4 h/day, 5 days/week (Monday–Friday). Average consumption/session, week and hour was measured. To explore DID model suitability for screening novel compounds for controlling ethanol and sucrose intake, varenicline (2 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered to DID rats. Results: IA2BC rats consume more ethanol/session and similar amounts of ethanol/week than DID rats. While, IA2BC rats consume more sucrose/session and week than DID rats. Although IA2BC rats had more ethanol and sucrose access time, DID rats had greater ethanol and sucrose intake/hour. Varenicline significantly reduced ethanol and sucrose consumption in DID rats, consistent with previously published IA2BC studies. Conclusions: Despite the shorter access time, the rat DID model induced higher initial intake and greater consumption/hour for both ethanol and sucrose. The shorter duration of DID sessions did not prevent detection of varenicline-induced reductions in ethanol or sucrose consumption, suggesting the DID model may be suitable for studying binge-like ethanol and sucrose consumption. PMID:28275340

  11. Working Group Report: Dark Matter Complementarity (Dark Matter in the Coming Decade: Complementary Paths to Discovery and Beyond)

    SciTech Connect

    Arrenberg, Sebastian; et al.,

    2013-10-31

    In this Report we discuss the four complementary searches for the identity of dark matter: direct detection experiments that look for dark matter interacting in the lab, indirect detection experiments that connect lab signals to dark matter in our own and other galaxies, collider experiments that elucidate the particle properties of dark matter, and astrophysical probes sensitive to non-gravitational interactions of dark matter. The complementarity among the different dark matter searches is discussed qualitatively and illustrated quantitatively in several theoretical scenarios. Our primary conclusion is that the diversity of possible dark matter candidates requires a balanced program based on all four of those approaches.

  12. Super-heavy dark matter - Towards predictive scenarios from inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannike, Kristjan; Racioppi, Antonio; Raidal, Martti

    2017-05-01

    A generic prediction of the Coleman-Weinberg inflation is the existence of a heavy particle sector whose interactions with the inflaton, the lightest state in this sector, generate the inflaton potential at loop level. For typical interactions the heavy sector may contain stable states whose relic abundance is generated at the end of inflation by the gravity alone. This general feature, and the absence of any particle physics signal of dark matter so far, motivates us to look for new directions in the dark sector physics, including scenarios in which dark matter is super-heavy. In this article we study the possibility that the dark matter is even heavier than the inflaton, its existence follows from the inflaton dynamics, and its abundance today is naturally determined by the weakness of gravitational interaction. This implies that the super-heavy dark matter scenarios can be tested via the measurements of inflationary parameters and/or the CMB isocurvature perturbations and non-Gaussianities. We explicitly work out details of three Coleman-Weinberg inflation scenarios, study the systematics of super-heavy dark matter production in those cases, and compute which parts of the parameter spaces can be probed by the future CMB measurements.

  13. Mechanistic Study of the Validity of Using Hydroxyl Radical Probes To Characterize Electrochemical Advanced Oxidation Processes.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yin; Chaplin, Brian P

    2017-02-21

    The detection of hydroxyl radicals (OH(•)) is typically accomplished by using reactive probe molecules, but prior studies have not thoroughly investigated the suitability of these probes for use in electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), due to the neglect of alternative reaction mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the suitability of four OH(•) probes (coumarin, p-chlorobenzoic acid, terephthalic acid, and p-benzoquinone) for use in EAOPs. Experimental results indicated that both coumarin and p-chlorobenzoic acid are oxidized via direct electron transfer reactions, while p-benzoquinone and terephthalic acid are not. Coumarin oxidation to form the OH(•) adduct product 7-hydroxycoumarin was found at anodic potentials lower than that necessary for OH(•) formation. Density functional theory (DFT) simulations found a thermodynamically favorable and non-OH(•) mediated pathway for 7-hydroxycoumarin formation, which is activationless at anodic potentials > 2.10 V/SHE. DFT simulations also provided estimates of E° values for a series of OH(•) probe compounds, which agreed with voltammetry results. Results from this study indicated that terephthalic acid is the most appropriate OH(•) probe compound for the characterization of electrochemical and catalytic systems.

  14. Studying generalised dark matter interactions with extended halo-independent methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kahlhoefer, Felix; Wild, Sebastian

    2016-10-20

    The interpretation of dark matter direct detection experiments is complicated by the fact that neither the astrophysical distribution of dark matter nor the properties of its particle physics interactions with nuclei are known in detail. To address both of these issues in a very general way we develop a new framework that combines the full formalism of non-relativistic effective interactions with state-of-the-art halo-independent methods. This approach makes it possible to analyse direct detection experiments for arbitrary dark matter interactions and quantify the goodness-of-fit independent of astrophysical uncertainties. We employ this method in order to demonstrate that the degeneracy between astrophysical uncertainties and particle physics unknowns is not complete. Certain models can be distinguished in a halo-independent way using a single ton-scale experiment based on liquid xenon, while other models are indistinguishable with a single experiment but can be separated using combined information from several target elements.

  15. Studying generalised dark matter interactions with extended halo-independent methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahlhoefer, Felix; Wild, Sebastian

    2016-10-01

    The interpretation of dark matter direct detection experiments is complicated by the fact that neither the astrophysical distribution of dark matter nor the properties of its particle physics interactions with nuclei are known in detail. To address both of these issues in a very general way we develop a new framework that combines the full formalism of non-relativistic effective interactions with state-of-the-art halo-independent methods. This approach makes it possible to analyse direct detection experiments for arbitrary dark matter interactions and quantify the goodness-of-fit independent of astrophysical uncertainties. We employ this method in order to demonstrate that the degeneracy between astrophysical uncertainties and particle physics unknowns is not complete. Certain models can be distinguished in a halo-independent way using a single ton-scale experiment based on liquid xenon, while other models are indistinguishable with a single experiment but can be separated using combined information from several target elements.

  16. Infrared Pump-Probe Study of Nanoconfined Water Structure in Reverse Micelle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jooyong; Maj, Michał; Kwak, Kyungwon; Cho, Minhaeng

    2014-10-02

    The influence of nanoconfinement on water structure is studied with time- and frequency-resolved vibrational spectroscopy of hydrazoic acid (HN3) encapsulated in reverse micelle. The azido stretch mode of HN3 is found to be a promising infrared probe for studying the structure and local hydrogen-bond environment of confined and interfacial water in reverse micelle due to its narrow spectral bandwidth and large transition dipole moment. The results show a clear separation between the core and shell spectral components, making it advantageous over the previously studied infrared probes. The measured vibrational lifetimes appear to be substantially different for the interfacial and bulk-like environments but show no remarkable size dependency, which indicates that water structures around this IR probe are distinctively different in the core and shell regions. The influence of local hydrogen bond network in the first and higher solvation shells on the vibrational dynamics of HN3 is further discussed.

  17. Dark Energy Coupled with Dark Matter in the Accelerating Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang

    2004-06-01

    To model the observed Universe containing both dark energy and dark matter, we study the effective Yang Mills condensate model of dark energy and add a non-relativistic matter component as the dark matter, which is generated out of the decaying dark energy at a constant rate Gamma, a parameter of our model. For the Universe driven by these two components, the dynamic evolution still has asymptotic behaviour: the expansion of the Universe is accelerating with an asymptotically constant rate H, and the densities of both components approach to finite constant values. Moreover, OmegaLambdasimeq0.7 for dark energy and Omegamsimeq0.3 for dark matter are achieved if the decay rate Gamma is chosen such that Gamma/H~1.

  18. A novel probe design to study wetting front kinematics during forced convective quenching

    SciTech Connect

    Vergara-Hernandez, H.J.; Hernandez-Morales, B.

    2009-07-15

    The kinematics of the wetting front, i.e., the loci of the boundary between stable vapor film and the presence of bubbles, during quenching operations largely determines the evolution of the microstructural and displacement fields which, in turn, control the properties of the quenched product. Thus, it is important to develop techniques that allow its precise characterization. To this end, a novel probe design (conical-end cylinder) was coupled with an experimental set-up that guarantees fully developed flow to study wetting front kinematics during forced convective quenching of AISI 304 stainless steel probes in water at 60 C, flowing at 0.20 and 0.60 m/s. Conventional probes (flat-end cylinder) were also quenched for comparison. The wetting front was not symmetric when flat-end cylindrical probes were quenched, even for fully developed flow and relatively low values of quenchant velocity. Computer simulation of the vorticity field near the probe base (considering an isothermal system at ambient temperature) showed that there is a significant vorticity gradient in that region which may favour the chaotic collapse of the vapor film. In contrast, a similar calculation did not show any noticeable vorticity gradient for the conical-end cylindrical probe even at high quenchant velocities. The conical-end cylindrical probe and a fully developed flow ensured that the vapor film collapsed uniformly around the probe due to the fact that the formation of the wetting front was concentrated, initially, at the probe tip. This condition permits a constant advance of the wetting front and a stable transition between boiling regimes, facilitating the study of the kinematics of the wetting front. For the experimental conditions studied the following parameters were derived: (1) wetting front velocity, (2) nucleate boiling length, (3) duration of the nucleate boiling stage and (4) width of the vapor film. The duration of the nucleate boiling stage could be estimated using existing

  19. Mathematical study of probe arrangement and nanoparticle injection effects on heat transfer during cryosurgery.

    PubMed

    Mirkhalili, Seyyed Mostafa; Ramazani S A, Ahmad; Nazemidashtarjandi, Saeed

    2015-11-01

    Blood vessels, especially large vessels have a greater thermal effect on freezing tissue during cryosurgery. Vascular networks act as heat sources in tissue, and cause failure in cryosurgery and reappearance of cancer. The aim of this study is to numerically simulate the effect of probe location and multiprobe on heat transfer distribution. Furthermore, the effect of nanoparticles injection is studied. It is shown that the small probes location near large blood vessels could help to reduce the necessary time for tissue freezing. Nanoparticles injection shows that the thermal effect of blood vessel in tissue is improved. Using Au, Ag and diamond nanoparticles have the most growth of ice ball during cryosurgery. However, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) nanoparticle can be used to protect normal tissue around tumor cell due to its influence on reducing heat transfer in tissue. Introduction of Au, Ag and diamond nanoparticles combined with multicryoprobe in this model causes reduction of tissue average temperature about 50% compared to the one probe.

