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Sample records for probiotics alters bacterial

  1. Probiotics.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V; Garg, R

    2009-01-01

    The term "probiotic" was first used in 1965, by Lilly and Stillwell, to describe substances secreted by one organism which stimulate the growth of another. The use of antibiotics, immunosuppressive therapy and irradiation, amongst other means of treatment, may cause alterations in the composition and have an effect on the GIT flora. Therefore, the introduction of beneficial bacterial species to GI tract may be a very attractive option to re-establish the microbial equilibrium and prevent disease. Prebiotic is a non-digestible food ingredient that confers benefits on the host by selectively stimulating one bacterium or a group of bacteria in the colon with probiotic properties. Both probiotics and prebiotics are together called as Synbiotics. Various bacterial genera most commonly used in probiotic preparations are Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Escherichia, Enterococcus, Bacillus and Streptococcus . Some fungal strains belonging to Saccharomyces have also been used. Probiotics have been shown to be effective in varied clinical conditions- ranging from infantile diarrhoea, necrotizing enterocolitis, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, relapsing Clostridium difficle colitis, Helicobacter pylori infections, inflammatory bowel disease to cancer, female uro-genital infection and surgical infections. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG has proven beneficial affects on intestinal immunity. It increases the number of IgA and other immunoglobulins secreting cells in the intestinal mucosa. It also stimulates local release of interferons. It facilitates antigen transport to underlying lymphoid cells, which serves to increase antigen uptake in Peyer's patches. Probiotics are live microorganisms, so it is possible that they may result in infection in the host. The risk and morbidity of sepsis due to probiotic bacteria should be weighed against the potential for sepsis due to more pathological bacteria and the morbidity of diseases for which probiotic bacteria are being used as

  2. Effect of probiotics on enterocyte bacterial translocation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mattar, A F; Drongowski, R A; Coran, A G; Harmon, C M

    2001-05-01

    Enteral probiotics such as Lactobacillus casei GG (LGG) have been used in the treatment of a variety of intestinal disorders in infants and children, including diarrhea, malabsorption, and Clostridium difficile colitis. We have previously demonstrated that the probiotic bacterium LGG has an inhibitory effect on bacterial translocation (BT) in a neonatal rabbit model. However, this in-vivo model is limited for investigating the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for probiotic inhibition of BT. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of LGG in reducing the rate of Escherichia coli C25 (E. coli C25) translocation using an in-vitro enterocyte cell-culture model. Human colonic carcinoma (Caco-2) enterocytes were seeded in porous filters in the apical chamber of a two-chamber cell-culture system and grown for 14 days to confluence. The monolayers were incubated at 37 degrees C with LGG for 180 min. Non-adherent LGG was washed away prior to a 120-min incubation period with 10(5) CFU E. coli C25. E. coli that had translocated across the enterocyte monolayer were quantified by growing basal-chamber media samples on gram-negative bacteria-specific MacConkey's agar. In order to determine monolayer integrity, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was measured across Caco-2 cells treated with LGG and E. coli. Statistical analysis was by ANOVA with P < 0.05 considered significant. LGG inhibited E. coli translocation at all LGG concentrations tested. The TEER ratio was not significantly altered by addition of LGG or E. coli (0.9 +/- 0.03 vs 0.8 +/- 0.05). These results demonstrate that the probiotic bacterium LGG inhibits BT of E. coli C25 in a dose-dependent manner in an in-vitro cell-culture model. This model should be valuable in investigating the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the inhibition of pathological enteral bacteria by probiotic agents.

  3. The influence of the immunostimulation by bacterial cell components derived from altered large intestinal microbiota on probiotic anti-inflammatory benefits.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Hara, Kurt; Benno, Yoshimi

    2007-04-01

    Using murine macrophage-like J774.1 cells and fecal precipitates prepared from the feces of elderly volunteers whose acute inflammation had been inhibited by LKM512 yogurt consumption, we investigated the likelihood that immunostimulation by altered intestinal bacterial cell components contribute to the anti-inflammatory benefits of this yogurt. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha production due to stimulation by fecal precipitates obtained during LKM512 yogurt consumption tended to be higher than due to stimulation by precipitates obtained from preconsumption (P=0.0827), although acute phase response was suppressed by LKM512 yogurt consumption. We suggest that the anti-inflammatory benefits of LKM512 yogurt on elderly volunteers are independent of direct immunostimulation by the bacterial cell components derived from altered intestinal microbiota.

  4. Probiotics - a helpful additional therapy for bacterial vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Bodean, O; Munteanu, O; Cirstoiu, C; Secara, D; Cirstoiu, M

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Bacterial vaginosis is a condition of unknown etiology, associated with an imbalance of the normal vaginal microbiota, characterized by a high recurrence rate despite of classical therapy solutions. Probiotics are microorganisms, which taken in adequate amounts, are proven to bring health benefits in human and animal bodies, by re-establishing the normal flora at different levels. Objective: The present article studies the possibility of using probiotic treatment as an adjuvant therapy for nonspecific vaginosis and reducing its recurrence rate. Methods: We have evaluated the evolution of patients with bacterial vaginosis who received the classical antibiotic therapy and a probiotic product. The study group consisted of 173 non-pregnant, sexually active patients, 20-45 years old, with no additional health problems and no contraceptive undergoing treatment, which have been admitted to the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Bucharest Emergency University Hospital between 1.01.2012-31.12.2012.The bacteriological evaluation was made on cervical and vaginal cultures. Results: From a total of 173 patients, those who used probiotics oral capsules while taking an antibiotic had lower recurrence rates. More than a half of women who did not use any probiotic product had 3 or more relapse episodes per year. Vaginal capsules with probiotics have also proven to be useful in lowering the recurrence rate, but research is still needed. Conclusion: Probiotic products are proven to be a helpful adjuvant therapy for bacterial vaginosis, with no adverse outcomes. PMID:24868256

  5. Bacterial and fungal microbiota in relation to probiotic therapy (VSL#3) in pouchitis

    PubMed Central

    Kühbacher, T; Ott, S J; Helwig, U; Mimura, T; Rizzello, F; Kleessen, B; Gionchetti, P; Blaut, M; Campieri, M; Fölsch, U R; Kamm, M A; Schreiber, S

    2006-01-01

    Background The intestinal microbiota plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of pouchitis, a major complication after ileal pouch anal anastomosis in patients with ulcerative colitis. Recently, controlled trials have demonstrated that probiotics are effective in maintenance of remission in pouchitis patients. However, the mechanism by which therapy with probiotics works remains elusive. This study explores the role of the bacterial and fungal flora in a controlled trial for maintenance of remission in pouchitis patients with the probiotic VSL#3 compound. Methods The mucosa associated pouch microbiota was investigated before and after therapy with VSL#3 by analysis of endoscopic biopsies using ribosomal DNA/RNA based community fingerprint analysis, clone libraries, real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and fluorescence in situ hybridisation. Patients were recruited from a placebo controlled remission maintenance trial with VSL#3. Results Patients who developed pouchitis while treated with placebo had low bacterial and high fungal diversity. Bacterial diversity was increased and fungal diversity was reduced in patients in remission maintained with VSL#3 (p = 0.001). Real time PCR experiments demonstrated that VSL#3 increased the total number of bacterial cells (p = 0.002) and modified the spectrum of bacteria towards anaerobic species. Taxa specific clone libraries for Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria showed that the richness and spectrum of these bacteria were altered under probiotic therapy. Conclusions Probiotic therapy with VSL#3 increases the total number of intestinal bacterial cells as well as the richness and diversity of the bacterial microbiota, especially the anaerobic flora. The diversity of the fungal flora is repressed. Restoration of the integrity of a “protective” intestinal mucosa related microbiota could therefore be a potential mechanism of probiotic bacteria in inflammatory barrier diseases of the lower gastrointestinal tract

  6. Bacterial Population in Intestines of Litopenaeus vannamei Fed Different Probiotics or Probiotic Supernatant.

    PubMed

    Sha, Yujie; Liu, Mei; Wang, Baojie; Jiang, Keyong; Qi, Cancan; Wang, Lei

    2016-10-28

    The interactions of microbiota in the gut play an important role in promoting or maintaining the health of hosts. In this study, in order to investigate and compare the effects of dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus pentosus HC-2 (HC-2), Enterococcus faecium NRW-2, or the bacteria-free supernatant of a HC-2 culture on the bacterial composition of Litopenaeus vannamei, Illumina sequencing of the V1-V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene was used. The results showed that unique species exclusively existed in specific dietary groups, and the abundance of Actinobacteria was significantly increased in the intestinal bacterial community of shrimp fed with the bacteria-free supernatant of an HC-2 culture compared with the control. In addition, the histology of intestines of the shrimp from the four dietary groups was also described, but no obvious improvements in the intestinal histology were observed. The findings in this work will help to promote the understanding of the roles of intestinal bacteria in shrimps when fed with probiotics or probiotic supernatant.

  7. Microencapsulation of Bacterial Cells by Emulsion Technique for Probiotic Application.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Surajit; Hati, Subrota

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics are dietary concepts to improve the dynamics of intestinal microbial balance favorably. Careful screening of probiotic strains for their technological suitability can also allow selection of strains with the best manufacturing and food technology characteristics. However, even the most robust probiotic bacteria are currently in the range of food applications to which they can be applied. Additionally, bacteria with exceptional functional heath properties are ruled out due to technological limitations. New process and formulation technologies will enable both expansion of the range of products in to which probiotics can be applied and the use of efficacious stains that currently cannot be manufactured or stored with existing technologies. Viability of probiotics has been both a marketing and technological concern for many industrial produces. Probiotics are difficult to work with, the bacteria often die during processing, and shelf life is unpredictable. Probiotics are extremely susceptible environmental conditions such as oxygen, processing and preservation treatments, acidity, and salt concentration, which collectively affect the overall viability of probiotics. Manufacturers have long been fortifying products with probiotics; they have faced significant processing challenges regarding the stability and survivability of probiotics during processing and preservation treatments, storage as well during their passage through GIT. Application of microencapsulation significantly improves the stability of probiotics during food processing and gastrointestinal transit.

  8. Rapid and accurate bacterial identification in probiotics and yoghurts by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Angelakis, Emmanouil; Million, Matthieu; Henry, Mireille; Raoult, Didier

    2011-10-01

    Probiotic food is manufactured by adding probiotic strains simultaneously with starter cultures in fermentation tanks. Here, we investigate the accuracy and feasibility of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for bacterial identification at the species level in probiotic food and yoghurts. Probiotic food and yoghurts were cultured in Columbia and Lactobacillus specific agar and tested by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for the detection and quantification of Lactobacillus sp. Bacterial identification was performed by MALDI-TOF analysis and by amplification and sequencing of tuf and 16S rDNA genes. We tested 13 probiotic food and yoghurts and we identified by qPCR that they presented 10(6) to 10(7) copies of Lactobacillus spp. DNA/g. All products contained very large numbers of living bacteria varying from 10(6) to 10(9) colony forming units/g. These bacteria were identified as Lactobacillus casei, Lactococcus lactis, Bifidobacterium animalis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Streptococcus thermophilus. MALDI-TOF MS presented 92% specificity compared to the molecular assays. In one product we found L. lactis, instead of Bifidus spp. which was mentioned on the label and for another L. delbrueckii and S. thermophilus instead of Bifidus spp. MALDI-TOF MS allows a rapid and accurate bacterial identification at the species level in probiotic food and yoghurts. Although the safety and functionality of probiotics are species and strain dependent, we found a discrepancy between the bacterial strain announced on the label and the strain identified. Practical Application:  MALDI-TOF MS is rapid and specific for the identification of bacteria in probiotic food and yoghurts. Although the safety and functionality of probiotics are species and strain dependent, we found a discrepancy between the bacterial strain announced on the label and the strain identified.

  9. Potential Bacillus probiotics enhance bacterial numbers, water quality and growth during early development of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Nimrat, Subuntith; Suksawat, Sunisa; Boonthai, Traimat; Vuthiphandchai, Verapong

    2012-10-12

    Epidemics of epizootics and occurrence of multiresistant antibiotics of pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture have put forward a development of effective probiotics for the sustainable culture. This study examined the effectiveness of forms of mixed Bacillus probiotics (probiotic A and probiotic B) and mode of probiotic administration on growth, bacterial numbers and water quality during rearing of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in two separated experiments: (1) larval stages and (2) postlarval (PL) stages. Forms of Bacillus probiotics and modes of probiotic administration did not affect growth and survival of larval to PL shrimp. The compositions of Bacillus species in probiotic A and probiotic B did not affect growth and survival of larvae. However, postlarvae treated with probiotic B exhibited higher (P<0.05) growth than probiotic A and controls, indicating Bacillus probiotic composition affects the growth of PL shrimp. Total heterotrophic bacteria and Bacillus numbers in larval and PL shrimp or culture water of the treated groups were higher (P<0.05) than in controls. Levels of pH, ammonia and nitrite of the treated shrimp were significantly decreased, compared to the controls. Microencapsulated Bacillus probiotic was effective for rearing of PL L. vannamei. This investigation showed that administration of mixed Bacillus probiotics significantly improved growth and survival of PL shrimp, increased beneficial bacteria in shrimp and culture water and enhanced water quality for the levels of pH, ammonia and nitrite of culture water.

  10. Correlation between protection against sepsis by probiotic therapy and stimulation of a novel bacterial phylotype.

    PubMed

    Gerritsen, Jacoline; Timmerman, Harro M; Fuentes, Susana; van Minnen, L Paul; Panneman, Henk; Konstantinov, Sergey R; Rombouts, Frans M; Gooszen, Hein G; Akkermans, Louis M A; Smidt, Hauke; Rijkers, Ger T

    2011-11-01

    Prophylactic probiotic therapy has shown beneficial effects in an experimental rat model for acute pancreatitis on the health status of the animals. Mechanisms by which probiotic therapy interferes with severity of acute pancreatitis and associated sepsis, however, are poorly understood. The aims of this study were to identify the probiotic-induced changes in the gut microbiota and to correlate these changes to disease outcome. Duodenum and ileum samples were obtained from healthy and diseased rats subjected to pancreatitis for 7 days and prophylactically treated with either a multispecies probiotic mixture or a placebo. Intestinal microbiota was characterized by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. These analyses showed that during acute pancreatitis the host-specific ileal microbiota was replaced by an "acute pancreatitis-associated microbiota." This replacement was not reversed by administration of the probiotic mixture. An increase, however, was observed in the relative abundance of a novel bacterial phylotype most closely related to Clostridium lituseburense and referred to as commensal rat ileum bacterium (CRIB). Specific primers targeting the CRIB 16S rRNA gene sequence were developed to detect this phylotype by quantitative PCR. An ileal abundance of CRIB 16S rRNA genes of more than 7.5% of the total bacterial 16S rRNA gene pool was correlated with reduced duodenal bacterial overgrowth, reduced bacterial translocation to remote organs, improved pancreas pathology, and reduced proinflammatory cytokine levels in plasma. Our current findings and future studies involving this uncharacterized bacterial phylotype will contribute to unraveling one of the potential mechanisms of probiotic therapy.

  11. Probiotics: a new way to fight bacterial pulmonary infections?

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Y; Le Blay, G; Boisramé-Gastrin, S; Le Gall, F; Héry-Arnaud, G; Gouriou, S; Vallet, S; Le Berre, R

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics, of which Fleming has identified the first representative, penicillin, in 1928, allowed dramatical improvement of the treatment of patients presenting with infectious diseases. However, once an antibiotic is used, resistance may develop more or less rapidly in some bacteria. It is thus necessary to develop therapeutic alternatives, such as the use of probiotics, defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "micro-organisms which, administered live and in adequate amounts, confer a benefit to the health of the host". The scope of these micro-organisms is broad, concerning many areas including that of infectious diseases, especially respiratory infections. We describe the rational use of probiotics in respiratory tract infections and detail the results of various clinical studies describing the use of probiotics in the management of respiratory infections such as nosocomial or community acquired pneumonia, or on specific grounds such as cystic fibrosis. The results are sometimes contradictory, but the therapeutic potential of probiotics seems promising. Implementing research to understand their mechanisms of action is critical to conduct therapeutic tests based on a specific rational for the strains to be used, the dose, as well as the chosen mode and rhythm of administration.

  12. Combining prebiotics with probiotic bacteria can enhance bacterial growth and secretion of bacteriocins.

    PubMed

    Pranckutė, Raminta; Kaunietis, Arnoldas; Kuisienė, Nomeda; Čitavičius, Donaldas J

    2016-08-01

    There is a growing interest in supporting human health by using prebiotics, such as oligosaccharides, and beneficial bacteria, also called probiotics. Combining these two components we can develop synbiotics. In order to create successful combination of synbiotic it is very important to evaluate the influence of prebiotic oligosaccharides to probiotic bacteria and their behavior, such as growth and secretion of health related biomolecules, including bacteriocins. In this study seven type strains of probiotic bacteria (five Lactobacillus sp. and two Lactococcus sp.) and two Lactobacillus sp. strains, isolated from probiotic yoghurt, were cultivated with various commercially available and extracted oligosaccharides (OS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of these OS on type and isolated bacterial strains growth and antibacterial activity. Obtained results suggest that combination of certain OS with probiotic strains may considerably improve their growth and/or antibacterial activity. We also determined the antibacterial activity spectrum of investigated strains with combination of OS against common food borne pathogens. Results of this work show that prebiotic OS can be useful for modulating probiotic bacteria growth, antibacterial activity and even specificity of this activity.

  13. Probiotics and diseases of altered IgE regulation: A short review.

    PubMed

    Smith-Norowitz, Tamar A; Bluth, Martin H

    2016-01-01

    The use of probiotics has gained considerable popularity in the marketplace in the US and has been steadily increasing due to consumer interest in potential treatment of various diseases, which may be due to modulation of immune responses. The aim of this review is to present information from representative studies regarding some of the possible applications and clinical effects of probiotic use in diseases of altered immunoglobulin (IgE) regulation (allergic rhinitis (AR), asthma, atopic dermatitis (AD) and food sensitization). Reports in humans are sparse or controversial; there is currently little reliable scientific data that supports the theory that there exists a cause-effect relationship between taking probiotics and alleviation of allergic disease. Unfortunately, these findings are too variable to allow substantial conclusions as to the efficacy and effectiveness of probiotic use in these disease states.

  14. Probiotic Activity of a Bacterial Strain Isolated from Ancient Permafrost Against Salmonella Infection in Mice.

    PubMed

    Fursova, O; Potapov, V; Brouchkov, A; Pogorelko, G; Griva, G; Fursova, N; Ignatov, S

    2012-09-01

    Bacillus cereus strain F, collected from relict permafrost located in Siberia, was analyzed for probiotic activity in the mouse Salmonella enterica model. Viable bacterial cells were found in frozen soils taken at Mammoth Mountain in Yakutia from a depth below the level of seasonal thawing. Geological data indicated the absence of a thawing within millions of years of deposited soils, which helped to ensure the ancient origin of our sample. According to DNA analysis, bacterial cells collected from the relict permafrost appeared to be B. cereus strain F. The morphology of these bacteria was analyzed using atomic force microscopy. B. cereus strain F was assessed as a nonpathogenic bacterium by evaluation of its pathogenicity. A S. enterica model is described in mice after per oral inoculation and serves as a model for the human carrier state. Using this model, probiotic activity by the bacterial strain isolated from the ancient permafrost has been shown against Salmonella infection in mice.

  15. Occurrence of selected bacterial groups in the faeces of piglets fed with Bacillus coagulans as probiotic.

    PubMed

    Adami, A; Cavazzoni, V

    1999-01-01

    A microbiological analysis of piglet faeces was performed on samples collected from animals fed a diet without any additive, animals fed a diet that contained Bacillus coagulans CNCMI-1061 as probiotic, and animals fed a diet that contained Zn-bacitracin. The analysis was carried out in concurrence with a zootechnical trial. Selected bacterial groups (lactic acid bacteria, lacotococci, enterococci, aerobic and anaerobic cocci, total and faecal coliforms, clostridia, bacteroides, bifidobacteria) were determined at day 1 and after 1, 4 and 10 weeks of life. Numbers of enterococci, coliforms (especially faecal coliforms) showed a decrease over time with probiotic, more evident than with the antibiotic. Daily administration of B. coagulans allowed this bacterium to become integrated into the enteric microflora where it is transient. These results seem to show a positive effect of B. coagulans addition on cocci and faecal coliforms. We suggest that this probiotic may represent an alternative to antibiotics.

  16. The restoration of the vaginal microbiota after treatment for bacterial vaginosis with metronidazole or probiotics.

    PubMed

    Ling, Zongxin; Liu, Xia; Chen, Weiguang; Luo, Yueqiu; Yuan, Li; Xia, Yaxian; Nelson, Karen E; Huang, Shaolei; Zhang, Shaoen; Wang, Yuezhu; Yuan, Jieli; Li, Lanjuan; Xiang, Charlie

    2013-04-01

    Whether or not treatment with antibiotics or probiotics for bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with a change in the diversity of vaginal microbiota in women was investigated. One hundred fifteen women, consisting of 30 healthy subjects, 30 BV-positive control subjects, 30 subjects with BV treated with a 7-day metronidazole regimen, and 25 subjects with BV treated with a 10-day probiotics regimen, were analyzed to determine the efficacy and disparity of diversity and richness of vaginal microbiota using 454 pyrosequencing. Follow-up visits at days 5 and 30 showed a greater BV cure rate in the probiotics-treated subjects (88.0 and 96 %, respectively) compared to the metronidazole-treated subjects (83.3 and 70 %, respectively [p = 0.625 at day 5 and p = 0.013 at day 30]). Treatment with metronidazole reduced the taxa diversity and eradicated most of the BV-associated phylotypes, while probiotics only suppressed the overgrowth and re-established vaginal homeostasis gradually and steadily. Despite significant interindividual variation, the microbiota of the actively treated groups or participants constituted a unique profile. Along with the decrease in pathogenic bacteria, such as Gardnerella, Atopobium, Prevotella, Megasphaera, Coriobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Mycoplasma, and Sneathia, a Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota was recovered. Acting as vaginal sentinels and biomarkers, the relative abundance of Lactobacillus and pathogenic bacteria determined the consistency of the BV clinical and microbiologic cure rates, as well as recurrent BV. Both 7-day intravaginal metronidazole and 10-day intravaginal probiotics have good efficacy against BV, while probiotics maintained normal vaginal microbiota longer due to effective and steady vaginal microbiota restoration, which provide new insights into BV treatment.

  17. Probiotic yogurt in the elderly with intestinal bacterial overgrowth: endotoxaemia and innate immune functions.

    PubMed

    Schiffrin, Eduardo J; Parlesak, Alexandr; Bode, Christiane; Bode, J Christian; van't Hof, Martin A; Grathwohl, Dominik; Guigoz, Yves

    2009-04-01

    A study was conducted in healthy elderly living independently in senior housing to assess the impact of a probiotic yoghurt supplement on small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Twenty-three participants with positive and thirteen participants with negative hydrogen breath test were studied before and after a period of 4 weeks of probiotic yoghurt administration. Intestinal permeability, plasma endotoxin levels, phagocytic activity of leucocytes, cytokine production by monocytes and free radical response of neutrophils were determined. Intestinal permeability was similar for the two groups and was unaffected by probiotic treatment. Both plasma endotoxin levels and the basal phagocytic activity of leucocytes decreased after yoghurt intake in the two groups. Exposure of monocytes and neutrophils ex vivo led to an increased cytokine response and free radical response, respectively. The normalisation of the various cytokine responses was more apparent in the group with positive breath test. In addition, the plasma levels of lipoplysaccharide binding protein and soluble CD14, lipoplysaccharide pattern recognition receptors and surrogate markers of lipoplysaccharide permeability were diminished by the end of the study. In conclusion, probiotic administration in the elderly normalises the response to endotoxin, and modulates activation markers in blood phagocytes, and therefore may help reduce low-grade chronic inflammation.

  18. Probiotics in allergy management.

    PubMed

    Vanderhoof, Jon A

    2008-11-01

    The gut contains a diverse bacterial flora that is acquired at birth and has a number of physiological functions. Administration of prebiotics or probiotics may favourably alter this gut microflora. Prebiotics are poorly digested oligosaccharides that promote the growth of desirable bacteria and may have other beneficial gastrointestinal and systemic effects. Probiotics are "helpful" human bacteria that provide a variety of health benefits when administered exogenously. Probiotics produce beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of traveller's diarrhoea, viral diarrhoea, and diarrhoea in day care centres. Moreover, probiotics have been shown to reduce relapses associated with Clostridium difficile, and Lactobacilli are effective in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Probiotics may also be efficacious in the treatment of gastroenteritis. Clinical studies of probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease have proved disappointing, but beneficial effects in adults with irritable bowel syndrome have been reported with Bifidobacterium infantis 35624. Lactobacilli GG reduces the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms and gut permeability in patients with atopic dermatitis, and administration of probiotics reduces the frequency and severity of atopic eczema when administered to pregnant women and then to newborn infants. In conclusion, probiotics are effective in the treatment and/or prevention of a number of conditions, including diarrhoea, irritable bowel syndrome and atopic dermatitis, and the product used should be selected based on the particular indication.

  19. Probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917 biofilms on silicone substrates for bacterial interference against pathogen colonization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quan; Zhu, Zhiling; Wang, Jun; Lopez, Analette I; Li, Siheng; Kumar, Amit; Yu, Fei; Chen, Haoqing; Cai, Chengzhi; Zhang, Lijuan

    2017-03-01

    Bacterial interference is an alternative strategy to fight against device-associated bacterial infections. Pursuing this strategy, a non-pathogenic bacterial biofilm is used as a live, protective barrier to fence off pathogen colonization. In this work, biofilms formed by probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) are investigated for their potential for long-term bacterial interference against infections associated with silicone-based urinary catheters and indwelling catheters used in the digestive system, such as feeding tubes and voice prostheses. We have shown that EcN can form stable biofilms on silicone substrates, particularly those modified with a biphenyl mannoside derivative. These biofilms greatly reduced the colonization by pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis in Lysogeny broth (LB) for 11days.

  20. [Probiotics in liver diseases].

    PubMed

    Soriano, Germán; Sánchez, Elisabet; Guarner, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in intestinal microbiota and inflammatory response play a key role in disease progression and development of complications in liver diseases, mainly in cirrhosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Probiotics can be useful to delay disease progression and to prevent development of complications due to their ability to modulate intestinal flora, intestinal permeability and inflammatory response. Several studies have shown the efficacy of probiotics in the treatment of minimal hepatic encephalopathy and the prevention of episodes of overt hepatic encephalopathy. Probiotics have also been observed to prevent postoperative bacterial infections and to improve liver damage in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. However, more studies are needed in order to confirm the efficacy and safety of probiotics in patients with liver diseases, and to better understanding of the mechanisms implicated in their effects.

  1. Acute oral toxicity and bacterial translocation studies on potentially probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J S; Shu, Q; Rutherfurd, K J; Prasad, J; Gopal, P K; Gill, H S

    2000-01-01

    Three potentially probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (DR20(TM)), Lb. acidophilus HN017 and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 (DR10()), have recently been identified and characterized. The present study was designed to evaluate the acute oral toxicity of these strains to mice, and also to investigate bacterial translocation and gut mucosal pathology in BALB/c mice fed HN019, HN001 or HN017 for 8 consecutive days at a high dose of 10(11)cfu/mouse/day. Results showed that these probiotic strains had no adverse effect on general health status, feed intake, body weight gain and intestinal mucosal morphology (villus height, crypt depth, epithelial cell height and mucosal thickness). No viable bacteria were recovered from blood and tissue samples (mesenteric lymph nodes, liver and spleen) of mice, and no treatment-associated illness or death was observed. According to these results, the oral LD(50) of HN019, HN001 and HN017 is more than 50g/kg/day for mice, and their acceptable daily intake (ADI) value is 35g dry bacteria per day for a 70-kg person. This suggests that the probiotic strains HN019, HN001 and HN017 are non-pathogenic and likely to be safe for human consumption.

  2. [Investigation of the effects of probiotic bacteria on bacterial translocation that developed during diagnostic laparoscopy: an experimental study].

    PubMed

    Sahin, Idris; Acar, Selda; Ozaydın, Ismet; Ozaydın, Ciğdem; Calışkan, Emel; Yavuz, Mehmet Tevfik; Iskender, Abdulkadir

    2012-10-01

    Probiotics which are non-pathogenic live microorganisms ingested along with food or as dietary supplements, are thought to be beneficial to the host by supporting the microbial balance in digestive system. Various studies suggest that the effects of probiotics on the intestinal mucosa and immunity are protective against bacterial translocation. We aimed to investigate bacterial translocation related to the amount of CO2 insufflation given during laparoscopy and the effect of probiotic bacteria in an experimental peritonitis model. In this study 60 Wistar rats were used in six groups consisting of 10 rats. Group 1, 3 and 5 consisted of the rats that were fed without probiotics, while the rats in Group 2, 4, and 6 were fed with water containing 5 x 108 cfu/ml probiotic bacteria complex (Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus) for 15 days. To generate experimental peritonitis, 2 x 107 cfu/ml Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was inoculated intraperitoneally to all of the rats. Thereafter, laparoscopy was applied in all groups. Application in Group 1 and Group 2 was without CO2; Group 3 and Group 4 with 14 mmHg CO2 insufflation, and Group 5 and Group 6 with 20 mmHg CO2 insufflation. Blood samples were taken in 2nd, 4th, and 6th hours. Mesenteric lymph node, liver and spleen samples were taken at 6th hour when the rats were sacrificed and then these were evaluated microbiologically with qualitative and quantitative methods. Bacterial translocation and bacteremia were found in the rats that were undergone experimental peritonitis during laparoscopy. All positive tissue and blood cultures yielded E.coli. The highest level of bacterial translocation was found to be in mesenteric lymph nodes (in 3/10, 6/10 and 10/10 in groups 1, 3 and 5 fed without probiotics, respectively; in 2/10, 3/10 and 4/10 in groups 2, 4 and 6 fed with probiotics, respectively). The bacterial translocation rates were found to be related to the increased CO2

  3. Screening of Lactobacillus strains of domestic goose origin against bacterial poultry pathogens for use as probiotics.

