Science.gov

Sample records for probiont pseudomonas fluorescens

  1. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance... Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas...

  2. Adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens onto nanophase materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Thomas J.; Tong, Zonghua; Liu, Jin; Banks, M. Katherine

    2005-07-01

    Nanobiotechnology is a growing area of research, primarily due to the potentially numerous applications of new synthetic nanomaterials in engineering/science. Although various definitions have been given for the word 'nanomaterials' by many different experts, the commonly accepted one refers to nanomaterials as those materials which possess grains, particles, fibres, or other constituent components that have one dimension specifically less than 100 nm. In biological applications, most of the research to date has focused on the interactions between mammalian cells and synthetic nanophase surfaces for the creation of better tissue engineering materials. Although mammalian cells have shown a definite positive response to nanophase materials, information on bacterial interactions with nanophase materials remains elusive. For this reason, this study was designed to assess the adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens on nanophase compared to conventional grain size alumina substrates. Results provide the first evidence of increased adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens on alumina with nanometre compared to conventional grain sizes. To understand more about the process, polymer (specifically, poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid or PLGA) casts were made of the conventional and nanostructured alumina surfaces. Results showed similar increased Pseudomonas fluorescens capture on PLGA casts of nanostructured compared to conventional alumina as on the alumina itself. For these reasons, a key material property shown to enhance bacterial adhesion was elucidated in this study for both polymers and ceramics: nanostructured surface features.

  3. Cyanide production by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Askeland, R A; Morrison, S M

    1983-01-01

    Of 200 water isolates screened, five strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were cyanogenic. Maximum cyanogenesis by two strains of P. fluorescens in a defined growth medium occurred at 25 to 30 degrees C over a pH range of 6.6 to 8.9. Cyanide production per cell was optimum at 300 mM phosphate. A linear relationship was observed between cyanogenesis and the log of iron concentration over a range of 3 to 300 microM. The maximum rate of cyanide production occurred during the transition from exponential to stationary growth phase. Radioactive tracer experiments with [1-14C]glycine and [2-14C]glycine demonstrated that the cyanide carbon originates from the number 2 carbon of glycine for both P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa. Cyanide production was not observed in raw industrial wastewater or in sterile wastewater inoculated with pure cultures of cyanogenic Pseudomonas strains. Cyanide was produced when wastewater was amended by the addition of components of the defined growth medium. PMID:6410989

  4. Cyanide production by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Askeland, R A; Morrison, S M

    1983-06-01

    Of 200 water isolates screened, five strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were cyanogenic. Maximum cyanogenesis by two strains of P. fluorescens in a defined growth medium occurred at 25 to 30 degrees C over a pH range of 6.6 to 8.9. Cyanide production per cell was optimum at 300 mM phosphate. A linear relationship was observed between cyanogenesis and the log of iron concentration over a range of 3 to 300 microM. The maximum rate of cyanide production occurred during the transition from exponential to stationary growth phase. Radioactive tracer experiments with [1-14C]glycine and [2-14C]glycine demonstrated that the cyanide carbon originates from the number 2 carbon of glycine for both P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa. Cyanide production was not observed in raw industrial wastewater or in sterile wastewater inoculated with pure cultures of cyanogenic Pseudomonas strains. Cyanide was produced when wastewater was amended by the addition of components of the defined growth medium.

  5. Genomic Analysis of Secondary Metabolite Production by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a diverse bacterial species known for its ubiquity in natural habitats and its production of secondary metabolites. The high degree of ecological and metabolic diversity represented in P. fluorescens is reflected in the genomic diversity displayed among strains. Certain st...

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Biocontrol Strain Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM223

    PubMed Central

    Roquigny, Roxane; Arseneault, Tanya; Gadkar, Vijay J.; Novinscak, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM223 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with biocontrol activity against various plant pathogens. It produces the antimicrobial metabolite phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, which is involved in the biocontrol of Streptomyces scabies, the causal agent of common scab of potato. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of P. fluorescens LBUM223. PMID:25953163

  7. Nitrite inhibition of denitrification by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, J.S.; Julio, S.M.; Reis, M.A.M. |

    1995-05-05

    Using a pure culture of Pseudomonas fluorescens as a model system nitrite inhibition of denitrification was studied. A mineral media with acetate and nitrate as sole electron donor and acceptor, respectively, was used. Results obtained in continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR) operated at pH values between 6.6 and 7.8 showed that growth inhibition depended only on the nitrite undissociated fraction concentration (nitrous acid). A mathematical model to describe this dependence is put forward. The maximum nitrous acid concentration compatible with cell growth and denitrification activity was found to be 66 {mu}g N/L. Denitrification activity was partially associated with growth, as described by the Luedeking-Piret equation. However, when the freshly inoculated reactor was operated discontinuously, nitrite accumulation caused growth uncoupling from denitrification activity. The authors suggest that these results can be interpreted considering that (a) nitrous acid acts as a proton uncoupler; and (b) cultures continuously exposed to nitrous acid prevent the uncoupling effect but not the growth inhibition. Examination of the growth dependence on nitrite concentration at pH 7.0 showed that adapted cultures (growth on CSTR) are less sensitive to nitrous acid inhibition than the ones cultivated in batch.

  8. Pseudomonas fluorescens' view of the periodic table.

    PubMed

    Workentine, Matthew L; Harrison, Joe J; Stenroos, Pernilla U; Ceri, Howard; Turner, Raymond J

    2008-01-01

    Growth in a biofilm modulates microbial metal susceptibility, sometimes increasing the ability of microorganisms to withstand toxic metal species by several orders of magnitude. In this study, a high-throughput metal toxicity screen was initiated with the aim of correlating biological toxicity data in planktonic and biofilm cells to the physiochemical properties of metal ions. To this end, Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 was grown in the Calgary Biofilm Device (CBD) and biofilms and planktonic cells of this microorganism were exposed to gradient arrays of different metal ions. These arrays included 44 different metals with representative compounds that spanned every group of the periodic table (except for the halogens and noble gases). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) values were obtained after exposing the biofilms to metal ions for 4 h. Using these values, metal ion toxicity was correlated to the following ion-specific physicochemical parameters: standard reduction-oxidation potential, electronegativity, the solubility product of the corresponding metal-sulfide complex, the Pearson softness index, electron density and the covalent index. When the ions were grouped according to outer shell electron structure, we found that heavy metal ions gave the strongest correlations to these parameters and were more toxic on average than the other classes of the ions. Correlations were different for biofilms than for planktonic cells, indicating that chemical mechanisms of metal ion toxicity differ between the two modes of growth. We suggest that biofilms can specifically counter the toxic effects of certain physicochemical parameters, which may contribute to the increased ability of biofilms to withstand metal toxicity.

  9. Siderotyping of fluorescent pseudomonads: characterization of pyoverdines of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida strains from Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J M; Stintzi, A; Coulanges, V; Shivaji, S; Voss, J A; Taraz, K; Budzikiewicz, H

    1998-11-01

    Five independent fluorescent pseudomonad isolates originating from Antarctica were analysed for their pyoverdine systems. A pyoverdine-related siderotyping, which involved pyoverdine-induced growth stimulation, pyoverdine-mediated iron uptake, pyoverdine analysis by electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing, revealed three different pyoverdine-related siderotypes among the five isolates. One siderotype, including Pseudomonas fluorescens 1W and P. fluorescens 10CW, was identical to that of P. fluorescens ATCC 13525. Two other strains, P. fluorescens 9AW and Pseudomonas putida 9BW, showed identical pyoverdine-related behaviour to each other, whereas the fifth strain, P. fluorescens 51W, had unique features compared to the other strains or to a set of 12 fluorescent Pseudomonas strains used as comparison material. Elucidation of the structure of the pyoverdines produced by the Antarctic strains supported the accuracy of the siderotyping methodology by confirming that pyoverdines from strains 1W and 10CW had the same structures as the P. fluorescens ATCC 13525 pyoverdine, whereas the 9AW and 9BW pyoverdines are probably identical with the pyoverdine of P. fluorescens strain 244. Pyoverdine from strain 51W appeared to be a novel pyoverdine since its structure was different from all previously established pyoverdine structures. Together with the conclusion that the Antarctic Pseudomonas strains have no special features at the level of their pyoverdines and pyoverdine-mediated iron metabolism compared to worldwide strains, the present work demonstrates that siderotyping provides a rapid means of screening for novel pyoverdines.

  10. Engineering Pseudomonas fluorescens for Biodegradation of 2,4-Dinitrotoluene†

    PubMed Central

    Monti, Mariela R.; Smania, Andrea M.; Fabro, Georgina; Alvarez, María E.; Argaraña, Carlos E.

    2005-01-01

    Using the genes encoding the 2,4-dinitrotoluene degradation pathway enzymes, the nonpathogenic psychrotolerant rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17400 was genetically modified for degradation of this priority pollutant. First, a recombinant strain designated MP was constructed by conjugative transfer from Burkholderia sp. strain DNT of the pJS1 megaplasmid, which contains the dnt genes for 2,4-dinitrotoluene degradation. This strain was able to grow on 2,4-dinitrotoluene as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy at levels equivalent to those of Burkholderia sp. strain DNT. Nevertheless, loss of the 2,4-dinitrotoluene degradative phenotype was observed for strains carrying pJS1. The introduction of dnt genes into the P.fluorescens ATCC 17400 chromosome, using a suicide chromosomal integration Tn5-based delivery plasmid system, generated a degrading strain that was stable for a long time, which was designated RE. This strain was able to use 2,4-dinitrotoluene as a sole nitrogen source and to completely degrade this compound as a cosubstrate. Furthermore, P. fluorescens RE, but not Burkholderia sp. strain DNT, was capable of degrading 2,4-dinitrotoluene at temperatures as low as 10°C. Finally, the presence of P. fluorescens RE in soils containing levels of 2,4-dinitrotoluene lethal to plants significantly decreased the toxic effects of this nitro compound on Arabidopsis thaliana growth. Using synthetic medium culture, P. fluorescens RE was found to be nontoxic for A.thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum, whereas under these conditions Burkholderia sp. strain DNT inhibited A.thaliana seed germination and was lethal to plants. These features reinforce the advantageous environmental robustness of P. fluorescens RE compared with Burkholderia sp. strain DNT. PMID:16332883

  11. F'-plasmid transfer from Escherichia coli to Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed Central

    Mergeay, M; Gerits, J

    1978-01-01

    Various F' plasmids of Escherichia coli K-12 could be transferred into mutants of the soil strain 6.2, classified herein as a Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype IV. This strain was previously found to receive Flac plasmid (N. Datta and R.W. Hedges, J. Gen Microbiol. 70:453-460, 1972). ilv, leu, met, arg, and his auxotrophs were complemented by plasmids carrying isofunctional genes; trp mutants were not complemented or were very poorly complemented. The frequency of transfer was 10(-5). Subsequent transfer into other P. fluorescens recipients was of the same order of magnitude. Some transconjugants were unable to act as donors, and these did not lose the received information if subcultured on nonselective media. Use of F' plasmids helped to discriminate metabolic blocks in P. fluorescens. In particular, metA, metB, and argH mutants were so distinguished. In addition, F131 plasmid carrying the his operon and a supD mutation could partially relieve the auxotrophy of thr, ilv, and metA13 mutants, suggesting functional expression of E. coli tRNA in P. fluorescens. In P. fluorescens metA Rifr mutants carrying the F110 plasmid, which carried the E. coli metA gene and the E. coli rifs allele, sensitivity to rifampin was found to be dominant at least temporarily over resistance. This suggests interaction of E. coli and P. fluorescens subunits of RNA polymerase. his mutations were also complemented by composite P plasmids containing the his-nif region of Klebsiella pneumoniae (plasmids FN68 and RP41). nif expression could be detected by acetylene reduction in some his+ transconjugants. The frequency of transfer of these P plasmids was 5 X 10(-4). PMID:97267

  12. Lethality and Developmental Delay of Drosophila melanogaster Following Ingestion of Selected Pseudomonas fluorescens Strains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudomonas fluorescens secretes antimicrobial compounds that promote plant health and provide protection from pathogens. We used a non-invasive feeding assay to study the toxicity of P. fluorescens strains Pf0-1, SBW25, and Pf-5 to Drosophila melanogaster. The three strains of P. fluorescens varie...

  13. Colonizing ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens 2112, among collections of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens spp. in pea rhizosphere.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudomonas fluorescens 2112, isolated in Korea as an indigenous antagonistic bacteria, can produce 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) and the siderophore pyoveridin2112 for the control of Phytophthora blight of red-pepper. P. fluorescens 2112 was classified into a new genotype C among the 17 gen...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1200 - Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1200 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary... established for residues of the microbial pesticide, pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25 when used on...

  15. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  16. Combined inoculation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum for enhancing plant growth of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia).

    PubMed

    Sandheep, A R; Asok, A K; Jisha, M S

    2013-06-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the plant growth promoting efficiency of combined inoculation of rhizobacteria on Vanilla plants. Based on the in vitro performance of indigenous Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas spp., four effective antagonists were selected and screened under greenhouse experiment for their growth enhancement potential. The maximum percentage of growth enhancement were observed in the combination of Trichoderma harzianum with Pseudomonas fluorescens treatment followed by Pseudomonas fluorescens, Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas putida and Trichoderma virens, respectively in decreasing order. Combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens registered the maximum length of vine (82.88 cm), highest number of leaves (26.67/plant), recorded the highest fresh weight of shoots (61.54 g plant(-1)), fresh weight of roots (4.46 g plant(-1)) and dry weight of shoot (4.56 g plant(-1)) where as the highest dry weight of roots (2.0806 g plant(-1)) were achieved with treatments of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Among the inoculated strains, combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens recorded the maximum nitrogen uptake (61.28 mg plant(-1)) followed by the combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum (std) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (std) (55.03 mg plant(-1)) and the highest phosphorus uptake (38.80 mg plant(-1)) was recorded in dual inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens.

  17. Foam Separation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis var. niger

    PubMed Central

    Grieves, R. B.; Wang, S. L.

    1967-01-01

    An experimental investigation established the effect of the presence of inorganic salts on the foam separation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and of Bacillus subtilis var. niger (B. globigii) from aqueous suspension by use of a cationic surfactant. For P. fluorescens, 5.0 μeq/ml of NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4, K2SO4, CaCl2, CaSO4, MgCl2, or MgSO4 produced increases in the cell concentration in the residual suspension (not carried into the foam) from 2.9 × 105 up to 1.6 × 106 to 2.8 × 107 cells per milliliter (initial suspensions contain from 3.3 × 107 to 4.8 × 107 cells per milliliter). The exceptional influence of magnesium was overcome by bringing the cells into contact first with the surfactant and then the salt. For B. subtilis, the presence of 5.0 μeq/ml of any of the eight salts increased the residual cell concentration by one order of magnitude from 1.2 × 104 to about 4.0 × 105 cells per milliliter. This occurred regardless of the sequence of contact as long as the surfactant contact period was sufficient. The presence of salts increased collapsed foam volumes with P. fluorescens and decreased collapsed foam volumes with B. subtilis. PMID:4961933

  18. Genomic and Genetic Diversity within the Pseudomonas fluorescens Complex.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Sanz, Daniel; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Göker, Markus; Martín, Marta; Rivilla, Rafael; Redondo-Nieto, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The Pseudomonas fluorescens complex includes Pseudomonas strains that have been taxonomically assigned to more than fifty different species, many of which have been described as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) with potential applications in biocontrol and biofertilization. So far the phylogeny of this complex has been analyzed according to phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA, MLSA and inferred by whole-genome analysis. However, since most of the type strains have not been fully sequenced and new species are frequently described, correlation between taxonomy and phylogenomic analysis is missing. In recent years, the genomes of a large number of strains have been sequenced, showing important genomic heterogeneity and providing information suitable for genomic studies that are important to understand the genomic and genetic diversity shown by strains of this complex. Based on MLSA and several whole-genome sequence-based analyses of 93 sequenced strains, we have divided the P. fluorescens complex into eight phylogenomic groups that agree with previous works based on type strains. Digital DDH (dDDH) identified 69 species and 75 subspecies within the 93 genomes. The eight groups corresponded to clustering with a threshold of 31.8% dDDH, in full agreement with our MLSA. The Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) approach showed inconsistencies regarding the assignment to species and to the eight groups. The small core genome of 1,334 CDSs and the large pan-genome of 30,848 CDSs, show the large diversity and genetic heterogeneity of the P. fluorescens complex. However, a low number of strains were enough to explain most of the CDSs diversity at core and strain-specific genomic fractions. Finally, the identification and analysis of group-specific genome and the screening for distinctive characters revealed a phylogenomic distribution of traits among the groups that provided insights into biocontrol and bioremediation applications as well as their role as PGPR.

  19. Genomic and Genetic Diversity within the Pseudomonas fluorescens Complex

    PubMed Central

    Garrido-Sanz, Daniel; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P.; Göker, Markus; Martín, Marta; Rivilla, Rafael; Redondo-Nieto, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The Pseudomonas fluorescens complex includes Pseudomonas strains that have been taxonomically assigned to more than fifty different species, many of which have been described as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) with potential applications in biocontrol and biofertilization. So far the phylogeny of this complex has been analyzed according to phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA, MLSA and inferred by whole-genome analysis. However, since most of the type strains have not been fully sequenced and new species are frequently described, correlation between taxonomy and phylogenomic analysis is missing. In recent years, the genomes of a large number of strains have been sequenced, showing important genomic heterogeneity and providing information suitable for genomic studies that are important to understand the genomic and genetic diversity shown by strains of this complex. Based on MLSA and several whole-genome sequence-based analyses of 93 sequenced strains, we have divided the P. fluorescens complex into eight phylogenomic groups that agree with previous works based on type strains. Digital DDH (dDDH) identified 69 species and 75 subspecies within the 93 genomes. The eight groups corresponded to clustering with a threshold of 31.8% dDDH, in full agreement with our MLSA. The Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) approach showed inconsistencies regarding the assignment to species and to the eight groups. The small core genome of 1,334 CDSs and the large pan-genome of 30,848 CDSs, show the large diversity and genetic heterogeneity of the P. fluorescens complex. However, a low number of strains were enough to explain most of the CDSs diversity at core and strain-specific genomic fractions. Finally, the identification and analysis of group-specific genome and the screening for distinctive characters revealed a phylogenomic distribution of traits among the groups that provided insights into biocontrol and bioremediation applications as well as their role as PGPR. PMID:26915094

  20. Functions Encoded by Pyrrolnitrin Biosynthetic Genes from Pseudomonas fluorescens

    PubMed Central

    Kirner, Sabine; Hammer, Philip E.; Hill, D. Steven; Altmann, Annett; Fischer, Ilona; Weislo, Laura J.; Lanahan, Mike; van Pée, Karl-Heinz; Ligon, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Pyrrolnitrin is a secondary metabolite derived from tryptophan and has strong antifungal activity. Recently we described four genes, prnABCD, from Pseudomonas fluorescens that encode the biosynthesis of pyrrolnitrin. In the work presented here, we describe the function of each prn gene product. The four genes encode proteins identical in size and serology to proteins present in wild-type Pseudomonas fluorescens, but absent from a mutant from which the entire prn gene region had been deleted. The prnA gene product catalyzes the chlorination of l-tryptophan to form 7-chloro-l-tryptophan. The prnB gene product catalyzes a ring rearrangement and decarboxylation to convert 7-chloro-l-tryptophan to monodechloroaminopyrrolnitrin. The prnC gene product chlorinates monodechloroaminopyrrolnitrin at the 3 position to form aminopyrrolnitrin. The prnD gene product catalyzes the oxidation of the amino group of aminopyrrolnitrin to a nitro group to form pyrrolnitrin. The organization of the prn genes in the operon is identical to the order of the reactions in the biosynthetic pathway. PMID:9537395

  1. Functions encoded by pyrrolnitrin biosynthetic genes from Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Kirner, S; Hammer, P E; Hill, D S; Altmann, A; Fischer, I; Weislo, L J; Lanahan, M; van Pée, K H; Ligon, J M

    1998-04-01

    Pyrrolnitrin is a secondary metabolite derived from tryptophan and has strong antifungal activity. Recently we described four genes, prnABCD, from Pseudomonas fluorescens that encode the biosynthesis of pyrrolnitrin. In the work presented here, we describe the function of each prn gene product. The four genes encode proteins identical in size and serology to proteins present in wild-type Pseudomonas fluorescens, but absent from a mutant from which the entire prn gene region had been deleted. The prnA gene product catalyzes the chlorination of L-tryptophan to form 7-chloro-L-tryptophan. The prnB gene product catalyzes a ring rearrangement and decarboxylation to convert 7-chloro-L-tryptophan to monodechloroaminopyrrolnitrin. The prnC gene product chlorinates monodechloroaminopyrrolnitrin at the 3 position to form aminopyrrolnitrin. The prnD gene product catalyzes the oxidation of the amino group of aminopyrrolnitrin to a nitro group to form pyrrolnitrin. The organization of the prn genes in the operon is identical to the order of the reactions in the biosynthetic pathway.

  2. High pressure inactivation of Pseudomonas in black truffle - comparison with Pseudomonas fluorescens in tryptone soya broth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballestra, Patricia; Verret, Catherine; Cruz, Christian; Largeteau, Alain; Demazeau, Gerard; El Moueffak, Abdelhamid

    2010-03-01

    Pseudomonas is one of the most common genera in black Perigord truffle. Its inactivation by high pressure (100-500 MPa/10 min) applied on truffles at sub-zero or low temperatures was studied and compared with those of Pseudomonas fluorescens in tryptone soya broth. Pressurization of truffles at 300 MPa/4 °C reduced the bacterial count of Pseudomonas by 5.3 log cycles. Higher pressures of 400 or 500 MPa, at 4 °C or 20 °C, allowed us to slightly increase the level of destruction to the value of ca. 6.5 log cycles but did not permit us to completely inactivate Pseudomonas. The results showed a residual charge of about 10 CFU/g. Pressure-shift freezing of truffles, which consists in applying a pressure of 200 MPa/-18 °C for 10 min and then quickly releasing this pressure to induce freezing, reduced the population of Pseudomonas by 3.3 log cycles. The level of inactivation was higher than those obtained with conventional freezing. Endogenous Pseudomonas in truffle was shown to be more resistant to high pressure treatments than P. fluorescens used for inoculation of broths.

  3. Boolean Models of Biosurfactants Production in Pseudomonas fluorescens

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Adrien; Rossignol, Gaelle; Comet, Jean-Paul; Bernot, Gilles; Guespin-Michel, Jannine; Merieau, Annabelle

    2012-01-01

    Cyclolipopeptides (CLPs) are biosurfactants produced by numerous Pseudomonas fluorescens strains. CLP production is known to be regulated at least by the GacA/GacS two-component pathway, but the full regulatory network is yet largely unknown. In the clinical strain MFN1032, CLP production is abolished by a mutation in the phospholipase C gene () and not restored by complementation. Their production is also subject to phenotypic variation. We used a modelling approach with Boolean networks, which takes into account all these observations concerning CLP production without any assumption on the topology of the considered network. Intensive computation yielded numerous models that satisfy these properties. All models minimizing the number of components point to a bistability in CLP production, which requires the presence of a yet unknown key self-inducible regulator. Furthermore, all suggest that a set of yet unexplained phenotypic variants might also be due to this epigenetic switch. The simplest of these Boolean networks was used to propose a biological regulatory network for CLP production. This modelling approach has allowed a possible regulation to be unravelled and an unusual behaviour of CLP production in P. fluorescens to be explained. PMID:22303435

  4. Genomics-Guided Discovery of Traits Contributing to Interactions of Pseudomonas fluorescens with Other Organisms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a diverse bacterial species known for its ubiquity in natural habitats and the production of structurally diverse, bioactive secondary metabolites. The high degree of ecological and metabolic diversity represented in P. fluorescens is reflected in the genomic diversity di...

  5. Genome Sequence of the Banana Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PS006

    PubMed Central

    Gamez, Rocío M.; Rodríguez, Fernando; Ramírez, Sandra; Gómez, Yolanda; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a well-known plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR). We report here the first whole-genome sequence of PGPR P. fluorescens evaluated in Colombian banana plants. The genome sequences contains genes involved in plant growth and defense, including bacteriocins, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, and genes that provide resistance to toxic compounds. PMID:27151797

  6. Three Strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens Exhibit Differential Toxicity Against Drosophila melanogaster

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens were tested for toxicity to Drosophila melanogaster in an insect feeding assay. Insect eggs were placed on the surface of a non-nutritive agar plate supplemented with a food source that was non-inoculated or inoculated with P. fluorescens Pf0-1, SBW25, or Pf-...

  7. Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 produces furanomycin, a non-proteinogenic amino acid with selective antimicrobial properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is an opportunistic, plant-associated ' –proteobacterium that occurs throughout terrestrial ecosystems and is commonly isolated from the surface of plant roots and leaves. Strains of P. fluorescens are physiologically and ecologically diverse, and genomic data from multiple s...

  8. Inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Pseudomonas fluorescens on meat surfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, P V; di Paola, G N; Pasetti, M F; Manghi, M A

    1995-01-01

    An inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed for Pseudomonas fluorescens enumeration of meat surfaces. The assay detected contamination levels as low as 3 x 10(5) bacteria per ml and could be completed within 4 h. It could be used as a framework for a test system for quantifying P. fluorescens spoilage in meat products. PMID:7887624

  9. Survival of rifampin-resistant mutants of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida in soil systems.

    PubMed Central

    Compeau, G; Al-Achi, B J; Platsouka, E; Levy, S B

    1988-01-01

    The fate of spontaneous chromosomal rifampin-resistant (Rifr) mutants of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens in sterile and live organic soil from which they were isolated was studied. In sterile native-soil assays, a Rifr mutant of P. putida showed no decrease in competitive fitness when compared with the wild-type parent. However, mutants of P. fluorescens were of two general categories. Group 1 showed no difference from the wild type in terms of growth rate, competitive fitness, and membrane protein composition. Group 2 showed a slower growth rate in both minimal and enriched media and an altered membrane protein profile. These mutants also demonstrated decreased competitive fitness compared with the wild-type strain. In live soil, the Rifr P. putida strain persisted throughout the 38-day test period with a decay rate of 0.7 log10 CFU/g of soil per 10 days. A group 1 Rifr P. fluorescens mutant maintained its inoculated titer for 7 to 10 days and then decayed at a rate of 0.2 to 0.4 log10 CFU/g of soil per 10 days. A group 2 Rifr P. fluorescens mutant remained at its titer for 1 to 5 days before decaying at a two- to threefold-faster rate. These findings indicate that rifampin resistance may not be an innocuous mutation in some pseudomonads and that marked strains should be compared with wild-type parents before being used as monitors of parental strain survival. Colonization of sterile soil with either the wild-type or mutant strain precluded normal colonization of the second added strain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:3144244

  10. Microbiology, Genomics, and Clinical Significance of the Pseudomonas fluorescens Species Complex, an Unappreciated Colonizer of Humans

    PubMed Central

    Scales, Brittan S.; Dickson, Robert P.; LiPuma, John J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Pseudomonas fluorescens is not generally considered a bacterial pathogen in humans; however, multiple culture-based and culture-independent studies have identified it at low levels in the indigenous microbiota of various body sites. With recent advances in comparative genomics, many isolates originally identified as the “species” P. fluorescens are now being reclassified as novel Pseudomonas species within the P. fluorescens “species complex.” Although most widely studied for its role in the soil and the rhizosphere, P. fluorescens possesses a number of functional traits that provide it with the capability to grow and thrive in mammalian hosts. While significantly less virulent than P. aeruginosa, P. fluorescens can cause bacteremia in humans, with most reported cases being attributable either to transfusion of contaminated blood products or to use of contaminated equipment associated with intravenous infusions. Although not suspected of being an etiologic agent of pulmonary disease, there are a number of reports identifying it in respiratory samples. There is also an intriguing association between P. fluorescens and human disease, in that approximately 50% of Crohn's disease patients develop serum antibodies to P. fluorescens. Altogether, these reports are beginning to highlight a far more common, intriguing, and potentially complex association between humans and P. fluorescens during health and disease. PMID:25278578

  11. pA506: A conjugative plasmid of the plant epiphyte Pseudomonas fluorescens A506

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudomonas fluorescens A506 is an plant-epiphytic bacterium that is used commercially in the United States for the biological control of fire blight disease of pear and apple. Here, we demonstrate that A506 has a 57 kB conjugative plasmid that can transfer to other strains of Pseudomonas spp. and ...

  12. Siderophore cooperation of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens in soil.

    PubMed

    Luján, Adela M; Gómez, Pedro; Buckling, Angus

    2015-02-01

    While social interactions play an important role for the evolution of bacterial siderophore production in vitro, the extent to which siderophore production is a social trait in natural populations is less clear. Here, we demonstrate that siderophores act as public goods in a natural physical environment of Pseudomonas fluorescens: soil-based compost. We show that monocultures of siderophore producers grow better than non-producers in soil, but non-producers can exploit others' siderophores, as shown by non-producers' ability to invade populations of producers when rare. Despite this rare advantage, non-producers were unable to outcompete producers, suggesting that producers and non-producers may stably coexist in soil. Such coexistence is predicted to arise from the spatial structure associated with soil, and this is supported by increased fitness of non-producers when grown in a shaken soil-water mix. Our results suggest that both producers and non-producers should be observed in soil, as has been observed in marine environments and in clinical populations.

  13. [Development and relations of Fusarium culmorum and Pseudomonas fluorescens in soil].

    PubMed

    Strunnikova, O K; Shakhnazarova, V Iu; Vishnevskaia, N A; Chebotar', V K; Tikhonovich, I A

    2007-01-01

    The development of Fusarium culmorum and Pseudomonas fluorescens in soil, and the relations between them, were studied using membrane filters containing the fungus, the bacterium, or both microorganisms; the filters were incubated in soil. F. culmorum was identified by indirect immunofluorescence: the GUS-labeled strain was used to visualize P. fluorescens. It was found that F. culmorum introduced in soil can develop as a saprotroph, with the formation of mycelium, macroconidia, and a small amount of chlamydospores. Introduction of glucose and cellulose resulted in increased density of the F. culmorum mycelium and macroconidia. P. fluorescens suppressed development of F. culmorum mycelium in soil but stimulated formation of fungal chlamydospores. Decreased mycelial density in the presence of P. fluorescens was more pronounced in unsupplemented soil and less pronounced when glucose or cellulose was intiodaced. F. culmorum had no significant effect on P. fluorescens growth in soil.

  14. Pseudomonas fluorescens enhances biomass yield and ajmalicine production in Catharanthus roseus under water deficit stress.

    PubMed

    Jaleel, C Abdul; Manivannan, P; Sankar, B; Kishorekumar, A; Gopi, R; Somasundaram, R; Panneerselvam, R

    2007-10-15

    The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) like Pseudomonas fluorescens on growth parameters and the production of ajmalicine were investigated in Catharanthus roseus under drought stress. The plants under pot culture were subjected to 10, 15 and 20 days interval drought (DID) stress and drought stress with Pseudomonas fluorescens at 1mgl(-1) and 1mgl(-1)Pseudomonas fluorescens alone from 30 days after planting (DAP) and regular irrigation was kept as control. The plants were uprooted on 41 DAS (10 DID), 46 DAS (15 DID) and 51 DAS (20 DID). Drought stress decreased the growth parameters and increased the ajmalicine content. But the treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens enhanced the growth parameters under drought stress and partially ameliorated the drought induced growth inhibition by increasing the fresh and dry weights significantly. The ajmalicine content was again increased due to Pseudomonas fluorescens treatment to the drought stressed plants. From the results of this investigation, it can be concluded that, the seedling treatments of native PGPRs can be used as a good tool in the enhancement of biomass yield and alkaloid contents in medicinal plants, as it provides an eco-friendly approach and can be used as an agent in water deficit stress amelioration.

  15. Organophosphonate utilization by the wild-type strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed Central

    Zboińska, E; Lejczak, B; Kafarski, P

    1992-01-01

    The wild-type strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens was found to utilize a range of structurally diverse organophosphonates as its sole carbon or nitrogen sources. Representative compounds included aminoalkylphosphonates, hydroxyalkylphosphonates, oxoalkylphosphonates, and phosphono dipeptides. Among them, amino(phenyl)methylphosphonate,2-aminoethylphosphonate, aminomethylphosphonate, diisopropyl 9-aminofluoren-9-ylphosphonate, and 2-oxoalkylphosphonates were used by P. fluorescens as its sole sources of phosphorus. Only slight growth was observed on the herbicide glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine), which was metabolized to aminomethylphosphonate. Neither phosphinothricin nor its dialanyl tripeptide, bialaphos, supported growth of P. fluorescens. The possible mechanisms of organophosphonate degradation by this strain are discussed. PMID:1444412

  16. The evolutionary stability of cytochrome c-551 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype C

    PubMed Central

    Ambler, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    Cytochrome c-551 was prepared from nine different strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and six of Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype C, and their amino acid sequences were compared with the sequences previously determined for the cytochromes of type strains of each species. The standard of sequence examination was such that all single amino acid substitutions, delections or insertions ought to have been detected. Balanced double changes in sites in the same part of the sequence might have escaped detection. The standard of some of the quantitative amino acid analyses was not as high as would be required for the investigation of completely unknown sequences. Eight of the Ps. aeruginosa sequences could not be distinguished from the type sequence, whereas the ninth had a single amino acid substitution. The sequences from Ps. fluorescens biotype C were more varied, differing in from zero to four substitutions from the type sequence, with the most diverse sequences differing in seven positions. The results for Ps. aeruginosa are interpreted as evidence that neutral mutations are not responsible for much molecular evolution. The superficially paradoxical differences in the results for the two species are discussed. PMID:4362497

  17. Some properties of mandelate racemase from Pseudomonas fluorescens

    PubMed Central

    Weil-Malherbe, H.

    1966-01-01

    1. l-Mandelate dehydrogenase and mandelate racemase were partially purified from extracts of Pseudomonas fluorescens A–312 grown in media containing d-mandelate. 2. The activity of mandelate racemase, but not that of l-mandelate dehydrogenase, is greatly stimulated by Mg2+, Mn2+, Co2+ and, though less effectively, by Ni2+. Other metal ions are inactive or inhibitory. 3. Racemase activity is inhibited by phosphate, fluoride, pyrophosphate and EDTA. The inhibitions by pyrophosphate and EDTA are competitive with respect to the metal ion activator; those by phosphate and fluoride are competitive with respect to the substrate. 4. The addition of Mg2+ diminishes the Michaelis constant of racemase. 5. The pH optimum of the racemase is at 7·8. The pH–activity curve of the dehydrogenase complex of enzymes has two peaks, at 7·0 and 8·2. 6. The enzymic racemization of d-mandelate is initially faster than that of l-mandelate. 7. The rates of oxidation of related substrates, catalysed by l-mandelate dehydrogenase, are in the decreasing order: l-p-hydroxymandelate; l-3,4-dihydroxymandelate; l-4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelate. The racemase is active towards d-p-hydroxymandelate but inactive towards d-3,4-dihydroxymandelate and d-4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelate. Since 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelate, and presumably also 3,4-dihydroxymandelate, arising from the metabolism of catechol-amines, have the d-configuration, the enzymes studied cannot be utilized for estimation of the last two acids in urine. PMID:4291355

  18. Switching catalysis from hydrolysis to perhydrolysis in Pseudomonas fluorescens esterase.

    PubMed

    Yin, De Lu Tyler; Bernhardt, Peter; Morley, Krista L; Jiang, Yun; Cheeseman, Jeremy D; Purpero, Vincent; Schrag, Joseph D; Kazlauskas, Romas J

    2010-03-09

    Many serine hydrolases catalyze perhydrolysis, the reversible formation of peracids from carboxylic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Recently, we showed that a single amino acid substitution in the alcohol binding pocket, L29P, in Pseudomonas fluorescens (SIK WI) aryl esterase (PFE) increased the specificity constant of PFE for peracetic acid formation >100-fold [Bernhardt et al. (2005) Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 44, 2742]. In this paper, we extend this work to address the three following questions. First, what is the molecular basis of the increase in perhydrolysis activity? We previously proposed that the L29P substitution creates a hydrogen bond between the enzyme and hydrogen peroxide in the transition state. Here we report two X-ray structures of L29P PFE that support this proposal. Both structures show a main chain carbonyl oxygen closer to the active site serine as expected. One structure further shows acetate in the active site in an orientation consistent with reaction by an acyl-enzyme mechanism. We also detected an acyl-enzyme intermediate in the hydrolysis of epsilon-caprolactone by mass spectrometry. Second, can we further increase perhydrolysis activity? We discovered that the reverse reaction, hydrolysis of peracetic acid to acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, occurs at nearly the diffusion limited rate. Since the reverse reaction cannot increase further, neither can the forward reaction. Consistent with this prediction, two variants with additional amino acid substitutions showed 2-fold higher k(cat), but K(m) also increased so the specificity constant, k(cat)/K(m), remained similar. Third, how does the L29P substitution change the esterase activity? Ester hydrolysis decreased for most esters (75-fold for ethyl acetate) but not for methyl esters. In contrast, L29P PFE catalyzed hydrolysis of epsilon-caprolactone five times more efficiently than wild-type PFE. Molecular modeling suggests that moving the carbonyl group closer to the active site blocks access

  19. Switching Catalysis from Hydrolysis to Perhydrolysis in Pseudomonas fluorescens Esterase

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, D.; Bernhardt, P; Morley, K; Jiang, Y; Cheeseman, J; Purpero, V; Schrag, J; Kazlauskas, R

    2010-01-01

    Many serine hydrolases catalyze perhydrolysis, the reversible formation of peracids from carboxylic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Recently, we showed that a single amino acid substitution in the alcohol binding pocket, L29P, in Pseudomonas fluorescens (SIK WI) aryl esterase (PFE) increased the specificity constant of PFE for peracetic acid formation >100-fold [Bernhardt et al. (2005) Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 44, 2742]. In this paper, we extend this work to address the three following questions. First, what is the molecular basis of the increase in perhydrolysis activity? We previously proposed that the L29P substitution creates a hydrogen bond between the enzyme and hydrogen peroxide in the transition state. Here we report two X-ray structures of L29P PFE that support this proposal. Both structures show a main chain carbonyl oxygen closer to the active site serine as expected. One structure further shows acetate in the active site in an orientation consistent with reaction by an acyl-enzyme mechanism. We also detected an acyl-enzyme intermediate in the hydrolysis of {var_epsilon}-caprolactone by mass spectrometry. Second, can we further increase perhydrolysis activity? We discovered that the reverse reaction, hydrolysis of peracetic acid to acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, occurs at nearly the diffusion limited rate. Since the reverse reaction cannot increase further, neither can the forward reaction. Consistent with this prediction, two variants with additional amino acid substitutions showed 2-fold higher k{sub cat}, but K{sub m} also increased so the specificity constant, k{sub cat}/K{sub m}, remained similar. Third, how does the L29P substitution change the esterase activity? Ester hydrolysis decreased for most esters (75-fold for ethyl acetate) but not for methyl esters. In contrast, L29P PFE catalyzed hydrolysis of {var_epsilon}-caprolactone five times more efficiently than wild-type PFE. Molecular modeling suggests that moving the carbonyl group closer to the

  20. Complete Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas fluorescens Bacteriophages Isolated from Freshwater Samples in Omaha, Nebraska

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guoqing; Luhr, Jamie; Stoecklein, Andrew; Warner, Paige

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The complete genome sequences of four Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteriophages, UNO-SLW1 to UNO-SLW4, isolated from freshwater samples, are 39,092 to 39,215 bp long. The genomes are highly similar (identity, >0.995) but dissimilar from that of Pseudomonas phage Pf-10 (the closest relative, 0.685 to 0.686 identity), with 48 to 49 protein-coding genes and 66 regulatory sites predicted. PMID:28336602

  1. Analysis of the type III secretion system from Pseudomonas fluorescens Q8r1-96

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have shown that near-identical strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens colonize the roots of wheat at levels that differ markedly, ranging from simple commensalism to a more sophisticated relationship better described as a mutualistic symbiosis. In many biological systems, such interactions are mediat...

  2. TonB-Dependent outer-membrane proteins and siderophore utilization in Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The soil bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 produces two siderophores, a pyoverdine and enantio-pyochelin, and its proteome includes 45 TonB-dependent outer-membrane proteins, which commonly function in uptake of siderophores and other substrates from the environment. The 45 proteins share the ...

  3. Microarray Analysis and Mutagenesis of the Biological Control Agent Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The biological control agent Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 suppresses seedling emergence diseases caused by soilborne fungi and Oomycetes. Pf-5 produces at least ten secondary metabolites. These include hydrogen cyanide, pyrrolnitrin, pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, which have known funct...

  4. Development and Testing of Secondary Metabolism Mutants of Pseudomonas fluorescens PF-5

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5, a biological control agent of soil-borne plant diseases, produces at least ten secondary metabolites. Several of these metabolites, including hydrogen cyanide, pyrrolnitrin, pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol have well-characterized roles in biological control. ...

  5. Draft genome sequence of the phenazine-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 2-79

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 2-79, a natural isolate of the rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), possesses antagonistic potential toward several fungal pathogens. We report the draft genome sequence of strain 2-79, which comprises 5,674 protein-coding sequences....

  6. Effects of media on recovery of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Pseudomonas fluorescens from spinach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Control of post-harvest contamination of leafy greens by Escherichia coli O157:H7 is important for food safety. Efficient recovery and enumeration of E. coli O157:H7 and the biocontrol microbe Pseudomonas fluorescens (non-pectolytic and non-plant pathogenic) from produce is crucial for assessment of...

  7. Effects of media on recovery of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Pseudomonas fluorescens from spinach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Control the post-harvest contamination of leafy greens by Escherichia coli O157:H7 is important for food safety. Efficient recovery and enumeration of E. coli O157:H7 and the biocontrol microbe Pseudomonas fluorescens from produce is crucial for assessment of biocontrol efficacy. Sensitive and effec...

  8. Genome sequence of the mycorrhizal helper bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens BBc6R8

    SciTech Connect

    Deveau, Aurelie; Grob, Harald; Morin, Emmanuelle; Karpinets, Tatiana V; Utturkar, Sagar M; Mehnaz, Samina; Kurz, Sven; Martin, Francis; Frey-Klett, Pascale; Labbe, Jessy L

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of the mycorrhiza helper bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain BBc6R8 . Several traits which could be involved in the mycorrhiza helper ability of the bacterial strain such as multiple secretion systems, auxin metabolism and phosphate mobilization were evidenced in the genome.

  9. TonB-Dependent Receptors of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 and Siderophore Uptake

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    TonB-dependent receptors (TBDRs) are outer membrane proteins with essential roles in iron uptake by Gram-negative bacteria. The biological control strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 has 45 predicted TBDRs in its genome, which far exceeds the number of TBDRs in most published bacterial proteomes. ...

  10. TonB Dependent Receptors of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5: Roles in Siderophore and Iron Uptake

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    TonB-dependent receptors (TBDRs) are outer membrane proteins with essential roles in iron uptake by Gram-negative bacteria. The biological control strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 has 45 predicted TBDRs in its genome, which far exceeds the number of TBDRs in most published bacterial proteomes. Ei...

  11. Bioinformatic Analysis of TonB-Dependent Receptors of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    TonB-dependent receptors (TBDRs) are outer membrane proteins that play essential roles in iron uptake by Gram-negative bacteria. The biological control strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 has 45 predicted TBDRs, which far exceeds the number of TBDRs in most published bacterial proteomes. From a phyl...

  12. TonB Dependent Receptors of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 and Siderophore Uptake

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    TonB-dependent receptors (TBDRs) are outer membrane proteins with essential roles in iron uptake by Gram-negative bacteria. The biological control strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 has 45 predicted TBDRs in its genome, which far exceeds the number of TBDRs in most published bacterial proteomes. B...

  13. Protozoan-induced regulation of cycliclipopeptide biosythesis is an effective predation defense mechanism for Pseudomonas fluorescens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The grazing activity of protozoa significantly impacts the dynamics, diversification and evolution of bacterial communities in soil ecosystems. The feeding preference of protozoa is related to their inability to ingest or digest specific bacteria. Pseudomonas fluorescens strains SBW25 and SS101 used...

  14. Microarray Analysis of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 Grown on Seed Surfaces

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The biological control agent Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 suppresses seedling emergence diseases caused by soilborne fungi and Oomycetes. Genes expressed by a biological control agent on seed surfaces determine the outcome of its interaction with target pathogens in the spermosphere, the soil surrou...

  15. Improved High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens KENGFT3.

    PubMed

    Town, Jennifer; Cui, Nina; Audy, Patrice; Boyetchko, Sue; Dumonceaux, Tim J

    2016-05-26

    Pseudomonas sp. strain KENGFT3 inhibits the growth of Phytophthora infestans and is a potentially useful biopesticide for plant diseases, including potato late blight. We sequenced the 6.2-Mbp genome of this strain and assembled it into a single scaffold with 9 contigs. KENGFT3 is related to previously sequenced strains of P. fluorescens. Copyright © 2016 Town et al.

  16. Improved High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens KENGFT3

    PubMed Central

    Town, Jennifer; Cui, Nina; Audy, Patrice; Boyetchko, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain KENGFT3 inhibits the growth of Phytophthora infestans and is a potentially useful biopesticide for plant diseases, including potato late blight. We sequenced the 6.2-Mbp genome of this strain and assembled it into a single scaffold with 9 contigs. KENGFT3 is related to previously sequenced strains of P. fluorescens. PMID:27231365

  17. Cloning, sequence, and properties of the soluble pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase of Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed Central

    French, C E; Boonstra, B; Bufton, K A; Bruce, N C

    1997-01-01

    The gene encoding the soluble pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase (STH) of Pseudomonas fluorescens was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. STH is related to the flavoprotein disulfide oxidoreductases but lacks one of the conserved redox-active cysteine residues. The gene is highly similar to an E. coli gene of unknown function. PMID:9098078

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Three Endophyte Strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens Isolated from Miscanthus giganteus

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, António S.; Lloyd, Andrew; Lally, Richard D.; Galbally, Paul T.; Ryan, David

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of three Pseudomonas fluorescens strains (L111, L228, and L321) isolated from Miscanthus giganteus. The draft genome analyses uncovered a group of genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and for plant growth promotion. PMID:27738024

  19. Contribution of the Pseudomonas fluorescens MFE01 Type VI Secretion System to Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Gallique, Mathias; Decoin, Victorien; Barbey, Corinne; Rosay, Thibaut; Feuilloley, Marc G. J.; Orange, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are widespread in Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas. These macromolecular machineries inject toxins directly into prokaryotic or eukaryotic prey cells. Hcp proteins are structural components of the extracellular part of this machinery. We recently reported that MFE01, an avirulent strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens, possesses at least two hcp genes, hcp1 and hcp2, encoding proteins playing important roles in interbacterial interactions. Indeed, P. fluorescens MFE01 can immobilise and kill diverse bacteria of various origins through the action of the Hcp1 or Hcp2 proteins of the T6SS. We show here that another Hcp protein, Hcp3, is involved in killing prey cells during co-culture on solid medium. Even after the mutation of hcp1, hcp2, or hcp3, MFE01 impaired biofilm formation by MFP05, a P. fluorescens strain isolated from human skin. These mutations did not reduce P. fluorescens MFE01 biofilm formation, but the three Hcp proteins were required for the completion of biofilm maturation. Moreover, a mutant with a disruption of one of the unique core component genes, MFE01ΔtssC, was unable to produce its own biofilm or inhibit MFP05 biofilm formation. Finally, MFE01 did not produce detectable N-acyl-homoserine lactones for quorum sensing, a phenomenon reported for many other P. fluorescens strains. Our results suggest a role for the T6SS in communication between bacterial cells, in this strain, under biofilm conditions. PMID:28114423

  20. Effect of GABA, a Bacterial Metabolite, on Pseudomonas fluorescens Surface Properties and Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Dagorn, Audrey; Chapalain, Annelise; Mijouin, Lily; Hillion, Mélanie; Duclairoir-Poc, Cécile; Chevalier, Sylvie; Taupin, Laure; Orange, Nicole; Feuilloley, Marc G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Different bacterial species and, particularly Pseudomonas fluorescens, can produce gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and express GABA-binding proteins. In this study, we investigated the effect of GABA on the virulence and biofilm formation activity of different strains of P. fluorescens. Exposure of a psychotropic strain of P. fluorescens (MF37) to GABA (10−5 M) increased its necrotic-like activity on eukaryotic (glial) cells, but reduced its apoptotic effect. Conversely, muscimol and bicuculline, the selective agonist and antagonist of eukaryote GABAA receptors, respectively, were ineffective. P. fluorescens MF37 did not produce biosurfactants, and its caseinase, esterase, amylase, hemolytic activity or pyoverdine productions were unchanged. In contrast, the effect of GABA was associated to rearrangements of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure, particularly in the lipid A region. The surface hydrophobicity of MF37 was marginally modified, and GABA reduced its biofilm formation activity on PVC, but not on glass, although the initial adhesion was increased. Five other P. fluorescens strains were studied, and only one, MFP05, a strain isolated from human skin, showed structural differences of biofilm maturation after exposure to GABA. These results reveal that GABA can regulate the LPS structure and cytotoxicity of P. fluorescens, but that this property is specific to some strains. PMID:23743829

  1. The nadA gene of Pseudomonas fluorescens PGPR strain 267.1.

    PubMed

    Marek-Kozaczuk, Monika; Rogalski, Jerzy; Skorupska, Anna

    2005-08-01

    An insertion mutant of Pseudomonas fluorescens PGPR strain 267.1 was found to be auxotrophic for niacin (nicotinic acid) and could not synthesize quinolinic acid. The Tn5 interrupted gene was cloned and sequenced. The cloned fragment contained an open reading frame, nadA, capable of encoding a 359-amino-acid protein (39.0 kDa) with substantial identity to various bacterial quinolinate synthetases. The nadA gene complemented quinolinic acid synthesis deficiency and niacin auxotrophy of the P. fluorescens 106 P nadA mutant.

  2. Natriuretic peptides modify Pseudomonas fluorescens cytotoxicity by regulating cyclic nucleotides and modifying LPS structure

    PubMed Central

    Veron, Wilfried; Orange, Nicole; Feuilloley, Marc GJ; Lesouhaitier, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Background Nervous tissues express various communication molecules including natriuretic peptides, i.e. Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) and C-type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP). These molecules share structural similarities with cyclic antibacterial peptides. CNP and to a lesser extent BNP can modify the cytotoxicity of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The psychrotrophic environmental species Pseudomonas fluorescens also binds to and kills neurons and glial cells, cell types that both produce natriuretic peptides. In the present study, we investigated the sensitivity of Pseudomonas fluorescens to natriuretic peptides and evaluated the distribution and variability of putative natriuretic peptide-dependent sensor systems in the Pseudomonas genus. Results Neither BNP nor CNP modified P. fluorescens MF37 growth or cultivability. However, pre-treatment of P. fluorescens MF37 with BNP or CNP provoked a decrease of the apoptotic effect of the bacterium on glial cells and an increase of its necrotic activity. By homology with eukaryotes, where natriuretic peptides act through receptors coupled to cyclases, we observed that cell-permeable stable analogues of cyclic AMP (dbcAMP) and cyclic GMP (8BcGMP) mimicked the effect of BNP and CNP on bacteria. Intra-bacterial concentrations of cAMP and cGMP were measured to study the involvement of bacterial cyclases in the regulation of P. fluorescens cytotoxicity by BNP or CNP. BNP provoked an increase (+49%) of the cAMP concentration in P. fluorescens, and CNP increased the intra-bacterial concentrations of cGMP (+136%). The effect of BNP and CNP on the virulence of P. fluorescens was independent of the potential of the bacteria to bind to glial cells. Conversely, LPS extracted from MF37 pre-treated with dbcAMP showed a higher necrotic activity than the LPS from untreated or 8BcGMP-pre-treated bacteria. Capillary electrophoresis analysis suggests that these different effects of the LPS may be due, at least in part, to

  3. Quantification of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol producing Pseudomonas fluorescens in the plant rhizosphere by real-time PCR.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A real-time PCR SYBR green assay was developed to quantify populations of 2, 4-DAPG-producing (phlD+) Pseudomonas fluorescens in soil and the rhizosphere. Primers were designed to specifically amplify the phlD gene from four different genotypes (A, B, D, and I) of phlD+ P. fluorescens and PCR condit...

  4. Phloroglucinol mediates crosstalk between the pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol biosynthetic pathways in Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The antibiotics pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) are involved in the biological control of certain soil-borne diseases by some strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens, including P. fluorescens Pf-5. These secondary metabolites also act as signaling molecules with each compound reported ...

  5. Systematic investigations on the biodegradation and viscosity reduction of long chain hydrocarbons using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Sakthipriya, N; Doble, Mukesh; Sangwai, Jitendra S

    2016-03-01

    The use of microorganisms has been researched extensively for possible applications related to hydrocarbon degradation in the petroleum industry. However, attempts to improve the effect of microorganisms on the viscosity of hydrocarbons, which find potential use in the development of robust models for biodegradation, have been rarely documented. This study investigates the degradation of long chain hydrocarbons, such as hexadecane and eicosane using Pseudomonas fluorescens PMMD3 (P. fluorescens) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa CPCL (P. aeruginosa). P. aeruginosa used here is isolated from petroleum contaminated sediments and the P. fluorescens is from the coastal area, and both have hydrocarbon degrading genes. The degradation of hydrocarbons is studied using carbon profiling and reduction in viscosity pre- and post-degradation of hydrocarbons. The carbon profiling has been obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) results. GC-MS results have indicated an improved biodegradation of hydrocarbons by 77-93% in one day. The yield coefficients of biomass (YX/S) for P. aeruginosa and P. fluorescens using hexadecane as a carbon source are 1.35 and 0.81 g g(-1), and the corresponding values with eicosane are 0.84 and 0.88 g g(-1). The viscosity of hexadecane is reduced by the order of 53 and 47%, while that of eicosane was reduced by 53 and 65%, using P. aeruginosa and P. fluorescens, respectively. This study also presents information on the activity of enzymes responsible for the hydrocarbon degradation. Pseudomonas species have shown their use in potential applications for bioremediation, oil-spill treatment, and flow assurance. We believe that this study will also provide stringent tests for possible model development for the bioremediation of long chain paraffins suitable for oilfield applications.

  6. Atmospheric-pressure air microplasma jets in aqueous media for the inactivation of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xianhui; Yang, Si-ze; Liu, Dongping; Song, Ying; Sun, Yue

    2013-05-15

    The hollow fiber-based cold air microplasma jet array running at atmospheric pressure has been designed to inactivate Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) cells in vitro in aqueous media. The influences of electrode configurations, air flow rate, and applied voltage on the discharge characteristics of the single microplasma jet operating in aqueous media are presented, and the bactericidal efficiency of the hollow fibers-based and large-volume microplasma jet array is reported. Optical emission spectroscopy is utilized to identify excited species during the antibacterial testing of plasma in solutions. These well-aligned and rather stable air microplasma jets containing a variety of short-lived species, such as OH and O radicals and charged particles, are in direct contact with aqueous media and are very effective in killing P. fluorescens cells in aqueous media. This design shows its potential application for atmospheric pressure air plasma inactivation of bacteria cells in aqueous media.

  7. Lack of AHL-based quorum sensing in Pseudomonas fluorescens isolated from milk.

    PubMed

    Martins, Maurilio L; Pinto, Uelinton M; Riedel, Kathrin; Vanetti, Maria C D; Mantovani, Hilário C; de Araújo, Elza F

    2014-01-01

    Numerous bacteria coordinate gene expression in response to small signalling molecules in many cases known as acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs), which accumulate as a function of cell density in a process known as quorum sensing. This work aimed to determine if phenotypes that are important to define microbial activity in foods such as biofilm formation, swarming motility and proteolytic activity of two Pseudomonas fluorescens strains, isolated from refrigerated raw milk, are influenced by AHL molecules. The tested P. fluorescens strains did not produce AHL molecules in none of the evaluated media. We found that biofilm formation was dependent on the culture media, but it was not influenced by AHLs. Our results indicate that biofilm formation, swarming motility and proteolytic activity of the tested P. fluorescens strains are not regulated by acyl-homoserine lactones. It is likely that AHL-dependent quorum sensing system is absent from these strains.

  8. Getting the ecology into interactions between plants and the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Hol, W H Gera; Bezemer, T Martijn; Biere, Arjen

    2013-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are increasingly appreciated for their contributions to primary productivity through promotion of growth and triggering of induced systemic resistance in plants. Here we focus on the beneficial effects of one particular species of PGPR (Pseudomonas fluorescens) on plants through induced plant defense. This model organism has provided much understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of PGPR-induced plant defense. However, this knowledge can only be appreciated at full value once we know to what extent these mechanisms also occur under more realistic, species-diverse conditions as are occurring in the plant rhizosphere. To provide the necessary ecological context, we review the literature to compare the effect of P. fluorescens on induced plant defense when it is present as a single species or in combination with other soil dwelling species. Specifically, we discuss combinations with other plant mutualists (bacterial or fungal), plant pathogens (bacterial or fungal), bacterivores (nematode or protozoa), and decomposers. Synergistic interactions between P. fluorescens and other plant mutualists are much more commonly reported than antagonistic interactions. Recent developments have enabled screenings of P. fluorescens genomes for defense traits and this could help with selection of strains with likely positive interactions on biocontrol. However, studies that examine the effects of multiple herbivores, pathogens, or herbivores and pathogens together on the effectiveness of PGPR to induce plant defenses are underrepresented and we are not aware of any study that has examined interactions between P. fluorescens and bacterivores or decomposers. As co-occurring soil organisms can enhance but also reduce the effectiveness of PGPR, a better understanding of the biotic factors modulating P. fluorescens-plant interactions will improve the effectiveness of introducing P. fluorescens to enhance plant production and defense.

  9. Getting the ecology into interactions between plants and the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    PubMed Central

    Hol, W. H. Gera; Bezemer, T. Martijn; Biere, Arjen

    2013-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are increasingly appreciated for their contributions to primary productivity through promotion of growth and triggering of induced systemic resistance in plants. Here we focus on the beneficial effects of one particular species of PGPR (Pseudomonas fluorescens) on plants through induced plant defense. This model organism has provided much understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of PGPR-induced plant defense. However, this knowledge can only be appreciated at full value once we know to what extent these mechanisms also occur under more realistic, species-diverse conditions as are occurring in the plant rhizosphere. To provide the necessary ecological context, we review the literature to compare the effect of P. fluorescens on induced plant defense when it is present as a single species or in combination with other soil dwelling species. Specifically, we discuss combinations with other plant mutualists (bacterial or fungal), plant pathogens (bacterial or fungal), bacterivores (nematode or protozoa), and decomposers. Synergistic interactions between P. fluorescens and other plant mutualists are much more commonly reported than antagonistic interactions. Recent developments have enabled screenings of P. fluorescens genomes for defense traits and this could help with selection of strains with likely positive interactions on biocontrol. However, studies that examine the effects of multiple herbivores, pathogens, or herbivores and pathogens together on the effectiveness of PGPR to induce plant defenses are underrepresented and we are not aware of any study that has examined interactions between P. fluorescens and bacterivores or decomposers. As co-occurring soil organisms can enhance but also reduce the effectiveness of PGPR, a better understanding of the biotic factors modulating P. fluorescens–plant interactions will improve the effectiveness of introducing P. fluorescens to enhance plant production and defense

  10. Motility and chemotactic response of Pseudomonas fluorescens toward chemoattractants present in the exudate of Macrophomina phaseolina.

    PubMed

    Singh, T; Arora, D K

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strains (LAM1-hydrophilic) and (LAM2-hydrophobic) showed positive chemotaxis towards attractants (sugars, amino acids, polyols and organic acids) present in the exudate of Macrophomina phaseolina (a soil-borne plant pathogenic fungus). The varied response of motility traits such as speed, rate of change in direction (RCDI) and net to gross displacement ratio (NGDR) was observed for different chemoattractants. Swimming speed of the strains was highest in 10-fold diluted exudate or 100-1000 microM strength of different attractants, but further dilutions significantly decreased the swimming speed (P = 0.05). Chemotactic response of P fluorescens was positively correlated with swimming speed (P = 0.05; r = 0.76). Relative to control, the RCDI values decreased 1.5-fold in amino acids or sugars, and 1.2-fold in polyols or organic acids. With increase in swimming speed, the NGDR of both strains also increased, but the RCDI decreased. Both hydrophilic and hydrophobic strains did not show significant differences in their motility traits. The results demonstrate that M. phaseolina exudate contains chemical attractants that serve as signal for flagellar motility of P. fluorescens. Motile P fluorescens strains thus may consume fungal exudate as nutrients, and thus spores could offer a niche for these bacteria in soil.

  11. Biochemical characterization of a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain isolated from a benzalkonium chloride solution.

    PubMed

    Nagai, K; Ohta, S; Zenda, H; Matsumoto, H; Makino, M

    1996-06-01

    A bacterium isolated as the contaminant of a batch of commercial benzalkonium chloride (BAC) solution (10% (w/v)) stored in a loosely capped bottle in the Department of Pharmacy Shinshu University Hospital was identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens belonging to biotype G of Stanier, et al. The strain was highly resistant to BAC, and the lowest concentration of BAC that inhibited visible growth of the strain as measured on nutrient agar plates was > or = 5000 micrograms/ml. BAC is a typical quaternary ammonium detergent. Thus we examined the tolerable growth concentration of various strains on surfactants. We were able to confirm growth of P. fluorescens of BAC resistance strain (PFRB) in 5% concentration, but the other strains were not able to grow in 0.1% concentration. We investigated the relationship between biotype and resistance to BAC. PFRB and three clinical isolated strains were found to be the same biotype G. However, no apparent correlation was found between the same biotypes and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of disinfectant or growth permissible concentration on surfactants. The strain was unable to decompose BAC, as no growth occurred in the minimum medium containing BAC as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen or both. Our finding caused us to realize that P. fluorescens might also be a contaminant of disinfectants, as we have seen in Pseudomonas cepacia.

  12. Role of Vfr in the regulation of antifungal compound production by Pseudomonas fluorescens FD6.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingxia; Ji, Yanyan; Xiao, Qi; Chng, Soonie; Tong, Yunhui; Chen, Xijun; Liu, Fengquan

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens FD6 has been shown to possess many beneficial traits involved in the biocontrol of fungal plant pathogens, such as Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia fructicola. Vfr (virulence factor regulator) a highly conserved global regulator of gram-negative bacteria, such as the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is required for the expression of many important virulence traits. The role of Vfr in the regulation of biocontrol traits, such as the production of antibiotics to control fungal pathogens by antagonistic bacteria, has not been elucidated. This study investigated the effect of a vfr mutant derived from P. fluorescens FD6 to better understand the regulation of some important biocontrol traits associated with the bacterium. Biochemical studies indicated that the production of the antibiotics 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyrrolnitrin and pyoluteorin, was markedly enhanced in the vfr mutant. The vfr mutation also increased biofilm production, swimming motility and the expression of exopolysaccharide-associated gene (pelA, pslA and pslB) transcripts, but reduced protease production. Wheat rhizosphere and root tip colonization by the vfr mutant was higher than that by the wild type at 7 and 21days after inoculation. These findings demonstrate that Vfr modulates the expression of several key traits and the production of important antibiotics involved in the biocontrol potential of P. fluorescens FD6. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of Bacillus thuringiensis Population Dynamics and Its Interaction With Pseudomonas fluorescens in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Ruiz, Norma Elena; Sansinenea-Royano, Estibaliz; Cedillo-Ramirez, Maria Lilia; Marsch-Moreno, Rodolfo; Sanchez-Alonso, Patricia; Vazquez-Cruz, Candelario

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bacillus thuringiensis is the most successful biological control agent, however, studies so far have shown that B. thuringiensis is very sensitive to environmental factors such as soil moisture and pH. Ultraviolet light from the sun had been considered as the main limiting factor for its persistence in soil and it has recently been shown that the antagonism exerted by other native soil organisms, such as Pseudomonas fluorescens, is a determining factor in the persistence of this bacterium under in vitro culture conditions. Objectives: The aim of the present investigation was to analyze the population dynamics of B. thuringiensis and its interaction with P. fluorescens using microbiological and molecular methods in soil, under different conditions, and to determinate the effect of nutrients and moisture on its interaction. Materials and Methods: The monitoring was performed by microbiological methods, such as viable count of bacteria, and molecular methods such as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and hybridization, using the direct extraction of DNA from populations of inoculated soil. Results: The analysis of the interaction between B. thuringiensis and P. fluorescens in soil indicated that the disappearance of B. thuringiensis IPS82 is not dependent on the moisture but the composition of nutrients that may be affecting the secretion of toxic compounds in the environment of P. fluorescens. The results showed that the recovered cells were mostly spores and not vegetative cells in all proved treatments. The molecular methods were effective for monitoring bacterial population inoculated in soil. Conclusions: Bacillus thuringiensis is very sensitive to the interaction of P. fluorescens, however is capable to survive in soil due to its capacity of sporulate. Some of the cells in the form of spores germinated and folded slightly and remained in a constant cycle of sporulation and germination. This confirms that B. thuringiensis IPS82 can germinate, grow and

  14. Genetic Control of Plant Root Colonization by the Biocontrol agent, Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Benjamin J.; Fletcher, Meghan; Waters, Jordan; Wetmore, Kelly; Blow, Matthew J.; Deutschbauer, Adam M.; Dangl, Jeffry L.; Visel, Axel

    2015-03-19

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a critical component of plant root ecosystems. PGPR promote plant growth by solubilizing inaccessible minerals, suppressing pathogenic microorganisms in the soil, and directly stimulating growth through hormone synthesis. Pseudomonas fluorescens is a well-established PGPR isolated from wheat roots that can also colonize the root system of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. We have created barcoded transposon insertion mutant libraries suitable for genome-wide transposon-mediated mutagenesis followed by sequencing (TnSeq). These libraries consist of over 105 independent insertions, collectively providing loss-of-function mutants for nearly all genes in the P.fluorescens genome. Each insertion mutant can be unambiguously identified by a randomized 20 nucleotide sequence (barcode) engineered into the transposon sequence. We used these libraries in a gnotobiotic assay to examine the colonization ability of P.fluorescens on A.thaliana roots. Taking advantage of the ability to distinguish individual colonization events using barcode sequences, we assessed the timing and microbial concentration dependence of colonization of the rhizoplane niche. These data provide direct insight into the dynamics of plant root colonization in an in vivo system and define baseline parameters for the systematic identification of the bacterial genes and molecular pathways using TnSeq assays. Having determined parameters that facilitate potential colonization of roots by thousands of independent insertion mutants in a single assay, we are currently establishing a genome-wide functional map of genes required for root colonization in P.fluorescens. Importantly, the approach developed and optimized here for P.fluorescens>A.thaliana colonization will be applicable to a wide range of plant-microbe interactions, including biofuel feedstock plants and microbes known or hypothesized to impact on biofuel-relevant traits including biomass productivity

  15. Novel Lectin-Like Bacteriocins of Biocontrol Strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5

    PubMed Central

    Parret, Annabel H. A.; Temmerman, Koen; De Mot, René

    2005-01-01

    Bacteriocin LlpA, produced by Pseudomonas sp. strain BW11M1, is a peculiar antibacterial protein due to its homology to mannose-binding lectins mostly found in monocots (A. H. A. Parret, G. Schoofs, P. Proost, and R. De Mot, J. Bacteriol. 185:897-908, 2003). Biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 contains two llpA-like genes, named llpA1Pf-5 and llpA2Pf-5. Recombinant Escherichia coli cells expressing llpA1Pf-5 or llpA2Pf-5 acquired bacteriocin activity and secreted a 31-kDa protein cross-reacting with LlpABW11M1 antibodies. Antibacterial activity of the recombinant proteins was evidenced by gel overlay assays. Analysis of the antimicrobial spectrum indicated that LlpA1Pf-5 and LlpA2Pf-5 are able to inhibit P. fluorescens strains, as well as the related mushroom pathogen Pseudomonas tolaasii. LlpA-type bacteriocins are characterized by a domain structure consisting of tandem monocot mannose-binding lectin (MMBL) domains. Molecular phylogeny of these MMBL domains suggests that the individual MMBL domains within an LlpA protein have evolved separately toward a specific, as yet unknown, function or, alternatively, were acquired from different ancestral sources. Our observations are consistent with earlier observations, which hinted that MMBL-like bacteriocins represent a new family of antibacterial proteins, probably with a novel mode of action. PMID:16151105

  16. Analysis of cumene (isopropylbenzene) degradation genes from Pseudomonas fluorescens IP01.

    PubMed

    Habe, H; Kasuga, K; Nojiri, H; Yamane, H; Omori, T

    1996-12-01

    We obtained the DNA fragments encoding 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-7-methylocta-2,4-dienoic acid (HOMODA) hydrolase in the cumene (isopropylbenzene) degrader Pseudomonas fluorescens strain IP01 via PCR using two synthesized oligonucleotides corresponding to the conserved regions within known meta-cleavage compound hydrolases. Following colony hybridization using the amplified DNA as a probe, a 4.5-kb HindIII fragment was isolated from P. fluorescens IP01. After determining the nucleotide sequence of this fragment, three open reading frames (ORF11 [cumH], ORF12 [cumD], and ORF13) were identified. The deduced amino acid sequence of ORF12 showed homology with meta-cleavage compound hydrolases encoded by the tod, dmp, xyl, and bph operons. Although the product of ORF12 was found to exhibit HOMODA and 2-hydroxy-6-oxohepta-2,4-dienoic acid (HOHDA) hydrolase activities, it did not exhibit 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoic acid (HOPDA) hydrolase activity. The deduced amino acid sequence of ORF11 showed 40.4% homology with the sequence of todX in Pseudomonas putida F1 (Y. Wang, M. Ralings, D. T. Gibson, D. Labbé, H. Bergeron, R. Brousseau, and P. C. K. Lau, Mol. Gen. Genet. 246:570-579, 1995). The nucleotide sequence of ORF13 and its flanking region showed strong homology (91.0%) with IS52 from Pseudomonas savastanoi (Y. Yamada, P.-D. Lee, and T. Kosuge, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:8263-8267, 1982). By characterization of cumH and cumD, the entire cum gene cluster from the cumene-degrader P. fluorescens IP01 (cumA1A2A3A4BCEGFHD) has been identified.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens LMG 5329, a White Line-Inducing Principle-Producing Bioindicator for the Mushroom Pathogen Pseudomonas tolaasii

    PubMed Central

    Rokni-Zadeh, Hassan; Zarrineh, Peyman

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas tolaasii, the causative agent of Agaricus bisporus brown blotch disease, can be identified by the white line reaction, occurring upon confrontation of the tolaasin-producing mushroom pathogen with “Pseudomonas reactans,” producing the lipopeptide white line-inducing principle (WLIP). The draft genome sequence of the WLIP-producing indicator Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LMG 5329 is reported here. PMID:23887909

  18. Biodegradation of didecyldimethylammonium chloride by Pseudomonas fluorescens TN4 isolated from activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, T; Okamoto, T; Nishiyama, N

    2000-04-01

    Bacteria that degrade didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) were isolated from activated sludge from a municipal sewage treatment plant by enrichment culture with DDAC as a sole carbon source. One of the isolates, Pseudomonas fluorescens TN4, degraded DDAC to produce decyldimethylamine and subsequently, dimethylamine, as the intermediates. The TN4 strain also assimilated the other quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), alkyltrimethyl- and alkylbenzyldimethyl-ammonium salts, but not alkylpyridinium salts. TN4 was highly resistant to these QACs and degraded them by an N-dealkylation process. These data mean that there are some QAC-resistant and QAC-degrading bacteria such as TN4 in the environment.

  19. Mechanism of chromium detoxification in Pseudomonas fluorescens is dependent on iron

    SciTech Connect

    Appanna, V.D.; Huang, J.; St. Pierre, M.

    1996-12-01

    Biotechnology may provide an efficient and environmentally friendly route to the management of industrial wastes. Microbes in particular, owing to their ability to proliferate in most ecological niches, can be engineered for the immobilization of metal pollutants. The utilization of chromium in steel production, wood preservation, leather tanning, paints and pigments has led to a sharp increase of this metal in the environment where it occurs primarily in trivalent or hexavalent forms. In trace amounts chromium is considered an essential nutrient for numerous organisms; in elevated concentrations it is toxic and mutagenic. This study investigated the interaction of Chromium (III) on the soil bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Effect of extra aeration on extracellular enzyme activities and ATP concentration of dairy Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Jaspe, A; Palacios, P; Fernández, L; Sanjosé, C

    2000-03-01

    The effect of forced aeration on extracellular enzyme synthesis during batch growth of a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain of dairy origin on pyruvate mineral salts medium at 7 degrees C was studied. Measurement of oxygen tension, electron micrographs to estimate cell volume, luciferase determination of ATP and plate counts were performed in the course of incubation. Cells from the stationary phase of growth had lower energy status (in terms of intracellular ATP concentration) in the cultures receiving surplus aeration. Those cells produced three times more extracellular proteinase and lipase than control cells. Onset time for production of both enzymes coincided with a sharp fall of intracellular ATP levels.

  1. Early gene expression in Pseudomonas fluorescens exposed to a polymetallic solution.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sagasti, María T; Becerril, José M; Epelde, Lur; Alkorta, Itziar; Garbisu, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    The molecular response of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells exposed to a mixture of heavy metals remains largely unknown. Here, we studied the temporal changes in the early gene expression of P. fluorescens cells exposed to three doses of a polymetallic solution over two exposure times, through the application of a customized cDNA microarray. At the lowest metal dose (MD/4), we observed a repression of the Hsp70 chaperone system, MATE and MFS transporters, TonB membrane transporter and histidine kinases, together with an overexpression of metal transport (ChaC, CopC), chemotaxis and glutamine synthetase genes. At the intermediate metal dose (MD), several amino acid transporters, a response regulator (CheY), a TonB-dependent receptor and the mutT DNA repair gene were repressed; by contrast, an overexpression of genes associated with the antioxidative stress system and the transport of chelates and sulfur was observed. Finally, at the highest metal dose (4MD), a repression of genes encoding metal ion transporters, drug resistance and alginate biosynthesis was found, together with an overexpression of genes encoding antioxidative proteins, membrane transporters, ribosomal proteins, chaperones and proteases. It was concluded that P. fluorescens cells showed, over exposure time, a highly complex molecular response when exposed to a polymetallic solution, involving mechanisms related with chemotaxis, signal transmission, membrane transport, cellular redox state, and the regulation of transcription and ribosomal activity.