  20. The LZ dark matter experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinsey, D. N.; LZ Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The LUX and ZEPLIN collaborations have merged to construct a 7 tonne two-phase Xe dark matter detector, known as LUX-ZEPLIN or LZ. Chosen as one of the Generation 2 suite of dark matter direct detection experiments, LZ will probe spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross sections down to 2 × 10-48 cm2 at 50 GeV/c2 within 3 years of operation, covering a substantial range of theoretically-motivated dark matter candidates. Along with dark matter interactions with Xe nuclei, LZ will also be sensitive to solar neutrinos emitted by the pp fusion process in the sun, neutrinos emitted by a nearby supernova and detected by coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering, certain classes of axions and axion-like particles, and neutrinoless double-beta decay of 136Xe. The design of LZ is presented, along with its expected backgrounds and projected sensitivity.

  1. On dark energy isocurvature perturbation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Xinmin; Li, Mingzhe E-mail: limz@nju.edu.cn

    2011-06-01

    Determining the equation of state of dark energy with astronomical observations is crucially important to understand the nature of dark energy. In performing a likelihood analysis of the data, especially of the cosmic microwave background and large scale structure data the dark energy perturbations have to be taken into account both for theoretical consistency and for numerical accuracy. Usually, one assumes in the global fitting analysis that the dark energy perturbations are adiabatic. In this paper, we study the dark energy isocurvature perturbation analytically and discuss its implications for the cosmic microwave background radiation and large scale structure. Furthermore, with the current astronomical observational data and by employing Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, we perform a global analysis of cosmological parameters assuming general initial conditions for the dark energy perturbations. The results show that the dark energy isocurvature perturbations are very weakly constrained and that purely adiabatic initial conditions are consistent with the data.

  2. Coexistence of probe conformations in lipid phases-a polarized fluorescence microspectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Urbančič, Iztok; Ljubetič, Ajasja; Arsov, Zoran; Strancar, Janez

    2013-08-20

    Several well-established fluorescence methods depend on environment-sensitive probes that report about molecular properties of their local environment. For reliable interpretation of experiments, careful characterization of probes' behavior is required. In this study, bleaching-corrected polarized fluorescence microspectroscopy with nanometer spectral peak position resolution was applied to characterize conformations of two alkyl chain-labeled 7-nitro-2-1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl phospholipids in three model membranes, representing the three main lipid phases. The combination of polarized and spectral detection revealed two main probe conformations with their preferential fluorophore dipole orientations roughly parallel and perpendicular to membrane normal. Their peak positions were separated by 2-6 nm because of different local polarities and depended on lipid environment. The relative populations of conformations, estimated by a numerical model, indicated a specific sensitivity of the two probes to molecular packing with cholesterol. The coexistence of probe conformations could be further exploited to investigate membrane organization below microscopy spatial resolution, such as lipid rafts. With the addition of polarized excitation or detection to any environment-sensitive fluorescence imaging technique, the conformational analysis can be directly applied to explore local membrane complexity.

  3. Development of a Laser Probe for Argon Isotope Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConville, Paul

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The first objective of this study was to develop a laser outgassing facility for argon isotope studies. Apart from the laser and construction of the laser sample port, existing vacuum and mass spectrometer systems were used. Laser performance and optimum operating conditions were investigated. The second objective was test and evaluate the laser extraction technique by studies of simple geological samples. Previous laser ^{40} Ar-^{39}Ar dating studies by other workers had not systematically established the basis or characteristics of the method. Results from laser and complementary stepped heating studies of the ^{40}Ar-^ {39}Ar dating standard hornblende, hb3gr; a phlogopite sample from the Palabora (Phalaborwa) Complex; and biotites in a thin section of the Hamlet Bjerg granite from East Greenland, verified that: (1) Laser extraction reproduced within experimental error the stepped heating ^{40}Ar-^ {39}Ar and K-Ar ages of simple samples. (2) The precision of the technique i.e. the amount of sample required to give reliable ages, was limited in the present experiments largely by the level of the blanks and backgrounds to 10-100 ug samples. (3) Sample outgassing appeared to be limited to the order of 10 um outside the physical size of the laser pit, consistent with other estimates of the spatial definition in the literature. This could be understood by thermal diffusion and the length of the laser pulse. (4) The efficiency of the laser pulse in melting and outgassing mineral samples was shown to be dependent on silicate latent heats and mineral absorption at the laser wavelength. In addition, the ^{40} Ar-^{39}Ar age of the geologically significant Palabora Complex was determined as (2053 +/- 5) Ma. Excess argon led to a discrepancy between the laser and stepped heating ages of biotite and muscovite, (405 +/- 5) Ma, and laser ages of feldspars (510 +/- 20) Ma in the Hamlet Bjerg granite. This illustrated

  4. Stealth dark matter: Dark scalar baryons through the Higgs portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelquist, T.; Brower, R. C.; Buchoff, M. I.; Fleming, G. T.; Jin, X.-Y.; Kiskis, J.; Kribs, G. D.; Neil, E. T.; Osborn, J. C.; Rebbi, C.; Rinaldi, E.; Schaich, D.; Schroeder, C.; Syritsyn, S.; Vranas, P.; Weinberg, E.; Witzel, O.; Lattice Strong Dynamics LSD Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    We present a new model of stealth dark matter: a composite baryonic scalar of an S U (ND) strongly coupled theory with even ND≥4 . All mass scales are technically natural, and dark matter stability is automatic without imposing an additional discrete or global symmetry. Constituent fermions transform in vectorlike representations of the electroweak group that permit both electroweak-breaking and electroweak-preserving mass terms. This gives a tunable coupling of stealth dark matter to the Higgs boson independent of the dark matter mass itself. We specialize to S U (4 ), and investigate the constraints on the model from dark meson decay, electroweak precision measurements, basic collider limits, and spin-independent direct detection scattering through Higgs exchange. We exploit our earlier lattice simulations that determined the composite spectrum as well as the effective Higgs coupling of stealth dark matter in order to place bounds from direct detection, excluding constituent fermions with dominantly electroweak-breaking masses. A lower bound on the dark baryon mass mB≳300 GeV is obtained from the indirect requirement that the lightest dark meson not be observable at LEP II. We briefly survey some intriguing properties of stealth dark matter that are worthy of future study, including collider studies of dark meson production and decay; indirect detection signals from annihilation; relic abundance estimates for both symmetric and asymmetric mechanisms; and direct detection through electromagnetic polarizability, a detailed study of which will appear in a companion paper.

  5. Probing the darkness : the link between baryons and dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velliscig, Marco

    2015-11-01

    De meeste materie in ons Universum is donker. Deze donkere materie vormt de bouwsteen van de grootschalige, kosmische structuren, waarin sterrenstelsels leven. Door zijn botsingloze natuur is donkere materie namelijk beter in staat structuren te vormen dan normale ("baryonische") materie. Deze structuren bestaan uit vlakken, filamenten en knopen, die samen ook wel het kosmisch web worden genoemd. Sterrenstelsels bewonen de centra van grotere "halo's" van donkere materie. Deze halo's zijn zelf niet zichtbaar en het licht uitgezonden door sterrenstelsels kan ons alleen iets vertellen over het binnendeel van deze halo's. In dit proefschrift trachten we meer over halo's te weten te komen. Hiertoe maken we gebruik van kosmologische, hydrodynamische simulaties, waarin we niet alleen de donkere maar ook de zichtbare materie meenemen, alsmede alle processen die gedacht worden belangrijk te zijn voor de vorming en groei van sterrenstelsels. Dergelijke simulaties bieden ons de mogelijkheid om het verband tussen zichtbare en donkere materie te verkennen, aangezien beide componenten tegelijk en zelfconsistent worden gesimuleerd. In waarnemingen kan dit verband onderzocht worden door gebruik te maken van zwaartekrachtlenzen. De werking van dergelijke lenzen is gebaseerd op de afbuiging van fotonen (lichtdeeltjes) wanneer deze door een zwaartekrachtspotentiaal reizen. Zodoende ondervindt licht dat van ver in het heelal naar ons toe reist, onderweg verschillende kleine afbuigingen. Als gevolg hiervan zien wij het beeld van de bron als verplaatst, vergroot en verstoord. Het zwaartekrachtlenseffect kan gebruikt worden om verschillende eigenschappen van (materie in) het Universum te meten, waaronder de totale massa en het massaprofiel van halo's, de vormen van halo's, de efficientie van de vorming van sterrenstelsels en uiteindelijk ook de fundamentele kosmologische parameters van ons Universum. Door gebruik te maken van kosmologische, hydrodynamische simulaties kunnen we ook mogelijke effecten onderzoeken die ons ervan weerhouden om zwaartekrachtlenswerking te gebruiken om de fundamentele eigenschappen van de structuren waaruit ons Universum is opgebouwd, te meten.