    PubMed

    Dec, Marta; Puchalski, Andrzej; Urban-Chmiel, Renata; Wernicki, Andrzej

    2014-10-01

    Lactobacilli are natural inhabitants of human and animal mucous membranes, including the avian gastrointestinal tract. Recently, increasing attention has been given to their probiotic, health-promoting capacities, among which their antagonistic potential against pathogens plays a key role. A study was conducted to evaluate probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from feces or cloacae of domestic geese. Among the 104 examined isolates, previously identified to the species level by whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and analysis of 16S-23S regions of rDNA, dominated Lactobacillus salivarius (35%), followed by Lactobacillus johnsonii (18%) and Lactobacillus ingluviei (11%). All lactobacilli were screened for antimicrobial activity toward Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Pasteurella multocida, and Riemerella anatipestifer using the agar slab method and the well diffusion method. Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus plantarum exhibited particularly strong antagonism toward all of the indicator strains. In the agar slab method, the highest sensitivity to Lactobacillus was observed in R. anatipestifer and P. multocida, and the lowest in E. coli and S. aureus. The ability to produce H₂O₂was exhibited by 92% of isolates, but there was no correlation between the rate of production of this reactive oxygen species and the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus sp. All lactobacilli showed resistance to pH 3.0 and 3.5 and to 2% bile. The data demonstrate that Lactobacillus isolates from geese may have probiotic potential in reducing bacterial infections. The antibacterial activity of the selected lactobacilli is mainly due to lactic acid production by these bacteria. The selected Lactobacillus strains that strongly inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria, and were also resistant to low pH and bile salts, can potentially restore the balance

  4. Probiotics for Preventing and Treating Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Current Evidence.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Changqing; Qu, Changmin; Wang, Baoyan; Liang, Shuwen; Zeng, Bolun

    2017-04-01

    The present study conducted a meta-analysis and systematic review of current evidence to assess the efficacy of probiotics in preventing or treating small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Relevant studies from PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, until May 2016, were assimilated. The prevention efficacy was assessed by the incidence of SIBO in the probiotic group, and the treatment efficacy by the SIBO decontamination rate, reduction in H2 concentration, and symptom improvement. The relative risk (RR) and weighted mean difference (WMD) were used as effect measures and the random-effects model used for meta-analysis. A total of 14 full-text articles and 8 abstracts were included for the systematic review, and 18 studies were eligible for data synthesis. Patients on probiotic usage showed an insignificant trend toward low SIBO incidence [RR=0.54; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.19-1.52; P=0.24]. The pooled SIBO decontamination rate was 62.8% (51.5% to 72.8%). The probiotics group showed a significantly higher SIBO decontamination rate than the nonprobiotic group (RR=1.61; 95% CI, 1.19-2.17; P<0.05). Also, the H2 concentration was significantly reduced among probiotic users (WMD=-36.35 ppm; 95% CI, -44.23 to -28.47 ppm; P<0.05). Although probiotics produced a marked decrease in the abdominal pain scores (WMD=-1.17; 95% CI, -2.30 to -0.04; P<0.05), it did not significantly reduce the daily stool frequency (WMD=-0.09; 95% CI, -0.47 to 0.29). Therefore, the present findings indicated that probiotics supplementation could effectively decontaminate SIBO, decrease H2 concentration, and relieve abdominal pain, but were ineffective in preventing SIBO.

  5. [Role of probiotics in Obstetrics and Gynecology].

    PubMed

    Castro, A; González, M; Tarín, J J; Cano, A

    2015-02-07

    The human microbiota is estimated to be 2.5-3.0 kg. Bacterial colonization starts during delivery, due to fetal contact with vaginal and intestinal maternal microorganisms. The oligosaccharides in human breast milk stimulate the growth of bacteria, which provide the optimal environment for intestinal mucosal immunity development. Additionally, breast milk has its own microbiota and it is altered in mastitis. The vagina is another important microenvironment. Vaginal dysbiosis leads to bacterial vaginosis and vaginal candidiasis, both of them very frequent in reproductive life. The probiotics are a potential and encouraging treatment for all microbiota alterations. Nevertheless, additional studies are required to confirm the benefits of probiotics.

  6. Genetic and metabolic signals during acute enteric bacterial infection alter the microbiota and drive progression to chronic inflammatory disease

    SciTech Connect

    Kamdar, Karishma; Khakpour, Samira; Chen, Jingyu; Leone, Vanessa; Brulc, Jennifer; Mangatu, Thomas; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.; Chang, Eugene B; Kahn, Stacy A.; Kirschner, Barbara S; Young, Glenn; DePaolo, R. William

    2016-01-13

    Chronic inflammatory disorders are thought to arise due to an interplay between predisposing host genetics and environmental factors. For example, the onset of inflammatory bowel disease is associated with enteric proteobacterial infection, yet the mechanistic basis for this association is unclear. We have shown previously that genetic defiency in TLR1 promotes acute enteric infection by the proteobacteria Yersinia enterocolitica. Examining that model further, we uncovered an altered cellular immune response that promotes the recruitment of neutrophils which in turn increases metabolism of the respiratory electron acceptor tetrathionate by Yersinia. These events drive permanent alterations in anti-commensal immunity, microbiota composition, and chronic inflammation, which persist long after Yersinia clearence. Deletion of the bacterial genes involved in tetrathionate respiration or treatment using targeted probiotics could prevent microbiota alterations and inflammation. Thus, acute infection can drive long term immune and microbiota alterations leading to chronic inflammatory disease in genetically predisposed individuals.

  7. Epigenetic Alterations Induced by Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Chiariotti, Lorenzo; Coretti, Lorena; Pero, Raffaela; Lembo, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the principal bacterial products known to elicit inflammation. Cells of myeloid lineage such as monocytes and macrophages, but also epithelial cells give rise to an inflammatory response upon LPS stimulation. This phenomenon implies reprogramming of cell specific gene expression that can occur through different mechanisms including epigenetic modifications. Given their intrinsic nature, epigenetic modifications may be involved both in the acute response to LPS and in the establishment of a preconditioned genomic state (epigenomic memory) that may potentially influence the host response to further contacts with microorganisms. Information has accumulated during the last years aimed at elucidating the epigenetic mechanisms which underlie the cellular LPS response. These findings, summarized in this chapter, will hopefully be a good basis for a definition of the complete cascade of LPS-induced epigenetic events and their biological significance in different cell types.

  8. Fighting fire with fire: is it time to use probiotics to manage pathogenic bacterial diseases?

    PubMed

    Heineman, John; Bubenik, Sara; McClave, Stephen; Martindale, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Probiotics, when considered in clinical practice, have traditionally been used for prophylaxis; however, there is growing data suggesting treatment benefits in numerous disease states. In this review, we focus on probiotics as treatment for and prevention of several acute and chronic infectious processes including Helicobacter pylori, Clostridium difficile, necrotizing enterocolitis, ventilator-associated pneumonia, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. It is inaccurate to generalize findings observed in a single probiotic species to all probiotics. This reasoning is due to the variability of colonizing abilities of native intestinal floras, probiotic or otherwise, secondary to different combinations, doses, and duration of treatments. Given these limitations, multiple animal and human studies have shown anti-inflammatory and selective antimicrobial effects of specific probiotics. Some studies suggest a role for probiotics as supplemental treatment, in combination with antibiotics, for the aforementioned disease processes. It is apparent from this review that the efficacy of probiotics is widely variable and multifaceted. More focused clinical and basic science research is necessary to better understand the treatment potential of various probiotics.

  9. Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Two Probiotic Bacterial Strains on Metabolism and Innate Immunity in the RAW 264.7 Murine Macrophage Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Biswaranjan; Guha, Dipanjan; Ray, Pratikshya; Das, Debashmita; Aich, Palok

    2016-06-01

    Probiotic and potential probiotic bacterial strains are routinely prescribed and used as supplementary therapy for a variety infectious diseases, including enteric disorders among a wide range of individuals. While there are an increasing number of studies defining the possible mechanisms of probiotic activity, a great deal remains unknown regarding the diverse modes of action attributed to these therapeutic agents. More precise information is required to support the appropriate application of probiotics. To address this objective, we selected two probiotics strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus MTCC-10307 (LA) and Bacillus clausii MTCC-8326 (BC) that are frequently prescribed for the treatment of intestinal disorders and investigated their effects on the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. Our results reveal that LA and BC are potent activators of both metabolic activity and innate immune responses in these cells. We also observed that LA and BC possessed similar activity in preventing infection simulated in vitro in murine macrophages by Salmonella typhimurium serovar enterica.

  10. Is There a Role for Probiotics in Liver Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Robert S.; Austin, Andrew S.; Freeman, Jan G.

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota plays an important role in health and disease. Alteration in its healthy homeostasis may result in the development of numerous liver disorders including complications of liver cirrhosis. On the other hand, restoration and modulation of intestinal flora through the use of probiotics is potentially an emerging therapeutic strategy. There is mounting evidence that probiotics are effective in the treatment of covert and overt hepatic encephalopathy, as well as in the prevention of recurrence of encephalopathy. The beneficial effect of probiotics also extends to liver function in cirrhosis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and alcoholic liver disease. On the other hand, data associating probiotics and portal hypertension is scanty and conflicting. Probiotic therapy has also not been shown to prevent primary or secondary spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Larger clinical studies are required before probiotics can be recommended as a treatment modality in liver diseases. PMID:25436233

  11. Effects of a bacteria-based probiotic on ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids and bacterial flora of Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Qadis, Abdul Qadir; Goya, Satoru; Ikuta, Kentaro; Yatsu, Minoru; Kimura, Atsushi; Nakanishi, Shusuke; Sato, Shigeru

    2014-06-01

    Twelve ruminally cannulated Holstein calves (age, 12 ± 3 weeks) were used to identify the effect of a probiotic comprised of Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium and Clostridium butyricum on ruminal components. The calves were adapted to a diet containing a 50% high-concentrate (standard diet) for 1 week, and then, the probiotic was given once daily for 5 days (day 1-5) at 1.5 or 3.0 g/100 kg body weight to groups of four calves each. Four additional calves fed the standard diet without probiotic served as the corresponding control. Ruminal pH was measured continuously throughout the 15-day experimental period. Ruminal fluid was collected via a fistula at a defined time predose and on days 7 and 14 to assess volatile fatty acid (VFA), lactic acid and ammonia-nitrogen concentrations, as well as the bacterial community. The probiotic at either dose improved the reduced 24-hr mean ruminal pH in calves. The circadian patterns of the 1 hr mean ruminal pH were identical between the probiotic doses. In both probiotic groups, ruminal lactic acid concentrations remained significantly lower than that of the control. Probiotic did not affect ruminal VFA concentrations. L. plantarum and C. butyricum were not detected in the rumen of calves given the high-dose probiotic, whereas Enterococcus spp. remained unchanged. These results suggest that calves given a probiotic had stable ruminal pH levels (6.6-6.8), presumably due to the effects of the probiotic on stabilizing rumen-predominant bacteria, which consume greater lactate in the rumen.

  12. Probiotics, immunostimulants, plant products and oral vaccines, and their role as feed supplements in the control of bacterial fish diseases.

    PubMed

    Newaj-Fyzul, A; Austin, B

    2015-11-01

    There is a rapidly increasing literature pointing to the success of probiotics, immunostimulants, plant products and oral vaccines in immunomodulation, namely stimulation of the innate, cellular and/or humoral immune response, and the control of bacterial fish diseases. Probiotics are regarded as live micro-organisms administered orally and leading to health benefits. However, in contrast with the use in terrestrial animals, a diverse range of micro-organisms have been evaluated in aquaculture with the mode of action often reflecting immunomodulation. Moreover, the need for living cells has been questioned. Also, key subcellular components, including lipopolysaccharides, have been attributed to the beneficial effect in fish. Here, there is a link with immunostimulants, which may also be administered orally. Furthermore, numerous plant products have been reported to have health benefits, namely protection against disease for which stimulation of some immune parameters has been reported. Oral vaccines confer protection against some diseases, although the mode of action is usually linked to humoral rather than the innate and cellular immune responses. This review explores the relationship between probiotics, immunostimulants, plant products and oral vaccines.

  13. Root bacterial endophytes alter plant phenotype, but not physiology

    PubMed Central

    Weston, David J.; Pelletier, Dale A.; Jawdy, Sara S.; Classen, Aimée T.

    2016-01-01

    Plant traits, such as root and leaf area, influence how plants interact with their environment and the diverse microbiota living within plants can influence plant morphology and physiology. Here, we explored how three bacterial strains isolated from the Populus root microbiome, influenced plant phenotype. We chose three bacterial strains that differed in predicted metabolic capabilities, plant hormone production and metabolism, and secondary metabolite synthesis. We inoculated each bacterial strain on a single genotype of Populus trichocarpa and measured the response of plant growth related traits (root:shoot, biomass production, root and leaf growth rates) and physiological traits (chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis, net photosynthesis at saturating light–Asat, and saturating CO2–Amax). Overall, we found that bacterial root endophyte infection increased root growth rate up to 184% and leaf growth rate up to 137% relative to non-inoculated control plants, evidence that plants respond to bacteria by modifying morphology. However, endophyte inoculation had no influence on total plant biomass and photosynthetic traits (net photosynthesis, chlorophyll content). In sum, bacterial inoculation did not significantly increase plant carbon fixation and biomass, but their presence altered where and how carbon was being allocated in the plant host. PMID:27833797

  14. Intracloacal inoculation, an effective screening method for determining the efficacy of probiotic bacterial isolates against Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Arsi, K; Donoghue, A M; Woo-Ming, A; Blore, P J; Donoghue, D J

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide. It is common in poultry, and human infections are often associated with consumption of contaminated poultry products. One strategy to reduce Campylobacter colonization in poultry is the use of oral probiotics, but this produces variable results, possibly because the probiotics are destroyed in the stomach's acidic environment. Protection (e.g., encapsulation) of isolates may overcome this problem, but there is no assurance that these isolates will have efficacy in the lower gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, screening candidate isolates by directly placing them in the lower intestinal tract via cloacal inoculation may eliminate the time and expense of encapsulating ineffective isolates. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect bacterial isolates with anti-Campylobacter activity in vitro and evaluate their efficacy in vivo upon either oral or intracloacal administration. Bacterial isolates were collected from healthy birds and were evaluated for efficacy against C. jejuni in vitro. Isolates having generally regarded as safe status and demonstrating in vitro anti-Campylobacter properties were evaluated after oral or intracloacal inoculation into chicks on day 1 (n = 10 birds per isolate per route of administration). On day 7, birds were dosed by oral gavage with a four-strain mixture of wild-type Campylobacter containing at least 1 × 10(7) CFU/ml organisms. On day 14, birds were euthanized and the ceca were collected aseptically for Campylobacter enumeration. When dosed orally, only one isolate had a 1-log reduction in cecal Campylobacter counts, whereas when administered intracloacally, six of these isolates produced a 1- to 3-log reduction in cecal Campylobacter counts in 14-day-old chickens. These results support the strategy of evaluating the efficacy of potential probiotic isolates via cloacal inoculation prior to undergoing the effort of encapsulating isolates for oral administration.

  15. Probiotics in periodontal health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Bhattacharya, Hirak; Kandwal, Abhishek

    2011-01-01

    Macfarlane Burnett stated in 1962 that “By the late twentieth century, we can anticipate the virtual elimination of infectious diseases as a significant factor in social life”. Probiotics have become of interest to researchers in recent times. Time has come to shift the paradigm of treatment from specific bacteria elimination to altering bacterial ecology by probiotics. The development of resistance to a range of antibiotics by some important pathogens has raised the possibility of a return to the pre-antibiotic dark ages. Here, probiotics provide an effective alternative way, which is economical and natural to combat periodontal disease. Thus, a mere change in diet by including probiotic foods may halt, retard, or even significantly delay the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, promoting a healthy lifestyle to fight periodontal infections. PMID:21772717

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus jensenii Strain SNUV360, a Probiotic for Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis Isolated from the Vagina of a Healthy Korean Woman

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sunghee; You, Hyun Ju; Kwon, Bomi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lactobacillus jensenii SNUV360 is a potential probiotic strain that shows antimicrobial activity for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Here, we present the complete genomic sequence of L. jensenii SNUV360, isolated from a vaginal sample from a healthy Korean woman. Analysis of the sequence may provide insight into its functional activity. PMID:28280032

  17. Practical approaches to probiotics use.

    PubMed

    Taibi, Amel; Comelli, Elena M

    2014-08-01

    Probiotics are microorganisms exerting beneficial effects on the host. They can be ingested through foods or supplements and their inclusion in these products is regulated in Canada by the Health Canada Health Products and Food Branch. The aim of this article is to summarize current evidence from randomized controlled trials and guidelines from Health Canada, the World Health Organization, and internationally recognized expert committees in the hope that it will help practitioners and professionals recommending probiotics to healthy and diseased patients, with a focus on the Canadian setting. From a general perspective, probiotics can be recommended for prevention of diseases that are associated to altered intestinal ecology. Specifically, they can be recommended for prevention of upper respiratory tract infections and pouchitis, for prevention and management of necrotizing enterocolitis, bacterial vaginosis and antibiotic associated diarrhea, including Clostridium difficile infection, and for treatment of atopic eczema in cow's milk allergy and of infectious diarrhea. Additional substantiated probiotic benefits include prevention of hypercholesterolemia, management of constipation, reduction of recurrent urinary tract infections, improvement of irritable bowel syndrome symptoms, and reduction of antibiotics side effects in Helicobacter pylori eradication. Because probiotics are generally recognized as safe and can be removed with antimicrobial agents, their use should be considered in patients of all ages.

  18. A single natural nucleotide mutation alters bacterial pathogen host tropism.

    PubMed

    Viana, David; Comos, María; McAdam, Paul R; Ward, Melissa J; Selva, Laura; Guinane, Caitriona M; González-Muñoz, Beatriz M; Tristan, Anne; Foster, Simon J; Fitzgerald, J Ross; Penadés, José R

    2015-04-01

    The capacity of microbial pathogens to alter their host tropism leading to epidemics in distinct host species populations is a global public and veterinary health concern. To investigate the molecular basis of a bacterial host-switching event in a tractable host species, we traced the evolutionary trajectory of the common rabbit clone of Staphylococcus aureus. We report that it evolved through a likely human-to-rabbit host jump over 40 years ago and that only a single naturally occurring nucleotide mutation was required and sufficient to convert a human-specific S. aureus strain into one that could infect rabbits. Related mutations were identified at the same locus in other rabbit strains of distinct clonal origin, consistent with convergent evolution. This first report of a single mutation that was sufficient to alter the host tropism of a microorganism during its evolution highlights the capacity of some pathogens to readily expand into new host species populations.

  19. Chronic bacterial prostatitis and irritable bowel syndrome: effectiveness of treatment with rifaximin followed by the probiotic VSL#3

    PubMed Central

    Vicari, Enzo; Vignera, La Sandro; Castiglione, Roberto; Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Lucia O; Calogero, Aldo E

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of treatment with rifaximin followed by the probiotic VSL#3 versus no treatment on the progression of chronic prostatitis toward chronic microbial prostate-vesiculitis (PV) or prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis (PVE). A total of 106 selected infertile male patients with bacteriologically cured chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were randomly prescribed rifaximin (200 mg, 2 tablets bid, for 7 days monthly for 12 months) and probiotic containing multiple strains VSL#3 (450 × 109 CFU per day) or no treatment. Ninety-five of them (89.6%) complied with the therapeutic plan and were included in this study. Group A = “6Tx/6-”: treatment for the initial 6 and no treatment for the following 6 months (n = 26); Group B = “12Tx”: 12 months of treatment (n = 22); Group C = “6-/6Tx”: no treatment for the initial 6 months and treatment in the last 6 months (n = 23); Group D = “12-”: no treatment (n = 24). The patients of Groups A = “6Tx/6-” and B = “12Tx” had the highest frequency of chronic prostatitis (88.5% and 86.4%, respectively). In contrast, group “12-”: patients had the lowest frequency of prostatitis (33.4%). The progression of prostatitis into PV in groups “6Tx/6-” (15.5%) and “6-/6Tx” (13.6%) was lower than that found in the patients of group “12-” (45.8%). Finally, no patient of groups “6Tx/6-” and “6-/6Tx” had PVE, whereas it was diagnosed in 20.8% of group “12-” patients. Long-term treatment with rifaximin and the probiotic VSL#3 is effective in lowering the progression of prostatitis into more complicated forms of male accessory gland infections in infertile patients with bacteriologically cured CBP plus IBS. PMID:24969056

  20. Probiotics, dendritic cells and bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Feyisetan, Oladapo; Tracey, Christopher; Hellawell, Giles O

    2012-06-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The suppressor effect of probiotics on superficial bladder cancer is an observed phenomenon but the specific mechanism is poorly understood. The evidence strongly suggests natural killer (NK) cells are the anti-tumour effector cells involved and NK cell activity correlates with the observed anti-tumour effect in mice. It is also known that dendritic cells (DC) cells are responsible for the recruitment and mobilization of NK cells so therefore it may be inferred that DC cells are most likely to be the interphase point at which probiotics act. In support of this, purification of NK cells was associated with a decrease in NK cells activity. The current use of intravesical bacille Calmette-Guérin in the management of superficial bladder cancer is based on the effect of a localised immune response. In the same way, understanding the mechanism of action of probiotics and the role of DC may potentially offer another avenue via which the immune system may be manipulated to resist bladder cancer. Probiotic foods have been available in the UK since 1996 with the arrival of the fermented milk drink (Yakult) from Japan. The presence of live bacterial ingredients (usually lactobacilli species) may confer health benefits when present in sufficient numbers. The role of probiotics in colo-rectal cancer may be related in part to the suppression of harmful colonic bacteria but other immune mechanisms are involved. Anti-cancer effects outside the colon were suggested by a Japanese report of altered rates of bladder tumour recurrence after ingestion of a particular probiotic. Dendritic cells play a central role to the general regulation of the immune response that may be modified by probiotics. The addition of probiotics to the diet may confer benefit by altering rates of bladder tumour recurrence and also alter the response to immune mechanisms involved with the application of intravesical treatments (bacille Calmette-Guérin).

  1. Clinical study comparing probiotic Lactobacillus GR-1 and RC-14 with metronidazole vaginal gel to treat symptomatic bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Anukam, Kingsley C; Osazuwa, Emmanuel; Osemene, Gibson I; Ehigiagbe, Felix; Bruce, Andrew W; Reid, Gregor

    2006-10-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is particularly common in black women, and in Nigeria it is often caused by Mycoplasma, as well as Atopobium, Prevotella and Gardnerella sp. Antimicrobial metronidazole oral therapy is poorly effective in eradicating the condition and restoring the Lactobacillus microbiota in the vagina. In this study, 40 women diagnosed with BV by discharge, fishy odor, sialidase positive test and Nugent Gram stain scoring, were randomized to receive either two dried capsules containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 each night for 5 days, or 0.75% metronidazole gel, applied vaginally twice a day (in the morning and evening). Follow-up at day 6, 15 and 30 showed cure of BV in significantly more probiotic treated subjects (16, 17 and 18/20, respectively) compared to metronidazole treatment (9, 9 and 11/20: P=0.016 at day 6, P=0.002 at day 15 and P=0.056 at day 30). This is the first report of an effective (90%) cure of BV using probiotic lactobacilli. Given the correlation between BV and HIV, and the high risk of the latter in Nigeria, intravaginal use of lactobacilli could provide women with a self-use therapy, similar to over-the-counter anti-yeast medication, for treatment of urogenital infections.

  2. Produced water exposure alters bacterial response to biocides.

    PubMed

    Vikram, Amit; Lipus, Daniel; Bibby, Kyle

    2014-11-04

    Microbial activity during the holding and reuse of wastewater from hydraulic fracturing operations, termed produced water, may lead to issues with corrosion, sulfide release, and fouling. Biocides are applied to control biological activity, often with limited efficacy, which is typically attributed to chemical interactions with the produced water. However, it is unknown whether there is a biologically driven mechanism to biocide tolerance in produced water. Here, we demonstrate that produced water exposure results in an enhanced tolerance against the typically used biocide glutaraldehyde and increased susceptibility to the oxidative biocide hypochlorite in a native and a model bacteria and that this altered resistance is due to the salinity of the produced water. In addition, we elucidate the genetic response of the model organism Pseudomonas fluorescens to produced water exposure to provide a mechanistic interpretation of the altered biocide resistance. The RNA-seq data demonstrated the induction of genes involved in osmotic stress, energy production and conversion, membrane integrity, and protein transport following produced water exposure, which facilitates bacterial survival and alters biocide tolerance. Efforts to fundamentally understand biocide resistance mechanisms, which enable the optimization of biocide application, hold significant implications for greening of the fracturing process through encouraging produced water recycling. Specifically, these results suggest the necessity of optimizing biocide application at the level of individual shale plays, rather than historical experience, based upon produced water characteristics and salinity.

  3. Alteration of the intestinal microbiome: fecal microbiota transplant and probiotics for Clostridium difficile and beyond.

    PubMed

    Vindigni, Stephen M; Broussard, Elizabeth K; Surawicz, Christina M

    2013-09-01

    Clostridium difficile infection is increasingly common with a high risk of recurrence despite antibiotic treatment. In cases of recurrent C. difficile infection, fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is a highly effective treatment option promoting the restoration of normal gut microbiota. Furthermore, preliminary uncontrolled evidence demonstrates possible benefit of FMT in the management of some cases of inflammatory bowel disease and chronic constipation. In addition to presenting an overview of FMT, we discuss the role of probiotics, a more common approach to modifying the intestinal microbiome. Probiotics have been utilized broadly for many disease processes, including gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and allergic disease settings, although with limited and inconsistent results. Multiple potential areas for research are also identified.

  4. Feeding Probiotic Bacteria To Swine Enhances Immunity To Ascaris Suum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probiotic bacterial species are included in the diet to promote health. Probiotics purportedly protect the intestine against pathogenic microorganisms and can reduce inflammation; however, quantitative measurement of probiotic growth and related effects on intestinal function are often lacking. Asca...

  5. Impact of probiotics on colonizing microbiota of the gut.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2011-11-01

    Although precise mechanisms responsible for all demonstrations of probiotic health benefits are not known, many lines of evidence suggest that probiotics function through direct or indirect impact on colonizing microbiota of the gut. Probiotics can directly influence colonizing microbes through multiple mechanisms, including the production of inhibitory compounds (bacteriocins, short chain fatty acids, and others), by producing substrates that might promote the growth of colonizing microbes (secreted exopolysaccharides, vitamins, fatty acids, sugars from undigested carbohydrates and others), and by promoting immune responses against specific microbes. Indirectly, probiotics can influence colonizing microbes by inhibiting attachment through stimulated mucin production, reinforcing gut barrier effects, and downregulation of gut inflammation, thereby promoting microbes that are associated with a healthier gut physiology. Although the value of targeted changes in populations of gut bacteria is a matter of debate, increased levels of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in the gut correlate with numerous health endpoints. Microbiota changes due to probiotic intake include increased numbers of related phylotypes, decreasing pathogens and their toxins, altering bacterial community structure to enhance evenness, stabilizing bacterial communities when perturbed (eg, with antibiotics), or promoting a more rapid recovery from a perturbation. Further research will provide insight into the degree of permanence of probiotic-induced changes, although research to date suggests that continued probiotic consumption is needed for sustained impact.

  6. Probiotic-induced changes in the intestinal epithelium: implications in gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, B S

    2009-01-01

    There is resurgent interest in the use of probiotics to maintain gastrointestinal and systemic health, driven by recent advances in knowledge of bacterial interactions with the epithelium and innate immune system of the intestine. The effects of probiotic bacteria on the intestinal epithelium and their downstream consequences are reviewed. Probiotics prevent pathogen adherence and invasion of the epithelium, partly by blocking adherence sites but also by upregulating gene expression of MUC2 and of antimicrobial peptides. Metabolic effects of probiotics on the intestinal epithelium include production of short chain fatty acids which influence epithelial cell metabolism, turnover and apoptosis. Bacterial metabolism of unabsorbed dietary constituents with production of free radicals and phenolic metabolites can lead to DNA damage and cancer; probiotics restore eubiosis and potentially prevent this. Probiotics alter expression and redistribution of tight junction proteins and reduce intestinal permeability limiting absorption of noxious molecules from the gut lumen. Most studied are the effects of probiotics on epithelial cells which are the first line of innate immune-capable cells that encounter luminal flora. Probiotics, through secreted molecules, influence the innate inflammatory response of epithelial cells to stimuli from the gut lumen, and reduce mucosal inflammation. Through effects on dendritic, and possibly epithelial, cells they influence naïve T cells in the lamina propria of the gut and thus influence adaptive immunity. These varied effects of probiotics have implications for the treatment of several gastrointestinal diseases including antibiotic-associated colitis, acute gastroenteritis, inflammatory bowel disease, colon cancer, and irritable bowel syndrome.