  2. Impact of a Recombinant Biocontrol Bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens pc78, on Microbial Community in Tomato Rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hyun Gi; Kim, Nam Hee; Lee, Seung Yeup; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens pc78 is an effective biocontrol agent for soil-borne fungal diseases. We previously constructed a P43-gfp tagged biocontrol bacteria P. fluorescens pc78-48 to investigate bacterial traits in natural ecosystem and the environmental risk of genetically modified biocontrol bacteria in tomato rhizosphere. Fluctuation of culturable bacteria profile, microbial community structure, and potential horizontal gene transfer was investigated over time after the bacteria treatment to the tomato rhizosphere. Tagged gene transfer to other organisms such as tomato plants and bacteria cultured on various media was examined by polymerase chain reaction, using gene specific primers. Transfer of chromosomally integrated P43-gfp from pc78 to other organisms was not apparent. Population and colony types of culturable bacteria were not significantly affected by the introduction of P. fluorescens pc78 or pc78-48 into tomato rhizosphere. Additionally, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles were investigated to estimate the influence on the microbial community structure in tomato rhizosphere between non-treated and pc78-48-treated samples. Interestingly, rhizosphere soil treated with strain pc78-48 exhibited a significantly different bacterial community structure compared to that of non-treated rhizosphere soil. Our results suggest that biocontrol bacteria treatment influences microbial community in tomato rhizosphere, while the chromosomally modified biocontrol bacteria may not pose any specific environmental risk in terms of gene transfer.

  3. Metabolic functions of Pseudomonas fluorescens strains from Populus deltoides depend on rhizosphere or endosphere isolation compartment

    SciTech Connect

    Timm, Collin M.; Campbell, Alicia G.; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Jun, Se Ran; Parales, Rebecca E.; Tan, Mesa; Robeson, Michael S.; Lu, Tse-Yuan S.; Jawdy, Sara; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Weston, David; Pelletier, Dale A.

    2015-10-14

    The bacterial microbiota of plants is diverse, with ~1000s of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) associated with any individual plant. In this work we investigate how 19 sequenced Pseudomonas fluorescens strains representing a single OTU isolated from Populus deltoides rhizosphere and endosphere differ using phenotypic analysis, comparative genomics, and metabolic models. While no traits were exclusive to either endosphere or rhizosphere P. fluorescens isolates, multiple pathways relevant for bacterial-plant interactions are enriched in endosphere isolate genomes and growth phenotypes such as phosphate solubilization, protease activity, denitrification and root growth promotion are biased towards endosphere isolates. Endosphere isolates have more metabolic pathways for plant signaling compounds and an increased metabolic range that includes utilization of energy rich nucleotides and sugars, consistent with endosphere colonization. Rhizosphere P. fluorescens have fewer pathways important for bacterial-plant interactions but show metabolic bias towards chemical substrates often found in root exudates. This work reveals the diverse functions that may contribute to colonization of the endosphere by bacteria that are enriched in event he most closely related isolates.

  4. Metabolic functions of Pseudomonas fluorescens strains from Populus deltoides depend on rhizosphere or endosphere isolation compartment

    DOE PAGES

    Timm, Collin M.; Campbell, Alicia G.; Utturkar, Sagar M.; ...

    2015-10-14

    The bacterial microbiota of plants is diverse, with ~1000s of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) associated with any individual plant. In this work we investigate how 19 sequenced Pseudomonas fluorescens strains representing a single OTU isolated from Populus deltoides rhizosphere and endosphere differ using phenotypic analysis, comparative genomics, and metabolic models. While no traits were exclusive to either endosphere or rhizosphere P. fluorescens isolates, multiple pathways relevant for bacterial-plant interactions are enriched in endosphere isolate genomes and growth phenotypes such as phosphate solubilization, protease activity, denitrification and root growth promotion are biased towards endosphere isolates. Endosphere isolates have more metabolic pathwaysmore » for plant signaling compounds and an increased metabolic range that includes utilization of energy rich nucleotides and sugars, consistent with endosphere colonization. Rhizosphere P. fluorescens have fewer pathways important for bacterial-plant interactions but show metabolic bias towards chemical substrates often found in root exudates. This work reveals the diverse functions that may contribute to colonization of the endosphere by bacteria that are enriched in event he most closely related isolates.« less

  5. Pepsin-digested bovine lactoferrin prevents Mozzarella cheese blue discoloration caused by Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Leonardo; Quintieri, Laura; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Decastelli, Lucia; Monaci, Linda; Visconti, Angelo; Baruzzi, Federico

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work was to check the efficacy of bovine lactoferrin hydrolyzed by pepsin (LFH) to prevent blue discoloration of Mozzarella cheese delaying the growth of the related spoilage bacteria. Among 64 Pseudomonas fluorescens strains, isolated from 105 Mozzarella samples, only ten developed blue discoloration in cold-stored Mozzarella cheese slices. When Mozzarella cheese samples from dairy were treated with LFH and inoculated with a selected P. fluorescens strain, no pigmentation and changes in casein profiles were found up to 14 days of cold storage. In addition, starting from day 5, the count of P. fluorescens spoiling strain was steadily ca. one log cycle lower than that of LFH-free samples. ESI-Orbitrap-based mass spectrometry analyses allowed to reveal the pigment leucoindigoidine only in the blue LFH-free cheese samples indicating that this compound could be considered a chemical marker of this alteration. For the first time, an innovative mild approach, based on the antimicrobial activity of milk protein hydrolysates, for counteracting blue Mozzarella event and controlling psychrotrophic pigmenting pseudomonads, is here reported. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tracking the blue: a MLST approach to characterise the Pseudomonas fluorescens group.

    PubMed

    Andreani, N A; Martino, M E; Fasolato, L; Carraro, L; Montemurro, F; Mioni, R; Bordin, P; Cardazzo, B

    2014-05-01

    The Pseudomonas fluorescens group comprises several closely related species that are involved in food contamination and spoilage. Specifically, the interest in P. fluorescens as a spoiler of dairy products increased after the cases of "blue mozzarella" that occurred in Italy in 2010. A Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) scheme was developed and applied to characterise 136 isolates (reference strains and food borne isolates) at strain level, to reveal the genetic relationships among them and to disclose any possible genetic clustering of phenotypic markers involved in food spoilage (protease, lipase, lecithinase activities and pigmented or fluorescent molecule production). The production of dark blue diffusible pigment was evaluated on several bacterial culture media and directly on mozzarella cheese. The MLST scheme provided precise genotyping at the strain level, and the population analyses of the concatenated sequences allowed major taxa to be defined. This approach was revealed to be suitable for tracking the strains according to their origin, such as dairy plants or food matrices. The genetic analysis revealed the presence of a connection between the blue pigment production and a specific phylogenetic cluster. The development of the online database specific to the P. fluorescens group (http://pubmlst.org/pfluorescens) will facilitate the application of the scheme and the sharing of the data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular characterization of Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates involved in the Italian "blue mozzarella" event.

    PubMed

    Nogarol, C; Acutis, P L; Bianchi, D M; Maurella, C; Peletto, S; Gallina, S; Adriano, D; Zuccon, F; Borrello, S; Caramelli, M; Decastelli, L

    2013-03-01

    Between June and September 2010, widespread Italian consumer reports of unusual blue spoilage on fresh dairy products were publicized, resulting in the so-called blue mozzarella event. An inordinately high number of samples from mozzarella and whey cheese products of Italian and German production subsequently tested positive for Pseudomonas fluorescens. The aim of this study was to verify whether a selected P. fluorescens strain was responsible for this apparently unusual event. Molecular characterization of 181 isolated P. fluorescens strains was conducted using a newly optimized pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol. Although a high number of pulsotypes was found (132), only four pulsotypes were associated with more than one production plant, and only one German isolate had the same pulsotype as was detected in two Italian plants. This is the only evidence of possible cross-contamination among cheeses from the two countries. The overall results did not support the spread of contamination from German to Italian plants or the presence of one environmental strain that spread in both countries.

  8. A TonB-dependent outer membrane receptor of Pseudomonas fluorescens: virulence and vaccine potential.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yong-hua; Dang, Wei; Sun, Li

    2012-09-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a Gram-negative bacterium and a common aquaculture pathogen. In this study, we identified from a pathogenic P. fluorescens strain a TonB-dependent outer membrane receptor, TdrA, as a secreted protein and examined its function and vaccine potential. TdrA is composed of 746 residues and possesses conserved structural domains of TonB-dependent outer membrane receptors. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis showed that expression of tdrA was upregulated under conditions of iron starvation and during infection of host cells. Consistently, iron depletion induced increased production of TdrA protein in the outer membrane. Compared to the wild type, a tdrA-knock out mutant (1) was unable to grow in the absence of iron, (2) exhibited drastically attenuated overall bacterial virulence, and (3) was impaired in the ability to establish lethal infection in host tissues. Purified recombinant TdrA (rTdrA), when used as a subunit vaccine to immunize flounder, was able to induce strong protective immunity, including production of serum-specific antibodies that resulted in effective protection against lethal-dose P. fluorescens challenge. Together, these results indicate that TdrA is an outer membrane receptor and a protective immunogen that is likely to be involved in iron acquisition and, as a result, required for optimal bacterial virulence.

  9. Colonization and bioherbicidal activity on green foxtail by Pseudomonas fluorescens BRG100 in a pesta formulation.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Caressa J; Hynes, Russell K; Boyetchko, Susan M; Korber, Darren R

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens BRG100 produces secondary metabolites with herbicidal activity on green foxtail ( Setaria viridis ), an important weed pest in Canadian agriculture. Five gfp transformants of P. fluorescens BRG100 were compared with the wild-type isolate for green foxtail root herbicide activity, i.e., root growth suppression, doubling time, carbon utilization, and colonization of green foxtail root (proximal and distal regions). The most revealing comparison between the wild type and its gfp transformants was herbicidal activity on green foxtail. Herbicidal activity of transformant gfp-7 was not significantly different from the uninoculated control, suggesting that insertion of the gfp gene may have interfered with a gene, or genes, vital to the bioherbicide process. Doubling time, carbon utilization, and colonization of green foxtail did not differ to a great extent between the wild type and the gfp transformants, indicating their suitability as conservatively tagged organisms for subsequent colonization-herbicidal activity studies. Accordingly, a pesta granule formulation delivered transformant gfp-2 to the seed coat and roots of green foxtail. Epifluorescent and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed the transformant gfp-2 colonized the ventral portion of the seed coat, root hairs, and all areas of the root except the root cap region, where gfp-2 presumably exerted herbicidal effects. These results suggest that P. fluorescens BRG100 has considerable potential as a bioherbicide because of its successful colonization and suppressive activity on green foxtail root growth.

  10. Characterization of a new isolate of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Psd as a potential biocontrol agent.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, A; Srivastava, S

    2008-08-01

    Evaluation of a new isolate of Pseudomonas fluorescens for its biocontrol properties. Strain Psd identified as Ps. fluorescens, produces secondary metabolites that are toxic to some plant-pathogenic fungi. Inhibition of fungal growth of Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae in the presence of bacterial culture filtrate provided the first clue to its biocontrol properties. In order to determine the basis for antifungal properties, antibiotics were extracted and analysed by TLC. Both pyrrolnitrin and phenazines could be detected in the culture of Psd. Presence of response regulator gene gacA of the two component regulatory system (GacS/GacA) was established by PCR amplification and sequencing. Sequence comparison of gacA justified the taxonomic position of this strain among the known members of Pseudomonadaceae. Synthesis of other compounds like toxic lipodepsipeptide, siderophores, and HCN was also confirmed by appropriate biochemical tests. Characterization of strain Psd by various biochemical/plate tests followed by chromatographic identification of antibiotics, demonstrates its multifunctional biocontrol property. Response regulator gene gacA provides an additional genetic marker for the phylogenetic studies. Ps. fluorescens strain Psd with its multifunctional biocontrol property can be used to bioprotect the crop plants from phytopathogens.

  11. Growth of Amanita caesarea in the presence of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Cano, J M; Berrocal-Lobo, M; Domínguez-Núñez, J A

    2017-09-01

    The ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus Amanita caesarea CECT 20127 was tested in vitro with two potentially mycorrhizal-promoting bacterial strains, Pseudomonas fluorescens CECT 844 and Bacillus cereus CECT 148. Although P. fluorescens showed spatial and temporal compatibility with A. caesarea, it did not affect growth of the fungus. Conversely, B. cereus exhibited no such compatibility and also inhibited fungal growth. The expression pattern of the A. caesarea gene AcMST-1 was analysed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) at three time points. This gene displays a high degree of homology with two genes, possible orthologues to AcMST-1, previously described in Amanita muscaria (AmMST-1) and Laccaria bicolor (LbMST-1) and encoding monosaccharide transporter proteins. The transcription levels of AcMST1 increased shortly after initial contact between A. caesarea and B. cereus, but expression of the gene was inhibited in the presence of P. fluorescens. Our results show that A. caesarea may possess orthologous genes of similar ECM fungal species that would allow it to adapt in nature to optimize sugar uptake from the environment depending on the presence of different microorganisms. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Organization of Pseudomonas fluorescens on chemically different nano/microstructured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Carolina; Salvarezza, Roberto C; Fernández Lorenzo de Mele, Mónica A; Schilardi, Patricia L

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes bacterial organization on nano/micropatterned surfaces with different chemical properties, which show different interactions with the biological systems (inert, biocompatible, and bactericide). These surfaces were prepared by molding techniques and exposed to Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) cultures. Results from atomic force microscopy and optical imaging demonstrate that the structure of P. fluorescens aggregates is strongly dependent on the surface topography while there is no clear linking with the physical-chemical surface properties (charge and contact angle) of the substrate immersed in abiotic culture media. We observe that regardless of the material when the surface pattern matches the bacterial size, bacterial assemblages involved in surface colonization are disorganized. The fact there is not a relationship between surface chemistry and bacterial organization can be explained by the coverage of the surfaces by adsorbed organic species coming from the culture medium. Viability assays indicate that copper behaves as a toxic substrate despite the presence of adsorbed molecules. The combination of surface traps and biocidal activity could act synergistically as a suitable strategy to limit bacterial spreading on implant materials.

  13. Comparative antibacterial potential of selected aldehyde-based biocides and surfactants against planktonic Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Simões, M; Pereira, M O; Machado, I; Simões, L C; Vieira, M J

    2006-09-01

    The antimicrobial efficacy of two aldehyde-based biocides (glutaraldehyde, GTA, and ortho-phthalaldehyde, OPA) and two surfactants (cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, CTAB, and sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS) was tested against planktonic Pseudomonas fluorescens. The antimicrobial effects were evaluated by respiratory activity as a measure of the oxygen uptake rate, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release, outer membrane proteins (OMP) expression and cellular colour changes. The results were compared with the bacterial characteristics without chemical treatment. Tests in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA), in order to mimic a disinfection process in the real situation under dirty conditions, were performed according to the European Standard EN-1276. P. fluorescens was completely inactivated with OPA (minimum bactericidal concentration, MBC = 0.5 mM) and CTAB (MBC = 5 mM) and was resistant to GTA and SDS. Only CTAB promoted cellular disruption and consequent ATP release. The antimicrobial action of the chemicals tested was significantly reduced when BSA was introduced into the bacterial cultures, increasing markedly the MBC values. Additionally, the presence of BSA acted as a disruption protective agent when CTAB was applied and stimulated the bacterial respiratory activity when lower concentrations of SDS were tested. The OMP of the bacterial cells was affected by the application of both surfactants. OMP expression remained unaltered after biocide treatment. Bacterial colour change was noticed after treatment with biocides and surfactants. In summary, P. fluorescens was extremely resistant to GTA and SDS, with antimicrobial action being quenched markedly by the reaction with BSA.

  14. Metabolic functions of Pseudomonas fluorescens strains from Populus deltoides depend on rhizosphere or endosphere isolation compartment

    PubMed Central

    Timm, Collin M.; Campbell, Alisha G.; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Jun, Se-Ran; Parales, Rebecca E.; Tan, Watumesa A.; Robeson, Michael S.; Lu, Tse-Yuan S.; Jawdy, Sara; Brown, Steven D.; Ussery, David W.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Weston, David J.; Pelletier, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial microbiota of plants is diverse, with 1000s of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) associated with any individual plant. In this work, we used phenotypic analysis, comparative genomics, and metabolic models to investigate the differences between 19 sequenced Pseudomonas fluorescens strains. These isolates represent a single OTU and were collected from the rhizosphere and endosphere of Populus deltoides. While no traits were exclusive to either endosphere or rhizosphere P. fluorescens isolates, multiple pathways relevant for plant-bacterial interactions are enriched in endosphere isolate genomes. Further, growth phenotypes such as phosphate solubilization, protease activity, denitrification and root growth promotion are biased toward endosphere isolates. Endosphere isolates have significantly more metabolic pathways for plant signaling compounds and an increased metabolic range that includes utilization of energy rich nucleotides and sugars, consistent with endosphere colonization. Rhizosphere P. fluorescens have fewer pathways representative of plant-bacterial interactions but show metabolic bias toward chemical substrates often found in root exudates. This work reveals the diverse functions that may contribute to colonization of the endosphere by bacteria and are enriched among closely related isolates. PMID:26528266

  15. Impact of a Recombinant Biocontrol Bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens pc78, on Microbial Community in Tomato Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Hyun Gi; Kim, Nam Hee; Lee, Seung Yeup; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens pc78 is an effective biocontrol agent for soil-borne fungal diseases. We previously constructed a P43-gfp tagged biocontrol bacteria P. fluorescens pc78-48 to investigate bacterial traits in natural ecosystem and the environmental risk of genetically modified biocontrol bacteria in tomato rhizosphere. Fluctuation of culturable bacteria profile, microbial community structure, and potential horizontal gene transfer was investigated over time after the bacteria treatment to the tomato rhizosphere. Tagged gene transfer to other organisms such as tomato plants and bacteria cultured on various media was examined by polymerase chain reaction, using gene specific primers. Transfer of chromosomally integrated P43-gfp from pc78 to other organisms was not apparent. Population and colony types of culturable bacteria were not significantly affected by the introduction of P. fluorescens pc78 or pc78-48 into tomato rhizosphere. Additionally, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles were investigated to estimate the influence on the microbial community structure in tomato rhizosphere between non-treated and pc78-48-treated samples. Interestingly, rhizosphere soil treated with strain pc78-48 exhibited a significantly different bacterial community structure compared to that of non-treated rhizosphere soil. Our results suggest that biocontrol bacteria treatment influences microbial community in tomato rhizosphere, while the chromosomally modified biocontrol bacteria may not pose any specific environmental risk in terms of gene transfer. PMID:27147933

  16. Nonribosomal peptides, key biocontrol components for Pseudomonas fluorescens In5, isolated from a Greenlandic suppressive soil.

    PubMed

    Michelsen, Charlotte F; Watrous, Jeramie; Glaring, Mikkel A; Kersten, Roland; Koyama, Nobuhiro; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Stougaard, Peter

    2015-03-17

    Potatoes are cultivated in southwest Greenland without the use of pesticides and with limited crop rotation. Despite the fact that plant-pathogenic fungi are present, no severe-disease outbreaks have yet been observed. In this report, we document that a potato soil at Inneruulalik in southern Greenland is suppressive against Rhizoctonia solani Ag3 and uncover the suppressive antifungal mechanism of a highly potent biocontrol bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens In5, isolated from the suppressive potato soil. A combination of molecular genetics, genomics, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) revealed an antifungal genomic island in P. fluorescens In5 encoding two nonribosomal peptides, nunamycin and nunapeptin, which are key components for the biocontrol activity by strain In5 in vitro and in soil microcosm experiments. Furthermore, complex microbial behaviors were highlighted. Whereas nunamycin was demonstrated to inhibit the mycelial growth of R. solani Ag3, but not that of Pythium aphanidermatum, nunapeptin instead inhibited P. aphanidermatum but not R. solani Ag3. Moreover, the synthesis of nunamycin by P. fluorescens In5 was inhibited in the presence of P. aphanidermatum. Further characterization of the two peptides revealed nunamycin to be a monochlorinated 9-amino-acid cyclic lipopeptide with similarity to members of the syringomycin group, whereas nunapeptin was a 22-amino-acid cyclic lipopeptide with similarity to corpeptin and syringopeptin. Crop rotation and systematic pest management are used to only a limited extent in Greenlandic potato farming. Nonetheless, although plant-pathogenic fungi are present in the soil, the farmers do not experience major plant disease outbreaks. Here, we show that a Greenlandic potato soil is suppressive against Rhizoctonia solani, and we unravel the key biocontrol components for Pseudomonas fluorescens In5, one of the potent biocontrol bacteria

  17. A genomic and transcriptomic approach to investigate the blue pigment phenotype in Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Andreani, Nadia Andrea; Carraro, Lisa; Martino, Maria Elena; Fondi, Marco; Fasolato, Luca; Miotto, Giovanni; Magro, Massimiliano; Vianello, Fabio; Cardazzo, Barbara

    2015-11-20

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a well-known food spoiler, able to cause serious economic losses in the food industry due to its ability to produce many extracellular, and often thermostable, compounds. The most outstanding spoilage events involving P. fluorescens were blue discoloration of several food stuffs, mainly dairy products. The bacteria involved in such high-profile cases have been identified as belonging to a clearly distinct phylogenetic cluster of the P. fluorescens group. Although the blue pigment has recently been investigated in several studies, the biosynthetic pathway leading to the pigment formation, as well as its chemical nature, remain challenging and unsolved points. In the present paper, genomic and transcriptomic data of 4 P. fluorescens strains (2 blue-pigmenting strains and 2 non-pigmenting strains) were analyzed to evaluate the presence and the expression of blue strain-specific genes. In particular, the pangenome analysis showed the presence in the blue-pigmenting strains of two copies of genes involved in the tryptophan biosynthesis pathway (including trpABCDF). The global expression profiling of blue-pigmenting strains versus non-pigmenting strains showed a general up-regulation of genes involved in iron uptake and a down-regulation of genes involved in primary metabolism. Chromogenic reaction of the blue-pigmenting bacterial cells with Kovac's reagent indicated an indole-derivative as the precursor of the blue pigment. Finally, solubility tests and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis of the isolated pigment suggested that its molecular structure is very probably a hydrophobic indigo analog.

  18. Pseudomonas fluorescens Pirates both Ferrioxamine and Ferricoelichelin Siderophores from Streptomyces ambofaciens

    PubMed Central

    Galet, Justine; Deveau, Aurélie; Hôtel, Laurence; Frey-Klett, Pascale; Leblond, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Iron is essential in many biological processes. However, its bioavailability is reduced in aerobic environments, such as soil. To overcome this limitation, microorganisms have developed different strategies, such as iron chelation by siderophores. Some bacteria have even gained the ability to detect and utilize xenosiderophores, i.e., siderophores produced by other organisms. We illustrate an example of such an interaction between two soil bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens strain BBc6R8 and Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC 23877, which produce the siderophores pyoverdine and enantiopyochelin and the siderophores desferrioxamines B and E and coelichelin, respectively. During pairwise cultures on iron-limiting agar medium, no induction of siderophore synthesis by P. fluorescens BBc6R8 was observed in the presence of S. ambofaciens ATCC 23877. Cocultures with a Streptomyces mutant strain that produced either coelichelin or desferrioxamines, as well as culture in a medium supplemented with desferrioxamine B, resulted in the absence of pyoverdine production; however, culture with a double mutant deficient in desferrioxamines and coelichelin production did not. This strongly suggests that P. fluorescens BBbc6R8 utilizes the ferrioxamines and ferricoelichelin produced by S. ambofaciens as xenosiderophores and therefore no longer activates the production of its own siderophores. A screening of a library of P. fluorescens BBc6R8 mutants highlighted the involvement of the TonB-dependent receptor FoxA in this process: the expression of foxA and genes involved in the regulation of its biosynthesis was induced in the presence of S. ambofaciens. In a competitive environment, such as soil, siderophore piracy could well be one of the driving forces that determine the outcome of microbial competition. PMID:25724953

  19. Pseudomonas fluorescens pirates both ferrioxamine and ferricoelichelin siderophores from Streptomyces ambofaciens.

    PubMed

    Galet, Justine; Deveau, Aurélie; Hôtel, Laurence; Frey-Klett, Pascale; Leblond, Pierre; Aigle, Bertrand

    2015-05-01

    Iron is essential in many biological processes. However, its bioavailability is reduced in aerobic environments, such as soil. To overcome this limitation, microorganisms have developed different strategies, such as iron chelation by siderophores. Some bacteria have even gained the ability to detect and utilize xenosiderophores, i.e., siderophores produced by other organisms. We illustrate an example of such an interaction between two soil bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens strain BBc6R8 and Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC 23877, which produce the siderophores pyoverdine and enantiopyochelin and the siderophores desferrioxamines B and E and coelichelin, respectively. During pairwise cultures on iron-limiting agar medium, no induction of siderophore synthesis by P. fluorescens BBc6R8 was observed in the presence of S. ambofaciens ATCC 23877. Cocultures with a Streptomyces mutant strain that produced either coelichelin or desferrioxamines, as well as culture in a medium supplemented with desferrioxamine B, resulted in the absence of pyoverdine production; however, culture with a double mutant deficient in desferrioxamines and coelichelin production did not. This strongly suggests that P. fluorescens BBbc6R8 utilizes the ferrioxamines and ferricoelichelin produced by S. ambofaciens as xenosiderophores and therefore no longer activates the production of its own siderophores. A screening of a library of P. fluorescens BBc6R8 mutants highlighted the involvement of the TonB-dependent receptor FoxA in this process: the expression of foxA and genes involved in the regulation of its biosynthesis was induced in the presence of S. ambofaciens. In a competitive environment, such as soil, siderophore piracy could well be one of the driving forces that determine the outcome of microbial competition.

  20. Lethality and Developmental Delay in Drosophila melanogaster Larvae after Ingestion of Selected Pseudomonas fluorescens Strains

    PubMed Central

    Olcott, Marika H.; Henkels, Marcella D.; Rosen, Kise L.; L.Walker, Francesca; Sneh, Baruch; Loper, Joyce E.; Taylor, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a well-established model organism for probing the molecular and cellular basis of physiological and immune system responses of adults or late stage larvae to bacterial challenge. However, very little is known about the consequences of bacterial infections that occur in earlier stages of development. We have infected mid-second instar larvae with strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens to determine how infection alters the ability of larvae to survive and complete development. Methodology/Principal Findings We mimicked natural routes of infection using a non-invasive feeding procedure to study the toxicity of the three sequenced P. fluorescens strains (Pf0-1, SBW25, and Pf-5) to Drosophila melanogaster. Larvae fed with the three strains of P. fluorescens showed distinct differences in developmental trajectory and survival. Treatment with SBW25 caused a subset of insects to die concomitant with a systemic melanization reaction at larval, pupal or adult stages. Larvae fed with Pf-5 died in a dose-dependent manner with adult survivors showing eye and wing morphological defects. In addition, larvae in the Pf-5 treatment groups showed a dose-dependent delay in the onset of metamorphosis relative to control-, Pf0-1-, and SBW25-treated larvae. A functional gacA gene is required for the toxic properties of wild-type Pf-5 bacteria. Conclusions/Significance These experiments are the first to demonstrate that ingestion of P. fluorescens bacteria by D. melanogaster larvae causes both lethal and non-lethal phenotypes, including delay in the onset of metamorphosis and morphological defects in surviving adult flies, which can be decoupled. PMID:20856932

  1. Antimicrobial action of essential oil vapours and negative air ions against Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, A K; Malik, A

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of essential oil (in liquid as well as in vapour phase) and negative air ions (NAI) against Pseudomonas fluorescens. The combined effect of NAI with essential oil vapour was also investigated to determine kill time and morphological changes in bacterial cells. The MIC of Cymbopogon citratus (0.567 mg/ml), Mentha arvensis (0.567 mg/ml), Mentha piperita (1.125 mg/ml) and Eucalyptus globulus (2.25 mg/ml) was studied via the agar dilution method. To estimate the antibacterial activity of essential oils in the vapour phase, agar plates inoculated with P. fluorescens were incubated with various concentrations of each essential oil vapour and zone of inhibition was recorded. Further, in order to assess the kill time, P. fluorescens inoculated agar plates were exposed to selected bactericidal essential oil vapour and NAI, separately, in an air-tight chamber. A continuous decrease in bacterial count was observed over time. A significant enhancement in the bactericidal action was observed by exposure to the combination of essential oil vapour and NAI as compared to their individual action. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the alteration in morphology of P. fluorescens cells after exposure to C. citratus oil vapour, NAI, and combination of C. citratus oil vapour and NAI. Maximum morphological deformation was found due to the combined effect of C. citratus oil vapour and NAI. This study demonstrates that the use of essential oils in the vapour phase is more advantageous than the liquid phase. Further the antibacterial effect of the essential oil vapours can be significantly enhanced by the addition of NAI. The work described here offers a novel and efficient approach for control of bacterial contamination that could be applied for food stabilization practices.

  2. Transcriptional and antagonistic responses of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 to phylogenetically different bacterial competitors

    PubMed Central

    Garbeva, Paolina; Silby, Mark W; Raaijmakers, Jos M; Levy, Stuart B; Boer, Wietse de

    2011-01-01

    The ability of soil bacteria to successfully compete with a range of other microbial species is crucial for their growth and survival in the nutrient-limited soil environment. In the present work, we studied the behavior and transcriptional responses of soil-inhabiting Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Pf0-1 on nutrient-poor agar to confrontation with strains of three phylogenetically different bacterial genera, that is, Bacillus, Brevundimonas and Pedobacter. Competition for nutrients was apparent as all three bacterial genera had a negative effect on the density of P. fluorescens Pf0-1; this effect was most strong during the interaction with Bacillus. Microarray-based analyses indicated strong differences in the transcriptional responses of Pf0-1 to the different competitors. There was higher similarity in the gene expression response of P. fluorescens Pf0-1 to the Gram-negative bacteria as compared with the Gram-positive strain. The Gram-negative strains did also trigger the production of an unknown broad-spectrum antibiotic in Pf0-1. More detailed analysis indicated that expression of specific Pf0-1 genes involved in signal transduction and secondary metabolite production was strongly affected by the competitors' identity, suggesting that Pf0-1 can distinguish among different competitors and fine-tune its competitive strategies. The results presented here demonstrate that P. fluorescens Pf0-1 shows a species-specific transcriptional and metabolic response to bacterial competitors and provide new leads in the identification of specific cues in bacteria–bacteria interactions and of novel competitive strategies, antimicrobial traits and genes. PMID:21228890

  3. The non-haem chloroperoxidase from Pseudomonas fluorescens and its relationship to pyrrolnitrin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kirner, S; Krauss, S; Sury, G; Lam, S T; Ligon, J M; van Pée, K H

    1996-08-01

    The non-haem chloroperoxidase gene (cpoF) from the pyrrolnitrin producer Pseudomonas fluorescens BL914 was cloned using an oligonucleotide derived from part of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of chloroperoxidase (CPO-P) from Pseudomonas pyrrocina as a probe. Based on the overexpression of cpoF in Escherichia coli and the stability of CPO-F against higher temperatures and proteases, the enzyme was purified to homogeneity. Partial characterization of the enzyme showed that it belongs to the class of bacterial non-haem CPOs. To investigate the role of CPO-F in pyrrolnitrin biosynthesis, the cpoF gene was inactivated by insertion of a kanamycin cassette. Exchange of the chromosomal cpoF gene against the disrupted copy had no influence on pyrrolnitrin production demonstrating that CPO-F was not involved in pyrrolnitrin biosynthesis.

  4. Study of the Population Dynamics of Listeria Monocytogenes and Pseudomonas Fluorescens in Buffalo Mozzarella by Means of Challenge Testing.

    PubMed

    Nava, Donatella; Capo, Salvatore; Caligiuri, Vincenzo; Giaccone, Valerio; Biondi, Loredana; Vaccaro, Gerardo Francesco; Guarino, Achille; Capuano, Federico

    2016-06-03

    Campania's buffalo mozzarella is a greatly appreciated cheese in Italy and worldwide. From a microbiological standpoint, it is a highly perishable food and potentially at risk of contamination by pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes). The present paper reports the results of a challenge test carried out to assess the population dynamics of L. monocytogenes, alone and in presence of Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens), in buffalo mozzarella. For this purpose buffalo mozzarella samples were contaminated with L. monocytogenes alone or combined with P. fluorescens. In samples where L. monocytogenes was inoculated alone, the bacterial load remained unchanged. On the contrary, in samples contaminated with L. monocytogenes and P. fluorescens, the growth of L. monocytogenes increased.

  5. Study of the Population Dynamics of Listeria Monocytogenes and Pseudomonas Fluorescens in Buffalo Mozzarella by Means of Challenge Testing

    PubMed Central

    Nava, Donatella; Capo, Salvatore; Caligiuri, Vincenzo; Giaccone, Valerio; Biondi, Loredana; Vaccaro, Gerardo Francesco; Guarino, Achille; Capuano, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Campania’s buffalo mozzarella is a greatly appreciated cheese in Italy and worldwide. From a microbiological standpoint, it is a highly perishable food and potentially at risk of contamination by pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes). The present paper reports the results of a challenge test carried out to assess the population dynamics of L. monocytogenes, alone and in presence of Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens), in buffalo mozzarella. For this purpose buffalo mozzarella samples were contaminated with L. monocytogenes alone or combined with P. fluorescens. In samples where L. monocytogenes was inoculated alone, the bacterial load remained unchanged. On the contrary, in samples contaminated with L. monocytogenes and P. fluorescens, the growth of L. monocytogenes increased. PMID:27853707

  6. Characterization of the biocontrol activity of pseudomonas fluorescens strain X reveals novel genes regulated by glucose.

    PubMed

    Kremmydas, Gerasimos F; Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios G

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strain X, a bacterial isolate from the rhizosphere of bean seedlings, has the ability to suppress damping-off caused by the oomycete Pythium ultimum. To determine the genes controlling the biocontrol activity of strain X, transposon mutagenesis, sequencing and complementation was performed. Results indicate that, biocontrol ability of this isolate is attributed to gcd gene encoding glucose dehydrogenase, genes encoding its co-enzyme pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), and two genes (sup5 and sup6) which seem to be organized in a putative operon. This operon (named supX) consists of five genes, one of which encodes a non-ribosomal peptide synthase. A unique binding site for a GntR-type transcriptional factor is localized upstream of the supX putative operon. Synteny comparison of the genes in supX revealed that they are common in the genus Pseudomonas, but with a low degree of similarity. supX shows high similarity only to the mangotoxin operon of Ps. syringae pv. syringae UMAF0158. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that transcription of supX is strongly reduced in the gcd and PQQ-minus mutants of Ps. fluorescens strain X. On the contrary, transcription of supX in the wild type is enhanced by glucose and transcription levels that appear to be higher during the stationary phase. Gcd, which uses PQQ as a cofactor, catalyses the oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid, which controls the activity of the GntR family of transcriptional factors. The genes in the supX putative operon have not been implicated before in the biocontrol of plant pathogens by pseudomonads. They are involved in the biosynthesis of an antimicrobial compound by Ps. fluorescens strain X and their transcription is controlled by glucose, possibly through the activity of a GntR-type transcriptional factor binding upstream of this putative operon.

  7. Spatial distributions of Pseudomonas fluorescens colony variants in mixed-culture biofilms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The emergence of colony morphology variants in structured environments is being recognized as important to both niche specialization and stress tolerance. Pseudomonas fluorescens demonstrates diversity in both its natural environment, the rhizosphere, and in laboratory grown biofilms. Sub-populations of these variants within a biofilm have been suggested as important contributors to antimicrobial stress tolerance given their altered susceptibility to various agents. As such it is of interest to determine how these variants might be distributed in the biofilm environment. Results Here we present an analysis of the spatial distribution of Pseudomonas fluorescens colony morphology variants in mixed-culture biofilms with the wildtype phenotype. These findings reveal that two variant colony morphotypes demonstrate a significant growth advantage over the wildtype morphotype in the biofilm environment. The two variant morphotypes out-grew the wildtype across the entire biofilm and this occurred within 24 h and was maintained through to 96 h. This competitive advantage was not observed in homogeneous broth culture. Conclusions The significant advantage that the variants demonstrate in biofilm colonization over the wildtype denotes the importance of this phenotype in structured environments. PMID:23890016

  8. Spatial distributions of Pseudomonas fluorescens colony variants in mixed-culture biofilms.

    PubMed

    Workentine, Matthew L; Wang, Siyuan; Ceri, Howard; Turner, Raymond J

    2013-07-28

    The emergence of colony morphology variants in structured environments is being recognized as important to both niche specialization and stress tolerance. Pseudomonas fluorescens demonstrates diversity in both its natural environment, the rhizosphere, and in laboratory grown biofilms. Sub-populations of these variants within a biofilm have been suggested as important contributors to antimicrobial stress tolerance given their altered susceptibility to various agents. As such it is of interest to determine how these variants might be distributed in the biofilm environment. Here we present an analysis of the spatial distribution of Pseudomonas fluorescens colony morphology variants in mixed-culture biofilms with the wildtype phenotype. These findings reveal that two variant colony morphotypes demonstrate a significant growth advantage over the wildtype morphotype in the biofilm environment. The two variant morphotypes out-grew the wildtype across the entire biofilm and this occurred within 24 h and was maintained through to 96 h. This competitive advantage was not observed in homogeneous broth culture. The significant advantage that the variants demonstrate in biofilm colonization over the wildtype denotes the importance of this phenotype in structured environments.

  9. Endophytic colonization of olive roots by the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Pilar; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2008-05-01

    Confocal microscopy combined with three-dimensional olive root tissue sectioning was used to provide evidence of the endophytic behaviour of Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, an effective biocontrol strain against Verticillium wilt of olive. Two derivatives of the green fluorescent protein (GFP), the enhanced green and the red fluorescent proteins, have been used to visualize simultaneously two differently fluorescently tagged populations of P. fluorescens PICF7 within olive root tissues at the single cell level. The time-course of colonization events of olive roots cv. Arbequina by strain PICF7 and the localization of tagged bacteria within olive root tissues are described. First, bacteria rapidly colonized root surfaces and were predominantly found in the differentiation zone. Thereafter, microscopy observations showed that PICF7-tagged populations eventually disappeared from the root surface, and increasingly colonized inner root tissues. Localized and limited endophytic colonization by the introduced bacteria was observed over time. Fluorescent-tagged bacteria were always visualized in the intercellular spaces of the cortex region, and no colonization of the root xylem vessels was detected at any time. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time this approach has been used to demonstrate endophytism of a biocontrol Pseudomonas spp. strain in a woody host such as olive using a nongnotobiotic system.

  10. The Genome of Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain R124 Demonstrates Phenotypic Adaptation to the Mineral Environment

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Michael D.; Petronio, Michael; Giarrizzo, Juan G.; Bowling, Bethany V.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial adaptation to environmental conditions is a complex process, including acquisition of positive traits through horizontal gene transfer or the modification of existing genes through duplication and/or mutation. In this study, we examined the adaptation of a Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate (R124) from the nutrient-limited mineral environment of a silica cave in comparison with P. fluorescens isolates from surface soil and the rhizosphere. Examination of metal homeostasis gene pathways demonstrated a high degree of conservation, suggesting that such systems remain functionally similar across chemical environments. The examination of genomic islands unique to our strain revealed the presence of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, aromatic carbon metabolism, and carbon turnover, confirmed through phenotypic assays, suggesting the acquisition of potentially novel mechanisms for energy metabolism in this strain. We also identified a twitching motility phenotype active at low-nutrient concentrations that may allow alternative exploratory mechanisms for this organism in a geochemical environment. Two sets of candidate twitching motility genes are present within the genome, one on the chromosome and one on a plasmid; however, a plasmid knockout identified the functional gene as being present on the chromosome. This work highlights the plasticity of the Pseudomonas genome, allowing the acquisition of novel nutrient-scavenging pathways across diverse geochemical environments while maintaining a core of functional stress response genes. PMID:23995634

  11. Predictive modeling of Pseudomonas fluorescens growth under different temperature and pH values.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Letícia Dias Dos Anjos; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf; Peres, Alexandre de Paula; Saúde, André Vital

    Meat is one of the most perishable foods owing to its nutrient availability, high water activity, and pH around 5.6. These properties are highly conducive for microbial growth. Fresh meat, when exposed to oxygen, is subjected to the action of aerobic psychrotrophic, proteolytic, and lipolytic spoilage microorganisms, such as Pseudomonas spp. The spoilage results in the appearance of slime and off-flavor in food. In order to predict the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens in fresh meat at different pH values, stored under refrigeration, and temperature abuse, microbial mathematical modeling was applied. The primary Baranyi and Roberts and the modified Gompertz models were fitted to the experimental data to obtain the growth parameters. The Ratkowsky extended model was used to determine the effect of pH and temperature on the growth parameter μmax. The program DMFit 3.0 was used for model adjustment and fitting. The experimental data showed good fit for both the models tested, and the primary and secondary models based on the Baranyi and Roberts models showed better validation. Thus, these models can be applied to predict the growth of P. fluorescens under the conditions tested.

  12. Phenotypic and metabolic profiling of colony morphology variants evolved from Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms.

    PubMed

    Workentine, Matthew L; Harrison, Joe J; Weljie, Aalim M; Tran, Vy A; Stenroos, Pernilla U; Tremaroli, Valentina; Vogel, Hans J; Ceri, Howard; Turner, Raymond J

    2010-06-01

    Colony morphology variants isolated from natural and laboratory-grown biofilms represent subpopulations of biofilm cells that may be important for multiple aspects of the sessile lifestyle, from surface colonization to stress resistance. There are many genetic and environmental factors that determine the frequency at which colony morphology variants are recovered from biofilms. One of these factors involves an increased selection for variants in biofilms of Pseudomonas species bearing inactivating mutations in the global activator of cyanide biosynthesis/regulator of secondary metabolism (gac/rsm) signal transduction pathway. Here we characterize two distinct colony morphology variants isolated from biofilms of Pseudomonas fluorescens missing the gacS sensor kinase. These variants produced more biofilm cell mass, and in one case, this was likely due to overproduction of the exopolysaccharide cellulose. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics revealed distinct metabolic changes for each of the two phenotypic variants, and these changes involved amino acids and metabolites produced through glutathione biochemistry. Some of these metabolites are hypothesized to play a role in redox and metal homeostasis, and corresponding to this, we show that biofilm populations grown from each of these variants had a different ability to survive when exposed to toxic doses of metal ions. These data suggest that colony morphology variants that evolve during growth of P. fluorescens as a biofilm may have distinct metabolic capacities that contribute to their individual abilities to withstand environmental stress.

  13. LETHALITY OF PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS STRAIN CLO145A TO THE 2 ZEBRA MUSSEL SPECIES PRESENT IN NORTH AMERICA

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2001-10-28

    These experiments indicated that bacterial strain CL0145A of Pseudomonas fluorescens is equally lethal to the 2 zebra mussel species present in North America, Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena bugensis. Thus, this bacterial strain should be equally effective at killing zebra mussels in power plant pipes, irrespective of which species is present.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading, Genetically Engineered Bioluminescent Bioreporter Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Archana; Layton, Alice C.; Williams, Daniel E.; Smartt, Abby E.; Ripp, Steven; Karpinets, Tatiana V.; Brown, Steven D.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strain HK44 (DSM 6700) is a genetically engineered lux-based bioluminescent bioreporter. Here we report the draft genome sequence of strain HK44. Annotation of ∼6.1 Mb of sequence indicates that 30% of the traits are unique and distributed over five genomic islands, a prophage, and two plasmids. PMID:21742869

  15. Factors impacting the activity of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens against take-all of wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Take-all, caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, is an important soilborne disease of wheat worldwide. Pseudomonas fluorescens producing the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) are biocontrol agents of take-all and provide natural suppression of the disease during wheat monocul...

  16. Characterization of Toxin Complex Gene Clusters and Insect Toxicity of Bacteria Representing Four Subgroups of Pseudomonas fluorescens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ten strains representing four lineages of Pseudomonas (P. chlororaphis, P. corrugata, P. koreensis, and P. fluorescens subgroups) were evaluated for toxicity to the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The three strains within the P. chlororaphis subgroup exhibi...

  17. Arbitrary PCR for Rapid Mapping of Tn5 Insertions in Pyoverdine Genes of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A collection of 13 transposon mutants deficient in pyoverdine production was analyzed using an arbitrary polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach to map the sites of Tn5 insertions in the genome of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5. The arbitrary PCR method involved two rounds of reactions, with the fi...

  18. Secondary metabolite production by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Pf-5 confers protection against Naegleria americana in the wheat rhizosphere

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacteria employ a variety of morphological and metabolic mechanisms to avoid protozoan predation. In Pseudomonas fluorescens strains SS101 and SBW25, cyclic lipopeptide (CLP) production served as a defense mechanism that limited predation by the amoeba-flagellate Naegleria americana, and secondary m...

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM636, a Strain with Biocontrol Capabilities against Late Blight of Potato

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Christopher K.; Novinscak, Amy; Gadkar, Vijay J.; Joly, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Herein provided is the full-genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM636. This strain is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) which produces phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, an antibiotic involved in the biocontrol of numerous plant pathogens, including late blight of potato caused by the plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans. PMID:27231373

  20. Variation in the TonB-dependent Outer-Membrane Proteins in Plant-Associated Strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nutrient acquisition is key to the ecological fitness of environmental bacteria such as Pseudomonas fluorescens and TonB-dependent outer-membrane proteins are important components of the cellular machinery for the uptake of substrates from the environment. Genomic sequences of ten strains of plant-a...

  1. Diversity of TonB-dependent outer-membrane proteins in plant-associated strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genomic sequences of ten strains of plant-associated Pseudomonas spp. were surveyed for the presence of TonB-dependent outer-membrane proteins (TBDPs), which function in the uptake of substrates from the environment by many Gram-negative bacteria. The ten strains, representing P. fluorescens, P. ch...

  2. Quantification of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens strains in the plant rhizosphere by real-time PCR.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A real-time PCR SYBR green assay was developed to quantify populations of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG)-producing (phlD+) strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens in soil and the rhizosphere. Primers were designed and PCR conditions were optimized to specifically amplify the phlD gene from four di...

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading, Genetically Engineered Bioluminescent Bioreporter Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, Archana; Layton, Alice; Williams, Daniel W; Smart, Abby E.; Ripp, Steven Anthony; Karpinets, Tatiana V; Brown, Steven D; Sayler, Gary Steven

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strain HK44 (DSM 6700) is a genetically engineered lux-based bioluminescent bioreporter. Here we report the draft genome sequence of strain HK44. Annotation of {approx}6.1 Mb sequence indicates that 30% of the traits are unique and distributed over 5 genomic islands, a prophage and two plasmids.

  4. Assessment of DAPG-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens for management of Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum on watermelon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates Clinto 1R, Wayne 1R and Wood 1R, which produce the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), can suppress soilborne diseases and promote plant growth. Consequently, these beneficial bacterial isolates were tested on watermelon plants for suppression of Meloidogy...

  5. Metabolic engineering of Pseudomonas fluorescens for the production of vanillin from ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Di Gioia, Diana; Luziatelli, Francesca; Negroni, Andrea; Ficca, Anna Grazia; Fava, Fabio; Ruzzi, Maurizio

    2011-12-20

    Vanillin is one of the most important flavors in the food industry and there is great interest in its production through biotechnological processes starting from natural substrates such as ferulic acid. Among bacteria, recombinant Escherichia coli strains are the most efficient vanillin producers, whereas Pseudomonas spp. strains, although possessing a broader metabolic versatility, rapidly metabolize various phenolic compounds including vanillin. In order to develop a robust Pseudomonas strain that can produce vanillin in high yields and at high productivity, the vanillin dehydrogenase (vdh)-encoding gene of Pseudomonas fluorescens BF13 strain was inactivated via targeted mutagenesis. The results demonstrated that engineered derivatives of strain BF13 accumulate vanillin if inactivation of vdh is associated with concurrent expression of structural genes for feruloyl-CoA synthetase (fcs) and hydratase/aldolase (ech) from a low-copy plasmid. The conversion of ferulic acid to vanillin was enhanced by optimization of growth conditions, growth phase and parameters of the bioconversion process. The developed strain produced up to 8.41 mM vanillin, which is the highest final titer of vanillin produced by a Pseudomonas strain to date and opens new perspectives in the use of bacterial biocatalysts for biotechnological production of vanillin from agro-industrial wastes which contain ferulic acid.

  6. A global regulator of secondary metabolite production in Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5.

    PubMed Central

    Corbell, N; Loper, J E

    1995-01-01

    Mutations in the apdA (for antibiotic production) gene of the plant root-colonizing bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 pleiotropically abolish the production of an array of antibiotics, including pyrrolnitrin, pyoluteorin, and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, as well as the production of tryptophan side chain oxidase, hydrogen cyanide, and an extracellular protease. The lack of production of secondary metabolites by ApdA- mutants was correlated with the loss of inhibition of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani in culture. Sequencing of the apdA region identified an open reading frame of 2,751 bp. The predicted amino acid sequence of the apdA gene contains conserved domains of the histidine kinases that serve as sensor components of prokaryotic two-component regulatory systems. The apdA nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences are strikingly similar to the sequences of lemA and repA, genes encoding putative sensor kinases that are required for the pathogenicity of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and Pseudomonas viridiflava, respectively. Introduction of the cloned apdA+ gene restored the wild-type phenotype to both LemA- mutants of P. syringae and ApdA- mutants of Pf-5. The 101-kDa ApdA protein reacted with an anti-LemA antiserum, further demonstrating the similarity of ApdA to LemA. These results show that apdA encodes a putative sensor kinase component of a classical two-component regulatory system that is required for secondary-metabolite production by P. fluorescens Pf-5. PMID:7592389

  7. A global regulator of secondary metabolite production in Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5.

    PubMed

    Corbell, N; Loper, J E

    1995-11-01

    Mutations in the apdA (for antibiotic production) gene of the plant root-colonizing bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 pleiotropically abolish the production of an array of antibiotics, including pyrrolnitrin, pyoluteorin, and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, as well as the production of tryptophan side chain oxidase, hydrogen cyanide, and an extracellular protease. The lack of production of secondary metabolites by ApdA- mutants was correlated with the loss of inhibition of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani in culture. Sequencing of the apdA region identified an open reading frame of 2,751 bp. The predicted amino acid sequence of the apdA gene contains conserved domains of the histidine kinases that serve as sensor components of prokaryotic two-component regulatory systems. The apdA nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences are strikingly similar to the sequences of lemA and repA, genes encoding putative sensor kinases that are required for the pathogenicity of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and Pseudomonas viridiflava, respectively. Introduction of the cloned apdA+ gene restored the wild-type phenotype to both LemA- mutants of P. syringae and ApdA- mutants of Pf-5. The 101-kDa ApdA protein reacted with an anti-LemA antiserum, further demonstrating the similarity of ApdA to LemA. These results show that apdA encodes a putative sensor kinase component of a classical two-component regulatory system that is required for secondary-metabolite production by P. fluorescens Pf-5.

  8. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) in Arabidopsis thaliana against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato by 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strains that produce the polyketide antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) are among the most effective rhizobacteria that suppress root and crown rots, wilts and damping-off diseases of a variety of crops, and they play a key role in the natural suppressiveness of ...

  9. Identification and analysis of three virulence-associated TonB-dependent outer membrane receptors of Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-ren; Zhang, Lu; Sun, Li

    2014-08-11

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a Gram-negative bacterium that can infect a wide range of farmed fish. However, very little is known about the virulence mechanism of P. fluorescens as a fish pathogen. In this study, we identified and analyzed 3 TonB-dependent outer membrane receptors (TDRs) from a pathogenic P. fluorescens strain isolated from fish. In silico analysis revealed that all 3 proteins (named Tdr1 to 3) possess structural domains typical of TDRs. Quantitative real time RT-PCR analysis showed that tdr1, tdr2, and tdr3 expressions were upregulated under iron-depleted conditions. Compared to the wild type, mutants defective in tdr1, tdr2, and tdr3 were retarded in growth to different extents. Infection in a turbot Scophthalmus maximus model showed that all 3 mutants were impaired in their ability to desseminate into and colonize host tissues. In addition, the tdr1 and tdr3 mutants exhibited significantly reduced virulence. When used as subunit vaccines, purified recombinant proteins of Tdr1, Tdr2, and, in particular, Tdr3 elicited significant protection in turbot against lethal P. fluorescens challenge. The vaccinated fish produced specific serum antibodies, which, when incubated with P. fluorescens, blocked infection of P. fluorescens in fish cells. Together these results indicate that Tdr1, Tdr2, and Tdr3 are iron-regulated factors that participate in bacterial virulence and induce protective immunity as subunit vaccines.

  10. Effect of temperature on the shift of Pseudomonas fluorescens from an environmental microorganism to a potential human pathogen.

    PubMed

    Donnarumma, G; Buommino, E; Fusco, A; Paoletti, I; Auricchio, L; Tufano, M A

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a Gram-negative bacterium generally considered of scarce clinical significance. However, in the last few years, the isolation of P. fluorescens as the causative agent of nosocomial infections has rapidly increased. P. fluorescens is a psychrophile microorganism which grows at an optimal temperature of 25-30 degrees Celcius. In spite of this constraint, it has recently been reported that the human physiological temperature does not appear to be a barrier for this microorganism. In this study we examined the ability of P. fluorescens, grown at 28 degrees C or at 37 degrees C, to adhere to cultured human A549 pulmonary cells and to form biofilm. The ability of P. fluorescens to induce expression of proinflammatory cytokines, beta-defensin 2 and the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was also investigated. Our results clearly indicate that inflammatory mediators are induced when the microorganism is grown at a lower temperature, while biofilm is formed only at 37 degrees C. The results presented are consistent with previous reports indicating P. fluorescens as an opportunistic pathogen and underscore the urgent need for further studies to better characterize the virulence of this microorganism.

  11. Impact of Field Release of Genetically Modified Pseudomonas fluorescens on Indigenous Microbial Populations of Wheat

    PubMed Central

    De Leij, F.; Sutton, E. J.; Whipps, J. M.; Fenlon, J. S.; Lynch, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    In a field release experiment, an isolate of Pseudomonas fluorescens, which was chromosomally modified with two reporter gene cassettes (lacZY and Kan(supr)-xylE), was applied to spring wheat as a seed coating and subsequently as a foliar spray. The wild-type strain was isolated from the phylloplane of sugar beet but was found to be a common colonizer of both the rizosphere and phylloplane of wheat as well. The impact on the indigenous microbial populations resulting from release of this genetically modified microorganism (GMM) was compared with the impact of the unmodified, wild-type strain and a nontreated control until 1 month after harvest of the crop. The release of the P. fluorescens GMM and the unmodified, wild-type strain resulted in significant but transient perturbations of some of the culturable components of the indigenous microbial communities that inhabited the rhizosphere and phylloplane of wheat, but no significant perturbations of the indigenous culturable microbial populations in nonrhizosphere soil were found. Fast-growing organisms that did not produce resting structures (for example, fluorescent pseudomonads and yeasts) seemed to be most sensitive to perturbation. In terms of hazard and risk to the environment, the observed microbial perturbations that resulted from this GMM release may be considered minor for several reasons. First, the recombinant P. fluorescens strain caused changes that were, in general, not significantly different from those caused by the unmodified wild-type strain; second, perturbations resulting from bacterial inoculations were mainly small; and third, the release of bacteria had no obvious effects on plant growth and plant health. PMID:16535129

  12. Mobile genetic elements in the genome of the beneficial rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 is a plant-associated bacterium that inhabits the rhizosphere of a wide variety of plant species and and produces secondary metabolites suppressive of fungal and oomycete plant pathogens. The Pf-5 genome is rich in features consistent with its commensal lifestyle, and its sequence has revealed attributes associated with the strain's ability to compete and survive in the dynamic and microbiologically complex rhizosphere habitat. In this study, we analyzed mobile genetic elements of the Pf-5 genome in an effort to identify determinants that might contribute to Pf-5's ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions and/or colonize new ecological niches. Results Sequence analyses revealed that the genome of Pf-5 is devoid of transposons and IS elements and that mobile genetic elements (MGEs) are represented by prophages and genomic islands that collectively span over 260 kb. The prophages include an F-pyocin-like prophage 01, a chimeric prophage 03, a lambdoid prophage 06, and decaying prophages 02, 04 and 05 with reduced size and/or complexity. The genomic islands are represented by a 115-kb integrative conjugative element (ICE) PFGI-1, which shares plasmid replication, recombination, and conjugative transfer genes with those from ICEs found in other Pseudomonas spp., and PFGI-2, which resembles a portion of pathogenicity islands in the genomes of the plant pathogens Pseudomonas syringae and P. viridiflava. Almost all of the MGEs in the Pf-5 genome are associated with phage-like integrase genes and are integrated into tRNA genes. Conclusion Comparative analyses reveal that MGEs found in Pf-5 are subject to extensive recombination and have evolved in part via exchange of genetic material with other Pseudomonas spp. having commensal or pathogenic relationships with plants and animals. Although prophages and genomic islands from Pf-5 exhibit similarity to MGEs found in other Pseudomonas spp., they also carry a number of

  13. Induced systemic resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato by 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Weller, David M; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; van Pelt, Johan A; Pieterse, Corné M J; van Loon, Leendert C; Bakker, Peter A H M

    2012-04-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strains that produce the polyketide antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) are among the most effective rhizobacteria that suppress root and crown rots, wilts, and damping-off diseases of a variety of crops, and they play a key role in the natural suppressiveness of some soils to certain soilborne pathogens. Root colonization by 2,4-DAPG-producing P. fluorescens strains Pf-5 (genotype A), Q2-87 (genotype B), Q8r1-96 (genotype D), and HT5-1 (genotype N) produced induced systemic resistance (ISR) in Arabidopsis thaliana accession Col-0 against bacterial speck caused by P. syringae pv. tomato. The ISR-eliciting activity of the four bacterial genotypes was similar, and all genotypes were equivalent in activity to the well-characterized strain P. fluorescens WCS417r. The 2,4-DAPG biosynthetic locus consists of the genes phlHGF and phlACBDE. phlD or phlBC mutants of Q2-87 (2,4-DAPG minus) were significantly reduced in ISR activity, and genetic complementation of the mutants restored ISR activity back to wild-type levels. A phlF regulatory mutant (overproducer of 2,4-DAPG) had ISR activity equivalent to the wild-type Q2-87. Introduction of DAPG into soil at concentrations of 10 to 250 μM 4 days before challenge inoculation induced resistance equivalent to or better than the bacteria. Strain Q2-87 induced resistance on transgenic NahG plants but not on npr1-1, jar1, and etr1 Arabidopsis mutants. These results indicate that the antibiotic 2,4-DAPG is a major determinant of ISR in 2,4-DAPG-producing P. fluorescens, that the genotype of the strain does not affect its ISR activity, and that the activity induced by these bacteria operates through the ethylene- and jasmonic acid-dependent signal transduction pathway.

  14. Cyanide production by Pseudomonas fluorescens helps suppress black root rot of tobacco under gnotobiotic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Voisard, Christophe; Keel, Christoph; Haas, Dieter; Dèfago, Geneviève

    1989-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 suppresses black root rot of tobacco, a disease caused by the fungus Thielaviopsis basicola. Strain CHA0 excretes several metabolites with antifungal properties. The importance of one such metabolite, hydrogen cyanide, was tested in a gnotobiotic system containing an artificial, iron-rich soil. A cyanidenegative (hcn) mutant, CHA5, constructed by a gene replacement technique, protected the tobacco plant less effectively than did the wild-type CHA0. Complementation of strain CHA5 by the cloned wild-type hcn+ genes restored the strain's ability to suppress disease. An artificial transposon carrying the hcn+ genes of strain CHA0 (Tnhcn) was constructed and inserted into the genome of another P.fluorescens strain, P3, which naturally does not produce cyanide and gives poor plant protection. The P3::Tnhcn derivative synthesized cyanide and exhibited an improved ability to suppress disease. All bacterial strains colonized the roots similarly and did not influence significantly the survival of T.basicola in soil. We conclude that bacterial cyanide is an important but not the only factor involved in suppression of black root rot. Images PMID:16453871

  15. Effect of retS gene on antibiotics production in Pseudomonas fluorescens FD6.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingxia; Xiao, Qi; Xu, Jingyou; Tong, Yunhui; Wen, Jia; Chen, Xijun; Wei, Lihui

    2015-11-01

    A hybrid sensor kinase termed RetS (regulator of exopolysaccharide and Type III secretion) controls expression of numerous genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To investigate the function of RetS in P. fluorescens FD6, the retS gene was disrupted. Genetic inactivation of retS resulted in enhanced production of 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyrrolnitrin, and pyoluteorin. The retS mutant also exhibited significant increase in phlA-lacZ, prnA-lacZ, and pltA-lacZ transcription levels, influencing expression levels of the small regulatory RNAs RsmX and RsmZ. In the gacSretS double mutant, all the phenotypic changes caused by the retS deletion were reversed to the level of gacS single mutant. Furthermore, the retS mutation drastically elevated biofilm formation and improved the colonization ability of strain FD6 on wheat rhizospheres. Based on these results, we proposed that RetS negatively controlled the production of antibiotics through the Gac/Rsm pathway in P. fluorescens FD6.

  16. Three Alginate Lyases from Marine Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens HZJ216: Purification and Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Liyan, Li; Jiang, Xiaolu; Wang, Peng; Guan, Huashi; Guo, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Three alginate lyases (A, B, and C) from an alginate-degrading marine bacterium strain HZJ216 isolated from brown seaweed in the Yellow Sea of China and identified preliminarily as Pseudomonas fluorescens are purified, and their biochemical properties are described. Molecular masses of the three enzymes are determined by SDS-PAGE to be 60.25, 36, and 23 kDa with isoelectric points of 4, 4.36, and 4.59, respectively. Investigations of these enzymes at different pH and temperatures show that they are most active at pH 7.0 and 35 C. Alginate lyases A and B are stable in the pH range of 5.0 9.0, while alginate lyase C is stable in the pH range of 5.0 7.0. Among the metal ions tested, additions of Na+, K+, and Mg2+ ions can enhance the enzyme activities while Fe2+, Fe3+, Ba2+, and Zn2+ ions show inhibitory effects. The substrate specificity results demonstrate that alginate lyase C has the specificity for G block while alginate lyases A and B have the activities for both M and G blocks. It is the first report about extracellular alginate lyases with high alginate-degrading activity from P. fluorescens.

  17. Biological activity of secondary metabolites produced by a strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Boruah, H P Deka; Kumar, B S Dileep

    2002-01-01

    Biological activity of secondary metabolites produced by a plant-growth-promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens was evaluated. The strain produced antibiotics phenazine (PHE), 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (PHL) and siderophore pyoverdin (PYO) in standard King's B and succinic acid media, respectively. After extraction, PYO was identified by comparing the UV-spectra and moss-green color development after 'diazotized sulfanilic acid' (DSA) spray in TLC. PHE and PHL were identified by comparing standard compounds on TLC and orange-color development immediately after DSA spray. In vitro antibiosis study of the metabolites revealed their antibacterial and antifungal activity against bacterial test organisms Corynebacterium sp., Mycobacterium phlei and M. smegmatis and test fungi Fusarium moniliforme, F. oxysporum, F. semitectum, F. solani and Rhizoctonia solani. A statistically significantly higher plant growth was recorded in siderophore-amended plantlets under gnotobiotic conditions whereas PHE and PHL did not show any plant-growth-promoting activity. These results support the importance of the secondary metabolites produced by the strain P. fluorescens in enhancing plant growth and in controlling fungal and bacterial pathogens.

  18. The Effect of Iron Limitation on the Transcriptome and Proteome of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chee Kent; Hassan, Karl A.; Tetu, Sasha G.; Loper, Joyce E.; Paulsen, Ian T.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important micronutrients for bacterial growth is iron, whose bioavailability in soil is limited. Consequently, rhizospheric bacteria such as Pseudomonas fluorescens employ a range of mechanisms to acquire or compete for iron. We investigated the transcriptomic and proteomic effects of iron limitation on P. fluorescens Pf-5 by employing microarray and iTRAQ techniques, respectively. Analysis of this data revealed that genes encoding functions related to iron homeostasis, including pyoverdine and enantio-pyochelin biosynthesis, a number of TonB-dependent receptor systems, as well as some inner-membrane transporters, were significantly up-regulated in response to iron limitation. Transcription of a ribosomal protein L36-encoding gene was also highly up-regulated during iron limitation. Certain genes or proteins involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites such as 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), orfamide A and pyrrolnitrin, as well as a chitinase, were over-expressed under iron-limited conditions. In contrast, we observed that expression of genes involved in hydrogen cyanide production and flagellar biosynthesis were down-regulated in an iron-depleted culture medium. Phenotypic tests revealed that Pf-5 had reduced swarming motility on semi-solid agar in response to iron limitation. Comparison of the transcriptomic data with the proteomic data suggested that iron acquisition is regulated at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. PMID:22723948

  19. Three alginate lyases from marine bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens HZJ216: purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Li, Liyan; Jiang, Xiaolu; Guan, Huashi; Wang, Peng; Guo, Hong

    2011-06-01

    Three alginate lyases (A, B, and C) from an alginate-degrading marine bacterium strain HZJ216 isolated from brown seaweed in the Yellow Sea of China and identified preliminarily as Pseudomonas fluorescens are purified, and their biochemical properties are described. Molecular masses of the three enzymes are determined by SDS-PAGE to be 60.25, 36, and 23 kDa with isoelectric points of 4, 4.36, and 4.59, respectively. Investigations of these enzymes at different pH and temperatures show that they are most active at pH 7.0 and 35 °C. Alginate lyases A and B are stable in the pH range of 5.0-9.0, while alginate lyase C is stable in the pH range of 5.0-7.0. Among the metal ions tested, additions of Na(+), K(+), and Mg(2+) ions can enhance the enzyme activities while Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Ba(2+), and Zn(2+) ions show inhibitory effects. The substrate specificity results demonstrate that alginate lyase C has the specificity for G block while alginate lyases A and B have the activities for both M and G blocks. It is the first report about extracellular alginate lyases with high alginate-degrading activity from P. fluorescens.

  20. Synthesis of Extracellular Proteinase by Pseudomonas fluorescens Under Conditions of Limiting Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphate †

    PubMed Central

    McKellar, R. C.; Cholette, H.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate concentrations on growth and proteinase production by Pseudomonas fluorescens 32A was examined. In mineral salts medium containing dialyzed skim milk supernatant as an inducer, maximum growth was obtained at 1.0 and 2.5 mM orthophosphate at 20 and 5°C, respectively. At both temperatures, 5 mM orthophosphate was required for maximum proteinase production, whereas significant inhibition was found at 10 mM. Orthophosphate was the only phosphate compound able to support growth. With sodium pyruvate as the carbon source, maximum enzyme synthesis was at 100 mM carbon at both temperatures. At both 20 and 5°C maximum growth and enzyme production was found with 10 mM NH4Cl. A bioassay for available phosphate based on the growth of P. fluorescens 32A in phosphate-limited mineral salts medium showed that skim milk and skim milk supernatant contained 50 and 10 mM orthophosphate, respectively. Proteinase production in skim milk was 2.6- and 12-fold greater than that in optimal mineral salts medium at 20 and 5°C, respectively. These results suggest that proteinase production in milk does not occur as a result of nutrient limitation and may be regulated in part by milk phosphates. PMID:16346559

  1. Biodegradation of benzidine based azodyes Direct red and Direct blue by the immobilized cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens D41.

    PubMed

    Puvaneswari, N; Muthukrishnan, J; Gunasekaran, P

    2002-10-01

    Benzidine based azodyes are proven carcinogens, mutagens and have been linked to bladder cancer of human beings and laboratory animals. The textile and dyestuff manufacturing industry are the two major sources that released azodyes in their effluents. The dye, Direct blue contains two carcinogenic compounds namely benzidine (BZ), 4-amino biphenyl (4-ABP), while the dye Direct red has benzidine (BZ). Among 40 isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens screened, one isolate designated as D41 was found to be capable of extensively degrading the dyes Direct blue and Direct red. Immobilized cells of P. fluorescens D41 efficiently degraded Direct red (82%) and Direct blue (71%) in the presence of glucose.

  2. Whole-Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens EK007-RG4, a Promising Biocontrol Agent against a Broad Range of Bacteria, Including the Fire Blight Bacterium Erwinia amylovora

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Roghayeh; Tarighi, Saeed; Behravan, Javad; Taheri, Parissa; Kjøller, Annelise Helene; Brejnrod, Asker; Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report the first draft whole-genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain EK007-RG4, which was isolated from the phylloplane of a pear tree. P. fluorescens EK007-RG4 displays strong antagonism against Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent for fire blight disease, in addition to several other pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. PMID:28360179

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens ML11A, an Endogenous Strain from Brook Charr with Antagonistic Properties against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida

    PubMed Central

    Charette, Steve J.; Derome, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas fluorescens ML11A, isolated from brook charr, showed a strong in vitro inhibitory effect against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, a bacterial fish pathogen. Its genome harbors gene clusters for siderophore and bacteriocin biosynthesis and shares 99% whole-genome identity with P. fluorescens A506, a biological control strain used in agriculture. PMID:28254983

  4. Effect of a Pseudomonas fluorescens tailocin against phytopathogenic Xanthomonas observed by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Maricruz; Godino, Agustina; Príncipe, Analía; Morales, Gustavo M; Fischer, Sonia

    2017-08-20

    Phage tail-like bacteriocins, called tailocins, represent a class of protein complexes produced by a multitude of bacteria. Pseudomonas fluorescens SF4c, a strain isolated from wheat rhizosphere, produces a bacteriocin similar to phage tail-like pyocins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This tailocin has antimicrobial activity against several phytopathogenic strains of the genus Xanthomonas and Pseudomonas. In this work, the effect of the SF4c tailocin on the phytopathogenic strain X. axonopodis pv vesicatoria Xcv Bv5-4a was analyzed through Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). We demonstrated that tailocins adhere and cause damage to the cell envelope of strain Xcv Bv5-4a. This results in a rapid leakage of intracellular materials, with the subsequent decrease of cell volume. Finally, lysis of sensitive bacteria occurs. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence about the effect of a tailocin analyzed by AFM. Further studies are in progress to evaluate the use of SF4c tailocin in the biocontrol of bacterial spot on tomato. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Physicochemical Properties of Biosurfactant Produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens Grown on Whey Tofu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryanti, V.; Handayani, D. S.; Marliyana, S. D.; Suratmi, S.

    2017-02-01

    The research aims to examine the physicochemical properties of biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens. Biosurfactant was produced in whey tofu media containing 8 g/L nutrient broth and 5 g/L NaCl which was fermented for 2 days at room temperature. Biosurfactant was identified as rhamnolipids which had critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 638 mg/L and surface tension of 54 mN/m. The biosurfactant had water in oil (w/o) emulsion type. The biosurfactant was able to decrease the interfacial tension more than 40% for emulsion of water with hexane, pentane, benzene, lubricants or kerosene. The stable emulsions were reached up to 30 days with the E24 value of about 50% when paraffin, toluene, lubricants or palm oil was used as an immiscible compound. Commercial surfactants, such as Triton X-100 and Tween-80 were investigated to compare their emulsification activities and emulsion stabilities with the produced biosurfactant.

  6. Alginate Biosynthesis Factories in Pseudomonas fluorescens: Localization and Correlation with Alginate Production Level.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Susan; Almaas, Eivind; Zotchev, Sergey; Valla, Svein; Ertesvåg, Helga

    2015-12-11

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is able to produce the medically and industrially important exopolysaccharide alginate. The proteins involved in alginate biosynthesis and secretion form a multiprotein complex spanning the inner and outer membranes. In the present study, we developed a method by which the porin AlgE was detected by immunogold labeling and transmission electron microscopy. Localization of the AlgE protein was found to depend on the presence of other proteins in the multiprotein complex. No correlation was found between the number of alginate factories and the alginate production level, nor were the numbers of these factories affected in an algC mutant that is unable to produce the precursor needed for alginate biosynthesis. Precursor availability and growth phase thus seem to be the main determinants for the alginate production rate in our strain. Clustering analysis demonstrated that the alginate multiprotein complexes were not distributed randomly over the entire outer cell membrane surface.

  7. Incorporation of Molecular Oxygen and Water during Enzymatic Oxidation of Cyanide by Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C.; Kunz, D. A.; Venables, B. J.

    1996-01-01

    Cell extracts (high-speed [150,000 x g] supernatants) from Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764 catalyzed the oxidation of cyanide to CO(inf2) (and NH(inf3)). Conversion was both oxygen and NADH dependent, with 1 mol of each being consumed per mol of cyanide degraded. Analysis of (sup13)CO(inf2) by mass spectrometry indicated that one atom each of isotopically labelled oxygen 18 from molecular oxygen and water were incorporated during enzymatic conversion. The results confirm earlier reports of oxygenase-mediated cyanide conversion in this organism. A reaction pathway for cyanide oxidation involving initial monooxygenation followed by hydrolysis of a hypothetical oxygenated intermediate to CO(inf2) (and NH(inf3)) is proposed. PMID:16535345

  8. Evolutionary rescue in populations of Pseudomonas fluorescens across an antibiotic gradient

    PubMed Central

    Ramsayer, Johan; Kaltz, Oliver; Hochberg, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Environmental change represents a major threat to species persistence. When change is rapid, a population's only means of persisting may be to evolve resistance. Understanding such ‘evolutionary rescues’ is important for conservation in the face of global change, but also in the agricultural and medical sciences, where the objective is rather population control or eradication. Theory predicts that evolutionary rescue is fostered by large populations and genetic variation, but this has yet to be tested. We replicated hundreds of populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 submitted to a range of doses of the antibiotic streptomycin. Consistent with theory, population size, and initial genetic diversity influenced population persistence and the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Although all treated populations suffered initial declines, those experiencing the smallest decreases were most likely to be evolutionarily rescued. Our results contribute to our understanding of how evolution may or may not save populations and species from extinction. PMID:23789028

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Olive Mill Wastewater Extract Against Pseudomonas Fluorescens Isolated from Mozzarella Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Roila, Rossana; Branciari, Raffaella; Ortenzi, Roberta; Urbani, Stefania; Servili, Maurizio; Valiani, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater polyphenol extract was tested for antimicrobial activity against 64 strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens responsible for mozzarella discolouration. The extract showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)50 value of 5 mg/mL and a MIC90 value of 7 mg/mL. The MBC50 and MBC90 values corresponded to 6 and 8 mg/mL, respectively. The MIC concentration (7 mg/mL) was demonstrated to have a bacteriostatic effect while maintaining the bacterial concentration on the levels of the inoculum for 48 hours. The 3/2 MIC concentration was responsible for four logs CFU/mL depletion in colony count after 24 h. As the extract concentration decreased from MIC value, no inhibitory effects were recorded. PMID:27800450

  10. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction of a halogenating enzyme, tryptophan 7-halogenase, from Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Dong, Changjiang; Kotzsch, Alexander; Dorward, Mark; van Pée, Karl Heinz; Naismith, James H

    2004-08-01

    Chlorination of natural products is often required for their biological activity; notable examples include vancomycin, the last-ditch antibiotic. It is now known that many chlorinated natural products are made not by haloperoxidases, but by FADH2-dependent halogenases. The mechanism of the flavin-containing enzymes is obscure and there are no structural data. Here, crystals of PrnA (tryptophan 7-halogenase), an enzyme that regioselectively chlorinates tryptophan, cocrystallized with tryptophan and FAD are reported. The crystals belong to the tetragonal space group P4(3)2(1)2 or P4(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 67.8, c = 276.9 A. A data set to 1.8 A with 93% completeness and an Rmerge of 7.1% has been collected from a single flash-cooled crystal. A method for incorporating selenomethionine in a Pseudomonas fluorescens expression system also is reported.