  6. Calibration of a cylindrical RF capacitance probe. [for radio astronomical studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosier, S. R.; Kaiser, M. L.

    1974-01-01

    The calibration is considered of an RF antenna capacitance probe carried aboard the RAE-1 spacecraft and the correction of the probe for external effects, believed to be primarily due to local positive ion sheaths and/or photoelectron sheaths surrounding the antenna. The RAE-1 spacecraft was launched in July 1968 into a 5850-km. Circular orbit of 121-degree inclination and carried several antenna and radiometer systems covering a frequency range of 0.2 to 9.2 MHz for radio astronomical studies. The RF capacitance probe measurements discussed utilized a 37-meter electric dipole antenna formed by two monopoles made of silver-coated beryllium-copper alloy tapes formed into hollow cylindrical tubes 1.3 cm in diameter.

  7. Oligonucleotides as probes for studying polymerization reactions in dilute aqueous solution. 2: Polycondensations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Vera; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1995-01-01

    We have prepared a (P-32)-labeled oligonucleotide probe carrying a ureido (-NH-CO-NH2) function at its 3'-terminus. This labeled oligomer was used to study polycondensations of urea and formaldehyde and of various phenols and formaldehyde in aqueous solution. The formation of formaldehyde copolymers attached to the amido-function of the probe was monitored by gel electrophoresis. Our results are generally in agreement with those obtained using conventional techniques. Our method is suitable for monitoring potentially prebiotic polycondensation reactions involving formaldehyde.

  8. Oligonucleotides as probes for studying polymerization reactions in dilute aqueous solution: II. Polycondensations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, V.; Orgel, L. E.

    1995-01-01

    We have prepared a [32P]-labeled oligonucleotide probe carrying a ureido (-NH-CO-NH2) function at its 3'-terminus. This labeled oligomer was used to study polycondensations of urea and formaldehyde and of various phenols and formaldehyde in aqueous solution. The formation of formaldehyde copolymers attached to the amido-function of the probe was monitored by gel electrophoresis. Our results are generally in agreement with those obtained using conventional techniques. Our method is suitable for monitoring potentially prebiotic polycondensation reactions involving formaldehyde.

  9. Use of DNA probes in the study of silage colonization by Lactobacillus and Pediococcus strains.

    PubMed

    Cocconcelli, P S; Triban, E; Basso, M; Bottazzi, V

    1991-10-01

    A technique to monitor lactic acid bacteria inoculants in silage, based on specific DNA probes, was developed and used to evaluate the colonization properties of two strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and one strain of Pediococcus pentosaceus which were used as maize silage inoculants in farm conditions. The results indicated that these three strains were able to dominate the natural microflora of the silage, representing more than the 95% of the bacterial biomass of the maize silage. These studies indicate that the colony hybridization with specific DNA probes may be an effective method for monitoring bacteria and evaluating the colonization properties of inoculants in maize silage.

  10. Application of the floating-potential probe for studies of low frequency oscillations in a plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dzhakov, B. Y.

    1973-01-01

    The proper interpretation of the results obtained from measurements of the floating potential of an electrostatic probe may cause difficulties in time varying plasmas. The following limitations of the method are considered: the charge separation in the plasma, the influence of the input capacity of the measuring circuit, and the influence of the layer capacity near the probe. A detailed analysis is carried out in the cases of moving striations and ion acoustic waves. A simple measuring technique is suggested for ion acoustic studies, giving detailed information about ion density oscillations.

  11. Oligonucleotides as probes for studying polymerization reactions in dilute aqueous solution: II. Polycondensations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, V.; Orgel, L. E.

    1995-01-01

    We have prepared a [32P]-labeled oligonucleotide probe carrying a ureido (-NH-CO-NH2) function at its 3'-terminus. This labeled oligomer was used to study polycondensations of urea and formaldehyde and of various phenols and formaldehyde in aqueous solution. The formation of formaldehyde copolymers attached to the amido-function of the probe was monitored by gel electrophoresis. Our results are generally in agreement with those obtained using conventional techniques. Our method is suitable for monitoring potentially prebiotic polycondensation reactions involving formaldehyde.

  12. Dark Areas

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-10

    This 220-mile (350-kilometer) wide view of Pluto from NASA's New Horizons spacecraft illustrates the incredible diversity of surface reflectivities and geological landforms on the dwarf planet. The image includes dark, ancient heavily cratered terrain; bright, smooth geologically young terrain; assembled masses of mountains; and an enigmatic field of dark, aligned ridges that resemble dunes; its origin is under debate. The smallest visible features are 0.5 miles (0.8 kilometers) in size. This image was taken as New Horizons flew past Pluto on July 14, 2015, from a distance of 50,000 miles (80,000 kilometers). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19933

  13. Mechanistic studies of the genetically encoded fluorescent protein voltage probe ArcLight.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhou; Jin, Lei; Chen, Fuyi; Loturco, Joseph J; Cohen, Lawrence B; Bondar, Alexey; Lazar, Josef; Pieribone, Vincent A

    2014-01-01

    ArcLight, a genetically encoded fluorescent protein voltage probe with a large ΔF/ΔV, is a fusion between the voltage sensing domain of the Ciona instestinalis voltage sensitive phosphatase and super ecliptic pHluorin carrying a single mutation (A227D in the fluorescent protein). Without this mutation the probe produces only a very small change in fluorescence in response to voltage deflections (∼ 1%). The large signal afforded by this mutation allows optical detection of action potentials and sub-threshold electrical events in single-trials in vitro and in vivo. However, it is unclear how this single mutation produces a probe with such a large modulation of its fluorescence output with changes in membrane potential. In this study, we identified which residues in super ecliptic pHluorin (vs eGFP) are critical for the ArcLight response, as a similarly constructed probe based on eGFP also exhibits large response amplitude if it carries these critical residues. We found that D147 is responsible for determining the pH sensitivity of the fluorescent protein used in these probes but by itself does not result in a voltage probe with a large signal. We also provide evidence that the voltage dependent signal of ArcLight is not simply sensing environmental pH changes. A two-photon polarization microscopy study showed that ArcLight's response to changes in membrane potential includes a reorientation of the super ecliptic pHluorin. We also explored different changes including modification of linker length, deletion of non-essential amino acids in the super ecliptic pHluorin, adding a farnesylation site, using tandem fluorescent proteins and other pH sensitive fluorescent proteins.

  14. Comparative study of primary intention lacrimal probing with and without nasal endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Alañón-Fernández, Miguel Ángel; Alañón-Fernández, Félix Jesús; Martínez-Fernández, Asunción; del Mar Górgora, María; Calero, Bernardo; López-Marín, Ignacio; Alarcón, Sebastián

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to compare the results of probing with and without endoscopy in cases of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction without prior probing. This was a retrospective analysis on 2 non-randomized cohorts, 36 simple soundings (group 1) and 36 soundings with endoscope (group 2), between January 2011 and January 2013. Both groups were similar in age and had no previous surgery. The age of the patients studied ranged between 8 and 27 months in the first group and between 7 and 30 months in the second group. The procedure was successful in 50% of the conventional probing group and in 97.22% in the endoscopy probing group. In this group 16.67% of patients with tight inferior turbinate and 11.11% of those where the probe passed into the submucosal space were diagnosed and corrected intraoperatively. Some anomaly was observed in 30.56% of patients undergoing endoscopy. Although nasal endoscopy is classically reserved for unsuccessful probing, its use in primary intention increases the success rate of the procedure. In our study, 97.22% of eyes had complete resolution of symptoms, avoiding a second surgery and the use of more expensive materials and techniques. Nasal endoscopy helps intraoperative visualisation, understanding and management of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction and is the only method that confirms the correct anatomic position of the catheterisation in real time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamic nuclear polarization studies on deuterated nitroxyl spin probes.

    PubMed

    David Jebaraj, D; Utsumi, Hideo; Milton Franklin Benial, A

    2017-10-01

    Detailed dynamic nuclear polarization and electron spin resonance studies were carried out for 3-carbamoyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine-1-oxyl, 3-carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine-1-oxyl,3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethy pyrolidine-1-oxyl nitroxyl radicals and their corresponding deuterated nitroxyl radicals, used in Overhauser-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for the first time. The dynamic nuclear polarization parameters such as dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) factor, longitudinal relaxivity, saturation parameter, leakage factor and coupling factor were estimated for deuterated nitroxyl radicals. DNP enhancement increases with agent concentration up to 3 mm and decreases above 3 mm. The proton spin-lattice relaxation time and the longitudinal relaxivity parameters were estimated. The leakage factor increases with increasing agent concentration up to 3 mm and reaches plateau in the region 3-5 mm. The coupling parameter shows the interaction between the electron and nuclear spins to be mainly dipolar in origin. DNP spectrum exhibits that the full width at half maximum values are higher for undeuterated nitroxyl radicals compared with deuterated nitroxyl radicals, which leads to the increase in DNP enhancement. The ESR parameters such as, the line width, line shape, signal intensity ratio, rotational correlation time, hyperfine coupling constant and g-factor were calculated. The narrow line width was observed for deuterated nitroxyl radicals compared with undeuterated nitroxyl radicals, which leads to the higher saturation parameter value and DNP enhancement. The novelty of the work permits clear understanding of the DNP parameters determining the higher DNP enhancement compared with the undeuterated nitroxyl radicals. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Time-Domain Studies as a Probe of Stellar Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Adam Andrew