  7. Characterization of certain bacterial strains for potential use as starter or probiotic cultures in dairy products.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo-Mera, A; Caro, I; Rodríguez-Aparicio, L B; Rúa, J; Ferrero, M A; García-Armesto, M R

    2011-08-01

    The present work was aimed at characterizing 12 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to obtain improved potential starter or probiotic cultures that could be used for making dairy products from ewe's milk and cow's milk. Eight strains with antimicrobial properties, isolated from ewe's milk and from cheese made from ewe's and/or cow's milk, were studied. They were identified as Enterococcus faecalis (five strains), Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (one strain of each species). Additionally, four strains were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection: Lactobacillus casei 393 (isolated from cheese), L. lactis subsp. lactis 11454 (origin nonspecified and a producer of nisin), and two strains isolated from human feces (L. paracasei subsp. paracasei 27092 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus 53103, antibacterial agent producer). All E. faecalis strains showed at least one virulence factor (either hemolysin or gelatinase), which emphasizes the importance of these studies in this species. Both L. lactis strains and most Lactobacillus spp. were good acidifiers in ewe's milk and cow's milk at 30°C. High β-galactosidase activity, as well as aminopeptidase activities that favor the development of desirable flavors in cheese, were detected in all Lactobacillus spp. strains. Furthermore, L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 showed α-fucosidase activity (thought to help colonization of the intestine) and lack of α-glucosidase activity (a trait considered positive for diabetic and obese humans). This last enzymatic activity was also lacking in L. lactis ATCC 11454. L. mesenteroides was the only strain D(2)-lactic acid producer. The selection of any particular strain for probiotic or dairy cultures should be performed according to the technological and/or functional abilities needed.

  8. A randomised controlled trial of probiotics for the prevention of spontaneous preterm delivery associated with bacterial vaginosis: preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis increases the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery at less than 34 weeks of gestation. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the early administration of selected lactobacilli strains (probiotics) to pregnant women with asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis/intermediate-degree infections to prevent spontaneous premature delivery and associated neonatal morbidity. Methods/Design Asymptomatic pregnant women at less than 20 weeks of gestation, with no indication of elective preterm delivery, with a vaginal pH ≥ 4.5 and Nugent score > 3 were randomly assigned to the placebo or intervention group (oral administration of selected lactobacilli up to the 24th to 26th week of gestation). The randomisation was stratified for the history of premature delivery (HPD) and blocked. The allocation was concealed, and the participating health professionals and patients were blinded. The primary outcome was preterm delivery (<34 to <32 weeks), and the secondary outcomes were associated neonatal complications. Results In total, 4,204 pregnant women were screened; 320 and 324 individuals were respectively randomly assigned to the placebo and intervention groups, and 62% finished the trial. None of the randomised patients were lost to follow-up. For the non-HPD stratum, the intent-to-treat relative risks of spontaneous premature birth at < 34 and < 37 weeks' gestation were 0.33 (0.03, 3.16) and 0.49 (0.17, 1.44), respectively, and they were non-significant (ns) with p = 0.31 and 0.14. The corresponding actual treatment figures were zero and 0.32 (0.09, 1.19), which were ns with p = 0.12 and 0.06. The intent-to-treat relative risk of spontaneous premature birth at < 37 weeks of gestation for the trial as a whole, including HPD and non-HPD participants, was 0.69 (0.26, 1.78), p = 0.30 (ns). The neonatal complications under evaluation occurred in only one infant (< 34 weeks; placebo group) who presented with respiratory distress

  9. Alteration of macrophage membrane lipids following processing of bacterial peptidoglycan

    SciTech Connect

    Polanski, M.; Gray, G.R.

    1986-03-01

    As part of the continuing investigation into the role played by macrophages in antigen presentation and bacterial adjuvant activation, the authors have examined the metabolites produced by macrophages after encounter with peptidoglycan. Peptidoglycan was chosen because it contains N-acetyl-muramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (muramyl dipeptide), a known adjuvant whose primary target cell is the macrophage. In previous work, the authors established that a series of muramyl dipeptide-like glycopeptides was released into the medium following phagocytosis of peptidoglycan by a macrophage cell line. Here the authors report on the finding that, additionally, a membrane lipid has been covalently altered by the addition of a peptidoglycan fragment. Bacillus subtilis cell walls which had been radiolabeled in their muramic acid, glucosamine and alanine residues, were incubated with the murine macrophage cell line RAW264. Using standard lipid extraction procedures, a lipid was isolated and found to contain equal molar ratios of alanine, glutamic acid and diaminopimelic acid. Since lipidated peptidoglycan peptides have been shown to be immunoactivators, the isolated lipid derivative may serve as a signal for interactions with other lymphocytes.

  10. Gut microbiota and probiotics in chronic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Cesaro, Claudia; Tiso, Angelo; Del Prete, Anna; Cariello, Rita; Tuccillo, Concetta; Cotticelli, Gaetano; Del Vecchio Blanco, Camillo; Loguercio, Carmelina

    2011-06-01

    There is a strong relationship between liver and gut: the portal system receives blood from the gut, and intestinal blood content activates liver functions. The liver, in turn, affects intestinal functions through bile secretion into the intestinal lumen. Alterations of intestinal microbiota seem to play an important role in induction and promotion of liver damage progression, in addition to direct injury resulting from different causal agents. Bacterial overgrowth, immune dysfunction, alteration of the luminal factors, and altered intestinal permeability are all involved in the pathogenesis of complications of liver cirrhosis, such as infections, hepatic encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and renal failure. Probiotics have been suggested as a useful integrative treatment of different types of chronic liver damage, for their ability to augment intestinal barrier function and prevent bacterial translocation. This review summarizes the main literature findings about the relationships between gut microbiota and chronic liver disease, both in the pathogenesis and in the treatment by probiotics of the liver damage.

  11. Intracloacal inoculation, an effective screening method for determining the efficacy of probiotic bacterial isolates against Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide. It is common in poultry, and human infections are often associated with consumption of contaminated poultry products. One strategy to reduce Campylobacter colonization in poultry is by using oral probiotics. Unfortunately, oral probiot...

  12. Predominant genera of fecal microbiota in children with atopic dermatitis are not altered by intake of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi-07.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Nadja; Vogensen, Finn K; Gøbel, Rikke; Michaelsen, Kim F; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Sørensen, Søren J; Hansen, Lars H; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2011-03-01

    The effect of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 on the composition of the Lactobacillus group, Bifidobacterium and the total bacterial population in feces from young children with atopic dermatitis was investigated. The study included 50 children randomized to intake of one of the probiotic strain or placebo. Microbial composition was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, quantitative PCR and, in a subset of subjects, by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The core population of the Lactobacillus group was identified as Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus oris, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, while the bifidobacterial community included Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium catenulatum. The fecal numbers of L. acidophilus and B. lactis increased significantly after intervention, indicating survival of the ingested bacteria. The levels of Bifidobacterium correlated positively (P=0.03), while the levels of the Lactobacillus group negatively (P=0.01) with improvement of atopic eczema evaluated by the Severity Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis index. This correlation was observed across the whole study cohort and not attributed to the probiotic intake. The main conclusion of the study is that administration of L. acidophilus NCFM and B. lactis Bi-07 does not affect the composition and diversity of the main bacterial populations in feces.

  13. Characterization and in-vivo evaluation of potential probiotics of the bacterial flora within the water column of a healthy shrimp larviculture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Ming; Liang, Huafang; He, Yaoyao; Wen, Chongqing

    2016-05-01

    A thorough understanding of the normal bacterial flora associated with shrimp larviculture systems contributes to probiotic screening and disease control. The bacterial community of the water column over a commercial Litopenaeus vannamei larval rearing run was characterized with both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. A total of 27 phylotypes at the species level were isolated and identified based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the V3-V5 region of 16S rRNA genes showed a dynamic bacterial community with major changes occurred from stages zoea to mysis during the rearing run. The sequences retrieved were affiliated to four phyla, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes, with the family Rhodobacteraceae being the most frequently recovered one. Subsequently, 13 representative strains conferred higher larval survival than the control when evaluated in the in-vivo experiments; in particular, three candidates, assigned to Phaeobacter sp., Arthrobacter sp., and Microbacterium sp., significantly improved larval survival ( P < 0.05). Therefore, the healthy shrimp larviculture system harbored a diverse and favorable bacterial flora, which contribute to larval development and are of great importance in exploiting novel probiotics.

  14. Functional properties of peanut fractions on the growth of probiotics and foodborne bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mengfei; Bitsko, Elizabeth; Biswas, Debabrata

    2015-03-01

    Various compounds found in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) have been shown to provide multiple benefits to human health and may influence the growth of a broad range of gut bacteria. In this study, we investigated the effects of peanut white kernel and peanut skin on 3 strains of Lactobacillus and 3 major foodborne enteric bacterial pathogens. Significant (P < 0.05) growth stimulation of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus was observed in the presence of 0.5% peanut flour (PF) made from peanut white kernel, whereas 0.5% peanut skin extract (PSE) exerted the inhibitory effect on the growth of these beneficial microbes. We also found that within 72 h, PF inhibited growth of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC), while PSE significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited Listeria monocytogenes but promoted the growth of both EHEC and Salmonella Typhimurium. The cell adhesion and invasion abilities of 3 pathogens to the host cells were also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by 0.5% PF and 0.5% PSE. These results suggest that peanut white kernel might assist in improving human gut flora as well as reducing EHEC, whereas the beneficial effects of peanut skins require further research and investigation.

  15. Experimental sulfate amendment alters peatland bacterial community structure.

    PubMed

    Strickman, R J S; Fulthorpe, R R; Coleman Wasik, J K; Engstrom, D R; Mitchell, C P J

    2016-10-01

    As part of a long-term, peatland-scale sulfate addition experiment, the impact of varying sulfate deposition on bacterial community responses was assessed using 16S tag encoded pyrosequencing. In three separate areas of the peatland, sulfate manipulations included an eight year quadrupling of atmospheric sulfate deposition (experimental), a 3-year recovery to background deposition following 5years of elevated deposition (recovery), and a control area. Peat concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg), a bioaccumulative neurotoxin, were measured, the production of which is attributable to a growing list of microorganisms, including many sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria. The total bacterial and Deltaproteobacterial community structures in the experimental treatment differed significantly from those in the control and recovery treatments that were either indistinguishable or very similar to one another. Notably, the relatively rapid return (within three years) of bacterial community structure in the recovery treatment to a state similar to the control, demonstrates significant resilience of the peatland bacterial community to changes in atmospheric sulfate deposition. Changes in MeHg accumulation between sulfate treatments correlated with changes in the Deltaproteobacterial community, suggesting that sulfate may affect MeHg production through changes in the community structure of this group.

  16. Probiotic as a Novel Treatment Strategy Against Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali; Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini, Hamideh; Nourani, Mohammad Reza; Khani, Soghra; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2013-01-01

    Context A symbiotic relationship between the liver and intestinal tract enables the healthy status of both organs. Microflora resident in intestinal lumen plays a significant role in hepatocytes function. Alterations to the type and amount of microorganisms that live in the intestinal tract can result in serious and harmful liver dysfunctions such as cirrhosis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, and hepatic encephalopathy. An increased number of pathogens, especially enterobacteriaceae, enterococci, and streptococci species causes the elevation of intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation. The presence of high levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and bacterial substances in the blood result in a portal hypertension and ensuing hepatocytes damage. Several methods including the usage of antibiotics, prebiotics, and probiotics can be used to prevent the overgrowth of pathogens. Compared to prebiotic and antibiotic therapy, probiotics strains are a safer and less expensive therapy. Probiotics are "live microorganisms (according to the FAO/WHO) which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host”. Evidence Acquisitions Data from numerous preclinical and clinical trials allows for control of the flora bacteria quantity, decreases in compounds derived from bacteria, and lowers proinflammatory production such as TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ via down-regulation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κ B). Results On the other hand, probiotic can reduce the urease activity of bacterial microflora. Furthermore, probiotic decreases fecal pH value and reduces ammonia adsorption. In addition, the serum level of liver enzymes and other substances synthesized by the liver are modulated subsequent to probiotic consumption. Conclusions According to our knowledge, Probiotic therapy as a safe, inexpensive and a noninvasive strategy can reduce pathophysiological symptoms and improve different types of liver diseases without side

  17. Phylogenetic identification of bacterial MazF toxin protein motifs among probiotic strains and foodborne pathogens and potential implications of engineered probiotic intervention in food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most common mechanism involved in bacterial programmed cell death or apoptosis is through toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules, which exist in many bacterial species. An experimental procedure or method that provides novel insights into the molecular basis for the development of engineered/synthetic pr...

  18. Yersinia pestis infection and laboratory conditions alter flea-associated bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ryan T; Vetter, Sara M; Montenieiri, John; Holmes, Jennifer; Bernhardt, Scott A; Gage, Kenneth L

    2013-01-01

    We collected Oropsylla montana from rock squirrels, Spermophilus varigatus, and infected a subset of collected fleas with Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague. We used bar-tagged DNA pyrosequencing to characterize bacterial communities of wild, uninfected controls and infected fleas. Bacterial communities within Y. pestis-infected fleas were substantially more similar to one another than communities within wild or control fleas, suggesting that infection alters the bacterial community in a directed manner such that specific bacterial lineages are severely reduced in abundance or entirely eliminated from the community. Laboratory conditions also significantly altered flea-associated bacterial communities relative to wild communities, but much less so than Y. pestis infection. The abundance of Firmicutes decreased considerably in infected fleas, and Bacteroidetes were almost completely eliminated from both the control and infected fleas. Bartonella and Wolbachia were unaffected or responded positively to Y. pestis infection.

  19. Probiotics as Complementary Treatment for Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Le Barz, Mélanie; Anhê, Fernando F.; Varin, Thibaut V.; Desjardins, Yves; Levy, Emile; Roy, Denis; Urdaci, Maria C.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, growing evidence has established the gut microbiota as one of the most important determinants of metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Indeed, obesogenic diet can drastically alter bacterial populations (i.e., dysbiosis) leading to activation of pro-inflammatory mechanisms and metabolic endotoxemia, therefore promoting insulin resistance and cardiometabolic disorders. To counteract these deleterious effects, probiotic strains have been developed with the aim of reshaping the microbiome to improve gut health. In this review, we focus on benefits of widely used probiotics describing their potential mechanisms of action, especially their ability to decrease metabolic endotoxemia by restoring the disrupted intestinal mucosal barrier. We also discuss the perspective of using new bacterial strains such as butyrate-producing bacteria and the mucolytic Akkermansia muciniphila, as well as the use of prebiotics to enhance the functionality of probiotics. Finally, this review introduces the notion of genetically engineered bacterial strains specifically developed to deliver anti-inflammatory molecules to the gut. PMID:26301190

  20. Probiotics as Complementary Treatment for Metabolic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Le Barz, Mélanie; Anhê, Fernando F; Varin, Thibaut V; Desjardins, Yves; Levy, Emile; Roy, Denis; Urdaci, Maria C; Marette, André

    2015-08-01

    Over the past decade, growing evidence has established the gut microbiota as one of the most important determinants of metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Indeed, obesogenic diet can drastically alter bacterial populations (i.e., dysbiosis) leading to activation of pro-inflammatory mechanisms and metabolic endotoxemia, therefore promoting insulin resistance and cardiometabolic disorders. To counteract these deleterious effects, probiotic strains have been developed with the aim of reshaping the microbiome to improve gut health. In this review, we focus on benefits of widely used probiotics describing their potential mechanisms of action, especially their ability to decrease metabolic endotoxemia by restoring the disrupted intestinal mucosal barrier. We also discuss the perspective of using new bacterial strains such as butyrate-producing bacteria and the mucolytic Akkermansia muciniphila, as well as the use of prebiotics to enhance the functionality of probiotics. Finally, this review introduces the notion of genetically engineered bacterial strains specifically developed to deliver anti-inflammatory molecules to the gut.

  1. Antibiotic-induced dysbiosis alters host-bacterial interactions and leads to colonic sensory and motor changes in mice.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, M; Cerdà-Cuéllar, M; Martínez, V

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the composition of the commensal microbiota (dysbiosis) seem to be a pathogenic component of functional gastrointestinal disorders, mainly irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and might participate in the secretomotor and sensory alterations observed in these patients.We determined if a state antibiotics-induced intestinal dysbiosis is able to modify colonic pain-related and motor responses and characterized the neuro-immune mechanisms implicated in mice. A 2-week antibiotics treatment induced a colonic dysbiosis (increments in Bacteroides spp, Clostridium coccoides and Lactobacillus spp and reduction in Bifidobacterium spp). Bacterial adherence was not affected. Dysbiosis was associated with increased levels of secretory-IgA, up-regulation of the antimicrobial lectin RegIIIγ, and toll-like receptors (TLR) 4 and 7 and down-regulation of the antimicrobial-peptide Resistin-Like Molecule-β and TLR5. Dysbiotic mice showed less goblet cells, without changes in the thickness of the mucus layer. Neither macroscopical nor microscopical signs of inflammation were observed. In dysbiotic mice, expression of the cannabinoid receptor 2 was up-regulated, while the cannabinoid 1 and the mu-opioid receptors were down-regulated. In antibiotic-treated mice, visceral pain-related responses elicited by intraperitoneal acetic acid or intracolonic capsaicin were significantly attenuated. Colonic contractility was enhanced during dysbiosis. Intestinal dysbiosis induce changes in the innate intestinal immune system and modulate the expression of pain-related sensory systems, an effect associated with a reduction in visceral pain-related responses. Commensal microbiota modulates gut neuro-immune sensory systems, leading to functional changes, at least as it relates to viscerosensitivity. Similar mechanisms might explain the beneficial effects of antibiotics or certain probiotics in the treatment of IBS.

  2. Antibiotic-induced dysbiosis alters host-bacterial interactions and leads to colonic sensory and motor changes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, M; Cerdà-Cuéllar, M; Martínez, V

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the composition of the commensal microbiota (dysbiosis) seem to be a pathogenic component of functional gastrointestinal disorders, mainly irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and might participate in the secretomotor and sensory alterations observed in these patients.We determined if a state antibiotics-induced intestinal dysbiosis is able to modify colonic pain-related and motor responses and characterized the neuro-immune mechanisms implicated in mice. A 2-week antibiotics treatment induced a colonic dysbiosis (increments in Bacteroides spp, Clostridium coccoides and Lactobacillus spp and reduction in Bifidobacterium spp). Bacterial adherence was not affected. Dysbiosis was associated with increased levels of secretory-IgA, up-regulation of the antimicrobial lectin RegIIIγ, and toll-like receptors (TLR) 4 and 7 and down-regulation of the antimicrobial-peptide Resistin-Like Molecule-β and TLR5. Dysbiotic mice showed less goblet cells, without changes in the thickness of the mucus layer. Neither macroscopical nor microscopical signs of inflammation were observed. In dysbiotic mice, expression of the cannabinoid receptor 2 was up-regulated, while the cannabinoid 1 and the mu-opioid receptors were down-regulated. In antibiotic-treated mice, visceral pain-related responses elicited by intraperitoneal acetic acid or intracolonic capsaicin were significantly attenuated. Colonic contractility was enhanced during dysbiosis. Intestinal dysbiosis induce changes in the innate intestinal immune system and modulate the expression of pain-related sensory systems, an effect associated with a reduction in visceral pain-related responses. Commensal microbiota modulates gut neuro-immune sensory systems, leading to functional changes, at least as it relates to viscerosensitivity. Similar mechanisms might explain the beneficial effects of antibiotics or certain probiotics in the treatment of IBS. PMID:25531553

  3. Probiotics for preventive health.

    PubMed

    Minocha, Anil

    2009-01-01

    Gut flora and probiotics have potential to affect health and disease far beyond the gut. There is increasing evidence that probiotics have beneficial effects in preventing a wide range of conditions and improving health. Randomized, double-blind studies have provided evidence of the effectiveness of probiotics for preventing various diarrheal illnesses as well as allergic disorders. Evidence for their efficacy for use in the prevention and treatment of bacterial vaginosis and urinary tract infections is also mounting. In addition, probiotics may be useful for preventing respiratory infections, dental caries, necrotizing enterocolitis, and certain aspects of inflammatory bowel disease. Data also suggest that probiotics may promote good health in day care and work settings, and may enhance growth in healthy as well as ill and malnourished children. Results from meta-analyses and systematic reviews that combine results of studies from different types of probiotics to examine the effects in any disease state should be interpreted with caution. Specific strains are effective in specific disease states. No 2 probiotics are exactly alike; we should not expect reproducible results from studies that employ different species or strains, variable formulations, and diverse dosing schedules.

  4. Altered Virome and Bacterial Microbiome in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Cynthia L; Gootenberg, David B; Zhao, Guoyan; Handley, Scott A; Ghebremichael, Musie S; Lim, Efrem S; Lankowski, Alex; Baldridge, Megan T; Wilen, Craig B; Flagg, Meaghan; Norman, Jason M; Keller, Brian C; Luévano, Jesús Mario; Wang, David; Boum, Yap; Martin, Jeffrey N; Hunt, Peter W; Bangsberg, David R; Siedner, Mark J; Kwon, Douglas S; Virgin, Herbert W

    2016-03-09

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with increased intestinal translocation of microbial products and enteropathy as well as alterations in gut bacterial communities. However, whether the enteric virome contributes to this infection and resulting immunodeficiency remains unknown. We characterized the enteric virome and bacterial microbiome in a cohort of Ugandan patients, including HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected subjects and those either treated with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) or untreated. Low peripheral CD4 T cell counts were associated with an expansion of enteric adenovirus sequences and this increase was independent of ART treatment. Additionally, the enteric bacterial microbiome of patients with lower CD4 T counts exhibited reduced phylogenetic diversity and richness with specific bacteria showing differential abundance, including increases in Enterobacteriaceae, which have been associated with inflammation. Thus, immunodeficiency in progressive HIV infection is associated with alterations in the enteric virome and bacterial microbiome, which may contribute to AIDS-associated enteropathy and disease progression.

  5. Use of Probiotics as Prophylaxis for Postoperative Infections

    PubMed Central

    Jeppsson, Bengt; Mangell, Peter; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Postoperative bacterial infections are common despite prophylactic administration of antibiotics. The wide-spread use of antibiotics in patients has contributed to the emergence of multiresistant bacteria. A restricted use of antibiotics must be followed in most clinical situations. In surgical patients there are several reasons for an altered microbial flora in the gut in combination with an altered barrier function leading to an enhanced inflammatory response to surgery. Several experimental and clinical studies have shown that probiotics (mainly lactobacilli) may reduce the number of potentially pathogenia bacteria (PPM) and restore a deranged barrier function. It is therefore of interest to test if these abilities of probiotics can be utilized in preoperative prophylaxis. These factors may be corrected by perioperative administration of probiotics in addition to antibiotics. Fourteen randomized clinical trials have been presented in which the effect of such regimens has been tested. It seems that in patients undergoing liver transplantation or elective surgery in the upper gastrointestinal tract prophylactic administration of different probiotic strains in combination with different fibers results in a three-fold reduction in postoperative infections. In parallel there seems to be a reduction in postoperative inflammation, although that has not been studied in a systematic way. The use of similar concepts in colorectal surgery has not been successful in reducing postoperative infections. Reasons for this difference are not obvious. It may be that higher doses of probiotics with longer duration are needed to influence microbiota in the lower gastrointestinal tract or that immune function in colorectal patients may not be as important as in transplantation or surgery in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The favorable results for the use of prophylactic probiotics in some settings warrant further controlled studies to elucidate potential mechanisms, impact on gut

  6. Eosinophils, probiotics, and the microbiome.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Helene F; Masterson, Joanne C; Furuta, Glenn T

    2016-11-01

    There is currently substantial interest in the therapeutic properties of probiotic microorganisms as recent research suggests that oral administration of specific bacterial strains may reduce inflammation and alter the nature of endogenous microflora in the gastrointestinal tract. Eosinophils are multifunctional tissue leukocytes, prominent among the resident cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa that promote local immunity. Recent studies with genetically altered mice indicate that eosinophils not only participate in maintaining gut homeostasis, but that the absence of eosinophils may have significant impact on the nature of the endogenous gut microflora and responses to gut pathogens, notably Clostridium difficile Furthermore, in human subjects, there is an intriguing relationship between eosinophils, allergic inflammation, and the nature of the lung microflora, notably a distinct association between eosinophil infiltration and detection of bacteria of the phylum Actinobacteria. Among topics for future research, it will be important to determine whether homeostatic mechanisms involve direct interactions between eosinophils and bacteria or whether they involve primarily eosinophil-mediated responses to cytokine signaling in the local microenvironment. Likewise, although is it clear that eosinophils can and do interact with bacteria in vivo, their ability to discern between pathogenic and probiotic species in various settings remains to be explored.

  7. Probiotics in shrimp aquaculture: avenues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ninawe, A S; Selvin, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    As an alternative strategy to antibiotic use in aquatic disease management, probiotics have recently attracted extensive attention in aquaculture. However, the use of terrestrial bacterial species as probiotics for aquaculture has had limited success, as bacterial strain characteristics are dependent upon the environment in which they thrive. Therefore, isolating potential probiotic bacteria from the marine environment in which they grow optimally is a better approach. Bacteria that have been used successfully as probiotics belong to the genus Vibrio and Bacillus, and the species Thalassobacter utilis. Most researchers have isolated these probiotic strains from shrimp culture water, or from the intestine of different penaeid species. The use of probiotic bacteria, based on the principle of competitive exclusion, and the use of immunostimulants are two of the most promising preventive methods developed in the fight against diseases during the last few years. It also noticed that probiotic bacteria could produce some digestive enzymes, which might improve the digestion of shrimp, thus enhancing the ability of stress resistance and health of the shrimp. However, the probiotics in aquatic environment remain to be a controversial concept, as there was no authentic evidence / real environment demonstrations on the successful use of probiotics and their mechanisms of action in vivo. The present review highlights the potential sources of probiotics, mechanism of action, diversity of probiotic microbes and challenges of probiotic usage in shrimp aquaculture.

  8. An update on the use and investigation of probiotics in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Mary Ellen; Guarner, Francisco; Guerrant, Richard; Holt, Peter R; Quigley, Eamonn M M; Sartor, R Balfour; Sherman, Philip M; Mayer, Emeran A

    2013-05-01

    Probiotics are derived from traditional fermented foods, from beneficial commensals or from the environment. They act through diverse mechanisms affecting the composition or function of the commensal microbiota and by altering host epithelial and immunological responses. Certain probiotic interventions have shown promise in selected clinical conditions where aberrant microbiota have been reported, such as atopic dermatitis, necrotising enterocolitis, pouchitis and possibly irritable bowel syndrome. However, no studies have been conducted that can causally link clinical improvements to probiotic-induced microbiota changes. Whether a disease-prone microbiota pattern can be remodelled to a more robust, resilient and disease-free state by probiotic administration remains a key unanswered question. Progress in this area will be facilitated by: optimising strain, dose and product formulations, including protective commensal species; matching these formulations with selectively responsive subpopulations; and identifying ways to manipulate diet to modify bacterial profiles and metabolism.