  11. Microbial transformations of ferulic acid by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Z; Dostal, L; Rosazza, J P

    1993-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (dry baker's yeast) and Pseudomonas fluorescens were used to convert trans-ferulic acid into 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene in 96 and 89% yields, respectively. The metabolites were isolated by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The identities of the metabolites were determined by 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and by mass spectrometry. The mechanism of the decarboxylation of ferulic acid was investigated by measuring the degree and position of deuterium incorporated into the styrene derivative from D2O by mass spectrometry and by both proton and deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Resting cells of baker's yeast reduced ferulic acid to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylpropionic acid in 54% yield when incubations were under an argon atmosphere. PMID:8395165

  12. The impact of cellulose nanocrystals on the aggregation and initial adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaohui; Lu, Qingye; Boluk, Yaman; Liu, Yang

    2014-11-28

    Deposition on silica surfaces of two Pseudomonas fluorescens strains (CHA0 and CHA19-WS) having different extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) producing capacities was studied in the absence and presence of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). Batch (batch soaking) and continuous flow (quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation) methods were used to evaluate the impact of CNCs on bacterial initial adhesion. This study demonstrated that bacterial initial adhesion to solid surfaces can be significantly hindered by CNCs using both methods. In the presence of CNCs, it was observed that bacteria with more EPS aggregated more significantly compared to bacteria with less EPS, and that bacterial deposition under this condition decreased to a greater extent. The classic DLVO theory failed to predict bacterial adhesion behavior in this study. A detailed discussion is provided regarding potential antibacterial adhesion mechanisms of CNCs.

  13. [Boot colonization of wheat by lux-AB genes marked Pseudomonas fluorescens Xl6L2].

    PubMed

    Wang, P; Hu, Z; Li, F

    2000-04-01

    Colonization density of Pseudomonas fluorescens Xl6L2 marked with luxAB genes in wheat rhizosphere in asepsis rhizobox-Calcareous chao soil microcosms reached the maximum(4.60 log cfu.g-1 root) 3 days after seeds coated with Pf.Xl6L2 sown, then declined to a relatively stable lower level(2.45 log cfu.g-1 root) in 0-2 cm root segment. Dynamics of colonization of Pf.Xl6L2 in wheat rhizosphere under field conditions was the same as in microcosms, Pf.Xl6L2 could move to the place of 10 cm of root from seeds under field conditions, distance of horizontal movement of Pf.Xl6L2 in field soil was not over 40 cm during 125 days of plant growth.

  14. Alginate Biosynthesis Factories in Pseudomonas fluorescens: Localization and Correlation with Alginate Production Level

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Susan; Almaas, Eivind; Zotchev, Sergey; Valla, Svein

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is able to produce the medically and industrially important exopolysaccharide alginate. The proteins involved in alginate biosynthesis and secretion form a multiprotein complex spanning the inner and outer membranes. In the present study, we developed a method by which the porin AlgE was detected by immunogold labeling and transmission electron microscopy. Localization of the AlgE protein was found to depend on the presence of other proteins in the multiprotein complex. No correlation was found between the number of alginate factories and the alginate production level, nor were the numbers of these factories affected in an algC mutant that is unable to produce the precursor needed for alginate biosynthesis. Precursor availability and growth phase thus seem to be the main determinants for the alginate production rate in our strain. Clustering analysis demonstrated that the alginate multiprotein complexes were not distributed randomly over the entire outer cell membrane surface. PMID:26655760

  15. Intramolecular Benzoin Reaction Catalyzed by Benzaldehyde Lyase from Pseudomonas Fluorescens Biovar I.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Karel; Parella, Teodor; Petrillo, Giovanna; Usón, Isabel; Wandtke, Claudia M; Joglar, Jesús; Bujons, Jordi; Clapés, Pere

    2017-05-02

    Intramolecular benzoin reactions catalyzed by benzaldehyde lyase from Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar I (BAL) are reported. The structure of the substrates envisaged for this reaction consists of two benzaldehyde derivatives linked by an alkyl chain. The structural requirements needed to achieve the intramolecular carbon-carbon bond reaction catalyzed by BAL were established. Thus, a linker consisting of a linear alkyl chain of three carbon atoms connected through ether-type bonds to the 2 and 2' positions of two benzaldehyde moieties, which could be substituted with either Cl, Br, or OCH3 at either the 3 and 3' or 5 and 5' positions, were suitable substrates for BAL. Reactions with 61-84 % yields of the intramolecular product and ee values between 64 and 98 %, were achieved. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Influence of earthworm activity on gene transfer from Pseudomonas fluorescens to indigenous soil bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Daane, L L; Molina, J A; Berry, E C; Sadowsky, M J

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a model system to assess the influence of earthworm activity on the transfer of plasmid pJP4 from an inoculated donor bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens C5t (pJP4), to indigenous soil microorganisms. Three different earthworm species (Lumbricus terrestris, Lumbricus rubellus, and Aporrectodea trapezoides), each with unique burrowing, casting, and feeding behaviors, were evaluated. Soil columns were inoculated on the surface with 10(8) cells per g of soil of the donor bacterium, and after a 2-week incubation period, donor, transconjugant, and total bacteria were enumerated at 5-cm-depth intervals. Transconjugants were confirmed by use of colony hybridization with a mer gene probe. In situ gene transfer of plasmid pJP4 from P. fluorescens C5t to indigenous soil bacteria was detected in all inoculated microcosms. In the absence of earthworms, the depth of recovery was limited to the top 5 cm of the column, with approximately 10(3) transconjugants per g of soil. However, the total number of transconjugants recovered from soil was significantly greater in microcosms containing either L. rubellus or A. trapezoides, with levels reaching about 10(5) CFU/g of soil. In addition, earthworms distributed donor and transconjugant bacteria throughout the microcosm columns, with the depth of recovery dependent on the burrowing behavior of each earthworm species. Donor and transconjugant bacteria were also recovered from earthworm casts and inside developing cocoons. Transconjugant bacteria from the indigenous soil microflora were classified as belonging to Acidovorax spp., Acinetobacter spp., Agrobacterium spp., Pasteurella spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Xanthomonas spp. PMID:8593052

  17. Strain Diversity of Pseudomonas fluorescens Group with Potential Blue Pigment Phenotype Isolated from Dairy Products.

    PubMed

    Chierici, Margherita; Picozzi, Claudia; La Spina, Marisa Grazia; Orsi, Carla; Vigentini, Ileana; Zambrini, Vittorio; Foschino, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    The blue discoloration in Mozzarella cheese comes from bacterial spoilage due to contamination with Pseudomonas. Fourteen Pseudomonas fluorescens strains from international collections and 55 new isolates of dominant bacterial populations from spoiled fresh cheese samples were examined to assess genotypic and phenotypic strain diversity. Isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and tested for the production of the blue pigment at various temperatures on Mascarpone agar and in Mozzarella preserving fluid (the salty water in which the cheese is conserved, which becomes enriched by cheese minerals and peptides during storage). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis after treatment with the endonuclease SpeI separated the isolates into 42 genotypes at a similarity level of 80%. Based on the pulsotype clustering, 12 representative strains producing the blue discoloration were chosen for the multilocus sequence typing targeting the gyrB, glnS, ileS, nuoD, recA, rpoB, and rpoD genes. Four new sequence typing profiles were discovered, and the concatenated sequences of the investigated loci grouped the tested strains into the so-called ''blue branch'' of the P. fluorescens phylogenetic tree, confirming the linkage between pigment production and a specific genomic cluster. Growth temperature affected pigment production; the blue discoloration appeared at 4 and 14°C but not at 30°C. Similarly, the carbon source influenced the phenomenon; the blue phenotype was generated in the presence of glucose but not in the presence of galactose, sodium succinate, sodium citrate, or sodium lactate.

  18. Semi-scale production of PHAs from waste frying oil by Pseudomonas fluorescens S48.

    PubMed

    Gamal, Rawia F; Abdelhady, Hemmat M; Khodair, Taha A; El-Tayeb, Tarek S; Hassan, Enas A; Aboutaleb, Khadiga A

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed at developing a strategy to improve the volumetric production of PHAs by Pseudomonas fluorescens S48 using waste frying oil (WFO) as the sole carbon source. For this purpose, several cultivations were set up to steadily improve nutrients supply to attain high cell density and high biopolymer productivity. The production of PHAs was examined in a 14 L bioreactor as one-stage batch, two-stage batch, and high-cell-density fed-batch cultures. The highest value of polymer content in one-stage bioreactor was obtained after 60 h (33.7%). Whereas, the two-stage batch culture increased the polymer content to 50.1% after 54 h. High-cell-density (0.64 g/L) at continuous feeding rate 0.55 mL/l/h of WFO recorded the highest polymer content after 54 h (55.34%). Semi-scale application (10 L working volume) increased the polymer content in one-stage batch, two-stage batch and high cell density fed-batch cultures by about 12.3%, 5.8% and 11.3%, respectively, as compared with that obtained in 2 L fermentation culture. Six different methods for biopolymer extraction were done to investigate their efficiency for optimum polymer recovery. The maximum efficiency of solvent recovery of PHA was attained by chloroform-hypochlorite dispersion extraction. Gas chromatography (GC) analysis of biopolymer produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens S48 indicated that it solely composed of 3-hydrobutyric acid (98.7%). A bioplastic film was prepared from the obtained PHB. The isolate studied shares the same identical sequence, which is nearly the complete 16S rRNA gene. The identity of this sequence to the closest pseudomonads strains is about 98-99%. It was probably closely related to support another meaningful parsiomony analysis and construction of a phylogenetic tree. The isolate is so close to Egyptian strain named EG 639838.

  19. pA506, a Conjugative Plasmid of the Plant Epiphyte Pseudomonas fluorescens A506

    PubMed Central

    Stockwell, Virginia O.; Davis, Edward W.; Carey, Alyssa; Shaffer, Brenda T.; Mavrodi, Dmitri V.; Hassan, Karl A.; Hockett, Kevin; Thomashow, Linda S.; Paulsen, Ian T.

    2013-01-01

    Conjugative plasmids are known to facilitate the acquisition and dispersal of genes contributing to the fitness of Pseudomonas spp. Here, we report the characterization of pA506, the 57-kb conjugative plasmid of Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, a plant epiphyte used in the United States for the biological control of fire blight disease of pear and apple. Twenty-nine of the 67 open reading frames (ORFs) of pA506 have putative functions in conjugation, including a type IV secretion system related to that of MOBP6 family plasmids and a gene cluster for type IV pili. We demonstrate that pA506 is self-transmissible via conjugation between A506 and strains of Pseudomonas spp. or the Enterobacteriaceae. The origin of vegetative replication (oriV) of pA506 is typical of those in pPT23A family plasmids, which are present in many pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae, but pA506 lacks repA, a defining locus for pPT23A plasmids, and has a novel partitioning region. We selected a plasmid-cured derivative of A506 and compared it to the wild type to identify plasmid-encoded phenotypes. pA506 conferred UV resistance, presumably due to the plasmid-borne rulAB genes, but did not influence epiphytic fitness of A506 on pear or apple blossoms in the field. pA506 does not appear to confer resistance to antibiotics or other toxic elements. Based on the conjugative nature of pA506 and the large number of its genes that are shared with plasmids from diverse groups of environmental bacteria, the plasmid is likely to serve as a vehicle for genetic exchange between A506 and its coinhabitants on plant surfaces. PMID:23811504

  20. Volatile organic compounds produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens WR-1 restrict the growth and virulence traits of Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Raza, Waseem; Ling, Ning; Liu, Dongyang; Wei, Zhong; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-11-01

    The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by soil microbes have a significant role in the control of plant diseases and plant growth promotion. In this study, we examined the effect of VOCs produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain WR-1 on the growth and virulence traits of tomato wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. The VOCs produced by P. fluorescens WR-1 exhibited concentration dependent bacteriostatic effect on the growth of R. solanacearum on agar medium and in infested soil. The VOCs of P. fluorescens WR-1 also significantly inhibited the virulence traits of R. solanacearum. The proteomics analysis showed that the VOCs of P. fluorescens WR-1 downregulated cellular proteins of R. solanacearum related to the antioxidant activity, virulence, inclusion body proteins, carbohydrate and amino acid synthesis and metabolism, protein folding and translation, methylation and energy transfer, while the proteins involved in the ABC transporter system, detoxification of aldehydes and ketones, protein folding and translation were upregulated. This study revealed the significance of VOCs of P. fluorescens WR-1 to control the tomato wilt pathogen R. solanacearum. Investigation of the modes of action of biocontrol agents is important to better comprehend the interactions mediated by VOCs in nature to design better control strategies for plant pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Classification of Isolates from the Pseudomonas fluorescens Complex into Phylogenomic Groups Based in Group-Specific Markers

    PubMed Central

    Garrido-Sanz, Daniel; Arrebola, Eva; Martínez-Granero, Francisco; García-Méndez, Sonia; Muriel, Candela; Blanco-Romero, Esther; Martín, Marta; Rivilla, Rafael; Redondo-Nieto, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The Pseudomonas fluorescens complex of species includes plant-associated bacteria with potential biotechnological applications in agriculture and environmental protection. Many of these bacteria can promote plant growth by different means, including modification of plant hormonal balance and biocontrol. The P. fluorescens group is currently divided into eight major subgroups in which these properties and many other ecophysiological traits are phylogenetically distributed. Therefore, a rapid phylogroup assignment for a particular isolate could be useful to simplify the screening of putative inoculants. By using comparative genomics on 71 P. fluorescens genomes, we have identified nine markers which allow classification of any isolate into these eight subgroups, by a presence/absence PCR test. Nine primer pairs were developed for the amplification of these markers. The specificity and sensitivity of these primer pairs were assessed on 28 field isolates, environmental samples from soil and rhizosphere and tested by in silico PCR on 421 genomes. Phylogenomic analysis validated the results: the PCR-based system for classification of P. fluorescens isolates has a 98.34% of accuracy and it could be used as a rapid and simple assay to evaluate the potential of any P. fluorescens complex strain. PMID:28360897

  2. Role of RpoS in stress tolerance and environmental fitness of the phyllosphere bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 122.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Virginia O; Hockett, Kevin; Loper, Joyce E

    2009-06-01

    Bacteria living epiphytically on aerial plant surfaces encounter severe and rapidly fluctuating environmental conditions, and their capacity to withstand environmental stress contributes to epiphytic fitness. The stationary phase sigma factor RpoS is a key determinant in stress response of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas spp. This study focused on the role of RpoS in stress response and epiphytic fitness of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 122 on aerial plant surfaces. RpoS had a significant role in the response of the phyllosphere bacterium P. fluorescens 122 to stresses imposed by desiccation, UV irradiation, starvation, and an oxidative environment. While significant, the difference in stress response between an rpoS mutant and the parental strain was less for strain 122 than for the rhizosphere bacterium P. fluorescens Pf-5. No consistent influence of RpoS on epiphytic population size of strain 122 on pear or apple flowers or leaves was observed in field trials. These data may indicate that P. fluorescens occupies protected microsites on aerial plant surfaces where the bacteria escape exposure to environmental stress, or that redundant stress-response mechanisms are operating in this bacterium, thereby obscuring the role of RpoS in epiphytic fitness of the bacterium.

  3. TonB-dependent outer-membrane proteins and siderophore utilization in Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5.

    PubMed

    Hartney, Sierra L; Mazurier, Sylvie; Kidarsa, Teresa A; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Lemanceau, Philippe; Loper, Joyce E

    2011-04-01

    The soil bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 produces two siderophores, a pyoverdine and enantio-pyochelin, and its proteome includes 45 TonB-dependent outer-membrane proteins, which commonly function in uptake of siderophores and other substrates from the environment. The 45 proteins share the conserved β-barrel and plug domains of TonB-dependent proteins but only 18 of them have an N-terminal signaling domain characteristic of TonB-dependent transducers (TBDTs), which participate in cell-surface signaling systems. Phylogenetic analyses of the 18 TBDTs and 27 TonB-dependent receptors (TBDRs), which lack the N-terminal signaling domain, suggest a complex evolutionary history including horizontal transfer among different microbial lineages. Putative functions were assigned to certain TBDRs and TBDTs in clades including well-characterized orthologs from other Pseudomonas spp. A mutant of Pf-5 with deletions in pyoverdine and enantio-pyochelin biosynthesis genes was constructed and characterized for iron-limited growth and utilization of a spectrum of siderophores. The mutant could utilize as iron sources a large number of pyoverdines with diverse structures as well as ferric citrate, heme, and the siderophores ferrichrome, ferrioxamine B, enterobactin, and aerobactin. The diversity and complexity of the TBDTs and TBDRs with roles in iron uptake clearly indicate the importance of iron in the fitness and survival of Pf-5 in the environment.

  4. Four genes from Pseudomonas fluorescens that encode the biosynthesis of pyrrolnitrin.

    PubMed

    Hammer, P E; Hill, D S; Lam, S T; Van Pée, K H; Ligon, J M

    1997-06-01

    Pyrrolnitrin is a secondary metabolite of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia sp. strains with strong antifungal activity. Production of pyrrolnitrin has been correlated with the ability of some bacteria to control plant diseases caused by fungal pathogens, including the damping-off pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Pseudomonas fluorescens BL915 has been reported to produce pyrrolnitrin and to be an effective biocontrol agent for this pathogen. We have isolated a 32-kb genomic DNA fragment from this strain that contains genes involved in the biosynthesis of pyrrolnitrin. Marker-exchange mutagenesis of this DNA with Tn5 revealed the presence of a 6.2-kb region that contains genes required for the synthesis of pyrrolnitrin. The nucleotide sequence of the 6.2-kb region was determined and found to contain a cluster of four genes that are required for the production of pyrrolnitrin. Deletion mutations in any of the four genes resulted in a pyrrolnitrin-nonproducing phenotype. The putative coding sequences of the four individual genes were cloned by PCR and fused to the tac promoter from Escherichia coli. In each case, the appropriate tac promoter-pyrrolnitrin gene fusion was shown to complement the pyrrolnitrin-negative phenotype of the corresponding deletion mutant. Transfer of the four gene cluster to E. coli resulted in the production of pyrrolnitrin by this organism, thereby demonstrating that the four genes are sufficient for the production of this metabolite and represent all of the genes required to encode the pathway for pyrrolnitrin biosynthesis.

  5. Four genes from Pseudomonas fluorescens that encode the biosynthesis of pyrrolnitrin.

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, P E; Hill, D S; Lam, S T; Van Pée, K H; Ligon, J M

    1997-01-01

    Pyrrolnitrin is a secondary metabolite of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia sp. strains with strong antifungal activity. Production of pyrrolnitrin has been correlated with the ability of some bacteria to control plant diseases caused by fungal pathogens, including the damping-off pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Pseudomonas fluorescens BL915 has been reported to produce pyrrolnitrin and to be an effective biocontrol agent for this pathogen. We have isolated a 32-kb genomic DNA fragment from this strain that contains genes involved in the biosynthesis of pyrrolnitrin. Marker-exchange mutagenesis of this DNA with Tn5 revealed the presence of a 6.2-kb region that contains genes required for the synthesis of pyrrolnitrin. The nucleotide sequence of the 6.2-kb region was determined and found to contain a cluster of four genes that are required for the production of pyrrolnitrin. Deletion mutations in any of the four genes resulted in a pyrrolnitrin-nonproducing phenotype. The putative coding sequences of the four individual genes were cloned by PCR and fused to the tac promoter from Escherichia coli. In each case, the appropriate tac promoter-pyrrolnitrin gene fusion was shown to complement the pyrrolnitrin-negative phenotype of the corresponding deletion mutant. Transfer of the four gene cluster to E. coli resulted in the production of pyrrolnitrin by this organism, thereby demonstrating that the four genes are sufficient for the production of this metabolite and represent all of the genes required to encode the pathway for pyrrolnitrin biosynthesis. PMID:9172332

  6. Crystal structure of the terminal oxygenase component of cumene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens IP01.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xuesong; Fushinobu, Shinya; Fukuda, Eriko; Terada, Tohru; Nakamura, Shugo; Shimizu, Kentaro; Nojiri, Hideaki; Omori, Toshio; Shoun, Hirofumi; Wakagi, Takayoshi

    2005-04-01

    The crystal structure of the terminal component of the cumene dioxygenase multicomponent enzyme system of Pseudomonas fluorescens IP01 (CumDO) was determined at a resolution of 2.2 A by means of molecular replacement by using the crystal structure of the terminal oxygenase component of naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4 (NphDO). The ligation of the two catalytic centers of CumDO (i.e., the nonheme iron and Rieske [2Fe-2S] centers) and the bridging between them in neighboring catalytic subunits by hydrogen bonds through a single amino acid residue, Asp231, are similar to those of NphDO. An unidentified external ligand, possibly dioxygen, was bound at the active site nonheme iron. The entrance to the active site of CumDO is different from the entrance to the active site of NphDO, as the two loops forming the lid exhibit great deviation. On the basis of the complex structure of NphDO, a biphenyl substrate was modeled in the substrate-binding pocket of CumDO. The residues surrounding the modeled biphenyl molecule include residues that have already been shown to be important for its substrate specificity by a number of engineering studies of biphenyl dioxygenases.

  7. Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM223 Increases Potato Yield and Reduces Common Scab Symptoms in the Field.

    PubMed

    Arseneault, Tanya; Goyer, Claudia; Filion, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Common scab of potato, caused by pathogenic Streptomyces spp., is an important disease not efficiently controlled by current methods. We previously demonstrated that Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM223 reduces common scab development under controlled conditions through phenazine-1-carboxylic (PCA) production, leading to reduced thaxtomin A production by the pathogen, a key pathogenicity and virulence factor. Here, we aimed at determining if LBUM223 is able to increase potato yield and control common scab under field conditions, while characterizing the biocontrol mechanisms involved. We investigated if a reduction in pathogen soil populations, activation of induced systemic resistance in potato, and/or changes in txtA gene expression, involved in thaxtomin A biosynthesis in pathogenic Streptomyces spp. were involved in common scab control by LBUM223. Common scab symptoms were significantly reduced and total tuber weight increased by 46% using biweekly applications of LBUM223. LBUM223 did not reduce pathogen soil populations, nor was potato systemic defense-related gene expression significantly altered between treatments. However, a significant down-regulation of txtA expression occurred in the geocaulosphere. This is the first demonstration that a Pseudomonas strain can directly alter the transcriptional activity of a key pathogenesis gene in a plant pathogen under field conditions, contributing to disease control.

  8. Identification of Pythium carolinianum causing 'root rot' of cotton in Egypt and its possible biological control by Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Abdelzaher, H M; Elnaghy, M A

    1998-01-01

    A severe root rot disease of cotton caused by Pythium carolinianum was diagnosed in a cotton field in Beni-Musa village, 20 km southwest of El-Minia city, Egypt, during the summer of 1996. This was the first reported isolation of this fungus in Egypt. In the light of the importance of the cotton industry in Egypt, research was initiated to develop a biocontrol agent against Pythium carolinianum. In vitro agar plate technique identified a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain that was highly antagonist to Pythium carolinianum. Subsequent plant growth experiments establish that substantial disease control could be obtained by applying Pseudomonas fluorescens to the soil. Optimal control was obtained by mixing the bacteria with the soil rather than by dipping the cotton roots in the bacterial suspension immediately before planting. Disease was more severe in autoclaved soil than in nonsterile soil.

  9. Interaction between the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens and vermiculite: Effects on chemical, mineralogical, and mechanical properties of vermiculite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Barbara; DéFago, GenèVieve

    2006-06-01

    On an expanded and crushed vermiculite, changes in chemical, mineralogical, and rheological properties of the mineral affected by microbial activity were investigated. Determination of the water content, grain size, X-ray diffraction pattern, intercrystalline swelling with glycerol, layer charge, CEC, exchangeable cations, BET surface, and rheology provided the necessary information about the differences between pure vermiculite, vermiculite suspensions containing the nutrient medium, and vermiculite suspensions containing the nutrient medium and the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0. The aerobic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens causes a decrease in grain size, aggregation of vermiculite grains as evidenced by smaller BET surfaces, and enhanced viscosity of the bacteria containing slurries. Layer charge, intercrystalline swelling, and CEC were not affected by the microbial activity, nor did the bacteria count for the exchange of potassium and magnesium against sodium in the vermiculite. The microbes inhibited this exchange process during the first stage of the experiments; however, increasing run time favors the exchange as well.

  10. Physiology and behavior of Pseudomonas fluorescens single and dual strain biofilms under diverse hydrodynamics stresses.

    PubMed

    Simões, Manuel; Simões, Lúcia C; Vieira, Maria J

    2008-12-10

    Three selected Pseudomonas fluorescens strains (the type strain and two strains originally isolated from a dairy processing plant - D3-348 and D3-350) were used to form turbulent and laminar flow-generated biofilms under laboratorial conditions using flow cell reactors with stainless steel substrata. The D3-348 and D3-350 strains were also used to form dual biofilms. Biofilm phenotypic characteristics, such as respiratory activity, total and culturable cells, biomass, total and matrix proteins and polysaccharides were compared. Biofilm mechanical stability, as a major feature involved in biofilm persistence, was also assessed using a rotating device system. The results indicate that hydrodynamic conditions have a remarkable impact on biofilm phenotype. Turbulent biofilms were more active, had more mass per adhesion surface area, a higher number of total and culturable cells, a higher amount of total proteins per gram of biofilm, similar matrix proteins and identical (D3-348 and D3-350 single and dual biofilms) or smaller (type strain) total and matrix polysaccharides content than their laminar counterparts. Biofilms formed by the type strain revealed a considerable higher amount of total and culturable cells and a higher amount of total proteins (turbulent biofilms) and total and matrix polysaccharides per gram of biofilm than single and dual biofilms formed by the other strains. Mechanical stability assays disclosed that biofilms formed by both type and D3-348 strains had the highest resistance to removal when exposed to mechanical stress. Dual strain biofilms population analysis revealed an apparent co-existence, evidencing neutral interactions. The overall results provided useful information regarding a broad spectrum of P. fluorescens biofilm phenotypic parameters, which can contribute to control and model biofilm processes in food industry.

  11. Purification and characterization of the lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens HU380.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yuzo; Shimizu, Sakayu

    2003-01-01

    A lipase, which markedly splits polyunsaturated fatty acid ester (PUFA) bonds, from newly isolated Pseudomonas fluorescens HU380 was purified. The purification procedure included Phenyl-Toyopearl fractionation, DEAE-Sepharose chromatography, and Superdex-200HR chromatography. The enzyme was purified 24.3-fold with a yield of 14% and a specific activity of 9854 U/mg. Its molecular weight was estimated on SDS-PAGE to be 64,000. The optimum pH and temperature were 8.5 and 45 degrees C, respectively. The lipase was stable over the pH range of 6.0-7.0 at 30 degrees C for 24 h, and up to 40 degrees C at pH 7.0 for 60 min, when 0.1% Triton X-100 was present. The lipase preferably acted on short to middle-chain fatty acid simple methyl-esters and triglycerides, and cleaved mainly 1,3-ester bonds and to a lesser extent the 2-position ester bond of triolein. The lipase was inhibited by Co2+, Ni2+, Fe3+, Fe2+, and EDTA, and activated by Ca2+. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined to be GVYDYKNFGTADSKALFSDAMAITLY, which exhibited considerable similarity with those of the lipases from other P. fluorescens strains, but no significant homology with other lipases. This lipase was able to decompose fats and oils that contained eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) without significantly affecting the contents of these fatty acids. The results suggest that the lipase may be useful when applied to the processing of industrial fats and oils containing EPA and DHA, such as fish oil splitting.

  12. Pseudomonas fluorescens NZI7 repels grazing by C. elegans, a natural predator.

    PubMed

    Burlinson, Peter; Studholme, David; Cambray-Young, Joanna; Heavens, Darren; Rathjen, John; Hodgkin, Jonathan; Preston, Gail M

    2013-06-01

    The bacteriovorous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been used to investigate many aspects of animal biology, including interactions with pathogenic bacteria. However, studies examining C. elegans interactions with bacteria isolated from environments in which it is found naturally are relatively scarce. C. elegans is frequently associated with cultivation of the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus, and has been reported to increase the severity of bacterial blotch of mushrooms, a disease caused by bacteria from the Pseudomonas fluorescens complex. We observed that pseudomonads isolated from mushroom farms showed differential resistance to nematode predation. Under nutrient poor conditions, in which most pseudomonads were consumed, the mushroom pathogenic isolate P. fluorescens NZI7 was able to repel C. elegans without causing nematode death. A draft genome sequence of NZI7 showed it to be related to the biocontrol strain P. protegens Pf-5. To identify the genetic basis of nematode repellence in NZI7, we developed a grid-based screen for mutants that lacked the ability to repel C. elegans. The mutants isolated in this screen included strains with insertions in the global regulator GacS and in a previously undescribed GacS-regulated gene cluster, 'EDB' ('edible'). Our results suggest that the product of the EDB cluster is a poorly diffusible or cell-associated factor that acts together with other features of NZI7 to provide a novel mechanism to deter nematode grazing. As nematodes interact with NZI7 colonies before being repelled, the EDB factor may enable NZI7 to come into contact with and be disseminated by C. elegans without being subject to intensive predation.

  13. Subunit structure of a class A aspartate transcarbamoylase from Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed Central

    Bergh, S T; Evans, D R

    1993-01-01

    The class A aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase, EC 2.1.3.2) from Pseudomonas fluorescens was purified to homogeneity with retention of full catalytic and regulatory functions. Careful determinations under conditions that minimized proteolysis showed that the molecule is a 1:1 stoichiometric complex of two polypeptide chains of 34 and 45 kDa. Pyridoxal phosphate is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme (Ki = 1 microM). Reduction of the pyridoxal phosphate enzyme adduct with sodium boro[3H]hydride showed that the active site is located on the 34-kDa polypeptide. Affinity labeling with 5'-[p-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyl]adenosine, an ATP analog, suggested that the regulatory site is also located on the 34-kDa species. While the function of the 45-kDa subunit is unknown, neither carbamoyl phosphate synthetase nor dihydroorotase activities are associated with the ATCase. The molecular mass of the enzyme was determined by gel filtration, sedimentation velocity, and electron microscopy to be 464 kDa. Thus the enzyme is composed of six copies of the 34-kDa polypeptide and six copies of the 45-kDa polypeptide. The molecule has a Stokes' ratio of 70.9 A and a frictional ratio of 1.37, suggesting a compact globular shape. We propose that the P. fluorescens ATCase is composed of two trimers of 34-kDa catalytic chains and is likely to be a D3 dodecamer with an arrangement of subunits analogous to that of the class B ATCase molecules. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:8234318

  14. Pseudomonas fluorescens NZI7 repels grazing by C. elegans, a natural predator

    PubMed Central

    Burlinson, Peter; Studholme, David; Cambray-Young, Joanna; Heavens, Darren; Rathjen, John; Hodgkin, Jonathan; Preston, Gail M

    2013-01-01

    The bacteriovorous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been used to investigate many aspects of animal biology, including interactions with pathogenic bacteria. However, studies examining C. elegans interactions with bacteria isolated from environments in which it is found naturally are relatively scarce. C. elegans is frequently associated with cultivation of the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus, and has been reported to increase the severity of bacterial blotch of mushrooms, a disease caused by bacteria from the Pseudomonas fluorescens complex. We observed that pseudomonads isolated from mushroom farms showed differential resistance to nematode predation. Under nutrient poor conditions, in which most pseudomonads were consumed, the mushroom pathogenic isolate P. fluorescens NZI7 was able to repel C. elegans without causing nematode death. A draft genome sequence of NZI7 showed it to be related to the biocontrol strain P. protegens Pf-5. To identify the genetic basis of nematode repellence in NZI7, we developed a grid-based screen for mutants that lacked the ability to repel C. elegans. The mutants isolated in this screen included strains with insertions in the global regulator GacS and in a previously undescribed GacS-regulated gene cluster, ‘EDB' (‘edible'). Our results suggest that the product of the EDB cluster is a poorly diffusible or cell-associated factor that acts together with other features of NZI7 to provide a novel mechanism to deter nematode grazing. As nematodes interact with NZI7 colonies before being repelled, the EDB factor may enable NZI7 to come into contact with and be disseminated by C. elegans without being subject to intensive predation. PMID:23426012

  15. Rhizosphere selection of highly motile phenotypic variants of Pseudomonas fluorescens with enhanced competitive colonization ability.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Granero, Francisco; Rivilla, Rafael; Martín, Marta

    2006-05-01

    Phenotypic variants of Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 showing a translucent and diffuse colony morphology show enhanced colonization of the alfalfa rhizosphere. We have previously shown that in the biocontrol agent P. fluorescens F113, phenotypic variation is mediated by the activity of two site-specific recombinases, Sss and XerD. By overexpressing the genes encoding either of the recombinases, we have now generated a large number of variants (mutants) after selection either by prolonged laboratory cultivation or by rhizosphere passage. All the isolated variants were more motile than the wild-type strain and appear to contain mutations in the gacA and/or gacS gene. By disrupting these genes and complementation analysis, we have observed that the Gac system regulates swimming motility by a repression pathway. Variants isolated after selection by prolonged cultivation formed a single population with a swimming motility that was equal to the motility of gac mutants, being 150% more motile than the wild type. The motility phenotype of these variants was complemented by the cloned gac genes. Variants isolated after rhizosphere selection belonged to two different populations: one identical to the population isolated after prolonged cultivation and the other comprising variants that besides a gac mutation harbored additional mutations conferring higher motility. Our results show that gac mutations are selected both in the stationary phase and during rhizosphere colonization. The enhanced motility phenotype is in turn selected during rhizosphere colonization. Several of these highly motile variants were more competitive than the wild-type strain, displacing it from the root tip within 2 weeks.

  16. Application of Pseudomonas fluorescens to Blackberry under Field Conditions Improves Fruit Quality by Modifying Flavonoid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Seco, Daniel; Zhang, Yang; Gutierrez-Mañero, Francisco J; Martin, Cathie; Ramos-Solano, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Application of a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR), Pseudomonas fluorescens N21.4, to roots of blackberries (Rubus sp.) is part of an optimised cultivation practice to improve yields and quality of fruit throughout the year in this important fruit crop. Blackberries are especially rich in flavonoids and therefore offer potential benefits for human health in prevention or amelioration of chronic diseases. However, the phenylpropanoid pathway and its regulation during ripening have not been studied in detail, in this species. PGPR may trigger flavonoid biosynthesis as part of an induced systemic response (ISR) given the important role of this pathway in plant defence, to cause increased levels of flavonoids in the fruit. We have identified structural genes encoding enzymes of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthetic pathways catalysing the conversion of phenylalanine to the final products including flavonols, anthocyanins and catechins from blackberry, and regulatory genes likely involved in controlling the activity of pathway branches. We have also measured the major flavonols, anthocyanins and catechins at three stages during ripening. Our results demonstrate the coordinated expression of flavonoid biosynthetic genes with the accumulation of anthocyanins, catechins, and flavonols in developing fruits of blackberry. Elicitation of blackberry plants by treatment of roots with P.fluorescens N21.4, caused increased expression of some flavonoid biosynthetic genes and an accompanying increase in the concentration of selected flavonoids in fruits. Our data demonstrate the physiological mechanisms involved in the improvement of fruit quality by PGPR under field conditions, and highlight some of the genetic targets of elicitation by beneficial bacteria.

  17. Application of Pseudomonas fluorescens to Blackberry under Field Conditions Improves Fruit Quality by Modifying Flavonoid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Seco, Daniel; Zhang, Yang; Gutierrez-Mañero, Francisco J.; Martin, Cathie; Ramos-Solano, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Application of a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR), Pseudomonas fluorescens N21.4, to roots of blackberries (Rubus sp.) is part of an optimised cultivation practice to improve yields and quality of fruit throughout the year in this important fruit crop. Blackberries are especially rich in flavonoids and therefore offer potential benefits for human health in prevention or amelioration of chronic diseases. However, the phenylpropanoid pathway and its regulation during ripening have not been studied in detail, in this species. PGPR may trigger flavonoid biosynthesis as part of an induced systemic response (ISR) given the important role of this pathway in plant defence, to cause increased levels of flavonoids in the fruit. We have identified structural genes encoding enzymes of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthetic pathways catalysing the conversion of phenylalanine to the final products including flavonols, anthocyanins and catechins from blackberry, and regulatory genes likely involved in controlling the activity of pathway branches. We have also measured the major flavonols, anthocyanins and catechins at three stages during ripening. Our results demonstrate the coordinated expression of flavonoid biosynthetic genes with the accumulation of anthocyanins, catechins, and flavonols in developing fruits of blackberry. Elicitation of blackberry plants by treatment of roots with P.fluorescens N21.4, caused increased expression of some flavonoid biosynthetic genes and an accompanying increase in the concentration of selected flavonoids in fruits. Our data demonstrate the physiological mechanisms involved in the improvement of fruit quality by PGPR under field conditions, and highlight some of the genetic targets of elicitation by beneficial bacteria. PMID:26559418

  18. Role of microbial adhesion in phenanthrene biodegradation by Pseudomonas fluorescens LP6a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasnezhad, Hassan

    Biodegradation of poorly water soluble hydrocarbons, such as n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is often limited by the low availability of the pollutant to microbes. Adhesion of microorganisms to the oil-water interface can influence this availability. Our approach was to study a range of compounds and mechanisms to promote the adhesion of a hydrophilic PAH degrading bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens LP6a, to an oil-water interface and examine the effect on biodegradation of phenanthrene by the bacteria. The cationic surfactants cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), poly-L-lysine and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and the long chain alcohols 1-dodecanol, 2-dodecanol and farnesol increased the adhesion of P. fluorescens LP6a to n-hexadecane from ca. 30% to ca. 90% of suspended cells adhering. The alcohols also caused a dramatic change in the oil-water contact angle of the cell surface, increasing it from 24° to 104°, whereas the cationic compounds had little effect. In contrast, cationic compounds changed the electrophoretic mobility of the bacteria, reducing the mean zeta potential from --23 to --7 mV in 0.01M potassium phosphate buffer, but the alcohols had no effect on zeta potential. This results illustrate that alcohols acted through altering the cell surface hydrophobicity, whereas cationic surfactants changed the surface charge density. Phenanthrene was dissolved in heptamethylnonane and introduced to the aqueous growth medium, hence forming a two phase system. Introducing 1-dodecanol at concentrations of 217, 820 or 4100 mg/L resulted in comparable increases in phenanthrene biodegradation of about 30% after 120 h incubation with non-induced cultures. After 100 h of incubation with LP6a cultures induced with 2-aminobenzoate, 4.5% of the phenanthrene was mineralized by cultures versus more than 10% by the cultures containing initial 1-dodecanol or 2-dodecanol concentrations of 120 or 160 mg/L. The production and accumulation of metabolites in

  19. Structures and characteristics of novel siderophores from plant deleterious Pseudomonas fluorescens A225 and Pseudomonas putida ATCC 39167.

    PubMed

    Khalil-Rizvi, S; Toth, S I; van der Helm, D; Vidavsky, I; Gross, M L

    1997-04-08

    When Pseudomonas putida ATCC 39167 and plant-deleterious Pseudomonas fluorescens A225 were grown in an iron-deficient culture medium, they each produced two different novel yellow-green fluorescent pseudobactins: P39167-I, II and PA225-I, II. Pseudobactin P39167-I has a molecular formula of C46H65O23N13 and is monoanionic at neutral pH. P39167-II has the molecular formula of C46H63O22N13 and no charge at neutral pH. Pseudobactin PA225-I has a molecular formula of C46H65O24N13 and is monoanionic at neutral pH whereas pseudobactin PA225-II has the molecular formula of C46H63O23N13 and no charge at neutral pH. All four of the pseudobactins contain a dihydroxyquinoline-based chromophore. The amino acid sequence for the octapeptide in case of pseudobactins from P. putida ATCC 39167 is Chr-Ser(1)-Ala(1)-AcOHOrn-Gly-Ala(2)-OHAsp-Ser(2)-Thr. In case of pseudobactins from P. fluorescens A225, the octapeptide has the sequence Chr-Ser(1)-Ala-AcOHOrn-Gly-Ser(2)-OHAsp-Ser(3)-Thr. For all four pseudobactins (P39167-I, II and PA225-I, II), the serine(1) residue of the octapeptide is attached to the carboxylic acid group on the C-11 of the fluorescent quinoline via an amide bond. Additionally, for pseudobactin P39167-II and PA225-II, the hydroxyl group of the serine(1) residue is also attached to the carboxyl group of threonine residue at the carboxy terminus of the peptide via an ester bond, resulting in a cyclic depsipeptide in contrast to the linear peptide chain of P39167-I and PA225-I. For all four pseudobactins, a malamide group is attached to the C-3 of the quinoline derived chromophore. The three bidentate iron(III) chelating groups in all four pseudobactins consist of a 1,2-dihydroxy aromatic group of the fluorescent chromophore, a hydroxy acid group of beta-hydroxy aspartic acid, and a hydroxamate group from the acylated Ndelta-hydroxyornithine. The amino acid constituents of the pseudobactins P39167 I, II are the same as those in pseudobactin A214, whereas those in A225

  20. Characterization of a phage-like pyocin from the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SF4c.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sonia; Godino, Agustina; Quesada, José Miguel; Cordero, Paula; Jofré, Edgardo; Mori, Gladys; Espinosa-Urgel, Manuel

    2012-06-01

    R-type and F-type pyocins are high-molecular-mass bacteriocins produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that resemble bacteriophage tails. They contain no head structures and no DNA, and are used as defence systems. In this report, we show that Pseudomonas fluorescens SF4c, a strain isolated from the wheat rhizosphere, produces a high-molecular-mass bacteriocin which inhibits the growth of closely related bacteria. A mutant deficient in production of this antimicrobial compound was obtained by transposon mutagenesis. Sequence analysis revealed that the transposon had disrupted a gene that we have named ptm, since it is homologous to that encoding phage tape-measure protein in P. fluorescens Pf0-1, a gene belonging to a prophage similar to phage-like pyocin from P. aeruginosa PAO1. In addition, we have identified genes from the SF4c pyocin cluster that encode a lytic system and regulatory genes. We constructed a non-polar ptm mutant of P. fluorescens SF4c. Heterologous complementation of this mutation restored the production of bacteriocin. Real-time PCR was used to analyse the expression of pyocin under different stress conditions. Bacteriocin was upregulated by mitomycin C, UV light and hydrogen peroxide, and was downregulated by saline stress. This report constitutes, to our knowledge, the first genetic characterization of a phage tail-like bacteriocin in a rhizosphere Pseudomonas strain.

  1. Identification of Pseudomonas fluorescens Chemotaxis Sensory Proteins for Malate, Succinate, and Fumarate, and Their Involvement in Root Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Oku, Shota; Komatsu, Ayaka; Nakashimada, Yutaka; Tajima, Takahisa; Kato, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 exhibited chemotactic responses to l-malate, succinate, and fumarate. We constructed a plasmid library of 37 methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (MCP) genes of P. fluorescens Pf0-1. To identify a MCP for l-malate, the plasmid library was screened using the PA2652 mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, a mutant defective in chemotaxis to l-malate. The introduction of Pfl01_0728 and Pfl01_3768 genes restored the ability of the PA2652 mutant to respond to l-malate. The Pfl01_0728 and Pfl01_3768 double mutant of P. fluorescens Pf0-1 showed no response to l-malate or succinate, while the Pfl01_0728 single mutant did not respond to fumarate. These results indicated that Pfl01_0728 and Pfl01_3768 were the major MCPs for l-malate and succinate, and Pfl01_0728 was also a major MCP for fumarate. The Pfl01_0728 and Pfl01_3768 double mutant unexpectedly exhibited stronger responses toward the tomato root exudate and amino acids such as proline, asparagine, methionine, and phenylalanine than those of the wild-type strain. The ctaA, ctaB, ctaC (genes of the major MCPs for amino acids), Pfl01_0728, and Pfl01_3768 quintuple mutant of P. fluorescens Pf0-1 was less competitive than the ctaA ctaB ctaC triple mutant in competitive root colonization, suggesting that chemotaxis to l-malate, succinate, and/or fumarate was involved in tomato root colonization by P. fluorescens Pf0-1. PMID:25491753

  2. Identification of Pseudomonas fluorescens chemotaxis sensory proteins for malate, succinate, and fumarate, and their involvement in root colonization.

    PubMed

    Oku, Shota; Komatsu, Ayaka; Nakashimada, Yutaka; Tajima, Takahisa; Kato, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 exhibited chemotactic responses to l-malate, succinate, and fumarate. We constructed a plasmid library of 37 methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (MCP) genes of P. fluorescens Pf0-1. To identify a MCP for l-malate, the plasmid library was screened using the PA2652 mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, a mutant defective in chemotaxis to l-malate. The introduction of Pfl01_0728 and Pfl01_3768 genes restored the ability of the PA2652 mutant to respond to l-malate. The Pfl01_0728 and Pfl01_3768 double mutant of P. fluorescens Pf0-1 showed no response to l-malate or succinate, while the Pfl01_0728 single mutant did not respond to fumarate. These results indicated that Pfl01_0728 and Pfl01_3768 were the major MCPs for l-malate and succinate, and Pfl01_0728 was also a major MCP for fumarate. The Pfl01_0728 and Pfl01_3768 double mutant unexpectedly exhibited stronger responses toward the tomato root exudate and amino acids such as proline, asparagine, methionine, and phenylalanine than those of the wild-type strain. The ctaA, ctaB, ctaC (genes of the major MCPs for amino acids), Pfl01_0728, and Pfl01_3768 quintuple mutant of P. fluorescens Pf0-1 was less competitive than the ctaA ctaB ctaC triple mutant in competitive root colonization, suggesting that chemotaxis to l-malate, succinate, and/or fumarate was involved in tomato root colonization by P. fluorescens Pf0-1.

  3. A type VI secretion system is involved in Pseudomonas fluorescens bacterial competition.

    PubMed

    Decoin, Victorien; Barbey, Corinne; Bergeau, Dorian; Latour, Xavier; Feuilloley, Marc G J; Orange, Nicole; Merieau, Annabelle

    2014-01-01

    Protein secretion systems are crucial mediators of bacterial interactions with other organisms. Among them, the type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria and appears to inject toxins into competitor bacteria and/or eukaryotic cells. Major human pathogens, such as Vibrio cholerae, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, express T6SSs. Bacteria prevent self-intoxication by their own T6SS toxins by producing immunity proteins, which interact with the cognate toxins. We describe here an environmental P. fluorescens strain, MFE01, displaying an uncommon oversecretion of Hcp (hemolysin-coregulated protein) and VgrG (valine-glycine repeat protein G) into the culture medium. These proteins are characteristic components of a functional T6SS. The aim of this study was to attribute a role to this energy-consuming overexpression of the T6SS. The genome of MFE01 contains at least two hcp genes (hcp1 and hcp2), suggesting that there may be two putative T6SS clusters. Phenotypic studies have shown that MFE01 is avirulent against various eukaryotic cell models (amebas, plant or animal cell models), but has antibacterial activity against a wide range of competitor bacteria, including rhizobacteria and clinical bacteria. Depending on the prey cell, mutagenesis of the hcp2 gene in MFE01 abolishes or reduces this antibacterial killing activity. Moreover, the introduction of T6SS immunity proteins from S. marcescens, which is not killed by MFE01, protects E. coli against MFE01 killing. These findings suggest that the protein encoded by hcp2 is involved in the killing activity of MFE01 mediated by effectors of the T6SS targeting the peptidoglycan of Gram-negative bacteria. Our results indicate that MFE01 can protect potato tubers against Pectobacterium atrosepticum, which causes tuber soft rot. Pseudomonas fluorescens is often described as a major PGPR (plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium), and our results suggest that there may be a connection between

  4. A Type VI Secretion System Is Involved in Pseudomonas fluorescens Bacterial Competition

    PubMed Central

    Decoin, Victorien; Barbey, Corinne; Bergeau, Dorian; Latour, Xavier; Feuilloley, Marc G. J.; Orange, Nicole; Merieau, Annabelle

    2014-01-01

    Protein secretion systems are crucial mediators of bacterial interactions with other organisms. Among them, the type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria and appears to inject toxins into competitor bacteria and/or eukaryotic cells. Major human pathogens, such as Vibrio cholerae, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, express T6SSs. Bacteria prevent self-intoxication by their own T6SS toxins by producing immunity proteins, which interact with the cognate toxins. We describe here an environmental P. fluorescens strain, MFE01, displaying an uncommon oversecretion of Hcp (hemolysin-coregulated protein) and VgrG (valine-glycine repeat protein G) into the culture medium. These proteins are characteristic components of a functional T6SS. The aim of this study was to attribute a role to this energy-consuming overexpression of the T6SS. The genome of MFE01 contains at least two hcp genes (hcp1 and hcp2), suggesting that there may be two putative T6SS clusters. Phenotypic studies have shown that MFE01 is avirulent against various eukaryotic cell models (amebas, plant or animal cell models), but has antibacterial activity against a wide range of competitor bacteria, including rhizobacteria and clinical bacteria. Depending on the prey cell, mutagenesis of the hcp2 gene in MFE01 abolishes or reduces this antibacterial killing activity. Moreover, the introduction of T6SS immunity proteins from S. marcescens, which is not killed by MFE01, protects E. coli against MFE01 killing. These findings suggest that the protein encoded by hcp2 is involved in the killing activity of MFE01 mediated by effectors of the T6SS targeting the peptidoglycan of Gram-negative bacteria. Our results indicate that MFE01 can protect potato tubers against Pectobacterium atrosepticum, which causes tuber soft rot. Pseudomonas fluorescens is often described as a major PGPR (plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium), and our results suggest that there may be a connection between

  5. Survival and Plant Growth Promotion of Detergent-Adapted Pseudomonas fluorescens ANP15 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2

    PubMed Central

    Devliegher, W.; Arif, M.; Verstraete, W.

    1995-01-01

    Four detergents were tested as selective C sources for the plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2 and Pseudomonas fluorescens ANP15. CO-720 (Igepal CO-720) or DOS (dioctyl sulfosuccinate), applied at 0.2% to the soil, increased the number of detergent-adapted, inoculated strains by almost 1.5 log units after 25 days, accounting for virtually the entire increase in total bacteria. The same dose of Tween 80 or N-laurylsarcosine, on the other hand, increased the indigenous populations by almost 2.5 log units, with only minor increases in the number of detergent-adapted inoculated strains. When CO-720 or DOS was initially supplied, the number of detergent-adapted 7NSK2 organisms was about 2 log units higher after 3 months of incubation than for the detergent-unadapted strain. This better survival resulted in a significantly higher root colonization of maize in a pot experiment with soil inoculation, with a significantly (P <= 0.05) higher shoot dry weight (18 to 33%). In a first field experiment with rhizosphere inoculation of 1-month-old maize plants, no effects on the height of two maize cultivars could be observed 1 month after inoculation. In a second field experiment, leaf and stem dry weights of yellow mustard and grass dry weight were increased in the treatments with seed and soil inoculation of the detergent-adapted 7NSK2 in combination with CO-720 application by, respectively, 7 to 8%, 19 to 23%, and 20 to 31%, although only the increases in grass dry weight were statistically significant at P <= 0.1. To some extent, 7NSK2 and DOS application also positively affected the mineral content of yellow mustard. PMID:16535159

  6. Survival and Plant Growth Promotion of Detergent-Adapted Pseudomonas fluorescens ANP15 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2.

    PubMed

    Devliegher, W; Arif, M; Verstraete, W

    1995-11-01

    Four detergents were tested as selective C sources for the plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2 and Pseudomonas fluorescens ANP15. CO-720 (Igepal CO-720) or DOS (dioctyl sulfosuccinate), applied at 0.2% to the soil, increased the number of detergent-adapted, inoculated strains by almost 1.5 log units after 25 days, accounting for virtually the entire increase in total bacteria. The same dose of Tween 80 or N-laurylsarcosine, on the other hand, increased the indigenous populations by almost 2.5 log units, with only minor increases in the number of detergent-adapted inoculated strains. When CO-720 or DOS was initially supplied, the number of detergent-adapted 7NSK2 organisms was about 2 log units higher after 3 months of incubation than for the detergent-unadapted strain. This better survival resulted in a significantly higher root colonization of maize in a pot experiment with soil inoculation, with a significantly (P <= 0.05) higher shoot dry weight (18 to 33%). In a first field experiment with rhizosphere inoculation of 1-month-old maize plants, no effects on the height of two maize cultivars could be observed 1 month after inoculation. In a second field experiment, leaf and stem dry weights of yellow mustard and grass dry weight were increased in the treatments with seed and soil inoculation of the detergent-adapted 7NSK2 in combination with CO-720 application by, respectively, 7 to 8%, 19 to 23%, and 20 to 31%, although only the increases in grass dry weight were statistically significant at P <= 0.1. To some extent, 7NSK2 and DOS application also positively affected the mineral content of yellow mustard.

  7. Cytokinin production by Pseudomonas fluorescens G20-18 determines biocontrol activity against Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Großkinsky, Dominik K.; Tafner, Richard; Moreno, María V.; Stenglein, Sebastian A.; García de Salamone, Inés E.; Nelson, Louise M.; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Plant beneficial microbes mediate biocontrol of diseases by interfering with pathogens or via strengthening the host. Although phytohormones, including cytokinins, are known to regulate plant development and physiology as well as plant immunity, their production by microorganisms has not been considered as a biocontrol mechanism. Here we identify the ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens G20-18 to efficiently control P. syringae infection in Arabidopsis, allowing maintenance of tissue integrity and ultimately biomass yield. Microbial cytokinin production was identified as a key determinant for this biocontrol effect on the hemibiotrophic bacterial pathogen. While cytokinin-deficient loss-of-function mutants of G20-18 exhibit impaired biocontrol, functional complementation with cytokinin biosynthetic genes restores cytokinin-mediated biocontrol, which is correlated with differential cytokinin levels in planta. Arabidopsis mutant analyses revealed the necessity of functional plant cytokinin perception and salicylic acid-dependent defence signalling for this biocontrol mechanism. These results demonstrate microbial cytokinin production as a novel microbe-based, hormone-mediated concept of biocontrol. This mechanism provides a basis to potentially develop novel, integrated plant protection strategies combining promotion of growth, a favourable physiological status and activation of fine-tuned direct defence and abiotic stress resilience. PMID:26984671

  8. Cytokinin production by Pseudomonas fluorescens G20-18 determines biocontrol activity against Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Großkinsky, Dominik K; Tafner, Richard; Moreno, María V; Stenglein, Sebastian A; García de Salamone, Inés E; Nelson, Louise M; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas

    2016-03-17

    Plant beneficial microbes mediate biocontrol of diseases by interfering with pathogens or via strengthening the host. Although phytohormones, including cytokinins, are known to regulate plant development and physiology as well as plant immunity, their production by microorganisms has not been considered as a biocontrol mechanism. Here we identify the ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens G20-18 to efficiently control P. syringae infection in Arabidopsis, allowing maintenance of tissue integrity and ultimately biomass yield. Microbial cytokinin production was identified as a key determinant for this biocontrol effect on the hemibiotrophic bacterial pathogen. While cytokinin-deficient loss-of-function mutants of G20-18 exhibit impaired biocontrol, functional complementation with cytokinin biosynthetic genes restores cytokinin-mediated biocontrol, which is correlated with differential cytokinin levels in planta. Arabidopsis mutant analyses revealed the necessity of functional plant cytokinin perception and salicylic acid-dependent defence signalling for this biocontrol mechanism. These results demonstrate microbial cytokinin production as a novel microbe-based, hormone-mediated concept of biocontrol. This mechanism provides a basis to potentially develop novel, integrated plant protection strategies combining promotion of growth, a favourable physiological status and activation of fine-tuned direct defence and abiotic stress resilience.

  9. Toxicity of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Pf-5 to Drosophila larvae is due to downstream gene targets of the GacA/GacS signal transduction system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Given the vast number of microorganisms in the environment, surprisingly, only a few are lethal or cause morbidity to host organisms. Pseudomonas spp are a diverse genus of Gram-negative bacteria commonly found in soil, water, or in association with plants and animals. Pseudomonas fluorescens has be...

  10. Comparative study of semi-specific Aeromonas hydrophila and universal Pseudomonas fluorescens biosensors for BOD measurements in meat industry wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Raud, Merlin; Tenno, Toomas; Jõgi, Eerik; Kikas, Timo

    2012-04-05

    Aeromonas hydrophila P69.1 (A. hydrophila) was used to construct a semi-specific biosensor to estimate biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in high fat and grease content wastewaters. A. hydrophila cells were grown in fat containing medium to induce necessary enzymes for transport and degradation of fatty substances. Universal biosensor based on non-specific Pseudomonas fluorescens P75 (P. fluorescens) was used to conduct comparison experiments. Biosensors were calibrated using OECD synthetic wastewater and steady-state method, subsequently several experiments with synthetic and industrial wastewaters were conducted. A linear range up to 45 mg l(-1) BOD(7) was gained using A. hydrophila biosensor, in comparison to 40 mg l(-1) BOD(7) obtained using P. fluorescens biosensors. The lower limit of detection was 5 mg l(-1) BOD(7). Service life of A. hydrophila and P. fluorescens biosensors were 110 and 115 days, respectively. The response time of the biosensors depended on the BOD(7) of measuring solution and was up to 20 min when analyzing different wastewaters. Both biosensors underestimated BOD in meat industry wastewater from 43% up to 71%, but more accurate results could be obtained with A. hydrophila biosensor. Semi-specific A. hydrophila biosensor was able to measure proportion of fat found in wastewater sample, while other refractory compounds remained undetectable to both biosensors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding the molecular basis of plant growth promotional effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens on rice through protein profiling

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KH-1 was found to exhibit plant growth promotional activity in rice under both in-vitro and in-vivo conditions. But the mechanism underlying such promotional activity of P. fluorescens is not yet understood clearly. In this study, efforts were made to elucidate the molecular responses of rice plants to P. fluorescens treatment through protein profiling. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis strategy was adopted to identify the PGPR responsive proteins and the differentially expressed proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Results Priming of P. fluorescens, 23 different proteins found to be differentially expressed in rice leaf sheaths and MS analysis revealed the differential expression of some important proteins namely putative p23 co-chaperone, Thioredoxin h- rice, Ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase large chain precursor, Nucleotide diPhosphate kinase, Proteosome sub unit protein and putative glutathione S-transferase protein. Conclusion Functional analyses of the differential proteins were reported to be directly or indirectly involved in growth promotion in plants. Thus, this study confirms the primary role of PGPR strain KH-1 in rice plant growth promotion. PMID:20034395

  12. The EmhABC efflux pump in Pseudomonas fluorescens LP6a is involved in naphthalene tolerance but not efflux.

    PubMed

    Adebusuyi, Abigail A; Foght, Julia M

    2013-03-01

    The EmhABC efflux pump in Pseudomonas fluorescens LP6a effluxes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as phenanthrene and anthracene but not naphthalene. We previously showed that the presence of EmhABC decreased the efficiency of phenanthrene biodegradation. In this study, we determined whether P. fluorescens LP6a tolerance to naphthalene is a function of the EmhABC efflux pump and how its presence affects the efficiency of naphthalene biodegradation. Growth, membrane fatty acid (FA) composition, and cell morphology showed that 5-mmol L(-1) naphthalene is inhibitory to P. fluorescens LP6a strains. The deleterious effect of naphthalene is suppressed in the presence of EmhABC, which suggests that, although naphthalene is not effluxed by EmhABC, this efflux pump is involved in tolerance of naphthalene toxicity. LP6a mutants lacking the EmhB efflux pump were unable to convert cis-unsaturated FAs to cyclopropane FAs, indicating that naphthalene interferes with the formation of cyclopropane FAs and supporting the proposal that EmhABC is involved in FA turnover in P. fluorescens LP6a strains. The EmhABC efflux pump increases the efficiency of naphthalene metabolism in strain LP6a, which may make naphthalene efflux unnecessary. Thus, the activity of hydrocarbon efflux pumps may be an important factor to consider when selecting bacterial strains for bioremediation or biocatalysis of PAHs.

  13. A spectroscopic study on U(VI) biomineralization in cultivated Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms isolated from granitic aquifers.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk-Bärsch, Evelyn; Lütke, Laura; Moll, Henry; Bok, Frank; Steudtner, Robin; Rossberg, André

    2015-03-01

    The interaction between the Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilm and U(VI) were studied using extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS), and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). In EXAFS studies, the formation of a stable uranyl phosphate mineral, similar to autunite (Ca[UO2]2[PO4]2•2-6H2O) or meta-autunite (Ca[UO2]2[PO4]2•10-12H2O) was observed. This is the first time such a biomineralization process has been observed in P. fluorescens. Biomineralization occurs due to phosphate release from the cellular polyphosphate, likely as a cell's response to the added uranium. It differs significantly from the biosorption process occurring in the planktonic cells of the same strain. TRLFS studies of the uranium-contaminated nutrient medium identified aqueous Ca2UO2(CO3)3 and UO2(CO3)3 (4-) species, which in contrast to the biomineralization in the P. fluorescens biofilm, may contribute to the transport and migration of U(VI). The obtained results reveal that biofilms of P. fluorescens may play an important role in predicting the transport behavior of uranium in the environment. They will also contribute to the improvement of remediation methods in uranium-contaminated sites.

  14. Biochemical, Genetic, and Zoosporicidal Properties of Cyclic Lipopeptide Surfactants Produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Jorge T.; de Boer, Marjan; de Waard, Pieter; van Beek, Teris A.; Raaijmakers, Jos M.

    2003-01-01

    Zoospores play an important role in the infection of plant and animal hosts by oomycetes and other zoosporic fungi. In this study, six fluorescent Pseudomonas isolates with zoosporicidal activities were obtained from the wheat rhizosphere. Zoospores of multiple oomycetes, including Pythium species, Albugo candida, and Phytophthora infestans, were rendered immotile within 30 s of exposure to cell suspensions or cell culture supernatants of the six isolates, and subsequent lysis occurred within 60 s. The representative strain SS101, identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar II, reduced the surface tension of water from 73 to 30 mN m−1. The application of cell suspensions of strain SS101 to soil or hyacinth bulbs provided significant protection against root rot caused by Pythium intermedium. Five Tn5 mutants of strain SS101lacked the abilities to reduce the surface tension of water and to cause lysis of zoospores. Genetic characterization of two surfactant-deficient mutants showed that the transposons had integrated into condensation domains of peptide synthetases. A partially purified extract from strain SS101 reduced the surface tension of water to 30 mN m−1 and reached the critical micelle concentration at 25 μg ml−1. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography yielded eight different fractions, five of which had surface activity and caused lysis of zoospores. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses allowed the identification of the main constituent as a cyclic lipopeptide (1,139 Da) containing nine amino acids and a 10-carbon hydroxy fatty acid. The other four zoosporicidal fractions were closely related to the main constituent, with molecular massesranging from 1,111 to 1,169 Da. PMID:14660362

  15. Biochemical, genetic, and zoosporicidal properties of cyclic lipopeptide surfactants produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Jorge T; De Boer, Marjan; De Waard, Pieter; Van Beek, Teris A; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2003-12-01

    Zoospores play an important role in the infection of plant and animal hosts by oomycetes and other zoosporic fungi. In this study, six fluorescent Pseudomonas isolates with zoosporicidal activities were obtained from the wheat rhizosphere. Zoospores of multiple oomycetes, including Pythium species, Albugo candida, and Phytophthora infestans, were rendered immotile within 30 s of exposure to cell suspensions or cell culture supernatants of the six isolates, and subsequent lysis occurred within 60 s. The representative strain SS101, identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar II, reduced the surface tension of water from 73 to 30 mN m-1. The application of cell suspensions of strain SS101 to soil or hyacinth bulbs provided significant protection against root rot caused by Pythium intermedium. Five Tn5 mutants of strain SS101lacked the abilities to reduce the surface tension of water and to cause lysis of zoospores. Genetic characterization of two surfactant-deficient mutants showed that the transposons had integrated into condensation domains of peptide synthetases. A partially purified extract from strain SS101 reduced the surface tension of water to 30 mN m-1 and reached the critical micelle concentration at 25 micrograms ml-1. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography yielded eight different fractions, five of which had surface activity and caused lysis of zoospores. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses allowed the identification of the main constituent as a cyclic lipopeptide (1,139 Da) containing nine amino acids and a 10-carbon hydroxy fatty acid. The other four zoosporicidal fractions were closely related to the main constituent, with molecular massesranging from 1,111 to 1,169 Da.

  16. An improved, high-quality draft genome sequence of the Germination-Arrest Factor-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6.

    PubMed

    Kimbrel, Jeffrey A; Givan, Scott A; Halgren, Anne B; Creason, Allison L; Mills, Dallice I; Banowetz, Gary M; Armstrong, Donald J; Chang, Jeff H

    2010-09-28

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a genetically and physiologically diverse species of bacteria present in many habitats and in association with plants. This species of bacteria produces a large array of secondary metabolites with potential as natural products. P. fluorescens isolate WH6 produces Germination-Arrest Factor (GAF), a predicted small peptide or amino acid analog with herbicidal activity that specifically inhibits germination of seeds of graminaceous species. We used a hybrid next-generation sequencing approach to develop a high-quality draft genome sequence for P. fluorescens WH6. We employed automated, manual, and experimental methods to further improve the draft genome sequence. From this assembly of 6.27 megabases, we predicted 5876 genes, of which 3115 were core to P. fluorescens and 1567 were unique to WH6. Comparative genomic studies of WH6 revealed high similarity in synteny and orthology of genes with P. fluorescens SBW25. A phylogenomic study also placed WH6 in the same lineage as SBW25. In a previous non-saturating mutagenesis screen we identified two genes necessary for GAF activity in WH6. Mapping of their flanking sequences revealed genes that encode a candidate anti-sigma factor and an aminotransferase. Finally, we discovered several candidate virulence and host-association mechanisms, one of which appears to be a complete type III secretion system. The improved high-quality draft genome sequence of WH6 contributes towards resolving the P. fluorescens species, providing additional impetus for establishing two separate lineages in P. fluorescens. Despite the high levels of orthology and synteny to SBW25, WH6 still had a substantial number of unique genes and represents another source for the discovery of genes with implications in affecting plant growth and health. Two genes are demonstrably necessary for GAF and further characterization of their proteins is important for developing natural products as control measure against grassy weeds

  17. Benzaldehyde lyase, a novel thiamine PPi-requiring enzyme, from Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar I.

    PubMed Central

    González, B; Vicuña, R

    1989-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar I can grow on benzoin as the sole carbon and energy source. This ability is due to benzaldehyde lyase, a new type of enzyme that irreversibly cleaves the acyloin linkage of benzoin, producing two molecules of benzaldehyde. Benzaldehyde lyase was purified 70-fold and found to require catalytic amounts of thiamine PPi (TPP) and a divalent cation as cofactors. Optimal activity was obtained with a 1.0 mM concentration of Mn2+, Mg2+, or Ca2+. Gel permeation chromatography indicated a native molecular weight of 80,000, whereas the enzyme migrated in sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing polyacrylamide gels as a single polypeptide with a molecular weight of 53,000. Benzaldehyde lyase is highly specific; of a variety of structurally related compounds tested, only benzoin and anisoin (4,4'-dimethoxybenzoin) acted as substrates, their apparent Kms being 9.0 x 10(-3) and 3.25 x 10(-2) mM, respectively. A catalytic mechanism for the enzyme is proposed. Images PMID:2496105

  18. Role of a phenazine antibiotic from Pseudomonas fluorescens in biological control of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici.

    PubMed

    Thomashow, L S; Weller, D M

    1988-08-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79 (NRRL B-15132) and its rifampin-resistant derivative 2-79RN10 are suppressive to take-all, a major root disease of wheat caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. Strain 2-79 produces the antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylate, which is active in vitro against G. graminis var. tritici and other fungal root pathogens. Mutants defective in phenazine synthesis (Phz-) were generated by Tn5 insertion and then compared with the parental strain to determine the importance of the antibiotic in take-all suppression on wheat roots. Six independent, prototrophic Phz- mutants were noninhibitory to G. graminis var. tritici in vitro and provided significantly less control of take-all than strain 2-79 on wheat seedlings. Antibiotic synthesis, fungal inhibition in vitro, and suppression of take-all on wheat were coordinately restored in two mutants complemented with cloned DNA from a 2-79 genomic library. These mutants contained Tn5 insertions in adjacent EcoRI fragments in the 2-79 genome, and the restriction maps of the region flanking the insertions and the complementary DNA were colinear. These results indicate that sequences required for phenazine production were present in the cloned DNA and support the importance of the phenazine antibiotic in disease suppression in the rhizosphere.

  19. Pseudomonas fluorescens R68 assisted enhancement in growth and fertilizer utilization of Amaranthus tricolor (L.).

    PubMed

    Jimtha John, C; Jishma, P; Karthika, N R; Nidheesh, K S; Ray, J G; Mathew, Jyothis; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2017-08-01

    Plant probiotic potential of rhizosphere microbiome and its role in phytofertilizer mobilization are largely unexplored. In the current study, the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens R68 (PFR68) isolated from Western Ghat was analyzed for its growth enhancement effect on the leafy vegetable Amaranthus tricolor (L.). One month of field growth of PFR68 inoculated A. tricolor has found to have enhanced growth parameters such as leaf number (1.57 fold), root number (1.76 fold), shoot length (1.28 fold) and fresh weight (2.31 fold). The treatment also improved soil fertility in terms of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium content. Most remarkably, application of PFR68 alone and 50% of recommended NPK dose along with PFR68 has resulted in enhanced growth of A. tricolor comparable to plants treated with full dose of NPK. In addition to this, application of PFR68 along with 50% NPK augmented the available Nitrogen and Phosphorus content in soil. This indicates the potential of selected organism in enrichment of soil health and enhancement of crop productivity. In conclusion, field performance of PFR68 on growth of A. tricolor confirms its promises to develop into plant probiotic formulation.

  20. Milk-deteriorating exoenzymes from Pseudomonas fluorescens 041 isolated from refrigerated raw milk

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Maurilio L.; Pinto, Uelinton M.; Riedel, Katharina; Vanetti, Maria C.D.

    2015-01-01

    The practice of refrigerating raw milk at the farm has provided a selective advantage for psychrotrophic bacteria that produce heat-stable proteases and lipases causing severe quality problems to the dairy industry. In this work, a protease (AprX) and a lipase (LipM) produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens 041, a highly proteolytic and lipolytic strain isolated from raw milk obtained from a Brazilian farm, have been purified and characterized. Both enzymes were purified as recombinant proteins from Escherichia coli . The AprX metalloprotease exhibited activity in a broad temperature range, including refrigeration, with a maximum activity at 37 °C. It was active in a pH range of 4.0 to 9.0. This protease had maximum activity with the substrates casein and gelatin in the presence of Ca +2 . The LipM lipase had a maximum activity at 25 °C and a broad pH optimum ranging from 7.0 to 10. It exhibited the highest activity, in the presence of Ca +2 , on substrates with long-chain fatty acid residues. These results confirm the spoilage potential of strain 041 in milk due to, at least in part, these two enzymes. The work highlights the importance of studies of this kind with strains isolated in Brazil, which has a recent history on the implementation of the cold chain at the dairy farm. PMID:26221110

  1. Multiple antibiotics produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens HV37a and their differential regulation by glucose.

    PubMed Central

    James, D W; Gutterson, N I

    1986-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens HV37a inhibited growth of the fungus Pythium ultimum on potato dextrose agar (PDA). An antibiotic activity produced under these conditions was fractionated and partially characterized. Extracts prepared from the PDA on which HV37a was grown revealed a single peak of antibiotic activity on thin-layer chromatograms. Similar extracts were prepared from mutants of HV37a. Their analysis indicated that the antibiotic observed in thin-layer chromatograms was responsible for fungal inhibition observed on PDA. The production of the PDA antibiotic required the presence of glucose, whereas two other antibiotic activities were produced only on potato agar without added glucose. Two mutants (denoted AfuIa and AfuIb) previously characterized as deficient in fungal inhibition on PDA showed altered regulation of the production of all three antibiotics in response to glucose. These mutants were also deficient in glucose dehydrogenase. Mutants isolated as deficient in glucose dehydrogenase were also deficient in fungal inhibition and were grouped into two classes on the basis of complementation analysis with an AfuI cosmid. Glucose regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis therefore involves at least two components and requires glucose dehydrogenase. PMID:3098168

  2. Enzymes involved in vinyl acetate decomposition by Pseudomonas fluorescens PCM 2123 strain.

    PubMed

    Szczyrba, Elżbieta; Greń, Izabela; Bartelmus, Grażyna

    2014-03-01

    Esterases are widely used in food processing industry, but there is little information concerning enzymes involved in decompositions of esters contributing to pollution of environment. Vinyl acetate (an ester of vinyl alcohol and acetic acid) is a representative of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in decomposition, of which hydrolyses and oxidoreductases are mainly involved. Their activities under periodically changing conditions of environment are essential for the removal of dangerous VOCs. Esterase and alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase activities were determined in crude cell extract from Pseudomonas fluorescens PMC 2123 after vinyl acetate induction. All examined enzymes exhibit their highest activity at 30-35 °C and pH 7.0-7.5. Esterase preferably hydrolyzed ester bonds with short fatty chains without plain differences for C2 or C4. Comparison of Km values for alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases for acetaldehyde suggested that this metabolite was preferentially oxidized than reduced. Activity of alcohol dehydrogenase reducing acetaldehyde to ethanol suggested that one mechanism of defense against the elevated concentration of toxic acetaldehyde could be its temporary reduction to ethanol. Esterase activity was inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride, while β-mercaptoethanol, dithiothreitol, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid had no inhibitor effect. From among metal ions, only Mg(2+) and Fe(2+) stimulated the cleavage of ester bond.