    This dissertation focuses on the use of time-domain techniques to discover and characterize these rare astrophysical gems, while also addressing some gaps in our understanding of the earliest and latest stages of stellar evolution. The observational studies presented herein can be grouped into three parts: (i) the study of stellar death (supernovae); (ii) the study of stellar birth; and (iii) the use of modern machine-learning algorithms to discover and classify variable sources. I present observations of supernova (SN) 2006gy, the most luminous SN ever at the time of discovery, and the even-more luminous SN 2008es. Together, these two supernovae (SNe) demonstrate that core-collapse SNe can be significantly more luminous than thermonuclear type Ia SNe, and that there are multiple channels for producing these brilliant core-collapse explosions. For SN 2006gy I show that the progenitor star experienced violent, eruptive mass loss on multiple occasions during the centuries prior to explosion, a scenario that was completely unexpected within the cannon of massive-star evolution theory. I also present observations of SN 2008iy, one of the most unusual SNe ever discovered. Typical SNe take ≲3 weeks to reach peak luminosity; SN 2008iy exhibited a slow and steady rise for ˜400 days before reaching maximum brightness. The best explanation for such behavior is that the progenitor of SN 2008iy experienced an episodic phase of mass loss ˜100 yr prior to explosion. The three SNe detailed in this dissertation have altered our understanding of massive-star mass loss, namely, these SNe provide distinct evidence that post-main sequence mass loss, for at least some massive stars, occurs in sporatic fits, rather than being steady. They also demonstrate that core collapse is not restricted to the red supergiant and Wolf-Rayet stages of stellar evolution as theory predicted. Instead, some massive stars explode while in a luminous blue variable-like state. I also present

  17. Probing Student Teachers' Subject Content Knowledge in Chemistry: Case Studies Using Dynamic Computer Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toplis, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports case study research into the knowledge and understanding of chemistry for six secondary science student teachers. It combines innovative student-generated computer animations, using "ChemSense" software, with interviews to probe understanding of four common chemical processes used in the secondary school curriculum. Findings…

  18. Probing Student Teachers' Subject Content Knowledge in Chemistry: Case Studies Using Dynamic Computer Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toplis, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports case study research into the knowledge and understanding of chemistry for six secondary science student teachers. It combines innovative student-generated computer animations, using "ChemSense" software, with interviews to probe understanding of four common chemical processes used in the secondary school curriculum. Findings…

  19. Pedagogic Research into Singularities: Case-Studies, Probes, and Curriculum Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassey, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Research using educational data includes both disciplinary and pedagogic research. Concentrating on pedagogic research into singlar cases, rather than into generalities, would improve the quality of education. Such research would mean more emphasis on case studies, probes (account of a method for analyzing practice to improve it), and curriculum…

  20. Attentional Processing of Faces in ASD: A Dot-Probe Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, David J.; Heavey, Lisa; Reidy, John

    2012-01-01

    The present study used the Dot-Probe paradigm to explore attentional allocation to faces compared with non-social images in high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing controls. There was no evidence of attentional bias in either group when stimuli were presented at individually calculated…

  1. Collider signatures of Higgs-portal scalar dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Huayong; Yang, Jin Min; Zhang, Yang; Zheng, Sibo

    2016-05-01

    In the simplest Higgs-portal scalar dark matter model, the dark matter mass has been restricted to be either near the resonant mass (mh / 2) or in a large-mass region by the direct detection at LHC Run 1 and LUX. While the large-mass region below roughly 3 TeV can be probed by the future Xenon1T experiment, most of the resonant mass region is beyond the scope of Xenon1T. In this paper, we study the direct detection of such scalar dark matter in the narrow resonant mass region at the 14 TeV LHC and the future 100 TeV hadron collider. We show the luminosities required for the 2σ exclusion and 5σ discovery.

  2. DARWIN dark matter WIMP search with noble liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudis, Laura; DARWIN Consortium

    2012-07-01

    DARWIN (dark matter wimp search with noble liquids) is a design study for a next-generation, multi-ton dark matter detector in Europe. Liquid argon and/or liquid xenon are the target media for the direct detection of dark matter candidates in the form of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Light and charge signals created by particle interactions in the active detector volume are observed via the time projection chamber technique. DARWIN is to probe the spin-independent, WIMP-nucleon cross section down l0-48cm2 and to measure WIMP-induced nuclear recoil spectra with high-statistics, should they be discovered by an existing or near-future experiment. After a brief introduction, I will describe the project, selected R&D topics, expected backgrounds and the physics reach.

  3. Self-interacting dark matter without direct detection constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yue

    2017-03-01

    We explore the self-interacting dark matter scenario in a simple dark sector model where the dark matter interacts through a dark photon. Splitting a Dirac fermion dark matter into two levels using a small Majorana mass can evade strong direct detection constraints on the kinetic mixing between the dark and normal photons, thus allowing the dark sector to be more visible at high intensity and/or high energy experiments. It is pointed out that such a mass splitting has a strong impact on the dark matter self-interaction strength. We derive the new parameter space of a pseudo-Dirac self-interacting dark matter. Interestingly, with increasing mass splitting, a weak scale dark matter mass window survives that could be probed by the LHC and future colliders.

  4. Technical brief: Pump-probe paradigm in an integrating cavity to study photodecomposition processes

    PubMed Central

    Betts-Obregon, Brandi; Tsin, Andrew T.; DeSa, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    dark” period allowed actinic flashes to be placed between scans. Exposure of the all-trans retinol to 366 nm flashes resulted in marked reduction in absorbance and a blue shift of the λmax. A white LED, despite its higher photon output, did not support all-trans retinol photolysis. Singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis revealed three spectral intermediates with mechanism, I -> II -> III. HPLC analysis of the reactants at the beginning and the conclusion of the light exposure confirmed the retinol photodecomposition. Conclusions The highly reflecting cavity acts as a multipass cuvette that markedly increased the light path length and, thus, sensitivity. Triggering the LED during a dark period within the scan time allowed the actinic flashes to be interleafed between scans in a pump-probe paradigm. Furthermore, the entire sample was exposed to scan beam and actinic flashes, which is not possible in traditional spectrophotometers. Finally, the integrating cavity cuvette allowed use of turbid samples. SVD was useful for resolving spectral intermediates. Although the identity of the intermediates was not determined here, the ability to define molecular intermediates during photodecomposition reactions will allow future studies to isolate and identify the degradation products and determine the mechanism of light-induced retinoid degradation and that of retinoid-binding protein-mediated photoprotection. PMID:27559291

  5. Recognition- and reactivity-based fluorescent probes for studying transition metal signaling in living systems.

    PubMed

    Aron, Allegra T; Ramos-Torres, Karla M; Cotruvo, Joseph A; Chang, Christopher J

    2015-08-18

    Metals are essential for life, playing critical roles in all aspects of the central dogma of biology (e.g., the transcription and translation of nucleic acids and synthesis of proteins). Redox-inactive alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metals such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and zinc are widely recognized as dynamic signals, whereas redox-active transition metals such as copper and iron are traditionally thought of as sequestered by protein ligands, including as static enzyme cofactors, in part because of their potential to trigger oxidative stress and damage via Fenton chemistry. Metals in biology can be broadly categorized into two pools: static and labile. In the former, proteins and other macromolecules tightly bind metals; in the latter, metals are bound relatively weakly to cellular ligands, including proteins and low molecular weight ligands. Fluorescent probes can be useful tools for studying the roles of transition metals in their labile forms. Probes for imaging transition metal dynamics in living systems must meet several stringent criteria. In addition to exhibiting desirable photophysical properties and biocompatibility, they must be selective and show a fluorescence turn-on response to the metal of interest. To meet this challenge, we have pursued two general strategies for metal detection, termed "recognition" and "reactivity". Our design of transition metal probes makes use of a recognition-based approach for copper and nickel and a reactivity-based approach for cobalt and iron. This Account summarizes progress in our laboratory on both the development and application of fluorescent probes to identify and study the signaling roles of transition metals in biology. In conjunction with complementary methods for direct metal detection and genetic and/or pharmacological manipulations, fluorescent probes for transition metals have helped reveal a number of principles underlying transition metal dynamics. In this Account, we give three recent

  6. Recognition- and Reactivity-Based Fluorescent Probes for Studying Transition Metal Signaling in Living Systems

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus Metals are essential for life, playing critical roles in all aspects of the central dogma of biology (e.g., the transcription and translation of nucleic acids and synthesis of proteins). Redox-inactive alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metals such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and zinc are widely recognized as dynamic signals, whereas redox-active transition metals such as copper and iron are traditionally thought of as sequestered by protein ligands, including as static enzyme cofactors, in part because of their potential to trigger oxidative stress and damage via Fenton chemistry. Metals in biology can be broadly categorized into two pools: static and labile. In the former, proteins and other macromolecules tightly bind metals; in the latter, metals are bound relatively weakly to cellular ligands, including proteins and low molecular weight ligands. Fluorescent probes can be useful tools for studying the roles of transition metals in their labile forms. Probes for imaging transition metal dynamics in living systems must meet several stringent criteria. In addition to exhibiting desirable photophysical properties and biocompatibility, they must be selective and show a fluorescence turn-on response to the metal of interest. To meet this challenge, we have pursued two general strategies for metal detection, termed “recognition” and “reactivity”. Our design of transition metal probes makes use of a recognition-based approach for copper and nickel and a reactivity-based approach for cobalt and iron. This Account summarizes progress in our laboratory on both the development and application of fluorescent probes to identify and study the signaling roles of transition metals in biology. In conjunction with complementary methods for direct metal detection and genetic and/or pharmacological manipulations, fluorescent probes for transition metals have helped reveal a number of principles underlying transition metal dynamics. In this Account, we give

  7. Chimpanzees create and modify probe tools functionally: A study with zoo-housed chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Hopper, Lydia M; Tennie, Claudio; Ross, Stephen R; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V