  9. An update on the use and investigation of probiotics in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Mary Ellen; Guarner, Francisco; Guerrant, Richard; Holt, Peter R; Quigley, Eamonn MM; Sartor, R Balfour; Sherman, Philip M; Mayer, Emeran A

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics are derived from traditional fermented foods, from beneficial commensals or from the environment. They act through diverse mechanisms affecting the composition or function of the commensal microbiota and by altering host epithelial and immunological responses. Certain probiotic interventions have shown promise in selected clinical conditions where aberrant microbiota have been reported, such as atopic dermatitis, necrotising enterocolitis, pouchitis and possibly irritable bowel syndrome. However, no studies have been conducted that can causally link clinical improvements to probiotic-induced microbiota changes. Whether a disease-prone microbiota pattern can be remodelled to a more robust, resilient and disease-free state by probiotic administration remains a key unanswered question. Progress in this area will be facilitated by: optimising strain, dose and product formulations, including protective commensal species; matching these formulations with selectively responsive subpopulations; and identifying ways to manipulate diet to modify bacterial profiles and metabolism. PMID:23474420

  10. Alteration of epithelial cell lysosomal integrity induced by bacterial cholesterol‐dependent cytolysins

    PubMed Central

    Malet, Julien Karim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bacterial pathogens can interfere during infection with host cell organelles, such as mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum‐Golgi system or nuclei. As important cellular functions are often compartmentalized in these organelles, their targeting allows pathogens to manipulate key host functions during infection. Here, we identify lysosomes as a new class of organelles targeted by the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. We demonstrate that extracellular Listeria, via secretion of the pore‐forming toxin listeriolysin O, alters lysosomal integrity in epithelial cells but not in macrophages. Listeriolysin O induces lysosomal membrane permeabilization and release of lysosomal content, such as cathepsins proteases, which remain transiently active in the host cytosol. We furthermore show that other bacterial pore‐forming toxins, such as perfringolysin O and pneumolysin, also induce lysosomes alteration. Together, our data unveil a novel activity of bacterial cholesterol‐dependent cytolysins. PMID:27739224

  11. Probiotics, immunomodulation, and health benefits.

    PubMed

    Gill, Harsharn; Prasad, Jaya

    2008-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amount, confer a health benefit on the host. Amongst the many benefits associated with the consumption of probiotics, modulation of the immune system has received the most attention. Several animal and human studies have provided unequivocal evidence that specific strains of probiotics are able to stimulate as well as regulate several aspects of natural and acquired immune responses. There is also evidence that intake of probiotics is effective in the prevention and/or management of acute gastroenteritis and rotavirus diarrhoea, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and intestinal inflammatory disorders such as Crohn's disease and pouchitis, and paediatric atopic disorders. The efficacy of probiotics against bacterial infections and immunological disorders such as adult asthma, cancers, diabetes, and arthritis in humans remains to be proven. Also, major gaps exist in our knowledge about the mechanisms by which probiotics modulate immune function. Optimum dose, frequency and duration of treatment required for different conditions in different population groups also remains to be determined. Different probiotic strains vary in their ability to modulate the immune system and therefore efficacy of each strain needs to be carefully demonstrated through rigorously designed (randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled) studies. This chapter provides an over view of the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics in health and disease, and discusses possible mechanisms through which probiotics mediate their disparate effects.

  12. Transcriptomic and cellular response to bacterial challenge (pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus) in farmed juvenile Haliotis rufescens fed with or without probiotic diet.

    PubMed

    Silva-Aciares, Fernando; Moraga, Dario; Auffret, Michel; Tanguy, Arnaud; Riquelme, Carlos

    2013-06-01

    The abalone production in Chile has increased considerably in recent years with no sign of tapering off. Open and semi-closed circuits in the marine water zones in the north and south of Chile are the preferred areas of culture. Coastal ecosystems are subjected to a wide variety of contaminants that generate stress that affects populations via their impacts to individuals at both physiological and genetic levels. This work investigated the genomic and cellular response of post-weaning juvenile Haliotis rufescens abalone under hatchery conditions, fed with probiotic diets, and subsequently challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The expression patterns of 16 selected genes associated with different metabolic pathways were analyzed using Real-Time PCR. Gene expression was then compared to immunological response parameters in the abalone and quantification of V. parahaemolyticus during the experimental period. Both transcriptomic and immunological analyses indicated significant alteration of physiological processes in H. rufescens correlated to exposure to the pathogenic bacteria, as well as to probiotic nutrition.

  13. Probiotics Blunt the Anti-Hypertensive Effect of Blueberry Feeding in Hypertensive Rats without Altering Hippuric Acid Production.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Cynthia; He, Zhengcheng; Gottschall-Pass, Katherine T; Sweeney, Marva I

    2015-01-01

    Previously we showed that feeding polyphenol-rich wild blueberries to hypertensive rats lowered systolic blood pressure. Since probiotic bacteria produce bioactive metabolites from berry polyphenols that enhance the health benefits of berry consumption, we hypothesized that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet would augment the anti-hypertensive effects of blueberry consumption. Groups (n = 8) of male spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed one of four AIN '93G-based diets for 8 weeks: Control (CON); 3% freeze-dried wild blueberry (BB); 1% probiotic bacteria (PRO); or 3% BB + 1% PRO (BB+PRO). Blood pressure was measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 by the tail-cuff method, and urine was collected at weeks 4 and 8 to determine markers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes), nitric oxide synthesis (nitrites), and polyphenol metabolism (hippuric acid). Data were analyzed using mixed models ANOVA with repeated measures. Diet had a significant main effect on diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.046), with significantly lower measurements in the BB- vs. CON-fed rats (p = 0.035). Systolic blood pressure showed a similar but less pronounced response to diet (p = 0.220), again with the largest difference between the BB and CON groups. Absolute increase in blood pressure between weeks 0 and 8 tended to be smaller in the BB and PRO vs. CON and BB+PRO groups (systolic increase, p = 0.074; diastolic increase, p = 0.185). Diet had a significant main effect on hippuric acid excretion (p<0.0001), with 2- and ~1.5-fold higher levels at weeks 4 and 8, respectively, in the BB and BB+PRO vs. PRO and CON groups. Diet did not have a significant main effect on F2-isoprostane (p = 0.159) or nitrite excretion (p = 0.670). Our findings show that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet does not enhance and actually may impair the anti-hypertensive effect of blueberry consumption. However, probiotic bacteria are not interfering with blueberry polyphenol metabolism into hippuric acid.

  14. Probiotics and irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Cong; Zheng, Chang-Qing; Jiang, Min; Ma, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Li-Juan

    2013-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common gastrointestinal problems. It is characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, and is associated with changes in stool frequency and/or consistency. The etiopathogenesis of IBS may be multifactorial, as is the pathophysiology, which is attributed to alterations in gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, intestinal microbiota, gut epithelium and immune function, dysfunction of the brain-gut axis or certain psychosocial factors. Current therapeutic strategies are often unsatisfactory. There is now increasing evidence linking alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota and IBS. Probiotics are living organisms which, when ingested in certain numbers, exert health benefits beyond inherent basic nutrition. Probiotics have numerous positive effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, many studies have suggested that probiotics are effective in the treatment of IBS. The mechanisms of probiotics in IBS are very complex. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence and mechanisms for the use of probiotics in the treatment of IBS. PMID:24106397

  15. Probiotics and irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dai, Cong; Zheng, Chang-Qing; Jiang, Min; Ma, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Li-Juan

    2013-09-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common gastrointestinal problems. It is characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, and is associated with changes in stool frequency and/or consistency. The etiopathogenesis of IBS may be multifactorial, as is the pathophysiology, which is attributed to alterations in gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, intestinal microbiota, gut epithelium and immune function, dysfunction of the brain-gut axis or certain psychosocial factors. Current therapeutic strategies are often unsatisfactory. There is now increasing evidence linking alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota and IBS. Probiotics are living organisms which, when ingested in certain numbers, exert health benefits beyond inherent basic nutrition. Probiotics have numerous positive effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, many studies have suggested that probiotics are effective in the treatment of IBS. The mechanisms of probiotics in IBS are very complex. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence and mechanisms for the use of probiotics in the treatment of IBS.

  16. Probiotics: Interaction with gut microbiome and antiobesity potential.

    PubMed

    Arora, Tulika; Singh, Satvinder; Sharma, Raj Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Obesity is a metabolic disorder afflicting people globally. There has been a pivotal advancement in the understanding of the intestinal microbiota composition and its implication in extraintestinal (metabolic) diseases. Therefore, any agent modulating gut microbiota may produce an influential effect in preventing the pathogenesis of disease. Probiotics are live microbes that, when administered in adequate amounts, have been shown to confer health benefits to the host. Over the years, probiotics have been a part of the human diet in the form of different fermented foods consumed around the world. Their influence on different physiologic functions in the host is increasingly being documented. The antiobesity potential of probiotics is also gaining wide attention because of increasing evidence of the role of gut microbiota in energy homeostasis and fat accumulation. Probiotics have also been shown to interact with the resident bacterial members already present in the gut by altering their properties, which may also affect the metabolic pathways involved in the regulation of fat metabolism. The underlying pathways governing the antiobesity effects of probiotics remain unclear. However, it is hoped that the evidence presented and discussed in this review will encourage and thus drive more extensive research in this field.

  17. Altered Transcription of Murine Genes Induced in the Small Bowel by Administration of Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Corinda; Lawley, Blair; Loach, Diane; Gould, Maree; Dunn, Amy C.; McLellan, Alexander D.; Black, Michael A.; McNoe, Les; Dekker, James; Gopal, Pramod; Collett, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 is a probiotic strain reported to increase resistance to epithelium-adherent and -invasive intestinal pathogens in experimental animals. To increase understanding of the relationship between strain HN001 and the bowel, transcription of selected genes in the mucosa of the murine small bowel was measured. Mice previously naive to lactobacilli (Lactobacillus-free mice) were examined after daily exposure to HN001 in drinking water. Comparisons were made to results from matched Lactobacillus-free mice. Infant and adult mice were investigated to provide a temporal view of gene expression in response to exposure to HN001. Genes sgk1, angptl4, and hspa1b, associated with the apoptosis pathway, were selected for investigation by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR on the basis of a preliminary duodenal DNA microarray screen. Normalized to gapdh gene transcription, these three genes were upregulated after 6 to 10 days exposure of adult mice to HN001. Angptl4 was shown by immunofluorescence to be upregulated in duodenal epithelial cells of mucosal samples. Epithelial cell migration was faster in HN001-exposed mice than in the Lactobacillus-free controls. Transcriptional responses in infant mice differed according to bowel region and age. For example, sgk1 was upregulated in duodenal, jejunal, and ileal mucosa of mice less than 25 days old, whereas angptl4 and hspa1b were upregulated at 10 days in the duodenum but downregulated in the jejunal mucosa until mice were 25 days old. Overall, the results provide links between a probiotic strain, mucosal gene expression, and host phenotype, which may be useful in delineating mechanisms of probiotic action. PMID:24584241

  18. Effect of intestinal microbiota alteration on hepatic damage in rats with acute rejection after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yirui; Chen, Huazhong; Zhu, Biao; Qin, Nan; Chen, Yunbo; Li, Zhengfeng; Deng, Min; Jiang, Haiyin; Xu, Xiangfei; Yang, Jiezuan; Ruan, Bing; Li, Lanjuan

    2014-11-01

    The previous studies all focus on the effect of probiotics and antibiotics on infection after liver transplantation. Here, we focus on the effect of gut microbiota alteration caused by probiotics and antibiotics on hepatic damage after allograft liver transplantation. Brown-Norway rats received saline, probiotics, or antibiotics via daily gavage for 3 weeks. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) was carried out after 1 week of gavage. Alteration of the intestinal microbiota, liver function and histopathology, serum and liver cytokines, and T cells in peripheral blood and Peyer's patch were evaluated. Distinct segregation of fecal bacterial diversity was observed in the probiotic group and antibiotic group when compared with the allograft group. As for diversity of intestinal mucosal microbiota and pathology of intestine at 2 weeks after OLT, antibiotics and probiotics had a significant effect on ileum and colon. The population of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in the probiotic group was significantly greater than the antibiotic group and the allograft group. The liver injury was significantly reduced in the antibiotic group and the probiotic group compared with the allograft group. The CD4/CD8 and Treg cells in Peyer's patch were decreased in the antibiotic group. The intestinal Treg cell and serum and liver TGF-β were increased markedly while CD4/CD8 ratio was significantly decreased in the probiotic group. It suggested that probiotics mediate their beneficial effects through increase of Treg cells and TGF-β and deduction of CD4/CD8 in rats with acute rejection (AR) after OLT.

  19. Role of F1C fimbriae, flagella, and secreted bacterial components in the inhibitory effect of probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 on atypical enteropathogenic E. coli infection.

    PubMed

    Kleta, Sylvia; Nordhoff, Marcel; Tedin, Karsten; Wieler, Lothar H; Kolenda, Rafal; Oswald, Sibylle; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A; Bleiss, Wilfried; Schierack, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is recognized as an important intestinal pathogen that frequently causes acute and persistent diarrhea in humans and animals. The use of probiotic bacteria to prevent diarrhea is gaining increasing interest. The probiotic E. coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) is known to be effective in the treatment of several gastrointestinal disorders. While both in vitro and in vivo studies have described strong inhibitory effects of EcN on enteropathogenic bacteria, including pathogenic E. coli, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effect of EcN on infections of porcine intestinal epithelial cells with atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) with respect to single infection steps, including adhesion, microcolony formation, and the attaching and effacing phenotype. We show that EcN drastically reduced the infection efficiencies of aEPEC by inhibiting bacterial adhesion and growth of microcolonies, but not the attaching and effacing of adherent bacteria. The inhibitory effect correlated with EcN adhesion capacities and was predominantly mediated by F1C fimbriae, but also by H1 flagella, which served as bridges between EcN cells. Furthermore, EcN seemed to interfere with the initial adhesion of aEPEC to host cells by secretion of inhibitory components. These components do not appear to be specific to EcN, but we propose that the strong adhesion capacities enable EcN to secrete sufficient local concentrations of the inhibitory factors. The results of this study are consistent with a mode of action whereby EcN inhibits secretion of virulence-associated proteins of EPEC, but not their expression.

  20. Probiotics and immunity: a fish perspective.

    PubMed

    Nayak, S K

    2010-07-01

    Probiotics are usually live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefits on host. Nowadays, probiotics are also becoming an integral part of the aquaculture practices to obtain high production. The common probiotics that are used for aquaculture practices include Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Enterococcus, Carnobacterium, Shewanella, Bacillus, Aeromonas, Vibrio, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, and Saccharomyces species. The involvement of probiotics in nutrition, disease resistance and other beneficial activities in fish has proven beyond any doubt. Among the numerous health benefits attributed to probiotics, modulation of immune system is one of the most commonly purported benefits of the probiotics and their potency to stimulate the systemic and local immunity under in vitro and in vivo conditions is noteworthy. Different probiotics either monospecies or multispecies supplementation can eventually elevate phagocytic, lysozyme, complement, respiratory burst activity as well as expression of various cytokines in fish. Similarly, probiotics can stimulate the gut immune system of fish with marked increase in the number of Ig(+) cells and acidophilic granulocytes. Furthermore, mono-bacterial association studies (with non-probiotic bacterial strains) in gnotobiotic fish also indicate the up-regulation of various immune related genes. Though the exact mode of action of probiotics is yet to be established in any animal including fish, probiotics often exert host specific and strain specific differences in their activities. Various factors like source, type, dose and duration of supplementation of probiotics can significantly affect the immunomodulatory activity of probiotics. The review is therefore, aiming to highlight the immunomodulatory activity of probiotics and also to evaluate the factors that regulate for the optimum induction of immune responses in fish.

  1. Safety assessment of potential probiotic lactic acid bacterial strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, Lb. acidophilus HN017, and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J S; Shu, Q; Rutherfurd, K J; Prasad, J; Birtles, M J; Gopal, P K; Gill, H S

    2000-05-25

    The general safety of immune-enhancing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (DR20), Lb. acidophilus HN017, and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 (DR10) was investigated in a feeding trial. Groups of BALB/c mice were orally administered test LAB strains or the commercial reference strain Lb. acidophilus LA-1 at 2.5 x 10(9), 5 x 10(10) or 2.5 x 10(12) colony forming units (CFU)/kg body weight/day for 4 weeks. Throughout this time, their feed intake, water intake, and live body weight were monitored. At the end of the 4 week observation period, samples of blood, liver, spleen, kidney, mesenteric lymph nodes, and gut tissues (ileum, caecum, and colon) were collected to determine: haematological parameters (red blood cell and platelet counts, haemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration); differential leukocyte counts; blood biochemistry (plasma total protein, albumin, cholesterol, and glucose); mucosal histology (epithelial cell height, mucosal thickness, and villus height); and bacterial translocation to extra-gut tissues (blood, liver, spleen, kidney and mesenteric lymph nodes). DNA finger printing techniques were used to identify any viable bacterial strains recovered from these tissues. The results demonstrated that 4 weeks consumption of these LAB strains had no adverse effects on animals' general health status, haematology, blood biochemistry, gut mucosal histology parameters, or the incidence of bacterial translocation. A few viable LAB cells were recovered from the tissues of animals in both control and test groups, but DNA fingerprinting did not identify any of these as the inoculated strains. The results obtained in this study suggest that the potentially probiotic LAB strains HN001, HN017, and HN019 are non-toxic for mice and are therefore likely to be safe for human use.

  2. Helminth-induced alterations of the gut microbiota exacerbate bacterial colitis.

    PubMed

    Su, C; Su, L; Li, Y; Long, S R; Chang, J; Zhang, W; Walker, W A; Xavier, R J; Cherayil, B J; Shi, H N

    2017-03-29

    Infection with the intestinal helminth parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus exacerbates the colitis caused by the bacterial enteropathogen Citrobacter rodentium. To clarify the underlying mechanism, we analyzed fecal microbiota composition of control and helminth-infected mice and evaluated the functional role of compositional differences by microbiota transplantation experiments. Our results showed that infection of Balb/c mice with H. polygyrus resulted in significant changes in the composition of the gut microbiota, characterized by a marked increase in the abundance of Bacteroidetes and decreases in Firmicutes and Lactobacillales. Recipients of the gut microbiota from helminth-infected wide-type, but not STAT6-deficient, Balb/c donors had increased fecal pathogen shedding and significant worsening of Citrobacter-induced colitis compared to recipients of microbiota from control donors. Recipients of helminth-altered microbiota also displayed increased regulatory T cells and IL-10 expression. Depletion of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells and neutralization of IL-10 in recipients of helminth-altered microbiota led to reduced stool C. rodentium numbers and attenuated colitis. These results indicate that alteration of the gut microbiota is a significant contributor to the H. polygyrus-induced exacerbation of C. rodentium colitis. The helminth-induced alteration of the microbiota is Th2-dependent and acts by promoting regulatory T cells that suppress protective responses to bacterial enteropathogens.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication 29 March 2017 doi:10.1038/mi.2017.20.

  3. PCR-DGGE analysis of the bacterial composition of a kaolin slurry showing altered rheology.

    PubMed

    Papp, Ildikó; Balázs, Margit; Tombácz, Etelka; Babcsán, Norbert; Kesserű, Péter; Kiss, István; Szvetnik, Attila

    2012-04-01

    Kaolin is an important industrial raw material and a basis of a range of different products. Microbial spoilage is a detrimental process observed especially in kaolin slurries, leading to low quality products and economic loss. Although the alteration of kaolin slurries in ceramic industry was observed, the process and the microbial background have not been analyzed in details. This study provides the first data using a cultivation independent molecular biological approach (PCR-DGGE) regarding the bacterial composition of an altered kaolin slurry. The results show that potential exopolymer (EPS) producer bacteria (e.g. Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas) appear in the altered kaolin slurry, which may have an important role in the modification of kaolin slurries.

  4. Altered gastrointestinal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome and its modification by diet: probiotics, prebiotics and the low FODMAP diet.

    PubMed

    Staudacher, Heidi M; Whelan, Kevin

    2016-08-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder characterised by abdominal pain or discomfort with disordered defecation. This review describes the role of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota in the pathogenesis of IBS and how dietary strategies to manage symptoms impact on the microbial community. Evidence suggests a dysbiosis of the luminal and mucosal colonic microbiota in IBS, frequently characterised by a reduction in species of Bifidobacteria which has been associated with worse symptom profile. Probiotic supplementation trials suggest intentional modulation of the GI microbiota may be effective in treating IBS. A smaller number of prebiotic supplementation studies have also demonstrated effectiveness in IBS whilst increasing Bifidobacteria. In contrast, a novel method of managing IBS symptoms is the restriction of short-chain fermentable carbohydrates (low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet). Studies consistently demonstrate clinical effectiveness of the low FODMAP diet in patients with IBS. However, one unintentional consequence of this dietary intervention is its impact on the microbiota. This leads to an interesting paradox; namely, increasing luminal Bifidobacteria through probiotic supplementation is associated with a reduction in IBS symptoms while in direct conflict to this, the low FODMAP diet has clinical efficacy but markedly reduces luminal Bifidobacteria concentration. Given the multifactorial aetiology of IBS, the heterogeneity of symptoms and the complex and diverse nature of the microbiome, it is probable that both interventions are effective in patient subgroups. However combination treatment has never been explored and as such, presents an exciting opportunity for optimising clinical management, whilst preventing potentially deleterious effects on the GI microbiota.

  5. Probiotics: current trends in the treatment of diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Sujatha S; Jalgaonkar, Sharmila; Shahani, S; Kulkarni, Vijaya N

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, research into and public interest in probiotics and probiotic foods have risen. Lactobacilli and bifidobacterium are the most commonly used probiotics while yoghurt and kefir are popular foods containing probiotics. Probiotics have been used to manage diarrhoea. Many things cause diarrhoea, including bacterial, viral and protozoal infections, radiation and antibiotic therapy. Different studies have found that probiotics may also enhance the immune response, reduce serum cholesterol, prevent colonic cancer, prevent dental caries, prevent ulcers due to Helicobacter pylori, maintain urogenital health, and ameliorate hepatic encephalopathy. Further studies are required to establish their role in these conditions.

  6. Alteration textures in terrestrial volcanic glass and the associated bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Cockell, C S; Olsson-Francis, K; Herrera, A; Meunier, A

    2009-01-01

    Alteration textures were examined in subglacial (hyaloclastite) deposits at Valafell, Southern Iceland. Pitted and 'elongate' alteration features are observed in the glass similar to granular and tubular features reported previously in deep-ocean basaltic glasses, but elongate features generally did not have a length to width ratio greater than five. Elongate features were found in only 7% of surfaces. Crystalline basalt clasts, which are incorporated into the hyaloclastite, did not display elongate structures. Pitted alteration features were poorly defined in crystalline basalt, comprising only 4% of the surface compared to 47% in the case of basaltic glass. Examination of silica-rich glass (obsidian) and rhyolite similarly showed poorly defined pitted textures that comprised less than 15% of the surface and no elongate features were observed. These data highlight the differences in alteration textures between terrestrial basaltic glass and previously studied deep-ocean and subsurface basaltic glass, and the important role of mineralogy in controlling the type and abundance of alteration features. The hyaloclastite contains a diverse and abundant bacterial population, as determined by 16S rDNA analysis, which could be involved in weathering the glass. Despite the presence of phototrophs, we show that they were not involved in the production of most alteration textures in the basaltic glass materials we examined.

  7. Gyramides prevent bacterial growth by inhibiting DNA gyrase and altering chromosome topology.

    PubMed

    Rajendram, Manohary; Hurley, Katherine A; Foss, Marie H; Thornton, Kelsey M; Moore, Jared T; Shaw, Jared T; Weibel, Douglas B

    2014-06-20

    Antibiotics targeting DNA gyrase have been a clinical success story for the past half-century, and the emergence of bacterial resistance has fueled the search for new gyrase inhibitors. In this paper we demonstrate that a new class of gyrase inhibitors, the gyramides, are bacteriostatic agents that competitively inhibit the ATPase activity of Escherichia coli gyrase and produce supercoiled DNA in vivo. E. coli cells treated with gyramide A have abnormally localized, condensed chromosomes that blocks DNA replication and interrupts chromosome segregation. The resulting alterations in DNA topology inhibit cell division through a mechanism that involves the SOS pathway. Importantly, gyramide A is a specific inhibitor of gyrase and does not inhibit the closely related E. coli enzyme topoisomerase IV. E. coli mutants with reduced susceptibility to gyramide A do not display cross-resistance to ciprofloxacin and novobiocin. The results demonstrate that the gyramides prevent bacterial growth by a mechanism in which the topological state of chromosomes is altered and halts DNA replication and segregation. The specificity and activity of the gyramides for inhibiting gyrase makes these compounds important chemical tools for studying the mechanism of gyrase and the connection between DNA topology and bacterial cell division.

  8. Probiotics may delay the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by restoring the gut microbiota structure and improving intestinal endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Li; He, Juntao; Gao, Ning; Lu, Xiaolan; Li, Ming; Wu, Xiaokang; Liu, Zeshi; Jin, Yaofeng; Liu, Jiali; Xu, Jiru; Geng, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Gut-derived bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and subsequent hepatic toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation have been recognized to be involved in the onset of diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but little is known about the variation of LPS and TLR4 during the progression of NAFLD. Probiotics were able to inhibit proliferation of harmful bacteria and improve gastrointestinal barrier function. However, it’s unclear whether LPS/TLR4 is involved in the protection effect of probiotics on NAFLD. In this study, we described characteristic of gut microbiota structure in the progression of NAFLD, and we also analyzed the relationship between gut microbiota and LPS/TLR4 in this process. Furthermore, we applied probiotics intervention to investigate the effect of probiotics on gut flora structure, intestinal integrity, serum LPS, liver TLR4 and liver pathology. Our results showed that serum LPS and liver TLR4 were highly increased during progression of NAFLD, with gut flora diversity and gut mircobiological colonization resistance (B/E) declining. Furthermore, probiotics could improve gut microbiota structure and liver pathology. Probiotics could also downregulate serum LPS and liver TLR4. Our results suggested that both gut flora alteration and endotoxemia may be involved in the progression of NAFLD. Probiotics may delay the progression of NAFLD via LPS/TLR4 signaling. PMID:28349964

  9. Influence of Trace Elements Mixture on Bacterial Diversity and Fermentation Characteristics of Liquid Diet Fermented with Probiotics under Air-Tight Condition

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaolan; Wang, Chengwei; Lu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I− are often supplemented to the diet of suckling and early weaning piglets, but little information is available regarding the effects of different Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I− mixtures on bacteria growth, diversity and fermentation characteristics of fermented liquid diet for piglets. Pyrosequencing was performed to investigate the effect of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I− mixtures on the diversity, growth and fermentation characteristics of bacteria in the liquid diet fermented with Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecalis under air-tight condition. Results showed that the mixtures of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I− at different concentrations promoted Bacillus growth, increased bacterial diversity and lactic acid production and lowered pH to about 5. The importance of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I− is different for Bacillus growth with the order Zn2+> Fe2+>Cu2+> I− in a 21-d fermentation and Cu2+>I−>Fe2+>Zn2+ in a 42-d fermentation. Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I− is recommended at a level of 150, 60, 150 and 0.6 mg/kg respectively for the production of fermented liquid diet with Bacillus subtilis. The findings improve our understanding of the influence of trace elements on liquid diet fermentation with probiotics and support the proper use of trace elements in the production of fermented liquid diet for piglets. PMID:25486254

  10. Microencapsulation of a putative probiotic Enterobacter species, C6-6, to protect rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), against bacterial coldwater disease.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, B; Cain, K D; Nowak, B F; Bridle, A R

    2016-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD), which has a major impact on salmonid aquaculture globally. An Enterobacter species, C6-6, isolated from the gut of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), has been identified as a potential probiotic species providing protection against BCWD. This study examined the effects of alginate microencapsulation on the protective efficacy of C6-6 against BCWD in vivo when administered to rainbow trout fry orally or by intraperitoneal (IP) injection. Viable C6-6 bacteria were microencapsulated successfully, and this process (microencapsulation) did not significantly deteriorate its protective properties as compared to the administration of non-microencapsulated C6-6 bacteria. Both oral and IP delivery of C6-6 achieved significantly better protection than control treatments that did not contain C6-6 bacteria. The highest relative percent survival (RPS) resulted from IP delivery (71.4%) and was significantly greater than the highest oral RPS (38.6%). Successful intestinal colonization was not critical to protective effects of C6-6. The study showed that C6-6 administration, with or without encapsulation, was a viable choice for protecting fry from BCWD especially when administered intraperitoneally.

  11. Influence of trace elements mixture on bacterial diversity and fermentation characteristics of liquid diet fermented with probiotics under air-tight condition.

    PubMed

    He, Yuyong; Chen, Zhiyu; Liu, Xiaolan; Wang, Chengwei; Lu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- are often supplemented to the diet of suckling and early weaning piglets, but little information is available regarding the effects of different Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- mixtures on bacteria growth, diversity and fermentation characteristics of fermented liquid diet for piglets. Pyrosequencing was performed to investigate the effect of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- mixtures on the diversity, growth and fermentation characteristics of bacteria in the liquid diet fermented with Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecalis under air-tight condition. Results showed that the mixtures of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- at different concentrations promoted Bacillus growth, increased bacterial diversity and lactic acid production and lowered pH to about 5. The importance of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- is different for Bacillus growth with the order Zn2+> Fe2+>Cu2+> I- in a 21-d fermentation and Cu2+>I->Fe2+>Zn2+ in a 42-d fermentation. Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- is recommended at a level of 150, 60, 150 and 0.6 mg/kg respectively for the production of fermented liquid diet with Bacillus subtilis. The findings improve our understanding of the influence of trace elements on liquid diet fermentation with probiotics and support the proper use of trace elements in the production of fermented liquid diet for piglets.

  12. Deoxygenation alters bacterial diversity and community composition in the ocean’s largest oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beman, J. Michael; Carolan, Molly T.

    2013-10-01

    Oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) have a central role in biogeochemical cycles and are expanding as a consequence of climate change, yet how deoxygenation will affect the microbial communities that control these cycles is unclear. Here we sample across dissolved oxygen gradients in the oceans’ largest OMZ and show that bacterial richness displays a unimodal pattern with decreasing dissolved oxygen, reaching maximum values on the edge of the OMZ and decreasing within it. Rare groups on the OMZ margin are abundant at lower dissolved oxygen concentrations, including sulphur-cycling Chromatiales, for which 16S rRNA was amplified from extracted RNA. Microbial species distribution models accurately replicate community patterns based on multivariate environmental data, demonstrate likely changes in distributions and diversity in the eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean, and highlight the sensitivity of key bacterial groups to deoxygenation. Through these mechanisms, OMZ expansion may alter microbial composition, competition, diversity and function, all of which have implications for biogeochemical cycling in OMZs.