  3. Revised structure for the phenazine antibiotic from Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79 (NRRL B-15132).

    PubMed Central

    Brisbane, P G; Janik, L J; Tate, M E; Warren, R F

    1987-01-01

    A phenazine antibiotic (mp, 243 to 244 degrees C), isolated in a yield of 134 micrograms/ml from cultures of Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79 (NRRL B-15132), was indistinguishable in all of its measured physicochemical (melting point, UV and infrared spectra, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data) and biological properties from synthetic phenazine-1-carboxylic acid. Gurusiddaiah et al. (S. Gurusiddaiah, D. M. Weller, A. Sarkar, and R. J. Cook, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 29:488-495, 1986) attributed a dimeric phenazine structure to an antibiotic with demonstrably similar properties obtained from the same bacterial strain. Direct comparison of the physicochemical properties of the authentic antibiotic obtained from D. M. Weller with synthetic phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and with the natural product from the present study established that all three samples were indistinguishable within the experimental error of each method. No evidence to support the existence of a biologically active dimeric species was obtained. Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid has a pKa of 4.24 +/- 0.01 (25 degrees C; I = 0.09), and its carboxylate anion shows no detectable antimicrobial activity compared with the active uncharged carboxylic acid species. These data suggest that phenazine-1-carboxylic acid is probably not an effective biological control agent for phytopathogens in environments with a pH greater than 7. Images PMID:3125789

  4. Metabolic networks to generate pyruvate, PEP and ATP from glycerol in Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Alhasawi, Azhar; Thomas, Sean C; Appanna, Vasu D

    2016-04-01

    Glycerol is a major by-product of the biodiesel industry. In this study we report on the metabolic networks involved in its transformation into pyruvate, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and ATP. When the nutritionally-versatile Pseudomonas fluorescens was exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in a mineral medium with glycerol as the sole carbon source, the microbe reconfigured its metabolism to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) primarily via substrate-level phosphorylation (SLP). This alternative ATP-producing stratagem resulted in the synthesis of copious amounts of PEP and pyruvate. The production of these metabolites was mediated via the enhanced activities of such enzymes as pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC). The high energy PEP was subsequently converted into ATP with the aid of pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK), phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (PEPS) and pyruvate kinase (PK) with the concomitant formation of pyruvate. The participation of the phospho-transfer enzymes like adenylate kinase (AK) and acetate kinase (ACK) ensured the efficiency of this O2-independent energy-generating machinery. The increased activity of glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) in the stressed bacteria provided the necessary precursors to fuel this process. This H2O2-induced anaerobic life-style fortuitously evokes metabolic networks to an effective pathway that can be harnessed into the synthesis of ATP, PEP and pyruvate. The bioconversion of glycerol to pyruvate will offer interesting economic benefit.

  5. Genetic determinants for catabolite induction of antibiotic biosynthesis in Pseudomonas fluorescens HV37a.

    PubMed

    Gutterson, N; Ziegle, J S; Warren, G J; Layton, T J

    1988-01-01

    Antibiotic biosynthesis is regulated by glucose in Pseudomonas fluorescens HV37a. Fusions between antibiotic biosynthetic operons (afu operons) and the Escherichia coli lac operon were isolated to evaluate the genetic determinants for the regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis. Four afu transcriptional units were defined, afuE, afuR, afuAB, and afuP. The afuE and afuR transcripts were promoted divergently at one locus and were catabolite induced, by 250-fold and 5-fold, respectively; the afuAB and afuP transcriptional units were not linked to the others and were not catabolite induced. Thus, regulation of afuE and afuR operon transcription is apparently the mechanism whereby glucose regulates antibiotic biosynthesis. Catabolite induction of the afuE and afuR transcriptional unit was dependent on the products of the afuA, afuB, and afuP genes. Expression of the afuE transcriptional unit was altered quantitatively in afuE mutants. Apparently the afuE transcriptional unit is regulated, at least in part, by its own gene products. Under inducing conditions, expression of the afuE, afuR, and afuP transcriptional units increased rapidly during a 6-h period.

  6. Fate of uranyl in a quaternary system composed of uranyl, citrate, goethite, and Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Bencheikh-Latmani, Rizlan; Leckie, James O; Bargar, John R

    2003-08-15

    This study investigated the partitioning of uranyl within a quaternary system made up of uranyl, citrate, goethite, and the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. In the absence of cells, uranyl was sorbed to goethite as a complex involving surface groups and/or citrate. Measurements of the evolution of CO2 indicated that the addition of bacterial cells lead to the gradual biodegradation of citrate. Throughout the biodegradation process, uranyl remained sorbed to the insoluble fraction comprised of goethite and cells. EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) measurements showed that bacterial cells outcompeted goethite for uranyl under the experimental conditions and caused the repartitioning of uranyl from goethite to cell matter, independently from citrate degradation. Citrate degradation caused further release of uranyl from goethite surfaces, followed by subsequent association of uranyl with cells. At long equilibration times (3 months), cell lysis and phosphate release resulted in the precipitation of an autunite-like phase. This work suggests that bacterial degradation of uranyl-complexing ligands in contaminated subsurface media containing iron oxides should not necessarily lead to an increase in the mobility of uranyl.

  7. Expression, Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Analysis of Pseudomonas fluorescens AlgK

    SciTech Connect

    Keiski,C.; Yip, P.; Robinson, H.; Burrows, L.; Howell, P.

    2007-01-01

    AlgK is an outer-membrane lipoprotein involved in the biosynthesis of alginate in Pseudomonads and Azotobacter vinelandii. A recombinant form of Pseudomonas fluorescens AlgK with a C-terminal polyhistidine affinity tag has been expressed and purified from the periplasm of Escherichia coli cells and diffraction-quality crystals of AlgK have been grown using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals grow as flat plates with unit-cell parameters a = 79.09, b = 107.85, c = 119.15 {angstrom}, = 96.97{sup o}. The crystals exhibit the symmetry of space group P2{sub 1} and diffract to a minimum d-spacing of 2.5 {angstrom} at Station X29 of the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory. On the basis of the Matthews coefficient (V{sub M} = 2.53 {angstrom}{sup 3} Da{sup -1}), four protein molecules are estimated to be present in the asymmetric unit.

  8. Secondary metabolites help biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 to escape protozoan grazing.

    PubMed

    Jousset, Alexandre; Lara, Enrique; Wall, Luis G; Valverde, Claudio

    2006-11-01

    In soil ecosystems, bacteria must cope with predation activity, which is attributed mainly to protists. The development of antipredation strategies may help bacteria maintain higher populations and persist longer in the soil. We analyzed the interaction between the root-colonizing and biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 and three different protist isolates (an amoeba, a flagellate, and a ciliate). CHA0 produces a set of antibiotics, HCN, and an exoprotease. We observed that protists cannot grow on CHA0 but can multiply on isogenic regulatory mutants that do not produce the extracellular metabolites. The in vitro responses to CHA0 cells and its exoproducts included growth inhibition, encystation, paralysis, and cell lysis. By analyzing the responses of protists to bacterial supernatants obtained from different isogenic mutants whose production of one or more exometabolites was affected and also to culture extracts with antibiotic enrichment, we observed different contributions of the phenolic antifungal compound 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) and the extracellular protease AprA to CHA0 toxicity for protists and to the encystation-reactivation cycle. The grazing pressure artificially produced by a mixture of the three protists in a microcosm system resulted in reduced colonization of cucumber roots by a regulatory isogenic CHA0 mutant unable to produce toxins. These results suggest that exometabolite production in biocontrol strain CHA0 may contribute to avoidance of protist grazing and help sustain higher populations in the rhizosphere, which may be a desirable and advantageous trait for competition with other bacteria for available resources.

  9. Modeling high-intensity pulsed electric field inactivation of a lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Soliva-Fortuny, R; Bendicho-Porta, S; Martín-Belloso, O

    2006-11-01

    The inactivation kinetics of a lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens (EC 3.1.1.3.) were studied in a simulated skim milk ultrafiltrate treated with high-intensity pulsed electric fields. Samples were subjected to electric field intensities ranging from 16.4 to 27.4 kV/cm for up to 314.5 micros, thus achieving a maximum inactivation of 62.1%. The suitability of describing experimental data using mechanistic first-order kinetics and an empirical model based on the Weibull distribution function is discussed. In addition, different mathematical expressions relating the residual activity values to field strength and treatment time are supplied. A first-order fractional conversion model predicted residual activity with good accuracy (A(f) = 1.018). A mechanistic insight of the model kinetics was that experimental values were the consequence of different structural organizations of the enzyme, with uneven resistance to the pulsed electric field treatments. The Weibull model was also useful in predicting the energy density necessary to achieve lipase inactivation.

  10. Immobilization of Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase onto magnetic nanoparticles for resolution of 2-octanol.

    PubMed

    Xun, Er-na; Lv, Xiao-li; Kang, Wei; Wang, Jia-xin; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Zhi

    2012-10-01

    The lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens (Lipase AK, AKL) was immobilized onto the magnetic Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles via hydrophobic interaction. Enzyme loading and immobilization yield were determined as 21.4±0.5 mg/g and 49.2±1.8 %, respectively. The immobilized AKL was successfully used for resolution of 2-octanol with vinyl acetate used as acyl donor. Effects of organic solvent, water activity, substrate ratio, and temperature were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the preferred isomer for AKL is the (R)-2-octanol and the highest enantioselectivity (E=71.5±2.2) was obtained with a higher enzyme activity (0.197±0.01 μmol/mg/min). The results also showed that the immobilized lipase could be easily separated from reaction media by the magnetic steel and remained 89 % of its initial activity as well as the nearly unchanged enantioselectivity after five consecutive cycles, indicating a high stability in practical operation.

  11. Adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms to glass, stainless steel and cellulose.

    PubMed

    Wan Dagang, W R Z; Bowen, J; O'Keeffe, J; Robbins, P T; Zhang, Z

    2016-05-01

    The adhesion of colloidal probes of stainless steel, glass and cellulose to Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms was examined using atomic force microscopy (AFM) to allow comparisons between surfaces to which biofilms might adhere. Biofilm was grown on a stainless steel substrate and covered most of the surface after 96 h. AFM approach and retraction curves were obtained when the biofilm was immersed in a tryptone/soy medium. On approach, all the colloidal probes experienced a long non-contact phase more than 100 nm in length, possibly due to the steric repulsion by extracellular polymers from the biofilm and hydrophobic effects. Retraction data showed that the adhesion varied from position to position on the biofilm. The mean value of adhesion of glass to the biofilm (48 ± 7 nN) was the greatest, followed by stainless steel (30 ± 7 nN) and cellulose (7.8 ± 0.4 nN). The method allows understanding of adhesion between the three materials and biofilm, and development of a better strategy to remove the biofilm from these surfaces relevant to different industrial applications.

  12. Chromium(VI) reduction by Pseudomonas fluorescens LB300 in fixed-film bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chirwa, E.M.N.; Wang, Y.T.

    1997-08-01

    The potential for Cr(VI) reduction in a bench-scale, fixed-film bioreactor system was investigated using a Cr(VI) reducing bacterial species, Pseudomonas fluorescens LB300. The bench-scale reactor was packed by glass beads and was operated to steady-state conditions with near complete removal of Cr(VI) under a range of influent Cr(VI) concentrations and hydraulic retention times Cr(VI) over-loadings were observed when the bioreactor system was operated at 200 mg Cr(VI)/L under a 14.2 min hydraulic retention time and at 50 mg Cr(VI)/L under a 3.6 min hydraulic retention time. The system recovered in both cases after reducing Cr(VI) loadings by lowering influent Cr(VI) concentration to 10 mg/L. Cr(VI) reduction was carried out by biological mechanisms through both attached and suspended biomass. Control studies using Cr(VI) showed that abiotic Cr(VI) reduction in the bioreactor was insignificant. Nearly all the influent Cr(VI) reduced in the reactor was recovered in the form of Cr(III) in the effluent.

  13. Mobilization of metals from uranium mine waste: the role of pyoverdines produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Edberg, F; Kalinowski, B E; Holmström, S J M; Holm, K

    2010-09-01

    Microorganisms produce chelating agents, such as siderophores and other ligands, which allow them to mobilize and scavenge essential elements from the environment when bioavailability is low. To better understand the effects of biologically mediated leaching of metals from mine waste, Pseudomonas fluorescens was cultivated in the presence of processed ore from the former uranium mine in Ranstad, southern Sweden. Light conditions, the concentration of the mineral source and oxygen availability were varied. The presence of ore in the culture flasks enhanced bacterial growth and raised the pH of the culture medium. Increasing the amount of ore or enhancing aeration of the medium further encouraged cell growth and pH rise. Bacteria mobilized Fe, Ni and Co from the ore. Fe-siderophore complexes were detected and estimated to be present at approximately 9 mum. In the presence of bacteria and light, dissolved Fe and U concentrations were higher compared to dark conditions. Increasing the amount of ore resulted in higher dissolved Ni concentrations but lower dissolved Fe, most likely due to precipitate formation. Data from this study support siderophore production by bacteria that allowed mobilization of essential nutrients from the processed ore. However, the availability of potentially toxic metals like Ni and U may also be enhanced. Microbial-promoted mobilization could contribute to leaching of toxic metals in current and historic mining areas. This process should be considered during design and implementation of remediation projects where trace metals are of environmental concern.

  14. Thermal deactivation kinetics of Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase entrapped in AOT/isooctane reverse micelles.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung Min; Kwon, Chang Woo; Choi, Seung Jun; Son, Young-Hwan; Lim, Seokwon; Yoo, Yoonjung; Chang, Pahn-Shick

    2013-10-02

    Thermostability of the lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) was found to be increased by the enzyme-entrapment in 50 mM AOT/isooctane reverse micelles. The half-life (15.75 h) of Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase entrapped in reverse micelles at 70 °C was 9.72- and 11.41-fold longer than those solubilized in a glycerol pool or in 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 8.0), respectively. The enzyme deactivation model considering a two-step series-type was employed, and deactivation constants for the second step (k₂) at all temperatures were drastically decreased after the lipase was entrapped in reverse micelles. In particular, k₂ (0.0354 h⁻¹) at 70 °C in reverse micelles was 12.33- and 13.14-fold lower than in a glycerol pool or in the phosphate buffer, respectively. The deactivation energies (from k₁, k₂) for the lipase entrapped in the reverse micelles, solubilized in a glycerol pool, or in the aqueous buffer were 7.51, 26.35 kcal/mol, 5.93, 21.08 kcal/mol, and 5.53, 17.57 kcal/mol, respectively.

  15. Comparison of planktonic and biofilm cultures of Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 8341 cells grown on fluoroacetate.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Barry; Murphy, Cormac D; Casey, Eoin

    2009-05-01

    Comparisons between the physiological properties of Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilm cells grown in a tubular biofilm reactor and planktonic cells grown in a chemostat were performed. Fluoroacetate was the sole carbon source for all experiments. The performance of cells was assessed using cell cycle kinetics and by determining specific fluoroacetate utilization rates. Cell cycle kinetics were studied by flow cytometry in conjunction with the fluorescent stain propidium iodide. Determination of the DNA content of planktonic and biofilm cultures showed little difference between the two modes of growth. Cultures with comparable specific glycolate utilization rates had similar percentages of cells in the B phase of the cell cycle, indicating similar growth rates. Specific fluoroacetate utilization rates showed the performance of planktonic cells to be superior to that of biofilm cells, with more fluoroacetate utilized per cell at similar specific fluoroacetate loading rates. A consequence of this decreased biofilm performance was the accumulation of glycolate in the effluent of biofilm cultures. This accumulation of glycolate was not observed in the effluent of planktonic cultures. Spatial stratification of oxygen within the biofilm was identified as a possible explanation for the overflow metabolism of glycolate and the decreased performance of the biofilm cells.

  16. Detection and analysis of chromosomal arsenic resistance in Pseudomonas fluorescens strain MSP3.

    PubMed

    Prithivirajsingh, S; Mishra, S K; Mahadevan, A

    2001-02-09

    Pseudomonas fluorescens MSP3 isolated from sea water was resistant to arsenate. This bacterium harbored no plasmids, indicating that arsenic resistance was chromosomally encoded. The chromosomal DNA from MSP3 when transformed onto Escherichia coli DH5alpha using pBluescript exhibited resistance to sodium arsenate and sodium arsenite. Three clones MSA1, MSA2, and MSI3 containing the ars genes were obtained and further subcloning resulted in three fragments of size 2.2, 2.6, and 2.1 kb for pMSA11, pMSA12, and pMSI13, respectively, which contained the genes arsRBC of the arsenic operon. An efflux mechanism of detoxification was observed which was ATP dependent. The resistance mechanism was encoded from a single operon which consisted of an arsenite inducible repressor that regulates the expression of arsenate reductase (ars C) and inner membrane associated arsenite export system encoded by ars B. The chromosomal operon was cloned, sequenced, and found to consist of three cistrons, named as ars R, ars B, and ars C. Southern hybridization and mating experiments confirmed the functioning of the ars genes in the operon, thereby conferring increased resistance to sodium arsenate and sodium arsenite.

  17. Promotion of plant growth by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain SS101 via novel volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Dutta, Swarnalee; Ann, Mina; Raaijmakers, Jos M; Park, Kyungseok

    2015-05-29

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) play key roles in modulating plant growth and induced systemic resistance (ISR) to pathogens. Despite their significance, the physiological functions of the specific VOCs produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101 (Pf.SS101) have not been precisely elucidated. The effects of Pf.SS101 and its VOCs on augmentation of plant growth promotion were investigated in vitro and in planta. A significant growth promotion was observed in plants exposed Pf.SS101 under both conditions, suggesting that its VOCs play a key role in promoting plant growth. Solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and a gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) system were used to characterize the VOCs emitted by Pf.SS101 and 11 different compounds were detected in samples inoculated this bacterium, including 13-Tetradecadien-1-ol, 2-butanone and 2-Methyl-n-1-tridecene. Application of these compounds resulted in enhanced plant growth. This study suggests that Pf.SS101 promotes the growth of plants via the release of VOCs including 13-Tetradecadien-1-ol, 2-butanone and 2-Methyl-n-1-tridecene, thus increasing understanding of the role of VOCs in plant-bacterial inter-communication.

  18. Small RNA-dependent expression of secondary metabolism is controlled by Krebs cycle function in Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Kasumi; Kiefer, Patrick; Reimmann, Cornelia; Keel, Christoph; Dubuis, Christophe; Rolli, Joëlle; Vorholt, Julia A; Haas, Dieter

    2009-12-11

    Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, an antagonist of phytopathogenic fungi in the rhizosphere of crop plants, elaborates and excretes several secondary metabolites with antibiotic properties. Their synthesis depends on three small RNAs (RsmX, RsmY, and RsmZ), whose expression is positively controlled by the GacS-GacA two-component system at high cell population densities. To find regulatory links between primary and secondary metabolism in P. fluorescens and in the related species Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we searched for null mutations that affected central carbon metabolism as well as the expression of rsmY-gfp and rsmZ-gfp reporter constructs but without slowing down the growth rate in rich media. Mutation in the pycAB genes (for pyruvate carboxylase) led to down-regulation of rsmXYZ and secondary metabolism, whereas mutation in fumA (for a fumarase isoenzyme) resulted in up-regulation of the three small RNAs and secondary metabolism in the absence of detectable nutrient limitation. These effects required the GacS sensor kinase but not the accessory sensors RetS and LadS. An analysis of intracellular metabolites in P. fluorescens revealed a strong positive correlation between small RNA expression and the pools of 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, and fumarate. We conclude that Krebs cycle intermediates (already known to control GacA-dependent virulence factors in P. aeruginosa) exert a critical trigger function in secondary metabolism via the expression of GacA-dependent small RNAs.

  19. Genetic characterization of psp encoding the DING protein in Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xue-Xian; Scott, Ken; Meffin, Rebecca; Rainey, Paul B

    2007-01-01

    Background DING proteins constitute a conserved and broadly distributed set of proteins found in bacteria, fungi, plants and animals (including humans). Characterization of DING proteins from animal and plant tissues indicated ligand-binding ability suggesting a role for DING proteins in cell signaling and biomineralization. Surprisingly, the genes encoding DING proteins in eukaryotes have not been identified in the eukaryotic genome or EST databases. Recent discovery of a DING homologue (named Psp here) in the genome of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 provided a unique opportunity to investigate the physiological roles of DING proteins. P. fluorescens SBW25 is a model bacterium that can efficiently colonize plant surfaces and enhance plant health. In this report we genetically characterize Psp with a focus on conditions under which psp is expressed and the protein exported. Results Psp is closely related to the periplasmic Pi binding component of the ABC-type phosphate transporter system (Pst). psp is flanked by a gene cluster predicted to function as a type II protein secretion system (Hxc). Deletion analysis combined with chromosomally integrated 'lacZ fusions showed that both psp and pstC are induced by Pi limitation and that pstC is required for competitive growth of the bacterium in Pi limited medium. hxcR is not regulated by Pi limitation. Psp was detected (using anti-DING serum) in the supernatant of wild-type culture but was greatly reduced in the supernatant of an isogenic strain carrying an hxcR mutation (ΔhxcR). A promoter fusion between hxcR and a promoterless copy of a gene ('dapB) essential for growth in the plant environment showed that expression of hxcR is elevated during colonization of sugar beet seedlings. A similar analysis of psp showed that it is not induced in the plant environment. Conclusion Psp gene is expressed under conditions of Pi limitation. It is an exoprotein secreted mainly via the Hxc type II secretion system, whose expression is

  20. Prediction of growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens in milk during storage under fluctuating temperature.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hao; Shavezipur, Mohammad; Yousef, Ahmed; Maleky, Farnaz

    2016-03-01

    Accurate prediction of growth of undesirable organisms (e.g., Pseudomonas fluorescens) in perishable foods (e.g., milk), held under sub-ideal storage conditions, can help ensure the quality and safety of these foods at the point of consumption. In this investigation, we inoculated sterile milk with P. fluorescens (~10(3) cfu/mL) and monitored inoculum growth behavior at constant and fluctuating storage temperatures. Three storage temperatures, 4 °C, 15 °C and 29 °C, were selected to simulate proper refrigeration conditions (4 °C) and temperature abuse, respectively. To simulate temperature fluctuation, milk held at 4 °C was subjected to temperature shifts to 15 °C or 29 °C for 4 to 6h. A modified logistic model was used to obtain the best-fit curve for the microbial growth under constant storage temperature. The specific growth rates at 4 °C, 15 °C, and 29 °C, obtained from experimental data, were 0.056 ± 0.00, 0.17 ± 0.05, and 0.46 ± 0.02 h(-1), respectively, and the lag time values were 29.5 ± 4.2, 12.7 ± 4.4, and 2.8 ± 0.3h, respectively. A model predicting bacterial growth under different temperature fluctuations was obtained using the growth parameters extracted from constant temperature experiments. Growth behavior predicted by the fluctuating temperature model and that obtained experimentally were in good agreement. Lag time exhibited a larger variation compared with specific growth rate, suggesting that it depends not only on growth temperature but also on the sample population and temperature gradient. Additionally, experimental data showed that changing the temperature during the lag phase induced an additional lag time before growth; however, no significant lag time was observed under the temperature fluctuation during the exponential phase. The results of this study provide information for precise shelf-life determination and reduction of food waste, particularly for milk and milk-containing food products.

  1. Environmental Factors Modulating Antibiotic and Siderophore Biosynthesis by Pseudomonas fluorescens Biocontrol Strains

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Brion K.; Défago, Geneviève

    1999-01-01

    Understanding the environmental factors that regulate the biosynthesis of antimicrobial compounds by disease-suppressive strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens is an essential step toward improving the level and reliability of their biocontrol activity. We used liquid culture assays to identify several minerals and carbon sources which had a differential influence on the production of the antibiotics 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (PHL), pyoluteorin (PLT), and pyrrolnitrin and the siderophores salicylic acid and pyochelin by the model strain CHA0, which was isolated from a natural disease-suppressive soil in Switzerland. Production of PHL was stimulated by Zn2+, NH4Mo2+, and glucose; the precursor compound mono-acetylphloroglucinol was stimulated by the same factors as PHL. Production of PLT was stimulated by Zn2+, Co2+, and glycerol but was repressed by glucose. Pyrrolnitrin production was increased by fructose, mannitol, and a mixture of Zn2+ and NH4Mo2+. Pyochelin production was increased by Co2+, fructose, mannitol, and glucose. Interestingly, production of its precursor salicylic acid was increased by different factors, i.e., NH4Mo2+, glycerol, and glucose. The mixture of Zn2+ and NH4Mo2+ with fructose, mannitol, or glycerol further enhanced the production of PHL and PLT compared with either the minerals or the carbon sources used alone, but it did not improve siderophore production. Extending fermentation time from 2 to 5 days increased the accumulation of PLT, pyrrolnitrin, and pyochelin but not of PHL. When findings with CHA0 were extended to an ecologically and genetically diverse collection of 41 P. fluorescens biocontrol strains, the effect of certain factors was strain dependent, while others had a general effect. Stimulation of PHL by Zn2+ and glucose was strain dependent, whereas PLT production by all strains that can produce this compound was stimulated by Zn2+ and transiently repressed by glucose. Inorganic phosphate reduced PHL production by CHA0 and seven

  2. Environmental factors modulating antibiotic and siderophore biosynthesis by Pseudomonas fluorescens biocontrol strains.

    PubMed

    Duffy, B K; Défago, G

    1999-06-01

    Understanding the environmental factors that regulate the biosynthesis of antimicrobial compounds by disease-suppressive strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens is an essential step toward improving the level and reliability of their biocontrol activity. We used liquid culture assays to identify several minerals and carbon sources which had a differential influence on the production of the antibiotics 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (PHL), pyoluteorin (PLT), and pyrrolnitrin and the siderophores salicylic acid and pyochelin by the model strain CHA0, which was isolated from a natural disease-suppressive soil in Switzerland. Production of PHL was stimulated by Zn2+, NH4Mo2+, and glucose; the precursor compound mono-acetylphloroglucinol was stimulated by the same factors as PHL. Production of PLT was stimulated by Zn2+, Co2+, and glycerol but was repressed by glucose. Pyrrolnitrin production was increased by fructose, mannitol, and a mixture of Zn2+ and NH4Mo2+. Pyochelin production was increased by Co2+, fructose, mannitol, and glucose. Interestingly, production of its precursor salicylic acid was increased by different factors, i.e., NH4Mo2+, glycerol, and glucose. The mixture of Zn2+ and NH4Mo2+ with fructose, mannitol, or glycerol further enhanced the production of PHL and PLT compared with either the minerals or the carbon sources used alone, but it did not improve siderophore production. Extending fermentation time from 2 to 5 days increased the accumulation of PLT, pyrrolnitrin, and pyochelin but not of PHL. When findings with CHA0 were extended to an ecologically and genetically diverse collection of 41 P. fluorescens biocontrol strains, the effect of certain factors was strain dependent, while others had a general effect. Stimulation of PHL by Zn2+ and glucose was strain dependent, whereas PLT production by all strains that can produce this compound was stimulated by Zn2+ and transiently repressed by glucose. Inorganic phosphate reduced PHL production by CHA0 and seven

  3. Sequencing and functional analysis of styrene catabolism genes from Pseudomonas fluorescens ST.

    PubMed Central

    Beltrametti, F; Marconi, A M; Bestetti, G; Colombo, C; Galli, E; Ruzzi, M; Zennaro, E

    1997-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the 4,377-bp chromosomal region of Pseudomonas fluorescens ST that codes for the oxidation of styrene to phenylacetic acid was determined. Four open reading frames, named styA, styB, styC, and styD, were identified in this region. Sequence analysis and biotransformation assays, performed with batch and continuous cultures, allowed us to identify the functions of the sequenced genes. styA and styB encode a styrene monooxygenase responsible for the transformation of styrene to epoxystyrene; styC codes for the second enzyme of the pathway, an epoxystyrene isomerase that converts epoxystyrene to phenylacetaldehyde; and the styD gene produces a phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase that oxidizes phenylacetaldehyde to phenylacetic acid. StyA, 415-amino-acids long, was found to be weakly homologous to p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from both P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa and to salicylate hydroxylase from P. putida, suggesting that it might be a flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding monooxygenase. StyB was found to be partially homologous to the carboxyterminal part of the 2,4-dichlorophenol-6-monooxygenase encoded by plasmid pJP4, while the styC product did not share significant homology with any known proteins. The fourth open reading frame, styD, could encode a protein of 502 amino acids and was strongly homologous to several eukaryotic and prokaryotic aldehyde dehydrogenases. The order of the genes corresponds to that of the catabolic steps. The previously suggested presence of the gene for epoxystyrene reductase, which directly converts epoxystyrene to 2-phenylethanol (A.M. Marconi, F. Beltrametti, G. Bestetti, F. Solinas, M. Ruzzi, E. Galli, and E. Zennaro, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:121-127, 1996), has not been confirmed by sequencing and by biotransformation assays performed in continuous cultures. A copy of the insertion sequence ISI162, belonging to the IS21-like family of elements, was identified immediately downstream of the styrene

  4. Antioxidative responses of Pseudomonas fluorescens YZ2 to simultaneous exposure of Zn and Cefradine.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan-Bin; Xu, Jia-Xin; Chen, Jin-Liang; Huang, Lu; Zhou, Shao-Qi; Zhou, Yan; Wen, Li-Hua

    2015-10-01

    Binary pollution of both heavy metals and antibiotics has received increasing attentions for their joint effects of eco-toxicity and health hazards. To reveal the effects of mixtures of different pollutants on bacterial antioxidant response system, Pseudomonas fluorescens ZY2, a new strain isolated from swine wastewater, was chosen to determinate growth (bacterial density OD600), reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration, protein concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity under exposure treatments of Zn, Cefradine or Zn + Cefradine. Bacterial densities of all the treatment groups increased significantly over the incubation time, but those containing pollutant addition were slightly lower than the control at different times of incubation. Both ROS concentration and SOD activity increased first and then decreased (p < 0.01) over time, which was opposite to the protein concentrations (p < 0.01), showing a much significant increase by Cefradine alone. With Zn concentration increasing from 40 to 160 mg/L, the intracellular SOD activity increased as a response to the improvement of ROS (p < 0.05), while the balance between ROS and SOD was broken down due to the disproportionate change of total SOD activity and ROS concentration, the bacterial densities therefore decreased for the weak resistance. With the combined treatment of Zn (200 mg/L) and Cefradine (1 mg/L), though the toxicity of Zn caused a much significant increase of ROS, the bacterial resistance was further improved showing a more significant increase of total SOD activity and the bacterial densities therefore increased bacterial growth. Zn concentration also affected the protein synthesis. Either single or binary stress induced the bacterial resistance by regulating SOD activity to eliminate ROS. All results of the bacterial oxidant stress, SOD response and protein synthesis in the combined treatment groups were more complicated than those in single treatment groups, which depended on the

  5. Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44: Lessons Learned from a Model Whole-Cell Bioreporter with a Broad Application History

    PubMed Central

    Trögl, Josef; Chauhan, Archana; Ripp, Steven; Layton, Alice C.; Kuncová, Gabriela; Sayler, Gary S.

    2012-01-01

    Initially described in 1990, Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44 served as the first whole-cell bioreporter genetically endowed with a bioluminescent (luxCDABE) phenotype directly linked to a catabolic (naphthalene degradative) pathway. HK44 was the first genetically engineered microorganism to be released in the field to monitor bioremediation potential. Subsequent to that release, strain HK44 had been introduced into other solids (soils, sands), liquid (water, wastewater), and volatile environments. In these matrices, it has functioned as one of the best characterized chemically-responsive environmental bioreporters and as a model organism for understanding bacterial colonization and transport, cell immobilization strategies, and the kinetics of cellular bioluminescent emission. This review summarizes the characteristics of P. fluorescens HK44 and the extensive range of its applications with special focus on the monitoring of bioremediation processes and biosensing of environmental pollution. PMID:22438725

  6. Influence of Incubation Conditions on Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas Fluorescens Isolated from Dairy Products and Dairy Manufacturing Plants

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Chiara; Chaves-López, Clemencia; Serio, Annalisa; Goffredo, Elisa; Goga, Beniamino Terzo Cenci; Paparella, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    In this study, biofilm formation of 64 Pseudomonas fluorescens strains isolated from milk, dairy products and dairy plants was compared. The strains were grown on Tryptic Soy Broth supplemented with 0.2% of glucose, on polystyrene microplates at 10 and 30°C for 48 h. In general, 57/64 P. fluorescens strains formed biofilm, although with great variability at both tested temperatures. Moreover, our results evidenced that the biofilm-forming ability of the strains was temperature- and strain-dependent. Interestingly, the ability of several isolates to form biofilms was associated with the low temperature after 48 h. Our findings evidenced that temperature was more important than incubation time for biofilm formation. Considering the origin of the strains, it is relevant to underline the importance of performing accurate cleaning and disinfection procedures on food processing surfaces. PMID:27853712

  7. Critical aspects of analysis of Micrococcus luteus, Neisseria cinerea, and Pseudomonas fluorescens by means of capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hoerr, Verena; Stich, August; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2004-10-01

    Within the frame of our study we investigated Microccocus luteus, Neisseria cinerea, and Pseudomonas fluorescens by means of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). They form chains and clusters on a different scale, which can be reflected in the electropherograms. A low buffer concentration of Tris-borate and Na2EDTA containing a polymeric matrix of 0.0125% poly(ethylene) oxide (PEO) was used. Key factors were the standardization and optimization of CE conditions, buffer solution, and pretreatment of bacterial samples, which are not transferable to different bacterial strains, in general. The different compositions of the cell wall of on the one hand Gram-positive (M. luteus) and Gram-negative (N. cinerea) cocci and on the other hand Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria (P. fluorescens), are probably responsible for the different pretreatment conditions.

  8. Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44: lessons learned from a model whole-cell bioreporter with a broad application history.

    PubMed

    Trögl, Josef; Chauhan, Archana; Ripp, Steven; Layton, Alice C; Kuncová, Gabriela; Sayler, Gary S

    2012-01-01

    Initially described in 1990, Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44 served as the first whole-cell bioreporter genetically endowed with a bioluminescent (luxCDABE) phenotype directly linked to a catabolic (naphthalene degradative) pathway. HK44 was the first genetically engineered microorganism to be released in the field to monitor bioremediation potential. Subsequent to that release, strain HK44 had been introduced into other solids (soils, sands), liquid (water, wastewater), and volatile environments. In these matrices, it has functioned as one of the best characterized chemically-responsive environmental bioreporters and as a model organism for understanding bacterial colonization and transport, cell immobilization strategies, and the kinetics of cellular bioluminescent emission. This review summarizes the characteristics of P. fluorescens HK44 and the extensive range of its applications with special focus on the monitoring of bioremediation processes and biosensing of environmental pollution.

  9. Mechanism of insoluble phosphate solubilization by Pseudomonas fluorescens RAF15 isolated from ginseng rhizosphere and its plant growth-promoting activities.

    PubMed

    Park, K-H; Lee, C-Y; Son, H-J

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the mechanism of insoluble phosphate (P) solubilization and plant growth-promoting activity by Pseudomonas fluorescens RAF15. We investigated the ability of Ps. fluorescens RAF15 to solubilize insoluble P via two possible mechanisms: proton excretion by ammonium assimilation and organic acid production. There were no clear differences in pH and P solubilization between glucose-ammonium and glucose-nitrate media. P solubilization was significantly promoted with glucose compared to fructose. Regardless of nitrogen sources used, Ps. fluorescens RAF15 solubilized little insoluble P with fructose. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that Ps. fluorescens RAF15 produced mainly gluconic and tartaric acids with small amounts of 2-ketogluconic, formic and acetic acids. During the culture, the pH was reduced with increase in gluconic acid concentration and was inversely correlated with soluble P concentration. Ps. fluorescens RAF1 showed the properties related to plant growth promotion: pectinase, protease, lipase, siderophore, hydrogen cyanide, and indoleacetic acid. This study indicated that the P solubility was directly correlated with the organic acids produced. Pseudomonas fluorescens RAF15 possessed different traits related to plant growth promotion. Therefore, Ps. fluorescens RAF15 could be a potential candidate for the development of biofertilizer or biocontrol agent.

  10. Assessment of DAPG-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens for Management of Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum on Watermelon

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Susan L. F.; Everts, Kathryne L.; Gardener, Brian McSpadden; Masler, Edward P.; Abdelnabby, Hazem M. E.; Skantar, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates Clinto 1R, Wayne 1R, and Wood 1R, which produce the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), can suppress soilborne diseases and promote plant growth. Consequently, these beneficial bacterial isolates were tested on watermelon plants for suppression of Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode: RKN) and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon). In a greenhouse trial, Wayne 1R root dip suppressed numbers of RKN eggs per gram root on ‘Charleston Gray’ watermelon by 28.9%. However, in studies focused on ‘Sugar Baby’ watermelon, which is commercially grown in Maryland, a Wayne 1R root dip did not inhibit RKN reproduction or plant death caused by Fon. When all three isolates were applied as seed coats, plant stand in the greenhouse was reduced up to 60% in treatments that included Fon ± P. fluorescens, and eggs per gram root did not differ among treatments. In a microplot trial with Clinto 1R and Wayne 1R root dips, inoculation with P. fluorescens and/or Fon resulted in shorter vine lengths than treatment with either P. fluorescens isolate plus RKN. Root weights, galling indices, eggs per gram root, and second-stage juvenile (J2) numbers in soil were similar among all RKN-inoculated treatments, and fruit production was not affected by treatment. Plant death was high in all treatments. These studies demonstrated that the tested P. fluorescens isolates resulted in some inhibition of vine growth in the field, and were not effective for enhancing plant vigor or suppressing RKN or Fon on watermelon. PMID:27168652

  11. Characterization of Toxin Complex Gene Clusters and Insect Toxicity of Bacteria Representing Four Subgroups of Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Lorena I; Henkels, Marcella D; Shaffer, Brenda T; Walker, Francesca L; Davis, Edward W; Stockwell, Virginia O; Bruck, Denny; Taylor, Barbara J; Loper, Joyce E

    2016-01-01

    Ten strains representing four lineages of the Pseudomonas fluorescens group (P. chlororaphis, P. corrugata, P. koreensis, and P. fluorescens subgroups) were evaluated for toxicity to the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta and the common fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The three strains within the P. chlororaphis subgroup exhibited both oral and injectable toxicity to the lepidopteran M. sexta. All three strains have the gene cluster encoding the FitD insect toxin and a ΔfitD mutant of P. protegens strain Pf-5 exhibited diminished oral toxicity compared to the wildtype strain. Only one of the three strains, P. protegens Pf-5, exhibited substantial levels of oral toxicity against the dipteran D. melanogaster. Three strains in the P. fluorescens subgroup, which lack fitD, consistently showed significant levels of injectable toxicity against M. sexta. In contrast, the oral toxicity of these strains against D. melanogaster was variable between experiments, with only one strain, Pseudomonas sp. BG33R, causing significant levels of mortality in repeated experiments. Toxin complex (Tc) gene clusters, which encode insecticidal properties in Photorhabdus luminescens, were identified in the genomes of seven of the ten strains evaluated in this study. Within those seven genomes, six types of Tc gene clusters were identified, distinguished by gene content, organization and genomic location, but no correlation was observed between the presence of Tc genes and insect toxicity of the evaluated strains. Our results demonstrate that members of the P. fluorescens group have the capacity to kill insects by both FitD-dependent and independent mechanisms.

  12. Characterization of Toxin Complex Gene Clusters and Insect Toxicity of Bacteria Representing Four Subgroups of Pseudomonas fluorescens

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, Lorena I.; Henkels, Marcella D.; Shaffer, Brenda T.; Walker, Francesca L.; Davis, Edward W.; Stockwell, Virginia O.; Bruck, Denny; Taylor, Barbara J.; Loper, Joyce E.

    2016-01-01

    Ten strains representing four lineages of the Pseudomonas fluorescens group (P. chlororaphis, P. corrugata, P. koreensis, and P. fluorescens subgroups) were evaluated for toxicity to the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta and the common fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The three strains within the P. chlororaphis subgroup exhibited both oral and injectable toxicity to the lepidopteran M. sexta. All three strains have the gene cluster encoding the FitD insect toxin and a ΔfitD mutant of P. protegens strain Pf-5 exhibited diminished oral toxicity compared to the wildtype strain. Only one of the three strains, P. protegens Pf-5, exhibited substantial levels of oral toxicity against the dipteran D. melanogaster. Three strains in the P. fluorescens subgroup, which lack fitD, consistently showed significant levels of injectable toxicity against M. sexta. In contrast, the oral toxicity of these strains against D. melanogaster was variable between experiments, with only one strain, Pseudomonas sp. BG33R, causing significant levels of mortality in repeated experiments. Toxin complex (Tc) gene clusters, which encode insecticidal properties in Photorhabdus luminescens, were identified in the genomes of seven of the ten strains evaluated in this study. Within those seven genomes, six types of Tc gene clusters were identified, distinguished by gene content, organization and genomic location, but no correlation was observed between the presence of Tc genes and insect toxicity of the evaluated strains. Our results demonstrate that members of the P. fluorescens group have the capacity to kill insects by both FitD-dependent and independent mechanisms. PMID:27580176

  13. Iron-regulated metabolites produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374r are not required for eliciting induced systemic resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Djavaheri, Mohammad; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Versluis, C; Meyer, J-M; Loon, L C; Bakker, Peter A H M

    2012-09-01

    The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374r produces several iron-regulated metabolites, including the fluorescent siderophore pseudobactin (Psb374), salicylic acid (SA), and pseudomonine (Psm), a siderophore that contains a SA moiety. After purification of Psb374 from culture supernatant of WCS374r, its structure was determined following isoelectrofocusing and tandem mass spectrometry, and found to be identical to the fluorescent siderophore produced by P. fluorescens ATCC 13525. To study the role of SA and Psm production in colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana roots and in induced systemic resistance (ISR) against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) by strain WCS374r, mutants disrupted in the production of these metabolites were obtained by homologous recombination. These mutants were further subjected to transposon Tn5 mutagenesis to generate mutants also deficient in Psb374 production. The mutants behaved similar to the wild type in both their Arabidopsis rhizosphere-colonizing capacity and their ability to elicit ISR against Pst. We conclude that Psb374, SA, and Psm production by P. fluorescens WCS374r are not required for eliciting ISR in Arabidopsis.

  14. Survival and ecological fitness of Pseudomonas fluorescens genetically engineered with dual biocontrol mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bainton, N J; Lynch, J M; Naseby, D; Way, J A

    2004-10-01

    The antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl) is produced by a range of naturally occurring fluorescent pseudomonads. One isolate, Pseudomonas fluorescens F113, protects pea plants from the pathogenic fungus Pythium ultimum by reducing the number of pathogenic lesions on plant roots, but with a concurrent reduction in the emergence of plants such as pea. The genes responsible for Phl production have been shown to be functionally conserved between the wild-type (wt) P. fluorescens strains F113 and Q2-87. In this study the genes from F113 were isolated using an optimized long PCR method and a 6.7-kb gene cluster inserted into the chromosome of the non-Phl-producing P. fluorescens strain SBW25 EeZY6KX. This strain is a lacZY, km(R) marked derivative of the wt SBW25 which effects biological control against the plant pathogen Pythium ultimum by competitive exclusion as a result of its strong rhizosphere-colonizing ability. We describe here the integration of the Phl antifungal and competitive exclusion mechanisms into a single strain, and the impact this has on survival and plant emergence in microcosms. The insertion of the Phl biosynthetic genes from the F113 into the SBW25 chromosome gave a Phl-producing transformant (strain Pa21) able to suppress P. ultimum through antibiotic production. The growth of Pa21 was not reduced in flask culture at 20 degrees C compared with its parent strain. When inoculated on pea seedlings, the strain containing the Phl operon behaved similarly to the SBW25 EeZY6KX parent but did not show the tendency of the wt Phl producer F113 to cause lower pea seed emergence. Pea roots inoculated with SBW25 EeZY6KX have significantly lower indigenous populations than with F113 and the control. This is indicative of this strain's strong colonising presence. Pa21, the Phl-modified strain, is able to exclude the resident population from roots to the same degree as the SBW25 EeZY6KX from which it is derived. This suggests that it has maintained its

  15. Comparative genomics of Pseudomonas fluorescens subclade III strains from human lungs.

    PubMed

    Scales, Brittan S; Erb-Downward, John R; Huffnagle, Ian M; LiPuma, John J; Huffnagle, Gary B

    2015-12-07

    While the taxonomy and genomics of environmental strains from the P. fluorescens species-complex has been reported, little is known about P. fluorescens strains from clinical samples. In this report, we provide the first genomic analysis of P. fluorescens strains in which human vs. environmental isolates are compared. Seven P. fluorescens strains were isolated from respiratory samples from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The clinical strains could grow at a higher temperature (>34 °C) than has been reported for environmental strains. Draft genomes were generated for all of the clinical strains, and multi-locus sequence analysis placed them within subclade III of the P. fluorescens species-complex. All strains encoded type- II, -III, -IV, and -VI secretion systems, as well as the widespread colonization island (WCI). This is the first description of a WCI in P. fluorescens strains. All strains also encoded a complete I2/PfiT locus and showed evidence of horizontal gene transfer. The clinical strains were found to differ from the environmental strains in the number of genes involved in metal resistance, which may be a possible adaptation to chronic antibiotic exposure in the CF lung. This is the largest comparative genomics analysis of P. fluorescens subclade III strains to date and includes the first clinical isolates. At a global level, the clinical P. fluorescens subclade III strains were largely indistinguishable from environmental P. fluorescens subclade III strains, supporting the idea that identifying strains as 'environmental' vs 'clinical' is not a phenotypic trait. Rather, strains within P. fluorescens subclade III will colonize and persist in any niche that provides the requirements necessary for growth.

  16. The effect of rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens on model bacterial strains and isolates from industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Vasileva-Tonkova, Evgenia; Sotirova, Anna; Galabova, Danka

    2011-02-01

    In this study, the effect of rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens on bacterial strains, laboratory strains, and isolates from industrial wastewater was investigated. It was shown that biosurfactant, depending on the concentration, has a neutral or detrimental effect on the growth and protein release of model Gram (+) strain Bacillus subtilis 168. The growth and protein release of model Gram (-) strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1390 was not influenced by the presence of biosurfactant in the medium. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant at the used concentrations supported the growth of some slow growing on hexadecane bacterial isolates, members of the microbial community. Changes in cell surface hydrophobicity and permeability of some Gram (+) and Gram (-) isolates in the presence of rhamnolipid biosurfactant were followed in experiments in vitro. It was found that bacterial cells treated with biosurfactant became more or less hydrophobic than untreated cells depending on individual characteristics and abilities of the strains. For all treated strains, an increase in the amount of released protein was observed with increasing the amount of biosurfactant, probably due to increased cell permeability as a result of changes in the organization of cell surface structures. The results obtained could contribute to clarify the relationships between members of the microbial community as well as suggest the efficiency of surface properties of rhamnolipid biosurfactant from Pseudomonas fluorescens making it potentially applicable in bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted environments.

  17. No Apparent Costs for Facultative Antibiotic Production by the Soil Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1

    PubMed Central

    Garbeva, Paolina; Tyc, Olaf; Remus-Emsermann, Mitja N. P.; van der Wal, Annemieke; Vos, Michiel; Silby, Mark; de Boer, Wietse

    2011-01-01

    Background Many soil-inhabiting bacteria are known to produce secondary metabolites that can suppress microorganisms competing for the same resources. The production of antimicrobial compounds is expected to incur fitness costs for the producing bacteria. Such costs form the basis for models on the co-existence of antibiotic-producing and non-antibiotic producing strains. However, so far studies quantifying the costs of antibiotic production by bacteria are scarce. The current study reports on possible costs, for antibiotic production by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1, a soil bacterium that is induced to produce a broad-spectrum antibiotic when it is confronted with non-related bacterial competitors or supernatants of their cultures. Methodology and Principal Findings We measured the possible cost of antibiotic production for Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 by monitoring changes in growth rate with and without induction of antibiotic production by supernatant of a bacterial competitor, namely Pedobacter sp.. Experiments were performed in liquid as well as on semi-solid media under nutrient-limited conditions that are expected to most clearly reveal fitness costs. Our results did not reveal any significant costs for production of antibiotics by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1. Comparison of growth rates of the antibiotic-producing wild-type cells with those of non-antibiotic producing mutants did not reveal costs of antibiotic production either. Significance Based on our findings we propose that the facultative production of antibiotics might not be selected to mitigate metabolic costs, but instead might be advantageous because it limits the risk of competitors evolving resistance, or even the risk of competitors feeding on the compounds produced. PMID:22110622

  18. Bistability in a Metabolic Network Underpins the De Novo Evolution of Colony Switching in Pseudomonas fluorescens

    PubMed Central

    Gallie, Jenna; Libby, Eric; Bertels, Frederic; Remigi, Philippe; Jendresen, Christian B.; Ferguson, Gayle C.; Desprat, Nicolas; Buffing, Marieke F.; Sauer, Uwe; Beaumont, Hubertus J. E.; Martinussen, Jan; Kilstrup, Mogens; Rainey, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Phenotype switching is commonly observed in nature. This prevalence has allowed the elucidation of a number of underlying molecular mechanisms. However, little is known about how phenotypic switches arise and function in their early evolutionary stages. The first opportunity to provide empirical insight was delivered by an experiment in which populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 evolved, de novo, the ability to switch between two colony phenotypes. Here we unravel the molecular mechanism behind colony switching, revealing how a single nucleotide change in a gene enmeshed in central metabolism (carB) generates such a striking phenotype. We show that colony switching is underpinned by ON/OFF expression of capsules consisting of a colanic acid-like polymer. We use molecular genetics, biochemical analyses, and experimental evolution to establish that capsule switching results from perturbation of the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway. Of central importance is a bifurcation point at which uracil triphosphate is partitioned towards either nucleotide metabolism or polymer production. This bifurcation marks a cell-fate decision point whereby cells with relatively high pyrimidine levels favour nucleotide metabolism (capsule OFF), while cells with lower pyrimidine levels divert resources towards polymer biosynthesis (capsule ON). This decision point is present and functional in the wild-type strain. Finally, we present a simple mathematical model demonstrating that the molecular components of the decision point are capable of producing switching. Despite its simple mutational cause, the connection between genotype and phenotype is complex and multidimensional, offering a rare glimpse of how noise in regulatory networks can provide opportunity for evolution. PMID:25763575

  19. Biodegradation of phenol, salicylic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and iomeprol by Pseudomonas fluorescens in the capillary fringe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hack, Norman; Reinwand, Christian; Abbt-Braun, Gudrun; Horn, Harald; Frimmel, Fritz H.

    2015-12-01

    Mass transfer and biological transformation phenomena in the capillary fringe were studied using phenol, salicylic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and the iodinated X-ray contrast agent iomeprol as model organic compounds and the microorganism strain Pseudomonas fluorescens. Three experimental approaches were used: Batch experiments (uniform water saturation and transport by diffusion), in static columns (with a gradient of water saturation and advective transport in the capillaries) and in a flow-through cell (with a gradient of water saturation and transport by horizontal and vertical flow: 2-dimension flow-through microcosm). The reactors employed for the experiments were filled with quartz sand of defined particle size distribution (dp = 200…600 μm, porosity ε = 0.42). Batch experiments showed that phenol and salicylic acid have a high, whereas benzenesulfonic acid and iomeprol have a quite low potential for biodegradation under aerobic conditions and in a matrix nearly close to water saturation. Batch experiments under anoxic conditions with nitrate as electron acceptor revealed that the biodegradation of the model compounds was lower than under aerobic conditions. Nevertheless, the experiments showed that the moisture content was also responsible for an optimized transport in the liquid phase of a porous medium. Biodegradation in the capillary fringe was found to be influenced by both the moisture content and availability of the dissolved substrate, as seen in static column experiments. The gas-liquid mass transfer of oxygen also played an important role for the biological activity. In static column experiments under aerobic conditions, the highest biodegradation was found in the capillary fringe (e.g. βt/β0 (phenol) = 0 after t = 6 d) relative to the zone below the water table and unsaturated zone. The highest biodegradation occurred in the flow-through cell experiment where the height of the capillary fringe was largest.

  20. Evolution of New Enzymatic Function by Structural Modulation of Cysteine Reactivity in Pseudomonas fluorescens Isocyanide Hydratase*

    PubMed Central

    Lakshminarasimhan, Mahadevan; Madzelan, Peter; Nan, Ruth; Milkovic, Nicole M.; Wilson, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Isocyanide (formerly isonitrile) hydratase (EC 4.2.1.103) is an enzyme of the DJ-1 superfamily that hydrates isocyanides to yield the corresponding N-formamide. In order to understand the structural basis for isocyanide hydratase (ICH) catalysis, we determined the crystal structures of wild-type and several site-directed mutants of Pseudomonas fluorescens ICH at resolutions ranging from 1.0 to 1.9 Å. We also developed a simple UV-visible spectrophotometric assay for ICH activity using 2-naphthyl isocyanide as a substrate. ICH contains a highly conserved cysteine residue (Cys101) that is required for catalysis and interacts with Asp17, Thr102, and an ordered water molecule in the active site. Asp17 has carboxylic acid bond lengths that are consistent with protonation, and we propose that it activates the ordered water molecule to hydrate organic isocyanides. In contrast to Cys101 and Asp17, Thr102 is tolerant of mutagenesis, and the T102V mutation results in a substrate-inhibited enzyme. Although ICH is similar to human DJ-1 (1.6 Å C-α root mean square deviation), structural differences in the vicinity of Cys101 disfavor the facile oxidation of this residue that is functionally important in human DJ-1 but would be detrimental to ICH activity. The ICH active site region also exhibits surprising conformational plasticity and samples two distinct conformations in the crystal. ICH represents a previously uncharacterized clade of the DJ-1 superfamily that possesses a novel enzymatic activity, demonstrating that the DJ-1 core fold can evolve diverse functions by subtle modulation of the environment of a conserved, reactive cysteine residue. PMID:20630867

  1. IMPACT OF SIPHONING ACTIVITY AND NATURALLY SUSPENDED PARTICLE LOAD ON MUSSEL KILL by PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Molloy

    2003-08-04

    Under this USDOE-NETL contract, the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens is being developed as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels. The specific purpose of the contract is to identify biotic and abiotic factors that affect mussel kill. Ingestion of these bacteria by zebra mussels is required to achieve kill, and tests evaluating factors that relate to mussel feeding are contained in this report. Specifically the impact of the following two factors were investigated: (1) Mussel siphoning behavior--In nature, zebra mussels typically have their two shells spread apart and their inhalant siphon tube extended from between their shells for taking food particles into their mantle cavities (Fig. 1). Our tests indicated that there is a direct correlation between mussel siphoning activity and mussel mortality achieved by a bacterial treatment. Therefore, to encourage mussel feeding on bacteria, future pipe treatments within power plants should be carried out using procedures which minimize disturbance to mussel siphoning. 2. Naturally suspended particle loads--Since bacterial cells are lethal only if ingested by mussels, waters containing very high levels of naturally suspended particles might reduce the mortality that can be achieved by a bacterial treatment. If true, this inhibition might occur as a result of particle exclusion, i.e., there could be reduced ingestion of bacterial cells since they represent a reduced percentage of all particles ingested. Our tests indicated that a range of particle concentrations that might naturally exist in a turbid river did not inhibit mussel kill by the bacterial cells, but that an artificially high load of natural particles was capable of causing a reduction in kill. To be conservative, therefore, future pipe treatments should be timed to occur when intake waters have relatively low quantities of naturally suspended particulate matter.

  2. Evolution of New Enzymatic Function by Structural Modulation of Cysteine Reactivity in Pseudomonas fluorescens Isocyanide Hydratase

    SciTech Connect

    Lakshminarasimhan, Mahadevan; Madzelan, Peter; Nan, Ruth; Milkovic, Nicole M.; Wilson, Mark A.

    2010-09-13

    Isocyanide (formerly isonitrile) hydratase (EC 4.2.1.103) is an enzyme of the DJ-1 superfamily that hydrates isocyanides to yield the corresponding N-formamide. In order to understand the structural basis for isocyanide hydratase (ICH) catalysis, we determined the crystal structures of wild-type and several site-directed mutants of Pseudomonas fluorescens ICH at resolutions ranging from 1.0 to 1.9 {angstrom}. We also developed a simple UV-visible spectrophotometric assay for ICH activity using 2-naphthyl isocyanide as a substrate. ICH contains a highly conserved cysteine residue (Cys101) that is required for catalysis and interacts with Asp17, Thr102, and an ordered water molecule in the active site. Asp17 has carboxylic acid bond lengths that are consistent with protonation, and we propose that it activates the ordered water molecule to hydrate organic isocyanides. In contrast to Cys101 and Asp17, Thr102 is tolerant of mutagenesis, and the T102V mutation results in a substrate-inhibited enzyme. Although ICH is similar to human DJ-1 (1.6 {angstrom} C-{alpha} root mean square deviation), structural differences in the vicinity of Cys101 disfavor the facile oxidation of this residue that is functionally important in human DJ-1 but would be detrimental to ICH activity. The ICH active site region also exhibits surprising conformational plasticity and samples two distinct conformations in the crystal. ICH represents a previously uncharacterized clade of the DJ-1 superfamily that possesses a novel enzymatic activity, demonstrating that the DJ-1 core fold can evolve diverse functions by subtle modulation of the environment of a conserved, reactive cysteine residue.

  3. Biodegradation of phenol, salicylic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and iomeprol by Pseudomonas fluorescens in the capillary fringe.

    PubMed

    Hack, Norman; Reinwand, Christian; Abbt-Braun, Gudrun; Horn, Harald; Frimmel, Fritz H

    2015-12-01

    Mass transfer and biological transformation phenomena in the capillary fringe were studied using phenol, salicylic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and the iodinated X-ray contrast agent iomeprol as model organic compounds and the microorganism strain Pseudomonas fluorescens. Three experimental approaches were used: Batch experiments (uniform water saturation and transport by diffusion), in static columns (with a gradient of water saturation and advective transport in the capillaries) and in a flow-through cell (with a gradient of water saturation and transport by horizontal and vertical flow: 2-dimension flow-through microcosm). The reactors employed for the experiments were filled with quartz sand of defined particle size distribution (dp=200...600 μm, porosity ε=0.42). Batch experiments showed that phenol and salicylic acid have a high, whereas benzenesulfonic acid and iomeprol have a quite low potential for biodegradation under aerobic conditions and in a matrix nearly close to water saturation. Batch experiments under anoxic conditions with nitrate as electron acceptor revealed that the biodegradation of the model compounds was lower than under aerobic conditions. Nevertheless, the experiments showed that the moisture content was also responsible for an optimized transport in the liquid phase of a porous medium. Biodegradation in the capillary fringe was found to be influenced by both the moisture content and availability of the dissolved substrate, as seen in static column experiments. The gas-liquid mass transfer of oxygen also played an important role for the biological activity. In static column experiments under aerobic conditions, the highest biodegradation was found in the capillary fringe (e.g. βt/β0 (phenol)=0 after t=6 d) relative to the zone below the water table and unsaturated zone. The highest biodegradation occurred in the flow-through cell experiment where the height of the capillary fringe was largest.

  4. Lipopeptide biosurfactant viscosin enhances dispersal of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Bygvraa Svenningsen, Nanna; Rybtke, Morten; de Bruijn, Irene; Raaijmakers, Jos M.; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Nybroe, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonads produce several lipopeptide biosurfactants that have antimicrobial properties but that also facilitate surface motility and influence biofilm formation. Detailed studies addressing the significance of lipopeptides for biofilm formation and architecture are rare. Hence, the present study sets out to determine the specific role of the lipopeptide viscosin in Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 biofilm formation, architecture and dispersal, and to relate viscA gene expression to viscosin production and effect. Initially, we compared biofilm formation of SBW25 and the viscosin-deficient mutant strain SBW25ΔviscA in static microtitre assays. These experiments demonstrated that viscosin had little influence on the amount of biofilm formed by SBW25 during the early stages of biofilm development. Later, however, SBW25 formed significantly less biofilm than SBW25ΔviscA. The indication that viscosin is involved in biofilm dispersal was confirmed by chemical complementation of the mutant biofilm. Furthermore, a fluorescent bioreporter showed that viscA expression was induced in biofilms 4 h prior to dispersal. Subsequent detailed studies of biofilms formed in flow cells for up to 5 days revealed that SBW25 and SBW25ΔviscA developed comparable biofilms dominated by well-defined, mushroom-shaped structures. Carbon starvation was required to obtain biofilm dispersal in this system. Dispersal of SBW25 biofilms was significantly greater than of SBW25ΔviscA biofilms after 3 h and, importantly, carbon starvation strongly induced viscA expression, in particular for cells that were apparently leaving the biofilm. Thus, the present study points to a role for viscosin-facilitated motility in dispersal of SBW25 biofilms. PMID:26419730

  5. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas fluorescens growing on molasses and its application in phenol degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryantia, Venty; Marliyana, Soerya Dewi; Wulandari, Astri

    2015-12-01

    A molasses based medium for the biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas fluorescens was developed, where the effect of pre-treated of molasses and medium composition were evaluated. Biosurfactant production was followed by measuring optical density (OD), surface tension and emulsifying index (E24) over 12 days of fermentation. The optimum condition for the biosurfactant production was obtained when a medium containing of 8 g/L nutrient broth, 5 g/L NaCl, 1 g/L NH4NO3 and 5% v/v pre-treated molasses with centrifugation was used as media with 3 days of fermentation. The biosurfactant was identified as a rhamnolipid type biosurfactant which had critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 801 mg/L and was able to reduce the surface tension of the water from 80 mN/m to 51 mN/m. The biosurfactants had water in oil (w/o) emulsion type. Biosurfactant was able to emulsify various hydrocarbons, which were able to decrase the interfacial tension about 50-75% when benzyl chloride, anisaldehyde and palm oil were used as immiscible compounds. The biosurfactant exhibited the E24 value of about 50% and the stable emulsion was reached up to 30 days when lubricant was used as an immiscible compound. Up to 68% of phenol was degraded in the presence of biosurfactant within 15 days, whereas only 56% of phenol was degraded in the absence of biosurfactant. Overall, the results exhibited that molasses are recommended for the rhamnolipids production which possessed good surface-active properties and had potential application in the enhancement of phenol degradation.

  6. Lipopeptide biosurfactant viscosin enhances dispersal of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 biofilms.

    PubMed

    Bonnichsen, Lise; Bygvraa Svenningsen, Nanna; Rybtke, Morten; de Bruijn, Irene; Raaijmakers, Jos M; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Nybroe, Ole

    2015-12-01

    Pseudomonads produce several lipopeptide biosurfactants that have antimicrobial properties but that also facilitate surface motility and influence biofilm formation. Detailed studies addressing the significance of lipopeptides for biofilm formation and architecture are rare. Hence, the present study sets out to determine the specific role of the lipopeptide viscosin in Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 biofilm formation, architecture and dispersal, and to relate viscA gene expression to viscosin production and effect. Initially, we compared biofilm formation of SBW25 and the viscosin-deficient mutant strain SBW25ΔviscA in static microtitre assays. These experiments demonstrated that viscosin had little influence on the amount of biofilm formed by SBW25 during the early stages of biofilm development. Later, however, SBW25 formed significantly less biofilm than SBW25ΔviscA. The indication that viscosin is involved in biofilm dispersal was confirmed by chemical complementation of the mutant biofilm. Furthermore, a fluorescent bioreporter showed that viscA expression was induced in biofilms 4 h prior to dispersal. Subsequent detailed studies of biofilms formed in flow cells for up to 5 days revealed that SBW25 and SBW25ΔviscA developed comparable biofilms dominated by well-defined, mushroom-shaped structures. Carbon starvation was required to obtain biofilm dispersal in this system. Dispersal of SBW25 biofilms was significantly greater than of SBW25ΔviscA biofilms after 3 h and, importantly, carbon starvation strongly induced viscA expression, in particular for cells that were apparently leaving the biofilm. Thus, the present study points to a role for viscosin-facilitated motility in dispersal of SBW25 biofilms.

  7. Initial characterization of a bolA homologue from Pseudomonas fluorescens indicates different roles for BolA-like proteins in P. fluorescens and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Koch, Birgit; Nybroe, Ole

    2006-09-01

    The RpoS-regulated bolA gene in Escherichia coli is important for the decrease in cell size during stationary phase or sudden carbon starvation. A Pseudomonas fluorescens strain mutated in a gene with homology to bolA reduced its cell size upon carbon starvation, and RpoS had little effect on bolA expression. The mutant grew slower than the wild-type strain in minimal medium with L-serine as the sole nitrogen source, while growth rates were similar on a mixture of L-serine and L-cysteine. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that the bolA homologue is the second gene in an operon where the two next ORFs encode putative proteins with homology to sulphurtransferases and protein disulphide isomerases. Complementation of the mutant phenotypes was only obtained by plasmids encoding BolA as well as the above two proteins. Growth phenotypes and gene homologies suggest that BolA-like proteins have different functions in E. coli and Pseudomonas.

  8. Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas fluorescens Strains PA4C2 and PA3G8 and Pseudomonas putida PA14H7, Three Biocontrol Bacteria against Dickeya Phytopathogens

    PubMed Central

    Cigna, Jérémy; Raoul des Essarts, Yannick; Mondy, Samuel; Hélias, Valérie; Beury-Cirou, Amélie

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strains PA4C2 and PA3G8 and Pseudomonas putida strain PA14H7 were isolated from potato rhizosphere and show an ability to inhibit the growth of Dickeya phytopathogens. Here, we report their draft genome sequences, which provide a basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in antibiosis against Dickeya. PMID:25635023

  9. Effect of Humic Fractions and Clay on Biodegradation of Phenanthrene by a Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain Isolated from Soil

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Calvo, Jose-Julio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    1998-01-01

    The mineralization of phenanthrene in pure cultures of a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain, isolated from soil, was measured in the presence of soil humic fractions and montmorillonite. Humic acid and clay, either separately or in combination, shortened the acclimation phase. A higher mineralization rate was measured in treatments with humic acid at 100 μg/ml. Humic acid at 10 μg/ml stimulated the transformation only in the presence of 10 g of clay per liter. We suggest that sorption of phenanthrene to these soil components may result in a higher concentration of substrate in the vicinity of the bacterial cells and therefore may increase its bioavailability. PMID:9687489

  10. Effect of humic fractions and clay on biodegradation of phenanthrene by a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain isolated from soil

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega-Calvo, J.J.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    1998-08-01

    The mineralization of phenanthrene in pure cultures of a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain, isolated from soil, was measured in the presence of soil humic fractions and montmorillonite. Humic acid and clay, either separately or in combination, shortened the acclimation phase. A higher mineralization rate was measured in treatments with humic acid at 100 {micro}g/ml. Humic acid at 10 {micro}g/ml stimulated the transformation only in the presence of 10 g of clay per liter. The authors suggest that sorption of phenanthrene to these soil components may result in a higher concentration of substrate in the vicinity of the bacterial cells and therefore may increase its bioavailability.

  11. Biocontrol of collar rot disease of betelvine (Piper betle L.) caused by Sclerotium rolfsii by using rhizosphere-competent Pseudomonas fluorescens NBRI-N6 and P. fluorescens NBRI-N.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anand; Mehta, Sangeeta; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2003-08-01

    Collar rot disease of betelvine (Piper betle L.) caused by Sclerotium rolfsii is difficult to control by conventional means by use of chemicals; therefore, use of biocontrol agents is desirable. In the present study, 186 bacterial strains of different morphological types were screened for their biocontrol activity against S. rolfsii under in vitro conditions. Two strains, Pseudomonas fluorescens NBRI-N6 and P. fluorescens NBRI-N, were selected for further studies because of their ability to inhibit the mycelial growth of the pathogen significantly. Spontaneous rifampicin-resistant (Rif) derivatives of P. fluorescens NBRI-N6 and P. fluorescens NBRI-N showing growth rate and membrane protein composition comparable to the wild type were selected to facilitate their monitoring in the rhizosphere. Field trials demonstrated that strain P. fluorescens NBRI-N6 was better than P. fluorescens NBRI-N in increasing the yield of betelvine significantly, whereas a consortium of the two strains controlled the disease more than either of the strains. The screening method should prove useful in identifying rhizosphere bacteria with the greatest potential for controlling diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi.

  12. Pseudomonas fluorescens Filamentous Hemagglutinin, an Iron-Regulated Protein, Is an Important Virulence Factor that Modulates Bacterial Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuan-Yuan; Chi, Heng; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a common bacterial pathogen to a wide range of aquaculture animals including various species of fish. In this study, we employed proteomic analysis and identified filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) as an iron-responsive protein secreted by TSS, a pathogenic P. fluorescens isolate. In vitro study showed that compared to the wild type, the fha mutant TSSfha (i) exhibited a largely similar vegetative growth profile but significantly retarded in the ability of biofilm growth and producing extracellular matrix, (ii) displayed no apparent flagella and motility, (iii) was defective in the attachment to host cells and unable to form self-aggregation, (iv) displayed markedly reduced capacity of hemagglutination and surviving in host serum. In vivo infection analysis revealed that TSSfha was significantly attenuated in the ability of dissemination in fish tissues and inducing host mortality, and that antibody blocking of the natural FHA produced by the wild type TSS impaired the infectivity of the pathogen. Furthermore, when introduced into turbot as a subunit vaccine, recombinant FHA elicited a significant protection against lethal TSS challenge. Taken together, these results indicate for the first time that P. fluorescens FHA is a key virulence factor essential to multiple biological processes associated with pathogenicity. PMID:27602029

  13. Identification of a New Phosphatase Enzyme Potentially Involved in the Sugar Phosphate Stress Response in Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Susan; Hrudikova, Radka; Zotchev, Sergey B; Ertesvåg, Helga

    2017-01-15

    The alginate-producing bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens utilizes the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) and pentose phosphate (PP) pathways to metabolize fructose, since the upper part of its Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway is defective. Our previous study indicated that perturbation of the central carbon metabolism by diminishing glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity could lead to sugar phosphate stress when P. fluorescens was cultivated on fructose. In the present study, we demonstrate that PFLU2693, annotated as a haloacid dehalogenase-like enzyme, is a new sugar phosphate phosphatase, now designated Spp, which is able to dephosphorylate a range of phosphate substrates, including glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate, in vitro The effect of spp overexpression on growth and alginate production was investigated using both the wild type and several mutant strains. The results obtained suggested that sugar phosphate accumulation caused diminished growth in some of the mutant strains, since this was partially relieved by spp overexpression. On the other hand, overexpression of spp in fructose-grown alginate-producing strains negatively affected both growth and alginate production. The latter implies that Spp dephosphorylates the sugar phosphates, thus depleting the pool of these important metabolites. Deletion of the spp gene did not affect growth of the wild-type strain on fructose, but the gene could not be deleted in the alginate-producing strain. This indicates that Spp is essential for relieving the cells of sugar phosphate stress in P. fluorescens actively producing alginate.

  14. Isolation and characterization of antimicrobial cyclic dipeptides from Pseudomonas fluorescens and their efficacy on sorghum grain mold fungi.

    PubMed

    Sajeli Begum, Ahil; Basha, Shaik Ameer; Raghavendra, Govardhanam; Kumar, Mallela Venkata Nagesh; Singh, Yukthi; Patil, Jagannath V; Tanemura, Yuhei; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at isolation and characterization of natural antifungal compounds for grain mold, a key parasitic fungal disease of sorghum. Pseudomonas fluorescens strain isolated from rhizosphere of groundnut crop was selected as a source. Its biocontrolling ability was assessed by testing some biochemical attributes such as phosphate-solubilization, and HCN, NH3 , indole-3-acetic acid, and siderophore production. The strain showed positive result for all except indole-3-acetic acid, revealing its suitability for a further study. The antibiotic-sensitivity pattern of the strain against 43 antibiotics was also established, which showed resistance to 15 antibiotics. The efficacy of P. fluorescens strain against grain mold was identified by dual culture technique. Hundred percent inhibition was found against Fusarium moniliforme, an important causative agent of this disease. The strain was fermented for secondary metabolites and extracted with AcOEt. Chromatographic separation of the extract yielded four known compounds, cyclo(L-Pro-L-Phe) (1), cyclo(trans-4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Leu) (2), cyclo(trans-4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Phe) (3), and cyclo(Gly-L-Pro) (4), which were characterized by spectral analysis and optical rotation. The crude extract, a mixture of 2 and 3, and isolated 1 were proved to be significantly effective against grain mold fungi. This is the first report on production of these cyclic dipeptides by P. fluorescens and their antagonistic properties.