    2015-01-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use tools to probe for out-of-reach food, both in the wild and in captivity. Beyond gathering appropriately-sized materials to create tools, chimpanzees also perform secondary modifications in order to create an optimized tool. In this study, we recorded the behavior of a group of zoo-housed chimpanzees when presented with opportunities to use tools to probe for liquid foods in an artificial termite mound within their enclosure. Previous research with this group of chimpanzees has shown that they are proficient at gathering materials from within their environment in order to create tools to probe for the liquid food within the artificial mound. Extending beyond this basic question, we first asked whether they only made and modified probe tools when it was appropriate to do so (i.e. when the mound was baited with food). Second, by collecting continuous data on their behavior, we also asked whether the chimpanzees first (intentionally) modified their tools prior to probing for food or whether such modifications occurred after tool use, possibly as a by-product of chewing and eating the food from the tools. Following our predictions, we found that tool modification predicted tool use; the chimpanzees began using their tools within a short delay of creating and modifying them, and the chimpanzees performed more tool modifying behaviors when food was available than when they could not gain food through the use of probe tools. We also discuss our results in terms of the chimpanzees’ acquisition of the skills, and their flexibility of tool use and learning. Am. J. Primatol. 77:162–170, 2015. © 2014 The Authors. American Journal of Primatology Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. PMID:25220050

  8. Chimpanzees create and modify probe tools functionally: A study with zoo-housed chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Hopper, Lydia M; Tennie, Claudio; Ross, Stephen R; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V

    2015-02-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use tools to probe for out-of-reach food, both in the wild and in captivity. Beyond gathering appropriately-sized materials to create tools, chimpanzees also perform secondary modifications in order to create an optimized tool. In this study, we recorded the behavior of a group of zoo-housed chimpanzees when presented with opportunities to use tools to probe for liquid foods in an artificial termite mound within their enclosure. Previous research with this group of chimpanzees has shown that they are proficient at gathering materials from within their environment in order to create tools to probe for the liquid food within the artificial mound. Extending beyond this basic question, we first asked whether they only made and modified probe tools when it was appropriate to do so (i.e. when the mound was baited with food). Second, by collecting continuous data on their behavior, we also asked whether the chimpanzees first (intentionally) modified their tools prior to probing for food or whether such modifications occurred after tool use, possibly as a by-product of chewing and eating the food from the tools. Following our predictions, we found that tool modification predicted tool use; the chimpanzees began using their tools within a short delay of creating and modifying them, and the chimpanzees performed more tool modifying behaviors when food was available than when they could not gain food through the use of probe tools. We also discuss our results in terms of the chimpanzees' acquisition of the skills, and their flexibility of tool use and learning. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search low ionization-threshold experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Basu Thakur, Ritoban

    2014-01-01

    Over 80 years ago we discovered the presence of Dark Matter in our universe. Endeavors in astronomy and cosmology are in consensus with ever improving precision that Dark Matter constitutes an essential 27% of our universe. The Standard Model of Particle Physics does not provide any answers to the Dark Matter problem. It is imperative that we understand Dark Matter and discover its fundamental nature. This is because, alongside other important factors, Dark Matter is responsible for formation of structure in our universe. The very construct in which we sit is defined by its abundance. The Milky Way galaxy, hence life, wouldn't have formed if small over densities of Dark Matter had not caused sufficient accretion of stellar material. Marvelous experiments have been designed based on basic notions to directly and in-directly study Dark Matter, and the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment has been a pioneer and forerunner in the direct detection field. Generations of the CDMS experiment were designed with advanced scientific upgrades to detect Dark Matter particles of mass O(100) GeV/c2. This mass-scale was set primarily by predictions from Super Symmetry. Around 2013 the canonical SUSY predictions were losing some ground and several observations (rather hints of signals) from various experiments indicated to the possibility of lighter Dark Matter of mass O(10) GeV/c2. While the SuperCDMS experiment was probing the regular parameter space, the CDMSlite experiment was conceived to dedicatedly search for light Dark Matter using a novel technology. "CDMSlite" stands for CDMS - low ionization threshold experiment. Here we utilize a unique electron phonon coupling mechanism to measure ionization generated by scattering of light particles. Typically signals from such low energy recoils would be washed under instrumental noise. In CDMSlite via generation of Luke-Neganov phonons we can detect the small ionization energies, amplified in phonon

  10. The cryogenic dark matter search low ionization-threshold experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu Thakur, Ritoban

    Over 80 years ago we discovered the presence of Dark Matter in our universe. Endeavors in astronomy and cosmology are in consensus with ever improving precision that Dark Matter constitutes an essential 27% of our universe. The Standard Model of Particle Physics does not provide any answers to the Dark Matter problem. It is imperative that we understand Dark Matter and discover its fundamental nature. This is because, alongside other important factors, Dark Matter is responsible for formation of structure in our universe. The very construct in which we sit is defined by its abundance. The Milky Way galaxy, hence life, wouldn't have formed if small over densities of Dark Matter had not caused sufficient accretion of stellar material. Marvelous experiments have been designed based on basic notions to directly and indirectly study Dark Matter, and the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment has been a pioneer and forerunner in the direct detection field. Generations of the CDMS experiment were designed with advanced scientific upgrades to detect Dark Matter particles of mass O(100) GeV/c2. This mass-scale was set primarily by predictions from Super Symmetry. Around 2013 the canonical SUSY predictions were losing some ground and several observations (rather hints of signals) from various experiments indicated to the possibility of lighter Dark Matter of mass O(10) GeV/c2. While the SuperCDMS experiment was probing the regular parameter space, the CDMSlite experiment was conceived to dedicatedly search for light Dark Matter using a novel technology. "CDMSlite" stands for CDMS - low ionization threshold experiment. Here we utilize a unique electron phonon coupling mechanism to measure ionization generated by scattering of light particles. Typically signals from such low energy recoils would be washed under instrumental noise.In CDMSlite via generation of Luke-Neganov phonons we can detect the small ionization energies, amplified in phonon modes during charge

  11. Studying complex fluids and crystal formation using Dynamic Light Scattering and Optical Probe Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streletzky, Kiril A.

    2004-10-01

    Dynamic light scattering (DLS) spectroscopy provides non-destructive analytic technique for probing structure and dynamics of polymer solutions, colloids, micellar systems, liquid crystals, and, in some cases, observation of nucleation and crystal growth. The method of optical probe diffusion uses DLS to measure transport of dilute mesoscopic probes in a complex fluid solution. If tracer particles are the dominant scatterers in solution, their diffusion provides important information for inferring physical properties of the complex fluid. In situ nature of DLS allows non-invasive studies of different chemical and physical processes such as polymer and colloidal diffusion, gelation, micellar aggregation and dynamics. DLS is also useful for studying critical behavior of liquid crystals and for observing crystallization from clear solutions. The highlights of our results obtained using DLS and optical probe diffusion are presented. These examples include: a) research on polymer dynamics in dilute and concentrated solutions of a neutral HPC polymer; b) project on aggregation and transport of spherical Tx-100 micelles; c) study of crystallization of molecular sieve zeolite NaA.

  12. Comparison of vibrational dynamics between non-ionic and ionic vibrational probes in water: Experimental study with two-dimensional infrared and infrared pump-probe spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuda, Masaki; Ohta, Kaoru; Tominaga, Keisuke

    2016-09-01

    Dynamics of the hydration structure around small vibrational probes have been extensively studied over the past few decades. However, we need to gain insight into how vibrational dynamics is affected by the molecular nature of the probe molecules in water. In this study, 2-nitro-5-thiocyanate benzoic acid (NTBA), which has an SCN group attached to an aromatic ring, and thiocyanate ion (SCN-) were used to investigate the vibrational dynamics of two vibrational probes, including vibrational frequency fluctuations and rotational relaxation. By performing two-dimensional infrared spectroscopic measurements, the vibrational frequency fluctuations of the SCN anti-stretching modes of these solutes were compared. The frequency-frequency time correlation function (FFTCF) of these solutes can be modeled by a delta function plus an exponential function and a constant. The FFTCF of NTBA was characterized by a time constant of 1.1 ps, which is similar to that of SCN-. Moreover, no component was longer than this constant. Consequently, the loss of the correlation in frequency fluctuations of the SCN anti-stretching mode of NTBA may be controlled by a mechanism similar to that of the ionic probe, which involves the hydrogen bonding dynamics of water. Polarization-controlled IR pump-probe measurements were performed for these vibrational probes in water to study the vibrational energy relaxation (VER) and reorientational relaxation processes. The VER rate of NTBA is much smaller than that of SCN-, which indicates that the intramolecular relaxation process is significant for VER of NTBA. Based on the rotational relaxation time of NTBA being shorter than that of SCN-, the internal rotational motion of the SCN group around the Cphenyl-S bond axis, where Cphenyl denotes a carbon atom of the aromatic ring to which the SCN group is attached, may play an important role in the anisotropic decay of NTBA in H2O.

  13. Dark Spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Dark spots (left) and 'fans' appear to scribble dusty hieroglyphics on top of the Martian south polar cap in two high-resolution Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Orbiter Camera images taken in southern spring. Each image is about 3-kilometers wide (2-miles).

  14. Study of dark matter and neutrino by means of thin NaI(Tl)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Katsuya

    2009-10-01

    The MOON/PICO-LON consists of two thin NaI(Tl) crystal is applied to search for 0νββ decay and WIMPs dark matter. The MOON/PICOLON has great advantages to both 0 νββ decay and WIMPs dark matter; enumerate * 100% of natural abundance of odd A nuclei (^23Na and ^127I). * NaI(Tl) has the good enrgy resolution. * ^127I has a low energy exited state at 57.6keV which is excited by spin-dependent interaction. enumerate The detector of two thin NaI(Tl) crystal was tested in Oto cosmo laboratory. The good energy resolution and the low back ground data will be reported.