  13. Deoxygenation alters bacterial diversity and community composition in the ocean's largest oxygen minimum zone.

    PubMed

    Beman, J Michael; Carolan, Molly T

    2013-01-01

    Oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) have a central role in biogeochemical cycles and are expanding as a consequence of climate change, yet how deoxygenation will affect the microbial communities that control these cycles is unclear. Here we sample across dissolved oxygen gradients in the oceans' largest OMZ and show that bacterial richness displays a unimodal pattern with decreasing dissolved oxygen, reaching maximum values on the edge of the OMZ and decreasing within it. Rare groups on the OMZ margin are abundant at lower dissolved oxygen concentrations, including sulphur-cycling Chromatiales, for which 16S rRNA was amplified from extracted RNA. Microbial species distribution models accurately replicate community patterns based on multivariate environmental data, demonstrate likely changes in distributions and diversity in the eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean, and highlight the sensitivity of key bacterial groups to deoxygenation. Through these mechanisms, OMZ expansion may alter microbial composition, competition, diversity and function, all of which have implications for biogeochemical cycling in OMZs.

  14. Use of Probiotics in Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Martínez Cruz, Patricia; Ibáñez, Ana L.; Monroy Hermosillo, Oscar A.; Ramírez Saad, Hugo C.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of aquaculture as an industry has accelerated over the past decades; this has resulted in environmental damages and low productivity of various crops. The need for increased disease resistance, growth of aquatic organisms, and feed efficiency has brought about the use of probiotics in aquaculture practices. The first application of probiotics occurred in 1986, to test their ability to increase growth of hydrobionts (organisms that live in water). Later, probiotics were used to improve water quality and control of bacterial infections. Nowadays, there is documented evidence that probiotics can improve the digestibility of nutrients, increase tolerance to stress, and encourage reproduction. Currently, there are commercial probiotic products prepared from various bacterial species such as Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., Enterococcus sp., Carnobacterium sp., and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae among others, and their use is regulated by careful management recommendations. The present paper shows the current knowledge of the use of probiotics in aquaculture, its antecedents, and safety measures to be carried out and discusses the prospects for study in this field. PMID:23762761

  15. Novel Probiotic Therapies for Autism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    bacteria of the microbiota can influence the gut - brain connection by modulating metabolites that alter behavior. We find that postnatal B. fragilis...suggest a gut -microbiome- brain connection in autism, and identify a potential probiotic therapy for ASD. 15. SUBJECT TERMS autism, ASD, probiotic...development in mice (15-17). Based on an emerging appreciation of a gut - brain connection (18, 19), we are exploring whether commensal bacteria, and B. fragilis

  16. Probiotic cheese containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM® modifies subpopulations of fecal lactobacilli and Clostridium difficile in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Lahtinen, Sampo J; Forssten, Sofia; Aakko, Juhani; Granlund, Linda; Rautonen, Nina; Salminen, Seppo; Viitanen, Matti; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2012-02-01

    Aging is associated with alterations in the intestinal microbiota and with immunosenescence. Probiotics have the potential to modify a selected part of the intestinal microbiota as well as improve immune functions and may, therefore, be particularly beneficial to elderly consumers. In this randomized, controlled cross-over clinical trial, we assessed the effects of a probiotic cheese containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM on the intestinal microbiota and fecal immune markers of 31 elderly volunteers and compared these effects with the administration of the same cheese without probiotics. The probiotic cheese was found to increase the number of L. rhamnosus and L. acidophilus NCFM in the feces, suggesting the survival of the strains during the gastrointestinal transit. Importantly, probiotic cheese administration was associated with a trend towards lower counts of Clostridium difficile in the elderly, as compared with the run-in period with the plain cheese. The effect was statistically significant in the subpopulation of the elderly who harbored C. difficile at the start of the study. The probiotic cheese was not found to significantly alter the levels of the major microbial groups, suggesting that the microbial changes conferred by the probiotic cheese were limited to specific bacterial groups. Despite that the administration of the probiotic cheese to the study population has earlier been shown to significantly improve the innate immunity of the elders, we did not observe measurable changes in the fecal immune IgA concentrations. No increase in fecal calprotectin and β-defensin concentrations suggests that the probiotic treatment did not affect intestinal inflammatory markers. In conclusion, the administration of probiotic cheese containing L. rhamnosus HN001 and L. acidophilus NCFM, was associated with specific changes in the intestinal microbiota, mainly affecting specific subpopulations of intestinal lactobacilli and C

  17. Selective enumeration of probiotic microorganisms in cheese.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Reza; Mortazavian, Amir M; Amiri-Rigi, Atefeh

    2012-02-01

    Cheese is a dairy product which has a good potential for delivery of probiotic microorganisms into the human intestine. To be considered to offer probiotic health benefits, probiotics must remain viable in food products above a threshold level (e.g., 10(6) cfu g(-1)) until the time of consumption. In order to ensure that a minimal number of probiotic bacteria is present in the cheese, reliable methods for enumeration are required. The choice of culture medium for selective enumeration of probiotic strains in combination with starters depends on the product matrix, the target group and the taxonomic diversity of the bacterial background flora in the product. Enumeration protocol should be designed as a function of the target microorganism(s) to be quantified in the cheese. An overview of some series of culture media for selective enumeration of commercial probiotic cultures is presented in this review.

  18. [Probiotics. A review].

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Pier Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Probiotics are defined viable microorganisms which in sufficient amount reach the intestine in an active state, to be able to exert positive health benefit on the host. Thus far, they have shown particular promise on prevention or treatment of various pathologic conditions. Our aim has been to report the most recent articles (until October 2008), resulting from randomized, double controlled trials, according to the conventional and molecular methods. In this review we have taken into consideration almost all the fields in which the probiotics have been given, either with a prophylactic or therapeutic intent. So far we have summarized the actual results concerning lactose intolerance, acute rotavirus diarrhea, traveller's diarrhea, antibiotic associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile infection, and the role as adjuvant in Helicobacter pylori eradication. Furthermore, we have synthesised articles concerning the probiotic connection in irritable bowel syndrome, and in inflammatory bowel diseases. Last but not least, the prevention by probiotics of allergic diseases, of bacterial vaginosis, of respiratory infections, and the possible advantage in hypercholesteremic subjects.

  19. Gut microbiome, surgical complications and probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Stavrou, George; Kotzampassi, Katerina

    2017-01-01

    The trigger for infectious complications in patients following major abdominal operations is classically attributed to endogenous enteral bacterial translocation, due to the critical condition of the gut. Today, extensive gut microbiome analysis has enabled us to understand that almost all “evidence-based” surgical or medical intervention (antibiotics, bowel preparation, opioids, deprivation of nutrition), in addition to stress-released hormones, could affect the relative abundance and diversity of the enteral microbiome, allowing harmful bacteria to proliferate in the place of depressed beneficial species. Furthermore, these bacteria, after tight sensing of host stress and its consequent humoral alterations, can and do switch their virulence accordingly, towards invasion of the host. Probiotics are the exogenously given, beneficial clusters of live bacteria that, upon digestion, seem to succeed in partially restoring the distorted microbial diversity, thus reducing the infectious complications occurring in surgical and critically ill patients. This review presents the latest data on the interrelationship between the gut microbiome and the occurrence of complications after colon surgery, and the efficacy of probiotics as therapeutic instruments for changing the bacterial imbalance. PMID:28042237

  20. Bacterial chitinolytic communities respond to chitin and pH alteration in soil.

    PubMed

    Kielak, Anna M; Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Semenov, Alexander V; Sørensen, Søren J; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Chitin amendment is a promising soil management strategy that may enhance the suppressiveness of soil toward plant pathogens. However, we understand very little of the effects of added chitin, including the putative successions that take place in the degradative process. We performed an experiment in moderately acid soil in which the level of chitin, next to the pH, was altered. Examination of chitinase activities revealed fast responses to the added crude chitin, with peaks of enzymatic activity occurring on day 7. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-based analyses of 16S rRNA and chiA genes showed structural changes of the phylogenetically and functionally based bacterial communities following chitin addition and pH alteration. Pyrosequencing analysis indicated (i) that the diversity of chiA gene types in soil is enormous and (i) that different chiA gene types are selected by the addition of chitin at different prevailing soil pH values. Interestingly, a major role of Gram-negative bacteria versus a minor one of Actinobacteria in the immediate response to the added chitin (based on 16S rRNA gene abundance and chiA gene types) was indicated. The results of this study enhance our understanding of the response of the soil bacterial communities to chitin and are of use for both the understanding of soil suppressiveness and the possible mining of soil for novel enzymes.

  1. Bioaugmentation of Hydrogenispora ethanolica LX-B affects hydrogen production through altering indigenous bacterial community structure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiman; Guo, Rongbo; Shi, Xiaoshuang; He, Shuai; Wang, Lin; Dai, Meng; Qiu, Yanling; Dang, Xiaoxiao

    2016-07-01

    Bioaugmentation can facilitate hydrogen production from complex organic substrates, but it still is unknown how indigenous microbial communities respond to the added bacteria. Here, using a Hydrogenispora ethanolica LX-B (named as LX-B) bioaugmentation experiments, the distribution of metabolites and the responses of indigenous bacterial communities were investigated via batch cultivation (BC) and repeated batch cultivation (RBC). In BC the LX-B/sludge ratio of 0.12 achieved substantial high hydrogen yield, which was over twice that of control. In RBC one-time bioaugmentation and repeated batch bioaugmentation of LX-B resulted in the hydrogen yield that was average 1.2-fold and 0.8-fold higher than that in control, respectively. This improved hydrogen production performance mainly benefited from a shift in composition of the indigenous bacterial community caused by LX-B bioaugmentation. The findings represented an important step in understanding the relationship between bioaugmentation, a shift in bacterial communities, and altered bioreactor performance.

  2. Inactivation of bacterial pathogens in yoba mutandabota, a dairy product fermented with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba.

    PubMed

    Mpofu, Augustine; Linnemann, Anita R; Nout, Martinus J R; Zwietering, Marcel H; Smid, Eddy J; den Besten, Heidy M W

    2016-01-18

    Mutandabota is a dairy product consumed as a major source of proteins and micronutrients in Southern Africa. In this study the microbial safety of traditional and a variant of mutandabota fermented with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba (yoba mutandabota) was investigated by challenging the products with five important food pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Bacillus cereus. Pasteurized full-fat cow's milk was used for producing traditional and yoba mutandabota, and was inoculated with a cocktail of strains of the pathogens at an inoculum level of 5.5 log cfu/mL. Survival of the pathogens was monitored over a potential consumption time of 24h for traditional mutandabota, and over 24h of fermentation followed by 24h of potential consumption time for yoba mutandabota. In traditional mutandabota (pH3.4 ± 0.1) no viable cells of B. cereus and C. jejuni were detected 3h after inoculation, while L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. significantly declined (P<0.05), but could still be detected (<3.5 log inactivation) at the end of the potential consumption time. This indicated that consumption of traditional mutandabota exposes consumers to the risk of food-borne microbial infections. In yoba mutandabota, L. rhamnosus yoba grew from 5.5 ± 0.1 log cfu/mL to 9.1 ± 0.4 log cfu/mL in the presence of pathogens. The pH of yoba mutandabota dropped from 4.2 ± 0.1 to 3.3 ± 0.1 after 24h of fermentation, mainly due to organic acids produced during fermentation. Only Salmonella spp. was able to grow in yoba mutandabota during the first 9h of fermentation, but then decreased in viable plate count. None of the tested pathogens were detected (>3.5 log inactivation) after 3h into potential consumption time of yoba mutandabota. Inactivation of pathogens in mutandabota is of public health significance because food-borne pathogens endanger public health upon consumption of contaminated food

  3. Increasing the Size of the Microbial Biomass Altered Bacterial Community Structure which Enhances Plant Phosphorus Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Pu; Murphy, Daniel Vaughan; George, Suman J.; Lapis-Gaza, Hazel; Xu, Minggang

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural production can be limited by low phosphorus (P) availability, with soil P being constrained by sorption and precipitation reactions making it less available for plant uptake. There are strong links between carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) availability and P cycling within soil P pools, with microorganisms being an integral component of soil P cycling mediating the availability of P to plants. Here we tested a conceptual model that proposes (i) the addition of readily-available organic substrates would increase the size of the microbial biomass thus exhausting the pool of easily-available P and (ii) this would cause the microbial biomass to access P from more recalcitrant pools. In this model it is hypothesised that the size of the microbial population is regulating access to less available P rather than the diversity of organisms contained within this biomass. To test this hypothesis we added mixtures of simple organic compounds that reflect typical root exudates at different C:N ratios to a soil microcosm experiment and assessed changes in soil P pools, microbial biomass and bacterial diversity measures. We report that low C:N ratio (C:N = 12.5:1) artificial root exudates increased the size of the microbial biomass while high C:N ratio (C:N = 50:1) artificial root exudates did not result in a similar increase in microbial biomass. Interestingly, addition of the root exudates did not alter bacterial diversity (measured via univariate diversity indices) but did alter bacterial community structure. Where C, N and P supply was sufficient to support plant growth the increase observed in microbial biomass occurred with a concurrent increase in plant yield. PMID:27893833

  4. Blueberry husks and probiotics attenuate colorectal inflammation and oncogenesis, and liver injuries in rats exposed to cycling DSS-treatment.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, Asa; Bränning, Camilla; Molin, Göran; Adawi, Diya; Hagslätt, Marie-Louise; Jeppsson, Bengt; Nyman, Margareta; Ahrné, Siv

    2012-01-01

    Long-term colonic inflammation promotes carcinogenesis and histological abnormalities of the liver, and colorectal tumours frequently arise in a background of dysplasia, a precursor of adenomas. Altered colonic microbiota with an increased proportion of bacteria with pro-inflammatory characteristics, have been implicated in neoplastic progression. The composition of the microbiota can be modified by dietary components such as probiotics, polyphenols and dietary fibres. In the present study, the influence of probiotics in combination with blueberry husks on colorectal carcinogenesis and subsequent liver damage was evaluated.Colorectal tumours were induced in rats by cyclic treatment with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). Blueberry husks and a mixture of three probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium infantis DSM 15159, Lactobacillus gasseri, DSM 16737 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 15313) supplemented a basic diet fortified with oats. The condition of the rats was monitored using a disease activity index (DAI). A qualitative and quantitative histological judgement was performed on segments of distal colon and rectum and the caudate lobe of the liver. The formation of short-chain fatty acids, bacterial translocation, the inflammatory reaction and viable count of lactobacilli and Enterobaceriaceae were addressed.Blueberry husks with or without probiotics significantly decreased DAI, and significantly reduced the number of colonic ulcers and dysplastic lesions. With a decreased proportion of blueberry husk in the diet, the probiotic supplement was needed to achieve a significant decrease in numbers of dysplastic lesions. Probiotics decreased faecal viable count of Enterobacteriaceae and increased that of lactobacilli. Blueberry husks with or without probiotics lowered the proportion of butyric acid in distal colon, and decreased the haptoglobin levels. Probiotics mitigated hepatic injuries by decreasing parenchymal infiltration and the incidence of stasis and translocation

  5. Effects of a bacterial probiotic on ruminal pH and volatile fatty acids during subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in cattle

    PubMed Central

    GOTO, Hiroko; QADIS, Abdul Qadir; KIM, Yo-Han; IKUTA, Kentaro; ICHIJO, Toshihiro; SATO, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Effects of a bacterial probiotic (BP) on ruminal fermentation and plasma metabolites were evaluated in four Holstein cattle (body weight, 645 ± 62 kg; mean ± SD) with induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). SARA was induced by feeding a SARA-inducing diet, and thereafter, 20, 50 or 100 g per head of a commercial BP was administered for 7 consecutive days during the morning feeding. Cattle without BP served as the control. The 24-hr mean ruminal pH in the control was lower, whereas those in the BP groups administered 20 or 50 g were significantly higher compared to the control from days 2 to 7. Circadian patterns of the 1-hr mean ruminal pH were identical (6.4–6.8) among all cattle receiving BP. Although the mean minimum pH in the control on day –7 and day 0 was <5.8, the pH in the treatment groups on day 7 was >5.8 and significantly higher than that of the control group ( >5.2). Ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations were not affected by BP treatment; however, the BP groups had lower lactic acid levels compared with the control group at 20:00 on day 7. Additionally, non-esterified fatty acid levels decreased from 8:00 to 20:00 in all BP groups on day 7. These results suggest that administration of 20 to 50 g of a multi-strain BP for 7 days might improve the low pH and high lactic acid level of the ruminal fluid in SARA cattle. PMID:27430197

  6. Probiotics and functional foods in gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Floch, M H; Hong-Curtiss, J

    2001-08-01

    Probiotics are live microbial food supplements that benefit the host animal by improving intestinal microbial balance. When they are fed in yogurts, they can fall into the category of functional foods. Functional foods include these probiotics, prebiotics, and, to a certain extent, dietary fiber. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients or supplements that alter the intestinal flora and stimulate the growth of healthy bacteria. Dietary fibers are part of plant foods that are nonstarch polysaccharides and are poorly digested or not digested by human enzymes. The physiologic process in which probiotics and functional foods affect the intestinal flora is through the balance of the intestinal microecology. This review looks at the four major components of intestinal microecology and describes the probiotics in use today and their clinical relevance. Although probiotics hold great promise and appear to be useful in some settings, more clinical study is needed to firmly establish the relevance of probiotic therapy.

  7. Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics- a review.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Kavita R; Naik, Suresh R; Vakil, Babu V

    2015-12-01

    The health benefits imparted by probiotics and prebiotics as well as synbiotics have been the subject of extensive research in the past few decades. These food supplements termed as functional foods have been demonstrated to alter, modify and reinstate the pre-existing intestinal flora. They also facilitate smooth functions of the intestinal environment. Most commonly used probiotic strains are: Bifidobacterium, Lactobacilli, S. boulardii, B. coagulans. Prebiotics like FOS, GOS, XOS, Inulin; fructans are the most commonly used fibers which when used together with probiotics are termed synbiotics and are able to improve the viability of the probiotics. Present review focuses on composition and roles of Probiotics, Prebiotics and Synbiotics in human health. Furthermore, additional health benefits like immune-modulation, cancer prevention, inflammatory bowel disease etc. are also discussed. Graphical abstractPictorial summary of health benefits imparted by probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics.

  8. The effect of non-standard heat treatment of sheep's milk on physico-chemical properties, sensory characteristics, and the bacterial viability of classical and probiotic yogurt.

    PubMed

    Zamberlin, Šimun; Samaržija, Dubravka

    2017-06-15

    Classical and probiotic set yogurt were made using non-standard heat treatment of sheep's milk at 60°C/5min. Physico-chemical properties, sensory characteristics, and the viability of bacteria that originated from cultures in classical and probiotic yogurt were analysed during 21days of storage at 4°C. For the production of yogurt, a standard yogurt culture and a probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG were used. At the end of storage time of the classical and probiotic yogurt the totals of non-denatured whey proteins were 92.31 and 91.03%. The viability of yogurt culture bacteria and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG were higher than 10(6)cfu/g. The total sensory score (maximum - 20) was 18.49 for the classical and 18.53 for the probiotic. In nutritional and functional terms it is possible to produce classical and probiotic sheep's milk yogurt by using a non-standard temperature of heat treatment with a shelf life of 21days.

  9. Bdellovibrio and Like Organisms Enhanced Growth and Survival of Penaeus monodon and Altered Bacterial Community Structures in Its Rearing Water

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Qiuping; Liu, Renliang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a 96-h laboratory reduction test was conducted with strain BDHSH06 (GenBank accession no. EF011103) as the test strain for Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) and 20 susceptible marine bacterial strains forming microcosms as the targets. The results showed that BDHSH06 reduced the levels of approximately 50% of prey bacterial strains within 96 h in the seawater microcosms. An 85-day black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) rearing experiment was performed. The shrimp survival rate, body length, and weight in the test tanks were 48.1% ± 1.2%, 99.8 ± 10.0 mm, and 6.36 ± 1.50 g, respectively, which were values significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those for the control, viz., 31.0% ± 2.1%, 86.0 ± 11.1 mm, and 4.21 ± 1.56 g, respectively. With the addition of BDHSH06, total bacterial and Vibrio numbers were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by 1.3 to 4.5 log CFU · ml−1 and CFU · g−1 in both water and shrimp intestines, respectively, compared to those in the control. The effect of BDHSH06 on bacterial community structures in the rearing water was also examined using PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The DGGE profiles of rearing water samples from the control and test tanks revealed that the amounts of 44% of the bacterial species were reduced when BDHSH06 was added to the rearing water over the 85-day rearing period, and among these, approximately 57.1% were nonculturable. The results of this study demonstrated that BDHSH06 can be used as a biocontrol/probiotic agent in P. monodon culture. PMID:25107962

  10. Mathematical modeling of bacterial track-altering motors: Track cleaving through burnt-bridge ratchets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtylla, Blerta; Keener, James P.

    2015-04-01

    The generation of directed movement of cellular components frequently requires the rectification of Brownian motion. Molecular motor enzymes that use ATP to walk on filamentous tracks are typically involved in cell transport, however, a track-altering motor can arise when an enzyme interacts with and alters its track. In Caulobacter crescentus and other bacteria, an active DNA partitioning (Par) apparatus is employed to segregate replicated chromosome regions to specific locations in dividing cells. The Par apparatus is composed of two proteins: ParA, an ATPase that can form polymeric structures on the nucleoid, and ParB, a protein that can bind and destabilize ParA structures. It has been proposed that the ParB-mediated alteration of ParA structures could be responsible for generating the directed movement of DNA during bacterial division. How precisely these actions are coordinated and translated into directed movement is not clear. In this paper we consider the C. crescentus segregation apparatus as an example of a track altering motor that operates using a so-called burnt-bridge mechanism. We develop and analyze mathematical models that examine how diffusion and ATP-hydrolysis-mediated monomer removal (or cleaving) can be combined to generate directed movement. Using a mean first passage approach, we analytically calculate the effective ParA track-cleaving velocities, effective diffusion coefficient, and other higher moments for the movement a ParB protein cluster that breaks monomers away at random locations on a single ParA track. Our model results indicate that cleaving velocities and effective diffusion constants are sensitive to ParB-induced ATP hydrolysis rates. Our analytical results are in excellent agreement with stochastic simulation results.

  11. Mathematical modeling of bacterial track-altering motors: Track cleaving through burnt-bridge ratchets.

    PubMed

    Shtylla, Blerta; Keener, James P

    2015-04-01

    The generation of directed movement of cellular components frequently requires the rectification of Brownian motion. Molecular motor enzymes that use ATP to walk on filamentous tracks are typically involved in cell transport, however, a track-altering motor can arise when an enzyme interacts with and alters its track. In Caulobacter crescentus and other bacteria, an active DNA partitioning (Par) apparatus is employed to segregate replicated chromosome regions to specific locations in dividing cells. The Par apparatus is composed of two proteins: ParA, an ATPase that can form polymeric structures on the nucleoid, and ParB, a protein that can bind and destabilize ParA structures. It has been proposed that the ParB-mediated alteration of ParA structures could be responsible for generating the directed movement of DNA during bacterial division. How precisely these actions are coordinated and translated into directed movement is not clear. In this paper we consider the C. crescentus segregation apparatus as an example of a track altering motor that operates using a so-called burnt-bridge mechanism. We develop and analyze mathematical models that examine how diffusion and ATP-hydrolysis-mediated monomer removal (or cleaving) can be combined to generate directed movement. Using a mean first passage approach, we analytically calculate the effective ParA track-cleaving velocities, effective diffusion coefficient, and other higher moments for the movement a ParB protein cluster that breaks monomers away at random locations on a single ParA track. Our model results indicate that cleaving velocities and effective diffusion constants are sensitive to ParB-induced ATP hydrolysis rates. Our analytical results are in excellent agreement with stochastic simulation results.

  12. Activation of the Jasmonic Acid Plant Defence Pathway Alters the Composition of Rhizosphere Bacterial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Carvalhais, Lilia C.; Dennis, Paul G.; Badri, Dayakar V.; Tyson, Gene W.; Vivanco, Jorge M.; Schenk, Peer M.

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) signalling plays a central role in plant defences against necrotrophic pathogens and herbivorous insects, which afflict both roots and shoots. This pathway is also activated following the interaction with beneficial microbes that may lead to induced systemic resistance. Activation of the JA signalling pathway via application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) alters the composition of carbon containing compounds released by roots, which are implicated as key determinants of rhizosphere microbial community structure. In this study, we investigated the influence of the JA defence signalling pathway activation in Arabidopsis thaliana on the structure of associated rhizosphere bacterial communities using 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing. Application of MeJA did not directly influence bulk soil microbial communities but significant changes in rhizosphere community composition were observed upon activation of the jasmonate signalling pathway. Our results suggest that JA signalling may mediate plant-bacteria interactions in the soil upon necrotrophic pathogen and herbivorous insect attacks. PMID:23424661

  13. Probiotics in critically ill children

    PubMed Central

    Singhi, Sunit C.; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Gut microflora contribute greatly to immune and nutritive functions and act as a physical barrier against pathogenic organisms across the gut mucosa. Critical illness disrupts the balance between host and gut microflora, facilitating colonization, overgrowth, and translocation of pathogens and microbial products across intestinal mucosal barrier and causing systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Commonly used probiotics, which have been developed from organisms that form gut microbiota, singly or in combination, can restore gut microflora and offer the benefits similar to those offered by normal gut flora, namely immune enhancement, improved barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and prevention of bacterial translocation. Enteral supplementation of probiotic strains containing either Lactobacillus alone or in combination with Bifidobacterium reduced the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis and all-cause mortality in preterm infants. Orally administered Lactobacillus casei subspecies rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were effective in the prevention of late-onset sepsis and GIT colonization by Candida in preterm very low birth weight infants. In critically ill children, probiotics are effective in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Oral administration of a mix of probiotics for 1 week to children on broad-spectrum antibiotics in a pediatric intensive care unit decreased GIT colonization by Candida, led to a 50% reduction in candiduria, and showed a trend toward decreased incidence of candidemia. However, routine use of probiotics cannot be supported on the basis of current scientific evidence. Safety of probiotics is also a concern; rarely, probiotics may cause bacteremia, fungemia, and sepsis in immunocompromised critically ill children. More studies are needed to answer questions on the effectiveness of a mix versus single-strain probiotics, optimum dosage regimens

  14. Intravenous lipopolysaccharide challenge alters ruminal bacterial microbiota and disrupts ruminal metabolism in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Jing, Longhui; Zhang, Ruiyang; Liu, Yujie; Zhu, Weiyun; Mao, Shengyong

    2014-07-28

    In the present study, three primiparous lactating Holstein cows (260-285 d in lactation) were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design to assess the effects of three doses (0.0, 0.4 and 0.8 μg/kg body weight) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, Escherichia coli 0111:B4) on changes in ruminal microbiota and ruminal fermentation. Ruminal pH was linearly decreased (P< 0.001) by LPS challenge, and the concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, total volatile fatty acids and amino N increased linearly (P< 0.001) according to the LPS dose. LPS infusion linearly decreased (P< 0.001) the organic matter degradability of alfalfa hay and soyabean meal in the rumen, but did not affect (P>0.10) the gene expression of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and monocarboxylic acid transporter-1, -2 and -4. A plot of principal coordinate analysis based on unweighted UniFrac values and analysis of molecular variance revealed that the structure of ruminal bacterial communities in the control was distinct from that of the ruminal microbiota in the cattle exposed to LPS. At the phylum level, when compared with the control group, LPS infusion in the tested cows linearly increased (P< 0.05) the abundance of Firmicutes, and linearly decreased (P< 0.05) the percentage of Bacteroidetes, Tenericutes, Spirochaetes, Chlorobi and Lentisphaerae. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report that intravenously LPS challenge altered the ruminal bacterial microbiota and fermentation profiles. The present data suggest that systemic LPS could alter ruminal environment and ruminal microbiota composition, leading to a general decrease in fermentative activity.

  15. Pharmaceuticals suppress algal growth and microbial respiration and alter bacterial communities in stream biofilms.

    PubMed

    Rosi-Marshall, Emma J; Kincaid, Dustin W; Bechtold, Heather A; Royer, Todd V; Rojas, Miguel; Kelly, John J

    2013-04-01

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products are ubiquitous in surface waters but their effects on aquatic biofilms and associated ecosystem properties are not well understood. We measured in situ responses of stream biofilms to six common pharmaceutical compounds (caffeine, cimetidine, ciprofloxacin, diphenhydramine, metformin, ranitidine, and a mixture of each) by deploying pharmaceutical-diffusing substrates in streams in Indiana, Maryland, and New York. Results were consistent across seasons and geographic locations. On average, algal biomass was suppressed by 22%, 4%, 22%, and 18% relative to controls by caffeine, ciprofloxacin, diphenhydramine, and the mixed treatment, respectively. Biofilm respiration was significantly suppressed by caffeine (53%), cimetidine (51%), ciprofloxacin (91%), diphenhydramine (63%), and the mixed treatment (40%). In autumn in New York, photosynthesis was also significantly suppressed by diphenhydramine (99%) and the mixed treatment (88%). Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was used to examine the effects of caffeine and diphenhydramine on biofilm bacterial community composition at the three sites. Relative to the controls, diphenhydramine exposure significantly altered bacterial community composition and resulted in significant relative increases in Pseudomonas sp. and decreases in Flavobacterium sp. in all three streams. These ubiquitous pharmaceuticals, alone or in combination, influenced stream biofilms, which could have consequences for higher trophic levels and important ecosystem processes.