  15. Induction of Laccase Activity in Rhizoctonia solani by Antagonistic Pseudomonas fluorescens Strains and a Range of Chemical Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Jonathan D.; Olsson, Stefan

    2001-01-01

    Fungi often produce the phenoloxidase enzyme laccase during interactions with other organisms, an observation relevant to the development of biocontrols. By incorporating the laccase substrate 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) into agar, we analyzed laccase induction in the plant-pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani when paired against isolates of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Substantial induction of R. solani laccase was seen only in pairings with strains of P. fluorescens known to produce antifungal metabolites. To study laccase induction further, a range of chemical treatments was applied to R. solani liquid cultures. p-Anisidine, copper(II), manganese(II), calcium ionophore A23187, lithium chloride, calcium chloride, cyclic AMP (cAMP), caffeine, amphotericin B, paraquat, ethanol, and isopropanol were all found to induce laccase; however, the P. fluorescens metabolite viscosinamide did not do so at the concentrations tested. The stress caused by these treatments was assessed by measuring changes in lipid peroxidation levels and dry weight. The results indicated that the laccase induction seen in pairing plate experiments was most likely due to calcium or heat shock signaling in response to the effects of bacterial metabolites, but that heavy metal and cAMP-driven laccase induction was involved in sclerotization. PMID:11319086

  16. Antigen 43 from Escherichia coli Induces Inter- and Intraspecies Cell Aggregation and Changes in Colony Morphology of Pseudomonas fluorescens

    PubMed Central

    Kjærgaard, Kristian; Schembri, Mark A.; Hasman, Henrik; Klemm, Per

    2000-01-01

    Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a surface-displayed autotransporter protein of Escherichia coli. By virtue of its self-association characteristics, this protein is able to mediate autoaggregation and flocculation of E. coli cells in static cultures. Additionally, surface display of Ag43 is associated with a distinct frizzy colony morphology in E. coli. Here we show that Ag43 can be expressed in a functional form on the surface of the environmentally important Pseudomonas fluorescens strain SBW25 with ensuing cell aggregation and frizzy colony types. Using green fluorescence protein-tagged cells, we demonstrate that Ag43 can be used as a tool to provide interspecies cell aggregation between E. coli and P. fluorescens. Furthermore, Ag43 expression enhances biofilm formation in P. fluorescens to glass surfaces. The versatility of this protein was also reflected in Ag43 surface display in a variety of other gram-negative bacteria. Display of heterologous Ag43 in selected bacteria might offer opportunities for rational design of multispecies consortia where the concerted action of several bacterial species is required, e.g., waste treatment and degradation of pollutants. PMID:10940019

  17. Pseudomonas fluorescens Filamentous Hemagglutinin, an Iron-Regulated Protein, Is an Important Virulence Factor that Modulates Bacterial Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan-Yuan; Chi, Heng; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a common bacterial pathogen to a wide range of aquaculture animals including various species of fish. In this study, we employed proteomic analysis and identified filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) as an iron-responsive protein secreted by TSS, a pathogenic P. fluorescens isolate. In vitro study showed that compared to the wild type, the fha mutant TSSfha (i) exhibited a largely similar vegetative growth profile but significantly retarded in the ability of biofilm growth and producing extracellular matrix, (ii) displayed no apparent flagella and motility, (iii) was defective in the attachment to host cells and unable to form self-aggregation, (iv) displayed markedly reduced capacity of hemagglutination and surviving in host serum. In vivo infection analysis revealed that TSSfha was significantly attenuated in the ability of dissemination in fish tissues and inducing host mortality, and that antibody blocking of the natural FHA produced by the wild type TSS impaired the infectivity of the pathogen. Furthermore, when introduced into turbot as a subunit vaccine, recombinant FHA elicited a significant protection against lethal TSS challenge. Taken together, these results indicate for the first time that P. fluorescens FHA is a key virulence factor essential to multiple biological processes associated with pathogenicity.

  18. Antigen 43 from Escherichia coli induces inter- and intraspecies cell aggregation and changes in colony morphology of Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Kjaergaard, K; Schembri, M A; Hasman, H; Klemm, P

    2000-09-01

    Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a surface-displayed autotransporter protein of Escherichia coli. By virtue of its self-association characteristics, this protein is able to mediate autoaggregation and flocculation of E. coli cells in static cultures. Additionally, surface display of Ag43 is associated with a distinct frizzy colony morphology in E. coli. Here we show that Ag43 can be expressed in a functional form on the surface of the environmentally important Pseudomonas fluorescens strain SBW25 with ensuing cell aggregation and frizzy colony types. Using green fluorescence protein-tagged cells, we demonstrate that Ag43 can be used as a tool to provide interspecies cell aggregation between E. coli and P. fluorescens. Furthermore, Ag43 expression enhances biofilm formation in P. fluorescens to glass surfaces. The versatility of this protein was also reflected in Ag43 surface display in a variety of other gram-negative bacteria. Display of heterologous Ag43 in selected bacteria might offer opportunities for rational design of multispecies consortia where the concerted action of several bacterial species is required, e.g., waste treatment and degradation of pollutants.

  19. Strategies developed by the marine bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens BA3SM1 to resist metals: A proteome analysis.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Isabelle; Hammann, Philippe; Kuhn, Lauriane; Bertrand, Martine

    2013-03-15

    A global proteomic evaluation of the response of the marine bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens BA3SM1 to Cd, Zn and Cu was performed by two dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry. When stressed with Cd, the most toxic metal for P. fluorescens BA3SM1, cell growth is rapidly affected and the number of proteins up-regulated (sixteen for 0.4 mM Cd) remains low in comparison with results obtained for Zn and Cu (twenty eight for 1.5mM Zn and forty four for 1.5 mM Cu). The changes in protein expression indicate that the cell adapts to metals by inducing essentially seven defense mechanisms: cell aggregation/biofilm formation (Zn=Cu>Cd); modification of envelope properties to increase the extracellular metal biosorption and/or control the uptake of metal (Cu>Zn); metal export (Cd=Zn and probably Cu); responses to oxidative stress (Cu>Zn>Cd); intracellular metal sequestration (Zn=Cu and probably Cd); hydrolysis of abnormally folded proteins (Cd=Cu), and the over-synthesis of proteins inhibited by metal (Cd>Cu>Zn). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that a marine P. fluorescens is able to acquire a metal-resistant phenotype, making the strain BA3SM1 a promising agent for bioremediation processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of bioformulation and delivery system of Pseudomonas fluorescens against bacterial leaf blight of rice (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae).

    PubMed

    Jambhulkar, P P; Sharma, P

    2014-09-01

    Antagonistic potential of Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate RRb-11 has been evaluated against bacterial leaf blight (BLB) pathogen of rice in vitro, in vivo, microplot and field tests. RRb-11 isolate mass multiplied in substrates like talc and kaolinite powder and bran of barley, soybean and wheat to prepare suitable bioformulation. The maximum shelf life of P. fluorescens was recorded in talc based bioformulation up to 150 days after storage. In rhizosphere competence study, the root rhizosphere of talc, kaolinite and barley based bioformulation treated plants showed good survivability and competence even up to 90 days after treatment. In field study, the talc based bioformulation was applied and the best results were obtained when talc based bioformulation of P. fluorescens RRb-11 was applied as seed treatment, seedling root dip and soil application in combination which reduced the disease by 92.3 and 88.5% over control in the year 2009 and 2010, respectively. This treatment also produced maximum yield of 3.88 t ha(-1) i.e., 61% greater than control.

  1. Role of secondary metabolites in the interaction between Pseudomonas fluorescens and soil microorganisms under iron-limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Deveau, Aurélie; Gross, Harald; Palin, Béatrice; Mehnaz, Samina; Schnepf, Max; Leblond, Pierre; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Aigle, Bertrand

    2016-08-01

    Microorganisms can be versatile in their interactions with each other, being variously beneficial, neutral or antagonistic in their effect. Although this versatility has been observed among many microorganisms and in many environments, little is known regarding the mechanisms leading to these changes in behavior. In the present work, we analyzed the mechanism by which the soil bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens BBc6R8 shifts from stimulating the growth of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor S238N to killing the fungus. We show that among the three secondary metabolites produced by the bacterial strain-the siderophores enantio-pyochelin and pyoverdine, and the biosurfactant viscosin-the siderophores are mainly responsible for the antagonistic activity of the bacterium under iron-limited conditions. While the bacterial strain continues to produce beneficial factors, their effects are overridden by the action of their siderophores. This antagonistic activity of the strain P. fluorescens BBC6R8 in iron-depleted environments is not restricted to its influence on L. bicolor, since it was also seen to inhibit the growth of the actinomycete Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC23877. We show that the strain P. fluorescens BBc6R8 uses different strategies to acquire iron, depending on certain biotic and abiotic factors. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Metabolism and biochemical pathway of n-butyl benzyl phthalate by Pseudomonas fluorescens B-1 isolated from a mangrove sediment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiang-Rong; Li, Hua-Bin; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2007-11-01

    n-Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical. Biodegradation of BBP was investigated using the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens B-1 isolated from mangrove sediment of Mai Po Nature Reserve of Hong Kong. The microorganism was capable of utilizing BBP as the sole source of carbon and energy while BBP was degraded in 6 days under aerobic batch culture conditions. The optimum pH, temperature, and salinity for BBP degradation by P. fluorescens B-1 was found to be 7.0, 37 degrees C, and 15 per thousand, respectively. Biodegradation of BBP was fitted to the first-order kinetics model. The process of BBP biodegradation was monitored by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultra-violet detection after solid-phase extraction. The major metabolites of BBP degradation were identified as mono-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, phthalic acid, and benzoic acid by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BBP-degrading activity of P. fluorescens B-1 was found mostly in the soluble fraction associated with the smaller fragments of cellular membranes. Results suggest that mineralization of BBP can be achieved by microorganism of the mangrove environment.

  3. Thiamine-Auxotrophic Mutants of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 Are Defective in Cell-Cell Signaling and Biocontrol Factor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Dubuis, Christophe; Rolli, Joëlle; Lutz, Matthias; Défago, Geneviève; Haas, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    In the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, the Gac/Rsm signal transduction pathway positively controls the synthesis of antifungal secondary metabolites and exoenzymes. In this way, the GacS/GacA two-component system determines the expression of three small regulatory RNAs (RsmX, RsmY, and RsmZ) in a process activated by the strain's own signal molecules, which are not related to N-acyl-homoserine lactones. Transposon Tn5 was used to isolate P. fluorescens CHA0 insertion mutants that expressed an rsmZ-gfp fusion at reduced levels. Five of these mutants were gacS negative, and in them the gacS mutation could be complemented for exoproduct and signal synthesis by the gacS wild-type allele. Furthermore, two thiamine-auxotrophic (thiC) mutants that exhibited decreased signal synthesis in the presence of 5 × 10−8 M thiamine were found. Under these conditions, a thiC mutant grew normally but showed reduced expression of the three small RNAs, the exoprotease AprA, and the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol. In a gnotobiotic system, a thiC mutant was impaired for biological control of Pythium ultimum on cress. Addition of excess exogenous thiamine restored all deficiencies of the mutant. Thus, thiamine appears to be an important factor in the expression of biological control by P. fluorescens. PMID:16597964

  4. Pseudomonas fluorescens induces strain-dependent and strain-independent host plant responses in defense networks, primary metabolism and photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, Dale A; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Karve, Abhijit A; Lu, Tse-Yuan S; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Tuskan, Gerald A; Chen, Jay; Martin, Madhavi Z; Jawdy, Sara; Weston, David; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Schadt, Christopher Warren

    2012-01-01

    Colonization of plants by nonpathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens strains can confer enhanced defense capacity against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Few studies, however, have linked defense pathway regulation to primary metabolism and physiology. In this study, physiological data, metabolites, and transcript profiles are integrated to elucidate how molecular networks initiated at the root-microbe interface influence shoot metabolism and whole-plant performance. Experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana were performed using the newly identified P. fluorescens GM30 or P. fluorescens Pf-5 strains. Co-expression networks indicated that Pf-5 and GM30 induced a subnetwork specific to roots enriched for genes participating in RNA regulation, protein degradation, and hormonal metabolism. In contrast, only GM30 induced a subnetwork enriched for calcium signaling, sugar and nutrient signaling, and auxin metabolism, suggesting strain dependence in network architecture. In addition, one subnetwork present in shoots was enriched for genes in secondary metabolism, photosynthetic light reactions, and hormone metabolism. Metabolite analysis indicated that this network initiated changes in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Consistent with this, we observed strain-specific responses in tryptophan and phenylalanine abundance. Both strains reduced host plant carbon gain and fitness, yet provided a clear fitness benefit when plants were challenged with the pathogen P. syringae DC3000.

  5. Induction of laccase activity in Rhizoctonia solani by antagonistic Pseudomonas fluorescens strains and a range of chemical treatments.

    PubMed

    Crowe, J D; Olsson, S

    2001-05-01

    Fungi often produce the phenoloxidase enzyme laccase during interactions with other organisms, an observation relevant to the development of biocontrols. By incorporating the laccase substrate 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) into agar, we analyzed laccase induction in the plant-pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani when paired against isolates of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Substantial induction of R. solani laccase was seen only in pairings with strains of P. fluorescens known to produce antifungal metabolites. To study laccase induction further, a range of chemical treatments was applied to R. solani liquid cultures. p-Anisidine, copper(II), manganese(II), calcium ionophore A23187, lithium chloride, calcium chloride, cyclic AMP (cAMP), caffeine, amphotericin B, paraquat, ethanol, and isopropanol were all found to induce laccase; however, the P. fluorescens metabolite viscosinamide did not do so at the concentrations tested. The stress caused by these treatments was assessed by measuring changes in lipid peroxidation levels and dry weight. The results indicated that the laccase induction seen in pairing plate experiments was most likely due to calcium or heat shock signaling in response to the effects of bacterial metabolites, but that heavy metal and cAMP-driven laccase induction was involved in sclerotization.

  6. Multistate outbreak of Pseudomonas fluorescens bloodstream infection after exposure to contaminated heparinized saline flush prepared by a compounding pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Gershman, Mark D; Kennedy, Donald J; Noble-Wang, Judith; Kim, Curi; Gullion, Jessica; Kacica, Marilyn; Jensen, Bette; Pascoe, Neil; Saiman, Lisa; McHale, Jean; Wilkins, Melinda; Schoonmaker-Bopp, Dianna; Clayton, Joshua; Arduino, Matthew; Srinivasan, Arjun

    2008-12-01

    Pharmaceutical compounding, the manipulation of ingredients to create a customized medication, is a widespread practice. In January 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was notified of 4 cases of Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteremia that were traced to contaminated heparinized saline intravenous flush syringes prepared as a compounded medical product. We reviewed medical records of symptomatic patients with P. fluorescens-positive cultures of blood specimens or sections of explanted catheters, reviewed the production process of syringes, performed syringe cultures, compared isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and examined catheters by scanning electron microscopy. We identified 80 patients in 6 states with P. fluorescens-positive cultures during December 2004-March 2006. Sixty-four patients (80%) had received a diagnosis of cancer. Seventy-four (99%) of 75 patients for whom information about catheter type was available had long-term indwelling catheters. Thirty-three (41%) of 80 cases were diagnosed 84-421 days after the patient's last potential exposure to a contaminated flush (delayed-onset cases). Compared with patients with early infection onset, more patients with delayed infection onset had venous ports (100% versus 50%; P <.001). By PFGE, clinical isolates from 50 (98%) of 51 patients were related to isolates cultured from unopened syringes. Scanning electron microscopy of explanted catheters revealed biofilms containing organisms morphologically consistent with P. fluorescens. This outbreak underscores important challenges in ensuring the safety of compounded pharmaceuticals and demonstrates the potential for substantially delayed infections after exposures to contaminated infusates. Exposures to compounded products should be considered when investigating outbreaks. Patients exposed to contaminated infusates require careful follow-up, because infections can occur long after exposure.

  7. Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 genome-wide mutant screen for resistance to the antimicrobial peptide alfalfa snakin-1.

    PubMed

    Ayub, Nicolás D; Fox, Ana R; García, Araceli N; Mozzicafreddo, Matteo; Cuccioloni, Massimiliano; Angeletti, Mauro; Pagano, Elba; Soto, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Snakin-1, a peptide produced by higher plants, has broad-spectrum antibiotic activity, inhibiting organisms ranging from Bacteria to Eukaryotes. However, the mode of action against target organisms is poorly understood. As a first step to elucidate the mechanism, we screened a mutation library of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 in LB and agar medium supplemented with alfalfa snakin-1 (MsSN1). We identified three biofilm formation-related Pseudomonas mutants that showed increased resistance to MsSN1. Genetic, physiological and bioinformatics analysis validated the results of the mutant screens, indicating that bacterial adhesion protein lapA is probably the target of MsSN1. Collectively, these findings suggest that snakin-1 acts on microbial adhesion properties. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The GacS-GacA two-component regulatory system of Pseudomonas fluorescens: a bacterial two-hybrid analysis.

    PubMed

    Workentine, Matthew L; Chang, Limei; Ceri, Howard; Turner, Raymond J

    2009-03-01

    The two-component regulatory system comprised of the sensor kinase, GacS, and its response regulator, GacA, is involved in regulation of secondary metabolism and many other aspects of bacterial physiology. Although it is known that the sensor kinases RetS and LadS feed into the GacS/GacA system, the mechanism through which this occurs is unknown, as are the protein-protein interactions in this system. To characterize and define these interactions, we utilized a bacterial two-hybrid system to study the interactions of GacS and GacA from Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0. Domains of GacA and GacS, identified through bioinformatics, were subcloned and their ability to interact in vivo was investigated. We found that the entire GacA molecule is required for GacA to interact with itself or GacS. Furthermore, the HisKA/HATPase/REC domains of GacS together are responsible for GacS interacting with GacA, while the HAMP domain of GacS is responsible for GacS interacting with itself. In addition, homologs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa hybrid sensor kinases, RetS and LadS, were identified in P. fluorescens, and shown to interact with GacS, but not GacA.

  9. Legionella pneumophila Persists within Biofilms Formed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Flavobacterium sp., and Pseudomonas fluorescens under Dynamic Flow Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Catherine R.; Muthye, Viraj; Cianciotto, Nicholas P.

    2012-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the agent of Legionnaires' disease pneumonia, is transmitted to humans following the inhalation of contaminated water droplets. In aquatic systems, L. pneumophila survives much of time within multi-organismal biofilms. Therefore, we examined the ability of L. pneumophila (clinical isolate 130b) to persist within biofilms formed by various types of aquatic bacteria, using a bioreactor with flow, steel surfaces, and low-nutrient conditions. L. pneumophila was able to intercalate into and persist within a biofilm formed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Flavobacterium sp. or Pseudomonas fluorescens. The levels of L. pneumophila within these biofilms were as much as 4×104 CFU per cm2 of steel coupon and lasted for at least 12 days. These data document that K. pneumoniae, Flavobacterium sp., and P. fluorescens can promote the presence of L. pneumophila in dynamic biofilms. In contrast to these results, L. pneumophila 130b did not persist within a biofilm formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, confirming that some bacteria are permissive for Legionella colonization whereas others are antagonistic. In addition to colonizing certain mono-species biofilms, L. pneumophila 130b persisted within a two-species biofilm formed by K. pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. Interestingly, the legionellae were also able to colonize a two-species biofilm formed by K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa, demonstrating that a species that is permissive for L. pneumophila can override the inhibitory effect(s) of a non-permissive species. PMID:23185637

  10. Expression of Fap amyloids in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, and P. putida results in aggregation and increased biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    Dueholm, Morten S; Søndergaard, Mads T; Nilsson, Martin; Christiansen, Gunna; Stensballe, Allan; Overgaard, Michael T; Givskov, Michael; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Otzen, Daniel E; Nielsen, Per H

    2013-01-01

    The fap operon, encoding functional amyloids in Pseudomonas (Fap), is present in most pseudomonads, but so far the expression and importance for biofilm formation has only been investigated for P. fluorescens strain UK4. In this study, we demonstrate the capacity of P. aeruginosa PAO1, P. fluorescens Pf-5, and P. putida F1 to express Fap fibrils, and investigated the effect of Fap expression on aggregation and biofilm formation. The fap operon in all three Pseudomonas species conferred the ability to express Fap fibrils as shown using a recombinant approach. This Fap overexpression consistently resulted in highly aggregative phenotypes and in increased biofilm formation. Detailed biophysical investigations of purified fibrils confirmed FapC as the main fibril monomer and supported the role of FapB as a minor, nucleating constituent as also indicated by bioinformatic analysis. Bioinformatics analysis suggested FapF and FapD as a potential β-barrel membrane pore and protease, respectively. Manipulation of the fap operon showed that FapA affects monomer composition of the final amyloid fibril, and that FapB is an amyloid protein, probably a nucleator for FapC polymerization. Our study highlights the fap operon as a molecular machine for functional amyloid formation. PMID:23504942

  11. Physiological and Morphological Changes Induced by Nutrient Limitation of Pseudomonas fluorescens 378 in Continuous Culture

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Anders; Molin, Göran; Weibull, Claes

    1990-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens 378 was studied in continuous culture at a dilution rate of 0.05 or 0.15 h−1 and under a limitation of carbon/energy, nitrogen, phosphorus, iron(III), or oxygen. Cultures were examined for nutritional consumption, production of biosurfactant AP-6 and lipase, and electron microscopy morphology. Morphological features were lysis and plasmolysis of the cells, vacuoles in the cells, granules in cell nuclei, and DNA coagulation during transmission electron microscopy preparation. Biosurfactant and lipase production were lost after 8 to 15 retention times, but under iron limitation and at low dilution rate they were maintained for more than 30 retention times. Consumption of nutrients varied between different cultures. Between 2.4 and 6.0 g of succinic acid per g (dry weight) was consumed; the highest value was obtained under phosphorus limitation. The uptake of nitrogen was mostly about 0.16 g/g (dry weight), and that of phosphorus varied between 13 and 58 mg/g (dry weight). Phosphorus-limited cells reduced their phosphorus consumption by at least 50% compared with other limitations. Cell morphology varied among different cultures. Up to 25% cell lysis occurred at the higher dilution rate. The frequencies of plasmolysis varied between 0 and 85%. Granules in nuclei were found in 65 to 100% of the cells. Vacuoles appeared mostly in low numbers, but at the lower dilution rate under phosphorus or iron limitation the frequencies increased to between 25 and 85%. At high dilution rate, the DNA coagulated in 30 to 70% of the cells. Multivariate data analysis demonstrated a general difference between the two tested dilution rates; i.e., both nutritional and morphological features differed more between the two tested dilution rates than between the different limitations. Cultures at the lower dilution rate changed more with time; this was especially pronounced for phosphorus or iron limitation. The data analysis also showed a correlation between

  12. Bioavailability of Iron to Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain A506 on Flowers of Pear and Apple.

    PubMed

    Temple, Todd N; Stockwell, Virginia O; Loper, Joyce E; Johnson, Kenneth B

    2004-12-01

    ABSTRACT The addition of 0.1 mM FeCl(3) to a defined culture medium induces the bacterial epiphyte Pseudomonas fluorescens strain A506 (A506) to produce an antibiotic toxic to the fire blight pathogen, Erwinia amylovora. Consequently, because A506 is registered and applied as a commercial product to suppress E. amylovora before floral infection of pear and apple, the relative availability of iron to A506 on surfaces of pear and apple flowers is of potential significance. An 'iron biosensor' construct of A506 was developed by transformation with an iron-regulated promoter (pvd) fused to a promoterless ice nucleation reporter gene (inaZ). This construct, A506 (pvd-inaZ), established high populations on pear and apple flowers, ranging from 10(4) to 10(6) CFU/flower. In seven trials on pear and apple trees, A506 (pvd-inaZ) expressed high ice nucleation activity (INA) on flowers, indicating limited iron bioavailability or a low-iron environment unlikely to induce antibiotic production by A506. A506 (pvd-inaZ) also colonized flowers when mixed with chemicals containing iron: FeSO(4) or the iron chelates ferric ethylenediaminedi-(o-hydroxyphenyl-acetic) acid (FeEDDHA) and ferric diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (FeDTPA). These compounds represent an array of commercial iron formulations applied to foliage to avert iron chlorosis. Treatment of flowers with a mixture of A506 (pvd-inaZ) and 3 mM FeEDDHA or FeDTPA significantly decreased INA compared with flowers treated with A506 (pvd-inaZ) in water. Lower concentrations (0.3 mM) of FeEDDHA, however, did not consistently suppress INA. These results indicate that apple and pear flowers represent an iron-limited environment to A506 and that treatment with 3 mM FeEDDHA is needed to increase significantly the level of iron available to this bacterium.

  13. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by endosymbiont Pseudomonas fluorescens CA 417 and their bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Syed, Baker; M N, Nagendra Prasad; B L, Dhananjaya; K, Mohan Kumar; S, Yallappa; S, Satish

    2016-12-01

    The present study emphasizes on biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their bactericidal activity against human and phytopathogens. Nanoparticle synthesis was performed using endosymbiont Pseudomonas fluorescens CA 417 inhabiting Coffea arabica L. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using hyphenated spectroscopic techniques such as UV-vis spectroscopy which revealed maximum absorption 425nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis revealed the possible functional groups mediating and stabilizing silver nanoparticles with predominant peaks occurring at 3346 corresponding to hydroxyl group, 1635 corresponding carbonyl group and 680 to aromatic group. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the Bragg's diffraction pattern with distinct peaks at 38° 44°, 64° and 78° revealing the face-centered cubic (fcc) metallic crystal corresponding to the (111), (200), (220) and (311) facets of the crystal planes at 2θ angle. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed presence of high intense absorption peak at 3keV is a typical characteristic of nano-crystalline silver which confirmed the presence of elemental silver. TEM analysis revealed the size of the nanoparticles to be in the range 5-50nm with polydisperse nature of synthesized nanoparticles bearing myriad shapes. The particle size determined by Dynamic light scattering (DLS) method revealed average size to be 20.66nm. The synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited significant antibacterial activity against panel of test pathogens. The results showed Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC 7407) and Xanthomonas campestris to be more sensitive among the test human pathogen and phyto-pathogen respectively. The study also reports synergistic effect of silver nanoparticles in combination with kanamycin which displayed increased fold activity up to 58.3% against Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC 7407). The results of the present investigation are promising enough and attribute towards

  14. Biological control of take-all and Rhizoctonia root rot of wheat by the cyclic lipopeptide-producing strain Pseudomonas fluorescens HC1-07

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudomonas fluorescens HC1-07, isolated from the phyllosphere of wheat grown in Hebei province, China, inhibited a broad range of plant pathogens, including Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici and Rhizoctonia solani AG-8, and suppressed the soilborne diseases of wheat, take-all and Rhizoctonia roo...

  15. Negative regulation of Germination-Arrest Factor (GAF) production in Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6 by a putative extracytoplasmic function sigma factor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6 secretes a Germination-Arrest Factor (GAF) that we have previously identified as 4-formylaminooxyvinylglycine. GAF irreversibly inhibits germination of the seeds of numerous grassy weed species and selectively inhibits growth of the bacterial plant pathogen Erwinia amylo...

  16. Genetics of Germination-Arrest Factor (GAF) production by Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6: Identification of a gene cluster essential for GAF biosynthesis.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genetic basis of the biosynthesis of the Germination-Arrest Factor (GAF) produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6, and previously identified as 4-formylaminooxyvinylglycine, has been investigated in the present study. In addition to its ability to inhibit the germination of a wide range of grass...

  17. Functional analysis of a biosynthetic cluster essential for production of 4-formylaminooxyvinylglycine, a germination-arrest factor from Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizosphere-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6 produces the germination-arrest factor, 4-formylaminooxyvinylglycine (FVG). FVG has previously been shown to both arrest the germination of weedy grasses and to inhibit the growth of the bacterial plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Very little is kno...

  18. The Rsm regulon of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101: role of small RNAs in regulation of lipopeptide biosynthesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101 inhibits growth of oomycete and fungal pathogens, and induces resistance in plants against pathogens and insects. To unravel regulatory pathways of secondary metabolite production in SS101, we conducted a genome-wide search for sRNAs and performed tra...

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas fluorescens Strains SF39a and SF4c, Potential Plant Growth Promotion and Biocontrol Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Lindsey K.; Underwood, Grace E.; McCully, Lucy M.; Bitzer, Adam S.; Godino, Agustina; Bucci, Vanni; Brigham, Christopher J.; Príncipe, Analía; Fischer, Sonia E.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens SF4c and SF39a, strains isolated from wheat rhizosphere, have potential applications in plant growth promotion and biocontrol of fungal diseases of crop plants. We report the draft genome sequences of SF4c and SF39a with estimated sizes of 6.5 Mb and 5.9 Mb, respectively. PMID:25814613

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of the Beneficial Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 8569, a Natural Isolate of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus)

    PubMed Central

    Nesemann, Kai; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Thuermer, Andrea; Daniel, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 8569 represents a natural isolate of the rhizosphere of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in Germany and possesses antagonistic potential toward the fungal pathogen Verticillium. We report here the draft genome sequence of strain DSM 8569, which comprises 5,914 protein-coding sequences. PMID:25814596

  1. Control of fire blight by Pseudomonas fluorescens A506 and Pantoea vagans C9-1 applied as single strains and mixed inocula

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The biological control agents Pseudomonas fluorescens A506 and Pantoea vagans C9-1 were evaluated individually and in combination for the suppression of fire blight of pear or apple in ten field trials inoculated with the pathogen Erwinia amylovora. The formulation of pathogen inoculum applied to b...

  2. Inner-membrane transporters for the siderophores pyochelin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and enantio-pyochelin in Pseudomonas fluorescens display different enantioselectivities.

    PubMed

    Reimmann, Cornelia

    2012-05-01

    Iron uptake and transcriptional regulation by the enantiomeric siderophores pyochelin (Pch) and enantio-pyochelin (EPch) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens, respectively, are stereospecific processes. The iron-loaded forms of Pch (ferriPch) and of EPch (ferriEPch) are recognized stereospecifically (i) at the outer membrane by the siderophore receptors FptA in P. aeruginosa and FetA in P. fluorescens and (ii) in the cytoplasm by the two AraC-type regulators PchR, which are activated by their cognate siderophore. Here, stereospecific siderophore recognition is shown to occur at the inner membrane also. In P. aeruginosa, translocation of ferriPch across the inner membrane is carried out by the single-subunit siderophore transporter FptX. In contrast, the uptake of ferriEPch into the cytoplasm of P. fluorescens was found to involve a classical periplasmic binding protein-dependent ABC transporter (FetCDE), which is encoded by the fetABCDEF operon. Expression of a translational fetA-gfp fusion was repressed by ferric ions, and activated by the cognate siderophore bound to PchR, thus resembling the analogous regulation of the P. aeruginosa ferriPch transport operon fptABCX. The inner-membrane transporters FetCDE and FptX were expressed in combination with either of the two siderophore receptors FetA and FptA in a siderophore-negative P. aeruginosa mutant deleted for the fptABCX operon. Growth tests conducted under iron limitation with ferriPch or ferriEPch as the iron source revealed that FptX was able to transport ferriPch as well as ferriEPch, whereas FetCDE specifically transported ferriEPch. Thus, stereospecific siderophore recognition occurs at the inner membrane by the FetCDE transporter.

  3. The Pseudomonas fluorescens Siderophore Pyoverdine Weakens Arabidopsis thaliana Defense in Favor of Growth in Iron-Deficient Conditions1

    PubMed Central

    Trapet, Pauline; Avoscan, Laure; Klinguer, Agnès; Pateyron, Stéphanie; Chervin, Christian; Mazurier, Sylvie; Lemanceau, Philippe; Wendehenne, David; Besson-Bard, Angélique

    2016-01-01

    Pyoverdines are siderophores synthesized by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. Under iron-limiting conditions, these high-affinity ferric iron chelators are excreted by bacteria in the soil to acquire iron. Pyoverdines produced by beneficial Pseudomonas spp. ameliorate plant growth. Here, we investigate the physiological incidence and mode of action of pyoverdine from Pseudomonas fluorescens C7R12 on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants grown under iron-sufficient or iron-deficient conditions. Pyoverdine was provided to the medium in its iron-free structure (apo-pyoverdine), thus mimicking a situation in which it is produced by bacteria. Remarkably, apo-pyoverdine abolished the iron-deficiency phenotype and restored the growth of plants maintained in the iron-deprived medium. In contrast to a P. fluorescens C7R12 strain impaired in apo-pyoverdine production, the wild-type C7R12 reduced the accumulation of anthocyanins in plants grown in iron-deficient conditions. Under this condition, apo-pyoverdine modulated the expression of around 2,000 genes. Notably, apo-pyoverdine positively regulated the expression of genes related to development and iron acquisition/redistribution while it repressed the expression of defense-related genes. Accordingly, the growth-promoting effect of apo-pyoverdine in plants grown under iron-deficient conditions was impaired in iron-regulated transporter1 and ferric chelate reductase2 knockout mutants and was prioritized over immunity, as highlighted by an increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea. This process was accompanied by an overexpression of the transcription factor HBI1, a key node for the cross talk between growth and immunity. This study reveals an unprecedented mode of action of pyoverdine in Arabidopsis and demonstrates that its incidence on physiological traits depends on the plant iron status. PMID:26956666

  4. Arabinanase A from Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. cellulosa exhibits both an endo- and an exo- mode of action.

    PubMed Central

    McKie, V A; Black, G W; Millward-Sadler, S J; Hazlewood, G P; Laurie, J I; Gilbert, H J

    1997-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. cellulosa expressed arabinanase activity when grown on media supplemented with arabinan or arabinose. Arabinanase activity was not induced by the inclusion of other plant structural polysaccharides, and was repressed by the addition of glucose. The majority of the Pseudomonas arabinanase activity was extracellular. Screening of a genomic library of P. fluorescens subsp. cellulosa DNA constructed in Lambda ZAPII, for recombinants that hydrolysed Red-dyed arabinan, identified five arabinan-degrading plaques. Each of the phage contained the same Pseudomonas arabinanase gene, designated arbA, which was present as a single copy in the Pseudomonas genome. The nucleotide sequence of arbA revealed an open reading frame of 1041 bp encoding a protein, designated arabinanase A (ArbA), of Mr 39438. The N-terminal sequence of ArbA exhibited features typical of a prokaryotic signal peptide. Analysis of the primary structure of ArbA indicated that, unlike most Pseudomonas plant cell wall hydrolases, it did not contain linker sequences or have a modular structure, but consisted of a single catalytic domain. Sequence comparison between the Pseudomonas arabinanase and proteins in the SWISS-PROT database showed that ArbA exhibits greatest sequence identity with arabinanase A from Aspergillus niger, placing the enzyme in glycosyl hydrolase Family 43. The significance of the differing substrate specificities of enzymes in Family 43 is discussed. ArbA purifed from a recombinant strain of Escherichia coli had an Mr of 34000 and an N-terminal sequence identical to residues 32-51 of the deduced sequence of ArbA, and hydrolysed linear arabinan, carboxymethylarabinan and arabino-oligosaccharides. The enzyme displayed no activity against other plant structural polysaccharides, including branched sugar beet arabinan. ArbA produced almost exclusively arabinotriose from linear arabinan and appeared to hydrolyse arabino-oligosaccharides by successively releasing

  5. New insights into Pseudomonas fluorescens alginate biosynthesis relevant for the establishment of an efficient production process for microbial alginates.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Susan; Mærk, Mali; Hrudikova, Radka; Valla, Svein; Ertesvåg, Helga

    2017-07-25

    Alginate denotes a family of linear polysaccharides with a wide range of industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Presently, all commercially available alginates are manufactured from brown algae. However, bacterial alginates have advantages with regard to compositional homogeneity and reproducibility. In order to be able to design bacterial strains that are better suited for industrial alginate production, defining limiting factors for alginate biosynthesis is of vital importance. Our group has been studying alginate biosynthesis in Pseudomonas fluorescens using several complementary approaches. Alginate is synthesised and transported out of the cell by a multiprotein complex spanning from the inner to the outer membrane. We have developed an immunogold labelling procedure in which the porin AlgE, as a part of this alginate factory, could be detected by transmission electron microscopy. No time-dependent correlation between the number of such factories on the cell surface and alginate production level was found in alginate-producing strains. Alginate biosynthesis competes with the central carbon metabolism for the key metabolite fructose 6-phosphate. In P. fluorescens, glucose, fructose and glycerol, are metabolised via the Entner-Doudoroff and pentose phosphate pathways. Mutational analysis revealed that disruption of the glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene zwf-1 resulted in increased alginate production when glycerol was used as carbon source. Furthermore, alginate-producing P. fluorescens strains cultivated on glucose experience acid stress due to the simultaneous production of alginate and gluconate. The combined results from our studies strongly indicate that the availability of fructose 6-phosphate and energy requires more attention in further research aimed at the development of an optimised alginate production process.

  6. Isolation and Antifungal and Antioomycete Activities of Aerugine Produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain MM-B16

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Yeop; Moon, Surk Sik; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2003-01-01

    The bacterial strain MM-B16, which showed strong antifungal and antioomycete activity against some plant pathogens, was isolated from a mountain forest soil in Korea. Based on the physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis, the bacterial strain MM-B16 was identical to Pseudomonas fluorescens. An antibiotic active against Colletotrichum orbiculare and Phytophthora capsici in vitro and in vivo was isolated from the culture filtrates of P. fluorescens strain MM-B16 using various chromatographic procedures. The molecular formula of the antibiotic was deduced to be C10H11NO2S (M+, m/z 209.0513) by analysis of electron impact mass spectral data. Based on the nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectral data, the antibiotic was confirmed to have the structure of a thiazoline derivative, aerugine [4-hydroxymethyl-2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-2-thiazoline]. C. orbiculare, P. capsici, and Pythium ultimum were most sensitive to aerugine (MICs for these organisms were approximately 10 μg ml−1). However, no antimicrobial activity was found against yeasts and bacteria even at concentrations of more than 100 μg ml−1. Treatment with aerugine exhibited a significantly high protective activity against development of phytophthora disease on pepper and anthracnose on cucumber. However, the control efficacy of aerugine against the diseases was in general somewhat less than that of the commercial fungicides metalaxyl and chlorothalonil. This is the first study to isolate aerugine from P. fluorescens and demonstrate its in vitro and in vivo antifungal and antioomycete activities against C. orbiculare and P. capsici. PMID:12676678

  7. Enhanced citric acid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 by overexpression of the Escherichia coli citrate synthase gene.

    PubMed

    Buch, Aditi D; Archana, G; Kumar, G Naresh

    2009-08-01

    Citric acid secretion by fluorescent pseudomonads has a distinct significance in microbial phosphate solubilization. The role of citrate synthase in citric acid biosynthesis and glucose catabolism in pseudomonads was investigated by overexpressing the Escherichia coli citrate synthase (gltA) gene in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525. The resultant approximately 2-fold increase in citrate synthase activity in the gltA-overexpressing strain Pf(pAB7) enhanced the intracellular and extracellular citric acid yields during the stationary phase, by about 2- and 26-fold, respectively, as compared to the control, without affecting the growth rate, glucose depletion rate or biomass yield. Decreased glucose consumption was paralleled by increased gluconic acid production due to an increase in glucose dehydrogenase activity. While the extracellular acetic acid yield increased in Pf(pAB7), pyruvic acid secretion decreased, correlating with an increase in pyruvate carboxylase activity and suggesting an increased demand for the anabolic precursor oxaloacetate. Activities of two other key enzymes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase, remained unaltered, and the contribution of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and isocitrate lyase to glucose catabolism was negligible. Strain Pf(pAB7) demonstrated an enhanced phosphate-solubilizing ability compared to the control. Co-expression of the Synechococcus elongatus PCC 6301 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and E. coli gltA genes in P. fluorescens ATCC 13525, so as to supplement oxaloacetate for citrate biosynthesis, neither significantly affected citrate biosynthesis nor caused any change in the other physiological and biochemical parameters measured, despite approximately 1.3- and 5-fold increases in citrate synthase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities, respectively. Thus, our results demonstrate that citrate synthase is rate-limiting in enhancing citrate biosynthesis in P. fluorescens ATCC 13525

  8. Susceptibility of Mycobacterium immunogenum and Pseudomonas fluorescens to formaldehyde and non-formaldehyde biocides in semi-synthetic metalworking fluids.

    PubMed

    Selvaraju, Suresh B; Khan, Izhar U H; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2011-01-20

    Mycobacterium immunogenum, a newly identified member of the Mycobacterium chelonae_M. abscessus complex is considered a potential etiological agent for hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in machine workers exposed to contaminated metalworking fluid (MWF). This study investigated the biocidal efficacy of the frequently applied commercial formaldehyde-releasing (HCHO) biocides Grotan and Bioban CS 1135 and non-HCHO type biocides Kathon 886 MW (isothiazolone) and Preventol CMK 40 (phenolic) toward this emerging mycobacterial species (M. immunogenum) in HP-linked MWFs, alone and in presence of a representative of the Gram-negative bacterial contaminants, Pseudomonas fluorescens, using two semi-synthetic MWF matrices (designated Fluid A and Fluid B). Relative biocide susceptibility analysis indicated M immunogenum to be comparatively more resistant (2-1600 fold) than P. fluorescens to the tested biocides under the varied test conditions. In terms of minimum inhibitory concentration, Kathon was the most effective biocide against M. immunogenum. Fluid factors had a major effect on the biocide susceptibility. Fluid A formulation provided greater protective advantage to the test organisms than Fluid B. Fluid dialysis (Fluid A) led to an increased biocidal efficacy of Grotan, Kathon and Preventol against M. immunogenum further implying the role of native fluid components. Used fluid matrix, in general, increased the resistance of the two test organisms against the biocides, with certain exceptions. M. immunogenum resistance increased in presence of the co-contaminant P. fluorescens. Collectively, the results show a multifactorial nature of the biocide susceptibility of MWF-colonizing mycobacteria and highlight the importance of more rigorous efficacy testing and validation of biocides prior to and during their application in metalworking fluid operations.

  9. Construction and Application of Variants of the Pseudomonas fluorescens EBC191 Arylacetonitrilase for Increased Production of Acids or Amides▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sosedov, Olga; Baum, Stefanie; Bürger, Sibylle; Matzer, Kathrin; Kiziak, Christoph; Stolz, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The arylacetonitrilase from Pseudomonas fluorescens EBC191 differs from previously studied arylacetonitrilases by its low enantiospecificity during the turnover of mandelonitrile and by the large amounts of amides that are formed in the course of this reaction. In the sequence of the nitrilase from P. fluorescens, a cysteine residue (Cys163) is present in direct neighborhood (toward the amino terminus) to the catalytic active cysteine residue, which is rather unique among bacterial nitrilases. Therefore, this cysteine residue was exchanged in the nitrilase from P. fluorescens EBC191 for various amino acid residues which are present in other nitrilases at the homologous position. The influence of these mutations on the reaction specificity and enantiospecificity was analyzed with (R,S)-mandelonitrile and (R,S)-2-phenylpropionitrile as substrates. The mutants obtained demonstrated significant differences in their amide-forming capacities. The exchange of Cys163 for asparagine or glutamine residues resulted in significantly increased amounts of amides formed. In contrast, a substitution for alanine or serine residues decreased the amounts of amides formed. The newly discovered mutation was combined with previously identified mutations which also resulted in increased amide formation. Thus, variants which possessed in addition to the mutation Cys163Asn also a deletion at the C terminus of the enzyme and/or the modification Ala165Arg were constructed. These constructs demonstrated increased amide formation capacity in comparison to the mutants carrying only single mutations. The recombinant plasmids that encoded enzyme variants which formed large amounts of mandeloamide or that formed almost stoichiometric amounts of mandelic acid from mandelonitrile were used to transform Escherichia coli strains that expressed a plant-derived (S)-hydroxynitrile lyase. The whole-cell biocatalysts obtained in this way converted benzaldehyde plus cyanide either to (S)-mandeloamide or (S

  10. Photocatalytic disinfection of spoilage bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens and Macrococcus caseolyticus by nano-TiO2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Photocatalytic disinfection of spoilage bacteria gram-negative (G-) P. fluorescens and gram-positive (G+) M. caseolyticus by nano-TiO2 under different experimental conditions and the disinfection mechanism were investigated. The experimental conditions included the initial bacterial populations, nan...

  11. Evolution under different storage conditions of anomalous blue coloration of Mozzarella cheese intentionally contaminated with a pigment-producing strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Cenci-Goga, B T; Karama, M; Sechi, P; Iulietto, M F; Novelli, S; Mattei, S

    2014-11-01

    Several widespread occurrences of anomalous blue coloration of Mozzarella cheese have been recorded in the United States and some European countries. Official laboratory analysis and health authorities have linked the occurrences to contamination of the processing water with strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens, although several experts questioned how to unequivocally link the blue color to the presence of the microorganism. To establish a method to determine whether a given Pseudomonas spp. strain is responsible for the defect and study the evolution of the coloration under different storage conditions, we developed an in vitro system for the evaluation of blue coloration of Mozzarella cheese intentionally contaminated with strains of P. fluorescens. The purpose of the system was to determine whether P.fluorescens strains, isolated from Mozzarella cheese with anomalous blue coloration, were able to reproduce the blue coloration under controlled experimental conditions. Thirty-six trials of experimental inoculation of Mozzarella cheese in different preservation liquids were conducted using various suspensions of P.fluorescens (P. fluorescens ATCC 13525, P.fluorescens CFBP 3150, and P. fluorescens 349 field strain isolated from blue-colored Mozzarella cheese) at different concentrations and incubated at different temperatures. Growth curves of all tested P.fluorescens strains demonstrated that after 3 d of incubation the concentration was generally >10(6) cfu/g of Mozzarella cheese incubated in either tryptic soy broth (control) or conditioning brine. Prolonged incubation for 5 d at either 20 °C or 8 °C led to concentrations up to 10(9) cfu/g of Mozzarella cheese incubated in tryptic soy broth and up to 10(8) cfu/g of Mozzarella cheese incubated in preservation liquid. All Mozzarella cheeses inoculated with the field strain of P. fluorescens, except those opened 1h after packaging and stored at 8 °C, showed the characteristic anomalous blue coloration, which

  12. Characterization of an antibiotic produced by a strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens inhibitory to Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici and Pythium spp.

    PubMed

    Gurusiddaiah, S; Weller, D M; Sarkar, A; Cook, R J

    1986-03-01

    The production, isolation, and characterization of an antibiotic substance from cultures of Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79 (NRRL B-15132) is described. P. fluorescens 2-79 originally was isolated from the roots of wheat and is suppressive to the wheat root disease take-all caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. The antibiotic was isolated from potato glucose broth cultures of strain 2-79 by solvent extraction. It was purified by silica gel column chromatography and was a greenish yellow, needle-shaped crystal with a melting point of 242 degrees C (decomposition). It was soluble in methylene chloride, chloroform, acetone, 2 N sodium hydroxide, and 2 N hydrochloric acid and was insoluble in water, methanol, ethyl acetate, tetrahydrofuran, diethyl ether, carbon tetrachloride, hexane, and petroleum ether. On the basis of UV, infrared, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectral analysis, and elemental analysis, the structure of the antibiotic is proposed to be a dimer of phenazine carboxylic acid. Lithium aluminum hydride reduction of the antibiotic yielded hydroxymethyl phenazine as a major product which retained most of the biological characteristics of the parent molecule. There were no toxic symptoms when mice received this antibiotic by oral doses up to 464 mg/kg. The antibiotic showed excellent activity against several species of fungi, including the wheat pathogens Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, Rhizoctonia solani, and Pythium aristosporum; and it may have a role in suppression of take-all in vivo by strain 2-79.

  13. Mycorrhization between Cistus ladanifer L. and Boletus edulis Bull is enhanced by the mycorrhiza helper bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula.

    PubMed

    Mediavilla, Olaya; Olaizola, Jaime; Santos-del-Blanco, Luis; Oria-de-Rueda, Juan Andrés; Martín-Pinto, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    Boletus edulis Bull. is one of the most economically and gastronomically valuable fungi worldwide. Sporocarp production normally occurs when symbiotically associated with a number of tree species in stands over 40 years old, but it has also been reported in 3-year-old Cistus ladanifer L. shrubs. Efforts toward the domestication of B. edulis have thus focused on successfully generating C. ladanifer seedlings associated with B. edulis under controlled conditions. Microorganisms have an important role mediating mycorrhizal symbiosis, such as some bacteria species which enhance mycorrhiza formation (mycorrhiza helper bacteria). Thus, in this study, we explored the effect that mycorrhiza helper bacteria have on the efficiency and intensity of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between C. ladanifer and B. edulis. The aim of this work was to optimize an in vitro protocol for the mycorrhizal synthesis of B. edulis with C. ladanifer by testing the effects of fungal culture time and coinoculation with the helper bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula. The results confirmed successful mycorrhizal synthesis between C. ladanifer and B. edulis. Coinoculation of B. edulis with P. fluorescens doubled within-plant mycorrhization levels although it did not result in an increased number of seedlings colonized with B. edulis mycorrhizae. B. edulis mycelium culture time also increased mycorrhization levels but not the presence of mycorrhizae. These findings bring us closer to controlled B. edulis sporocarp production in plantations.

  14. Optimization of lipase production on agro-industrial residue medium by Pseudomonas fluorescens (NRLL B-2641) using response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    Tanyol, Mehtap; Uslu, Gülşad; Yönten, Vahap

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our research was to explore the most cost-efficient and optimal medium composition for the production of lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens (NRLL B-2641) culture grown on sunflower oil cake (SuOC) by applying response surface methodology (RSM). The oil cake was used instead of carbon sources. Peptone, ammonium sulphate and the carbon source (SuOC) were the most important factors as it is obligatory for microbial growth. Subsequently, the optimum values for the carbon source, peptone and ammonium sulphate were found to be 11.10% (w/v), 1.18% (w/v) and 0.83% (w/v), respectively. Experiments carried out under optimum conditions revealed a maximum lipase activity of 10.8 U mL−1, which was achieved after 48 h of fermentation. The obtained results were finally verified with batch experiments carried out under the optimum conditions evaluated and it was demonstrated that the SuOC from agro-industrial residue as substrates can be used as an inexpensive base (carbon source) for the production of lipase by P. fluorescens (NRLL B-2641). PMID:26740789

  15. Screening, Nucleotide Sequence, and Biochemical Characterization of an Esterase from Pseudomonas fluorescens with High Activity towards Lactones

    PubMed Central

    Khalameyzer, V.; Fischer, I.; Bornscheuer, U. T.; Altenbuchner, J.

    1999-01-01

    A genomic library of Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 50106 in a λRESIII phage vector was screened in Escherichia coli K-12 for esterase activity by using α-naphthyl acetate and Fast Blue RR. A 3.2-kb DNA fragment was subcloned from an esterase-positive clone and completely sequenced. Esterase EstF1 was encoded by a 999-bp open reading frame (ORF) and exhibited significant amino acid sequence identity with members of the serine hydrolase family. The deduced amino acid sequences of two other C-terminal truncated ORFs exhibited homology to a cyclohexanone monooxygenase and an alkane hydroxylase. However, esterase activity was not induced by growing of P. fluorescens DSM 50106 in the presence of several cyclic ketones. The esterase gene was fused to a His tag and expressed in E. coli. The gene product was purified by zinc ion affinity chromatography and characterized. Detergents had to be added for purification, indicating that the enzyme was membrane bound or membrane associated. The optimum pH of the purified enzyme was 7.5, and the optimum temperature was 43°C. The showed highest purified enzyme activities towards lactones. The activity increased from γ-butyrolactone (18.1 U/mg) to ɛ-caprolactone (21.8 U/mg) to δ-valerolactone (36.5 U/mg). The activities towards the aliphatic esters were significantly lower; the only exception was the activity toward ethyl caprylate, which was the preferred substrate. PMID:9925571

  16. The sigma factor RpoS is required for stress tolerance and environmental fitness of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Virginia O; Loper, Joyce E

    2005-09-01

    Many micro-organisms exist in natural habitats that are subject to severe or dramatically fluctuating environmental conditions. Such is the case for bacteria inhabiting plant surfaces, where they are exposed to UV irradiation, oxygen radicals, and large fluctuations in temperature and moisture. This study focuses on the role of RpoS, a central regulator of stationary-phase gene expression in bacterial cells, in stress response and environmental fitness of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5. Strain Pf-5 is a rhizosphere-inhabiting bacterium that suppresses plant diseases caused by several plant-pathogenic fungi and oomycetes. Previous studies demonstrated that rpoS was required for osmotic and oxidative stress resistance of Pf-5. The results of this study demonstrate a role for rpoS in tolerance of Pf-5 to freezing, starvation, UV irradiation and desiccation stress. In field studies, an rpoS mutant was compromised in rhizosphere colonization of plants in dry soil, whereas similar rhizosphere populations were established by Pf-5 and an rpoS mutant in well-irrigated soils. RpoS is a key determinant in stress response and environmental fitness of the rhizosphere bacterium P. fluorescens Pf-5.

  17. Evaluate the heavy metal toxicity to Pseudomonas fluorescens in a low levels of metal-chelates minimal medium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Yao, Jun; Chen, Huilun; Yi, Zhengji; Yu, Chan; Tuo, Yujie; Ma, Lan; Yu, Qian

    2014-01-01

    A 2-(n-morpholino)ethane sulfonic acid (MES)-buffered minimal medium with low levels of metal chelates was used to evaluate the heavy metal (Co+2, Pb+2, Zn+2, Fe+2, Fe+3, Cd+2, Cu+2, and Cr+6) toxicity to Pseudomonas fluorescens through minimizing the limitation of the existing medium. The interaction between bacteria and heavy metals was real-time monitored by microcalorimetry and reflected by thermogenic curves. Compared with the main parameters, microbial growth rate constant k and total heat evolution Q total, a general order of toxicity was found to be Fe+3fluorescens biomass identified by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and phosphoryl groups, which maybe involved in the biosorption of metal ions.

  18. The type III secretion system of biocontrol Pseudomonas fluorescens KD targets the phytopathogenic Chromista Pythium ultimum and promotes cucumber protection.

    PubMed

    Rezzonico, Fabio; Binder, Christian; Défago, Geneviève; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

    2005-09-01

    The type III secretion system (TTSS) is used by Proteobacteria for pathogenic or symbiotic interaction with plant and animal hosts. Recently, TTSS genes thought to originate from the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae were evidenced in Pseudomonas fluorescens KD, which protects cucumber from the oomycete Pythium ultimum (kingdom Chromista/Stramenopila). However, it is not known whether the TTSS contributes to plant protection by the bacterium and, if so, whether it targets the plant or the phytopathogen. Inactivation of TTSS gene hrcV following the insertion of an omega cassette strongly reduced the biocontrol activity of the pseudomonad against P. ultimum on cucumber when compared with the wild type, but had no effect on its root-colonization ability. Analysis of a plasmid-based transcriptional hrpJ'-inaZ reporter fusion revealed that expression in strain KD of the operon containing hrcV was strongly stimulated in vitro and in situ by the oomycete and not by the plant. In vitro, both strain KD and its hrcV mutant reduced the activity level of the pectinase polygalacturonase (a key pathogenicity factor) from P. ultimum, but the reduction was much stronger with the wild type. Together, these results show that the target range of bacterial TTSS is not restricted to plants and animals but also can include members of Chromista/Stramenopila, and suggest that virulence genes acquired horizontally from phytopathogenic bacteria were functionally recycled in biocontrol saprophytic Pseudomonas spp., resulting in enhanced plant protection by the latter.

  19. Changes in the electrochemical interface as a result of the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms on gold.

    PubMed

    Busalmen, Juan Pablo; de Sánchez, Susana R

    2003-06-05

    In this study, variations in corrosion potential and polarization resistance of thin-film gold electrodes as a result of the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms on them are presented. The growth of the volumetric cell fraction of biofilms, as determined by optical sectioning and digital image analysis of phase-contrast images, was found to be exponential during at least 10 hours of incubation. As a consequence of biofilm growth, an exponential decay of the corrosion potential of gold was observed. Most importantly, an increase in polarization resistance of the interface was observed following a strong linear dependence on the mean thickness of biofilms (r = 0.997), as a consequence of oxygen consumption and diffusion limitations. The results presented indicate that the measurement of polarization resistance may be a suitable technique that could be applied easily in industrial or biotechnological systems for monitoring the formation of biofilms. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 82: 619-624, 2003.

  20. The impact of culture medium on the development and physiology of biofilms of Pseudomonas fluorescens formed on polyurethane paint.

    PubMed

    Crookes-Goodson, Wendy J; Bojanowski, Caitlin L; Kay, Michelle L; Lloyd, Pamela F; Blankemeier, Andrew; Hurtubise, Jennifer M; Singh, Kristi M; Barlow, Daniel E; Ladouceur, Harold D; Matt Eby, D; Johnson, Glenn R; Mirau, Peter A; Pehrsson, Pehr E; Fraser, Hamish L; Russell, John N

    2013-01-01

    Microbial biofilms cause the deterioration of polymeric coatings such as polyurethanes (PUs). In many cases, microbes have been shown to use the PU as a nutrient source. The interaction between biofilms and nutritive substrata is complex, since both the medium and the substratum can provide nutrients that affect biofilm formation and biodeterioration. Historically, studies of PU biodeterioration have monitored the planktonic cells in the medium surrounding the material, not the biofilm. This study monitored planktonic and biofilm cell counts, and biofilm morphology, in long-term growth experiments conducted with Pseudomonas fluorescens under different nutrient conditions. Nutrients affected planktonic and biofilm cell numbers differently, and neither was representative of the system as a whole. Microscopic examination of the biofilm revealed the presence of intracellular storage granules in biofilms grown in M9 but not yeast extract salts medium. These granules are indicative of nutrient limitation and/or entry into stationary phase, which may impact the biodegradative capability of the biofilm.

  1. Aldol reactions of the trans-o-hydroxybenzylidenepyruvate hydratase-aldolase (tHBP-HA) from Pseudomonas fluorescens N3.

    PubMed

    Sello, Guido; Di Gennaro, Patrizia

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, a recombinant trans-o-hydroxybenzylidenepyruvate hydratase-aldolase (tHBP-HA) of Pseudomonas fluorescens N3 was used as a new catalyst for aldol condensation reactions. The reaction of some aldehydes with a different electronic activation catalyzed by tHBP-HA is presented and discussed together with some hints on the product structure. The enzyme is strictly pyruvate-dependent but uses different aldehydes as acceptors. The structure of the products is highly dependent on the electronic characteristics of the aldehyde. The results are interesting for both their synthetic importance and the mechanism of the formation of the products. Not only the products obtained and the recognition power are reported, but also some characteristics of its mechanism are analyzed. The results clearly show that the enzyme is efficiently prepared, purified, and stored, that it recognizes many different substrates, and that the products depend on the substrate electronic nature.

  2. Horizontal and vertical movement of Pseudomonas fluorescens toward exudate of Macrophomina phaseolina in soil: influence of motility and soil properties.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tanuja; Srivastava, Alok K; Arora, Dilip K

    2002-01-01

    The role of motility and cell surface hydrophobicity in transport and dispersal of Pseudomonas fluorescens strains LAM1-hydrophilic, LAM2-hydrophobic and LAM(NM) (non-motile mutant of LAM2) under different soil conditions was studied. Maximum adhesion was recorded for LAM2 in clay loam (70%), followed by sandy loam (68%) and sandy soil (40%). Vertical migration of P fluorescens isolates in soils was recorded at 5 and 25 cm flow of wafer or M. phaseolina exudate. In all the treatments, LAM1 exhibited maximum migration followed, by LAM2 and LAM(NM). The rate of migration of such isolates was lowered in water irrigated soils compared to those irrigated with M. phaseolina exudate. In sandy soil, cells of LAM1 migrated up to 13 cm in comparison to LAM2 (11 cm) and LAN(NM) (9 cm) at 5 cm flow of fungal exudate. Population of LAM1, LAM2 and LAM(NM) was 5.7, 5.68 and 5.61 log cfu g(-1) soil at 1 cm depth, but it decreased to 2.56, 2.21 and 1.99 log cfu during migration up to 11 cm in sandy soil at 5 cm flow of fungal exudate. Greater motility was observed in sandy soil irrigated with water or fungal exudate, followed by sandy loam and clay loam. In general, filtration coefficient (lambda) of P. fluorescens was higher in soils irrigated with 5 cm of water or exudate than with 25 cm of irrigation. The horizontal movement of P. fluorescens strains in sandy soil adjusted at different psi m showed marked reduction with decrease in psi m. The non-motile LAN(NM) did not show chemotactic response and migrated up to a maximum of 3 mm in saturated soils (0 kPa). After 96 h, LAM1 and LAM2 migrated upto 35 and 29 mm respectively in sandy soil. Motile isolates had significantly greater colonization of M. phaseolina sclerotia over the non-motile mutant.

  3. Adaptive Divergence in Experimental Populations of Pseudomonas fluorescens. V. Insight into the Niche Specialist Fuzzy Spreader Compels Revision of the Model Pseudomonas Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Gayle C.; Bertels, Frederic; Rainey, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a model for the study of adaptive radiation. When propagated in a spatially structured environment, the bacterium rapidly diversifies into a range of niche specialist genotypes. Here we present a genetic dissection and phenotypic characterization of the fuzzy spreader (FS) morphotype—a type that arises repeatedly during the course of the P. fluorescens radiation and appears to colonize the bottom of static broth microcosms. The causal mutation is located within gene fuzY (pflu0478)—the fourth gene of the five-gene fuzVWXYZ operon. fuzY encodes a β-glycosyltransferase that is predicted to modify lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O antigens. The effect of the mutation is to cause cell flocculation. Analysis of 92 independent FS genotypes showed each to have arisen as the result of a loss-of-function mutation in fuzY, although different mutations have subtly different phenotypic and fitness effects. Mutations within fuzY were previously shown to suppress the phenotype of mat-forming wrinkly spreader (WS) types. This prompted a reinvestigation of FS niche preference. Time-lapse photography showed that FS colonizes the meniscus of broth microcosms, forming cellular rafts that, being too flimsy to form a mat, collapse to the vial bottom and then repeatably reform only to collapse. This led to a reassessment of the ecology of the P. fluorescens radiation. Finally, we show that ecological interactions between the three dominant emergent types (smooth, WS, and FS), combined with the interdependence of FS and WS on fuzY, can, at least in part, underpin an evolutionary arms race with bacteriophage SBW25Φ2, to which mutation in fuzY confers resistance. PMID:24077305

  4. Influence of phenolic acids on indole acetic acid production and on the type III secretion system gene transcription in food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05.

    PubMed

    Myszka, Kamila; Schmidt, Marcin T; Olejnik-Schmidt, Agnieszka K; Leja, Katarzyna; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of these investigations was to evaluate the reduction capability of phenolic acids (ferulic, chlorogenic, gallic, and p-coumaric acids) on indole acetic acid synthesis by food-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens KM05. Specific genetic primer for the type III secretion system (TTSS) in P. fluorescens KM05 was designed and the influence of phenolic acids on its expression was investigated. In the work the ferulic and chlorogenic acids at the concentration of 0.02 and 0.04 μg/ml affected on bacterial growth pattern and the signal molecules production. The phenolic acids, that were appreciable effective against P. fluorescens KM05 indole acetic acid production, significantly suppressed TTSS gene.

  5. Type III Secretion System and Virulence Markers Highlight Similarities and Differences between Human- and Plant-Associated Pseudomonads Related to Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. putida

    PubMed Central

    Mazurier, Sylvie; Merieau, Annabelle; Bergeau, Dorian; Decoin, Victorien; Sperandio, Daniel; Crépin, Alexandre; Barbey, Corinne; Jeannot, Katy; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Plésiat, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is commonly considered a saprophytic rhizobacterium devoid of pathogenic potential. Nevertheless, the recurrent isolation of strains from clinical human cases could indicate the emergence of novel strains originating from the rhizosphere reservoir, which could be particularly resistant to the immune system and clinical treatment. The importance of type three secretion systems (T3SSs) in the related Pseudomonas aeruginosa nosocomial species and the occurrence of this secretion system in plant-associated P. fluorescens raise the question of whether clinical isolates may also harbor T3SSs. In this study, isolates associated with clinical infections and identified in hospitals as belonging to P. fluorescens were compared with fluorescent pseudomonads harboring T3SSs isolated from plants. Bacterial isolates were tested for (i) their genetic relationships based on their 16S rRNA phylogeny, (ii) the presence of T3SS genes by PCR, and (iii) their infectious potential on animals and plants under environmental or physiological temperature conditions. Two groups of bacteria were delineated among the clinical isolates. The first group encompassed thermotolerant (41°C) isolates from patients suffering from blood infections; these isolates were finally found to not belong to P. fluorescens but were closely related and harbored highly conserved T3SS genes belonging to the Ysc-T3SS family, like the T3SSs from P. aeruginosa. The second group encompassed isolates from patients suffering from cystic fibrosis; these isolates belonged to P. fluorescens and harbored T3SS genes belonging to the Hrp1-T3SS family found commonly in plant-associated P. fluorescens. PMID:25636837

  6. Effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens RB4 and Bacillus subtilis 189 on the phytoremediation potential of Catharanthus roseus (L.) in Cu and Pb-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Khan, Waheed Ullah; Ahmad, Sajid Rashid; Yasin, Nasim Ahmad; Ali, Aamir; Ahmad, Aqeel

    2017-06-03

    The remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils has become a critical issue due to toxic effects of these metals on living organisms. The current research was conducted to study the effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens RB4 and Bacillus subtilis 189 on the growth and phytoremediation potential of Catharanthus roseus in Cu- and Pb-contaminated soils. The bacterial strains exhibited significantly higher level of water-extractable Pb and Cu in Pb, Cu, and Cu+Pb-contaminated. The P. fluorescens RB4 inoculated plants, produced 102%, 48%, and 45% higher fresh weight (FW) in soils contaminated with Cu, Pb, and both elements, respectively, as compared to un-inoculated control plants. Similarly, B. subtilis 189 inoculated plants produced 108%, 43%, and 114% more FW in the presence of Cu, Pb, and both elements. The plants co-cultivated with both bacteria exhibited 121%, 102%, and 177% higher FW, in Cu, Pb, and both elements contaminated soils, as compared to respective un-inoculated control. Co-cultivation of P. fluorescens RB4, B. subtilis 189, and P. fluorescens RB4 + B. subtilis 189 resulted in higher accumulation of Cu and Pb in shoots of the C. roseus grown in contaminated soils as compared to un-inoculated control. Bacterial treatments also improved the translocation and metal bioconcentration factors. The growth and phytoextraction capability of C. roseus was improved by inoculation of P. fluorescens RB4 and B. subtilis 189.

  7. Influence of a Putative ECF Sigma Factor on Expression of the Major Outer Membrane Protein, OprF, in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens

    PubMed Central

    Brinkman, Fiona S. L.; Schoofs, Geert; Hancock, Robert E. W.; De Mot, René

    1999-01-01

    The gene encoding OprF, a major outer membrane protein in Pseudomonas species (formerly known as type 1 pseudomonads), was thought to be constitutively transcribed from a single sigma 70 promoter immediately upstream of the gene. We now report the identification of a novel putative ECF (extracytoplasmic function) sigma factor gene, sigX, located immediately upstream of oprF in both Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Pseudomonas fluorescens OE 28.3 and show that disruption of this gene significantly reduces OprF expression. In P. aeruginosa, Northern analysis demonstrated that this reduction was a result of an effect on transcription of monocistronic oprF combined with a polar effect due to termination of a transcript containing sigX and oprF. Comparison of sigX-disrupted and wild-type cell transcripts by primer extension indicated that monocistronic transcription of oprF occurs from two overlapping promoters, one that is SigX-dependent and resembles ECF sigma factor promoters in its minus-35 region and another promoter that is independent of SigX and is analogous to the sigma 70-type promoter previously reported. Complementation of the P. aeruginosa sigX-disrupted mutant with plasmid-encoded OprF did not resolve the phenotypes associated with this mutant, which included a markedly reduced logarithmic-phase growth rate in rich medium (compared to that in minimal medium), further reduction of the growth rate in a low-osmolarity environment, secretion of an unidentified pigment, and increased sensitivity to the antibiotic imipenem. This indicates that SigX is involved in the regulation of other genes in P. aeruginosa. Disruption of the sigX gene in P. fluorescens also had an effect on the logarithmic-phase growth rate in rich medium. A conserved sigX gene was also identified in a Pseudomonas syringae isolate and six P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. Collectively, these data indicate that an ECF sigma factor plays a role in the regulation and expression of OprF and also

  8. Proteomic Detection of Non-Annotated Protein-Coding Genes in Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Wook; Silby, Mark W.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Nicoll, Julie S.; Hixson, Kim K.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Levy, Stuart B.

    2009-12-24

    Genome sequences are annotated by computational prediction of coding sequences, followed by similarity searches such as BLAST, which provide a layer of (possible) functional information. While the existence of processes such as alternative splicing complicates matters for eukaryote genomes, the view of bacterial genomes as a linear series of closely spaced genes leads to the assumption that computational annotations which predict such arrangements completely describe the coding capacity of bacterial genomes. We undertook a proteomic study to identify proteins expressed by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 from genes which were not predicted during the genome annotation. Mapping peptides to the Pf0-1 genome sequence identified sixteen non-annotated protein-coding regions, of which nine were antisense to predicted genes, six were intergenic, and one read in the same direction as an annotated gene but in a different frame. The expression of all but one of the newly discovered genes was verified by RT-PCR. Few clues as to the function of the new genes were gleaned from informatic analyses, but potential orthologues in other Pseudomonas genomes were identified for eight of the new genes. The 16 newly identified genes improve the quality of the Pf0-1 genome annotation, and the detection of antisense protein-coding genes indicates the under-appreciated complexity of bacterial genome organization.

  9. Pseudomonas fluorescens transportome is linked to strain-specific plant growth promotion in Aspen seedlings under nutrient stress

    DOE PAGES

    Shinde, Shalaka; Cumming, Jonathan R.; Collart, Frank R.; ...

    2017-03-21

    Diverse communities of bacteria colonize plant roots and the rhizosphere. Many of these rhizobacteria are symbionts and provide plant growth promotion (PGP) services, protecting the plant from biotic and abiotic stresses and increasing plant productivity by providing access to nutrients that would otherwise be unavailable to roots. In return, these symbiotic bacteria receive photosynthetically-derived carbon (C), in the form of sugars and organic acids, from plant root exudates. PGP activities have been characterized for a variety of forest tree species and are important in C cycling and sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. The molecular mechanisms of these PGP activities, however, aremore » less well-known. In a previous analysis of Pseudomonas genomes, we found that the bacterial transportome, the aggregate activity of a bacteria's transmembrane transporters, was most predictive for the ecological niche of Pseudomonads in the rhizosphere. Here, we used Populus tremuloides Michx. (trembling aspen) seedlings inoculated with one of three Pseudomonas fluorescens strains (Pf0-1, SBW25, and WH6) and one Pseudomonas protegens (Pf-5) as a laboratory model to further investigate the relationships between the predicted transportomic capacity of a bacterial strain and its observed PGP effects in laboratory cultures. Conditions of low nitrogen (N) or low phosphorus (P) availability and the corresponding replete media conditions were investigated. We measured phenotypic and biochemical parameters of P. tremuloides seedlings and correlated P fluorescens strain-specific transportomic capacities with P. tremuloides seedling phenotype to predict the strain and nutrient environment-specific transporter functions that lead to experimentally observed, strain, and media-specific PGP activities and the capacity to protect plants against nutrient stress. These predicted transportomic functions fall in three groups: (i) transport of compounds that modulate aspen seedling root

  10. Pseudomonas fluorescens Transportome Is Linked to Strain-Specific Plant Growth Promotion in Aspen Seedlings under Nutrient Stress

    PubMed Central

    Shinde, Shalaka; Cumming, Jonathan R.; Collart, Frank R.; Noirot, Philippe H.; Larsen, Peter E.

    2017-01-01

    Diverse communities of bacteria colonize plant roots and the rhizosphere. Many of these rhizobacteria are symbionts and provide plant growth promotion (PGP) services, protecting the plant from biotic and abiotic stresses and increasing plant productivity by providing access to nutrients that would otherwise be unavailable to roots. In return, these symbiotic bacteria receive photosynthetically-derived carbon (C), in the form of sugars and organic acids, from plant root exudates. PGP activities have been characterized for a variety of forest tree species and are important in C cycling and sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. The molecular mechanisms of these PGP activities, however, are less well-known. In a previous analysis of Pseudomonas genomes, we found that the bacterial transportome, the aggregate activity of a bacteria's transmembrane transporters, was most predictive for the ecological niche of Pseudomonads in the rhizosphere. Here, we used Populus tremuloides Michx. (trembling aspen) seedlings inoculated with one of three Pseudomonas fluorescens strains (Pf0-1, SBW25, and WH6) and one Pseudomonas protegens (Pf-5) as a laboratory model to further investigate the relationships between the predicted transportomic capacity of a bacterial strain and its observed PGP effects in laboratory cultures. Conditions of low nitrogen (N) or low phosphorus (P) availability and the corresponding replete media conditions were investigated. We measured phenotypic and biochemical parameters of P. tremuloides seedlings and correlated P. fluorescens strain-specific transportomic capacities with P. tremuloides seedling phenotype to predict the strain and nutrient environment-specific transporter functions that lead to experimentally observed, strain, and media-specific PGP activities and the capacity to protect plants against nutrient stress. These predicted transportomic functions fall in three groups: (i) transport of compounds that modulate aspen seedling root

  11. Modeling the rate of attachment of Listeria monocytogenes, Pantoea agglomerans, and Pseudomonas fluorescens to, and the probability of their detachment from, potato tissue at 10 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Garrood, M J; Wilson, P D G; Brocklehurst, T F

    2004-06-01

    The rate of attachment of bacteria to, and their subsequent detachment from, the cut surface of raw potato tissue was measured and modeled by using mathematical approaches that allowed detailed objective comparisons of adhesion processes under different conditions. Attachment was rapid and reached equilibrium after contact for 60 min. A new method to measure the probability of detachment was developed and modeled, revealing that the probability of detachment for Pseudomonas fluorescens remained unchanged for contact times between less than 5 s and 60 min. Listeria monocytogenes, however, was more easily removed initially, with the probability of detachment decreasing over the first 2 min of contact but remaining constant and equivalent to that for Pseudomonas fluorescens thereafter. For all of the bacteria tested, the number of bacteria attached after 2 min of contact was proportional to the inoculum concentration raised to the power of 0.79.

  12. Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7, an indigenous root endophyte from olive (Olea europaea L.) and effective biocontrol agent against Verticillium dahliae

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7 is a native endophyte of olive roots. Previous studies have shown this motile, Gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium is an effective biocontrol agent against the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae, the causal agent of one of the most devastating diseases for olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivation. Here, we announce and describe the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7 consisting of a circular chromosome of 6,136,735 bp that encodes 5,567 protein-coding genes and 88 RNA-only encoding genes. Genome analysis revealed genes predicting factors such as secretion systems, siderophores, detoxifying compounds or volatile components. Further analysis of the genome sequence of PICF7 will help in gaining insights into biocontrol and endophytism. PMID:25685259

  13. Effect of growth temperature and pH on the aminopeptidase activity of Pseudomonas putida, P. fluorescens and Flavobacterium odoratum; the 4-nitroaniline test is reliable.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Tomas, L A; Ordoñez, J A; Mediavilla, C; Rodriguez-Marin, J L; Sarmiento, P; Zamora, A; Garcia de Fernando, G

    2008-01-01

    No significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed in the specific aminopeptidase activity (SAA) developed by Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. putida and Flavobacterium odoratum either growing at pH 5.0-6.5 or at 7 and 12 degrees C. Nevertheless, a significant difference was found when comparing the SAA of these organisms. The SAA of F. odoratum was lower than those of pseudomonads. The 4-nitroaniline test is reliable to estimate the G(-) load of fresh food products.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain CREA-C16 Isolated from Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Sorrentino, Roberto; Scotti, Riccardo; Salzano, Melania; Aurilia, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herein, we report the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CREA-C16, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that was isolated from the rhizosphere of Pisum sativum L. plants. The genome sequence is ~6 Mb in size, with a G+C content of 60.1%, and includes 4,457 candidate protein-encoding genes. PMID:28126933

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain CREA-C16 Isolated from Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, Nunzio; Sorrentino, Roberto; Scotti, Riccardo; Salzano, Melania; Aurilia, Vincenzo; Zaccardelli, Massimo

    2017-01-26

    Herein, we report the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CREA-C16, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that was isolated from the rhizosphere of Pisum sativum L. plants. The genome sequence is ~6 Mb in size, with a G+C content of 60.1%, and includes 4,457 candidate protein-encoding genes. Copyright © 2017 D’Agostino et al.