  15. A study of the stellar population in the Chamaeleon dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauvin, Lisa S.; Strom, Karen M.

    1992-01-01

    The properties of the stellar population in the Chamaeleon dark clouds are discussed. Spectral energy distributions, based on the extant photometric and spectroscopic data base and IRAS fluxes measured from coadded data taken at the position of each star, and spectral types allow placement of the stars in an H-R diagram. The age and mass distributions and the luminosity function for the Chamaeleon stars are compared to those in the Taurus-Auriga dark clouds and are found to be similar. A small subsample (eight of 36) of the Chamaeleon stars show unusual spectral energy distributions which seem best interpreted as arising from circumstellar disks whose inner regions (R(in)) is less than 30-50 stellar radii) area devoid of material. The X-ray properties of this sample of premain-sequence objects are compared to those of other premain-sequence samples, as well as to the Hyades and the Pleiades main-sequence stars.

  16. Dark matter and collider studies in the left-right symmetric model with vectorlike leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, Sahar; Frank, Mariana; Ghosh, Dilip Kumar; Ghosh, Nivedita; Saha, Ipsita

    2017-05-01

    In the context of a left-right symmetric model, we introduce one full generation of vectorlike lepton doublets (both left- and right-handed) together with their mirror doublets. We show that the lightest vectorlike neutrino in the model is right-handed, and can serve as the dark matter candidate. We find that the relic density as well as the direct and indirect DM detection bounds are satisfied for a large range of the parameter space of the model. In accordance with the parameter space, we then explore the possibility of detecting signals of the model at both the LHC and the ILC, in the pair production of the associated vectorlike charged leptons which decay into final states including dark matter. A comprehensive analysis of signal and backgrounds shows that the signals at the ILC, especially with polarized beams, are likely to be visible for light vectorlike leptons, even with low luminosity, rendering our model highly predictable and experimentally testable.

  17. A Stab in the Dark?

    PubMed Central

    Tompson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Test the influence of darkness in the street robbery crime event alongside temperature. Methods: Negative binomial regression models tested darkness and temperature as predictors of street robbery. Units of analysis were four 6-hr time intervals in two U.K. study areas that have different levels of darkness and variations of temperature throughout the year. Results: Darkness is a key factor related to robbery events in both study areas. Traversing from full daylight to full darkness increased the predicted volume of robbery by a multiple of 2.6 in London and 1.2 in Glasgow. Temperature was significant only in the London study area. Interaction terms did not enhance the predictive power of the models. Conclusion: Darkness is an important driving factor in seasonal variation of street robbery. A further implication of the research is that time of the day patterns are crucial to understanding seasonal trends in crime data. PMID:25076797

  18. DAEδALUS and dark matter detection

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, Yonatan; Krnjaic, Gordan; Thaler, Jesse; Toups, Matthew

    2015-03-05

    Among laboratory probes of dark matter, fixed-target neutrino experiments are particularly well suited to search for light weakly coupled dark sectors. Here in this paper, we show that the DAEδALUS source setup$-$an 800 MeV proton beam impinging on a target of graphite and copper$-$can improve the present LSND bound on dark photon models by an order of magnitude over much of the accessible parameter space for light dark matter when paired with a suitable neutrino detector such as LENA. Interestingly, both DAEδALUS and LSND are sensitive to dark matter produced from off-shell dark photons. We show for the first time that LSND can be competitive with searches for visible dark photon decays and that fixed-target experiments have sensitivity to a much larger range of heavy dark photon masses than previously thought. We review the mechanism for dark matter production and detection through a dark photon mediator, discuss the beam-off and beam-on backgrounds, and present the sensitivity in dark photon kinetic mixing for both the DAEδALUS/LENA setup and LSND in both the on- and off-shell regimes.

  19. DAEδALUS and dark matter detection

    DOE PAGES

    Kahn, Yonatan; Krnjaic, Gordan; Thaler, Jesse; ...

    2015-03-05

    Among laboratory probes of dark matter, fixed-target neutrino experiments are particularly well suited to search for light weakly coupled dark sectors. Here in this paper, we show that the DAEδALUS source setup$-$an 800 MeV proton beam impinging on a target of graphite and copper$-$can improve the present LSND bound on dark photon models by an order of magnitude over much of the accessible parameter space for light dark matter when paired with a suitable neutrino detector such as LENA. Interestingly, both DAEδALUS and LSND are sensitive to dark matter produced from off-shell dark photons. We show for the first timemore » that LSND can be competitive with searches for visible dark photon decays and that fixed-target experiments have sensitivity to a much larger range of heavy dark photon masses than previously thought. We review the mechanism for dark matter production and detection through a dark photon mediator, discuss the beam-off and beam-on backgrounds, and present the sensitivity in dark photon kinetic mixing for both the DAEδALUS/LENA setup and LSND in both the on- and off-shell regimes.« less

  20. Flight directions of passerine migrants in daylight and darkness: A radar and direct visual study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauthreaux, S. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The application of radar and visual techniques to determine the migratory habits of passerine birds during daylight and darkness is discussed. The effects of wind on the direction of migration are examined. Scatter diagrams of daytime and nocturnal migration track directions correlated with wind direction are presented. It is concluded that migratory birds will fly at altitudes where wind direction and migratory direction are nearly the same. The effects of cloud cover and solar obscuration are considered negligible.

  1. Introduction to the special issue on "indirect dark matter searches"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlopov, Maxim Yu.

    2014-11-01

    The nature of cosmological dark matter finds its explanation in physics beyond the Standard Model of elementary particles. The landscape of dark matter candidates contains a wide variety of species, either elusive or hardly detectable in direct experimental searches. Even in case, when such searches are possible the interpretation of their results implies additional sources of information, which provide indirect effects of dark matter. Some nontrivial probes for the nature of the dark matter are presented in the present issue.

  2. Photoexcited State Molecular Structures in Solution Studied by Pump-Probe XAFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin

    2002-03-01

    The photoexcitation causes displacement of electron densities within or among molecules, which consequently leads to nuclear movements. Such nuclear displacements often occur in transient states with short lifetimes. Knowing transient molecular structures during photochemical reactions is important for understanding fundamental aspects of solar energy conversion and storage. Fast x-ray techniques provide direct probes for these transient structures. Using x-ray pulses from the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne, a laser pulse pump, x-ray pulse probe XAFS technique has been developed to capture transient molecular structures in disordered media with nanosecond time resolution. We have carried out several pump-probe XAFS measurements on 1)identifying a transient molecular structure of the photodissociation product of nickel-tetraphenylporphyrin with piperidine axial ligands (NiTPP-L2); 2)determination of the MLCT state structure of Bis(2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) Copper(I) [Cu(I)(dmp)2]+, and 3) triplet state molecular structures of metalloporphyrins. These studies not only prove the feasibility of the technique, but also gain structural information that otherwise will not be available. Future studies include probing transient structures in electron donor-acceptor complexes and optical polarization selected XAFS (OPS-XAFS) using the same technique with a 100-ps time resolution. This work is supported by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U. S. Department of Energy, under contract W-31-109-Eng-38.

  3. Cu(II)-Based Paramagnetic Probe to Study RNA-Protein Interactions by NMR.

    PubMed

    Seebald, Leah M; DeMott, Christopher M; Ranganathan, Srivathsan; Asare Okai, Papa Nii; Glazunova, Anastasia; Chen, Alan; Shekhtman, Alexander; Royzen, Maksim

    2017-04-03

    Paramagnetic NMR techniques allow for studying three-dimensional structures of RNA-protein complexes. In particular, paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) data can provide valuable information about long-range distances between different structural components. For PRE NMR experiments, oligonucleotides are typically spin-labeled using nitroxide reagents. The current work describes an alternative approach involving a Cu(II) cyclen-based probe that can be covalently attached to an RNA strand in the vicinity of the protein's binding site using "click" chemistry. The approach has been applied to study binding of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein 7 (NCp7) to a model RNA pentanucleotide, 5'-ACGCU-3'. Coordination of the paramagnetic metal to glutamic acid residue of NCp7 reduced flexibility of the probe, thus simplifying interpretation of the PRE data. NMR experiments showed attenuation of signal intensities from protein residues localized in proximity to the paramagnetic probe as the result of RNA-protein interactions. The extent of the attenuation was related to the probe's proximity allowing us to construct the protein's contact surface map.

  4. Observing dark energy with SNAP

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, Eric V.; SNAP Collaboration

    2004-06-07

    The nature of dark energy is of such fundamental importance -- yet such a mystery -- that a dedicated dark energy experiment should be as comprehensive and powerfully incisive as possible. The Supernova/Acceleration Probe robustly controls for a wide variety of systematic uncertainties, employing the Type Ia supernova distance method, with high signal to noise light curves and spectra over the full redshift range from z=0.1-1.7, and the weak gravitational lensing method with an accurate and stable point spread function.

  5. Measuring Dark Energy with CHIME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newburgh, Laura; Chime Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) is a new radio transit interferometer currently being built at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) in Penticton, BC, Canada. We will use the 21 cm emission line of neutral hydrogen to map baryon acoustic oscillations between 400-800 MHz across 3/4 of the sky. These measurements will yield sensitive constraints on the dark energy equation of state between redshifts 0.8 - 2.5, a fascinating but poorly probed era corresponding to when dark energy began to impact the expansion history of the Universe. I will describe theCHIME instrument, the analysis challenges, the calibration requirements, and current status.