  16. Soil bacterial community composition altered by increased nutrient availability in Arctic tundra soils.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Akihiro; Wallenstein, Matthew D; Simpson, Rodney T; Moore, John C

    2014-01-01

    The pool of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the Arctic is disproportionally large compared to those in other biomes. This large quantity of SOC accumulated over millennia due to slow rates of decomposition relative to net primary productivity. Decomposition is constrained by low temperatures and nutrient concentrations, which limit soil microbial activity. We investigated how nutrients limit bacterial and fungal biomass and community composition in organic and mineral soils within moist acidic tussock tundra ecosystems. We sampled two experimental arrays of moist acidic tussock tundra that included fertilized and non-fertilized control plots. One array included plots that had been fertilized annually since 1989 and the other since 2006. Fertilization significantly altered overall bacterial community composition and reduced evenness, to a greater degree in organic than mineral soils, and in the 1989 compared to the 2006 site. The relative abundance of copiotrophic α-Proteobacteria and β-Proteobacteria was higher in fertilized than control soils, and oligotrophic Acidobacteria were less abundant in fertilized than control soils at the 1989 site. Fungal community composition was less sensitive to increased nutrient availability, and fungal responses to fertilization were not consistent between soil horizons and sites. We detected two ectomycorrhizal genera, Russula and Cortinarius spp., associated with shrubs. Their relative abundance was not affected by fertilization despite increased dominance of their host plants in the fertilized plots. Our results indicate that fertilization, which has been commonly used to simulate warming in Arctic tundra, has limited applicability for investigating fungal dynamics under warming.

  17. Caenorhabditis elegans Bacterial Pathogen Resistant bus-4 Mutants Produce Altered Mucins

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Lisa M.; Mizanur, Rahman M.; Jankowska, Ewa; Hodgkin, Jonathan; O′Rourke, Delia; Stroud, Dave; Ghosh, Salil; Cipollo, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Caenorabditis elegans bus-4 glycosyltransferase mutants are resistant to infection by Microbacterium nematophilum, Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and have altered susceptibility to two Leucobacter species Verde1 and Verde2. Our objective in this study was to define the glycosylation changes leading to this phenotype to better understand how these changes lead to pathogen resistance. We performed MALDI-TOF MS, tandem MS and GC/MS experiments to reveal fine structural detail for the bus-4 N- and O-glycan pools. We observed dramatic changes in O-glycans and moderate ones in N-glycan pools compared to the parent strain. Ce core-I glycans, the nematode's mucin glycan equivalent, were doubled in abundance, halved in charge and bore shifts in terminal substitutions. The fucosyl O-glycans, Ce core-II and neutral fucosyl forms, were also increased in abundance as were fucosyl N-glycans. Quantitative expression analysis revealed that two mucins, let-653 and osm-8, were upregulated nearly 40 fold and also revealed was a dramatic increase in GDP-Man 4,6 dehydratease expression. We performed detailed lectin binding studies that showed changes in glycoconjugates in the surface coat, cuticle surface and intestine. The combined changes in cell surface glycoconjugate distribution, increased abundance and altered properties of mucin provide an environment where likely the above pathogens are not exposed to normal glycoconjugate dependent cues leading to barriers to these bacterial infections. PMID:25296196

  18. A single natural nucleotide mutation alters bacterial pathogen host-tropism

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Melissa J.; Selva, Laura; Guinane, Caitriona M.; González-Muñoz, Beatriz M.; Tristan, Anne; Foster, Simon J; Fitzgerald, J. Ross; Penadés, José R.

    2015-01-01

    The capacity of microbial pathogens to alter their host-tropism leading to epidemics in distinct host-species populations is a global public and veterinary health concern. In order to investigate the molecular basis of a bacterial host-switching event in a tractable host-species, we traced the evolutionary trajectory of the common rabbit clone of Staphylococcus aureus. We report that it evolved through a likely human-to-rabbit host jump over 40 years ago, and that only a single natural nucleotide mutation was required and sufficient to convert a human-specific S. aureus strain into one which could infect rabbits. Related mutations were identified at the same locus in other rabbit strains of distinct clonal origin, consistent with convergent evolution. This first report of a single mutation that was sufficient to alter the host-tropism of a micro-organism during its evolution highlights the capacity of some pathogens to readily expand into novel host-species populations. PMID:25685890

  19. Probiotics to counteract biofilm-associated infections: promising and conflicting data

    PubMed Central

    Vuotto, Claudia; Longo, Francesca; Donelli, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Altered bowel flora is currently thought to play a role in a variety of disease conditions, and the use of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. as probiotics has been demonstrated to be health-promoting, even if the success of their administration depends on the applied bacterial strain(s) and the targeted disease. In the last few decades, specific probiotics have been shown to be effective in the treatment or the prevention of acute viral gastroenteritis, pediatric post-antibiotic-associated diarrhea, some pediatric allergic disorders, necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants, inflammatory bowel diseases and postsurgical pouchitis. The potential application of probiotics is continuously widening, with new evidence accumulating to support their effect on the prevention and treatment of other disease conditions, including several oral diseases, such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and oral malodor, as well as genitourinary and wound infections. Considering the increasingly widespread ability of pathogens to generate persistent biofilm-related infections, an even more attractive proposal is to administer probiotics to prevent or counteract biofilm development. The response of biofilm-based oral, intestinal, vaginal and wound infections to probiotics treatment will be reviewed here in light of the most recent results obtained in this field. PMID:25257882

  20. Probiotics in Clostridium difficile Infection

    PubMed Central

    Na, Xi; Kelly, Ciaran

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most prevalent nosocomial infections. A dramatic increase in the incidence and severity of CDI has been noted in the past decade. Current recommendations suggest metronidazole as first-line therapy in mild to moderately severe CDI and oral vancomycin in individuals with severe CDI, or when metronidazole fails or is contradicted. Alterations of the colonic microbiota, usually caused by antimicrobial therapy, seem to play a critical role in CDI pathogenesis. Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer a health benefit to the host, and have been used in CDI. Although a wide variety of probiotics have been studied, the exact role of probiotics in preventing and treating CDI is not clear. In this study, we reviewed the current literature and recommendations on the most commonly studied protiotic agents (Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus species, and probiotic mixtures) used to prevent or treat CDI. Lactobacillus-containing probiotic mixtures and S. boulardii may be effective in the prevention of CDI in high-risk antibiotic recipients but this finding is based on small, individual studies, and further, larger, well-controlled studies are needed to confirm preliminary positive findings and to better delineate the efficacy of probiotics in CDI prevention or treatment. PMID:21992956

  1. Recombinant probiotic therapy in experimental colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Gardlik, R; Palffy, R; Celec, P

    2012-01-01

    Recently, high interest has been attracted to the research of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Recombinant probiotic bacteria may represent an interesting way to influence the course of IBD. Their benefits include cheap and simple production and easy manipulation of the genetic material. Several gene therapy and probiotic approaches already showed promising results in the past. The aim of this study was to test the probiotic potential of IL-10-expressing Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 in a mouse model of IBD and to compare it with control bacterial strains. The dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) model of colitis was examined for this purpose. Animals received control probiotic bacteria or modified probiotics (expressing IL-10) via gastric gavage. Body weight, stool consistency, food and water consumption were monitored. At the end of the experiment, the parameters of inflammation, oxidative stress and carbonyl stress were analysed in the samples and statistical analysis was performed. We prepared an anti-inflammatory probiotic Escherichia coli strain that we designated Nissle 1917/pMEC-IL10 and proved its anti-inflammatory properties, which are similar to those of the control probiotic strains Nissle 1917 and Lactococcus lactis/pMEC-IL10 in vivo. The probiotic therapy was successful according to several parameters, including colon length, and oxidative and carbonyl stress. Bacterially produced IL-10 was detected in the plasma. The potential of bacterial anti-inflammatory therapy of IBD using modified probiotics was outlined. The results opened a way for upcoming studies using modified probiotics for therapy of systemic diseases.

  2. Probiotics and prebiotics in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Dan W; Greer, Frank R

    2010-12-01

    This clinical report reviews the currently known health benefits of probiotic and prebiotic products, including those added to commercially available infant formula and other food products for use in children. Probiotics are supplements or foods that contain viable microorganisms that cause alterations of the microflora of the host. Use of probiotics has been shown to be modestly effective in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in (1) treating acute viral gastroenteritis in healthy children; and (2) preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea in healthy children. There is some evidence that probiotics prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants (birth weight between 1000 and 1500 g), but more studies are needed. The results of RCTs in which probiotics were used to treat childhood Helicobacter pylori gastritis, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic ulcerative colitis, and infantile colic, as well as in preventing childhood atopy, although encouraging, are preliminary and require further confirmation. Probiotics have not been proven to be beneficial in treating or preventing human cancers or in treating children with Crohn disease. There are also safety concerns with the use of probiotics in infants and children who are immunocompromised, chronically debilitated, or seriously ill with indwelling medical devices. Prebiotics are supplements or foods that contain a nondigestible food ingredient that selectively stimulates the favorable growth and/or activity of indigenous probiotic bacteria. Human milk contains substantial quantities of prebiotics. There is a paucity of RCTs examining prebiotics in children, although there may be some long-term benefit of prebiotics for the prevention of atopic eczema and common infections in healthy infants. Confirmatory well-designed clinical research studies are necessary.

  3. Eukaryotic-microbiota crosstalk: potential mechanisms for health benefits of prebiotics and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Hord, Norman G

    2008-01-01

    The ability to link dietary consumption of prebiotic food ingredients and probiotic microorganisms to health benefits rests, in part, on our ability to identify both the extent to which these factors alter human microbiome activity and/or structure and the ability to engage eukaryotic cells necessary to transduce signals originating from the microbiome. The human microbiome consists of bacterial, archaeal, and fungal components that reside in mucosal surfaces of the gut, the airways, and the urogenital tract. Characterization of the symbiotic nature of the relationship between eukaryotic cells and the bacterial and archaeal components of the microbiota has revealed significant contributions in energy balance, bowel function, immunologic function, sensory perception, glycemic control, and blood pressure regulation. Elucidating the complex interactions between the microbiota and their associated epithelial, immune, and neural cells may provide mechanistic insights and a rational basis for our belief that dietary consumption of probiotic microorganisms and prebiotics produces health benefits.

  4. Altering the thermal resistance of foodborne bacterial pathogens with an eggshell membrane waste by-product.

    PubMed

    Poland, A L; Sheldon, B W

    2001-04-01

    Eggshells from egg-breaking operations are a significant waste disposal problem. Thus, the development of value-added by-products from this waste would be welcomed by the industry. The ability of extracted eggshell membranes containing, several bacteriolytic enzymes (i.e., lysozyme and beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase) or other membrane components to alter the thermal resistance of gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial pathogens was evaluated. Mid-log phase cells of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE), Salmonella Typhimurium (ST), Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EC), Listeria monocytogenes Scott A (LM), and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) were suspended in 100 ml of 0.1% peptone water (pH 6.9, 10(7-8) CFU/ml) containing either 0 (control) or 10 g of an eggshell membrane extract and incubated at 37 degrees C for 45 min. Following exposure, membrane-free samples (1.5 ml) were heated in a 56 degrees C (LM, SA), 54 degrees C (SE, ST), or 52 degrees C (EC) water bath from 0 to 14 min in sealed glass reaction vials (12 by 32 mm), and the survivors were recovered on brain heart infusion agar. Population reductions ranging from 27.6% (SA) to 99.8% (LM) (ST, 43.8%; SE, 47.5%; EC, 71.8%) were observed for cells treated for 45 min with extracted membrane, as compared to controls. D-value reductions ranging from 0 (LM) to 87.2% (SE) (SA, 36.7%; EC, 83.3%; ST, 86.3%) were observed when membrane-treated cells were subsequently heat inactivated. The effects of exposure pH, time, temperature, and organic load on membrane activity were also evaluated with Salmonella Typhimurium. Exposure pH (5.0 versus 6.9), time (15 versus 45 min), and temperature (4 degrees C versus 37 degrees C) did not significantly reduce the impact of eggshell membranes on D-values. However, the presence of organic matter (0.1% peptone water versus skim milk) significantly reduced the thermal resistance-reducing capacity of the membranes. These preliminary findings provide information on the potential use of extracted eggshell

  5. Food formats for effective delivery of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Mary Ellen; Marco, Maria L

    2010-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria are increasingly incorporated into food products intended to confer health benefits in the human gut and beyond. Little is known about how the food matrix and product formulation impacts probiotic functionality, even though such information is essential to scientific understanding and regulatory substantiation of health benefits. The food format has the potential to affect probiotic survival, physiology, and potentially efficacy, but few comparative studies in humans have been conducted. Human studies should account for the effects of the food base on human health and the bioactive components present in the foods that may augment or diminish interactions of the probiotic with the human host. Some studies show that food ingredients such as prebiotics and milk components can improve probiotic survival during the shelf life of foods, which may enhance probiotic efficacy through increased dose effects. Furthermore, there are indications that synbiotic products are more effective than either probiotics or prebiotics alone. Identification of probiotic adaptations to the food and gut environments holds promise for determining the specific cell components and potential bacterial-food interactions necessary for health benefits and determining how these factors are affected by changes in food formulation and host diet. These studies, combined with controlled human studies, are important future research activities for advancing this field.

  6. Soil Fungal:Bacterial Ratios Are Linked to Altered Carbon Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Ashish A.; Chowdhury, Somak; Schlager, Veronika; Oliver, Anna; Puissant, Jeremy; Vazquez, Perla G. M.; Jehmlich, Nico; von Bergen, Martin; Griffiths, Robert I.; Gleixner, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Despite several lines of observational evidence, there is a lack of consensus on whether higher fungal:bacterial (F:B) ratios directly cause higher soil carbon (C) storage. We employed RNA sequencing, protein profiling and isotope tracer techniques to evaluate whether differing F:B ratios are associated with differences in C storage. A mesocosm 13C labeled foliar litter decomposition experiment was performed in two soils that were similar in their physico-chemical properties but differed in microbial community structure, specifically their F:B ratio (determined by PLFA analyses, RNA sequencing and protein profiling; all three corroborating each other). Following litter addition, we observed a consistent increase in abundance of fungal phyla; and greater increases in the fungal dominated soil; implicating the role of fungi in litter decomposition. Litter derived 13C in respired CO2 was consistently lower, and residual 13C in bulk SOM was higher in high F:B soil demonstrating greater C storage potential in the F:B dominated soil. We conclude that in this soil system, the increased abundance of fungi in both soils and the altered C cycling patterns in the F:B dominated soils highlight the significant role of fungi in litter decomposition and indicate that F:B ratios are linked to higher C storage potential. PMID:27555839

  7. Probiotic Pre-treatment Reduces Gliclazide Permeation (ex vivo) in Healthy Rats but Increases It in Diabetic Rats to the Level Seen in Untreated Healthy Rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Salami, Hani; Butt, Grant; Tucker, Ian; Skrbic, Ranko; Golocorbin-Kon, Svetlana; Mikov, Momir

    2008-07-01

    AIM: To investigate the influence of probiotic pre-treatment on the permeation of the antidiabetic drug gliclazide in healthy and diabetic rats. METHODS: Wistar rats (age 2-3 months, weight 350 +/- 50 g) were randomly allocated into one of 4 groups (N = 16 each group): healthy control, healthy probiotic, diabetic control, and diabetic probiotic. Probiotics (75 mg/kg, equal quantities of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus) were administered twice a day for three days to the appropriate groups after diabetes had been induced with alloxan i.v. 30 mg/kg. Rats were sacrificed, ileal tissues mounted in Ussing chambers and gliclazide (200 microg/mL) was administered for the measurement of the mucosal to serosal absorption Jss((MtoS)) and serosal to mucosal secretion Jss((StoM)) of gliclazide. RESULTS: Treatment of healthy rats with probiotics reduced Jss((MtoS)) of gliclazide from 1.2 +/- 0.3 to 0.3 +/- 0.1 microg/min/cm(2) (P < 0.01) and increased Jss((StoM))from 0.6 +/- 0.1 to 1.4 +/- 0.3 (P < 0.01) resulting in net secretion while, in diabetic tissues, treatment with probiotics increased both Jss((MtoS)) and Jss((StoM))fluxes of gliclazide to the comparable levels of healthy tissues resulting in net absorption. DISCUSSION: In healthy rats, the reduction in Jss((MtoS)) after probiotics administration could be explained by the production of bacterial metabolites that upregulate the mucosal efflux drug transporters Mrp2 that control gliclazide transport. In diabetic rats, the restored fluxes of gliclazide after probiotic treatment, suggests the normalization of the functionality of the drug transporters resulting in a net absorption. CONCLUSION: Probiotics may alter gliclazide transport across rat ileal tissue studied ex vivo.

  8. Probiotics History.

    PubMed

    Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Bonvicini, Fiorenza; Gramenzi, Annagiulia

    Gut microbiota promotes healthy effects on the host and prevents diseases. Probiotic (probios, for life) are defined as "live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host." At the beginning of 1900s Louis Pasteur identified the microorganisms responsible for the process of fermentation, whereas E. Metchnikoff associated the enhanced longevity of Bulgarian rural people to the regular consumption of fermented dairy products such as yogurt. He suggested that lactobacilli might counteract the putrefactive effects of gastrointestinal metabolism that contributed to illness and aging. Hippocrates declared, 2000 years earlier, that "death sits in the bowels." Metchnikoff considered the lactobacilli as probiotics ("probios," conducive to life of the host as opposed to antibiotics); probiotics could have a positive influence on health and prevent aging. During the neolitic period of the age of the stone, the domestication of animals occurred and man began to get fermented food. Probably serendipitous contaminations in favorable environments played a major role. Fecal microbiota transplantation dates to a fourth-century Chinese handbook for food poisoning or severe diarrhea. To date fecal transplant cures Clostridium difficile infections with more efficacy than vancomycin, and prevents recurrence.

  9. Bacterial-like PPP protein phosphatases: novel sequence alterations in pathogenic eukaryotes and peculiar features of bacterial sequence similarity.

    PubMed

    Kerk, David; Uhrig, R Glen; Moorhead, Greg B

    2013-01-01

    Reversible phosphorylation is a widespread modification affecting the great majority of eukaryotic cellular proteins, and whose effects influence nearly every cellular function. Protein phosphatases are increasingly recognized as exquisitely regulated contributors to these changes. The PPP (phosphoprotein phosphatase) family comprises enzymes, which catalyze dephosphorylation at serine and threonine residues. Nearly a decade ago, "bacterial-like" enzymes were recognized with similarity to proteins from various bacterial sources: SLPs (Shewanella-like phosphatases), RLPHs (Rhizobiales-like phosphatases), and ALPHs (ApaH-like phosphatases). A recent article from our laboratory appearing in Plant Physiology characterizes their extensive organismal distribution, abundance in plant species, predicted subcellular localization, motif organization, and sequence evolution. One salient observation is the distinct evolutionary trajectory followed by SLP genes and proteins in photosynthetic eukaryotes vs. animal and plant pathogens derived from photosynthetic ancestors. We present here a closer look at sequence data that emphasizes the distinctiveness of pathogen SLP proteins and that suggests that they might represent novel drug targets. A second observation in our original report was the high degree of similarity between the bacterial-like PPPs of eukaryotes and closely related proteins of the "eukaryotic-like" phyla Myxococcales and Planctomycetes. We here reflect on the possible implications of these observations and their importance for future research.

  10. Potential of goat probiotic to bind mutagens.

    PubMed

    Apás, Ana Lidia; González, Silvia Nelina; Arena, Mario Eduardo

    2014-08-01

    The mutagen binding ability of the goat probiotics (Lactobacillus reuteri DDL 19, Lactobacillus alimentarius DDL 48, Enterococcus faecium DDE 39, and Bifidobacterium bifidum DDBA) was evaluated. The oral administration of these probiotics reduced fecal mutagens and intestinal cancer markers in goats. Secondly, the effects of probiotics against the mutagenesis induced by sodium azide (SA), and Benzopyrene (B[α]P) by performing the modified Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 was investigated. The capacity to bind benzopyrene and the stability of the bacterial-mutagen complex was analyzed by HPLC. The dismutagenic potential against both mutagens was proportional to probiotic concentration. Results showed that probiotic antimutagenic capacity against SA was ranging from 13 to 78%. The mixture of four goat probiotics (MGP) displayed higher antimutagenic activity against SA than any individual strains at the same cell concentration. This study shows that the highest diminution of mutagenicity in presence of B[α]P (74%) was observed in presence of MGP. The antimutagenic activity of nearly all the individual probiotic and the MGP were in concordance with the B[α]P binding determined by HPLC. According to our results, the B[α]P binding to probiotic was irreversible still after being washed with DMSO solution. The stability of the toxic compounds-bacterial cell binding is a key consideration when probiotic antimutagenic property is evaluated. MGP exhibits the ability to bind and detoxify potent mutagens, and this property can be useful in supplemented foods for goats since it can lead to the removal of potent mutagens and protect and enhance ruminal health and hence food safety of consumers.

  11. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Hyphae Alter Soil Bacterial Community and Enhance Polychlorinated Biphenyls Dissipation

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C.; Xu, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) hyphae in alternation of soil microbial community and Aroclor 1242 dissipation. A two-compartment rhizobox system with double nylon meshes in the central was employed to exclude the influence of Cucurbita pepo L. root exudates on hyphal compartment soil. To assess the quantitative effect of AMF hyphae on soil microbial community, we separated the hyphal compartment soil into four horizontal layers from the central mesh to outer wall (e.g., L1–L4). Soil total PCBs dissipation rates ranged from 35.67% of L4 layer to 57.39% of L1 layer in AMF inoculated treatment, which were significant higher than the 17.31% of the control (P < 0.05). The dissipation rates of tri-, tetrachlorinated biphenyls as well as the total PCBs were significantly correlated with soil hyphal length (P < 0.01). Real-time quantitative PCR results indicated that the Rhodococcus-like bphC gene was 2–3 orders of magnitude more than that of Pseudomonas-like bphC gene, and was found responded positively to AMF. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rDNA sequenced by the Illumina Miseq sequencing platform indicated that AMF hyphae altered bacterial community compositions. The phylum Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were dominated in the soil, while Burkholderiales and Actinomycetales were dominated at the order level. Taxa from the Comamonadaceae responded positively to AMF and trichlorinated biphenyl dissipation, while taxa from the Oxalobacteraceae and Streptomycetaceae responded negatively to AMF and PCB congener dissipation. Our results suggested that the AMF hyphal exudates as well as the hyphae per se did have quantitative effects on shaping soil microbial community, and could modify the PCBs dissipation processes consequently. PMID:27379068

  12. Candida albicans alters the bacterial microbiome of early in vitro oral biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Janus, M. M.; Crielaard, W.; Volgenant, C. M. C.; van der Veen, M. H.; Brandt, B. W.; Krom, B. P.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The yeast Candida albicans is an oral commensal microorganism, occurring in the oral cavity of 50–70% of healthy individuals. Its effect on oral ecology has mostly been studied using dual-species models, which disregards the complex nature of oral biofilms. The aim of this study was to culture C. albicans in a complex model to study its effect on oral biofilms. Biofilms, inoculated using pooled stimulated saliva with or without addition of C. albicans, were grown under anaerobic, aerobic, or aerobic +5% CO2 conditions. Red autofluorescence was quantified using a spectrophotometer and visualized in fluorescence photographs. The microbiome of 5 h biofilms was determined using 16S rDNA sequencing. C. albicans was only able to proliferate in biofilms grown under aerobic conditions. After 48 h, C. albicans did not induce differences in total biofilm formation, lactic acid accumulation (cariogenic phenotype) or protease activity (periodontitis phenotype). In vitro, anaerobically grown biofilms developed red autofluorescence, irrespective of inoculum. However, under aerobic conditions, only C. albicans–containing biofilms showed red autofluorescence. Facultative or strict anaerobic Veillonella, Prevotella, Leptotrichia, and Fusobacterium genera were significantly more abundant in biofilms with C. albicans. Biofilms without C. albicans contained more of the aerobic and facultative anaerobic genera Neisseria, Rothia, and Streptococcus. The presence of C. albicans alters the bacterial microbiome in early in vitro oral biofilms, resulting in the presence of strictly anaerobic bacteria under oxygen-rich conditions. This in vitro study illustrates that C. albicans should not be disregarded in healthy oral ecosystems, as it has the potential to influence bacteria significantly. PMID:28326152

  13. Technology and potential applications of probiotic encapsulation in fermented milk products.

    PubMed

    Iravani, Siavash; Korbekandi, Hassan; Mirmohammadi, Seyed Vahid

    2015-08-01

    Fermented milk products containing probiotics and prebiotics can be used in management, prevention and treatment of some important diseases (e.g., intestinal- and immune-associated diseases). Microencapsulation has been used as an efficient method for improving the viability of probiotics in fermented milks and gastrointestinal tract. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacterial cells provides shelter against adverse conditions during processing, storage and gastrointestinal passage. Important challenges in the field include survival of probiotics during microencapsulation, stability of microencapsulated probiotics in fermented milks, sensory quality of fermented milks with microencapsulated probiotics, and efficacy of microencapsulation to deliver probiotics and their controlled or targeted release in the gastrointestinal tract. This study reviews the current knowledge, and the future prospects and challenges of microencapsulation of probiotics used in fermented milk products. In addition, the influence of microencapsulation on probiotics viability and survival is reviewed.

  14. Probiotics and Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Haukioja, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The number of products containing probiotics, viable bacteria with proven health benefits, entering the market is increasing. Traditionally, probiotics have been associated with gut health, and most clinical interest has been focused on their use for prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal infections and diseases; however, during the last decade several investigators have also suggested the use of probiotics for oral health purposes. The aim of this review is to examine potential mechanisms of probiotic bacteria in the oral cavity and summarize observed effects of probiotics with respect to oral health. The review focuses on probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, genera that are most used in various probiotic products. PMID:20613927

  15. Early intestinal development and mucin transcription in the young poult with probiotic and mannan oligosaccharide prebiotic supplementation.

    PubMed

    Hutsko, S L; Meizlisch, K; Wick, M; Lilburn, M S

    2016-05-01

    Alternative and adjunctive approaches to decreasing the use of dietary antibiotics are becoming popular areas of study. Supplemental probiotics (commensal microbes) and prebiotics (indigestible complex carbohydrates) are 2 dietary approaches to facilitating the intestinal colonization of beneficial bacteria to compete with potential pathogens, thus creating a healthy mucosal environment. The intestinal mucosa is composed of mucin glycoproteins, which play a key role in preventing the attachment of pathogenic bacteria. At hatch, the neonatal turkey intestine is relatively aseptic and vulnderable to bacterial colonization by both commensal and pathogenic microbes. In the current study, we determined the transcription of MUC2, the primary mucin protein produced by goblet cells within the small intestine, and we also measured intestinal morphology immediately post-hatch through d 11. Poults were fed a conventional starter diet, the starter diet supplemented with one of 2 commercial probiotics (A, B), or a commercial mannan oligosaccharide. MUC2 transcription increased from d zero to d 4 post-hatch (P< 0.05), but there was no effect of probiotic or prebiotic supplementation. Villus height and villus area both increased with Probiotic B and mannan oligosaccharide supplementation (P<0.05) and there was a significant d X treatment interaction effect for crypt depth (P=0.007). These results suggest that probiotic and prebiotic supplementation can positively alter the intestinal microenvironment.

  16. Protective efficacy of probiotic alone or in conjunction with a prebiotic in Salmonella-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Rishi, Praveen; Mavi, Swapandeep Kaur; Bharrhan, Sushma; Shukla, Geeta; Tewari, Rupinder

    2009-08-01

    In view of the increasing interest in the bioecological and nutritional control of diseases, use of probiotics alone or in combination with prebiotics (synbiotics) appears as a therapeutic option for various diseases. In this study, an attempt was made to explore the protective potential of Lactobacillus acidophilus as a probiotic, inulin as a prebiotic and both L. acidophilus and inulin as synbiotic against Salmonella-induced liver damage in a murine model. The probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic supplementation resulted in decreased bacterial translocation in the liver of mice challenged with Salmonella typhimurium and decreased levels of serum aminotransferases, suggesting their protective role against Salmonella infection. Mice supplemented with these preparations before Salmonella challenge also revealed decreased levels of lipid peroxidation, increased levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione, along with reduced levels of nitric oxide. Thus, bacteriological and biochemical alterations correlated well with the histological evidence. Protection afforded by supplementation with the probiotic alone was found to be more effective. None of the observations was suggestive of the synergistic effect in the synbiotic-supplemented animals. Thus, it is indicated that the probiotic and the prebiotic used in the present study may act by different mechanisms involved in affording protection against Salmonella-induced liver damage.