  16. Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas fluorescens Strains SF39a and SF4c, Potential Plant Growth Promotion and Biocontrol Agents.

    PubMed

    Ly, Lindsey K; Underwood, Grace E; McCully, Lucy M; Bitzer, Adam S; Godino, Agustina; Bucci, Vanni; Brigham, Christopher J; Príncipe, Analía; Fischer, Sonia E; Silby, Mark W

    2015-03-26

    Pseudomonas fluorescens SF4c and SF39a, strains isolated from wheat rhizosphere, have potential applications in plant growth promotion and biocontrol of fungal diseases of crop plants. We report the draft genome sequences of SF4c and SF39a with estimated sizes of 6.5 Mb and 5.9 Mb, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Ly et al.

  17. Identification of chemotaxis sensory proteins for amino acids in Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 and their involvement in chemotaxis to tomato root exudate and root colonization.

    PubMed

    Oku, Shota; Komatsu, Ayaka; Tajima, Takahisa; Nakashimada, Yutaka; Kato, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 showed positive chemotactic responses toward 20 commonly-occurring l-amino acids. Genomic analysis revealed that P. fluorescens Pf0-1 possesses three genes (Pfl01_0124, Pfl01_0354, and Pfl01_4431) homologous to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 pctA gene, which has been identified as a chemotaxis sensory protein for amino acids. When Pf01_4431, Pfl01_0124, and Pfl01_0354 were introduced into the pctA pctB pctC triple mutant of P. aeruginosa PAO1, a mutant defective in chemotaxis to amino acids, its transformants showed chemotactic responses to 18, 16, and one amino acid, respectively. This result suggests that Pf01_4431, Pfl01_0124, and Pfl01_0354 are chemotaxis sensory proteins for amino acids and their genes were designated ctaA, ctaB, and ctaC, respectively. The ctaA ctaB ctaC triple mutant of P. fluorescens Pf0-1 showed only weak responses to Cys and Pro but no responses to the other 18 amino acids, indicating that CtaA, CtaB, and CtaC are major chemotaxis sensory proteins in P. fluorescens Pf0-1. Tomato root colonization by P. fluorescens strains was analyzed by gnotobiotic competitive root colonization assay. It was found that ctaA ctaB ctaC mutant was less competitive than the wild-type strain, suggesting that chemotaxis to amino acids, major components of root exudate, has an important role in root colonization by P. fluorescens Pf0-1. The ctaA ctaB ctaC triple mutant was more competitive than the cheA mutant of P. fluorescens Pf0-1, which is non-chemotactic, but motile. This result suggests that chemoattractants other than amino acids are also involved in root colonization by P. fluorescens Pf0-1.

  18. Utilization of cyanide as nitrogenous substrate by Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764: evidence for multiple pathways of metabolic conversion.

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, D A; Nagappan, O; Silva-Avalos, J; Delong, G T

    1992-01-01

    The growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764 on cyanide as the sole nitrogen source was accomplished by use of a modified fed-batch cultivation procedure. Previous studies showing that cyanide metabolism in this organism is both an oxygen-dependent and an inducible process, with CO2 and ammonia representing conversion products, were confirmed. However, washed cells (40 mg ml-1 [dry weight]) metabolized cyanide at concentrations far exceeding those previously described; 85% of 50 mM KCN was degraded in 6 h. In addition, two other C1 metabolites were detected in incubation mixtures; their identities were confirmed as formamide and formate by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrocopy, high-pressure liquid chromatography, radioisotopic trapping experiments, and other analytical means. The relative yields of all four metabolites (CO2, formamide, formate, and ammonia) were shown to be dependent on the KCN concentration and availability of oxygen; at 0.5 to 10 mM substrate, CO2 was the major C1 product, whereas at 20 and 50 mM substrate, formamide and formate were principally formed. The latter two metabolites also accumulated during prolonged anaerobic incubation, suggesting that P. fluorescens NCIMB 11764 can elaborate several pathways of cyanide conversion. One is formally similar to that proposed previously (R. E. Harris and C. J. Knowles, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 20:337-341, 1983), involving the oxygen-dependent conversion of cyanide to CO2 and ammonia. The other two, occurring in the presence or absence of oxygen, involve separate reactions to yield, respectively, formate plus ammonia or formamide.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1622281

  19. Interaction between Medicago truncatula and Pseudomonas fluorescens: evaluation of costs and benefits across an elevated atmospheric CO(2).

    PubMed

    Lepinay, Clémentine; Rigaud, Thierry; Salon, Christophe; Lemanceau, Philippe; Mougel, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Soil microorganisms play a key role in both plants nutrition and health. Their relation with plant varies from mutualism to parasitism, according to the balance of costs and benefits for the two partners of the interaction. These interactions involved the liberation of plant organic compounds via rhizodeposition. Modification of atmospheric CO(2) concentration may affect rhizodeposition and as a consequence trophic interactions that bind plants and microorganisms. Positive effect of elevated CO(2) on plants are rather well known but consequences for micoorganisms and their interactions with plants are still poorly understood. A gnotobiotic system has been developed to study the interaction between Medicago truncatula Jemalong J5 and the mutualistic bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens strain C7R12 under two atmospheric CO(2) concentrations: ambient (365 ppm) versus enriched (750 ppm). Costs and benefits for each partner have been determined over time by measuring plant development and growth, the C and N contents of the various plant parts and the density of the bacteria in rhizosphere compartments. Following the increase in CO(2), there was a beneficial effect of P. fluorescens C7R12 on development, vegetative growth, and C/N content of M. truncatula. Concerning plant reproduction, an early seed production was noticed in presence of the bacterial strain combined with increased atmospheric CO(2) conditions. Paradoxically, this transient increase in seed production was correlated with a decrease in bacterial density in the rhizosphere soil, revealing a cost of increased CO(2) for the bacterial strain. This shift of costs-benefits ratio disappeared later during the plant growth. In conclusion, the increase in CO(2) concentration modifies transiently the cost-benefit balance in favor of the plant. These results may be explained either by a competition between the two partners or a change in bacterial physiology. The ecosystem functioning depends on the stability of many

  20. Biological control of wheat root diseases by the CLP-producing strain Pseudomonas fluorescens HC1-07.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Ming; Wen, Shan-Shan; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Mavrodi, Olga V; von Wettstein, Diter; Thomashow, Linda S; Guo, Jian-Hua; Weller, David M

    2014-03-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens HC1-07, previously isolated from the phyllosphere of wheat grown in Hebei province, China, suppresses the soilborne disease of wheat take-all, caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. We report here that strain HC1-07 also suppresses Rhizoctonia root rot of wheat caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-8. Strain HC1-07 produced a cyclic lipopeptide (CLP) with a molecular weight of 1,126.42 based on analysis by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Extracted CLP inhibited the growth of G. graminis var. tritici and R. solani in vitro. To determine the role of this CLP in biological control, plasposon mutagenesis was used to generate two nonproducing mutants, HC1-07viscB and HC1-07prtR2. Analysis of regions flanking plasposon insertions in HC1-07prtR2 and HC1-07viscB revealed that the inactivated genes were similar to prtR and viscB, respectively, of the well-described biocontrol strain P. fluorescens SBW25 that produces the CLP viscosin. Both genes in HC1-07 were required for the production of the viscosin-like CLP. The two mutants were less inhibitory to G. graminis var. tritici and R. solani in vitro and reduced in ability to suppress take-all. HC1-07viscB but not HC-07prtR2 was reduced in ability to suppress Rhizoctonia root rot. In addition to CLP production, prtR also played a role in protease production.

  1. Interaction between Medicago truncatula and Pseudomonas fluorescens: Evaluation of Costs and Benefits across an Elevated Atmospheric CO2

    PubMed Central

    Lepinay, Clémentine; Rigaud, Thierry; Salon, Christophe; Lemanceau, Philippe; Mougel, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Soil microorganisms play a key role in both plants nutrition and health. Their relation with plant varies from mutualism to parasitism, according to the balance of costs and benefits for the two partners of the interaction. These interactions involved the liberation of plant organic compounds via rhizodeposition. Modification of atmospheric CO2 concentration may affect rhizodeposition and as a consequence trophic interactions that bind plants and microorganisms. Positive effect of elevated CO2 on plants are rather well known but consequences for micoorganisms and their interactions with plants are still poorly understood. A gnotobiotic system has been developed to study the interaction between Medicago truncatula Jemalong J5 and the mutualistic bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens strain C7R12 under two atmospheric CO2 concentrations: ambient (365 ppm) versus enriched (750 ppm). Costs and benefits for each partner have been determined over time by measuring plant development and growth, the C and N contents of the various plant parts and the density of the bacteria in rhizosphere compartments. Following the increase in CO2, there was a beneficial effect of P. fluorescens C7R12 on development, vegetative growth, and C/N content of M. truncatula. Concerning plant reproduction, an early seed production was noticed in presence of the bacterial strain combined with increased atmospheric CO2 conditions. Paradoxically, this transient increase in seed production was correlated with a decrease in bacterial density in the rhizosphere soil, revealing a cost of increased CO2 for the bacterial strain. This shift of costs-benefits ratio disappeared later during the plant growth. In conclusion, the increase in CO2 concentration modifies transiently the cost-benefit balance in favor of the plant. These results may be explained either by a competition between the two partners or a change in bacterial physiology. The ecosystem functioning depends on the stability of many plant

  2. Identification of ice-nucleating active Pseudomonas fluorescens strains for biological control of overwintering Colorado potato beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Castrillo, L A; Lee, R E; Lee, M R; Rutherford, S T

    2000-04-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to identify ice-nucleating active bacterial strains able to elevate the supercooling point, the temperature at which freezing is initiated in body fluids, of Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), and to persist in their gut. Adult beetles fed ice-nucleating active strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. putida, or P. syringae at 10(6) or 10(3) bacterial cells per beetle had significantly elevated supercooling points, from -4.5 to -5.7 degrees C and from -5.2 to -6.6 degrees C, respectively, immediately after ingestion. In contrast, mean supercooling point of untreated control beetles was -9.2 degrees C. When sampled at 2 and 12 wk after ingestion, only beetles fed P. fluorescens F26-4C and 88-335 still had significantly elevated supercooling points, indicating that these strains of bacteria were retained. Furthermore, beetle supercooling points were comparable to those observed immediately after ingestion, suggesting that beetle gut conditions were favorable not only for colonization but also for expression of ice-nucleating activity by these two strains. The results obtained from exposure to a single, low dose of either bacterial strain also show that a minimum amount of inoculum is sufficient for establishment of the bacterium in the gut. Persistence of these bacteria in Colorado potato beetles long after ingestion was also confirmed using a polymerase chain reaction technique that detected ice-nucleating active bacteria by virtue of their ina genes. Application of these ice-nucleating active bacteria to elevate the supercooling point of this freeze-intolerant insect pest could significantly reduce their winter survival, thereby reducing local populations and, consequently, crop damage.

  3. The role of hydrodynamic stress on the phenotypic characteristics of single and binary biofilms of Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Simões, M; Pereira, M O; Vieira, M J

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the phenotype of turbulent (Re = 5,200) and laminar (Re = 2,000) flow-generated Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms. Three P. fluorescens strains, the type strain ATCC 13525 and two strains isolated from an industrial processing plant, D3-348 and D3-350, were used throughout this study. The isolated strains were used to form single and binary biofilms. The biofilm physiology (metabolic activity, cellular density, mass, extracellular polymeric substances, structural characteristics and outer membrane proteins [OMP] expression) was compared. The results indicate that, for every situation, turbulent flow-generated biofilms were more active (p < 0.05), had more mass per cm(2) (p < 0.05), a higher cellular density (p < 0.05), distinct morphology, similar matrix proteins (p > 0.1) and identical (isolated strains -single and binary biofilms) and higher (type strain) matrix polysaccharides contents (p < 0.05) than laminar flow-generated biofilms. Flow-generated biofilms formed by the type strain revealed a considerably higher cellular density and amount of matrix polysaccharides than single and binary biofilms formed by the isolated strains (p < 0.05). Similar OMP expression was detected for the several single strains and for the binary situation, not dependent on the hydrodynamic conditions. Binary biofilms revealed an equal coexistence of the isolated strains with apparent neutral interactions. In summary, the biofilms formed by the type strain represent, apparently, the worst situation in a context of control. The results obtained clearly illustrate the importance of considering strain variation and hydrodynamics in biofilm development, and complement previous studies which have focused on physical aspects of structural and density differences.

  4. The EmhABC efflux pump decreases the efficiency of phenanthrene biodegradation by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LP6a.

    PubMed

    Adebusuyi, Abigail A; Smith, Angela Y; Gray, Murray R; Foght, Julia M

    2012-08-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LP6a, designated here as strain WEN (wild-type PAH catabolism, efflux positive), utilizes the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene as a carbon source but also extrudes it into the extracellular medium using the efflux pump EmhABC. Because phenanthrene is considered a nontoxic carbon source for P. fluorescens WEP, its energy-dependent efflux seems counter-productive. We hypothesized that the efflux of phenanthrene would decrease the efficiency of its biodegradation. Indeed, an emhB disruptant strain, wild-type PAH catabolism, efflux negative (WEN), biodegraded 44% more phenanthrene than its parent strain WEP during a 6-day incubation. To determine whether efflux affected the degree of oxidation of phenanthrene, we quantified the conversion of ¹⁴C-phenanthrene to radiolabeled polar metabolites and ¹⁴CO₂. The emhB⁻ WEN strain produced approximately twice as much ¹⁴CO₂ and radiolabeled water-soluble metabolites as the WEP strain. In contrast, the mineralization of ¹⁴C-glucose, which is not a known EmhB efflux substrate, was equivalent in both strains. An early open-ring metabolite of phenanthrene, trans-4-(1-hydroxynaphth-2-yl)-2-oxo-3-butenoic acid, also was found to be a substrate of the EmhABC pump and accumulated in the supernatant of WEP but not WEN cultures. The analogous open-ring metabolite of dibenzothiophene, a heterocyclic analog of phenanthrene, was extruded by EmhABC plus a putative alternative efflux pump, whereas the end product 3-hydroxy-2-formylbenzothiophene was not actively extruded from either WEP or WEN cells. These results indicate that the active efflux of phenanthrene and its early metabolite(s) decreases the efficiency of phenanthrene degradation by the WEP strain. This activity has implications for the bioremediation and biocatalytic transformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocycles.

  5. Conversion of Sterically Demanding α,α-Disubstituted Phenylacetonitriles by the Arylacetonitrilase from Pseudomonas fluorescens EBC191

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Stefanie; Williamson, Dael S.; Sewell, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    The nitrilase from Pseudomonas fluorescens EBC191 converted 2-methyl-2-phenylpropionitrile, which contains a quaternary carbon atom in the α-position toward the nitrile group, and also similar sterically demanding substrates, such as 2-hydroxy-2-phenylpropionitrile (acetophenone cyanohydrin) or 2-acetyloxy-2-methylphenylacetonitrile. 2-Methyl-2-phenylpropionitrile was hydrolyzed to almost stoichiometric amounts of the corresponding acid. Acetophenone cyanohydrin was transformed to the corresponding acid (atrolactate) and amide (atrolactamide) at a ratio of about 3.4:1. The (R)-acid and the (S)-amide were formed preferentially from acetophenone cyanohydrin. A homology model of the nitrilase suggested that steric hindrance with amino acid residue Tyr54 could impair the binding or conversion of sterically demanding substrates. Therefore, several enzyme variants that carried mutations in the respective residues were generated and subsequently analyzed for the substrate specificity and enantioselectivity of the reactions. Enzyme variants that demonstrated increased relative activities for the conversion of acetophenone cyanohydrin were identified. The chiral analysis of these reactions demonstrated peculiar reaction kinetics, which suggested that the enzyme variants converted the nonpreferred (S)-enantiomer of acetophenone cyanohydrin with a higher reaction rate than that of the (preferred) (R)-enantiomer. Recombinant whole-cell catalysts that simultaneously produced the nitrilase from P. fluorescens EBC191 and a plant-derived (S)-oxynitrilase from cassava (Manihot esculenta) converted acetophenone plus cyanide at pH 4.5 to (S)-atrolactate and (S)-atrolactamide. These recombinant cells are promising catalysts for the synthesis of stable chiral quaternary carbon centers from ketones. PMID:22020513

  6. Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 Can Produce a Second Flagellar Apparatus, Which Is Important for Plant Root Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Barahona, Emma; Navazo, Ana; Garrido-Sanz, Daniel; Muriel, Candela; Martínez-Granero, Francisco; Redondo-Nieto, Miguel; Martín, Marta; Rivilla, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The genomic sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 has shown the presence of a 41 kb cluster of genes that encode the production of a second flagellar apparatus. Among 2,535 pseudomonads strains with sequenced genomes, these genes are only present in the genomes of F113 and other six strains, all but one belonging to the P. fluorescens cluster of species, in the form of a genetic island. The genes are homologous to the flagellar genes of the soil bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii. Regulation of these genes is mediated by the flhDC master operon, instead of the typical regulation in pseudomonads, which is through fleQ. Under laboratory conditions, F113 does not produce this flagellum and the flhDC operon is not expressed. However, ectopic expression of the flhDC operon is enough for its production, resulting in a hypermotile strain. This flagellum is also produced under laboratory conditions by the kinB and algU mutants. Genetic analysis has shown that kinB strongly represses the expression of the flhDC operon. This operon is activated by the Vfr protein probably in a c-AMP dependent way. The strains producing this second flagellum are all hypermotile and present a tuft of polar flagella instead of the single polar flagellum produced by the wild-type strain. Phenotypic variants isolated from the rhizosphere produce this flagellum and mutation of the genes encoding it, results in a defect in competitive colonization, showing its importance for root colonization. PMID:27713729

  7. Negative regulation of germination-arrest factor production in Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6 by a putative extracytoplasmic function sigma factor.

    PubMed

    Okrent, Rachel A; Halgren, Anne B; Azevedo, Mark D; Chang, Jeff H; Mills, Dallice I; Maselko, Maciej; Armstrong, Donald J; Banowetz, Gary M; Trippe, Kristin M

    2014-11-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6 secretes a germination-arrest factor (GAF) that we have identified previously as 4-formylaminooxyvinylglycine. GAF irreversibly inhibits germination of the seeds of numerous grassy weeds and selectively inhibits growth of the bacterial plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora. WH6-3, a mutant that has lost the ability to produce GAF, contains a Tn5 insertion in prtR, a gene that has been described previously in some strains of P. fluorescens as encoding a transmembrane regulator. As in these other pseudomonads, in WH6, prtR occurs immediately downstream of prtI, which encodes a protein homologous to extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors. These two genes have been proposed to function as a dicistronic operon. In this study, we demonstrated that deletion of prtI in WT WH6 had no effect on GAF production. However, deletion of prtI in the WH6-3 mutant overcame the effects of the Tn5 insertion in prtR and restored GAF production in the resulting double mutant. Complementation of the double prtIR mutant with prtI suppressed GAF production. This overall pattern of prtIR regulation was also observed for the activity of an AprX protease. Furthermore, reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that alterations in GAF production were mirrored by changes in the transcription of two putative GAF biosynthetic genes. Thus, we concluded that PrtI exerted a negative regulatory effect on GAF production, although the mechanism has not yet been determined. In addition, evidence was obtained that the transcription of prtI and prtR in WH6 may be more complex than predicted by existing models.

  8. Availability of iron to Pseudomonas fluorescens in rhizosphere and bulk soil evaluated with an ice nucleation reporter gene.

    PubMed Central

    Loper, J E; Henkels, M D

    1997-01-01

    The biological availability of iron in the rhizosphere was assessed by evaluating ice nucleation activity (INA) expressed in situ by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 containing a transcriptional fusion (pvd-inaZ) of an iron-regulated promoter to an ice nucleation reporter gene (inaZ). Pf-5 containing pvd-inaZ expresses INA that is inversely related to the iron availability of a growth medium (J. E. Loper and S. E. Lindow, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:1934-1941, 1994). INA expressed by rhizosphere populations of Pf-5 containing pvd-inaZ was at a maximum within 12 to 24 h following inoculation of the bacterium onto bean roots and typically decreased gradually during the following 4 days. Iron availability in the soil, which was altered by the addition of chelators, influenced INA expressed by rhizosphere populations of Pf-5 containing pvd-inaZ. In soil adjusted to a pH of 7.0 or 8.0 by adding Ca(OH)2, rhizosphere populations of Pf-5 containing pvd-inaZ expressed greater INA, indicating lower iron availability, than they did in the nonamended soil at a pH of 5.4. Similarly, rhizosphere populations of Pf-5 containing pvd-inaZ expressed less INA in an agricultural soil of pH 5.4 than in other agricultural soils ranging in pH from 6.4 to 7.7. These results conform to the predictions of chemical models stating that pH is a major factor influencing iron availability in soil solutions. The results of this study indicate that P. fluorescens Pf-5 encountered an iron-limited environment immediately after it was inoculated onto bean roots planted in agricultural field soils. One to two days after the bacterium was inoculated onto root surfaces, however, iron became more available to rhizosphere populations of Pf-5. We speculate that iron acquisition systems of plants and other rhizosphere organisms may provide available sources of iron to established rhizosphere populations of P. fluorescens. PMID:8979343

  9. Evaluation of multiple plant growth promoting traits of an isolate of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Psd.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Ashutosh; Srivastava, Sheela

    2010-06-01

    P. fluorescens strain Psd was isolated from the rhizosphere of Vigna mungo and evaluated for its multiple plant growth promoting and biocontrol properties against F. oxyspornum. Interestingly, this strain not only produces a range of antimicrobial compounds but also solubilizes complexed phosphates and synthesizes phytohormone (IAA). These properties can be assessed to elucidate the agronomic significance and rhizospheric competence of this soil isolate. Biocontrol action has been demonstrated in vitro against some other rhizospheric bacteria, and a phytopathogenic fungus along with wild type E. coli K-12. Genetic evidence for the antimicrobial status of strain Psd has been derived in terms of elucidating a unique combination of phenazine and pyrrolnitrin biosynthesis genes, not reported for any other P. fluorescens strain. The conserved part of antibiotics biosynthesis operon has been PCR amplified, cloned, sequenced and phylogenetic relationship based on similar genes from a few known Pseudomonads has been derived. The properties possessed by strain Psd may enable the bacterium to establish itself successfully in the rhizosphere.

  10. Detoxification of oxalic acid by pseudomonas fluorescens strain pfMDU2: implications for the biological control of rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Nagarajkumar, M; Jayaraj, J; Muthukrishnan, S; Bhaskaran, R; Velazhahan, R

    2005-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani isolates varying in their virulence were tested for their ability to produce oxalic acid (OA) in vitro. The results indicated that the virulent isolates produced more OA than the less virulent isolates. In order to isolate OA-detoxifying strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens, rhizosphere soil of rice was drenched with 100 mM OA and fluorescent pseudomonads were isolated from the OA-amended soil by using King's medium B. These isolates were tested for their antagonistic effect towards growth of R. solani in vitro. Among them P. fluorescens PfMDU2 was the most effective in inhibiting the mycelial growth of R. solani. P. fluorescens PfMDU2 was capable of detoxifying OA and several proteins were detected in the culture filtrate of PfMDU2 when it was grown in medium containing OA. To investigate whether the gene(s) involved in OA-detoxification resides on the plasmids in P. fluorescens PfMDU2, a plasmid-deficient strain of P. fluorescens was generated by plasmid curing. The plasmid-deficient strain (PfMDU2P-) failed to grow in medium containing OA and did not inhibit the growth of R. solani. Both PfMDU2 and PfMDU2P- were tested for their efficacy in controlling sheath blight of rice under greenhouse conditions. Seed treatment followed by soil application of rice with P. fluorescens strain, PfMDU2, reduced the severity of sheath blight by 75% compared with the control, whereas PfMDU2P- failed to control sheath blight disease.

  11. Exposure-related effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf-CL145A) on juvenile unionid mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weber, Kerry L.; Luoma, James A.; Mayer, Denise A.; Aloisi, Douglas B.; Eckert, Nathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Mean survival of three unionid mussels species exposed to FDP was not significantly different in the 50-, 100-, and 200-mg/L AI treatment groups and the 300 mg/L heat-deactivated treatment groups when compared to the control groups. Mean survival of O. olivaria and M. nervosa was significantly lower in the 300-mg/L AI treated groups (38.1 and 48.1 percent, respectively) compared to the control groups (71.9 and 88.1 percent, respectively). The results indicate that exposure to FDP-formulated P. fluorescens up to the maximum label concentration (100 mg/L AI) and up to three times the maximum label exposure duration (8 hours) is not likely to affect the survival of O. olivaria, A. ligamentina, and M. nervosa.

  12. The sigma factor AlgU (AlgT) controls exopolysaccharide production and tolerance towards desiccation and osmotic stress in the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0.

    PubMed

    Schnider-Keel, U; Lejbølle, K B; Baehler, E; Haas, D; Keel, C

    2001-12-01

    A variety of stress situations may affect the activity and survival of plant-beneficial pseudomonads added to soil to control root diseases. This study focused on the roles of the sigma factor AlgU (synonyms, AlgT, RpoE, and sigma(22)) and the anti-sigma factor MucA in stress adaptation of the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0. The algU-mucA-mucB gene cluster of strain CHA0 was similar to that of the pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas syringae. Strain CHA0 is naturally nonmucoid, whereas a mucA deletion mutant or algU-overexpressing strains were highly mucoid due to exopolysaccharide overproduction. Mucoidy strictly depended on the global regulator GacA. An algU deletion mutant was significantly more sensitive to osmotic stress than the wild-type CHA0 strain and the mucA mutant were. Expression of an algU'-'lacZ reporter fusion was induced severalfold in the wild type and in the mucA mutant upon exposure to osmotic stress, whereas a lower, noninducible level of expression was observed in the algU mutant. Overexpression of algU did not enhance tolerance towards osmotic stress. AlgU was found to be essential for tolerance of P. fluorescens towards desiccation stress in a sterile vermiculite-sand mixture and in a natural sandy loam soil. The size of the population of the algU mutant declined much more rapidly than the size of the wild-type population at soil water contents below 5%. In contrast to its role in pathogenic pseudomonads, AlgU did not contribute to tolerance of P. fluorescens towards oxidative and heat stress. In conclusion, AlgU is a crucial determinant in the adaptation of P. fluorescens to dry conditions and hyperosmolarity, two major stress factors that limit bacterial survival in the environment.

  13. The Sigma Factor AlgU (AlgT) Controls Exopolysaccharide Production and Tolerance towards Desiccation and Osmotic Stress in the Biocontrol Agent Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0

    PubMed Central

    Schnider-Keel, Ursula; Lejbølle, Kirsten Bang; Baehler, Eric; Haas, Dieter; Keel, Christoph

    2001-01-01

    A variety of stress situations may affect the activity and survival of plant-beneficial pseudomonads added to soil to control root diseases. This study focused on the roles of the sigma factor AlgU (synonyms, AlgT, RpoE, and ς22) and the anti-sigma factor MucA in stress adaptation of the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0. The algU-mucA-mucB gene cluster of strain CHA0 was similar to that of the pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas syringae. Strain CHA0 is naturally nonmucoid, whereas a mucA deletion mutant or algU-overexpressing strains were highly mucoid due to exopolysaccharide overproduction. Mucoidy strictly depended on the global regulator GacA. An algU deletion mutant was significantly more sensitive to osmotic stress than the wild-type CHA0 strain and the mucA mutant were. Expression of an algU′-′lacZ reporter fusion was induced severalfold in the wild type and in the mucA mutant upon exposure to osmotic stress, whereas a lower, noninducible level of expression was observed in the algU mutant. Overexpression of algU did not enhance tolerance towards osmotic stress. AlgU was found to be essential for tolerance of P. fluorescens towards desiccation stress in a sterile vermiculite-sand mixture and in a natural sandy loam soil. The size of the population of the algU mutant declined much more rapidly than the size of the wild-type population at soil water contents below 5%. In contrast to its role in pathogenic pseudomonads, AlgU did not contribute to tolerance of P. fluorescens towards oxidative and heat stress. In conclusion, AlgU is a crucial determinant in the adaptation of P. fluorescens to dry conditions and hyperosmolarity, two major stress factors that limit bacterial survival in the environment. PMID:11722923

  14. Ability of the marine bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens BA3SM1 to counteract the toxicity of CdSe nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Isabelle; Kuhn, Lauriane; Demortière, Arnaud; Mirvaux, Boris; Hammann, Philippe; Chicher, Johana; Caplat, Christelle; Pallud, Marie; Bertrand, Martine

    2016-10-04

    In the marine environment, bacteria from estuarine and coastal sediments are among the first targets of nanoparticle pollution; it is therefore relevant to improve the knowledge of interactions between bacteria and nanoparticles. In this work, the response of the marine bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens BA3SM1 to CdSe nanocrystals (CdSe NPs) of 3nm (NP3) and 8nm (NP8) in diameter was evaluated through microscopic, physiological, biochemical and proteomic approaches. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that NP3 were able to penetrate the bacteria, while NP8 were highly concentrated around the cells, embedded in large exopolysaccharides. In our experimental conditions, both CdSe NP sizes induced a decrease in respiration during the stationary growth phase, while only NP8 caused growth retardation and a decrease in pyoverdine production. Proteomic analyses highlighted that the strain responded to CdSe NP toxicity by inducing various defence mechanisms such as cell aggregation, extracellular CdSe NP sequestration, effective protection against oxidative stress, modifications of envelope organization and properties, and cadmium export. In addition, BA3SM1 presented a biosorption capacity of 1.6×10(16)NP3/g dry weight and 1.7×10(15)NP8/g dry weight. This strain therefore appears as a promising agent for NP bioremediation processes. Proteomic data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004012. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report focussing on the effects of CdSe colloidal nanocrystals (CdSe NPs) on a marine strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens. CdSe NPs are extensively used in the industry of renewable energies and it is regrettably expected that these pollutants will sometime soon appear in the marine environment through surface runoff, urban effluents and rivers. Bacteria living in estuarine and coastal sediments will be among the first targets of these new pollutants. The pseudomonads are frequently found in these ecosystems

  15. Cloning of Genes Involved in the Synthesis of Pyrrolnitrin from Pseudomonas fluorescens and Role of Pyrrolnitrin Synthesis in Biological Control of Plant Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hill, D. S.; Stein, J. I.; Torkewitz, N. R.; Morse, A. M.; Howell, C. R.; Pachlatko, J. P.; Becker, J. O.; Ligon, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    A soil isolate of Pseudomonas fluorescens (BL915) was shown to be an effective antagonist of Rhizoctonia solani-induced damping-off of cotton. Investigation of the biological basis of this antagonism revealed that the strain produces pyrrolnitrin, a secondary metabolite known to inhibit R. solani and other fungi. Mutants of strain BL915 that did not produce pyrrolnitrin and did not suppress damping-off of cotton by R. solani were generated by exposure to N-methyl-N′ -nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. A gene region that was capable of restoring pyrrolnitrin production to the non-pyrrolnitrin-producing mutants and of conferring this ability upon two other P. fluorescens strains not otherwise known to produce this compound or to be capable of suppressing damping-off caused by R. solani was isolated from strain BL915. The non-pyrrolnitrin-producing strains (mutants of BL915 and the other two P. fluorescens strains) which synthesized pyrrolnitrin after the introduction of the gene region from strain BL915 were also shown to be equal to strain BL915 in their ability to suppress R. solani-induced damping-off of cotton. These results indicate that we have isolated from P. fluorescens BL915 a gene(s) that has a role in the synthesis of pyrrolnitrin and that the production of this compound has a role in the ability of this strain to control damping-off of cotton by R. solani. PMID:16349167

  16. Cloning of Genes Involved in the Synthesis of Pyrrolnitrin from Pseudomonas fluorescens and Role of Pyrrolnitrin Synthesis in Biological Control of Plant Disease.

    PubMed

    Hill, D S; Stein, J I; Torkewitz, N R; Morse, A M; Howell, C R; Pachlatko, J P; Becker, J O; Ligon, J M

    1994-01-01

    A soil isolate of Pseudomonas fluorescens (BL915) was shown to be an effective antagonist of Rhizoctonia solani-induced damping-off of cotton. Investigation of the biological basis of this antagonism revealed that the strain produces pyrrolnitrin, a secondary metabolite known to inhibit R. solani and other fungi. Mutants of strain BL915 that did not produce pyrrolnitrin and did not suppress damping-off of cotton by R. solani were generated by exposure to N-methyl-N' -nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. A gene region that was capable of restoring pyrrolnitrin production to the non-pyrrolnitrin-producing mutants and of conferring this ability upon two other P. fluorescens strains not otherwise known to produce this compound or to be capable of suppressing damping-off caused by R. solani was isolated from strain BL915. The non-pyrrolnitrin-producing strains (mutants of BL915 and the other two P. fluorescens strains) which synthesized pyrrolnitrin after the introduction of the gene region from strain BL915 were also shown to be equal to strain BL915 in their ability to suppress R. solani-induced damping-off of cotton. These results indicate that we have isolated from P. fluorescens BL915 a gene(s) that has a role in the synthesis of pyrrolnitrin and that the production of this compound has a role in the ability of this strain to control damping-off of cotton by R. solani.

  17. Optimization, kinetics and antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharide produced from rhizosphere isolate, Pseudomonas fluorescens CrN6.

    PubMed

    Sirajunnisa, Abdul Razack; Vijayagopal, Velayutham; Sivaprakash, Bhaskar; Viruthagiri, Thangavelu; Surendhiran, Duraiarasan

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens, isolated from rhizosphere soil, was exploited for the production of exopolysaccharide (EPS). A medium was constituted to enhance the yield of EPS. This study involved an agro waste as carbon substrate, rice bran, a replacement of glucose. Plackett-Burman statistical design was applied to evaluate the selected sixteen components from which, rice bran, peptone, NaCl and MnCl2 were found to be effective and significant on the fermentation process. To study the concentration of each component, central composite design was carried out and response surface plots indicated that the following concentrations significantly enhanced the production - rice bran 5.02%, peptone 0.35%, NaCl 0.51%, MnCl2 0.074%. Kinetic modeling was also performed to simulate the process parameters. Logistic model for microbial growth and Luedeking-Piret equation for product formation and substrate utilization were found to fit the experiment. The present investigation resulted in a maximum yield of 4.62g of EPS/L at 48h. High DPPH scavenging ability was a positive indication to use EPS as an antioxidant. The extracted polysaccharide could thus be ecofriendly due to its biodegradability and nontoxicity, and subjected to various industrial and pharmaceutical applications.

  18. Combined toxic effects of heavy metals and antibiotics on a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain ZY2 isolated from swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Xu, Yan-Bin; Xu, Jia-Xin; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Xu, Shi-Hui; Du, Qing-Ping

    2015-01-27

    A Pseudomonas fluorescens strain ZY2, isolated from swine wastewater, was used to investigate the synergistic effects of five heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr(VI) and Hg) on bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Results indicate that the combined effects of antibiotic type, heavy metal type and concentration were significant (p < 0.01). Cross-resistance to Hg and antibiotics was the most noticeable. Moreover, the resistance to Hg and cefradine or amoxicillin, and Cr and amoxicillin were synergistic for low heavy metal concentrations, and turned antagonistic with increasing concentrations, while the resistances to Cr or Cu and cefradine, Pb or Cu and amoxicillin, Cu and norfloxacin showed reverse effects. In addition, resistance to Zn and amoxicillin were always synergetic, while resistance to Pb and cefradine or norfloxacin, Cr or Hg and norfloxacin as well as all the heavy metals and tetracycline were antagonistic. These results indicate that bacterial resistance to antibiotics can be affected by the type and concentration of co-exposed heavy metals and may further threaten people's health and ecological security severely via horizontal gene transfer.

  19. [Coprecipitation of the Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase with hydrophobic compounds as an approach to its immobilization for catalysis in nonaqueous media].

    PubMed

    Gorokhova, I V; Ivanov, A E; Zubov, V P

    2002-01-01

    The precipitation of N-cetylamine, N-cetylacetamide, hexan-1,2-diol, cetyl alcohol, and poly(butyl metacrylate) in acetone-water media in the presence of the lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens was found to be accompanied by the coprecipitation of the enzyme. Within the lyophilized coprecipitates, the lipase exhibits a high catalytic activity and enantioselectivity in the reaction of (1RS)-phenylethanol acetylation with vinyl acetate in t-butyl methyl ether. In order of increasing lipase activity, the coprecipitates can be arranged in the series: cetyl alcohol, poly(butyl metacrylate), hexadecane-1,2-diol, N-cetylamine, and N-cetylacetamide, with the activity 2.5- to 19-fold exceeding the activity of the native enzyme. The immobilization of the lipase on solid supports, such as Celite 545 (physical sorption) and Eupergit C250L (covalent binding), in the presence of hexadecane-1,2-diol was found to increase the esterifying activity of the enzyme. The English version of the paper.

  20. Entrapment of DyP-type peroxidase from Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 into Ca-alginate magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Wasak, Agata; Drozd, Radosław; Struk, Łukasz; Grygorcewicz, Bartłomiej

    2017-03-21

    The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal conditions for the immobilization and stabilization of DyP1B dye decolorizing peroxidases type B (DyP1B) from Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 immobilized in Ca-alginate ferromagnetic beads. The immobilized DyP1B was used in the degradation of the Reactive Blue 5 (RB5) synthetic dye. The enzyme was successfully entrapped in a Ca-alginate matrix and showed an encapsulation efficiency of 94%. The concentration of DyP1B (0.8 mg mL(-1) ), 2% of alginate and magnetite (10.0 mg mL(-1) ) was optimal for immobilization. The immobilized DyP1B showed optimum activity at pH 7.0 and 40 °C compared with pH 5.5 and 30 °C for free peroxidase. Reusability studies showed that after five cycles, the immobilized DyP1B system retained more than 58% of its initial activity. The immobilized DyP1B was able to decolorize RB5 at concentrations of 0.1, 0.05, and 0.01% (w v(-1) ) with efficiency rates of about 20, 29, and 45%, respectively. The immobilization of DyP1B in alginate beads with the addition of Fe3 O4 increased its catalytic and applicative potential. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. A blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic technology to probe the functional proteomics mediating nitrogen homeostasis in Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Han, Sungwon; Auger, Christopher; Appanna, Varun P; Lemire, Joseph; Castonguay, Zachary; Akbarov, Elchin; Appanna, Vasu D

    2012-09-01

    As glutamate and ammonia play a pivotal role in nitrogen homeostasis, their production is mediated by various enzymes that are widespread in living organisms. Here, we report on an effective electrophoretic method to monitor these enzymes. The in gel activity visualization is based on the interaction of the products, glutamate and ammonia, with glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC: 1.4.1.2) in the presence of either phenazine methosulfate (PMS) or 2,6-dichloroindophenol (DCIP) and iodonitrotetrazolium (INT). The intensity of the activity bands was dependent on the amount of proteins loaded, the incubation time and the concentration of the respective substrates. The following enzymes were readily identified: glutaminase (EC: 3.5.1.2), alanine transaminase (EC: 2.6.1.2), aspartate transaminase (EC: 2.6.1.1), glycine transaminase (EC: 2.6.1.4), ornithine oxoacid aminotransferase (EC: 2.6.1.13), and carbamoyl phosphate synthase I (EC: 6.3.4.16). The specificity of the activity band was confirmed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) following incubation of the excised band with the corresponding substrates. These bands are amenable to further molecular characterization by a variety of analytical methods. This electrophoretic technology provides a powerful tool to screen these enzymes that contribute to nitrogen homeostasis in Pseudomonas fluorescens and possibly in other microbial systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation of a Pseudomonas fluorescens metabolite/exotoxin active against both larvae and pupae of vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Prabakaran, G; Paily, K P; Padmanabhan, V; Hoti, S L; Balaraman, K

    2003-01-01

    A formulation was developed from the metabolite(s) of a novel Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula strain (VCRC B426) and tested against 4th-instar larvae and pupae of three species of vector mosquitoes, Anopheles stephensi Liston, Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L). The larvae and pupae of An. stephensi were the most susceptible to the formulation, followed by those of C. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, in that order, and the dosage requirement for pupal mortality was less than that required for larval mortality. The LC50 dosage requirements for larvae of these mosquito species were, respectively, 70.4, 511.5 and 757.3 microg protein ml(-1), whereas for pupae they were, respectively, 2.0, 9.4 and 19.2 microg protein ml(-1). The lethal fraction was purified from the culture broth and its molecular mass, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography, was 44kDa. This is the first report of a microbial formulation acting upon mosquito pupae, a non-feeding stage. Its mode of action and efficacy to control mosquitoes under field conditions need to be studied further.

  3. Effect of Insertion Site and Metabolic Load on the Environmental Fitness of a Genetically Modified Pseudomonas fluorescens Isolate

    PubMed Central

    De Leij, Frans A. A. M.; Thomas, Catherine E.; Bailey, Mark J.; Whipps, John M.; Lynch, James M.

    1998-01-01

    An isolate of Pseudomonas fluorescens (SBW25) was modified with different marker genes (lacZY, aph-1, and xylE). These marker genes were inserted singly or in combination into two separate (1 Mbp apart) and presumably nonessential sites (-6- and Ee) on the chromosome of SBW25. This allowed the production of a range of genetically modified SBW25 variants that differed with respect to insertion site of the marker genes and metabolic burden. The environmental fitness of the different SBW25 variants was tested in soil, in the rhizosphere of wheat and pea, and on the phylloplane of wheat. Reduced environmental fitness of the different variants was mainly attributed to the extra metabolic burden of novel gene expression, whereas choice of insertion site was of little significance. Changes in environmental fitness were dependent on the environmental conditions; an environment, such as soil, with a low microbial carrying capacity had a negative effect on the environmental fitness of variants with a large metabolic load. In environments with a larger carrying capacity, such as the rhizosphere of pea, environmental fitness of variants with a large metabolic load was not significantly different from that of variants with a smaller metabolic burden. PMID:9647841

  4. Location and Survival of Mycorrhiza Helper Pseudomonas fluorescens during Establishment of Ectomycorrhizal Symbiosis between Laccaria bicolor and Douglas Fir

    PubMed Central

    Frey-Klett, P.; Pierrat, J. C.; Garbaye, J.

    1997-01-01

    The mycorrhiza helper bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens BBc6, isolated from a Laccaria bicolor sporocarp, consistently promotes L. bicolor-Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) ectomycorrhizal formation, even with low doses of bacterial inoculum. In order to describe this phenomenon more accurately, we have looked at the location and survival of the introduced bacterial strain in the soil and in the rhizosphere during the establishment of mycorrhizal symbiosis in glasshouse and nursery experiments. Bacterial populations were quantified with a spontaneous, stable, rifampin-resistant mutant, BBc6R8, which phenotypically conformed to the parental strain. BBc6R8 populations declined rapidly, reaching the detection limit after 19 weeks, and did not increase either when L. bicolor sporocarps were forming in autumn or when Douglas fir roots resumed growing in spring. BBc6R8 was neither an endophyte nor a rhizobacterium. Furthermore, it was not particularly associated with either mycorrhizas of Douglas fir-L. bicolor or L. bicolor sporocarps. Surprisingly, a significant mycorrhiza helper effect was observed when the inoculated BBc6R8 population had dropped as low as 30 CFU g of dry matter(sup-1) in the soil. This study raises questions concerning the bacterial concentration in the soil which is effective for promotion of mycorrhizal establishment and the timing of the bacterial effect. It allows us to develop working hypotheses, which can be tested experimentally, to identify the mechanisms of the mycorrhiza helper effect. PMID:16535478

  5. Structure, chemistry, and biological activity of pseudophomins A and B, new cyclic lipodepsipeptides isolated from the biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Pedras, M Soledade C; Ismail, Nargis; Quail, J Wilson; Boyetchko, Susan M

    2003-04-01

    Pseudophomins A and B are cyclic lipodepsipeptides isolated from Pseudomonas fluorescens strain BRG100, a bacterium with potential application for biocontrol of plant pathogens and weeds. Their chemical structures were established by a combination of spectroscopic data, X-ray crystallography, and selective chemical degradation. This unique chemical degradation allowed the unambiguous determination of the absolute configuration of the amino acid residue Leu-1, due to gamma-lactam formation followed by selective cleavage of the adjacent N(8)-C(7) bond. To the best of our knowledge this is the first application of gamma-lactam formation to the determination of absolute configuration of an adjacent amino acid. Pseudophomin B showed higher antifungal activity against the phytopathogens Phoma lingam/Leptosphaeria maculans and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum than pseudophomin A, and is likely to be the main component responsible for the antifungal activity of EtOAc extracts of strain BRG100. By contrast, pseudophomin A showed stronger inhibition of green foxtail (Setaria viridis) root germination than pseudophomin B.

  6. Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid is a more important contributor to biocontrol Fusarium oxysporum than pyrrolnitrin in Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Psd.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Ashutosh; Srivastava, Sheela

    2011-05-20

    Phenazines and pyrrolnitrin (Prn) are broad spectrum antibiotics, produced by bacteria, more so by the biocontrol strains to kill the phytopathogens in soil. We have studied a rhizospheric soil isolate of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Psd producing both phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) and Prn. In order to study the contribution of these antibiotics, the phzD and prnC genes involved in PCA and Prn biosynthesis, were disrupted in a site-specific manner using a group II intron-based Targetron gene-knockout system, and gene disruption followed by allelic exchange through homologous recombination, respectively. The resulting knockout strains Psdphz122s-34 and PsdprnC::gen did not produce PCA and Prn, respectively. In fact, by combining these two strategies, a Psdphz122s-34prnC::gen double mutant could also be generated. Identification and lack of PCA production was corroborated by HPLC/APCI-MS analysis, and TLC detection for both the antibiotics in these mutants. Loss of antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum was observed using in vitro growth assays on plates or growth chamber experiments with tomato seedling on an artificial substrate. Based on the characterization of these gene knockout mutants, we propose that PCA and Prn have a major role in antifungal activity of strain Psd. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Combined Toxic Effects of Heavy Metals and Antibiotics on a Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain ZY2 Isolated from Swine Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan; Xu, Yan-Bin; Xu, Jia-Xin; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Xu, Shi-Hui; Du, Qing-Ping

    2015-01-01

    A Pseudomonas fluorescens strain ZY2, isolated from swine wastewater, was used to investigate the synergistic effects of five heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr(VI) and Hg) on bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Results indicate that the combined effects of antibiotic type, heavy metal type and concentration were significant (p < 0.01). Cross-resistance to Hg and antibiotics was the most noticeable. Moreover, the resistance to Hg and cefradine or amoxicillin, and Cr and amoxicillin were synergistic for low heavy metal concentrations, and turned antagonistic with increasing concentrations, while the resistances to Cr or Cu and cefradine, Pb or Cu and amoxicillin, Cu and norfloxacin showed reverse effects. In addition, resistance to Zn and amoxicillin were always synergetic, while resistance to Pb and cefradine or norfloxacin, Cr or Hg and norfloxacin as well as all the heavy metals and tetracycline were antagonistic. These results indicate that bacterial resistance to antibiotics can be affected by the type and concentration of co-exposed heavy metals and may further threaten people’s health and ecological security severely via horizontal gene transfer. PMID:25633105

  8. Tolerance of whitefish embryos to Pseudomonas fluorescens linked to genetic and maternal effects, and reduced by previous exposure.

    PubMed

    von Siebenthal, Beat A; Jacob, Alain; Wedekind, Claus

    2009-03-01

    Juvenile or adult fish can alter their behaviour and rely on an innate and adaptive immune system to avoid/counteract pathogens, while fish embryos have to depend on egg characteristics and may be partly protected by their developing immune system that is building up from a certain age on. We developed an infection protocol that allows testing the reaction of individual whitefish embryos (Coregonus palaea) to repeated exposures to Pseudomonas fluorescens, an opportunistic bacterial fish pathogen. We used a full-factorial in vitro breeding design to separately test the effects of paternal and maternal contributions to the embryos' susceptibility to different kinds of pathogen exposure. We found that a first non-lethal exposure had immunosuppressive effects: pre-exposed embryos were more susceptible to future challenges with the same pathogen. At intermediate and high levels of pathogen intensity, maternal effects turned out to be crucial for the embryos' tolerance to infection. Paternal (i.e. genetic) effects played a significant role at the strongest level of infection, i.e. the embryos' own genetics already explained some of the variation in embryo susceptibility. Our findings suggest that whitefish embryos are largely protected by maternally transmitted substances, but build up some own innate immunocompetence several days before hatching.

  9. Role of Respiratory Nitrate Reductase in Ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens YT101 To Colonize the Rhizosphere of Maize

    PubMed Central

    Ghiglione, Jean-François; Gourbiere, François; Potier, Patrick; Philippot, Laurent; Lensi, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Selection of the denitrifying community by plant roots (i.e., increase in the denitrifier/total heterotroph ratio in the rhizosphere) has been reported by several authors. However, very few studies to evaluate the role of the denitrifying function itself in the selection of microorganisms in the rhizosphere have been performed. In the present study, we compared the rhizosphere survival of the denitrifying Pseudomonas fluorescens YT101 strain with that of its isogenic mutant deficient in the ability to synthesize the respiratory nitrate reductase, coinoculated in nonplanted or planted soil. We demonstrated that under nonlimiting nitrate conditions, the denitrifying wild-type strain had an advantage in the ability to colonize the rhizosphere of maize. Investigations of the effect of the inoculum characteristics (density of the total inoculum and relative proportions of mutant and wild-type strains) on the outcome of the selection demonstrated that the selective effect of the plant was expressed only during the phase of bacterial multiplication and that the intensity of selection was dependent on the magnitude of this phase. Moreover, application of the de Wit replacement series technique to our results suggests that the advantage of the wild-type strain was maximal when the ratio between the two strains in the inoculum was close to 1:1. This work constitutes the first direct demonstration that the presence of a functional structural gene encoding the respiratory nitrate reductase confers higher rhizosphere competence to a microorganism. PMID:10966422

  10. Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid Production by Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM636 Alters Phytophthora infestans Growth and Late Blight Development.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Christopher K; Arseneault, Tanya; Novinscak, Amy; Filion, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Phytophthora infestans causes late blight of potato, one of the most devastating diseases affecting potato production. Alternative approaches for controlling late blight are being increasingly sought due to increasing environmental concerns over the use of chemical pesticides and the increasing resistance of P. infestans to fungicides. Our research group has isolated a new strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens (LBUM636) of biocontrol interest producing the antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). Wild-type LBUM636 was shown to significantly inhibit the growth of Phytophthora infestans in in vitro confrontational assays whereas its isogenic mutant (phzC-; not producing PCA) only slightly altered the pathogen's growth. Wild-type LBUM636 but not the phzC- mutant also completely repressed disease symptom development on tubers. A pot experiment revealed that wild-type LBUM636 can significantly reduce P. infestans populations in the rhizosphere and in the roots of potato plants, as well as reduce in planta disease symptoms due to PCA production. The expression of eight common plant defense-related genes (ChtA, PR-1b, PR-2, PR-5, LOX, PIN2, PAL-2, and ERF3) was quantified in tubers, roots, and leaves by reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and revealed that the biocontrol observed was not associated with the induction of a plant defense response by LBUM636. Instead, a direct interaction between P. infestans and LBUM636 is required and PCA production appears to be a key factor for LBUM636's biocontrol ability.

  11. Ammonium removal at low temperature by a newly isolated heterotrophic nitrifying and aerobic denitrifying bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens wsw-1001.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shumei; Sha, Changqing; Jiang, Wei; Li, Weiguang; Zhang, Duoying; Li, Jing; Meng, Liqiang; Piao, Yongjian

    2015-01-01

    A heterotrophic nitrifier wsw-1001 was isolated from Songhua River and identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens. Ammonium removal by the strain at low temperature was investigated. The effect of initial ammonium concentration (from 5 to 1000 mg/L) and culture temperature (from 4°C to 30°C) on ammonium removal efficiency was studied. Biodegradation product, [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], N2, N2O and intercellular N were monitored. The results indicated that the strain had potential for water and wastewater treatment. Ammonium could be removed by the strain at low temperature. Ammonium removal efficiency increased with temperature from 4°C to 20°C and decreased with ammonium concentration from 5 to 1000 mg/L. The strain exhibited a capability of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification using [Formula: see text] as the sole nitrogen source at 8°C. [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] were reduced by the strain. Nitrogen balance analysis in the presence of 39.7 mg/L [Formula: see text] indicated that 71.2% [Formula: see text] was removed by converting to N2 (46.3%) and assimilating as biomass (42.5%). Substances such as [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and N2O were detected at very low concentrations. Ammonium mono-oxygenase, hydroxylamine oxidase, nitrite reductase and nitrate reductase activity were measured. The ammonium removal pathway of the strain was speculated to be [Formula: see text].

  12. Styrene lower catabolic pathway in Pseudomonas fluorescens ST: identification and characterization of genes for phenylacetic acid degradation.

    PubMed

    Di Gennaro, Patrizia; Ferrara, Silvia; Ronco, Ilaria; Galli, Enrica; Sello, Guido; Papacchini, Maddalena; Bestetti, Giuseppina

    2007-08-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens ST is a styrene degrading microorganism that, by the sequential oxidation of the vinyl side chain, converts styrene to phenylacetic acid. The cluster of styrene upper pathway catabolic genes (sty genes) has been previously localized on a chromosomal region. This report describes the isolation, sequencing and analysis of a new chromosomal fragment deriving from the ST strain genomic bank that contains the styrene lower degradative pathway genes (paa genes), involved in the metabolism of phenylacetic acid. Analysis of the paa gene cluster led to the description of 14 putative genes: a gene encoding a phenylacetyl-CoA ligase (paaF), the enzyme required for the activation of phenylacetic acid; five ORFs encoding the subunits of a ring hydroxylation multienzymatic system (paaGHIJK); the gene paaW encoding a membrane protein of unknown function; five genes for a beta-oxidation-like system (paaABCDE), involved in the steps following the aromatic ring cleavage; a gene encoding a putative permease (paaL) and a gene (paaN) probably involved in the aromatic ring cleavage. The function of some of the isolated genes has been proved by means of biotransformation experiments.

  13. Draft genome sequences of seven 4-Formylaminooxyvinylglycine producers belonging to the Pseudomonas fluorescens species complex

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vinylglycines are non-proteinogenic amino acids that inhibit amino acid metabolism and ethylene production. In this report, we describe the draft genome sequences of seven isolates of Pseudomonas that produce 4-formylaminooxyvinylglycine, a compound known to inhibit the germination of grasses and t...

  14. A ptsP deficiency in PGPR Pseudomonas fluorescens SF39a affects bacteriocin production and bacterial fitness in the wheat rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Godino, Agustina; Príncipe, Analía; Fischer, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens SF39a is a plant-growth-promoting bacterium isolated from wheat rhizosphere. In this report, we demonstrate that this native strain secretes bacteriocins that inhibit growth of phytopathogenic strains of the genera Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas. An S-type pyocin gene was detected in the genome of strain SF39a and named pys. A non-polar pys::Km mutant was constructed. The bacteriocin production was impaired in this mutant. To identify genes involved in bacteriocin regulation, random transposon mutagenesis was carried out. A miniTn5Km1 mutant, called P. fluorescens SF39a-451, showed strongly reduced bacteriocin production. This phenotype was caused by inactivation of the ptsP gene which encodes a phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase (EI(Ntr)) of the nitrogen-related phosphotransferase system (PTS(Ntr)). In addition, this mutant showed a decrease in biofilm formation and protease production, and an increase in surface motility and pyoverdine production compared with the wild-type strain. Moreover, we investigated the ability of strain SF39a-451 to colonize the wheat rhizosphere under greenhouse conditions. Interestingly, the mutant was less competitive than the wild-type strain in the rhizosphere. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of both the relevance of the ptsP gene in bacteriocin production and functional characterization of a pyocin S in P. fluorescens. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of hydrodynamic conditions on the phenotype of Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms.

    PubMed

    Simões, Manuel; Pereira, Maria O; Sillankorva, Sanna; Azeredo, Joana; Vieira, Maria J

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the phenotypic characteristics of monoculture P. fluorescens biofilms grown under turbulent and laminar flow, using flow cells reactors with stainless steel substrata. The cellular physiology and the overall biofilm activity, structure and composition were characterized, and compared, within hydrodynamically distinct conditions. The results indicate that turbulent flow-generated biofilm cells were significantly less extensive, with decreased metabolic activity and a lower protein and polysaccharides composition per cell than those from laminar flow-generated biofilms. The effect of flow regime did not cause significantly different outer membrane protein expression. From the analysis of biofilm activity, structure and composition, turbulent flow-generated biofilms were metabolically more active, had twice more mass per cm(2), and higher cellular density and protein content (mainly cellular) than laminar flow-generated biofilms. Conversely, laminar flow-generated biofilms presented higher total and matrix polysaccharide contents. Direct visualisation and scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that these different flows generate structurally different biofilms, corroborating the quantitative results. The combination of applied methods provided useful information regarding a broad spectrum of biofilm parameters, which can contribute to control and model biofilm processes.

  16. Survival of the rhizosphere-competent biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens NBRI2650 in the soil and phytosphere.

    PubMed

    Nautlyal, C Shekhar; Johri, J K; Singh, H B

    2002-07-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens NBRI2650 was isolated after screening 360 bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) grown in fungal-disease-suppressive field soil. The strain was selected because of its high rhizosphere competence and ability to inhibit the growth of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri, Rhizoctonia bataticola, and Pythium sp. under in vitro conditions. Survival and colonization of NBRI2650 in the phytosphere of chickpea, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and tomato (Lycopersicon seculentum Mill.) were monitored using a chromosomally located rifampicin-marked mutant P. fluorescens NBRI2650R. The strain showed variable ability to invade and survive in the phytosphere of different plants. Chickpea was used as a tester plant for further work, as it was not invaded by NBRI2650R. The interaction between NBRI2650R and F oxysporum fsp. ciceri was studied by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The lysis of the fungal cell wall by NBRI2650R was clearly demonstrated. Treatment of the chickpea seeds with NBRI2650R in prerelease experiments in the greenhouse using disease-conducive field soils from Jhansi and Kanpur resulted in increased plant growth and did not result in any perturbation of the indigenous microbial community that inhabited the rhizosphere of chickpea compared with nonbacterized seeds. Direct fermentation of diluted NBRI2650R on vermiculite without the need of expensive fermentors offers a reliable process for manufacturing bacterial inoculants in developing countries. Under field conditions, the horizontal and vertical movement of NBRI2650R was restricted to 30 and 60 cm, respectively, and the strain could not survive in the field during the 7 months before the chickpea could be planted for next cropping season. Field trials conducted at Jhansi, Kanpur, and Pantnagar resulted in higher grain yield increase in the bacteria-treated seed compared with the nonbacterized control

  17. The phosphate of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate is an acid/base catalyst in the mechanism of Pseudomonas fluorescens kynureninase.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Robert S; Scott, Israel; Paulose, Riya; Patel, Akshay; Barron, Taylor Colt

    2014-02-01

    Kynureninase (L-kynurenine hydrolase, EC 3.7.1.3) catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of L-kynurenine to L-alanine and anthranilic acid. The proposed mechanism of the retro-Claisen reaction requires extensive acid/base catalysis. Previous crystal structures showed that Tyr226 in the Pseudomonas fluorescens enzyme (Tyr275 in the human enzyme) hydrogen bonds to the phosphate of the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) cofactor. This Tyr residue is strictly conserved in all sequences of kynureninase. The human enzyme complexed with a competitive inhibitor, 3-hydroxyhippuric acid, showed that the ligand carbonyl O is located 3.7 Å from the phenol of Tyr275 (Lima, S., Kumar, S., Gawandi, V., Momany, C. & Phillips, R. S. (2009) J. Med. Chem. 52, 389-396). We prepared a Y226F mutant of P. fluorescens kynureninase to probe the role of this residue in catalysis. The Y226F mutant has approximately 3000-fold lower activity than wild-type, and does not show the pKa values of 6.8 on kcat and 6.5 and 8.8 on k(cat)/K(m) seen for the wild-type enzyme (Koushik, S. V., Moore, J. A. III, Sundararaju, B. & Phillips, R. S. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 1376-1382). Wild-type kynureninase shows a resonance at 4.5 ppm in (31)P-NMR, which is shifted to 5.0, 3.3 and 2.0 ppm when the potent inhibitor 5-bromodihydrokynurenine is added. However, Y226F kynureninase shows resonances at 3.6 and 2.5 ppm, and no change in the peak position is seen when 5-bromodihydrokynurenine is added. Taken together, these results suggest that Tyr226 mediates proton transfer between the substrate and the phosphate, which accelerates formation of external aldimine and gem-diol intermediates. Thus, the phosphate of PLP acts as an acid/base catalyst in the mechanism of kynureninase. © 2013 FEBS.

  18. Cloning, purification, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic analysis of the periplasmic sensing domain of Pseudomonas fluorescens chemotactic transducer of amino acids type A (CtaA).

    PubMed

    Ud-Din, Abu Iftiaf Md Salah; Roujeinikova, Anna

    2016-09-05

    Chemotaxis towards nutrients plays a crucial role in root colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens. The P. fluorescens chemotactic transducer of amino acids type A (CtaA) mediates movement towards amino acids present in root exudates. In this study, the periplasmic sensory domain of CtaA has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as a precipitating agent. A complete data set was collected to 1.9 Å resolution using cryocooling conditions and synchrotron radiation. The crystals belong to space group I222 or I212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 67.2, b = 76.0, c = 113.3 Å. This is an important step towards elucidation of the structural basis of how CtaA recognizes its signal molecules and transduces the signal across the membrane.

  19. Survival of Escherichia coli o157:h7 co-cultured with different levels of pseudomonas fluorescens and lactobacillus plantarum on fresh beef.

    PubMed

    Tshabalala, P A; de Kock, H L; Buys, E M

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different levels of Pseudomonas fluorescens (10(2) and 10(6) log10 cfu/ml) and Lactobacillus plantarum (10(2) and 10(4) log10 cfu/ml) on the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on beef loins. Beef loins inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and P. fluorescens were aerobically stored for 7 days at 4 ºC, while those inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and L. plantarum were vacuum packaged and stored for 8 weeks at 4 ºC. Aerobic Plate Counts (APC), E. coli O157:H7 and either P. fluorescens or L. plantarum counts were determined at different storage intervals. For the aerobically packaged beef loins, E. coli O157:H7 was detected throughout the 7 day storage period regardless of the P. fluorescens level in the inoculum. For the vacuum packaged beef loins, similar inoculum levels of E. coli O157:H7 and L. plantarum allowed E. coli O157:H7 to survive until week 5 of storage, while a higher inoculum level of L. plantarum inhibited E. coli O157:H7 from week 3. Once fresh beef has been contaminated with E. coli O157:H7, the level of P. fluorescens in the background flora does not inhibit its survival and growth. However, under vacuum storage, the application of L. plantarum as a biopreservative inhibits the survival of E. coli O157:H7 on beef. The higher the level of L. plantarum in the system, the earlier the onset of the inhibition. Farmers and abattoirs have to strengthen preventive strategies to eliminate contamination of beef carcasses with E. coli O157:H7.

  20. Inhibition of biofilm development and spoilage potential of Shewanella baltica by quorum sensing signal in cell-free supernatant from Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Aifei; Zhu, Junli; Ye, Xiaofeng; Ge, Yangyang; Li, Jianrong

    2016-08-02

    The objective of this study was to in vitro evaluate the effect of a cell-free supernatant (CFS) containing quorum sensing (QS) signal of Pseudomonas fluorescens on the growth, biofilm development and spoilage potential of Shewanella baltica, and preliminarily assess the interactive influences of various chemically synthesized autoinducers on spoilage phenotypes of S. baltica. PF01 strain isolated from spoiled Pseudosciaen crocea was identified P. fluorescens. The addition of 25% and 50% CFS to S. baltica culture had no effect on the growth rate during the lag and exponential phase, however, caused cell decline during the stationary phase. The presence of CFS from P. fluorescens significantly inhibited biofilm development, and greatly decreased the production of trimethylamine (TMA) and biogenic amino in S. baltica. Various signal molecules of QS in the CFS of P. fluorescens culture were detected, including seven N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones (AHLs), autoinducer-2 (AI-2) and two diketopiperazines (DKPs). Exogenous supplement of synthesized seven AHLs containing in the CFS decreased biofilm formation and TMA production in S. baltica, while exposure to exogenous cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Leu) was showed to promote spoilage potential, which revealed that S. baltica also sense the two QS molecules. Furthermore, the stimulating effect of cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Leu) was affected when AHL was simultaneously added, suggesting that the inhibitory activity of spoilage phenotypes in S. baltica might be attributed to a competitive effect of these QS compounds in the CFS of P. fluorescens. The present studies provide a good basis for future research on the role of QS in the regulation of spoilage microbial flora.

  1. Comparative adherence to human A549 cells, plant fibronectin-like protein, and polystyrene surfaces of four Pseudomonas fluorescens strains from different ecological origin.

    PubMed

    Cossard, Elisabeth; Gallet, Olivier; Di Martino, Patrick

    2005-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare the adherence properties of four Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates from different ecological niches (human tissue, rhizosphere, drinking water, and cow milk). The substrates used to test P. fluorescens adherence were as follows: cultured human respiratory epithelial cells A549, immobilized plant fibronectin-like protein, and polystyrene. For all the experiments, bacteria were grown at 27 degrees C. The adherence assay to human cells was performed at 37 degrees C, whereas adherence to fibronectin and polystyrene was done at 27 degrees C. The four strains tested adhered to A549 cells but showed different adherence patterns. At 3 h, the milk isolate showed an aggregative adherence phenotype, whereas the three other isolates showed a diffuse adherence pattern. With a longer incubation time of 24 h, the aggregative pattern of the milk isolate disappeared, the adherence of the clinical strain increased, the adherence of the water isolate decreased, and morphological changes in A549 cells were observed with the clinical, water, and soil isolates. The four strains tested formed biofilms on polystyrene dishes. The clinical and milk isolates were the more efficient colonizers of polystyrene surfaces and also the more adherent to immobilized plant fibronectin-like protein. There was no relation between bacterial surface hydrophobicity and P. fluorescens adherence to the substrates tested. The main conclusions of these results are that P. fluorescens is an adherent bacterium, that no clear correlation exists between adherence and ecological habitat, and that P. fluorescens can adhere well to substrates not present in its natural environment.

  2. Alginate beads as a storage, delivery and containment system for genetically modified PCB degrader and PCB biosensor derivatives of Pseudomonas fluorescens F113.

    PubMed

    Power, B; Liu, X; Germaine, K J; Ryan, D; Brazil, D; Dowling, D N

    2011-05-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens F113Rifpcb is a genetically engineered rhizosphere bacterium with the potential to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). F113Rifpcbgfp and F113L::1180gfp are biosensor strains capable of detecting PCB bioavailability and biodegradation. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the use of alginate beads as a storage, delivery and containment system for use of these strains in PCB contaminated soils. The survival and release of Ps. fluorescens F113Rifpcb from alginate beads were evaluated. Two Ps. fluorescens F113-based biosensor strains were encapsulated, and their ability to detect 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CBA) and 3-chlorobiphenyl (3-CBP) degradation in soil was assessed. After 250 days of storage, 100% recovery of viable F113Rifpcb cells was possible. Amendments to the alginate formulation allowed for the timed release of the inoculant. Encapsulation of the F113Rifpcb cells provided a more targeted approach for the inoculation of plants and resulted in lower inoculum populations in the bulk soil, which may reduce the risk of unintentional spread of these genetically modified micro-organisms in the environment. Encapsulation of the biosensor strains in alginate beads did not interfere with their ability to detect either 3-CBA or 3-CBP degradation. In fact, detection of 3-CBP degradation was enhanced in encapsulated biosensors.   Alginate beads are an effective storage and delivery system for PCB degrading inocula and biosensors. Pseudomonas fluorescens F113Rifpcb and the F113 derivative PCB biosensor strains have excellent potential for detecting and bioremediation of PCB contaminated soils. The alginate bead delivery system could facilitate the application of these strains as biosensors. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Structure of a putative BenF-like porin from Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 at 2.6 A resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Sampathkumar, P.; Swaminathan, S.; Lu, F.; Zhao, X.; Li, Z.; Gilmore, J.; Bain, K.; Rutter, M. E.; Gheyi, T.; Schwinn, D.; Bonanno, J. B.; Pieper, U.; Fajardo, J. E.; Fiser, A.; Almo, S. C.; Chance, M. R.; Baker, D.; Atwell, S.; Thompson, D. A.; Emtage, J. S.; Wasserman, S. R.; Sali, A.; Sauder, J. M.; Burley, S. K.

    2010-11-01

    Gram-negative bacteria typically overcome poor permeability of outer membranes through general porins like OmpF and OmpC, which form water-filled transmembrane pores permitting diffusion of hydrophilic molecules with no particular selectivity. Many bacteria lacking such general porins use substrate-specific porins to overcome growth-limiting conditions and facilitate selective transport of metabolites. Exclusive reliance on substrate-specific porins yields lower membrane permeability to small molecules (<600 Da) versus that seen for Escherichia coli. In Pseudomonads, transit of most small molecules across the cell membrane is thought to be mediated by substrate-specific channels of the OprD superfamily. This property explains, at least in part, the high incidence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa antibiotic resistance. High-throughput DNA sequencing of the P. aeruginosa chromosome revealed the presence of 19 genes encoding structurally related, substrate-specific porins (with 30-45% pairwise amino acid sequence identity) that mediate transmembrane passage of small, water-soluble compounds. The OprD superfamily encompasses the eponymous OprD subfamily, which includes 9 P. aeruginosa proteins that convey basic amino acids and carbapenem antibiotics, and the OpdK subfamily, which includes 11 P. aeruginosa proteins that convey aromatic acids and other small aromatic compounds. Genome sequencing of other gram-negative bacteria has revealed additional members of the OprD and OpdK subfamilies in various organisms, including other pseudomonads. Among the many bacteria in which OprD superfamily members have been identified are P. putida, P. fluorescens Pf-5, P. syringae, and Azotobacter vinelandii, all of which share closely related genes that encode the so-called BenF-like porins. In P. putida, benF is part of an operon involved in benzoate catabolism regulated by benR. Within this operon, benK, benE, and benF genes have been suggested to contribute toward either influx or efflux

  4. The Transcriptomic Fingerprint of the Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 GacS/GacA Signal Transduction System

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A whole genome oligonucleotide microarray was used to assess the global transcriptomic consequences of a gacA knock-out mutation in P. fluorescens Pf-5. Modest changes to the P. fluorescens Pf-5 transcriptome were observed during early exponential growth phase in the gacA null mutant. In contrast, g...

  5. Investigation for zoonotic disease pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Streptococcus iniae) seen in carp farms in Duhok region of Northern Iraq by molecular methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Kamiran Abdulrahman; Arabacı, Muhammed; Önalan, Şükrü

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the zoonotic bacteria in carp farms in Duhok region of the Northern Iraq. Carp is the main fish species cultured in the Duhok region. The most common zoonotic bacteria generally seen in carp farms are Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Streptococcus iniae. Samples were collected from 20 carp farms in the Duhok Region of the Northern Iraq. Six carp samples were collected from each carp farm. Head kidney tissue samples and intestine tissue samples were collected from each carp sample. Than head kidney and intestine tissue samples were pooled. The total bacterial DNA extraction from the pooled each 20 head kidney tissue samples and pooled each 20 intestinal tissue samples. Primers for pathogens were originally designed from 16S Ribosomal gene region. Zoonotic bacteria were scanned in all tissue samples by absent / present analysis in the RT-PCR. After RT-PCR, Capillary gel electrophoresis bands were used for the confirmation of the size of amplicon which was planned during primer designing stage. As a result, one sample was positive in respect to Aeromonas hydrophila, from intestine and one carp farm was positive in respect to Pseudomonas fluorescens from intestine and two carp farms were positive in respect to Streptococcus iniae. Totally 17 of 20 carp farms were negative in respect to the zoonotic bacteria. In conclusion the zoonotic bacteria were very low (15 %) in carp farms from the Duhok Region in the Northern Iraq. Only in one Carp farms, both Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas fluorescens were positive. Also Streptococcus inia were positive in two carp farms.

  6. Transformation of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene by Purified Xenobiotic Reductase B from Pseudomonas fluorescens I-C

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Jeong W.; Knoke, Kyle L.; Noguera, Daniel R.; Fox, Brian G.; Chambliss, Glenn H.

    2000-01-01

    The enzymatic transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) by purified XenB, an NADPH-dependent flavoprotein oxidoreductase from Pseudomonas fluorescens I-C, was evaluated by using natural abundance and [U-14C]TNT preparations. XenB catalyzed the reduction of TNT either by hydride addition to the aromatic ring or by nitro group reduction, with the accumulation of various tautomers of the protonated dihydride-Meisenheimer complex of TNT, 2-hydroxylamino-4,6-dinitrotoluene, and 4-hydroxylamino-2,6-dinitrotoluene. Subsequent reactions of these metabolites were nonenzymatic and resulted in predominant formation of at least three dimers with an anionic m/z of 376 as determined by negative-mode electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and the release of ∼0.5 mol of nitrite per mol of TNT consumed. The extents of the initial enzymatic reactions were similar in the presence and in the absence of O2, but the dimerization reaction and the release of nitrite were favored under aerobic conditions or under anaerobic conditions in the presence of NADP+. Reactions of chemically and enzymatically synthesized and high-pressure liquid chromatography-purified TNT metabolites showed that both a hydroxylamino-dinitrotoluene isomer and a tautomer of the protonated dihydride-Meisenheimer complex of TNT were required precursors for the dimerization and nitrite release reactions. The m/z 376 dimers also reacted with either dansyl chloride or N-1-naphthylethylenediamine HCl, providing evidence for an aryl amine functional group. In combination, the experimental results are consistent with assigning the chemical structures of the m/z 376 species to various isomers of amino-dimethyl-tetranitrobiphenyl. A mechanism for the formation of these proposed TNT metabolites is presented, and the potential enzymatic and environmental significance of their formation is discussed. PMID:11055918

  7. Immobilization of Lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens on Porous Polyurea and Its Application in Kinetic Resolution of Racemic 1-Phenylethanol.