  6. A Study of Quasar Selection in the Supernova Fields of the Dark Energy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tie, S. S.; Martini, P.; Mudd, D.; Ostrovski, F.; Reed, S. L.; Lidman, C.; Kochanek, C.; Davis, T. M.; Sharp, R.; Uddin, S.; King, A.; Wester, W.; Tucker, B. E.; Tucker, D. L.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Carollo, D.; Childress, M.; Glazebrook, K.; Hinton, S. R.; Lewis, G.; Macaulay, E.; O'Neill, C. R.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Menanteau, F.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; DES Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    We present a study of quasar selection using the supernova fields of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We used a quasar catalog from an overlapping portion of the SDSS Stripe 82 region to quantify the completeness and efficiency of selection methods involving color, probabilistic modeling, variability, and combinations of color/probabilistic modeling with variability. In all cases, we considered only objects that appear as point sources in the DES images. We examine color selection methods based on the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mid-IR W1-W2 color, a mixture of WISE and DES colors (g - i and i-W1), and a mixture of Vista Hemisphere Survey and DES colors (g - i and i - K). For probabilistic quasar selection, we used XDQSO, an algorithm that employs an empirical multi-wavelength flux model of quasars to assign quasar probabilities. Our variability selection uses the multi-band χ 2-probability that sources are constant in the DES Year 1 griz-band light curves. The completeness and efficiency are calculated relative to an underlying sample of point sources that are detected in the required selection bands and pass our data quality and photometric error cuts. We conduct our analyses at two magnitude limits, i < 19.8 mag and i < 22 mag. For the subset of sources with W1 and W2 detections, the W1-W2 color or XDQSOz method combined with variability gives the highest completenesses of >85% for both i-band magnitude limits and efficiencies of >80% to the bright limit and >60% to the faint limit; however, the giW1 and giW1+variability methods give the highest quasar surface densities. The XDQSOz method and combinations of W1W2/giW1/XDQSOz with variability are among the better selection methods when both high completeness and high efficiency are desired. We also present the OzDES Quasar Catalog of 1263 spectroscopically confirmed quasars from three years of OzDES observation in the 30 deg2 of the DES supernova fields. The catalog includes quasars with redshifts up

  7. The phenomenology of maverick dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krusberg, Zosia Anna Celina

    Astrophysical observations from galactic to cosmological scales point to a substantial non-baryonic component to the universe's total matter density. Although very little is presently known about the physical properties of dark matter, its existence offers some of the most compelling evidence for physics beyond the standard model (BSM). In the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) scenario, the dark matter consists of particles that possess weak-scale interactions with the particles of the standard model, offering a compelling theoretical framework that allows us to understand the relic abundance of dark matter as a natural consequence of the thermal history of the early universe. From the perspective of particle physics phenomenology, the WIMP scenario is appealing for two additional reasons. First, many theories of BSM physics contain attractive WIMP candidates. Second, the weak-scale interactions between WIMPs and standard model particles imply the possibility of detecting scatterings between relic WIMPs and detector nuclei in direct detection experiments, products of WIMP annihilations at locations throughout the galaxy in indirect detection programs, and WIMP production signals at high-energy particle colliders. In this work, we use an effective field theory approach to study model-independent dark matter phenomenology in direct detection and collider experiments. The maverick dark matter scenario is defined by an effective field theory in which the WIMP is the only new particle within the energy range accessible to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Although certain assumptions are necessary to keep the problem tractable, we describe our WIMP candidate generically by specifying only its spin and dominant interaction form with standard model particles. Constraints are placed on the masses and coupling constants of the maverick WIMPs using the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) relic density measurement and direct detection exclusion data from both

  8. Development of the blackbody probe type pyrometer, part 1. Experimental study on the fundamental characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisamatsu, Toru; Mori, Noriyuki; Hamamatsu, Teruhide; Abe, Toshio

    1988-06-01

    For the benefit of the monitoring and controlling high temperature equipment, such as a coal gasification furnace or a gas turbine, measuring the internal temperature of equipment is very important. The black body probe type pyrometer using cavity radiation was designed and studied to develop a pyrometer with high accuracy of measurement in very high temperature of nearly 2000 C or in the corrosive ambient atmosphere. This pyrometer has a small spherical cavity as a pseudo-blackbody at the tip of its probe. Temperature measurement with this pyrometer is carried out by measuring infrared radiation from the cavity. It was shown that the ceramic probe with microcavity can be manufactured by sintering an assembly of powder mouldings to one body. As a calibration result of this pyrometer using an electric furnace, the infrared radiation output of the probe conformed with one measured by a blackbody furnace for calibration with an error of + or - 1 percent or less. The accuracy of temperature measurement was as high as that of the thermocouple.

  9. Use of DNA probes to study tetracycline resistance determinants in gram-negative bacteria from swine

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.Y.

    1989-01-01

    Specific {sup 32}P-labeled DNA probes were prepared and used to evaluate the distribution of tetracycline resistance determinants carried by gram-negative enteric bacteria isolated from pigs in 3 swine herds with different histories of antibiotic exposure. Plasmid DNA, ranging in size from 2.1 to 186 Kb, was observed in over 84% of 114 isolates studied. Two of 78 tetracycline resistant strains did not harbor plasmids. The DNA probes were isolated from plasmids pSL18, pRT29/Tn10, pBR322 and pSL106, respectively, and they represented class A, B, C and D tetracycline resistance determinants. Hybridization conditions using 0.5X SSPE at 65{degrees}C minimize cross-hybridization between the different class of tetracycline resistance genes. Cross-hybridization between class A and class C determinants could be distinguished by simultaneous comparison of the intensity of their hybridization signals. Plasmids from over 44% of the tetracycline resistant isolates did not hybridize to DNA probes for the determinants tested. Class B determinant occurred more frequently than class A or C. None of the isolates hybridized with the class D probe.

  10. Interaction of polyene antibiotics with sterols in phosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes as studied by spin probes.

    PubMed

    Ohki, K; Nozawa, Y; Ohnishi, S I

    1979-06-13

    Interaction of filipin and amphotericin B with sterols in phosphatidylcholine membranes has been studied using various spin probes; epiandrosterone, cholestanone, phosphatidylcholine with 12-nitroxide or 5-nitroxide stearate attached to 2 position and also with tempocholine at the head group. Filipin caused increase in the fluidity of cholesterol-containing phosphatidylcholine membranes near the center, while it rather decreased the fluidity near the polar surface. On the other hand, amphotericin B did not apparently affect the fluidity. In the electron spin resonance spectrum of steriod spin probes in the antibiotic-containing membranes, both bound and free signals were observed and the association constant was calculated from the siganal intensity. In the binding of steriods with filipin, both 3 and 17 positions were involved, while the 17 positions was less involved in the binding with amphotericin B. Phase change in the host membrane markedly affected the interaction of filipin with epiandrosterone probe. The bound fraction jumped from 0.4 to 0.8 on going to the crystalline state and increased further with decrease in temperature. The overall splitting of the bound signal also increased on lowering the temperature below phase transition. This change was attributed to aggregate formation of filipin-steriod complexes in the crystalline state. On the other hand, effect of phase transition was much smaller on the interaction of amphotericin B with the steriod probe.

  11. Coexistence of Probe Conformations in Lipid Phases—A Polarized Fluorescence Microspectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Urbančič, Iztok; Ljubetič, Ajasja; Arsov, Zoran; Štrancar, Janez

    2013-01-01

    Several well-established fluorescence methods depend on environment-sensitive probes that report about molecular properties of their local environment. For reliable interpretation of experiments, careful characterization of probes’ behavior is required. In this study, bleaching-corrected polarized fluorescence microspectroscopy with nanometer spectral peak position resolution was applied to characterize conformations of two alkyl chain-labeled 7-nitro-2-1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl phospholipids in three model membranes, representing the three main lipid phases. The combination of polarized and spectral detection revealed two main probe conformations with their preferential fluorophore dipole orientations roughly parallel and perpendicular to membrane normal. Their peak positions were separated by 2–6 nm because of different local polarities and depended on lipid environment. The relative populations of conformations, estimated by a numerical model, indicated a specific sensitivity of the two probes to molecular packing with cholesterol. The coexistence of probe conformations could be further exploited to investigate membrane organization below microscopy spatial resolution, such as lipid rafts. With the addition of polarized excitation or detection to any environment-sensitive fluorescence imaging technique, the conformational analysis can be directly applied to explore local membrane complexity. PMID:23972844

  12. Ribosomal DNA spacer probes for yeast identification: studies in the genus Metschnikowia.

    PubMed

    Henriques, M; Sá-Nogueira, I; Giménez-Jurado, G; van Uden, N

    1991-02-01

    To test whether DNA probes derived from ribosomal DNA spacer sequences are suitable for rapid and species-specific yeast identification, a pilot study was undertaken. A 7.7 kb entire ribosomal DNA unit of the type strain of Metschnikowia reukaufii was isolated, cloned and mapped. A 0.65 kb BamHI-HpaI fragment containing non-transcribed spacer sequences was amplified and selected for testing as a 32P hybridization probe with total DNA from the type strains of M. reukaufii, M. pulcherrima, M. lunata, M. bicuspidata, M. australis, M. zobellii, M. krissii, five other strains identified as M. reukaufii and strains of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Hansenula canadensis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica. The probe hybridized exclusively with DNA from the type strain and four other strains of M. reukaufii. DNA from one strain labelled M. reukaufii did not hybridize with the probe. Subsequent % G + C comparison and DNA-DNA reassociation with the type strain revealed that the non-hybridizing strain does not belong to the species M. reukaufii.