  17. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics.

    PubMed

    de Vrese, Michael; Schrezenmeir, J

    2008-01-01

    According to the German definition, probiotics are defined viable microorganisms, sufficient amounts of which reach the intestine in an active state and thus exert positive health effects. Numerous probiotic microorganisms (e.g. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. reuteri, bifidobacteria and certain strains of L. casei or the L. acidophilus-group) are used in probiotic food, particularly fermented milk products, or have been investigated--as well as Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917, certain enterococci (Enterococcus faecium SF68) and the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii--with regard to their medicinal use. Among the numerous purported health benefits attributed to probiotic bacteria, the (transient) modulation of the intestinal microflora of the host and the capacity to interact with the immune system directly or mediated by the autochthonous microflora, are basic mechanisms. They are supported by an increasing number of in vitro and in vivo experiments using conventional and molecular biologic methods. In addition to these, a limited number of randomized, well-controlled human intervention trials have been reported. Well-established probiotic effects are: 1. Prevention and/or reduction of duration and complaints of rotavirus-induced or antibiotic-associated diarrhea as well as alleviation of complaints due to lactose intolerance. 2. Reduction of the concentration of cancer-promoting enzymes and/or putrefactive (bacterial) metabolites in the gut. 3. Prevention and alleviation of unspecific and irregular complaints of the gastrointestinal tracts in healthy people. 4. Beneficial effects on microbial aberrancies, inflammation and other complaints in connection with: inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, Helicobacter pylori infection or bacterial overgrowth. 5. Normalization of passing stool and stool consistency in subjects suffering from obstipation or an irritable colon. 6. Prevention or alleviation of allergies and atopic diseases in infants. 7

  18. Impact of a probiotic, inulin, or their combination on the piglets' microbiota at different intestinal locations.

    PubMed

    Sattler, V A; Bayer, K; Schatzmayr, G; Haslberger, A G; Klose, V

    2015-01-01

    Natural feed additives are used to maintain health and to promote performance of pigs without antibiotics. Effects of a probiotic, inulin, and their combination (synbiotic), on the microbial diversity and composition at different intestinal locations were analysed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), real-time PCR, and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Bacterial diversity assessed by DGGE and/or pyrosequencing was increased by inulin in all three gut locations and by the synbiotic in the caecum and colon. In contrast, the probiotic did only affect the microbiota diversity in the ileum. Shifts in the DGGE microbiota profiles of the caecum and colon were detected for the pro- and synbiotic fed animals, whereas inulin profiles were more similar to the ones of the control. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing revealed that all three additives could reduce Escherichia species in each gut location, indicating a potential beneficial effect on the gut microbiota. An increase of relative abundance of Clostridiaceae in the large intestine was found in the inulin group and of Enterococcaceae in the ileum of probiotic fed pigs. Furthermore, real-time PCR results showed that the probiotic and synbiotic increased bifidobacterial numbers in the ileum, which was supported by sequencing results. The probiotic and inulin, to different extents, changed the diversity, relative abundance of phylotypes, and community profiles of the porcine microbiota. However, alterations of the bacterial community were not uniformly between gut locations, demonstrating that functionality of feed additives is site specific. Therefore, gut sampling from various locations is crucial when investigations aim to identify the composition of a healthy gut microbiota after its manipulation through feed additives.

  19. Mercury alters the bacterial community structure and diversity in soil even at concentrations lower than the guideline values.

    PubMed

    Mahbub, Khandaker Rayhan; Subashchandrabose, Suresh Ramraj; Krishnan, Kannan; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of inorganic mercury (Hg) on bacterial community and diversity in different soils. Three soils-neutral, alkaline and acidic-were spiked with six different concentrations of Hg ranging from 0 to 200 mg kg(-1) and aged for 90 days. At the end of the ageing period, 18 samples from three different soils were investigated for bacterial community structure and soil physicochemical properties. Illumina MiSeq-based 16s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) amplicon sequencing revealed the alteration in the bacterial community between un-spiked control soils and Hg-spiked soils. Among the bacterial groups, Actinobacteria (22.65%) were the most abundant phyla in all samples followed by Proteobacteria (21.95%), Bacteroidetes (4.15%), Firmicutes (2.9%) and Acidobacteria (2.04%). However, the largest group showing increased abundance with higher Hg doses was the unclassified group (45.86%), followed by Proteobacteria. Mercury had a considerable negative impact on key soil functional bacteria such as ammonium oxidizers and nitrifiers. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that among the measured soil properties, Hg had a major influence on bacterial community structure. Furthermore, nonlinear regression analysis confirmed that Hg significantly decreased soil bacterial alpha diversity in lower organic carbon containing neutral and alkaline soils, whereas in acidic soil with higher organic carbon there was no significant correlation. EC20 values obtained by a nonlinear regression analysis indicated that Hg significantly decreased soil bacterial diversity in concentrations lower than several guideline values.

  20. Probiotics in animal nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Durand, H

    2010-03-01

    The use of probiotics for farm animals has increased considerably over the last 15 years. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which can confer a health benefit for the host when administered in appropriate and regular quantities. Once ingested, the probiotic microorganisms can modulate the balance and activities of the gastrointestinal microbiota, whose role is fundamental to gut homeostasis. It has been demonstrated that numerous factors, such as dietary and management constraints, can strongly affect the structure and activities of the gut microbial communities, leading to impaired health and performance in livestock animals. In this review, the most important benefits of yeast and bacterial probiotics upon the gastrointestinal microbial ecosystem in ruminants and monogastric animals (equines, pigs, poultry, fish) reported in the recent scientific literature are described, as well as their implications in terms of animal nutrition and health. Additional knowledge on the possible mechanisms of action is also provided.

  1. Interactions between Innate Immunity, Microbiota, and Probiotics.

    PubMed

    Giorgetti, GianMarco; Brandimarte, Giovanni; Fabiocchi, Federica; Ricci, Salvatore; Flamini, Paolo; Sandri, Giancarlo; Trotta, Maria Cristina; Elisei, Walter; Penna, Antonio; Lecca, Piera Giuseppina; Picchio, Marcello; Tursi, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The term "microbiota" means genetic inheritance associated with microbiota, which is about 100 times larger than the guest. The tolerance of the resident bacterial flora is an important key element of immune cell function. A key role in the interaction between the host and the microbiota is played by Paneth cell, which is able to synthesize and secrete proteins and antimicrobial peptides, such as α/β defensins, cathelicidin, 14 β-glycosidases, C-type lectins, and ribonuclease, in response to various stimuli. Recent studies found probiotics able to preserve intestinal homeostasis by downmodulating the immune response and inducing the development of T regulatory cells. Specific probiotic strain, as well as probiotic-driven metabolic products called "postbiotics," has been recently recognized and it is able to influence innate immunity. New therapeutic approaches based on probiotics are now available, and further treatments based on postbiotics will come in the future.

  2. Alteration of Bacterial Antibiotic Sensitivity After Short-Term Exposure to Diagnostic Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Darvish, Leili; Abounajmi, Mohammad; Zarei, Samira; Zare, Tahereh; Taheri, Mohammad; Nematollahi, Samaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background Many pathogenic bacteria show different levels of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, a lot of hospital-acquired infections are caused by highly resistant or multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. According to WHO, patients with drug-resistant infections have higher morbidity and mortality. Moreover, patients infected with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics considerably consume more healthcare resources. Objectives In this study, we explored a physical method of converting drug-resistant bacteria to drug-sensitive ones. Materials and Methods This is an in vitro case-control study, performed at the Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center (INIRPRC), Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS), Shiraz, Iran in 2014. All experiments were carried out using Gram-negative bacteria Klebsiella pneumonia and E. coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus group A, isolated from hospitalized patients. The bacterial strains were obtained from the Persian Type Culture Collection, IROST, Iran (Klebsiella pneumonia PTCC 1290) and Bacteriology Department of Shahid Faghihi Teaching Hospital, Shiraz, Iran (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus group A). The bacteria in culture plates were exposed to diagnostic ultrasound using a MyLab70XVG sonography system for 5 minutes. Then, the bacteria were cultured on Mueller-Hinton agar and incubated at 35°C for 18 hours. Finally, antibiotic susceptibility test was performed and the inhibition zone in both control and exposed groups were measured. Three replicate agar plates were used for each test and the inhibition zones of the plates were recorded. Results Compared with the results obtained from unexposed bacteria, statistically significant variations of sensitivity to antibiotics were found in some strains after short-term exposure. In particular, we found major differences (making antibiotic-resistant bacteria susceptible or vice versa) in the diameters of

  3. Antibacterial Compounds-Macrolactin Alters the Soil Bacterial Community and Abundance of the Gene Encoding PKS

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jun; Zhao, Mengli; Li, Rong; Huang, Qiwei; Rensing, Christopher; Raza, Waseem; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Macrolactin produced by many soil microbes has been shown to be an efficient antibacterial agent against many bacterial pathogens. However, studies examining the effect of macrolactin on both the soil bacterial community and the intrinsic bacterial species that harbor genes responsible for the production of this antibiotic have not been conducted so far. In this study, a mixture of macrolactin was isolated from the liquid culture of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6, and applied to the soil once a week for four weeks. 16S rRNA Illumina MiSeq sequencing showed that continuous application of macrolactin reduced the α-diversity of the soil bacterial community and thereby changed the relative abundance of microbes at both the phylum and genus level. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes was significantly increased along with a significant decrease in the relative abundance of Acidobacteria. However, the application of macrolactins had an insignificant effect on the total numbers of bacteria. Further, the native gene responsible for the production of macrolactin, the gene encoding polyketide synthase was reduced in copy number after the application of macrolactin. The results of this study suggested that a bactericide from a microbial source could decrease the diversity of the soil bacterial community and change the bacterial community structure. Moreover, the populations of the intrinsic bacterial species which harbor genes responsible for macrolactin production were inhibited when the external source antibiotic was applied. PMID:27965639

  4. Probiotics and gut health: a special focus on liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Gratz, Silvia Wilson; Mykkanen, Hannu; El-Nezami, Hani S

    2010-01-28

    Probiotic bacteria have well-established beneficial effects in the management of diarrhoeal diseases. Newer evidence suggests that probiotics have the potential to reduce the risk of developing inflammatory bowel diseases and intestinal bacterial overgrowth after gut surgery. In liver health, the main benefits of probiotics might occur through preventing the production and/or uptake of lipopolysaccharides in the gut, and therefore reducing levels of low-grade inflammation. Specific immune stimulation by probiotics through processes involving dendritic cells might also be beneficial to the host immunological status and help prevent pathogen translocation. Hepatic fat metabolism also seems to be influenced by the presence of commensal bacteria, and potentially by probiotics; although the mechanisms by which probiotic might act on the liver are still unclear. However, this might be of major importance in the future because low-grade inflammation, hepatic fat infiltration, and hepatitis might become more prevalent as a result of high fat intake and the increased prevalence of obesity.

  5. The use of a probiotic in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Koeppel, K N; Bertschinger, H; van Vuuren, M; Picard, J; Steiner, J; Williams, D; Cardwell, J

    2006-09-01

    Juvenile captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) often present with diarrhoea that is commonly associated with bacterial infections. A species-specific probiotic containing Lactobacillus Group 2 and Enterococcus faecium was prepared from healthy adult cheetahs. Juvenile cheetahs (n = 27) between 8 and 13 months of age were included in the probiotic trial. The animals were observed prior to and after feeding of the probiotic which was made available for 28 days. Feeding of the probiotic resulted in a significantly increased body weight in the treatment group (P = 0.026), while there was no increase in the control group. A relative improvement in the faecal quality in the probiotic group during the treatment period compared with the pre-treatment (P = 0.0363) and post-treatment (P = 0.004) period was observed. This was accompanied by an absence of blood and mucus in the faeces during the treatment period in the probiotic group.

  6. Soluble metals in residual oil fly ash alter innate and adaptive pulmonary immune responses to bacterial infection in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Jenny R. . E-mail: jur6@cdc.gov; Young, Shih-Houng; Castranova, Vincent; Antonini, James M.

    2007-06-15

    The soluble metals of the pollutant, residual oil fly ash (ROFA), have been shown to alter pulmonary bacterial clearance in rats. The goal of this study was to determine the potential effects on both the innate and adaptive lung immune responses after bacterial infection in rats pre-exposed to the soluble metals in ROFA. Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally dosed (i.t.) at day 0 with ROFA (R-Total) (1.0 mg/100 g body weight), the soluble fraction of ROFA (R-Soluble), the soluble sample subject to a chelator (R-Chelex), or phosphate-buffered saline (Saline). On day 3, rats were administered an i.t. dose of 5 x 10{sup 4} Listeria monocytogenes. On days 6, 8, and 10, bacterial pulmonary clearance was monitored and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed on days 3 (pre-infection), 6, 8, and 10. A concentrated first fraction of lavage fluid was retained for analysis of lactate dehydrogenase and albumin to assess lung injury. BAL cell number, phenotype, and production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) were assessed, and a variety of cytokines were measured in the BAL fluid. Rats pre-treated with R-Soluble showed elevated lung injury/cytotoxicity and increased cellular influx into the lungs. R-Soluble-treatment also altered ROS, RNS, and cytokine levels, and caused a degree of macrophage and T cell inhibition. These effects of R-Soluble result in increased pulmonary bacterial burden after infection. The results suggest that soluble metals in ROFA increase lung injury and inflammation, and alter both innate and adaptive pulmonary immune responses.

  7. New lactic acid bacterial strains from traditional Mongolian fermented milk products have altered adhesion to porcine gastric mucin depending on the carbon source.

    PubMed

    Kimoto-Nira, Hiromi; Yamasaki, Seishi; Sasaki, Keisuke; Moriya, Naoko; Takenaka, Akio; Suzuki, Chise

    2015-03-01

    Attachment of lactic acid bacteria to the mucosal surface of the gastrointestinal tract is a major property of probiotics. Here, we examined the ability of 21 lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from traditional fermented milk products in Mongolia to adhere to porcine gastric mucin in vitro. Higher attachment was observed with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains 6-8 and 8-1 than with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (positive control). Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strain 7-1 adhered to mucin as effectively as did strain GG. Heat inactivation decreased the adhesive ability of strains 6-8 and 8-1 but did not affect strain 7-1. The adhesion of strains 6-8, 7-1 and 8-1 was significantly inhibited when the cells were pretreated with periodate and trypsin, indicating that proteinaceous and carbohydrate-like cell surface compounds are involved in the adhesion of these strains. The adhesion of strain 7-1 was affected by the type of carbohydrate present in the growth medium, being higher with fructose than with lactose, galactose or xylose as the carbon source. The sugar content of 7-1 cells grown on various carbohydrates was negatively correlated with its adhesive ability. We provide new probiotic candidate strains and new information regarding carbohydrate preference that influences lactic acid bacterial adhesion to mucin.

  8. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria: technology and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Kailasapathy, Kaila

    2002-09-01

    In the recent past, there has been an explosion of probiotic health-based products. Many reports indicated that there is poor survival of probiotic bacteria in these products. Further, the survival of these bacteria in the human gastro-intestinal system is questionable. Providing probiotic living cells with a physical barrier against adverse environmental conditions is therefore an approach currently receiving considerable interest. The technology of micro-encapsulation of probiotic bacterial cells evolved from the immobilised cell culture technology used in the biotechnological industry. Several methods of micro-encapsulation of probiotic bacteria have been reported and include spray drying, extrusion, emulsion and phase separation. None of these reported methods however, has resulted in the large numbers of shelf-stable, viable probiotic bacterial cells necessary for use in industry for development of new probiotic products. The most commonly reported micro-encapsulation procedure is based on the calcium-alginate gel capsule formation. Kappa-carrageenan, gellan gum, gelatin and starch are also used as excipients for the micro-encapsulation of probiotic bacteria. The currently available equipment for micro-encapsulation is not able to generate large quantities of uniform sized micro or nano capsules. There is a need to design and develop equipment that will be able to generate precise and uniform micro or nano capsules in large quantities for industrial applications. The reported food vehicles for delivery of encapsulated probiotic bacteria are yoghurt, cheese, ice cream and mayonnaise. Studies need to be done on the application of micro-encapsulation of probiotic bacteria in other food systems. The number of probiotic supplements will increase in the future. More studies, however, need to be conducted on the efficacy of micro-encapsulation to deliver probiotic bacteria and their controlled or targeted release in the gastrointestinal tract.

  9. Probiotics and the immune response to vaccines.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Thomas T; Bell, Iona

    2010-08-01

    Probiotics are bacteria, but sometimes fungi, which when taken by the oral route may give some health benefits. The most compelling evidence for beneficial effects of probiotics is in the prevention and reduction in the duration of symptoms related to gut infectious disease. There is also evidence to show that some specific probiotics are beneficial in Clostridium difficile diarrhoea in the elderly. As further and better controlled clinical studies have appeared, some specific probiotics also appear to have beneficial effects in perhaps preventing and reducing the duration of symptoms due to acquired upper respiratory tract infections. In an attempt to explain these effects, attention has turned to the effects of some specific probiotics on the immune system. There is evidence that some specific probiotics can alter monocyte and natural killer cell function in the blood. Evidence is also accumulating that taking some specific probiotics can boost antibody responses to oral and systemically administered vaccines. The effect when shown is modest and is not always seen in different studies to all vaccines, but there is enough of a trend to make the area worthy of further investigation, particularly to tease out the mechanisms involved.

  10. Probiotics in Helicobacter pylori-induced peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Boltin, Doron

    2016-02-01

    The ideal treatment regimen for the eradication Helicobacter pylori infection has yet to be identified. Probiotics, particularly Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Saccharomyces, have been suggested as adjuncts to antibiotics for the treatment of H. pylori. There is in vitro evidence that probiotics dampen the Th1 response triggered by H. pylori, attenuate H. pylori associated hypochlorhydria and secrete bacteriocidal metabolites. Probiotics interact with the innate host immune system through adherence to the gastric epithelium and secretion of bacterial adhesins. In prospective human studies, probiotic monotherapy effectively decrease H. pylori density (expired (13)CO2) by 2.0%-64.0%. Probiotic monotherapy has also been shown to eradicate H. pylori in up to 32.5%, although subsequent recrudescence is likely. Eleven meta-analyses have evaluated the efficacy of probiotics as adjuvants to antibiotics for the eradication of H. pylori. The addition of a probiotic increased treatment efficacy, OR 1.12-2.07. This benefit is probably strain-specific and may only be significant with relatively ineffective antibiotic regimens. The pooled prevalence of adverse effects was 12.9%-31.5% among subjects receiving adjuvant probiotics, compared with 24.3%-45.9% among controls. Diarrhea in particular was significantly reduced in subjects receiving adjuvant probiotics, compared with controls (OR 0.16-0.47). A reduction in adverse events other than diarrhea is variable. Despite the apparent benefit on efficacy and side effects conferred by probiotics, the optimal probiotic species, dose and treatment duration has yet to be determined. Further studies are needed to identify the probiotic, antibiotic and patient factors which might predict benefit from probiotic supplementation.

  11. Effect of antibiotics, prebiotics and probiotics in treatment for hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Bongaerts, Ger; Severijnen, René; Timmerman, Harro

    2005-01-01

    In order to reduce ammonia production by urease-positive bacteria Solga recently hypothesised (S.F. Solga, Probiotics can treat hepatic encephalopathy, Medical Hypotheses 2003; 61: 307-13), that probiotics are new therapeutics for hepatic encephalopathy (HE), and that they may replace antibiotics and lactulose. This influenced our view of the effect of antibiotics, prebiotics, e.g., lactulose, and probiotics on intestinal bacteria in the treatment of HE. Intestinal ammonia arises from aminoacids after bacterial de-amination and not from urea making urease-positive bacteria irrelevant. Antibiotics are not preferred in the treatment of HE, since ammonia-producing antibiotic-resistant bacteria may survive and replace ammonia-producing antibiotic-susceptible bacteria. Intestinal prebiotics are carbohydrate-like compounds, such as lactulose and resistant starch, that beneficially affects host's health in a different manner than normal food. In the small bowel prebiotics are not absorbed and digested, but are fermented in the colon by colonic bacteria. Fermentation of prebiotics yields lactic, acetic and butyric acids, as well as gas especially hydrogen (H2). The massive H2 volumes cause rapid intestinal hurry and thus massive amounts of colonic bacteria, not only urease-positive bacteria, but also deaminating bacteria, are removed and intestinal uptake of toxic bacterial metabolites, e.g., ammonia, reduced. As living non-pathogenic micro-organisms, probiotics beneficially affect the host's health by fermenting non-absorbed sugars, especially in the small bowel. Thus, they reduce the substrate of the other bacteria, and simultaneously they create a surplus of fermentation products which may affect the non-probiotic flora. Regarding the fermentation products (lactic acid, ethanol, acetic acid and CO2) five groups of probiotic micro-organisms are known. It is argued that probiotic, CO2-producing (facultatively) heterolactic lactobacilli, i.e., lactobacilli, that produce

  12. Use of probiotics for prevention of radiation-induced diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Blanarova, C; Galovicova, A; Petrasova, D

    2009-01-01

    Probiotics can be applied in therapy and mainly in prevention of many civilization disorders. Experimental studies in animal models and clinical trials of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have consistently shown that the use of probiotic organisms may effectively down-modulate the severity of intestinal inflammation by altering the composition and metabolic and functional properties of indigenous flora of the gut. Previous studies showed a protective effect of probiotic administration after radiation therapy, and probiotic may play an important role in the pathogenesis of radiation enteropathy. These studies indicate that probiotics may decrease the risk of accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in host organisms and could potentially be used as probiotic food supplements to reduce oxidative stress (Tab. 2, Ref. 47). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  13. Chronic N-amended soils exhibit an altered bacterial community structure in Harvard Forest, MA, USA.

    PubMed

    Turlapati, Swathi A; Minocha, Rakesh; Bhiravarasa, Premsai S; Tisa, Louis S; Thomas, William K; Minocha, Subhash C

    2013-02-01

    At the Harvard Forest, Petersham, MA, the impact of 20 years of annual ammonium nitrate application to the mixed hardwood stand on soil bacterial communities was studied using 16S rRNA genes pyrosequencing. Amplification of 16S rRNA genes was done using DNA extracted from 30 soil samples (three treatments × two horizons × five subplots) collected from untreated (control), low N-amended (50 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) and high N-amended (150 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) plots. A total of 1.3 million sequences were processed using qiime. Although Acidobacteria represented the most abundant phylum based on the number of sequences, Proteobacteria were the most diverse in terms of operational taxonomic units (OTUs). UniFrac analyses revealed that the bacterial communities differed significantly among soil horizons and treatments. Microsite variability among the five subplots was also evident. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination of normalized OTU data followed by permutational manova further confirmed these observations. Richness indicators and indicator species analyses revealed higher bacterial diversity associated with N amendment. Differences in bacterial diversity and community composition associated with the N treatments were also observed at lower phylogenetic levels. Only 28-35% of the 6 936 total OTUs identified were common to three treatments, while the rest were specific to one treatment or common to two.

  14. Yeast supplementation altered the metabolic response to a combined viral-bacterial challenge in feedlot heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two treatments were evaluated in feedlot heifers to determine the effects of feeding a yeast supplement on metabolic responses to a combined viral-bacterial respiratory disease challenge. Thirty-two beef heifers (325 +/- 19.2 kg) were selected and randomly assigned to one of two treatments: 1) Contr...

  15. Inability of probiotic bacterial strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 to induce human platelet aggregation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J S; Rutherfurd, K J; Gill, H S

    2005-11-01

    Platelet aggregation contributes to the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis, and aggregation of platelets induced by lactobacilli is thought to be an important contributory factor in the development and progression of Lactobacillus endocarditis. The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of immunity-enhancing probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 on the activation and aggregation of human blood platelets. Whole blood samples from healthy individuals were incubated in vitro with HN001 or HN019 and subsequently labeled with platelet-specific monoclonal antibodies, fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated anti-CD41a (expressed on normal platelets), and phycoerythrin-streptavidin-conjugated anti-CD62p (expressed on activated platelets) before analysis by flow cytometry. Platelet-rich plasma was used to assist the gating of the platelet cluster. ADP and epinephrine were used as the physiological platelet activation agonists. Platelet aggregation-inducing strain Streptococcus sanguis 133-79 was used as a positive control strain. The mean fluorescence intensity of phycoerythrin and the percentage of platelets expressing the CD62p marker were used to assess the degree of platelet activation. The percentage of CD62p-positive platelets and the light scatter profiles of the agonist-activated platelets were used to identify the occurrence and degree of platelet aggregation. HN001 and HN019 had no effect on spontaneous platelet activation and aggregation; they also failed to exacerbate the platelet aggregation activity induced by ADP and epinephrine. Therefore, these test probiotic strains HN001 and HN019 are less likely to participate in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis or other thrombotic disorders with regard to platelet aggregation factors.

  16. Identification of the Atlantic cod L-amino acid oxidase and its alterations following bacterial exposure.

    PubMed

    Kitani, Yoichiro; Fernandes, Jorge M O; Kiron, Viswanath

    2015-06-01

    Antibacterial factors that are present in epidermal mucus of fish have a potential role in the first line of host defence to bacterial pathogens. This study reports the identification of L-amino acid oxidase (LAO) in Atlantic cod (GmLao) and the changes in the molecule following bacterial exposure. The gmlao transcripts and LAO activity were present on both the body surface and in the internal organs of the fish. Relative mRNA level of gmlao increased significantly in the gills, the spleen and the head kidney (up to 8-fold) of fish that were challenged with the pathogen Vibrio anguillarum. The gmlao expression in skin was 4-fold higher in challenged fish. Our data indicate that LAO may be an important effector of antibacterial defence in Atlantic cod.