    PubMed

    Han, Hui; Zhou, Yamei; Li, Shusheng; Wang, Yinping; Kong, Xiang Zheng

    2016-10-05

    A porous polyurea (PPU) was prepared through a simple protocol by reacting toluene diisocyanate with water in binary solvent of water-acetone. Its amine group was determined through spectrophotometric absorbance based on its iminization with p-nitrobenzaldehyde amines. PPU was then used as a novel polymer support for enzyme immobilization, through activation by glutaraldehyde followed by immobilization of an enzyme, lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens (PFL), via covalent bonding with the amine groups of lipase molecules. Influences of glutaraldehyde and enzyme concentration and pH in the process were studied. The results revealed that the activity of the immobilized PFL reached a maximum at GA concentration of 0.17 mol/L and at pH 8. Immobilization rate of 60% or higher for PFL was obtained under optimized condition with an enzyme activity of 283 U/mg. The porous structure of PPU, prior to and after GA activation and PFL immobilization, was characterized. The activity of the immobilized PFL at different temperature and pH and its stability at 40 °C as well as its reusability were tested. The immobilized enzyme was finally used as enantioselective catalyst in kinetic resolution of racemic 1-phenylethanol (1-PEOH), and its performance compared with the free PFL. The results demonstrate that the enzyme activity and stability were greatly improved for the immobilized PFL, and highly pure enantiomers from racemic 1-PEOH were effectively achieved using the immobilized PFL. Noticeable deactivation of PFL in the resolution was observed by acetaldehyde in situ formed. In addition, the immobilized PFL was readily recovered from the reaction system for reuse. A total of 73% of the initial activity was retained after 5 repeated reuse cycles. This work provides a novel route to preparation of a polyurea porous material and its enzyme immobilization, leading to a novel type of immobilized enzyme for efficient kinetic resolution of racemic molecules.

  8. Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 Mutant with Enhanced Competitive Colonization Ability and Improved Biocontrol Activity against Fungal Root Pathogens ▿

    PubMed Central

    Barahona, Emma; Navazo, Ana; Martínez-Granero, Francisco; Zea-Bonilla, Teresa; Pérez-Jiménez, Rosa María; Martín, Marta; Rivilla, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Motility is one of the most important traits for efficient rhizosphere colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens F113rif (F113). In this bacterium, motility is a polygenic trait that is repressed by at least three independent pathways, including the Gac posttranscriptional system, the Wsp chemotaxis-like pathway, and the SadB pathway. Here we show that the kinB gene, which encodes a signal transduction protein that together with AlgB has been implicated in alginate production, participates in swimming motility repression through the Gac pathway, acting downstream of the GacAS two-component system. Gac mutants are impaired in secondary metabolite production and are unsuitable as biocontrol agents. However, the kinB mutant and a triple mutant affected in kinB, sadB, and wspR (KSW) possess a wild-type phenotype for secondary metabolism. The KSW strain is hypermotile and more competitive for rhizosphere colonization than the wild-type strain. We have compared the biocontrol activity of KSW with those of the wild-type strain and a phenotypic variant (F113v35 [V35]) which is hypermotile and hypercompetitive but is affected in secondary metabolism since it harbors a gacS mutation. Biocontrol experiments in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici/Lycopersicum esculentum (tomato) and Phytophthora cactorum/Fragaria vesca (strawberry) pathosystems have shown that the three strains possess biocontrol activity. Biocontrol activity was consistently lower for V35, indicating that the production of secondary metabolites was the most important trait for biocontrol. Strain KSW showed improved biocontrol compared with the wild-type strain, indicating that an increase in competitive colonization ability resulted in improved biocontrol and that the rational design of biocontrol agents by mutation is feasible. PMID:21685161

  9. Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 mutant with enhanced competitive colonization ability and improved biocontrol activity against fungal root pathogens.

    PubMed

    Barahona, Emma; Navazo, Ana; Martínez-Granero, Francisco; Zea-Bonilla, Teresa; Pérez-Jiménez, Rosa María; Martín, Marta; Rivilla, Rafael

    2011-08-01

    Motility is one of the most important traits for efficient rhizosphere colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens F113rif (F113). In this bacterium, motility is a polygenic trait that is repressed by at least three independent pathways, including the Gac posttranscriptional system, the Wsp chemotaxis-like pathway, and the SadB pathway. Here we show that the kinB gene, which encodes a signal transduction protein that together with AlgB has been implicated in alginate production, participates in swimming motility repression through the Gac pathway, acting downstream of the GacAS two-component system. Gac mutants are impaired in secondary metabolite production and are unsuitable as biocontrol agents. However, the kinB mutant and a triple mutant affected in kinB, sadB, and wspR (KSW) possess a wild-type phenotype for secondary metabolism. The KSW strain is hypermotile and more competitive for rhizosphere colonization than the wild-type strain. We have compared the biocontrol activity of KSW with those of the wild-type strain and a phenotypic variant (F113v35 [V35]) which is hypermotile and hypercompetitive but is affected in secondary metabolism since it harbors a gacS mutation. Biocontrol experiments in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici/Lycopersicum esculentum (tomato) and Phytophthora cactorum/Fragaria vesca (strawberry) pathosystems have shown that the three strains possess biocontrol activity. Biocontrol activity was consistently lower for V35, indicating that the production of secondary metabolites was the most important trait for biocontrol. Strain KSW showed improved biocontrol compared with the wild-type strain, indicating that an increase in competitive colonization ability resulted in improved biocontrol and that the rational design of biocontrol agents by mutation is feasible.

  10. Maintenance of a Pseudomonas fluorescens plasmid in heterologous hosts: metabolic burden as a more reliable variable to predict plasmid instability.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, S; Lalithakumari, D

    1998-07-01

    The stability of a large, multiresistance plasmid, pSCL of P. fluorescens CAS102 was studied in Pseudomonas putida and E. coli under various non-stress conditions. Both the strains lost the plasmid within 25 days when repeatedly subcultured in LB broth without any antibiotic. The transformants survived in sterile soil and water without any marked reduction in the viability. In sterile soil, P. putida lost 93% and E. coli, 98% of their plasmid containing population in 30 days, while in sterile water the plasmid loss was 92.5% and 97% respectively. The two variables, viz. the efficiency of plasmid-partitioning during cell division and measurement of relative specific growth rates of plasmid-plus and plasmid-minus cells which are used to predict plasmid instability cannot be used to predict plasmid loss during starvation. The utility of a third variable, viz. the metabolic burden due to plasmid maintenance in predicting plasmid instability in different hosts is discussed. The rate of plasmid loss was found to be comparatively faster in E. coli than in P. putida. The biosynthetic burden due to plasmid maintenance was also more in E. coli than in P. putida when compared to the plasmid-plus and plasmid-minus cells of the two strains which was evident from the increased nutrient uptake rates (glucose, O2, and amino acid) and increased protein content of the plasmid-plus cells of E. coli. From the results, a correlation could be found between the degree of metabolic burden and the rate of plasmid loss. The reliability of metabolic burden, to predict plasmid instability versus the relative specific growth rates is discussed.

  11. The biocontrol endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 induces systemic defense responses in aerial tissues upon colonization of olive roots.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Lama Cabanás, Carmen; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, a native olive root endophyte and effective biocontrol agent (BCA) against Verticillium wilt of olive, is able to trigger a broad range of defense responses in root tissues of this woody plant. In order to elucidate whether strain PICF7 also induces systemic defense responses in above-ground organs, aerial tissues of olive plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions were collected at different time points after root bacterization with this endophytic BCA. A suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library, enriched in up-regulated genes, was generated. This strategy enabled the identification of 376 ESTs (99 contigs and 277 singlets), many of them related to response to different stresses. Five ESTs, involved in defense responses, were selected to carry out time-course quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) experiments aiming to: (1) validate the induction of these genes, and (2) shed light on their expression pattern along time (from 1 to 15 days). Induction of olive genes potentially coding for lipoxygenase 2, catalase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase, and phenylananine ammonia-lyase was thus confirmed at some time points. Computational analysis also revealed that different transcription factors were up-regulated in olive aerial tissues (i.e., JERF, bHLH, WRKY), as previously reported for roots. Results confirmed that root colonization by this endophytic bacterium does not only trigger defense responses in this organ but also mounts a wide array of systemic defense responses in distant tissues (stems, leaves). This sheds light on how olive plants respond to the "non-hostile" colonization by a bacterial endophyte and how induced defense response can contribute to the biocontrol activity of strain PICF7.

  12. A Seven-Gene Locus for Synthesis of Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid by Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79

    PubMed Central

    Mavrodi, Dmitri V.; Ksenzenko, Vladimir N.; Bonsall, Robert F.; Cook, R. James; Boronin, Alexander M.; Thomashow, Linda S.

    1998-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79 produces the broad-spectrum antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), which is active against a variety of fungal root pathogens. In this study, seven genes designated phzABCDEFG that are sufficient for synthesis of PCA were localized within a 6.8-kb BglII-XbaI fragment from the phenazine biosynthesis locus of strain 2-79. Polypeptides corresponding to all phz genes were identified by analysis of recombinant plasmids in a T7 promoter/polymerase expression system. Products of the phzC, phzD, and phzE genes have similarities to enzymes of shikimic acid and chorismic acid metabolism and, together with PhzF, are absolutely necessary for PCA production. PhzG is similar to pyridoxamine-5′-phosphate oxidases and probably is a source of cofactor for the PCA-synthesizing enzyme(s). Products of the phzA and phzB genes are highly homologous to each other and may be involved in stabilization of a putative PCA-synthesizing multienzyme complex. Two new genes, phzX and phzY, that are homologous to phzA and phzB, respectively, were cloned and sequenced from P. aureofaciens 30-84, which produces PCA, 2-hydroxyphenazine-1-carboxylic acid, and 2-hydroxyphenazine. Based on functional analysis of the phz genes from strains 2-79 and 30-84, we postulate that different species of fluorescent pseudomonads have similar genetic systems that confer the ability to synthesize PCA. PMID:9573209

  13. The biocontrol endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 induces systemic defense responses in aerial tissues upon colonization of olive roots

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Lama Cabanás, Carmen; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, a native olive root endophyte and effective biocontrol agent (BCA) against Verticillium wilt of olive, is able to trigger a broad range of defense responses in root tissues of this woody plant. In order to elucidate whether strain PICF7 also induces systemic defense responses in above-ground organs, aerial tissues of olive plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions were collected at different time points after root bacterization with this endophytic BCA. A suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library, enriched in up-regulated genes, was generated. This strategy enabled the identification of 376 ESTs (99 contigs and 277 singlets), many of them related to response to different stresses. Five ESTs, involved in defense responses, were selected to carry out time-course quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) experiments aiming to: (1) validate the induction of these genes, and (2) shed light on their expression pattern along time (from 1 to 15 days). Induction of olive genes potentially coding for lipoxygenase 2, catalase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase, and phenylananine ammonia-lyase was thus confirmed at some time points. Computational analysis also revealed that different transcription factors were up-regulated in olive aerial tissues (i.e., JERF, bHLH, WRKY), as previously reported for roots. Results confirmed that root colonization by this endophytic bacterium does not only trigger defense responses in this organ but also mounts a wide array of systemic defense responses in distant tissues (stems, leaves). This sheds light on how olive plants respond to the “non-hostile” colonization by a bacterial endophyte and how induced defense response can contribute to the biocontrol activity of strain PICF7. PMID:25250017

  14. Accumulation of α-Keto Acids as Essential Components in Cyanide Assimilation by Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, Daniel A.; Chen, Jui-Lin; Pan, Guangliang

    1998-01-01

    Pyruvate (Pyr) and α-ketoglutarate (αKg) accumulated when cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764 were cultivated on growth-limiting amounts of ammonia or cyanide and were shown to be responsible for the nonenzymatic removal of cyanide from culture fluids as previously reported (J.-L. Chen and D. A. Kunz, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 156:61–67, 1997). The accumulation of keto acids in the medium paralleled the increase in cyanide-removing activity, with maximal activity (760 μmol of cyanide removed min−1 ml of culture fluid−1) being recovered after 72 h of cultivation, at which time the keto acid concentration was 23 mM. The reaction products that formed between the biologically formed keto acids and cyanide were unambiguously identified as the corresponding cyanohydrins by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Both the Pyr and α-Kg cyanohydrins were further metabolized by cell extracts and served also as nitrogenous growth substrates. Radiotracer experiments showed that CO2 (and NH3) were formed as enzymatic conversion products, with the keto acid being regenerated as a coproduct. Evidence that the enzyme responsible for cyanohydrin conversion is cyanide oxygenase, which was shown previously to be required for cyanide utilization, is based on results showing that (i) conversion occurred only when extracts were induced for the enzyme, (ii) conversion was oxygen and reduced-pyridine nucleotide dependent, and (iii) a mutant strain defective in the enzyme was unable to grow when it was provided with the cyanohydrins as a growth substrate. Pyr and αKg were further shown to protect cells from cyanide poisoning, and excretion of the two was directly linked to utilization of cyanide as a growth substrate. The results provide the basis for a new mechanism of cyanide detoxification and assimilation in which keto acids play an essential role. PMID:9797306

  15. Detection of plant-modulated alterations in antifungal gene expression in Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 on roots by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    de Werra, Patrice; Baehler, Eric; Huser, Aurélie; Keel, Christoph; Maurhofer, Monika

    2008-03-01

    The biocontrol activity of the root-colonizing Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 is largely determined by the production of antifungal metabolites, especially 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol. The expression of these metabolites depends on abiotic and biotic environmental factors, in particular, elements present in the rhizosphere. In this study, we have developed a new method for the in situ analysis of antifungal gene expression using flow cytometry combined with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based reporter fusions to the phlA and prnA genes essential for the production of the antifungal compounds 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and pyrrolnitrin, respectively, in strain CHA0. Expression of phlA-gfp and prnA-gfp in CHA0 cells harvested from the rhizosphere of a set of plant species as well as from the roots of healthy, leaf pathogen-attacked, and physically stressed plants were analyzed using a FACSCalibur. After subtraction of background fluorescence emitted by plant-derived particles and CHA0 cells not carrying the gfp reporters, the average gene expression per bacterial cell could be calculated. Levels of phlA and prnA expression varied significantly in the rhizospheres of different plant species. Physical stress and leaf pathogen infection lowered phlA expression levels in the rhizosphere of cucumber. Our results demonstrate that the newly developed approach is suitable to monitor differences in levels of antifungal gene expression in response to various plant-derived factors. An advantage of the method is that it allows quantification of bacterial gene expression in rhizosphere populations at a single-cell level. To our best knowledge, this is the first study using flow cytometry for the in situ analysis of biocontrol gene expression in a plant-beneficial bacterium in the rhizosphere.

  16. Detection of Plant-Modulated Alterations in Antifungal Gene Expression in Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 on Roots by Flow Cytometry▿

    PubMed Central

    de Werra, Patrice; Baehler, Eric; Huser, Aurélie; Keel, Christoph; Maurhofer, Monika

    2008-01-01

    The biocontrol activity of the root-colonizing Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 is largely determined by the production of antifungal metabolites, especially 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol. The expression of these metabolites depends on abiotic and biotic environmental factors, in particular, elements present in the rhizosphere. In this study, we have developed a new method for the in situ analysis of antifungal gene expression using flow cytometry combined with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based reporter fusions to the phlA and prnA genes essential for the production of the antifungal compounds 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and pyrrolnitrin, respectively, in strain CHA0. Expression of phlA-gfp and prnA-gfp in CHA0 cells harvested from the rhizosphere of a set of plant species as well as from the roots of healthy, leaf pathogen-attacked, and physically stressed plants were analyzed using a FACSCalibur. After subtraction of background fluorescence emitted by plant-derived particles and CHA0 cells not carrying the gfp reporters, the average gene expression per bacterial cell could be calculated. Levels of phlA and prnA expression varied significantly in the rhizospheres of different plant species. Physical stress and leaf pathogen infection lowered phlA expression levels in the rhizosphere of cucumber. Our results demonstrate that the newly developed approach is suitable to monitor differences in levels of antifungal gene expression in response to various plant-derived factors. An advantage of the method is that it allows quantification of bacterial gene expression in rhizosphere populations at a single-cell level. To our best knowledge, this is the first study using flow cytometry for the in situ analysis of biocontrol gene expression in a plant-beneficial bacterium in the rhizosphere. PMID:18165366

  17. Responses of the marine bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens to an excess of heavy metals: physiological and biochemical aspects.

    PubMed

    Poirier, I; Jean, N; Guary, J C; Bertrand, M

    2008-11-15

    A Pseudomonas fluorescens strain was isolated from oxic marine sediments obtained from the strand zone of the St Anne Bay (a moderately metal-contaminated site to the west of Cherbourg harbour). The strain, which exhibited a high tolerance to metal contamination when cultivated (minimal inhibitory concentration=950 microM [62 mg L(-1)] for Zn, 660 microM [42 mg L(-1)] for Cu, and 505 microM [57 mg L(-1)] for Cd), was further characterized by its physiological and biochemical responses to metal additions to the culture medium. Bacterial growth was significantly disturbed by 380 microM Zn (25 mg L(-1)), 315 microM Cu (20 mg L(-1)) and 90 microM Cd (10 mg L(-1)). The Zn-containing alkaline phosphatase was studied as an intoxication biomarker. Its activity was stimulated (+9%) by an excess of Zn, but inhibited by Cd (-55%) and Cu (-10%), these two elements could displace the native Zn or/and disturb the enzyme 3D-structure. Bacterial O(2) consumption was recorded as a global physiological response to metal stress. This parameter dropped with increasing Cd and Cu contamination (-49% and -45%, respectively, at 20 mg L(-1)). By contrast, Zn increased O2 consumption (approximately +40% for the different tested concentrations). The proteomes of bacteria grown in the presence or absence of 20 mg metal L(-1) were characterized by 2D-gel electrophoresis. The number of spots exhibiting a difference in intensity between the contaminated sample and the control was 65, 68, and 103, for Zn, Cu and Cd, respectively. Among them, 45, 61 and 82 spots respectively appeared de novo or increased in intensity, indicative of metal-stimulated synthesis, particularly for Cu and Cd. In summary, whereas Cd and Cu treatments both stressed cells and slowed down primary metabolism to differing extents, Zn has a stimulating action on several physiological and biochemical parameters.

  18. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Rhizoremediation by Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 Derivatives, Using a Sinorhizobium meliloti nod System To Drive bph Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Villacieros, Marta; Whelan, Clare; Mackova, Martina; Molgaard, Jesper; Sánchez-Contreras, María; Lloret, Javier; Aguirre de Cárcer, Daniel; Oruezábal, Roke I.; Bolaños, Luis; Macek, Thomas; Karlson, Ulrich; Dowling, David N.; Martín, Marta; Rivilla, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    Rhizoremediation of organic chemicals requires high-level expression of biodegradation genes in bacterial strains that are excellent rhizosphere colonizers. Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 is a biocontrol strain that was shown to be an excellent colonizer of numerous plant rhizospheres, including alfalfa. Although a derivative of F113 expressing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) biodegradation genes (F113pcb) has been reported previously, this strain shows a low level of bph gene expression, limiting its rhizoremediation potential. Here, a high-level expression system was designed from rhizobial nod gene regulatory relays. Nod promoters were tested in strain F113 by using β-galactosidase transcriptional fusions. This analysis showed that nodbox 4 from Sinorhizobium meliloti has a high level of expression in F113 that is dependent on an intact nodD1 gene. A transcriptional fusion of a nodbox cassette containing the nodD1 gene and nodbox 4 fused to a gfp gene was expressed in the alfalfa rhizosphere. The bph operon from Burkholderia sp. strain LB400 was cloned under the control of the nodbox cassette and was inserted as a single copy into the genome of F113, generating strain F113L::1180. This new genetically modified strain has a high level of BphC activity and grows on biphenyl as a sole carbon and energy source at a growth rate that is more than three times higher than that of F113pcb. Degradation of PCBs 3, 4, 5, 17, and 25 was also much faster in F113L::1180 than in F113pcb. Finally, the modified strain cometabolized PCB congeners present in Delor103 better than strain LB400, the donor of the bph genes used. PMID:15870360

  19. Two site-specific recombinases are implicated in phenotypic variation and competitive rhizosphere colonization in Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Granero, Francisco; Capdevila, Silvia; Sánchez-Contreras, María; Martín, Marta; Rivilla, Rafael

    2005-03-01

    The biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 undergoes phenotypic variation during rhizosphere colonization, and this variation has been related to the activity of a site-specific recombinase encoded by the sss gene. Here, it is shown that a second recombinase encoded by the xerD gene is also implicated in phenotypic variation. A putative xerD gene from this strain was cloned, and sequence analysis confirmed that it encoded a site-specific recombinase of the lambda integrase family. Mutants affected in the sss or xerD genes produced a very low quantity of phenotypic variants compared to the wild-type strain, both under prolonged cultivation in the laboratory and after rhizosphere colonization, and they were severely impaired in competitive root colonization. Overexpression of the genes encoding either recombinase resulted in a substantial increment in the production of phenotypic variants under both culture and rhizosphere colonization conditions, implying that both site-specific recombinases are involved in phenotypic variation. Overexpression of the sss gene suppressed the phenotype of a xerD mutant, but overexpression of the xerD gene had no effect on the phenotype of an sss mutant. Genetic analysis of the phenotypic variants obtained after overexpression of the genes encoding both the recombinases showed that they carried mutations in the gacA/S genes, which are necessary to produce a variety of secondary metabolites. These results indicate that the Gac system is affected by the activity of the site-specific recombinases. Transcriptional fusions of the sss and xerD genes with a promoterless lacZ gene showed that both genes have a similar expression pattern, with maximal expression during stationary phase. Although the expression of both genes was independent of diffusible compounds present in root exudates, it was induced by the plant, since bacteria attached to the root showed enhanced expression.

  20. Supramolecular Structure and Functional Analysis of the Type III Secretion System in Pseudomonas fluorescens 2P24

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Li-Qun; Liu, Xingzhong; Wei, Hai-Lei

    2016-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) of plant and animal bacterial pathogens directs the secretion and injection of proteins into host cells. Some homologous genes of T3SS were found also in non-pathogenic bacteria, but the organization of its machinery and basic function are still unknown. In this study, we identified a T3SS gene cluster from the plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens 2P24 and isolated the corresponding T3SS apparatus. The T3SS gene cluster of strain 2P24 is similar organizationally to that of pathogenic P. syringae, except that it lacks the regulator hrpR and the hrpK1 and hrpH genes, which are involved in translocation of proteins. Electron microscopy revealed that the T3SS supramolecular structure of strain 2P24 was comprised of two distinctive substructures: a long extracellular, filamentous pilus, and a membrane-embedded base. We show that strain 2P24 deploys a harpin homolog protein, RspZ1, to elicit a hypersensitive response when infiltrated into Nicotiana tabacum cv. xanthi leaves with protein that is partially purified, and by complementing the hrpZ1 mutation of pHIR11. The T3SS of strain 2P24 retained ability to secrete effectors, whereas its effector translocation activity appeared to be excessively lost. Mutation of the rscC gene from 2P24 T3SS abolished the secretion of effectors, but the general biocontrol properties were unaffected. Remarkably, strain 2P24 induced functional MAMP-triggered immunity that included a burst of reactive oxygen species, strong suppression of challenge cell death, and disease expansion, while it was not associated with the secretion functional T3SS. PMID:26779224

  1. Toluene promotes lid 2 interfacial activation of cold active solvent tolerant lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens strain AMS8.

    PubMed

    Yaacob, Norhayati; Mohamad Ali, Mohd Shukuri; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul; Leow, Adam Thean Chor

    2016-07-01

    The utilization of cold active lipases in organic solvents proves an excellent approach for chiral synthesis and modification of fats and oil due to the inherent flexibility of lipases under low water conditions. In order to verify whether this lipase can function as a valuable synthetic catalyst, the mechanism concerning activation of the lid and interacting solvent residues in the presence of organic solvent must be well understood. A new alkaline cold-adapted lipase, AMS8, from Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied for its structural adaptation and flexibility prior to its exposure to non-polar, polar aprotic and protic solvents. Solvents such as ethanol, toluene, DMSO and 2-propanol showed to have good interactions with active sites. Asparagine (Asn) and tyrosine (Tyr) were key residues attracted to solvents because they could form hydrogen bonds. Unlike in other solvents, Phe-18, Tyr-236 and Tyr-318 were predicted to have aromatic-aromatic side-chain interactions with toluene. Non-polar solvent also was found to possess highest energy binding compared to polar solvents. Due to this circumstance, the interaction of toluene and AMS8 lipase was primarily based on hydrophobicity and molecular recognition. The molecular dynamic simulation showed that lid 2 (residues 148-167) was very flexible in toluene and Ca(2+). As a result, lid 2 moves away from the catalytic areas, leaving an opening for better substrate accessibility which promotes protein activation. Only a single lid (lid 2) showed the movement following interactions with toluene, although AMS8 lipase displayed double lids. The secondary conformation of AMS8 lipase that was affected by toluene observed a reduction of helical strands and increased coil structure. Overall, this work shows that cold active lipase, AMS8 exhibits distinguish interfacial activation and stability in the presence of polar and non-polar solvents.

  2. Safety evaluation of phytase 50104 enzyme preparation (also known as VR003), expressed in Pseudomonas fluorescens, intended for increasing digestibility of phytate in monogastrics.

    PubMed

    Krygier, Scott; Solbak, Arne; Shanahan, Diane; Ciofalo, Vince

    2014-11-01

    Phytase 50104 enzyme (also known as VR003) can be added to swine and poultry diets to catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphate from phytic acid, thereby increasing phosphorus bioavailability in these animals. This enzyme was produced from a Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) production strain and was tested in acute, subchronic and genotoxicity studies. Dosages of the test article preparation ranged from 5000μg/plate for in vitro toxicity studies to 2000mg/kg/day for in vivo toxicity studies. The highest oral dose tested in vivo (NOAEL of 2000mg/kg/day) resulted in a safety margin of 5870 based on TOS and a conservative estimate of total poultry consumption at the highest inclusion rate. There was no toxicity reported for any of these studies or in the following additional safety studies: eye irritation, dermal irritation, and delayed hypersensitivity studies. A review of the public literature indicated that P. fluorescens fulfilled the recognized safety criteria pertinent to microbial production strains used in the manufacture of food/feed enzyme preparations. The results of the toxicity studies presented herein attest to the safety of phytase 50104 enzyme for its intended use.

  3. Biogenic Strain of Silver and Selenium Nanoparticles by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Cladosporium sp. JAPSK3 Isolated from Coal Mine Samples and Their Antimicrobial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nidhi; Saha, Prasenjit; Rajkumar, Karthik; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2014-08-01

    Selenium and silver have unique properties and great potential in the field of physics, chemistry and biology. The bacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens was isolated by using Kings'B media and Cladosporium sp. was isolated by using potato dextrose agar for soil sample collected from Andhra Pradesh coal field of Singareni. Rapid formation of stable silver and selenium nanoparticles (AgNPs; SeNPs) were observed on exposure of the microbial culture with solution of silver nitrate and sodium selenite. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Further, the biologically synthesized nanoparticles were found to have efficient antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria, thus implying significance of the present study in production of biomedical products. AgNPs synthesized by P. fluorescens showed more antimicrobial activity than Cladosporium sp. As the AgNPs are much smaller in size, they showed effective antimicrobial activity when compared to that of SeNPs which showed less effective antimicrobial activity in both P. fluorescens and Cladosporium sp. The microbes are capable of reducing both AgNPs and SeNPs. The biological synthesis of nanoparticles is useful when compared with other physical and chemical methods as they are eco-friendly.

  4. Pseudomonas fluorescens induces strain-dependent and strain-independent host plant responses in defense networks, primary metabolism, photosynthesis, and fitness.

    PubMed

    Weston, David J; Pelletier, Dale A; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Jawdy, Sara S; Lu, Tse-Yuan; Allen, Sara M; Melton, Sarah J; Martin, Madhavi Z; Schadt, Christopher W; Karve, Abhijit A; Chen, Jin-Gui; Yang, Xiaohan; Doktycz, Mitchel J; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2012-06-01

    Colonization of plants by nonpathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens strains can confer enhanced defense capacity against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Few studies, however, have linked defense pathway regulation to primary metabolism and physiology. In this study, physiological data, metabolites, and transcript profiles are integrated to elucidate how molecular networks initiated at the root-microbe interface influence shoot metabolism and whole-plant performance. Experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana were performed using the newly identified P. fluorescens GM30 or P. fluorescens Pf-5 strains. Co-expression networks indicated that Pf-5 and GM30 induced a subnetwork specific to roots enriched for genes participating in RNA regulation, protein degradation, and hormonal metabolism. In contrast, only GM30 induced a subnetwork enriched for calcium signaling, sugar and nutrient signaling, and auxin metabolism, suggesting strain dependence in network architecture. In addition, one subnetwork present in shoots was enriched for genes in secondary metabolism, photosynthetic light reactions, and hormone metabolism. Metabolite analysis indicated that this network initiated changes in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Consistent with this, we observed strain-specific responses in tryptophan and phenylalanine abundance. Both strains reduced host plant carbon gain and fitness, yet provided a clear fitness benefit when plants were challenged with the pathogen P. syringae DC3000.

  5. Colonization process of olive tissues by Verticillium dahliae and its in planta interaction with the biocontrol root endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Pilar; Navarro‐Raya, Carmen; Valverde‐Corredor, Antonio; Amyotte, Stefan G.; Dobinson, Katherine F.; Mercado‐Blanco, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    Summary The colonization process of Olea europaea by the defoliating pathotype of Verticillium dahliae, and the in planta interaction with the endophytic, biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 were determined. Differential fluorescent protein tagging was used for the simultaneous visualization of P. fluorescens PICF7 and V. dahliae in olive tissues. Olive plants were bacterized with PICF7 and then transferred to V. dahliae‐infested soil. Monitoring olive colonization events by V. dahliae and its interaction with PICF7 was conducted using a non‐gnotobiotic system, confocal laser scanner microscopy and tissue vibratoming sections. A yellow fluorescently tagged V. dahliae derivative (VDAT‐36I) was obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens‐mediated transformation. Isolate VDAT‐36I quickly colonized olive root surface, successfully invaded root cortex and vascular tissues via macro‐ and micro‐breakages, and progressed to the aerial parts of the plant through xylem vessel cells. Strain PICF7 used root hairs as preferred penetration site, and once established on/in root tissues, hindered pathogen colonization. For the first time using this approach, the entire colonization process of a woody plant by V. dahliae is reported. Early and localized root surface and root endophytic colonization by P. fluorescens PICF7 is needed to impair full progress of verticillium wilt epidemics in olive. PMID:21255281

  6. Investigating the ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens UW4 to reduce cadmium stress in Lactuca sativa via an intervention in the ethylene biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Albano, Lucas J; Macfie, Sheila M

    2016-12-01

    A typical plant response to any biotic or abiotic stress, including cadmium (Cd), involves increased ethylene synthesis, which causes senescence of the affected plant part. Stressed plants can experience reduced ethylene and improved growth if they are inoculated with bacteria that have the enzyme ACC deaminase, which metabolizes the ethylene precursor ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate). We investigated whether one such bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens UW4, reduces the production of ethylene and improves the growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) sown in Cd-contaminated potting material (PRO-MIX® BX). Plants were inoculated with the wild-type P. fluorescens UW4 or a mutant strain that cannot produce ACC deaminase. Cadmium-treated plants contained up to 50 times more Cd than did control plants. In noninoculated plants, Cd induced a 5-fold increase in ethylene concentration. The wild-type bacterium prevented Cd-induced reductions in root biomass but there was no relationship between Cd treatment and ethylene production in inoculated plants. In contrast, when the concentration of ethylene was plotted against the extent of bacterial colonization of the roots, increased colonization with wild-type P. fluorescens UW4 was associated with 20% less ethylene production. Ours is the first study to show that the protective effect of this bacterium is proportional to the quantity of bacteria on the root surface.

  7. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography based solid-phase extraction and MALDI TOF mass spectrometry for revealing the influence of Pseudomonas fluorescens on phospholipids in salmon fillet.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing; Yang, Qi; Cheung, Hon-Yeung

    2015-02-01

    Salmon is a popular food but it is easily susceptible to spoilage by contamination with microorganisms. In this study, a method using hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC)-based solid-phase extraction (SPE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed and applied to reveal the effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens on salmon fillet during the shelf-life period by measuring the changes in the levels of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Fresh samples were inoculated with P. fluorescens (10(6) cfu g(-1)) for 30 s, and lipids were extracted at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. A homemade SPE cartridge packed with HILIC sorbent (silica derivatized with 1,2-dihydroxypropane) was used for matrix cleanup prior to analysis by mass spectrometry. In total, 30 phospholipids and 16 lysophospholipids were detected and elucidated. The results revealed that the content of phospholipids decreased significantly, whereas that of lysophospholipids increased initially, followed by a gradual reduction as the cold storage time increased. The contamination by P. fluorescens negatively affected the quality of fresh salmon without obvious physical changes, but it posed a potential threat to human health. This study suggests that the well-established method could be used for detecting phospholipids in salmon fillet and perhaps other foods as well.

  8. Influence of host plant genotype, presence of a pathogen, and coinoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens strains on the rhizosphere expression of hydrogen cyanide- and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol biosynthetic genes in P. fluorescens biocontrol strain CHA0.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Fatemeh; Sharifi-Tehrani, Abbas; Lutz, Matthias P; Maurhofer, Monika

    2009-02-01

    The production of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) is a major factor in the control of soil-borne diseases by Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0. We investigated the impact of different biotic factors on the expression of HCN-in comparison to DAPG biosynthetic genes in the rhizosphere. To this end, the influence of plant cultivar, pathogen infection, and coinoculation with other biocontrol strains on the expression of hcnA-lacZ and phlA-lacZ fusion in strain CHA0 was monitored on the roots of bean. Interestingly, all the tested factors influenced the expression of the two biocontrol traits in a similar way. For both genes, we observed a several-fold higher expression in the rhizosphere of cv. Derakhshan compared with cvs. Goli and Naz, although bacterial rhizosphere colonization levels were similar on all cultivars tested. Root infection by Rhizoctonia solani stimulated total phlA and hcnA gene expression in the bean rhizosphere. Coinoculation of strain CHA0 with DAPG-producing P. fluorescens biocontrol strains Pf-68 and Pf-100 did neither result in a substantial alteration of hcnA nor of phlA expression in CHA0 on bean roots. To our best knowledge, this is the first study investigating the impact of biotic factors on HCN production by a bacterial biocontrol strain in the rhizosphere.

  9. Transition from reversible to irreversible attachment during biofilm formation by Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365 requires an ABC transporter and a large secreted protein.

    PubMed

    Hinsa, Shannon M; Espinosa-Urgel, Manuel; Ramos, Juan L; O'Toole, George A

    2003-08-01

    We report the identification of an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter and an associated large cell-surface protein that are required for biofilm formation by Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365. The genes coding for these proteins are designated lap for large adhesion protein. The LapA protein, with a predicted molecular weight of approximately 900 kDa, is found to be loosely associated with the cell surface and present in the culture supernatant. The LapB, LapC and LapE proteins are predicted to be the cytoplasmic membrane-localized ATPase, membrane fusion protein and outer membrane protein component, respectively, of an ABC transporter. Consistent with this prediction, LapE, like other members of this family, is localized to the outer membrane. We propose that the lapEBC-encoded ABC transporter participates in the secretion of LapA, as strains with mutations in the lapEBC genes do not have detectable LapA associated with the cell surface or in the supernatant. The lap genes are conserved among environmental pseudomonads such as P. putida KT2440, P. fluorescens PfO1 and P. fluorescens WCS365, but are absent from pathogenic pseudomonads such as P. aeruginosa and P. syringae. The wild-type strain of P. fluorescens WCS365 and its lap mutant derivatives were assessed for their biofilm forming ability in static and flow systems. The lap mutant strains are impaired in an early step in biofilm formation and are unable to develop the mature biofilm structure seen for the wild-type bacterium. Time-lapse microscopy studies determined that the lap mutants are unable to progress from reversible (or transient) attachment to the irreversible attachment stage of biofilm development. The lap mutants were also found to be defective in attachment to quartz sand, an abiotic surface these organisms likely encounter in the environment.

  10. Genome sequence reveals that Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 possesses a large and diverse array of systems for rhizosphere function and host interaction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) isolated from the sugar-beet rhizosphere. This bacterium has been extensively studied as a model strain for genetic regulation of secondary metabolite production in P. fluorescens, as a candidate biocontrol agent against phytopathogens, and as a heterologous host for expression of genes with biotechnological application. The F113 genome sequence and annotation has been recently reported. Results Comparative analysis of 50 genome sequences of strains belonging to the P. fluorescens group has revealed the existence of five distinct subgroups. F113 belongs to subgroup I, which is mostly composed of strains classified as P. brassicacearum. The core genome of these five strains is highly conserved and represents approximately 76% of the protein-coding genes in any given genome. Despite this strong conservation, F113 also contains a large number of unique protein-coding genes that encode traits potentially involved in the rhizocompetence of this strain. These features include protein coding genes required for denitrification, diterpenoids catabolism, motility and chemotaxis, protein secretion and production of antimicrobial compounds and insect toxins. Conclusions The genome of P. fluorescens F113 is composed of numerous protein-coding genes, not usually found together in previously sequenced genomes, which are potentially decisive during the colonisation of the rhizosphere and/or interaction with other soil organisms. This includes genes encoding proteins involved in the production of a second flagellar apparatus, the use of abietic acid as a growth substrate, the complete denitrification pathway, the possible production of a macrolide antibiotic and the assembly of multiple protein secretion systems. PMID:23350846

  11. Use of green fluorescent protein-based reporters to monitor balanced production of antifungal compounds in the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0.

    PubMed

    Baehler, E; Bottiglieri, M; Péchy-Tarr, M; Maurhofer, M; Keel, C

    2005-01-01

    To develop reporter constructs based on stable and unstable variants of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) for monitoring balanced production of antifungal compounds that are crucial for the capacity of the root-colonizing Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 to control plant diseases caused by soil-borne pathogenic fungi. Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 produces the three antifungal metabolites 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), pyoluteorin (PLT) and pyrrolnitrin (PRN). The gfp[mut3] and gfp[AAV] reporter genes were fused to the promoter regions of the DAPG, PLT and PRN biosynthetic genes. The reporter fusions were then used to follow the kinetics of expression of the three antifungal metabolites in a microplate assay. DAPG and PLT were found to display an inverse relationship in which each metabolite activates its own biosynthesis while repressing the synthesis of the other metabolite. PRN appears not to be involved in this balance. However, the microbial and plant phenolic metabolite salicylate was found to interfere with the expression of both DAPG and PLT. The results obtained provide evidence that P. fluorescens CHA0 may keep the antifungal compounds DAPG and PLT at a fine-tuned balance that can be affected by certain microbial and plant phenolics. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to use stable and unstable GFP variants to study antibiotic gene expression in a biocontrol pseudomonad. The developed reporter fusions will be a highly valuable tool to study in situ expression of this bacterial biocontrol trait on plant roots, i.e. at the site of pathogen suppression.

  12. Genomic analysis of the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf29Arp with evidence of T3SS and T6SS gene expression on plant roots.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Muriel; Boutin, Morgane; Gazengel, Kévin; Rispe, Claude; Gauthier, Jean-Pierre; Guillerm-Erckelboudt, Anne-Yvonne; Lebreton, Lionel; Barret, Matthieu; Daval, Stéphanie; Sarniguet, Alain

    2013-06-01

    Several bacterial strains of the Pseudomonas genus provide plant growth stimulation, plant protection against pests or bioremediation. Among these bacteria, P. fluorescens Pf29Arp reduces the severity of take-all, a disease caused by the pathogenic fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) on wheat roots. In this study, we obtained a draft genome of Pf29Arp and subsequent comparative genomic analyses have revealed that this bacterial strain is closely related to strains of the 'P. brassicacearum-like' subgroup including P. brassicacearum ssp. brassicacearum NFM421 and P. fluorescens F113. Despite an overall chromosomal organization similar to these strains, a number of features including antibiotic synthesis gene clusters from secondary metabolism are not found in the Pf29Arp genome. But Pf29Arp possesses different protein secretion systems including type III (T3SS) and type VI (T6SS) secretion systems. Pf29Arp is the first Pseudomonas sp. strain described with four T6SS clusters (cluster I, II, III and IV). In addition, some protein-coding genes involved in the assembly of these secretion systems are basally expressed during Pf29Arp colonization of healthy wheat roots and display different expression patterns on necrotized roots caused by Ggt. These data suggest a role of T3SS and T6SS in the Pf29Arp adaptation to different root environments.

  13. Factors screening to statistical experimental design of racemic atenolol kinetic resolution via transesterification reaction in organic solvent using free Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase.

    PubMed

    Agustian, Joni; Kamaruddin, Azlina Harun; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2017-07-01

    As the (R)-enantiomer of racemic atenolol has no β-blocking activity and no lack of side effects, switching from the racemate to the (S)-atenolol is more favorable. Transesterification of racemic atenolol using free enzymes investigated as a resource to resolve the racemate via this method is limited. Screenings of enzyme, medium, and acetyl donor were conducted first to give Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase, tetrahydrofuran, and vinyl acetate. A statistical design of the experiment was then developed using Central Composite Design on some operational factors, which resulted in the conversions of 11.70-61.91% and substrate enantiomeric excess (ee) of 7.31-100%. The quadratic models are acceptable with R(2) of 95.13% (conversion) and 89.63% (ee). The predicted values match the observed values reasonably well. Temperature, agitation speed, and substrate molar ratio factor have low effects on conversion and ee, but enzyme loading affects the responses highly. The interaction of temperature-agitation speed and temperature-substrate molar ratio show significant effects on conversion, while temperature-agitation speed, temperature-substrate molar ratio, and agitation speed-substrate molar ratio affect ee highly. Optimum conditions for the use of Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase, tetrahydrofuran, and vinyl acetate were found at 45°C, 175 rpm, 2000 U, and 1:3.6 substrate molar ratio. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Expression of Fap amyloids in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, and P. putida results in aggregation and increased biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Dueholm, Morten S; Søndergaard, Mads T; Nilsson, Martin; Christiansen, Gunna; Stensballe, Allan; Overgaard, Michael T; Givskov, Michael; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Otzen, Daniel E; Nielsen, Per H

    2013-06-01

    The fap operon, encoding functional amyloids in Pseudomonas (Fap), is present in most pseudomonads, but so far the expression and importance for biofilm formation has only been investigated for P. fluorescens strain UK4. In this study, we demonstrate the capacity of P. aeruginosa PAO1, P. fluorescens Pf-5, and P. putida F1 to express Fap fibrils, and investigated the effect of Fap expression on aggregation and biofilm formation. The fap operon in all three Pseudomonas species conferred the ability to express Fap fibrils as shown using a recombinant approach. This Fap overexpression consistently resulted in highly aggregative phenotypes and in increased biofilm formation. Detailed biophysical investigations of purified fibrils confirmed FapC as the main fibril monomer and supported the role of FapB as a minor, nucleating constituent as also indicated by bioinformatic analysis. Bioinformatics analysis suggested FapF and FapD as a potential β-barrel membrane pore and protease, respectively. Manipulation of the fap operon showed that FapA affects monomer composition of the final amyloid fibril, and that FapB is an amyloid protein, probably a nucleator for FapC polymerization. Our study highlights the fap operon as a molecular machine for functional amyloid formation. © 2013 The Authors. Microbiology Open published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Interaction between the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0, its genetic derivatives and vermiculite: Effects on chemical, mineralogical and mechanical properties of vermiculite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Using bacteria of the strain Pseudomonas fluorescens wild type CHA0 and its genetic derivative strains CHA77, CHA89, CHA400, CHA631 and CHA661 (which differ in one gene only) the changes in chemical, mineralogical and rheological properties of the clay mineral vermiculite affected by microbial activity were studied in order to test whether the individually different production of metabolites by the genetically engineered strains may alter the clay mineral vermiculite in distinct ways. With the novel strategy of working with living wild type bacteria, their genetic derivatives and clay, the following properties of the mineral altered by the various strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens were determined: grain size, X-Ray diffraction pattern, intercrystalline swelling with glycerol, layer charge, CEC, BET surface and uptake of trace elements. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to determine the changes in major, minor and trace elements of the clay vermiculite affected by microbial activity. Among all analyzed trace elements, Fe, Mn and Cu are the most interesting. Fe and Mn are taken up from the clay mineral by all bacterial strains whereas Cu is only removed from vermiculite by strains CHA0, CHA77, CHA400 and CHA661. The latter mentioned strains all produce the antibiotics 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and monoacetylphloroglucinol which can complex Cu efficiently. Therefore the alteration of only one gene of the bacteria is causing significant effects on the clay mineral.

  16. Biofilm Formation and Adaptation by Pseudomonas fluorescens on both Biotite and Glass Coupons Under Varying Fe-Nutrient Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, M.; Helms, G. L.; Shi, Z.; Thomashow, L.; Keller, C. K.; Harsh, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    We isolated an efficient weathering strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens from the rhizosphere of a White Pine (Pinus strobus) seedling. We grew it in a drip-flow biofilm reactor using both Fe-abundant and Fe-deficient media on either a glass or biotite coupon. Our working hypothesis was that the bacterium would respond to Fe deficiency by enhancing biotite weathering through an increase in the relative amount of polysaccharides in the biofilm compared to the Fe-abundant treatment. Because Fe is necessary for biofilm development, we hypothesized that biomass production on the biotite surface would exceed that on a Fe-free glass slide only in the Fe-deficient medium. We quantified total biomass, specific number of viable cells (SNVC), and the concentrations of K, Mg, and Fe in the biofilm. High-resolution magic angle spinning proton nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS 1H-NMR) spectroscopy was used to characterize the biofilm matrix in terms of relative biofilm constituent concentrations. Compared with biofilms grown on glass, biofilms grown on biotite had higher total biomass and SNVC irrespective of Fe supply, with a near doubling of both the biofilm biomass from 0.43 to 0.76 mg cm-2 and SNVC from 1.52 × 107 to 3.24 × 107 CFU cm-2 mg-1 when Fe was deficient, and an increase in biomass from 1.94 to 2.46 mg cm-2 and in SNVC from 8.39 × 107 to 1.96 × 108 CFU cm-2 mg-1 when Fe was sufficient. Similarly with Fe deficient, the cation concentrations in biofilms grown on biotite vs. glass increased 2.14 and 2.46 times for K and Mg, respectively, and 7.01 times for Fe. When Fe was sufficient, the concentrations of cations increased 1.24, 2.07, and 3.77 times for K, Mg, and Fe, respectively. Based on NMR spectra, no significant change in biofilm chemistry occurred between the glass and biotite systems whether Fe was deficient or not. However, we did observe an increase in the ratio of the integrated areas corresponding to the carbohydrate and protein NMR regions, increasing

  17. Pseudomonas fluorescens PTA-CT2 Triggers Local and Systemic Immune Response Against Botrytis cinerea in Grapevine.

    PubMed

    Gruau, Charlotte; Trotel-Aziz, Patricia; Villaume, Sandra; Rabenoelina, Fanja; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Aziz, Aziz

    2015-10-01

    Although induced systemic resistance (ISR) is well-documented in the context of plant-beneficial bacteria interactions, knowledge about the local and systemic molecular and biochemical defense responses before or upon pathogen infection in grapevine is very scarce. In this study, we first investigated the capacity of grapevine plants to express immune responses at both above- and below-ground levels upon interaction with a beneficial bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens PTA-CT2. We then explored whether the extent of priming state could contribute to the PTA-CT2-induced ISR in Botrytis cinerea-infected leaves. Our data provide evidence that this bacterium colonized grapevine roots but not the above-ground plant parts and altered the plant phenotype that displayed multiple defense responses both locally and systemically. The grapevine roots and leaves exhibited distinct patterns of defense-related gene expression during root colonization by PTA-CT2. Roots responded faster than leaves and some responses were more strongly upregulated in roots than in leaves and vice versa for other genes. These responses appear to be associated with some induction of cell death in roots and a transient expression of HSR, a hypersensitive response-related gene in both local (roots) and systemic (leaves) tissues. However, stilbenic phytoalexin patterns followed opposite trends in roots compared with leaves but no phytoalexin was exuded during plant-bacterium interaction, suggesting that roots could play an important role in the transfer of metabolites contributing to immune response at the systemic level. Unexpectedly, in B. cinerea-infected leaves PTA-CT2-mediated ISR was accompanied in large part by a downregulation of different defense-related genes, including HSR. Only phytoalexins and glutathion-S-transferase 1 transcripts were upregulated, while the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes was maintained at a higher level than the control. This suggests that decreased

  18. Removal of aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, and heptachlor epoxide using activated carbon and/or Pseudomonas fluorescens free cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Bandala, Erick R; Andres-Octaviano, Juan; Pastrana, Paulino; Torres, Luis G

    2006-01-01

    Degradation of aldrin (1,2,3,4,10,10-Hexachloro-1,4,4a,5,8,8a-hexahydro-1,4:5-8-dimethanonaphthalene), heptachlor (1H-1,4,5,6,7,8,8-heptachloro-3a,4,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,7-methano indene), dieldrin (1aalpha,2beta,2aalpha,3beta,6beta,6aalpha,7beta,7aalpha)-3,4,5,6,9,9-Hexachloro-1a,2,2a,3,6,6a,7,7a-octahydro-2,7:3,6-d-methanonaphtha[2,3-b]oxirene, and heptachlor epoxide (1aalpha, 1bbeta,2alpha,5alpha,5alphabeta,6beta,6aalpha-2,3,4,5,6,7,7-Heptachloro-1a,1b,5,5a,6,6a-hexahydro-2,5-methano-2H-inden[1,2-b]-oxirene) was tested using free cultures of Pseudomonas fluorescens under controlled conditions. Pesticide concentrations were monitored by gas chromatography during 120 h. Percentages of degradation and biodegradation rates (BDR) were calculated. Data showed a trend suggesting a relation between chemical structure and degradability. Degradation kinetics for each pesticide tested showed that the highest degradation rates were found in the first 24 h. Kinetics data were adjusted to an empirical equation in order to predict their behavior, and the correlation coefficients obtained were satisfactory. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of the final extracts allowed the identification of chlordene and monodechlorodieldrin, which have been reported as final metabolite produced in the biodegradation of this kind of compounds. Regarding adsorption of pesticides on activated vegetal carbon, we concluded that removal efficiencies between 95.45 and 97.18% can be reached, depending on the pesticide and the carbon dose applied. The values for K from the Freundlich equation were quite similar for the four pesticides (between 1.0001 and 1.04), whereas the n values were quite different for each pesticide in the following order of affinity: dieldrin > aldrin > heptachlor epoxide > heptachlor. Equilibrium times, very important for scaling up the process, were between 43 min and 1 h, for the heptachlor epoxide and the heptachlor, respectively.

  19. A Full-Length Plasmodium falciparum Recombinant Circumsporozoite Protein Expressed by Pseudomonas fluorescens Platform as a Malaria Vaccine Candidate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangming; Coelho-dos-Reis, Jordana G. A.; Funakoshi, Ryota; Giardina, Steve; Jin, Hongfan; Retallack, Diane M.; Haverstock, Ryan; Allen, Jeffrey R.; Vedvick, Thomas S.; Fox, Christopher B.; Reed, Steven G.; Ayala, Ramses; Roberts, Brian; Winram, Scott B.; Sacci, John; Tsuji, Moriya; Zavala, Fidel; Gutierrez, Gabriel M.

    2014-01-01

    The circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of Plasmodium falciparum is a major surface protein, which forms a dense coat on the sporozoite's surface. Preclinical research on CSP and clinical evaluation of a CSP fragment-based RTS, S/AS01 vaccine have demonstrated a modest degree of protection against P. falciparum, mediated in part by humoral immunity and in part by cell-mediated immunity. Given the partial protective efficacy of the RTS, S/AS01 vaccine in a recent Phase 3 trial, further improvement of CSP-based vaccines is crucial. In this report, we describe the preclinical development of a full-length, recombinant CSP (rCSP)-based vaccine candidate against P. falciparum malaria suitable for current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) production. Utilizing a novel high-throughput Pseudomonas fluorescens expression platform, we demonstrated greater efficacy of full-length rCSP as compared to N-terminally truncated versions, rapidly down-selected a promising lead vaccine candidate, and developed a high-yield purification process to express immunologically active, intact antigen for clinical trial material production. The rCSP, when formulated with various adjuvants, induced antigen-specific antibody responses as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence assay (IFA), as well as CD4+ T-cell responses as determined by ELISpot. The adjuvanted rCSP vaccine conferred protection in mice when challenged with transgenic P. berghei sporozoites containing the P. falciparum repeat region of CSP. Furthermore, heterologous prime/boost regimens with adjuvanted rCSP and an adenovirus type 35-vectored CSP (Ad35CS) showed modest improvements in eliciting CSP-specific T-cell responses and anti-malarial protection, depending on the order of vaccine delivery. Collectively, these data support the importance of further clinical development of adjuvanted rCSP, either as a stand-alone product or as one of the components in a heterologous prime/boost strategy

  20. Role of ptsP, orfT, and sss Recombinase Genes in Root Colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens Q8r1-96▿

    PubMed Central

    Mavrodi, Olga V.; Mavrodi, Dmitri V.; Weller, David M.; Thomashow, Linda S.

    2006-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens Q8r1-96 produces 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG), a polyketide antibiotic that suppresses a wide variety of soilborne fungal pathogens, including Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, which causes take-all disease of wheat. Strain Q8r1-96 is representative of the D-genotype of 2,4-DAPG producers, which are exceptional because of their ability to aggressively colonize and maintain large populations on the roots of host plants, including wheat, pea, and sugar beet. In this study, three genes, an sss recombinase gene, ptsP, and orfT, which are important in the interaction of Pseudomonas spp. with various hosts, were investigated to determine their contributions to the unusual colonization properties of strain Q8r1-96. The sss recombinase and ptsP genes influence global processes, including phenotypic plasticity and organic nitrogen utilization, respectively. The orfT gene contributes to the pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in plants and animals and is conserved among saprophytic rhizosphere pseudomonads, but its function is unknown. Clones containing these genes were identified in a Q8r1-96 genomic library, sequenced, and used to construct gene replacement mutants of Q8r1-96. Mutants were characterized to determine their 2,4-DAPG production, motility, fluorescence, colony morphology, exoprotease and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) production, carbon and nitrogen utilization, and ability to colonize the rhizosphere of wheat grown in natural soil. The ptsP mutant was impaired in wheat root colonization, whereas mutants with mutations in the sss recombinase gene and orfT were not. However, all three mutants were less competitive than wild-type P. fluorescens Q8r1-96 in the wheat rhizosphere when they were introduced into the soil by paired inoculation with the parental strain. PMID:16936061

  1. Genome Analysis of Pseudomonas fluorescens PCL1751: A Rhizobacterium that Controls Root Diseases and Alleviates Salt Stress for Its Plant Host.

    PubMed

    Cho, Shu-Ting; Chang, Hsing-Hua; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Kamilova, Faina; Lugtenberg, Ben; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens PCL1751 is a rod-shaped Gram-negative bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of a greenhouse-grown tomato plant in Uzbekistan. It controls several plant root diseases caused by Fusarium fungi through the mechanism of competition for nutrients and niches (CNN). This mechanism does not rely on the production of antibiotics, so it avoids the concerns of resistance development and is environmentally safe. Additionally, this bacterium promotes plant growth by alleviating salt stress for its plant host. To investigate the genetic mechanisms that may explain these observations, we determined the complete genome sequence of this bacterium, examined its gene content, and performed comparative genomics analysis with other Pseudomonas strains. The genome of P. fluorescens PCL1751 consisted of one circular chromosome that is 6,143,950 base-pairs (bp) in size; no plasmid was found. The annotation included 19 rRNA, 70 tRNA, and 5,534 protein-coding genes. The gene content analysis identified a large number of genes involved in chemotaxis and motility, colonization of the rhizosphere, siderophore biosynthesis, and osmoprotectant production. In contrast, the pathways involved in the biosynthesis of phytohormones or antibiotics were not found. Comparison with other Pseudomonas genomes revealed extensive variations in their genome size and gene content. The presence and absence of secretion system genes were highly variable. As expected, the synteny conservation among strains decreased as a function of phylogenetic divergence. The integration of prophages appeared to be an important driver for genome rearrangements. The whole-genome gene content analysis of this plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) provided some genetic explanations to its phenotypic characteristics. The extensive and versatile substrate utilization pathways, together with the presence of many genes involved in competitive root colonization, provided further support for the finding

  2. Genome Analysis of Pseudomonas fluorescens PCL1751: A Rhizobacterium that Controls Root Diseases and Alleviates Salt Stress for Its Plant Host

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Shu-Ting; Chang, Hsing-Hua; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Kamilova, Faina; Lugtenberg, Ben; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens PCL1751 is a rod-shaped Gram-negative bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of a greenhouse-grown tomato plant in Uzbekistan. It controls several plant root diseases caused by Fusarium fungi through the mechanism of competition for nutrients and niches (CNN). This mechanism does not rely on the production of antibiotics, so it avoids the concerns of resistance development and is environmentally safe. Additionally, this bacterium promotes plant growth by alleviating salt stress for its plant host. To investigate the genetic mechanisms that may explain these observations, we determined the complete genome sequence of this bacterium, examined its gene content, and performed comparative genomics analysis with other Pseudomonas strains. The genome of P. fluorescens PCL1751 consisted of one circular chromosome that is 6,143,950 base-pairs (bp) in size; no plasmid was found. The annotation included 19 rRNA, 70 tRNA, and 5,534 protein-coding genes. The gene content analysis identified a large number of genes involved in chemotaxis and motility, colonization of the rhizosphere, siderophore biosynthesis, and osmoprotectant production. In contrast, the pathways involved in the biosynthesis of phytohormones or antibiotics were not found. Comparison with other Pseudomonas genomes revealed extensive variations in their genome size and gene content. The presence and absence of secretion system genes were highly variable. As expected, the synteny conservation among strains decreased as a function of phylogenetic divergence. The integration of prophages appeared to be an important driver for genome rearrangements. The whole-genome gene content analysis of this plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) provided some genetic explanations to its phenotypic characteristics. The extensive and versatile substrate utilization pathways, together with the presence of many genes involved in competitive root colonization, provided further support for the finding

  3. Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 Containing an Artificial Oxalate Operon and Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin Secretes Oxalic Acid and Solubilizes Rock Phosphate in Acidic Alfisols

    PubMed Central

    Archana, G.; Naresh Kumar, G.

    2014-01-01

    Oxalate secretion was achieved in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 by incorporation of genes encoding Aspergillus niger oxaloacetate acetyl hydrolase (oah), Fomitopsis plaustris oxalate transporter (FpOAR) and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) in various combinations. Pf (pKCN2) transformant containing oah alone accumulated 19 mM oxalic acid intracellularly but secreted 1.2 mM. However, in the presence of an artificial oxalate operon containing oah and FpOAR genes in plasmid pKCN4, Pf (pKCN4) secreted 13.6 mM oxalate in the medium while 3.6 mM remained inside. This transformant solubilized 509 μM of phosphorus from rock phosphate in alfisol which is 4.5 fold higher than the Pf (pKCN2) transformant. Genomic integrants of P. fluorescens (Pf int1 and Pf int2) containing artificial oxalate operon (plac-FpOAR-oah) and artificial oxalate gene cluster (plac-FpOAR-oah, vgb, egfp) secreted 4.8 mM and 5.4 mM oxalic acid, released 329 μM and 351 μM P, respectively, in alfisol. The integrants showed enhanced root colonization, improved growth and increased P content of Vigna radiata plants. This study demonstrates oxalic acid secretion in P. fluorescens by incorporation of an artificial operon constituted of genes for oxalate synthesis and transport, which imparts mineral phosphate solubilizing ability to the organism leading to enhanced growth and P content of V. radiata in alfisol soil. PMID:24705024

  4. Proline-based modulation of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and viable cell yields in cultures of Pseudomonas fluorescens wild-type and over-producing strains.

    PubMed

    Slininger, P J; Shea-Andersh, M A

    2005-09-01

    The antifungal compound 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) is produced in the rhizosphere of wheat by pseudomonad populations responsible for the natural biological control phenomenon known as "take-all decline." Studies were conducted to elucidate the impact of DAPG and its co-product 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (THA) on the production of Pseudomonas fluorescens for biological control. Increasing DAPG from 0.1 g/l to 0.5 g/l and THA from 0.05 g/l to 0.5 g/l significantly inhibited the growth and lowered the yield of viable bacteria in liquid cultures. On further examination of these metabolites applied in seed coatings, levels of DAPG and THA exceeding 0.05 mg/g seed significantly reduced wheat germination percentages. The three-way interaction of DAPG, THA, and culture medium ingredients was significant, and greatest seed germination loss (40-50%) was observed when 0.5 mg DAPG and 0.25 mg THA were combined in a coating of 0.5 ml culture medium per gram of seed. Based on the results of Biolog GN microplate, flask, and fermentor screens of C sources, proline was found to optimize the viable cell yields of the P. fluorescens strains tested. The combination of proline with glucose and urea as C and N sources in growth media could be optimized to minimize DAPG production and maximize the vitality of P. fluorescens Q8R1-96 and Q69c-80:miniTn5:phl20 (DAPG over-producer). In production cultures, the proline supply rate offers a potentially useful means to optimize the biological control agent yield and quality.

  5. Identification of amino acid residues responsible for the enantioselectivity and amide formation capacity of the Arylacetonitrilase from Pseudomonas fluorescens EBC191.

    PubMed

    Kiziak, Christoph; Stolz, Andreas

    2009-09-01

    The nitrilase from Pseudomonas fluorescens EBC191 converted (R,S)-mandelonitrile with a low enantioselectivity to (R)-mandelic acid and (S)-mandeloamide in a ratio of about 4:1. In contrast, the same substrate was hydrolyzed by the homologous nitrilase from Alcaligenes faecalis ATCC 8750 almost exclusively to (R)-mandelic acid. A chimeric enzyme between both nitrilases was constructed, which represented in total 16 amino acid exchanges in the central part of the nitrilase from P. fluorescens EBC191. The chimeric enzyme clearly resembled the nitrilase from A. faecalis ATCC 8750 in its turnover characteristics for (R,S)-mandelonitrile and (R,S)-2-phenylpropionitrile (2-PPN) and demonstrated an even higher enantioselectivity for the formation of (R)-mandelic acid than the nitrilase from A. faecalis. An alanine residue (Ala165) in direct proximity to the catalytically active cysteine residue was replaced in the nitrilase from P. fluorescens by a tryptophan residue (as found in the nitrilase from A. faecalis ATCC 8750 and most other bacterial nitrilases) and several other amino acid residues. Those enzyme variants that possessed a larger substituent in position 165 (tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or histidine) converted racemic mandelonitrile and 2-PPN to increased amounts of the R enantiomers of the corresponding acids. The enzyme variant Ala165His showed a significantly increased relative activity for mandelonitrile (compared to 2-PPN), and the opposite was found for the enzyme variants carrying aromatic residues in the relevant position. The mutant forms carrying an aromatic substituent in position 165 generally formed significantly reduced amounts of mandeloamide from mandelonitrile. The important effect of the corresponding amino acid residue on the reaction specificity and enantiospecificity of arylacetonitrilases was confirmed by the construction of a Trp164Ala variant of the nitrilase from A. faecalis ATCC 8750. This point mutation converted the highly R

  6. Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 containing an artificial oxalate operon and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin secretes oxalic acid and solubilizes rock phosphate in acidic alfisols.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kavita; Kumar, Chanchal; Archana, G; Naresh Kumar, G

    2014-01-01

    Oxalate secretion was achieved in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 by incorporation of genes encoding Aspergillus niger oxaloacetate acetyl hydrolase (oah), Fomitopsis plaustris oxalate transporter (FpOAR) and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) in various combinations. Pf (pKCN2) transformant containing oah alone accumulated 19 mM oxalic acid intracellularly but secreted 1.2 mM. However, in the presence of an artificial oxalate operon containing oah and FpOAR genes in plasmid pKCN4, Pf (pKCN4) secreted 13.6 mM oxalate in the medium while 3.6 mM remained inside. This transformant solubilized 509 μM of phosphorus from rock phosphate in alfisol which is 4.5 fold higher than the Pf (pKCN2) transformant. Genomic integrants of P. fluorescens (Pf int1 and Pf int2) containing artificial oxalate operon (plac-FpOAR-oah) and artificial oxalate gene cluster (plac-FpOAR-oah, vgb, egfp) secreted 4.8 mM and 5.4 mM oxalic acid, released 329 μM and 351 μM P, respectively, in alfisol. The integrants showed enhanced root colonization, improved growth and increased P content of Vigna radiata plants. This study demonstrates oxalic acid secretion in P. fluorescens by incorporation of an artificial operon constituted of genes for oxalate synthesis and transport, which imparts mineral phosphate solubilizing ability to the organism leading to enhanced growth and P content of V. radiata in alfisol soil.

  7. Relative importance of fluorescent siderophores and other factors in biological control of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici by Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79 and M4-80R.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, H; Weller, D M; Thomashow, L S

    1991-11-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79 suppresses take-all, a major root disease of wheat caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. The bacteria produce an antibiotic, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), and a fluorescent pyoverdin siderophore. Previous studies have established that PCA has an important role in the biological control of take-all but that antibiotic production does not account fully for the suppressiveness of the strain. To define the role of the pyoverdin siderophore more precisely, mutants deficient in production of the antibiotic, the siderophore, or both factors were constructed and compared with the parental strain for control of take-all on wheat roots. In all cases, strains that produced PCA were more suppressive than those that did not, and pyoverdin-deficient mutant derivatives controlled take-all as effectively as their respective fluorescent parental strains. Thus, the phenazine antibiotic was the dominant factor in disease suppression and the fluorescent siderophore had little or no role. The siderophore also was of minor importance in a second strain, P. fluorescens M4-80R, that does not produce PCA. Strains 2-79 and M4-80R both produced substances distinct from the pyoverdin siderophore that were responsible for fungal inhibition in vitro under iron limitation, but these substances also had, at most, a minor role in disease suppression in situ.

  8. Arabidopsis thaliana as a tool to identify traits involved in Verticillium dahliae biocontrol by the olive root endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-González, M. Mercedes; Bakker, Peter A. H. M.; Prieto, Pilar; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The effective management of Verticillium wilts (VW), diseases affecting many crops and caused by some species of the soil-borne fungus Verticillium, is problematic. The use of microbial antagonists to control these pathologies fits modern sustainable agriculture criteria. Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 is an endophytic bacterium isolated from olive roots with demonstrated ability to control VW of olive caused by the highly virulent, defoliating (D) pathotype of Verticillium dahliae Kleb. However, the study of the PICF7-V. dahliae-olive tripartite interaction poses difficulties because of the inherent characteristics of woody, long-living plants. To overcome these problems we explored the use of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Results obtained in this study showed that: (i) olive D and non-defoliating V. dahliae pathotypes produce differential disease severity in A. thaliana plants; (ii) strain PICF7 is able to colonize and persist in the A. thaliana rhizosphere but is not endophytic in Arabidopsis; and (iii) strain PICF7 controls VW in Arabidopsis. Additionally, as previously observed in olive, neither swimming motility nor siderophore production by PICF7 are required for VW control in A. thaliana, whilst cysteine auxotrophy decreased the effectiveness of PICF7. Moreover, when applied to the roots PICF7 controlled Botrytis cinerea infection in the leaves of Arabidopsis, suggesting that this strain is able to induce systemic resistance. A. thaliana is therefore a suitable alternative to olive bioassays to unravel biocontrol traits involved in biological control of V. dahliae by P. fluorescens PICF7. PMID:25904904

  9. Characterisation of the Thermostable Protease AprX in Strains of Pseudomonas Fluorescens and Impact on the Shelf-life of Dairy Products: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Andreani, Nadia Andrea; Carraro, Lisa; Fasolato, Luca; Balzan, Stefania; Lucchini, Rosaria; Novelli, Enrico; Cardazzo, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial proteases are involved in food spoilage and shelf-life reduction. Among the bacterial proteases, a predominant role in spoilage of dairy products seems to be played by the thermostable metallo-protease AprX, which is produced by various strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Differences in AprX enzyme activity among different strains were highlighted, but the most proteolytic strains were not identified. In this study, the presence of the aprX gene was evaluated in 69 strains isolated from food matrices and 18 reference strains belonging to the P. fluorescens group, which had been previously typed by the multi locus sequence typing method. Subsequently, a subset of reference strains was inoculated in ultra-high temperature milk, and the expression of the aprX gene was evaluated at 22 and 6°C. On the same milk samples, the proteolytic activity was then evaluated through Azocasein and trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid solution assays. Finally, to assess the applicability of the former assay directly on dairy products the proteolityc activity was tested on industrial ricotta samples using the Azocasein assay. These results demonstrate the spread of aprX gene in most strains tested and the applicability of Azocasein assay to monitor the proteolytic activity in dairy products. PMID:28217561

  10. Characterisation of the Thermostable Protease AprX in Strains of Pseudomonas Fluorescens and Impact on the Shelf-life of Dairy Products: Preliminary Results.

    PubMed

    Andreani, Nadia Andrea; Carraro, Lisa; Fasolato, Luca; Balzan, Stefania; Lucchini, Rosaria; Novelli, Enrico; Cardazzo, Barbara

    2016-09-20

    Bacterial proteases are involved in food spoilage and shelf-life reduction. Among the bacterial proteases, a predominant role in spoilage of dairy products seems to be played by the thermostable metallo-protease AprX, which is produced by various strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Differences in AprX enzyme activity among different strains were highlighted, but the most proteolytic strains were not identified. In this study, the presence of the aprX gene was evaluated in 69 strains isolated from food matrices and 18 reference strains belonging to the P. fluorescens group, which had been previously typed by the multi locus sequence typing method. Subsequently, a subset of reference strains was inoculated in ultra-high temperature milk, and the expression of the aprX gene was evaluated at 22 and 6°C. On the same milk samples, the proteolytic activity was then evaluated through Azocasein and trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid solution assays. Finally, to assess the applicability of the former assay directly on dairy products the proteolityc activity was tested on industrial ricotta samples using the Azocasein assay. These results demonstrate the spread of aprX gene in most strains tested and the applicability of Azocasein assay to monitor the proteolytic activity in dairy products.

  11. Molecular characterization of the extracellular poly(3-hydroxyoctanoic acid) [P(3HO)] depolymerase gene of Pseudomonas fluorescens GK13 and of its gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Schirmer, A; Jendrossek, D

    1994-01-01

    phaZPfi, the gene encoding the extracellular poly(3-hydroxyoctanoic acid) depolymerase of Pseudomonas fluorescens GK13, was cloned, sequenced, and characterized. It comprises 837 bp and is transcribed as a monocistronic message of about 950 bp from a putative sigma 70-like promoter 32 bp upstream of the ATG start codon. The deduced protein of 278 amino acids reveals a typical leader peptide at its N terminus. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the mature depolymerase started with Ala-23, whereas the mature enzyme purified from P. fluorescens GK13 started with both Leu-34 and Arg-35 determining proteins of 26,687 and 26,573 Da, respectively. The depolymerase is a strongly hydrophobic protein and includes the lipase consensus sequence Gly-X-Ser-X-Gly, which is known for serine hydrolases. Replacement of the central residue, Ser-172, in the corresponding sequence (Gly-Ile-Ser-Ser-Gly) of PhaZPfl with alanine resulted in complete loss of enzyme activity, indicating that the poly(3-hydroxyoctanoic acid) depolymerase belongs to the family of serine hydrolases. Images PMID:7961472

  12. Comparative Kinetic Studies and Performance Evaluation of Biofilm and Biomass Characteristics of Pseudomonas fluorescens in Degrading Synthetic Phenolic Effluent in Inverse Fluidized Bed Biofilm Reactor.

    PubMed

    Begum, S Sabarunisha; Radha, K V

    2016-05-01

    The bioremediation potential of Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied in an Inverse Fluidized Bed Biofilm Reactor under batch recirculation conditions using synthetic phenolic effluent of various concentrations (400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 mg/l). The performance of the reactor was investigated and the characteristics of biomass and biofilm were determined by evaluating biofilm dry density and thickness, bioparticle density, suspended and attached biomass concentration, chemical oxygen demand and phenol removal efficiency. Biodegradation kinetics had been studied for suspended biomass culture and biofilm systems with respect to its specific growth and substrate consumption rates. Suspended biomass followed substrate inhibition kinetics and the experimental data fitted well with the Haldane model. The degradation kinetic behavior of biofilm revealed that a well adapted biofilm system with effective control of biofilm thickness in an inverse fluidized bed biofilm reactor overcomes substrate inhibition effects by tolerating higher phenol concentration and fitted well to the Monod model.

  13. Degradation of poly(3-hydroxyoctanoic acid) [P(3HO)] by bacteria: Purification and properties of a P(3HO) depolymerase from Pseudomonas fluorescens GK13

    SciTech Connect

    Schirmer, A.; Jendrossek, D.; Schlegel, H.G. )

    1993-04-01

    Poly(3-hydroxyoctanoic acid)[P(3HO)] and other poly(hydroxyalkanoic acids) PHA are widespread bacterial storage compounds of carbon and reducing power. They are biodegradable to carbon dioxide and water, and both aerobic and anaerobic P(3HB)-degradable bacteria are widely distributed in various ecosytems: soil, activated sludge, lake water and air, sea water, estuarine sediment, and anaerobic sewage sludge. This study describes the isolation and characterization of P(3HO) degrading bacteria: Alcaligenes eutrophus, Comamonas violaceum, Pseudomonas citronellolis, and P. fluorescenes (2 strains). The authors also describe purified P(3HO) depolymerase and compared it to PHB and PHA deploymerases. P(3HO) depolymerase activity was found not only in the sulture supernatant but also in the soluble fraction and membrane fractions of P(3HO) grown cells.39 refs.,5 figs.,3 tabs.