  13. Effects of nerolidol and limonene on stratum corneum membranes: A probe EPR and fluorescence spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Mendanha, Sebastião Antonio; Marquezin, Cássia Alessandra; Ito, Amando Siuiti; Alonso, Antonio

    2017-10-30

    The sesquiterpene nerolidol and the monoterpene limonene are potent skin-permeation enhancers that have also been shown to have antitumor, antibacterial, antifungal and antiparasitic activities. Because terpenes are membrane-active compounds, we used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of three membrane spin labels combined with the fluorescence spectroscopy of three lipid probes to study the interactions of these terpenes with stratum corneum (SC) intercellular membranes. An experimental apparatus was developed to assess the lipid fluidity of hydrated SC membranes via the fluorescence anisotropy of extrinsic membrane probes. Both EPR and fluorescence probes indicated that the intercellular membranes of neonatal SC rats undergo a main phase transition at approximately 50°C. Taken together, the results indicated that treatment with 1% nerolidol (v/v) caused large fluidity increases in the more ordered phases of SC membranes and that these effects gradually decreased with increasing temperature. Additionally, compared with (+)-limonene, nerolidol was better able to change the SC membrane dynamics. EPR and fluorescence data suggest that these terpenes act as spacers in lipid packaging and create increased lipid disorder in the more ordered regions and phases of SC membranes, notably leading to a population of probes with less restricted motion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasmonic "pump-probe" method to study semi-transparent nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Hewakuruppu, Yasitha L; Dombrovsky, Leonid A; Chen, Chuyang; Timchenko, Victoria; Jiang, Xuchuan; Baek, Sung; Taylor, Robert A

    2013-08-20

    Nanofluids have been increasingly used in a wide range of thermal applications. Although these applications can benefit greatly from investigating the behavior of nanoparticles under different heating scenarios, there is a lack of experiments that can achieve this. To overcome this challenge, an optical "pump-probe"-type experiment is suggested in this paper. In experiments of this type, a set of "pumping" nanoparticles are specifically selected to absorb laser radiation. These particles represent a flexible tool for volumetric heating. A second set of "probing" nanoparticles can be tailored to scatter a separate optical probing signal. This work presents a selection procedure for nanoparticles of both types. The selection procedure is then demonstrated for a specific example where the pump and probe wavelengths are of 980 and 532 nm, respectively. Gold nanorods with diameters of 10 and a length of 58 nm are selected as the "most suitable" absorbing particles, while silver nanospheres with a diameter of 110 nm are selected as the "most suitable" scattering particles. These particles are synthesized and shown to experimentally match the desired optical properties. Overall, this paper proposes and demonstrates an approach by which it is possible to design and fabricate particles for a wide range of optical studies in semi-transparent nanofluids.

  15. Comparative study of ex vivo probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy and light microscopy in lung cancer diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Sorokina, Anastasia; Danilevskaya, Olesya; Averyanov, Alexander; Zabozlaev, Fedor; Sazonov, Dmitry; Yarmus, Lonny; Lee, Hans J

    2014-08-01

    Probe-based confocal laser endoscopy (pCLE) allows for real-time non-invasive histological imaging via bronchoscopy. Interpreting CLE images and correlating with traditional histopathology remains challenging. We performed an ex vivo study to evaluate the correlation between light microscopy findings and pCLE imaging of primary lung carcinoma. Post-lobectomy specimens for lung cancer nodules were examined ex vivo by pCLE. The examined areas were marked with brilliant green dye, and the surrounding tissues were stained by methylene blue dye. Lung tissue segments were resected and histopathological specimens were generated with 50-μm thickness from the marked areas and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Pathologists and pulmonologists reviewed the images for correlating features. Eighteen lobectomy specimens from 18 different patients were collected. Three primary features were observed in all samples using pCLE in the cancer surroundings: alveolar dystelectasis with thickening of alveolar walls, alveolar edema and a large amount of macrophages. The stromal and parenchymal components of the studied subtypes of non-small-cell lung cancer differed from each other. The stromal component for all nine adenocarcinoma specimens had a highly fluorescent field penetrated by dark hollows. All six squamous cell carcinoma specimens had the stromal component appeared as 'biparously' branching, highly fluorescent fibres. No stromal component was observed in any small-cell carcinoma specimen, and at low power field, the cellular component was dominant with an observed light scattering pattern. pCLE can identify lung carcinoma in ex vivo samples. Certain light microscopy features of lung carcinoma can be visualized with pCLE. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  16. Constraining the parameter space of branon dark matter using white dwarf stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panotopoulos, Grigorios; Lopes, Ilídio

    2017-09-01

    In the present work we study the branon dark matter particles impact on compact objects, and we provide the first constraints of the parameter space using white dwarf stars. The branon dark matter model is characterized by two free parameters, namely the branon mass particle M and the brane tension factor f . The latter determines the strength of the interaction of branon dark matter particles with baryons. By considering a typical white dwarf star we were able to obtain constraints on branon dark matter competitive with current limits obtained by direct detection and collider searches. In particular, our results show that (i) for heavy branons with a mass M >10 GeV white dwarfs fail to provide us with bounds better than current limits from dark matter direct detection searches, and (ii) for light branons in the mass range 2 keV probed either with current dark matter experiments or with the next generation of detectors, the dark matter abundance constraint determines f as a function of M in the range 0.1 dark matter abundance constraint.

  17. Sterile neutrino portal to Dark Matter I: the U(1) B- L case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, Miguel; Rius, Nuria; Sanz, Verónica

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we explore the possibility that the sterile neutrino and Dark Matter sectors in the Universe have a common origin. We study the consequences of this assumption in the simple case of coupling the dark sector to the Standard Model via a global U(1) B-L , broken down spontaneously by a dark scalar. This dark scalar provides masses to the dark fermions and communicates with the Higgs via a Higgs portal coupling. We find an interesting interplay between Dark Matter annihilation to dark scalars — the CP-even that mixes with the Higgs and the CP-odd which becomes a Goldstone boson, the Majoron — and heavy neutrinos, as well as collider probes via the coupling to the Higgs. Moreover, Dark Matter annihilation into sterile neutrinos and its subsequent decay to gauge bosons and quarks, charged leptons or neutrinos lead to indirect detection signatures which are close to current bounds on the gamma ray flux from the galactic center and dwarf galaxies.

  18. Fluorescence microscopy studies of a peripheral-benzodiazepine-receptor-targeted molecular probe for brain tumor imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcu, Laura; Vernier, P. Thomas; Manning, H. Charles; Salemi, Sarah; Li, Aimin; Craft, Cheryl M.; Gundersen, Martin A.; Bornhop, Darryl J.

    2003-10-01

    This study investigates the potential of a new multi-modal lanthanide chelate complex for specifically targeting brain tumor cells. We report here results from ongoing studies of up-take, sub-cellular localization and binding specificity of this new molecular imaging probe. Fluorescence microscopy investigations in living rat C6 glioma tumor cells demonstrate that the new imaging agent has affinity for glioma cells and binds to mitochondria.

  19. A Submillimetre Study of Massive Star Formation Within the W51 Complex and Infrared Dark Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Harriet Alice Louise

    Despite its importance the fundamental question of how massive stars form remains unanswered, with improvements to both models and observations having crucial roles to play. To quote Bate et al. (2003) computational models of star formation are limited because "conditions in molecular clouds are not sufficiently well understood to be able to select a representative sample of cloud cores for the initial conditions". It is this notion that motivates the study of the environments within Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) and Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs), known sites of massive star formation, at the clump and core level. By studying large populations of these objects, it is possible to make conclusions based on global properties. With this in mind I study the dense molecular clumps within one of the most massive GMCs in the Galaxy: the W51 GMC. New observations of the W51 GMC in the 12CO, 13CO and C18O (3-2) transitions using the HARP instrument on the JCMT are presented. With the help of the clump finding algorithm CLUMPFIND a total of 1575 dense clumps are identified of which 1130 are associated with the W51 GMC, yielding a dense mass reservoir of 1.5 × 10^5 M contained within these clumps. Of these clumps only 1% by number are found to be super-critical, yielding a super-critical clump formation efficiency of 0.5%, below current SFE estimates of the region. This indicates star formation within the W51 GMC will diminish over time although evidence from the first search for molecular outflows presents the W51 GMC in an active light with a lower limit of 14 outflows. The distribution of the outflows within the region searched found them concentrated towards the W51A region. Having much smaller sizes and masses, obtaining global properties of clumps and cores within IRDCs required studying a large sample of these objects. To do this pre-existing data from the SCUBA Legacy Catalogue was utilised to study IRDCs within a catalogues based on 8 μm data. This data identified

  20. Dark scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahonen, Pasi; Alahuhta, Petteri; Daskala, Barbara; Delaitre, Sabine; Hert, Paul De; Lindner, Ralf; Maghiros, Ioannis; Moscibroda, Anna; Schreurs, Wim; Verlinden, Michiel

    In this chapter, we present four "dark scenarios" that highlight the key socio-economic, legal, technological and ethical risks to privacy, identity, trust, security and inclusiveness posed by new AmI technologies. We call them dark scenarios, because they show things that could go wrong in an AmI world, because they present visions of the future that we do not want to become reality. The scenarios expose threats and vulnerabilities as a way to inform policy-makers and planners about issues they need to take into account in developing new policies or updating existing legislation. Before presenting the four scenarios and our analysis of each, we describe the process of how we created the scenarios as well as the elements in our methodology for analysing the scenarios.