  14. Biodesel Production from Pseudomonas Fluorescens Lp1 Lipase Immobilized on Amino-silane Modified Super Paramagnetic Fe3O4 Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanimozhi, S.; Perinbam, K.

    2013-04-01

    An extracellular lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens Lp1 isolated from oil contaminated soil was immobilized onto amino silane modified superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The magnetic nanoparticles, magnetite was synthesized chemically by co-precipitation and characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Powder X-ray diffraction studies (XRD). The structure of the synthesized magnetic nanoparticles was uniform, spherical and the size was determined around 31 nm by powder XRD. The biodiesel production mixture was prepared by addition of waste cooking oil, lipase immobilized magnetite and methanol. The transesterified products were analyzed by Gas Liquid chromatography-Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The methyl esters such as Oxiraneundecanoic acid, 3-pentyl-methyl ester, Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester and 10-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester were obtained. The study experimentally proved the use of amino silane modified superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles in biodiesel production from waste cooking oil.

  15. Novel cellulose-binding domains, NodB homologues and conserved modular architecture in xylanases from the aerobic soil bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. cellulosa and Cellvibrio mixtus.

    PubMed Central

    Millward-Sadler, S J; Davidson, K; Hazlewood, G P; Black, G W; Gilbert, H J; Clarke, J H

    1995-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that selective pressure has led to the retention of cellulose-binding domains (CBDs) by hemicellulase enzymes from aerobic bacteria, four new xylanase (xyn) genes from two cellulolytic soil bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. cellulosa and Cellvibrio mixtus, have been isolated and sequenced. Pseudomonas genes xynE and xynF encoded modular xylanases (XYLE and XYLF) with predicted M(r) values of 68,600 and 65000 respectively. XYLE contained a glycosyl hydrolase family 11 catalytic domain at its N-terminus, followed by three other domains; the second of these exhibited sequence identity with NodB from rhizobia. The C-terminal domain (40 residues) exhibited significant sequence identity with a non-catalytic domain of previously unknown function, conserved in all the cellulases and one of the hemicellulases previously characterized from the pseudomonad, and was shown to function as a CBD when fused to the reporter protein glutathione-S-transferase. XYLF contained a C-terminal glycosyl hydrolase family 10 catalytic domain and a novel CBD at its N-terminus. C. mixtus genes xynA and xynB exhibited substantial sequence identity with xynE and xynF respectively, and encoded modular xylanases with the same molecular architecture and, by inference, the same functional properties. In the absence of extensive cross-hybridization between other multiple cel (cellulase) and xyn genes from P. fluorescens subsp. cellulosa and genomic DNA from C. mixtus, similarity between the two pairs of xylanases may indicate a recent transfer of genes between the two bacteria. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:7492333

  16. Investigation of zoonotic disease pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Streptococcus iniae) seen in carp farms in the Northern Iraq-Erbil region by molecular methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibraheem, Azad Saber; Önalan, Şükrü; Arabacı, Muhammed

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the zoonotic bacteria in carp farms in the Northern Iraq-Erbil region. Carp is the main fish species cultured in Erbil region. The most common zoonotic bacteria generally seen in carp farms are Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Streptococcus iniae. Samples were collected from 25 carp farms in the Northern Iraq-Erbil region. Six carp samples were collected from each carp farm. Head kidney and intestine tissue samples were collected from each carp sample. Then head kidney and intestine tissue samples were pooled separately from each carp farm. Total bacterial DNA had been extracted from the 25 pooled head kidney and 25 intestinal tissue samples. The pathogen Primers were originally designed from 16S RNA gene region. Zoonotic bacteria were scanned in all tissue samples with absent/present analysis by RT-PCR. Furthermore, the capillary gel electrophoresis bands were used for confirmation of amplicon size which was planned during primer designing stage. As a result, thirteen carp farms were positive in the respect to Aeromonas hydrophila, eight carp farms were positive from head kidney and six carp farms were positive from the intestine, only one carp farm was positive from both head kidney and the intestine tissue samples. In the respect to Streptococcus iniae, four carp farms were positive from head kidney and two carp farms were positive from the intestine. Only one carp farm was positive in the respect to Pseudomonas fluorescens from the intestine. Totally, 9 of 25 carp farms were cleared (negative) the zoonotic bacteria. In conclusion, the zoonotic bacteria were high (64 %) in carp farms in the Northern Iraq-Erbil region.

  17. Structural and Functional Analysis of the Type III Secretion System from Pseudomonas fluorescens Q8r1-96▿ §

    PubMed Central

    Mavrodi, Dmitri V.; Joe, Anna; Mavrodi, Olga V.; Hassan, Karl A.; Weller, David M.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Loper, Joyce E.; Alfano, James R.; Thomashow, Linda S.

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens Q8r1-96 represents a group of rhizosphere strains responsible for the suppressiveness of agricultural soils to take-all disease of wheat. It produces the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and aggressively colonizes the roots of cereal crops. In this study, we analyzed the genome of Q8r1-96 and identified a type III protein secretion system (T3SS) gene cluster that has overall organization similar to that of the T3SS gene cluster of the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. We also screened a collection of 30 closely related P. fluorescens strains and detected the T3SS genes in all but one of them. The Q8r1-96 genome contained ropAA and ropM type III effector genes, which are orthologs of the P. syringae effector genes hopAA1-1 and hopM1, as well as a novel type III effector gene designated ropB. These type III effector genes encoded proteins that were secreted in culture and injected into plant cells by both P. syringae and Q8r1-96 T3SSs. The Q8r1-96 T3SS was expressed in the rhizosphere, but mutants lacking a functional T3SS were not altered in their rhizosphere competence. The Q8r1-96 type III effectors RopAA, RopB, and RopM were capable of suppressing the hypersensitive response and production of reactive oxygen species, two plant immune responses. PMID:20971913

  18. Characterization of a heat-resistant extracellular protease from Pseudomonas fluorescens 07A shows that low temperature treatments are more effective in deactivating its proteolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Alves, Maura P; Salgado, Rafael L; Eller, Monique R; Vidigal, Pedro Marcus P; Fernandes de Carvalho, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    This work discusses the biological and biochemical characterization of an extracellular protease produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 49.486 kDa and hydrolyzes gelatin, casein, and azocasein, but not BSA. Its maximum activity is found at 37°C and pH 7.5, but it retained almost 70% activity at pH 10.0. It was shown to be a metalloprotease inhibited by Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Hg(2+), Fe(2+), and Mg(2+), but induced by Mn(2+). After incubation at 100°C for 5min, the enzyme presented over 40% activity, but only 14 to 30% when submitted to milder heat treatments. This behavior may cause significant problems under conditions commonly used for the processing and storage of milk and dairy products, particularly UHT milk. A specific peptide sequenced by mass spectrometer analysis allowed the identification of gene that encodes this extracellular protease in the genome of Pseudomonas fluorescens 07A strain. The enzyme has 477 AA and highly conserved Ca(2+)- and Zn(2+)-binding domains, indicating that Ca(2+), the main ion in milk, is also a cofactor. This work contributes to the understanding of the biochemical aspects of enzyme activity and associates them with its sequence and structure. These findings are essential for the full understanding and control of these enzymes and the technological problems they cause in the dairy industry. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of the hcnABC Gene Cluster Encoding Hydrogen Cyanide Synthase and Anaerobic Regulation by ANR in the Strictly Aerobic Biocontrol Agent Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0

    PubMed Central

    Laville, Jacques; Blumer, Caroline; Von Schroetter, Christine; Gaia, Valeria; Défago, Geneviève; Keel, Christoph; Haas, Dieter

    1998-01-01

    The secondary metabolite hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens from glycine, essentially under microaerophilic conditions. The genetic basis of HCN synthesis in P. fluorescens CHA0 was investigated. The contiguous structural genes hcnABC encoding HCN synthase were expressed from the T7 promoter in Escherichia coli, resulting in HCN production in this bacterium. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the hcnABC genes showed that each HCN synthase subunit was similar to known enzymes involved in hydrogen transfer, i.e., to formate dehydrogenase (for HcnA) or amino acid oxidases (for HcnB and HcnC). These similarities and the presence of flavin adenine dinucleotide- or NAD(P)-binding motifs in HcnB and HcnC suggest that HCN synthase may act as a dehydrogenase in the reaction leading from glycine to HCN and CO2. The hcnA promoter was mapped by primer extension; the −40 sequence (TTGGC … .ATCAA) resembled the consensus FNR (fumarate and nitrate reductase regulator) binding sequence (TTGAT … .ATCAA). The gene encoding the FNR-like protein ANR (anaerobic regulator) was cloned from P. fluorescens CHA0 and sequenced. ANR of strain CHA0 was most similar to ANR of P. aeruginosa and CydR of Azotobacter vinelandii. An anr mutant of P. fluorescens (CHA21) produced little HCN and was unable to express an hcnA-lacZ translational fusion, whereas in wild-type strain CHA0, microaerophilic conditions strongly favored the expression of the hcnA-lacZ fusion. Mutant CHA21 as well as an hcn deletion mutant were impaired in their capacity to suppress black root rot of tobacco, a disease caused by Thielaviopsis basicola, under gnotobiotic conditions. This effect was most pronounced in water-saturated artificial soil, where the anr mutant had lost about 30% of disease suppression ability, compared with wild-type strain CHA0. These results show that the anaerobic regulator ANR is required for cyanide synthesis in the strictly aerobic strain CHA0 and

  20. Characterization of the hcnABC gene cluster encoding hydrogen cyanide synthase and anaerobic regulation by ANR in the strictly aerobic biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0.

    PubMed

    Laville, J; Blumer, C; Von Schroetter, C; Gaia, V; Défago, G; Keel, C; Haas, D

    1998-06-01

    The secondary metabolite hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens from glycine, essentially under microaerophilic conditions. The genetic basis of HCN synthesis in P. fluorescens CHA0 was investigated. The contiguous structural genes hcnABC encoding HCN synthase were expressed from the T7 promoter in Escherichia coli, resulting in HCN production in this bacterium. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the hcnABC genes showed that each HCN synthase subunit was similar to known enzymes involved in hydrogen transfer, i.e., to formate dehydrogenase (for HcnA) or amino acid oxidases (for HcnB and HcnC). These similarities and the presence of flavin adenine dinucleotide- or NAD(P)-binding motifs in HcnB and HcnC suggest that HCN synthase may act as a dehydrogenase in the reaction leading from glycine to HCN and CO2. The hcnA promoter was mapped by primer extension; the -40 sequence (TTGGC ... ATCAA) resembled the consensus FNR (fumarate and nitrate reductase regulator) binding sequence (TTGAT ... ATCAA). The gene encoding the FNR-like protein ANR (anaerobic regulator) was cloned from P. fluorescens CHA0 and sequenced. ANR of strain CHA0 was most similar to ANR of P. aeruginosa and CydR of Azotobacter vinelandii. An anr mutant of P. fluorescens (CHA21) produced little HCN and was unable to express an hcnA-lacZ translational fusion, whereas in wild-type strain CHA0, microaerophilic conditions strongly favored the expression of the hcnA-lacZ fusion. Mutant CHA21 as well as an hcn deletion mutant were impaired in their capacity to suppress black root rot of tobacco, a disease caused by Thielaviopsis basicola, under gnotobiotic conditions. This effect was most pronounced in water-saturated artificial soil, where the anr mutant had lost about 30% of disease suppression ability, compared with wild-type strain CHA0. These results show that the anaerobic regulator ANR is required for cyanide synthesis in the strictly aerobic strain CHA0 and suggest that ANR

  1. Exposure-related effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain CL145A, on coldwater, coolwater, and warmwater fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luoma, James A.; Weber, Kerry L.; Denise A. Mayer,

    2015-01-01

    Further investigations to evaluate the SDP-exposure related effects on freshwater fish at the maximum approved open-water label concentration and exposure duration (100 mg/L for 8 hours) and using the expected lentic application technique (static application) are warranted. The variation in tolerance to P. fluorescens, strain CL145A, exposure observed in this study indicates that fish species community composition should be considered before SDP is applied in open-water environments.

  2. Development and validation of a real-time TaqMan assay for the detection and enumeration of Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 used as a challenge organism in testing of food equipments.

    PubMed

    Saha, Ratul; Bestervelt, Lorelle L; Donofrio, Robert S

    2012-02-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 is used as the challenge organism to evaluate the efficacy of the clean-in-place (CIP) process of food equipment (automatic ice-maker) as per NSF/ANSI Standard 12. Traditional culturing methodology is presently used to determine the concentration of the challenge organism, which takes 48 h to confirm the cell density. Storage of the challenge preparation in the refrigerator might alter the cell density as P. fluorescens is capable of growing at 4 °C. Also, background organism can grow on the Pseudomonas F agar (PFA) used for the recovery of P. fluorescens thus affecting the results of the test. Real-time TaqMan assay targeting the cpn60 gene was developed for the enumeration and the identification of P. fluorescens because of its specificity, accuracy, and shorter turnaround time. The TaqMan primer-probe pair developed using the Allele ID® 7.0 probe design software was highly specific and sensitive for the target organism. The sensitivity of the assay was 10 colony forming units (CFU)/mL. The assay was also successful in determining the concentration of the challenge preparation within 2 h. Based on these observations, TaqMan assay targeting the cpn60 gene can be efficiently used for strain level identification and enumeration of bacteria. Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 is used as a challenge organism in the efficacy testing of clean-in-place process of food equipments. Currently, culturing technique is used for its identification and estimation, which is not only time-consuming but also prone to error. Real-time TaqMan assay is more specific, sensitive, and accurate along with a shorter turnaround time compared to culturing techniques, thereby increasing the overall quality of the testing methodology to evaluate the clean-in-place process critical for the food industry to protect public health and safety. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. New GroEL-like chaperonin of bacteriophage OBP Pseudomonas fluorescens suppresses thermal protein aggregation in an ATP-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Semenyuk, Pavel I; Orlov, Victor N; Sokolova, Olga S; Kurochkina, Lidia P

    2016-08-01

    Recently, we discovered and studied the first virus-encoded chaperonin of bacteriophage EL Pseudomonas aeruginosa, gene product (gp) 146. In the present study, we performed bioinformatics analysis of currently predicted GroEL-like proteins encoded by phage genomes in comparison with cellular and mitochondrial chaperonins. Putative phage chaperonins share a low similarity and do not form a monophyletic group; nevertheless, they are closer to bacterial chaperonins in the phylogenetic tree. Experimental investigation of putative GroEL-like chaperonin proteins has been continued by physicochemical and functional characterization of gp246 encoded by the genome of Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteriophage OBP. Unlike the more usual double-ring architecture of chaperonins, including the EL gp146, the recombinant gp246 produced by Escherichia coli cells has been purified as a single heptameric ring. It possesses ATPase activity and does not require a co-chaperonin for its function. In vitro experiments demonstrated that gp246 is able to suppress the thermal protein inactivation and aggregation in an ATP-dependent manner, thus indicating chaperonin function. Single-particle electron microscopy analysis revealed the different conformational states of OBP chaperonin, depending on the bound nucleotide. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  4. Physico-chemical factors affect chloramphenicol efflux and EmhABC efflux pump expression in Pseudomonas fluorescens cLP6a.

    PubMed

    Adebusuyi, Abigail; Foght, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Protein synthesis inhibitors such as chloramphenicol and tetracycline may be inducers of efflux pumps such as MexY in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, complicating their use for the treatment of bacterial infections. We previously determined that chloramphenicol, a substrate of the EmhABC efflux pump in Pseudomonas fluorescens cLP6a, did not induce emhABC expression. In this study, we determined the effect of physico-chemical factors on chloramphenicol efflux by EmhABC, and the expression of emhABC. Efflux assays measuring accumulation of (14)C-chloramphenicol in cell pellets showed that chloramphenicol efflux is dependent on growth temperature, pH and concentration of Mg(2+). These physico-chemical factors modulated the efflux of chloramphenicol by 26 to >50%. All conditions tested that decreased the efflux of chloramphenicol unexpectedly induced transcription of emhABC efflux genes. EmhABC activity also effectively suppressed the deleterious effect of chloramphenicol on the cell membrane of strain cLP6a, which may explain why chloramphenicol is not an inducer of emhABC. Our results suggest that the detrimental effect of an antibiotic on cell membrane integrity and fatty acid composition may be the signal that induces emhABC expression, and that inducers of other bacterial efflux pumps may include environmental factors rather than their substrates per se.

  5. Safety evaluation of an alpha-amylase enzyme preparation derived from the archaeal order Thermococcales as expressed in Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar I.

    PubMed

    Landry, Timothy D; Chew, Lawrence; Davis, John W; Frawley, Nile; Foley, Holly H; Stelman, Steven J; Thomas, Johnson; Wolt, Jeffrey; Hanselman, David S

    2003-02-01

    BD5088 alpha-amylase derived from archaeal sources has characteristics of pH and temperature tolerance that are well suited to hydrolysis of starch in food processing applications. The production microorganism recipient strain, Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar I, strain MB101, was avirulent after oral administration to mice and does not represent an infectious threat to humans. Repeated dose gavage studies with BD5088 enzyme preparation, up to 13 weeks in duration, showed no systemic toxicity due to the oral route with an NOAEL of 890 mg/kg/day as Total Organic Solids. Some irritation occurred in the respiratory tract, which was considered to be a consequence of reflux and aspiration of test material that contained lipopolysaccharide from the Pseudomonas production strain. A 2-week dietary study (0 and 310 mg/kg/day) confirmed that there were no respiratory tract effects related to oral ingestion. There was no genotoxic activity based on Ames, mouse lymphoma, mouse micronucleus, and rat lymphocyte chromosomal aberration tests. There was no evidence of allergenic potential based on a comparison of the primary sequence of BD5088 with sequences in an allergen database. The enzyme was labile to pepsin digestion. Based on these data, BD5088 alpha-amylase preparation may be considered safe for use in food production such as corn wet milling. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science (USA)

  6. Mutational Analyses of Glucose Dehydrogenase and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Genes in Pseudomonas fluorescens Reveal Their Effects on Growth and Alginate Production.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Susan; Mærk, Mali; Valla, Svein; Ertesvåg, Helga

    2015-05-15

    The biosynthesis of alginate has been studied extensively due to the importance of this polymer in medicine and industry. Alginate is synthesized from fructose-6-phosphate and thus competes with the central carbon metabolism for this metabolite. The alginate-producing bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens relies on the Entner-Doudoroff and pentose phosphate pathways for glucose metabolism, and these pathways are also important for the metabolism of fructose and glycerol. In the present study, the impact of key carbohydrate metabolism enzymes on growth and alginate synthesis was investigated in P. fluorescens. Mutants defective in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (Zwf-1 and Zwf-2) or glucose dehydrogenase (Gcd) were evaluated using media containing glucose, fructose, or glycerol. Zwf-1 was shown to be the most important glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase for catabolism. Both Zwf enzymes preferred NADP as a coenzyme, although NAD was also accepted. Only Zwf-2 was active in the presence of 3 mM ATP, and then only with NADP as a coenzyme, indicating an anabolic role for this isoenzyme. Disruption of zwf-1 resulted in increased alginate production when glycerol was used as the carbon source, possibly due to decreased flux through the Entner-Doudoroff pathway rendering more fructose-6-phosphate available for alginate biosynthesis. In alginate-producing cells grown on glucose, disruption of gcd increased both cell numbers and alginate production levels, while this mutation had no positive effect on growth in a non-alginate-producing strain. A possible explanation is that alginate synthesis might function as a sink for surplus hexose phosphates that could otherwise be detrimental to the cell.

  7. Monitoring physiological status of GFP-tagged Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 under different nutrient conditions and in soil by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Maraha, Ninwe; Backman, Agneta; Jansson, Janet K

    2004-12-27

    Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25, a plant growth promoting bacterium, has been widely studied due to its potential as an inoculum for improving crop yields. Environmental inoculants are usually applied on seeds or directly to soil and to effectively promote plant growth they need to be viable and active. However, it is difficult to study the physiological status of specific microorganisms in complex environments, such as soil. In this study, our aim was to use molecular tools to specifically monitor the physiological status of P. fluorescens SBW25 in soil and in pure cultures incubated under different nutritional conditions. The cells were previously tagged with marker genes (encoding green fluorescent protein and bacterial luciferase) to specifically track the cells in environmental samples. The physiological status of the cells was determined using the viability stains 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl-tetrazolium chloride (CTC) and propidium iodide (PI), which stain active and dead cells, respectively. Luciferase activity was used to monitor the metabolic activity of the population. Most of the cells died after incubation for nine days in nutrient rich medium. By contrast when incubated under starvation conditions, most of the population was not stained with CTC or PI (i.e. intact but inactive cells), indicating that most of the cells were presumably dormant. In soil, a large fraction of the SBW25 cell population became inactive and died, as determined by a decline in luciferase activity and CTC-stained cells, an increase in PI-stained cells, and an inability of the cells to be cultured on agar medium. However, approximately 60% of the population was unstained, presumably indicating that the cells entered a state of dormancy in soil similar to that observed under starvation conditions in pure cultures. These results demonstrate the applicability of this approach for monitoring the physiological status of specific cells under stress conditions, such as those experienced by

  8. Fluxome study of Pseudomonas fluorescens reveals major reorganisation of carbon flux through central metabolic pathways in response to inactivation of the anti-sigma factor MucA.

    PubMed

    Lien, Stina K; Niedenführ, Sebastian; Sletta, Håvard; Nöh, Katharina; Bruheim, Per

    2015-02-18

    The bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens switches to an alginate-producing phenotype when the pleiotropic anti-sigma factor MucA is inactivated. The inactivation is accompanied by an increased biomass yield on carbon sources when grown under nitrogen-limited chemostat conditions. A previous metabolome study showed significant changes in the intracellular metabolite concentrations, especially of the nucleotides, in mucA deletion mutants compared to the wild-type. In this study, the P. fluorescens SBW25 wild-type and an alginate non-producing mucA- ΔalgC double-knockout mutant are investigated through model-based (13)C-metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA) to explore the physiological consequences of MucA inactivation at the metabolic flux level. Intracellular metabolite extracts from three carbon labelling experiments using fructose as the sole carbon source are analysed for (13)C-label incorporation in primary metabolites by gas and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. From mass isotopomer distribution datasets, absolute intracellular metabolic reaction rates for the wild type and the mutant are determined, revealing extensive reorganisation of carbon flux through central metabolic pathways in response to MucA inactivation. The carbon flux through the Entner-Doudoroff pathway was reduced in the mucA- ΔalgC mutant, while flux through the pentose phosphate pathway was increased. Our findings also indicated flexibility of the anaplerotic reactions through down-regulation of the pyruvate shunt in the mucA- ΔalgC mutant and up-regulation of the glyoxylate shunt. Absolute metabolic fluxes and metabolite levels give detailed, integrated insight into the physiology of this industrially, medically and agriculturally important bacterial species and suggest that the most efficient way of using a mucA- mutant as a cell factory for alginate production would be to use non-growing conditions and nitrogen deprivation.

  9. Sequencing and Analysis of the Pseudomonas fluorescens GcM5-1A Genome: A Pathogen Living in the Surface Coat of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yingnan; Zhao, Boguang; Yin, Tongming

    2015-01-01

    It is known that several bacteria are adherent to the surface coat of pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus), but their function and role in the pathogenesis of pine wilt disease remains debatable. The Pseudomonas fluorescens GcM5-1A is a bacterium isolated from the surface coat of pine wood nematodes. In previous studies, GcM5-1A was evident in connection with the pathogenicity of pine wilt disease. In this study, we report the de novo sequencing of the GcM5-1A genome. A 600-Mb collection of high-quality reads was obtained and assembled into sequence contigs spanning a 6.01-Mb length. Sequence annotation predicted 5,413 open reading frames, of which 2,988 were homologous to genes in the other four sequenced P. fluorescens isolates (SBW25, WH6, Pf0-1 and Pf-5) and 1,137 were unique to GcM5-1A. Phylogenetic studies and genome comparison revealed that GcM5-1A is more closely related to SBW25 and WH6 isolates than to Pf0-1 and Pf-5 isolates. Towards study of pathogenesis, we identified 79 candidate virulence factors in the genome of GcM5-1A, including the Alg, Fl, Waa gene families, and genes coding the major pathogenic protein fliC. In addition, genes for a complete T3SS system were identified in the genome of GcM5-1A. Such systems have proved to play a critical role in subverting and colonizing the host organisms of many gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Although the functions of the candidate virulence factors need yet to be deciphered experimentally, the availability of this genome provides a basic platform to obtain informative clues to be addressed in future studies by the pine wilt disease research community. PMID:26517369

  10. Endophytic Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens RG11 May Transform Tryptophan to Melatonin and Promote Endogenous Melatonin Levels in the Roots of Four Grape Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yaner; Jiao, Jian; Fan, Xiucai; Sun, Haisheng; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Jianfu; Liu, Chonghuai

    2017-01-01

    Endophytes have been verified to synthesize melatonin in vitro and promote abiotic stress-induced production of endogenous melatonin in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) roots. This study aimed to further characterize the biotransformation of tryptophan to melatonin in the endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens RG11 and to investigate its capacity for enhancing endogenous melatonin levels in the roots of different grape cultivars. Using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry combined with 15N double-labeled L-tryptophan as the precursor for melatonin, we detected isotope-labeled 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin, N-acetylserotonin, and melatonin, but tryptamine was not detected during the in vitro incubation of P. fluorescens RG11. Furthermore, the production capacity of these four compounds peaked during the exponential growth phase. RG11 colonization increased the endogenous levels of 5-hydroxytryptophan, N-acetylserotonin, and melatonin, but reduced those of tryptamine and serotonin, in the roots of the Red Globe grape cultivar under salt stress conditions. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that RG11 reduced the transcription of grapevine tryptophan decarboxylase and serotonin N-acetyltransferase genes when compared to the un-inoculated control. These results correlated with decreased reactive oxygen species bursts and cell damage, which were alleviated by RG11 colonization under salt stress conditions. Additionally, RG11 promoted plant growth and enhanced the levels of endogenous melatonin in different grape cultivars. Intraspecific variation in the levels of melatonin precursors was found among four grape cultivars, and the associated root crude extracts appeared to significantly induce RG11 melatonin biosynthesis in vitro. Overall, this study provides useful information that enhances the existing knowledge of a potential melatonin synthesis pathway in rhizobacteria, and it reveals plant–rhizobacterium interactions that affect

  11. Soil amendment with Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0: lasting effects on soil biological properties in soils low in microbial biomass and activity.

    PubMed

    Fliessbach, Andreas; Winkler, Manuel; Lutz, Matthias P; Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; Mäder, Paul

    2009-05-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strains are used in agriculture as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Nontarget effects of released organisms should be analyzed prior to their large-scale use, and methods should be available to sensitively detect possible changes in the environments the organism is released to. According to ecological theory, microbial communities with a greater diversity should be less susceptible to disturbance by invading organisms. Based on this principle, we laid out a pot experiment with field-derived soils different in their microbial biomass and activity due to long-term management on similar parent geological material (loess). We investigated the survival of P. fluorescens CHA0 that carried a resistance toward rifampicin and the duration of potential changes of the soil microflora caused by the inoculation with the bacterium at the sowing date of spring wheat. Soil microbial biomass (C(mic), N(mic)) basal soil respiration (BR), qCO(2), dehydrogenase activity (DHA), bacterial plate counts, mycorrhiza root colonization, and community level substrate utilization were analyzed after 18 and 60 days. At the initial stage, soils were clearly different with respect to most of the parameters measured, and a time-dependent effect between the first and the second set point were attributable to wheat growth and the influence of roots. The effect of the inoculum was small and merely transient, though significant long-term changes were found in soils with a relatively low level of microbial biomass. Community level substrate utilization as an indicator of changes in microbial community structure was mainly changed by the growth of wheat, while other experimental factors were negligible. The sensitivity of the applied methods to distinguish the experimental soils was in decreasing order N(mic), DHA, C(mic), and qCO(2). Besides the selective enumeration of P. fluorescens CHA0 rif(+), which was only found in amended soils, methods to distinguish the

  12. Colonization strategies of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1: activation of soil-specific genes important for diverse and specific environments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas fluorescens is a common inhabitant of soil and the rhizosphere environment. In addition to potential applications in biocontrol and bioremediation, P. fluorescens is of interest as a model for studying bacterial survival and fitness in soil. A previous study using in vivo expression technology (IVET) identified 22 genes in P. fluorescens Pf0-1 which are up-regulated during growth in Massachusetts loam soil, a subset of which are important for fitness in soil. Despite this and other information on adaptation to soil, downstream applications such as biocontrol or bioremediation in diverse soils remain underdeveloped. We undertook an IVET screen to identify Pf0-1 genes induced during growth in arid Nevada desert soil, to expand our understanding of growth in soil environments, and examine whether Pf0-1 uses general or soil type-specific mechanisms for success in soil environments. Results Twenty six genes were identified. Consistent with previous studies, these genes cluster in metabolism, information storage/processing, regulation, and ‘hypothetical’, but there was no overlap with Pf0-1 genes induced during growth in loam soil. Mutation of both a putative glutamine synthetase gene (Pfl01_2143) and a gene predicted to specify a component of a type VI secretion system (Pfl01_5595) resulted in a decline in arid soil persistence. When examined in sterile loam soil, mutation of Pfl01_5595 had no discernible impact. In contrast, the Pfl01_2143 mutant was not impaired in persistence in sterile soil, but showed a significant reduction in competitive fitness. Conclusions These data support the conclusion that numerous genes are specifically important for survival and fitness in natural environments, and will only be identified using in vivo approaches. Furthermore, we suggest that a subset of soil-induced genes is generally important in different soils, while others may contribute to success in specific types of soil. The importance of glutamine

  13. Effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on growth and biological efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis against Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of bean damping-off.

    PubMed

    Peighamy-Ashnaei, S; Sharifi-Tehrani, A; Ahmadzadeh, M; Behboudi, K

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important environmental factors that regulate the growth and antagonistic efficacy of biocontrol agents is the medium. The aim of this paper was to find the nitrogen and carbon sources that provide maximum biomass production of strains P-5 and P-6 (Pseudomonas fluorescens), B-3 and B-16 (Bacillus subtilis) and minimum cost of media, whilst maintaining biocontrol efficacy. All of the strains were grown in seven liquid media (pH=6.9) including: sucrose + yeast extract, molasses of sugar beet + yeast extract in 2:1 and 1:1 w/w ratios, molasses of sugar beet + urea, nutrient broth, molasses and malt extract, at an initial inoculation of 1 x 10(5) CFU ml(-1). Cells from over night cultures used to inoculate soil at 1 x 10(9) CFU cm(-3) soil. At the same time, fungal inoculum (infected millet seed with Rhizoctonia solani) was added to soil at the rate of 2 g kg(-1) soil. Results indicated that growth of P-6, B-3 and B-16 in molasses + yeast extract (1:1 w/w) medium was significantly higher than in the other media. Molasses + yeast extract (1:1 and 2:1 w/w) media supported rapid growth and high cell yields in P-5. In greenhouse condition, results indicated that the influence of the media on the biocontrol efficacy of P-5, P-6, B-3 and B-16 was the same and Pseudomonas fluorescens P-5 in molasses and malt extract media reduced the severity of disease up to 72.8 percent. On the other hand, there were observed significant differences on bean growth after one month in greenhouse. P-5 in molasses + yeast extract (1:1 w/w) medium had the most effects on bean growth promotion. In this study molasses media showed good yield efficacy in all of the strains. The high sucrose concentration in molasses justifies the high biomass in all of the strains. Also, the low cost of molasses allows its concentration to be increased in media. On the other hand, yeast extract was the best organic nitrogen source for antagonist bacteria but it is expensive for an industrial process

  14. Bioconversion of Ferulic Acid into Vanillic Acid by Means of a Vanillate-Negative Mutant of Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain BF13

    PubMed Central

    Civolani, Claudio; Barghini, Paolo; Roncetti, Anna Rita; Ruzzi, Maurizio; Schiesser, Alma

    2000-01-01

    From a ferulic-acid-degrading Pseudomonas fluorescens strain (BF13), we have isolated a transposon mutant, which retained the ability to bioconvert ferulic acid into vanillic acid but lost the ability to further degrade the latter acid. The mutant, BF13-97, was very stable, and therefore it was suitable to be used as a biocatalyst for the preparative synthesis of vanillic acid from ferulic acid. By use of resting cells we determined the effect on the bioconversion rate of several parameters, such as the addition of nutritional factors, the concentration of the biomass, and the carbon source on which the biomass was grown. The optimal yield of vanillic acid was obtained with cells pregrown on M9 medium containing p-coumaric acid (0.1% [wt/vol]) as a sole carbon source and yeast extract (0.001% [wt/vol]) as a source of nutritional factors. Under these conditions, 1 mg (wet weight) of biomass produced 0.23 mg of vanillic acid per h. The genomic region of BF13-97 flanking the transposon's site of insertion was cloned and sequenced revealing two open reading frames of 1,062 (vanA) and 954 (vanB) bp, respectively. The van genes are organized in a cluster and encode the subunits of the vanillate-O-demethylase, which catalyzes the first step of the vanillate catabolism. Amino acid sequences deduced from vanA and vanB genes were shown to have high identity with known VanAs and VanBs from Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter spp. Highly conserved regions known to exist in class IA oxygenases were also found in the vanillate-O-demethylase components from P. fluorescens BF13. The terminal oxygenase VanA is characterized by a conserved Rieske-type [2Fe-2S]R ligand center. The reductase VanB contains a plant-type ferredoxin [2Fe-2S]Fd, flavin mononucleotide, and NAD-ribose binding domains which are located in its C-terminal and N-terminal halves, respectively. Transfer of wild-type vanAB genes to BF13-97 complemented this mutant, which recovered its ability to grow on either vanillic

  15. Impact of Biocontrol Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 and a Genetically Modified Derivative on the Diversity of Culturable Fungi in the Cucumber Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Girlanda, M.; Perotto, S.; Moenne-Loccoz, Y.; Bergero, R.; Lazzari, A.; Defago, G.; Bonfante, P.; Luppi, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of Pseudomonas biocontrol inoculants on nontarget rhizosphere fungi. This issue was addressed using the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0-Rif, which produces the antimicrobial polyketides 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl) and pyoluteorin (Plt) and protects cucumber from several fungal pathogens, including Pythium spp., as well as the genetically modified derivative CHA0-Rif(pME3424). Strain CHA0-Rif(pME3424) overproduces Phl and Plt and displays improved biocontrol efficacy compared with CHA0-Rif. Cucumber was grown repeatedly in the same soil, which was left uninoculated, was inoculated with CHA0-Rif or CHA0-Rif(pME3424), or was treated with the fungicide metalaxyl (Ridomil). Treatments were applied to soil at the start of each 32-day-long cucumber growth cycle, and their effects on the diversity of the rhizosphere populations of culturable fungi were assessed at the end of the first and fifth cycles. Over 11,000 colonies were studied and assigned to 105 fungal species (plus several sterile morphotypes). The most frequently isolated fungal species (mainly belonging to the genera Paecilomyces, Phialocephala, Fusarium, Gliocladium, Penicillium, Mortierella, Verticillium, Trichoderma, Staphylotrichum, Coniothyrium, Cylindrocarpon, Myrothecium, and Monocillium) were common in the four treatments, and no fungal species was totally suppressed or found exclusively following one particular treatment. However, in each of the two growth cycles studied, significant differences were found between treatments (e.g., between the control and the other treatments and/or between the two inoculation treatments) using discriminant analysis. Despite these differences in the composition and/or relative abundance of species in the fungal community, treatments had no effect on species diversity indices, and species abundance distributions fit the truncated lognormal function in most cases. In addition, the impact of treatments at the 32-day

  16. Assessment of the Environmental Fate of the Biological Control Agent of Fire Blight, Pseudomonas fluorescens EPS62e, on Apple by Culture and Real-Time PCR Methods

    PubMed Central

    Pujol, Marta; Badosa, Esther; Manceau, Charles; Montesinos, Emilio

    2006-01-01

    The colonization of apple blossoms and leaves by Pseudomonas fluorescens EPS62e was monitored in greenhouse and field trials using cultivable cell counting and real-time PCR. The real-time PCR provided a specific quantitative method for the detection of strain EPS62e. The detection level was around 102 cells g (fresh weight)−1 and the standard curve was linear within a 5-log range. EPS62e actively colonized flowers reaching values from 107 to 108 cells per blossom. In apple flowers, no significant differences were observed between population levels obtained by real-time PCR and plating, suggesting that viable but nonculturable (VBNC) cells and residual nondegraded DNA were not present. In contrast, on apple leaves, where cultivable populations of EPS62e decreased with time, significant differences were observed between real-time PCR and plating. These differences indicate the presence of VBNC cells or nondegraded DNA after cell death. Therefore, the EPS62e population was under optimal conditions during the colonization of flowers but it was stressed and poorly survived on leaves. It was concluded that for monitoring this biological control agent, the combined use of cultivable cell count and real-time PCR is necessary. PMID:16597940

  17. The plant pathogenic fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici improves bacterial growth and triggers early gene regulations in the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf29Arp.

    PubMed

    Barret, M; Frey-Klett, P; Boutin, M; Guillerm-Erckelboudt, A-Y; Martin, F; Guillot, L; Sarniguet, A

    2009-01-01

    In soil, some antagonistic rhizobacteria contribute to reduce root diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi. Direct modes of action of these bacteria have been largely explored; however, commensal interaction also takes place between these microorganisms and little is known about the influence of filamentous fungi on bacteria. An in vitro confrontation bioassay between the pathogenic fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) and the biocontrol bacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf29Arp was set up to analyse bacterial transcriptional changes induced by the fungal mycelium at three time-points of the interaction before cell contact and up until contact. For this, a Pf29Arp shotgun DNA microarray was constructed. Specifity of Ggt effect was assessed in comparison with one of two other filamentous fungi, Laccaria bicolor and Magnaporthe grisea. During a commensal interaction, Ggt increased the growth rate of Pf29Arp. Before contact, Ggt induced bacterial genes involved in mycelium colonization. At contact, genes encoding protein of stress response and a patatin-like protein were up-regulated. Among all the bacterial genes identified, xseB was specifically up-regulated at contact by Ggt but down-regulated by the other fungi. Data showed that the bacterium sensed the presence of the fungus early, but the main gene alteration occurred during bacterial-fungal cell contact.

  18. Effect of wheat roots infected with the pathogenic fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici on gene expression of the biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf29Arp.

    PubMed

    Barret, Matthieu; Frey-Klett, Pascale; Guillerm-Erckelboudt, Anne-Yvonne; Boutin, Morgane; Guernec, Gregory; Sarniguet, Alain

    2009-12-01

    Traits contributing to the competence of biocontrol bacteria to colonize plant roots are often induced in the rhizosphere in response to plant components. These interactions have been studied using the two partners in gnotobiotic systems. However, in nature, beneficial or pathogenic fungi often colonize roots. Influence of these plant-fungus interactions on bacterial behavior remains to be investigated. Here, we have examined the influence of colonization of wheat roots by the take-all fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici on gene expression of the biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf29Arp. Bacteria were inoculated onto healthy, early G. graminis var. tritici-colonized and necrotic roots and transcriptomes were compared by shotgun DNA microarray. Pf29Arp decreased disease severity when inoculated before the onset of necrosis. Necrotic roots exerted a broader effect on gene expression compared with early G. graminis var. tritici-colonized and healthy roots. A gene encoding a putative type VI secretion system effector was only induced in necrotic conditions. A common pool of Pf29Arp genes differentially expressed on G. graminis var. tritici-colonized roots was related to carbon metabolism and oxidative stress, with a highest fold-change with necrosis. Overall, the data showed that the association of the pathogenic fungus with the roots strongly altered Pf29Arp adaptation with differences between early and late G. graminis var. tritici infection steps.

  19. Colonization pattern of primary tomato roots by Pseudomonas fluorescens A6RI characterized by dilution plating, flow cytometry, fluorescence, confocal and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gamalero, Elisa; Lingua, Guido; Giusy Caprì, Flavia; Fusconi, Anna; Berta, Graziella; Lemanceau, Philippe

    2004-04-01

    Early colonization of primary tomato roots, grown in vitro, by Pseudomonas fluorescens A6RI, introduced by seed bacterization, was monitored for 7 days in three different root zones (zone A, apex+elongation+young hairy zone; zone B, hairy zone; zone C, old hairy zone+collar). Bacterial quantification was assessed by enumeration of (i) colony forming units (cfu) after dilution plating and of (ii) total bacterial cells by flow cytometry. Bacterial distribution and organization in the root zones were analyzed by fluorescence, confocal and scanning electron microscopy. For all sampling dates and zones, the densities of total bacterial cells were significantly higher than those of the cfu. The kinetics of cfu densities varied according to the root zone. Their density decreased with time in zone A, while no variation with time was recorded in zones B and C. Densities of total bacterial cells did not show any significant temporal variation for any of the root zones. Microscopic analyses allowed the characterization of the distribution and organizational patterns of the bacterial cells according to time and space. In 3-day-old plants, bacteria were mostly present as single cells and were evenly distributed in the two root zones analyzed (A and B). In 5- and 7-day-old plants, distribution and organization differed according to the root zone. In zone A, only few single cells were observed, whereas zones B and C were mostly covered by cells localized between epidermal root cells and organized in pairs and strings, respectively.

  20. Adaptive radiation of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 in experimental microcosms provides an understanding of the evolutionary ecology and molecular biology of A-L interface biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Koza, Anna; Kusmierska, Anna; McLaughlin, Kimberley; Moshynets, Olena; Spiers, Andrew J

    2017-07-03

    Combined experimental evolutionary and molecular biology approaches have been used to investigate the adaptive radiation of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 in static microcosms leading to the colonisation of the air-liquid interface by biofilm-forming mutants such as the Wrinkly Spreader (WS). In these microcosms, the ecosystem engineering of the early wild-type colonists establishes the niche space for subsequent WS evolution and colonisation. Random WS mutations occurring in the developing population that deregulate diguanylate cyclases and c-di-GMP homeostasis result in cellulose-based biofilms at the air-liquid interface. These structures allow Wrinkly Spreaders to intercept O2 diffusing into the liquid column and limit the growth of competitors lower down. As the biofilm matures, competition increasingly occurs between WS lineages, and niche divergence within the biofilm may support further diversification before system failure when the structure finally sinks. A combination of pleiotropic and epistasis effects, as well as secondary mutations, may explain variations in WS phenotype and fitness. Understanding how mutations subvert regulatory networks to express intrinsic genome potential and key innovations providing a selective advantage in novel environments is key to understanding the versatility of bacteria, and how selection and ecological opportunity can rapidly lead to substantive changes in phenotype and in community structure and function. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Characterisation of Dyp-type peroxidases from Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5: Oxidation of Mn(II) and polymeric lignin by Dyp1B.

    PubMed

    Rahmanpour, Rahman; Bugg, Timothy D H

    2015-05-15

    Members of the DyP family of peroxidases in Gram-positive bacteria have recently been shown to oxidise Mn(II) and lignin model compounds. Gram-negative pseudomonads, which also show activity for lignin oxidation, also contain dyp-type peroxidase genes. Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 contains three dyp-type peroxidases (35, 40 and 55kDa), each of which has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterised. Each of the three enzymes shows activity for oxidation of phenol substrates, but the 35kDa Dyp1B enzyme also shows activity for oxidation of Mn(II) and Kraft lignin. Treatment of powdered lignocellulose with Dyp1B in the presence of Mn(II) and hydrogen peroxide leads to the release of a low molecular weight lignin fragment, which has been identified by mass spectrometry as a β-aryl ether lignin dimer containing one G unit and one H unit bearing a benzylic ketone. A mechanism for release of this fragment from lignin oxidation is proposed.

  2. Isolation and characterization of two new lipopeptide biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens BD5 isolated from water from the Arctic Archipelago of Svalbard.

    PubMed

    Janek, Tomasz; Łukaszewicz, Marcin; Rezanka, Tomas; Krasowska, Anna

    2010-08-01

    The arctic freshwater bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens BD5 produces biosurfactants when grown on 2% glucose. Crude biosurfactants were extracted from a cell-free culture supernatant with ethyl acetate and purified by preparative reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The chemical structure of the purified biosurfactants, pseudofactin I and II, was analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI TOF) mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Both compounds are novel cyclic lipopeptides with a palmitic acid connected to the terminal amino group of eighth amino acid in peptide moiety. The C-terminal carboxylic group of the last amino acid (Val or Leu) forms a lactone with the hydroxyl of Thr3. Pseudofactin II reduced the surface tension of water from 72 mN/m to 31.5 mN/m at a concentration of 72 mg/l. Its emulsification activity and stability was greater than that of the synthetic surfactants Tween 20 and Triton X-100; pseudofactins thus have a great potential for application in industrial fields such as bioremediation or biomedicine.

  3. Correlation between the change in the kinetics of the ribosomal RNA rrnB P2 promoter and the transition from lag to exponential phase with Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Robin C

    2008-01-15

    Developing accurate mathematical models to describe the pre-exponential lag phase in food-borne pathogens presents a considerable challenge to food microbiologists. While the growth rate is influenced by current environmental conditions, the lag phase is affected in addition by the history of the inoculum. A deeper understanding of physiological changes taking place during the lag phase would improve accuracy of models, and in earlier studies a strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens containing the Tn7-luxCDABE gene cassette regulated by the rRNA promoter rrnB P2 was used to measure the influence of starvation, growth temperature and sub-lethal heating on promoter expression and subsequent growth. The present study expands the models developed earlier to include a model which describes the change from exponential to linear increase in promoter expression with time when the exponential phase of growth commences. A two-phase linear model with Poisson weighting was used to estimate the lag (LPDLin) and the rate (RLin) for this linear increase in bioluminescence. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient (r=0.830) between the LPDLin and the growth lag phase (LPDOD) was extremely significant (P

  4. In vitro analyses are not reliable predictors of the plant growth promotion capability of bacteria; a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain that promotes the growth and yield of wheat.

    PubMed

    Smyth, E M; McCarthy, J; Nevin, R; Khan, M R; Dow, J M; O'Gara, F; Doohan, F M

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we set out to identify bacteria that can be used to promote the growth of cereals, while concurrently investigating the merits of using a range of such tests to preselect bacteria for glasshouse studies. A panel of 15 strains isolated from the rhizosphere and phyllosphere of cereals was tested for the ability to improve the germination of wheat seeds and for production of a range of factors associated with plant growth promotion. In parallel, all bacteria were tested for their ability to improve biomass and grain yield when applied as a soil amendment in glasshouse trials. There was no significant correlation between growth promotion potential in the glasshouse and the results of either the phenotypic or the germination tests. Glasshouse tests identified that only one strain, Pseudomonas fluorescens strain MKB37, gave a significant increase in head weight and grain yield. While this study has identified a candidate for further field tests, it has also highlighted the fact that the modes of action for plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are still not fully understood, and that there is no efficient and effective screening method for identifying PGPB by laboratory tests. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Characterization of the aldol condensation activity of the trans-o-hydroxybenzylidenepyruvate hydratase-aldolase (tHBP-HA) cloned from Pseudomonas fluorescens N3.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Silvia; Mapelli, Erika; Sello, Guido; Di Gennaro, Patrizia

    2011-05-01

    The gene encoding trans-o-hydroxybenzylidenepyruvate hydratase-aldolase (tHBP-HA) was isolated from Pseudomonas fluorescens N3, an environmental strain able to degrade naphthalene. This enzyme is an aldolase of class I that reversibly catalyzes the transformation of the trans-o-hydroxybenzylidenepyruvate (t-HBP), releasing pyruvate and salicylaldehyde. The enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli as a recombinant protein of 38kDa with a His6-Tag at its N-terminus. The recombinant protein His-tHBP-HA was purified by affinity chromatography and we present here the biochemical characterization of its activity in the aldol condensation reaction. The aldol condensation reaction parameters were determined using as acceptors both salicylaldehyde, which is the natural substrate taking part to the naphthalene degradative pathway, and benzaldehyde. In both cases, His-tHBP-HA shows similar apparent K(m) and apparent V(max) values. Further analyses showed that the optimal pH and temperature of His-tHBP-HA activity are 7.0 and 30°C, respectively. The tHBP-HA catalytic rates and the availability of an efficient system to produce large amounts of purified protein are relevant from a biotechnological point of view. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pseudomonas fluorescens JH 70-4 promotes pb stabilization and early seedling growth of sudan grass in contaminated mining site soil.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jaehong; Babu, A Giridhar; Velmurugan, Palanivel; Shea, Patrick J; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial strain (JH 70-4) exhibiting plant growth promoting characteristics (indoleacetic acid production and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity), as well as heavy metal(loid) (HM) tolerance and Pb precipitation, was isolated from HM-contaminated soil at an abandoned mine site. The bacterium was identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens based on 16S rDNA sequencing. The JH 70-4 strain induced precipitation of Pb as PbS nanoparticles, confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Solution pH, incubation time, and Pb concentration influenced removal and PbS formation. Inoculating contaminated soil with JH 70-4 decreased Pb availability; exchangeable Pb decreased while organic- and sulphide-bound Pb increased. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure showed a 65% decrease in Pb in leachate 60 d after inoculating soil with JH 70-4. Shoot and root lengths of Sudan grass grown in the inoculated soil were greater than in the uninoculated soil. Findings suggest that microbial Pb fixation is a viable strategy for remediating soil and promoting plant growth for phytostabilization of contaminated sites.

  7. Persistence and cell culturability of biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 under plough pan conditions in soil and influence of the anaerobic regulator gene anr.

    PubMed

    Mascher, Fabio; Schnider-Keel, Ursula; Haas, Dieter; Défago, Geneviève; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

    2003-02-01

    Certain fluorescent pseudomonads can protect plants from soil-borne pathogens, and it is important to understand how these biocontrol agents survive in soil. The persistence of the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0-Rif under plough pan conditions was assessed in non-sterile soil microcosms by counting total cells (immunofluorescence microscopy), intact cells (BacLight membrane permeability test), viable cells (Kogure's substrate-responsiveness test) and culturable cells (colony counts on selective plates) of the inoculant. Viable but non-culturable cells of CHA0-Rif (106 cells g-1 soil) were found in flooded microcosms amended with fermentable organic matter, in which the soil redox potential was low (plough pan conditions), in agreement with previous observations of plough pan samples from a field inoculated with CHA0-Rif. However, viable but non-culturable cells were not found in unamended flooded, amended unflooded or unamended unflooded (i.e. control) microcosms, suggesting that such cells resulted from exposure of CHA0-Rif to a combination of low redox potential and oxygen limitation in soil. CHA0-Rif is strictly aerobic. Its anaerobic regulator ANR is activated by low oxygen concentrations and it controls production of the biocontrol metabolite hydrogen cyanide under microaerophilic conditions. Under plough pan conditions, an anr-deficient mutant of CHA0-Rif and its complemented derivative displayed the same persistence pattern as CHA0-Rif, indicating that anr was not implicated in the formation of viable but non-culturable cells of this strain at the plough pan.

  8. Synthesis of amino-silane modified superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and its application in immobilization of lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens Lp1

    SciTech Connect

    Kanimozhi, S.; Perinbam, K.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method. ► Surface was functionalized with amino-silane and used for lipase immobilization. ► Characterized through TEM, SEM, XRD, FT-IR and VSM analysis. ► The functionalization and immobilization did not affect the magnetite properties. ► The immobilized lipase showed greater functional property than free lipase. - Abstract: Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–magnetite) were prepared by chemical co-precipitation method and their surface was functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane via silanization reaction to obtain amino functionalized magnetic nanoparticles. The purified lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens Lp1 was immobilized onto functionalized magnetite using glutaraldehyde as the coupling agent. The characterization of the nanoparticles was done by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometry and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. The size of the magnetite was measured about 10–30 nm. The results of characterization study revealed the successful immobilization of lipase on to functionalized magnetite. The saturation magnetization of magnetic nanoparticles was found to be 28.34 emu/g whereas the immobilized magnetic nanoparticle was 17.074 emu/g. The immobilized lipase had greater activity at 50 °C and thermal stability upto 70 °C. It exhibited excellent reusability for 4 cycles and storage stability upto 15 days by retaining 75% of its initial activity.

  9. The Pseudomonas fluorescens AlgG Protein, but Not Its Mannuronan C-5-Epimerase Activity, Is Needed for Alginate Polymer Formation

    PubMed Central

    Gimmestad, Martin; Sletta, Håvard; Ertesvåg, Helga; Bakkevig, Karianne; Jain, Sumita; Suh, Sang-jin; Skjåk-Bræk, Gudmund; Ellingsen, Trond E.; Ohman, Dennis E.; Valla, Svein

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial alginates are produced as 1-4-linked β-d-mannuronan, followed by epimerization of some of the mannuronic acid residues to α-l-guluronic acid. Here we report the isolation of four different epimerization-defective point mutants of the periplasmic Pseudomonas fluorescens mannuronan C-5-epimerase AlgG. All mutations affected amino acids conserved among AlgG-epimerases and were clustered in a part of the enzyme also sharing some sequence similarity to a group of secreted epimerases previously reported in Azotobacter vinelandii. An algG-deletion mutant was constructed and found to produce predominantly a dimer containing a 4-deoxy-l-erythro-hex-4-enepyranosyluronate residue at the nonreducing end and a mannuronic acid residue at the reducing end. The production of this dimer is the result of the activity of an alginate lyase, AlgL, whose in vivo activity is much more limited in the presence of AlgG. A strain expressing both an epimerase-defective (point mutation) and a wild-type epimerase was constructed and shown to produce two types of alginate molecules: one class being pure mannuronan and the other having the wild-type content of guluronic acid residues. This formation of two distinct classes of polymers in a genetically pure cell line can be explained by assuming that AlgG is part of a periplasmic protein complex. PMID:12775688

  10. Auxotrophic markers pyrF and proC can replace antibiotic markers on protein production plasmids in high-cell-density Pseudomonas fluorescens fermentation.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jane C; Jenings, Annika F; Mun, Deborah M; McGovern, Patricia M; Chew, Lawrence C

    2005-01-01

    The use of antibiotic-resistance genes as selectable markers in transgenic organisms is coming under increased scrutiny, for fear that they may spread to human pathogens, thereby reducing the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy. A current Pseudomonas fluorescens protein expression system uses a tetracycline resistance gene (tetR/tetA) to maintain an expression plasmid under control of a repressible promoter and a kanamycin resistance gene (kanR) to maintain a plasmid carrying a repressor gene. We investigated using auxotrophic markers to replace these two antibiotic resistance genes: pyrF (encoding orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase) in place of tetR/tetA and proC (encoding pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase) in place of kanR, complementing their respective precise chromosomal deletions created by allele exchange using a suicide vector carrying pyrF as a counterselectable marker. The resulting strains, devoid of antibiotic-resistance genes, were shown to achieve high productivity of nitrilase and thermostable alpha-amylase equal to that of the former antibiotic-resistant production host. The production plasmids were stable. The pyrF (uracil-dependent) background of the production host strain also allows us to sequentially alter the genome to incorporate other desired genomic changes, deletions, or insertions using 5'-fluoroorotic acid counterselection, restoring the selectable marker after each step.

  11. Degradation of alpha-pinene oxide and [2H7]-2,5,6-trimethyl-hept-(2E)-enoic acid by Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11761.

    PubMed

    Zorn, H; Neuser, F; Berger, R G

    2004-02-05

    When submerged cultured Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11761 was fed-batch supplemented with alpha-pinene oxide, a rapid formation of 2,6-dimethyl-5-methylene-hept-(2Z)-enal (I) (isonovalal) was observed. Biotransformation and isomerisation of (I) to the (2E)-isomer (II) (novalal) were enhanced by Lewatit OC 1064, a macroporous polystyrene adsorbent. Accelerated isomerisation in the presence of an amino donor (glycine) at pH 7.3 pointed to a merely chemical mechanism. A maximum yield of 48 g of aldehydesl(-1) was achieved, but quantitative analysis of the volatile fraction showed that the molar conversion of the pinene oxide substrate reached no more than 67%. To fill this gap of the mass balance, the acidic fraction was isolated. It contained several compounds which suggested a beta-oxidation-like catabolism starting from 2,6-dimethyl-5-methylene-hept-(2E)-enoic acid (III) (novalic acid). Using [2H7]-2,5,6-dimethyl-hept-(2E)-enoic acid as a conversion substrate and gas chromatography coupled to atomic emission detection and mass spectrometry a degradation pathway via labelled 3,4-dimethylpentenoic and methylpropanoic acids was evidenced. This pathway may play a predominant role in isoprenoid degradation by soil bacteria.

  12. Opening Study on the Development of a New Biosensor for Metal Toxicity Based on Pseudomonas fluorescens Pyoverdine

    PubMed Central

    Chiadò, Alessandro; Varani, Luca; Bosco, Francesca; Marmo, Luca

    2013-01-01

    To date, different kinds of biosensing elements have been used effectively for environmental monitoring. Microbial cells seem to be well-suited for this task: they are cheap, adaptable to variable field conditions and give a measurable response to a broad number of chemicals. Among different pollutants, heavy metals are still a major problem for the environment. A reasonable starting point for the selection of a biorecognition element to develop a biosensor for metals could be that of a microorganism that exhibits good mechanisms to cope with metals. Pseudomonads are characterized by the secretion of siderophores (e.g., pyoverdine), low-molecular weight compounds that chelate Fe3+ during iron starvation. Pyoverdine is easily detected by colorimetric assay, and it is suitable for simple online measurements. In this work, in order to evaluate pyoverdine as a biorecognition element for metal detection, the influence of metal ions (Fe3+, Cu2+, Zn2+), but also of temperature, pH and nutrients, on microbial growth and pyoverdine regulation has been studied in P. fluorescens. Each of these variables has been shown to influence the synthesis of siderophore: for instance, the lower the temperature, the higher the production of pyoverdine. Moreover, the concentration of pyoverdine produced in the presence of metals has been compared with the maximum allowable concentrations indicated in international regulations (e.g., 98/83/EC), and a correlation that could be useful to build a colorimetric biosensor has been observed. PMID:25586414

  13. A CsrA/RsmA translational regulator gene encoded in the replication region of a Sinorhizobium meliloti cryptic plasmid complements Pseudomonas fluorescens rsmA/E mutants.

    PubMed

    Agaras, Betina; Sobrero, Patricio; Valverde, Claudio

    2013-02-01

    Members of the CsrA/RsmA family are global regulatory proteins that bind to mRNAs, usually at the ribosome-binding site, to control mRNA translation and stability. Their activity is counteracted by small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), which offer several binding sites to compete with mRNA binding. The csrA/rsmA genes are widespread in prokaryotic chromosomes, although certain phylogenetic groups such as Alphaproteobacteria lack this type of global regulator. Interestingly, a csrA/rsmA-like sequence was identified in the replication region of plasmid pMBA19a from the alphaproteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti. This rsmA-like allele (rsmA(Sm)) is 58 % identical to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri chromosomal rsmA and bears an unusual C-terminal extension that may fold into an extra α-helix. Homology-based modelling of RsmA(Sm) suggests that all key mRNA-binding residues are conserved and correctly positioned in the RNA-binding pocket. In fact, a 1.6 kb fragment from pMBA19a encompassing the rsmA(Sm) locus restored rsmA/E-dependent phenotypes of rsmA/E gacS Pseudomonas fluorescens mutants. The functionality of RsmA(Sm) was confirmed by the gain of control over target aprA'-'lacZ and hcnA'-'lacZ translational fusions in the same mutant background. The RsmA(Sm) activity correlated with Western blot detection of the polypeptide. Phenotype and translational fusion data from rsmA/E P. fluorescens mutants expressing RsmX/Y/Z RNAs indicated that RsmA(Sm) is able to bind these antagonistic sRNAs. In agreement with the latter observation, it was also found that the sRNA RsmY was stabilized by RsmA(Sm). Deletion of the C-terminal extra α-helix of RsmA(Sm) affected its cellular concentration, but increased its relative RNA-binding activity. This is believed to be the first report of the presence and characterization of a functional csrA/rsmA homologue in a mobile genetic element.

  14. Evidence for a role of biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens in the spoilage of fresh aerobically stored chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Glen E; Bentley, Jessica A; Dykes, Gary A

    2011-08-01

    Fresh chicken meat is a fat-rich environment and we therefore hypothesised that production of biosurfactants to increase bioavailability of fats may represent one way in which spoilage bacteria might enhance the availability of nutrients. Numbers of Pseudomonas were determined on a total of 20 fresh and 20 spoiled chicken thighs with skin. A total of 400 randomly isolated Pseudomonas colonies from fresh (200) and spoiled (200) chicken were screened for the presence of biosurfactant production. Biosurfactant producing strains represented 5% and 72% of the Pseudomonas spp. isolates from fresh (mean count 2.3 log(10) cfu g(-1)) and spoiled (mean count 7.4 log(10) cfu g(-1)) chicken skin, respectively. Partially-purified biosurfactants derived from a subgroup of four Pseudomonasfluorescens strains obtained through the screening process were subsequently used to investigate the role that the addition of these compounds plays in the spoilage of aerobically stored chicken. Emulsification potential of the four selected biosurfactants was measured against a range of hydrocarbons and oils. All four biosurfactants displayed a greater ability to emulsify rendered chicken fat than hydrocarbons (paraffin liquid, toluene and hexane) and oils (canola, olive, sunflower and vegetable). Storage trials (4 °C) of chicken meat treated with the four selected biosurfactants revealed a significantly greater (P < 0.05) total aerobic count in biosurfactant treated samples, as compared to untreated samples on each day (0, 1, 2, 3) of storage. For biosurfactant treated samples the greatest increase in total aerobic count (1.3-1.7 log(10) cfu g(-1)) occurred following one day of incubation. These results indicate that biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas spp. may play an important role in the spoilage of aerobically stored chicken meat by making nutrients more freely available and providing strains producing them with a competitive advantage.

  15. Interaction of media on production and biocontrol efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis against grey mould of apple.

    PubMed

    Peighamy-Ashnaei, S; Sharifi-Tehrani, A; Ahmadzadeh, M; Behboudi, K

    2008-01-01

    The medium has a profound effect on biocontrol agents, including ability to grow and effectiveness in disease control. In this study, growth and antagonistic efficacy of strains P-5 and P-35 (P. fluorescens), B-3 and B-16 (B. subtilis) were evaluated in combinations of two carbon (sucrose and molasses) and two nitrogen (urea and yeast extract) sources to optimize control of Botrytis cinerea on apple. All of the strains were grown in different liquid media (pH = 6.9) including: sucrose + yeast extract, molasses of sugar beet + yeast extract in 2:1 and 1:1 w/w ratios, molasses of sugar beet + urea, molasses, malt extract and nutrient broth. Apples (Golden Delicious) were inoculated by a 25-microl suspension of 10(6) spores of B. cinerea per ml, wounding each fruit (in two sites separately). Then a 25-microl suspension of each strain, containing 2 x 10(8) cfu ml(-1) grown in each of the above culture media, was applied to each wound. Results indicated that Molasses + Yeast extract (1:1 w/w) medium supported rapid growth in all of the strains. The final growth of B. subtilis B-16 in Molasses + Yeast extract (1:1 w/w) medium was 5 x 10(9) cfu ml(-1). After ten days, all of the strains significantly inhibited pathogenicity of B. cinerea on apples. The biocontrol efficacy of B. subtilis B-3 in Molasses + Yeast extract (1:1 w/w) medium reduced the severity of grey mould from 100% (inoculated control) to less than 26.9%. After 20 days, Strain B-3 showed a considerable biocontrol efficacy in Molasses medium and reduced the severity of grey mould from 100% (inoculated control) to less than 38.2%. The results obtained in this study could be used to provide a reliable basis for the increase of population of biocontrol agents in fermentation process.

  16. Role of the GacS Sensor Kinase in the Regulation of Volatile Production by Plant Growth-Promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xu; Cordovez, Viviane; Etalo, Desalegn W.; van der Voort, Menno; Raaijmakers, Jos M.

    2016-01-01

    In plant-associated Pseudomonas species, the production of several secondary metabolites and exoenzymes is regulated by the GacS/GacA two-component regulatory system (the Gac-system). Here, we investigated if a mutation in the GacS sensor kinase affects the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in P. fluorescens SBW25 (Pf.SBW25) and how this impacts on VOCs-mediated growth promotion and induced systemic resistance of Arabidopsis and tobacco. A total of 205 VOCs were detected by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry for Pf. SBW25 and the gacS-mutant grown on two different media for 3 and 6 days. Discriminant function analysis followed by hierarchical clustering revealed 24 VOCs that were significantly different in their abundance between Pf.SBW25 and the gacS-mutant, which included three acyclic alkenes (3-nonene, 4-undecyne, 1-undecene). These alkenes were significantly reduced by the gacS mutation independently of the growth media and of the incubation time. For Arabidopsis, both Pf.SBW25 and the gacS-mutant enhanced, via VOCs, root and shoot biomass, induced systemic resistance against leaf infections by P. syringae and rhizosphere acidification to the same extent. For tobacco, however, VOCs-mediated effects on shoot and root growth were significantly different between Pf.SBW25 and the gacS-mutant. While Pf.SBW25 inhibited tobacco root growth, the gacS-mutant enhanced root biomass and lateral root formation relative to the non-treated control plants. Collectively these results indicate that the sensor kinase GacS is involved in the regulation of VOCs production in Pf.SBW25, affecting plant growth in a plant species-dependent manner. PMID:27917180

  17. An attempt to protect winter wheat against Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici by the use of rhizobacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus mycoides.

    PubMed

    Czaban, Janusz; Ksiezniak, Andrzej; Wróblewska, Barbara; Paszkowski, Wojciech L

    2004-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strains III107 and II21 and Bacillus mycoides strains JC192 and K184, stimulating growth of winter wheat, were chosen for the studies. The bacterial strains inhibited on agar nutrient medium the growth of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt)--the pathogenic fungus causing take-all on wheat. Both strains of pseudomonads synthesized relatively high amounts of Fe3+ chelators. The strains of bacilli were characterized by the very fast spreading on agar media. Furthermore, strain II21 was highly cyanogenic, and strain JC192 highly chitinolytic. Bacterization of winter wheat seeds (especially with strains III107 and JC192) significantly reduced the percentage of the plants infested with the pathogen in the 28 day glasshouse pot experiment. In the plot experiment, the winter wheat seeds were inoculated with a mixture of strains III107, II21 and JC192. Due to the bacterization the yield of wheat grain and straw was higher in comparison to the series with Ggt alone by 122% and 75%, respectively, but it amounted only to 45% and 43% of the control series not contaminated with Ggt. The decrease of percentage of wheat ears with weight less than 500 mg from 61% in Ggt-series to 25% in Ggt-bacterized-series, and especially the decrease of percentage of wheat ears with weight less than 200 mg from 43% to 14% additionally indicate the partial protection of the winter wheat against Ggt by the rhizobacteria. In the experimental series not contaminated with Ggt the percentage of these wheat ears fractions did not exceed 3% and 0.5%, respectively.

  18. Effect of starvation and the viable-but-nonculturable state on green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence in GFP-tagged Pseudomonas fluorescens A506.

    PubMed

    Lowder, M; Unge, A; Maraha, N; Jansson, J K; Swiggett, J; Oliver, J D

    2000-08-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, gfp, of the jellyfish Aequorea victoria is being used as a reporter system for gene expression and as a marker for tracking prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Cells that have been genetically altered with the gfp gene produce a protein that fluoresces when it is excited by UV light. This unique phenotype allows gfp-tagged cells to be specifically monitored by nondestructive means. In this study we determined whether a gfp-tagged strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens continued to fluoresce under conditions under which the cells were starved, viable but nonculturable (VBNC), or dead. Epifluorescent microscopy, flow cytometry, and spectrofluorometry were used to measure fluorescence intensity in starved, VBNC, and dead or dying cells. Results obtained by using flow cytometry indicated that microcosms containing VBNC cells, which were obtained by incubation under stress conditions (starvation at 37.5 degrees C), fluoresced at an intensity that was at least 80% of the intensity of nonstressed cultures. Similarly, microcosms containing starved cells incubated at 5 and 30 degrees C had fluorescence intensities that were 90 to 110% of the intensity of nonstressed cells. VBNC cells remained fluorescent during the entire 6-month incubation period. In addition, cells starved at 5 or 30 degrees C remained fluorescent for at least 11 months. Treatment of the cells with UV light or incubation at 39 or 50 degrees C resulted in a loss of GFP from the cells. There was a strong correlation between cell death and leakage of GFP from the cells, although the extent of leakage varied depending on the treatment. Most dead cells were not GFP fluorescent, but a small proportion of the dead cells retained some GFP at a lower concentration than the concentration in live cells. Our results suggest that gfp-tagged cells remain fluorescent following starvation and entry into the VBNC state but that fluorescence is lost when the cells die, presumably because

  19. Improvement of a dry formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens EPS62e for fire blight disease biocontrol by combination of culture osmoadaptation with a freeze-drying lyoprotectant.

    PubMed

    Cabrefiga, J; Francés, J; Montesinos, E; Bonaterra, A

    2014-10-01

    To study the effect of lyoprotectants and osmoadaptation on viability of Pseudomonas fluorescens EPS62e during freeze-drying and storage and to evaluate the formulation in terms of efficacy in biocontrol and fitness on pear flowers. A wettable powder formulation of a biocontrol agent of fire blight was optimized by means of lyoprotectants and culture osmoadaptation. Freeze-drying was used to obtain dehydrated cells, and the best viability (70% of survival) was obtained using lactose as lyoprotectant. Survival during lyophilization was additionally improved using physiological adaptation of cells during cultivation under salt-amended medium (osmoadaptation). The procedure increased the survival of cells after freeze-drying attaining viability values close to a 100% in the lactose-formulated product (3 × 10(11) CFU g(-1) ), and through the storage period of 1 year at 4°C. The dry formulation showed also an improved biocontrol efficacy and survival of EPS62e on pear flowers under low relative humidity conditions. Cell viability after freeze-drying was improved using lactose as lyoprotectant combined with a procedure of osmoadaptation during cultivation. The powder-formulated product remained active for 12 months and retained biocontrol levels similar to that of fresh cells. The formulation showed an improved survival of EPS62e on flowers and an increase of the efficacy of biocontrol of fire blight at low relative humidity. The results have a potential value for commercial application in biocontrol agents not only of fire blight but also of other plant diseases. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. The histidine utilization (hut) genes of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 are active on plant surfaces, but are not required for competitive colonization of sugar beet seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-Xian; George, Andrew; Bailey, Mark J; Rainey, Paul B

    2006-06-01

    The ability to monitor the spatial and temporal distribution of signals in complex environments is necessary for an understanding of the function of bacteria in the wild. To this end, an existing recombinase-based transcriptional reporter strategy (recombinase-based in vivo expression technology, RIVET) has been extended and applied to the plant-colonizing bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25. Central to the project was a rhizosphere-inducible locus, rhi14, which functional analyses show is hutT, a histidine-inducible gene that is required for histidine utilization. A transcriptional fusion between hutT and a promoterless site-specific recombinase (tnpR(mut168)) results in excision of a chromosomally integrated tetracycline-resistance cassette in a histidine-dependent manner. The dose- and time-responsiveness of the promoterless recombinase to histidine closely mirrored the histidine responsiveness of an identical hutT fusion to promoterless lacZ. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the strategy, the activity of hutT was monitored on sugar beet seedlings. Low levels of transcriptional activity were detected in the phyllosphere, rhizosphere and in plant extract, but not in vermiculite devoid of seedlings. The histidine concentration in the rhizosphere was estimated to be 0.6 microg ml(-1). The ecological significance of the hut locus was examined by competing a hutT deletion mutant against the wild-type during colonization of sugar beet seedlings. No impact on competitive fitness was detected, suggesting that the ability to utilize plant-derived histidine is not essential for bacterial colonization.

  1. First Evidence of Division and Accumulation of Viable but Nonculturable Pseudomonas fluorescens Cells on Surfaces Subjected to Conditions Encountered at Meat Processing Premises▿

    PubMed Central

    Peneau, Sophie; Chassaing, Danielle; Carpentier, Brigitte

    2007-01-01

    Cleaning and disinfection of open surfaces in food industry premises leave some microorganisms behind; these microorganisms build up a resident flora on the surfaces. Our goal was to explore the phenomena involved in the establishment of this biofilm. Ceramic coupons were contaminated, once only, with Pseudomonas fluorescens suspended in meat exudate incubated at 10°C. The mean adhering population after 1 day was 102 CFU·cm−2 and 103 total cells·cm−2, i.e., the total number of cells stained by DAPI (4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole). The coupons were subjected daily to a cleaning product, a disinfectant, and a further soiling with exudate. The result was a striking difference between the numbers of CFU, which reached 104 CFU·cm−2, and the numbers of total cells, which reached 2 × 106 cells·cm−2 in 10 days. By using hypotheses all leading to an overestimation of the number of dead cells, we showed that the quantity of nonculturable cells (DAPI-positive cells minus CFU) observed cannot be accounted for as an accumulation of dead cells. Some nonculturable cells are therefore dividing on the surface, although cell division is unable to continue to the stage of macrocolony formation on agar. The same phenomenon was observed when only a chlorinated alkaline product was used and the number of cells capable of reducing 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride was close to the number of total cells, confirming that most nonculturable cells are viable but nonculturable. Furthermore, the daily shock applied to the cells does not prompt them to enter a new lag phase. Since a single application of microorganisms is sufficient to produce this accumulation of cells, it appears that the phenomenon is inevitable on open surfaces in food industry premises. PMID:17337551

  2. First evidence of division and accumulation of viable but nonculturable Pseudomonas fluorescens cells on surfaces subjected to conditions encountered at meat processing premises.

    PubMed

    Peneau, Sophie; Chassaing, Danielle; Carpentier, Brigitte

    2007-05-01

    Cleaning and disinfection of open surfaces in food industry premises leave some microorganisms behind; these microorganisms build up a resident flora on the surfaces. Our goal was to explore the phenomena involved in the establishment of this biofilm. Ceramic coupons were contaminated, once only, with Pseudomonas fluorescens suspended in meat exudate incubated at 10 degrees C. The mean adhering population after 1 day was 10(2) CFU x cm(-2) and 10(3) total cells x cm(-2), i.e., the total number of cells stained by DAPI (4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole). The coupons were subjected daily to a cleaning product, a disinfectant, and a further soiling with exudate.