  17. Grain-rich diets altered the colonic fermentation and mucosa-associated bacterial communities and induced mucosal injuries in goats

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Huimin; Liu, Junhua; Feng, Panfei; Zhu, Weiyun; Mao, Shengyong

    2016-01-01

    Remarkably little information is available about the impact of high-grain (HG) feeding on colonic mucosa-associated bacteria and mucosal morphology. In the present study, 12 male goats were randomly assigned to either a hay diet (n = 6) or an HG diet (65% grain; n = 6) to characterise the changes in the composition of the bacterial community in colonic mucosa and the mucosal morphology of the colon. The results showed that HG feeding decreased the colonic pH and increased the concentrations of total short chain fatty acids and lipopolysaccharides in colonic digesta. The principal coordinate analysis results showed that the HG diet altered the colonic mucosal bacterial communities, with an increase in the abundance of genus Blautia and a decrease in the abundance of genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Lactococcus. The HG-fed goats showed sloughing of the surface layer epithelium, intercellular tight junction erosion, cell mitochondrial damage, and upregulation of the relative mRNA expression of IL-2 and IFN-γ in colonic mucosa. Collectively, our data indicate that HG feeding induced changes in colonic mucosal morphology and cytokines expression that might be caused by excessive fermentation and dramatic shifts in the bacterial populations in the colon. PMID:26841945

  18. Starter Feeding Supplementation Alters Colonic Mucosal Bacterial Communities and Modulates Mucosal Immune Homeostasis in Newborn Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junhua; Bian, Gaorui; Sun, Daming; Zhu, Weiyun; Mao, Shengyong

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of starter feeding supplementation on colonic mucosal bacterial communities and on mucosal immune homeostasis in pre-weaned lambs. We selected eight pairs of 10-day-old lamb twins. One twin was fed breast milk (M, n = 8), while the other was fed breast milk plus starter (M+S, n = 8). The lambs were sacrificed at 56 days age. Colonic content was collected to determine the pH and the concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and lactate. The colonic mucosa was harvested to characterize the bacterial communities using Illumina MiSeq sequencing and to determine mRNA expression levels of cytokines and toll-like receptors (TLR) using quantitative real-time PCR. The results show that starter feeding decreased luminal pH and increased the concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, total VFA, and lactate in the colon. The principal coordinate analysis (PCA) and analysis of molecular variance show that starter feeding supplementation significantly affected the colonic mucosal bacterial communities with a higher relative abundance of the dominant taxa unclassified S24-7, Oscillibacter, Prevotella, Parabacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Ruminobacter, and Succinivibrio, and a lower proportion of unclassified Ruminococcaceae, RC9_gut_group, Blautia, Phocaeicola, Phascolarctobacterium, unclassified BS11_gut_group, unclassified family_XIII, and Campylobacter in lambs. Meanwhile, starter feeding decreased mRNA expression of TLR4 and cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ in colonic tissue. Furthermore, the changes in the colonic mucosal mRNA expression of TLR and cytokines were associated with changes in mucosal bacterial composition. These findings may provide new insights into colonic mucosal bacteria and immune homeostasis in developing lambs. PMID:28382025

  19. Wheat and Rice Growth Stages and Fertilization Regimes Alter Soil Bacterial Community Structure, But Not Diversity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jichen; Xue, Chao; Song, Yang; Wang, Lei; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining soil fertility and the microbial communities that determine fertility is critical to sustainable agricultural strategies, and the use of different organic fertilizer (OF) regimes represents an important practice in attempts to preserve soil quality. However, little is known about the dynamic response of bacterial communities to fertilization regimes across crop growth stages. In this study, we examined microbial community structure and diversity across eight representative growth stages of wheat-rice rotation under four different fertilization treatments: no nitrogen fertilizer (NNF), chemical fertilizer (CF), organic-inorganic mixed fertilizer (OIMF), and OF. Quantitative PCR (QPCR) and high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments revealed that growth stage as the best predictor of bacterial community abundance and structure. Additionally, bacterial community compositions differed between wheat and rice rotations. Relative to soils under wheat rotation, soils under rice rotation contained higher relative abundances (RA) of anaerobic and mesophilic microbes and lower RA of aerophilic microbes. With respect to fertilization regime, NNF plots had a higher abundance of nitrogen-fixing Cyanobacteria. OIMF had a lower abundance of ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota compared with CF. Application of chemical fertilizers (CF and OIMF treatments) significantly increased the abundance of some generally oligotrophic bacteria such those belonging to the Acidobacteria, while more copiotrophic of the phylum Proteobacteria increased with OF application. A high correlation coefficient was found when comparing RA of Acidobacteria based upon QPCR vs. sequence analysis, yet poor correlations were found for the α- and β- Proteobacteria, highlighting the caution required when interpreting these molecular data. In total, crop, fertilization scheme and plant developmental stage all influenced soil microbial community structure, but not total levels of alpha

  20. Wheat and Rice Growth Stages and Fertilization Regimes Alter Soil Bacterial Community Structure, But Not Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jichen; Xue, Chao; Song, Yang; Wang, Lei; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining soil fertility and the microbial communities that determine fertility is critical to sustainable agricultural strategies, and the use of different organic fertilizer (OF) regimes represents an important practice in attempts to preserve soil quality. However, little is known about the dynamic response of bacterial communities to fertilization regimes across crop growth stages. In this study, we examined microbial community structure and diversity across eight representative growth stages of wheat-rice rotation under four different fertilization treatments: no nitrogen fertilizer (NNF), chemical fertilizer (CF), organic–inorganic mixed fertilizer (OIMF), and OF. Quantitative PCR (QPCR) and high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments revealed that growth stage as the best predictor of bacterial community abundance and structure. Additionally, bacterial community compositions differed between wheat and rice rotations. Relative to soils under wheat rotation, soils under rice rotation contained higher relative abundances (RA) of anaerobic and mesophilic microbes and lower RA of aerophilic microbes. With respect to fertilization regime, NNF plots had a higher abundance of nitrogen–fixing Cyanobacteria. OIMF had a lower abundance of ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota compared with CF. Application of chemical fertilizers (CF and OIMF treatments) significantly increased the abundance of some generally oligotrophic bacteria such those belonging to the Acidobacteria, while more copiotrophic of the phylum Proteobacteria increased with OF application. A high correlation coefficient was found when comparing RA of Acidobacteria based upon QPCR vs. sequence analysis, yet poor correlations were found for the α- and β- Proteobacteria, highlighting the caution required when interpreting these molecular data. In total, crop, fertilization scheme and plant developmental stage all influenced soil microbial community structure, but not total levels of

  1. Tamsulosin alters levofloxacin pharmacokinetics in prostates derived from rats with acute bacterial prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guo-Dong; Xiao, Ming-Zhao; Zhou, Yuan-Da; Yang, Jing; He, Hai-Xia; He, Yue; Zeng, Yang

    2013-03-01

    The combination of levofloxacin and α1 adrenergic antagonist treatment is the current preferred choice for both bacterial and non-bacterial prostatitis. The aim of this study is to explore the influence of α1 adrenergic antagonists on the pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin using rat models with acute bacterial prostatitis (ABP) induced by direct injection with Escherichia coli (ATCC25922). A total of 96 model rats were randomly assigned into two groups: the experimental group (treated with both tamsulosin and levofloxacin, n=48) and the control group (treated with levofloxacin and solvents, n=48). Six rats from each group were euthanized to collect blood, liver, kidney and prostate samples at the time points of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 h after drug administration. The levofloxacin concentrations were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using the 3p97 software program. There were no obvious differences (P>0.05) between the experimental and control groups in the major pharmacokinetic parameters of levofloxacin, including the halftime (t1/2), time to peak (tpeak), clearance rate (CL), maximum concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC0∼12), in the plasma or in the hepatic and kidney tissues of the model rats. However, in the prostatic tissues, tamsulosin increased the Cmax, prolonged the t1/2 and decreased the CL of levofloxacin (P<0.05). These results indicate that tamsulosin may enhance the effect of levofloxacin in the treatment of bacterial prostatitis without changing the drug concentration in the liver and kidney.

  2. Site-specific mouth rinsing can improve oral odor by altering bacterial counts

    PubMed Central

    Alqumber, Mohammed A.; Arafa, Khaled A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether site-specific mouth rinsing with oral disinfectants can improve oral odor beyond the traditional panoral mouth disinfection with mouth rinses by targeting specifically oral malodor implicated anaerobic bacteria Methods: Twenty healthy fasting subjects volunteered for a blinded prospective, descriptive correlational crossover cross-section clinical trial conducted during the month of Ramadan between July and August 2013 in Albaha province in Saudi Arabia involving the application of Listerine® Cool Mint® mouth rinse by either the traditional panoral rinsing method, or a site-specific disinfection method targeting the subgingival and supragingival plaque and the posterior third of the tongue dorsum, while avoiding the remaining locations within the oral cavity. The viable anaerobic and aerobic bacterial counts, volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) levels, organoleptic assessment of oral odor, and the tongue-coating index were compared at baseline, one, 5, and 9 hours after the treatment. Results: The site-specific disinfection method reduced the VSCs and anaerobic bacterial loads while keeping the aerobic bacterial numbers higher than the traditional panoral rinsing method. Conclusion: Site-specific disinfection can more effectively maintain a healthy oral cavity by predominantly disinfecting the niches of anaerobic bacteria within the oral cavity. PMID:25399224

  3. Atmospheric N deposition alters connectance, but not functional potential among saprotrophic bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Zachary B; Zak, Donald R

    2015-06-01

    The use of co-occurrence patterns to investigate interactions between micro-organisms has provided novel insight into organismal interactions within microbial communities. However, anthropogenic impacts on microbial co-occurrence patterns and ecosystem function remain an important gap in our ecological knowledge. In a northern hardwood forest ecosystem located in Michigan, USA, 20 years of experimentally increased atmospheric N deposition has reduced forest floor decay and increased soil C storage. This ecosystem-level response occurred concomitantly with compositional changes in saprophytic fungi and bacteria. Here, we investigated the influence of experimental N deposition on biotic interactions among forest floor bacterial assemblages by employing phylogenetic and molecular ecological network analysis. When compared to the ambient treatment, the forest floor bacterial community under experimental N deposition was less rich, more phylogenetically dispersed and exhibited a more clustered co-occurrence network topology. Together, our observations reveal the presence of increased biotic interactions among saprotrophic bacterial assemblages under future rates of N deposition. Moreover, they support the hypothesis that nearly two decades of experimental N deposition can modify the organization of microbial communities and provide further insight into why anthropogenic N deposition has reduced decomposition, increased soil C storage and accelerated phenolic DOC production in our field experiment.

  4. Microbial characterization of probiotics--advisory report of the Working Group "8651 Probiotics" of the Belgian Superior Health Council (SHC).

    PubMed

    Huys, Geert; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Delvigne, Frank; De Vuyst, Luc; Heyndrickx, Marc; Pot, Bruno; Dubois, Jean-Jacques; Daube, Georges

    2013-08-01

    When ingested in sufficient numbers, probiotics are expected to confer one or more proven health benefits on the consumer. Theoretically, the effectiveness of a probiotic food product is the sum of its microbial quality and its functional potential. Whereas the latter may vary much with the body (target) site, delivery mode, human target population, and health benefit envisaged microbial assessment of the probiotic product quality is more straightforward. The range of stakeholders that need to be informed on probiotic quality assessments is extremely broad, including academics, food and biotherapeutic industries, healthcare professionals, competent authorities, consumers, and professional press. In view of the rapidly expanding knowledge on this subject, the Belgian Superior Health Council installed Working Group "8651 Probiotics" to review the state of knowledge regarding the methodologies that make it possible to characterize strains and products with purported probiotic activity. This advisory report covers three main steps in the microbial quality assessment process, i.e. (i) correct species identification and strain-specific typing of bacterial and yeast strains used in probiotic applications, (ii) safety assessment of probiotic strains used for human consumption, and (iii) quality of the final probiotic product in terms of its microbial composition, concentration, stability, authenticity, and labeling.

  5. Alteration of bacterial communities and organic matter in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) supplied with soil and organic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Mocali, Stefano; Galeffi, Carlo; Perrin, Elena; Florio, Alessandro; Migliore, Melania; Canganella, Francesco; Bianconi, Giovanna; Di Mattia, Elena; Dell'Abate, Maria Teresa; Fani, Renato; Benedetti, Anna

    2013-02-01

    The alteration of the organic matter (OM) and the composition of bacterial community in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) supplied with soil (S) and a composted organic fertilizer (A) was examined at the beginning and at the end of 3 weeks of incubation under current-producing as well as no-current-producing conditions. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed a significant alteration of the microbial community structure in MFCs generating electricity as compared with no-current-producing MFCs. The genetic diversity of cultivable bacterial communities was assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of 106 bacterial isolates obtained by using both generic and elective media. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of the more representative RAPD groups indicated that over 50.4% of the isolates from MFCs fed with S were Proteobacteria, 25.1% Firmicutes, and 24.5% Actinobacteria, whereas in MFCs supplied with A 100% of the dominant species belonged to γ-Proteobacteria. The chemical analysis performed by fractioning the OM and using thermal analysis showed that the amount of total organic carbon contained in the soluble phase of the electrochemically active chambers significantly decreased as compared to the no-current-producing systems, whereas the OM of the solid phase became more humified and aromatic along with electricity generation, suggesting a significant stimulation of a humification process of the OM. These findings demonstrated that electroactive bacteria are commonly present in aerobic organic substrates such as soil or a fertilizer and that MFCs could represent a powerful tool for exploring the mineralization and humification processes of the soil OM.

  6. Coordinate expression of multiple bacterial carotenoid genes in canola leading to altered carotenoid production.

    PubMed

    Ravanello, Monica P; Ke, Dangyang; Alvarez, Julie; Huang, Bihua; Shewmaker, Christine K

    2003-10-01

    Carotenoids have drawn much attention recently because of their potentially positive benefits to human health as well as their utility in both food and animal feed. Previous work in canola (Brassica napus) seed over-expressing the bacterial phytoene synthase gene (crtB) demonstrated a change in carotenoid content, such that the total levels of carotenoids, including phytoene and downstream metabolites like beta-carotene, were elevated 50-fold, with the ratio of beta- to alpha-carotene being 2:1. This result raised the possibility that the composition of metabolites in this pathway could be modified further in conjunction with the increased flux obtained with crtB. Here we report on the expression of additional bacterial genes for the enzymes geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (crtE), phytoene desaturase (crtI) and lycopene cyclase (crtY and the plant B. napus lycopene beta-cyclase) engineered in conjunction with phytoene synthase (crtB) in transgenic canola seed. Analysis of the carotenoid levels by HPLC revealed a 90% decrease in phytoene levels for the double construct expressing crtB in conjunction with crtI. The transgenic seed from all the double constructs, including the one expressing the bacterial crtB and the plant lycopene beta-cyclase showed an increase in the levels of total carotenoid similar to that previously observed by expressing crtB alone but minimal effects were observed with respect to the ratio of beta- to alpha-carotene compared to the original construct. However, the beta- to alpha-carotene ratio was increased from 2:1 to 3:1 when a triple construct consisting of the bacterial phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase and lycopene cyclase genes were expressed together. This result suggests that the bacterial genes may form an aggregate complex that allows in vivo activity of all three proteins through substrate channeling. This finding should allow further manipulation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway for downstream products with

  7. Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today, with estimated growth to 20 billion dollars worldwide by 2010 (GIA, 2008). The increasing demand for probiotics and the new food markets where probiotics are introduced, challenges the industry to produce high quantities of probiotic cultures in a viable and stable form. Dried concentrated probiotic cultures are the most convenient form for incorporation into functional foods, given the ease of storage, handling and transport, especially for shelf-stable functional products. This chapter will discuss various aspects of the challenges associated with the manufacturing of probiotic cultures.

  8. Microbial manipulation of the rat dam changes bacterial colonization and alters properties of the gut in her offspring.

    PubMed

    Fåk, Frida; Ahrné, Siv; Molin, Göran; Jeppsson, Bengt; Weström, Björn

    2008-01-01

    The impact of an altered bacterial colonization on gut development has not been thoroughly studied, despite the increased risk of certain diseases with a disturbed microbiota after birth. This study was conducted to determine the effect of microbial manipulation, i.e., antibiotic treatment or Escherichia coli exposure, of the dam on bacterial colonization and gut development in the offspring. Pregnant rats were administered either broad-spectrum antibiotics 3 days before parturition or live nonpathogenic E. coli Culture Collection of University of Göteborg, Sweden type strain (CCUG 29300(T)) 1 wk before parturition and up to 14 days of lactation in the drinking water. Cecal bacterial levels, gut growth, intestinal permeability, digestive enzyme levels, and intestinal inflammation were studied in 2-wk-old rats. Pups from dams that were antibiotic-treated had higher densities of Enterobacteriaceae, which correlated with a decreased stomach growth and function, lower pancreatic protein levels, higher intestinal permeability, and increased plasma levels of the acute phase protein, haptoglobin, compared with pups from untreated mothers. Exposure of pregnant/lactating mothers to E. coli CCUG 29300(T), also resulting in increased Enterobacteriaceae levels, gave in the offspring similar results on the stomach and an increased small intestinal growth compared with the control pups. Furthermore, E. coli pups showed increased mucosal disaccharidase activities, increased liver, spleen, and adrenal weights, as well as increased plasma concentrations of haptoglobin. These findings indicate that disturbing the normal bacterial colonization after birth, by increasing the densities of cecal Enterobacteriaceae, appears to have lasting effects on the postnatal microflora, which affects gut growth and function.

  9. Soil bacterial community and functional shifts in response to altered snowpack in moist acidic tundra of northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricketts, Michael P.; Poretsky, Rachel S.; Welker, Jeffrey M.; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A.

    2016-09-01

    . Bacterial functional potential was inferred using ancestral state reconstruction to approximate functional gene abundance, revealing a decreased abundance of genes required for soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition in the organic layers of the deep snow accumulation zones. These results suggest that predicted climate change scenarios may result in altered soil bacterial community structure and function, and indicate a reduction in decomposition potential, alleviated temperature limitations on extracellular enzymatic efficiency, or both. The fate of stored C in Arctic soils ultimately depends on the balance between these mechanisms.

  10. Permeable Reactive Barriers Designed To Mitigate Eutrophication Alter Bacterial Community Composition and Aquifer Redox Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Kenly A; Foreman, Kenneth H; Weisman, David; Bowen, Jennifer L

    2015-10-01

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) consist of a labile carbon source that is positioned to intercept nitrate-laden groundwater to prevent eutrophication. Decomposition of carbon in the PRB drives groundwater anoxic, fostering microbial denitrification. Such PRBs are an ideal habitat to examine microbial community structure under high-nitrate, carbon-replete conditions in coastal aquifers. We examined a PRB installed at the Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve in Falmouth, MA. Groundwater within and below the PRB was depleted in oxygen compared to groundwater at sites upgradient and at adjacent reference sites. Nitrate concentrations declined from a high of 25 μM upgradient and adjacent to the barrier to <0.1 μM within the PRB. We analyzed the total and active bacterial communities filtered from groundwater flowing through the PRB using amplicons of 16S rRNA and of the 16S rRNA genes. Analysis of the 16S rRNA genes collected from the PRB showed that the total bacterial community had high relative abundances of bacteria thought to have alternative metabolisms, such as fermentation, including candidate phyla OD1, OP3, TM7, and GN02. In contrast, the active bacteria had lower abundances of many of these bacteria, suggesting that the bacterial taxa that differentiate the PRB groundwater community were not actively growing. Among the environmental variables analyzed, dissolved oxygen concentration explained the largest proportion of total community structure. There was, however, no significant correlation between measured environmental parameters and the active microbial community, suggesting that controls on the active portion may differ from the community as a whole.

  11. Differential Alterations in Host Peripheral Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Chemiluminescence During the Course of Bacterial and Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, James P.; Bodroghy, Robert S.; Jahrling, Peter B.; Sobocinski, Philip Z.

    1980-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that stimulation of the oxidative metabolism in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) by in vitro phagocytosis of various microorganisms results in photon emission, termed chemiluminescence (CL). Studies were conducted to determine whether bacterial and viral infections induce enhanced basal endogenous host peripheral PMN CL in the absence of in vitro phagocytic stimulation. Nonimmune rats and guinea pigs as well as immune rats were inoculated with various doses (105 to 107) of live vaccine strain Francisella tularensis (per 100 g of body weight). In addition, nonimmune guinea pigs were inoculated with 40,000 plaque-forming units of Pichinde virus. Luminol-assisted endogenous PMN CL was measured at various time intervals after inoculation of microorganisms. Enhanced endogenous PMN CL was detected as early as the appearance of fever (12 h) in nonimmune animals infected with F. tularensis. Addition of sodium azide, N-ethylmaleimide, superoxide dismutase, or catalase to the CL reaction mixture containing PMN from infected animals significantly decreased the CL response. Immune rats challenged with F. tularensis exhibited resistance to infection and a decreased PMN CL compared with nonimmune rats 24 and 48 h after inoculation. However, the CL response from immune rats was significantly elevated, compared with control values. In contrast to the results obtained with the model bacterial infection, PMN isolated from guinea pigs inoculated with Pichinde virus failed to exhibit enhanced CL, compared with controls, despite significant viremia and fever. Results suggest that enhanced endogenous CL during bacterial infection occurs through mechanisms involving increased PMN oxidative metabolism and the subsequent generation of microbicidal forms of oxygen. Further, measurement of endogenous PMN CL may have diagnostic and prognostic value in infectious diseases. PMID:7228389

  12. Irritable bowel syndrome, gut microbiota and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Beom Jae; Bak, Young-Tae

    2011-07-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex disorder characterized by abdominal symptoms including chronic abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. The etiology of IBS is multifactorial, as abnormal gut motility, visceral hypersensitivity, disturbed neural function of the brain-gut axis and an abnormal autonomic nervous system are all implicated in disease progression. Based on recent experimental and clinical studies, it has been suggested that additional etiological factors including low-grade inflammation, altered gut microbiota and alteration in the gut immune system play important roles in the pathogenesis of IBS. Therefore, therapeutic restoration of altered intestinal microbiota may be an ideal treatment for IBS. Probiotics are live organisms that are believed to cause no harm and result in health benefits for the host. Clinical efficacy of probiotics has been shown in the treatment or prevention of some gastrointestinal inflammation-associated disorders including traveler's diarrhea, antibiotics-associated diarrhea, pouchitis of the restorative ileal pouch and necrotizing enterocolitis. The molecular mechanisms, as cause of IBS pathogenesis, affected by altered gut microbiota and gut inflammation-immunity are reviewed. The effect of probiotics on the gut inflammation-immune systems and the results from clinical trials of probiotics for the treatment of IBS are also summarized.

  13. Drying process strongly affects probiotics viability and functionalities.

    PubMed

    Iaconelli, Cyril; Lemetais, Guillaume; Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2015-11-20

    Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria.

  14. Probiotics, gut microbiota and health.

    PubMed

    Butel, M-J

    2014-01-01

    The human gut is a huge complex ecosystem where microbiota, nutrients, and host cells interact extensively, a process crucial for the gut homeostasis and host development with a real partnership. The various bacterial communities that make up the gut microbiota have many functions including metabolic, barrier effect, and trophic functions. Hence, any dysbiosis could have negative consequences in terms of health and many diseases have been associated to impairment of the gut microbiota. These close relationships between gut microbiota, health, and disease, have led to great interest in using probiotics (i.e. live micro-organisms), or prebiotics (i.e. non-digestible substrates) to positively modulate the gut microbiota to prevent or treat some diseases. This review focuses on probiotics, their mechanisms of action, safety, and major health benefits. Health benefits remain to be proven in some indications, and further studies on the best strain(s), dose, and algorithm of administration to be used are needed. Nevertheless, probiotic administration seems to have a great potential in terms of health that justifies more research.

  15. Insect Gut Symbiont Susceptibility to Host Antimicrobial Peptides Caused by Alteration of the Bacterial Cell Envelope*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Son, Dae Woo; Kim, Chan-Hee; Cho, Jae Hyun; Marchetti, Roberta; Silipo, Alba; Sturiale, Luisa; Park, Ha Young; Huh, Ye Rang; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Fukatsu, Takema; Molinaro, Antonio; Lee, Bok Luel

    2015-01-01

    The molecular characterization of symbionts is pivotal for understanding the cross-talk between symbionts and hosts. In addition to valuable knowledge obtained from symbiont genomic studies, the biochemical characterization of symbionts is important to fully understand symbiotic interactions. The bean bug (Riptortus pedestris) has been recognized as a useful experimental insect gut symbiosis model system because of its cultivatable Burkholderia symbionts. This system is greatly advantageous because it allows the acquisition of a large quantity of homogeneous symbionts from the host midgut. Using these naïve gut symbionts, it is possible to directly compare in vivo symbiotic cells with in vitro cultured cells using biochemical approaches. With the goal of understanding molecular changes that occur in Burkholderia cells as they adapt to the Riptortus gut environment, we first elucidated that symbiotic Burkholderia cells are highly susceptible to purified Riptortus antimicrobial peptides. In search of the mechanisms of the increased immunosusceptibility of symbionts, we found striking differences in cell envelope structures between cultured and symbiotic Burkholderia cells. The bacterial lipopolysaccharide O antigen was absent from symbiotic cells examined by gel electrophoretic and mass spectrometric analyses, and their membranes were more sensitive to detergent lysis. These changes in the cell envelope were responsible for the increased susceptibility of the Burkholderia symbionts to host innate immunity. Our results suggest that the symbiotic interactions between the Riptortus host and Burkholderia gut symbionts induce bacterial cell envelope changes to achieve successful gut symbiosis. PMID:26116716

  16. CRISPR Perturbation of Gene Expression Alters Bacterial Fitness under Stress and Reveals Underlying Epistatic Constraints.

    PubMed

    Otoupal, Peter B; Erickson, Keesha E; Escalas-Bordoy, Antoni; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2017-01-20

    The evolution of antibiotic resistance has engendered an impending global health crisis that necessitates a greater understanding of how resistance emerges. The impact of nongenetic factors and how they influence the evolution of resistance is a largely unexplored area of research. Here we present a novel application of CRISPR-Cas9 technology for investigating how gene expression governs the adaptive pathways available to bacteria during the evolution of resistance. We examine the impact of gene expression changes on bacterial adaptation by constructing a library of deactivated CRISPR-Cas9 synthetic devices to tune the expression of a set of stress-response genes in Escherichia coli. We show that artificially inducing perturbations in gene expression imparts significant synthetic control over fitness and growth during stress exposure. We present evidence that these impacts are reversible; strains with synthetically perturbed gene expression regained wild-type growth phenotypes upon stress removal, while maintaining divergent growth characteristics under stress. Furthermore, we demonstrate a prevailing trend toward negative epistatic interactions when multiple gene perturbations are combined simultaneously, thereby posing an intrinsic constraint on gene expression underlying adaptive trajectories. Together, these results emphasize how CRISPR-Cas9 can be employed to engineer gene expression changes that shape bacterial adaptation, and present a novel approach to synthetically control the evolution of antimicrobial resistance.

  17. Microorganisms with claimed probiotic properties: an overview of recent literature.

    PubMed

    Fijan, Sabina

    2014-05-05

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Health benefits have mainly been demonstrated for specific probiotic strains of the following genera: Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Escherichia coli. The human microbiota is getting a lot of attention today and research has already demonstrated that alteration of this microbiota may have far-reaching consequences. One of the possible routes for correcting dysbiosis is by consuming probiotics. The credibility of specific health claims of probiotics and their safety must be established through science-based clinical studies. This overview summarizes the most commonly used probiotic microorganisms and their demonstrated health claims. As probiotic properties have been shown to be strain specific, accurate identification of particular strains is also very important. On the other hand, it is also demonstrated that the use of various probiotics for immunocompromised patients or patients with a leaky gut has also yielded infections, sepsis, fungemia, bacteraemia. Although the vast majority of probiotics that are used today are generally regarded as safe and beneficial for healthy individuals, caution in selecting and monitoring of probiotics for patients is needed and complete consideration of risk-benefit ratio before prescribing is recommended.

  18. Microorganisms with Claimed Probiotic Properties: An Overview of Recent Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fijan, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Health benefits have mainly been demonstrated for specific probiotic strains of the following genera: Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Escherichia coli. The human microbiota is getting a lot of attention today and research has already demonstrated that alteration of this microbiota may have far-reaching consequences. One of the possible routes for correcting dysbiosis is by consuming probiotics. The credibility of specific health claims of probiotics and their safety must be established through science-based clinical studies. This overview summarizes the most commonly used probiotic microorganisms and their demonstrated health claims. As probiotic properties have been shown to be strain specific, accurate identification of particular strains is also very important. On the other hand, it is also demonstrated that the use of various probiotics for immunocompromised patients or patients with a leaky gut has also yielded infections, sepsis, fungemia, bacteraemia. Although the vast majority of probiotics that are used today are generally regarded as safe and beneficial for healthy individuals, caution in selecting and monitoring of probiotics for patients is needed and complete consideration of risk-benefit ratio before prescribing is recommended. PMID:24859749

  19. The Gut Microbiota and Human Health with an Emphasis on the Use of Microencapsulated Bacterial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Satya; Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Saha, Shyamali; Cantor, Arielle

    2011-01-01

    The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in maintaining health. Alterations of the gut bacterial population have been associated with a number of diseases. Past and recent studies suggest that one can positively modify the contents of the gut microbiota by introducing prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, and other therapeutics. This paper focuses on probiotic modulation of the gut microbiota by their delivery to the lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT). There are numerous obstacles to overcome before microorganisms can be utilized as therapeutics. One important limitation is the delivery of viable cells to the lower GIT without a significant loss of cell viability and metabolic features through the harsh conditions of the upper GIT. Microencapsulation has been shown to overcome this, with various types of microcapsules available for resolving this limitation. This paper discusses the gut microbiota and its role in disease, with a focus on microencapsulated probiotics and their potentials and limitations. PMID:21772792

  20. Preventive effects of different probiotic formulations on travelers' diarrhea model in wistar rats : preventive effects of probiotics on TD.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Rozan, Pascale; Messaoudi, Michaël

    2010-04-01

    A new animal model of travelers' diarrhea has been developed by infecting rats orally with a strain of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in order to assess the efficacy of three probiotic formulations for the prevention of travelers' diarrhea. Five groups of six rats were given daily (by oral gavage) either a placebo (negative and positive control groups), the suspension of bacterial probiotics called FF1, the yeast probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii, or a combination of both, called Protecflor(TM). After 14 days of treatment, all groups except the negative control one were infected by oral administration of E. coli. Body temperature, body weight, food and water consumption, stools consistency, behavior, and cytokines secretion were disturbed following E. coli infection. Probiotics-treated groups generally displayed less-pronounced symptoms, the combination of probiotics Protecflor(TM) being the most effective.

  1. Probiotics and necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Paul; Hall, Nigel J; Eaton, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Probiotics for the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis have attracted a huge interest. Combined data from heterogeneous randomised controlled trials suggest that probiotics may decrease the incidence of NEC. However, the individual studies use a variety of probiotic products, and the group at greatest risk of NEC, i.e., those with a birth weight of less than 1000 g, is relatively under-represented in these trials so we do not have adequate evidence of either efficacy or safety to recommend universal prophylactic administration of probiotics to premature infants. These problems have polarized neonatologists, with some taking the view that it is unethical not to universally administer probiotics to premature infants, whereas others regard the meta-analyses as flawed and that there is insufficient evidence to recommend routine probiotic administration. Another problem is that the mechanism by which probiotics might act is not clear, although some experimental evidence is starting to accumulate. This may allow development of surrogate endpoints of effectiveness, refinement of probiotic regimes, or even development of pharmacological agents that may act through the same mechanism. Hence, although routine probiotic administration is controversial, studies of probiotic effects may ultimately lead us to effective means to prevent this devastating disease.

  2. Safety Assessment of Probiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Boyle, Robert J.; Margolles, Abelardo; Frias, Rafael; Gueimonde, Miguel

    Viable microbes have been a natural part of human diet throughout the history of mankind. Today, different fermented foods and other foods containing live microbes are consumed around the world, including industrialized countries, where the diet has become increasingly sterile during the last decades. By definition, probiotics are viable microbes with documented beneficial effects on host health. Probiotics have an excellent safety record, both in humans and in animals. Despite the wide and continuously increasing consumption of probiotics, adverse events related to probiotic use are extremely rare. Many popular probiotic strains such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria can be considered as components of normal healthy intestinal microbiota, and thus are not thought to pose a risk for the host health - in contrast, beneficial effects on health are commonly reported. Nevertheless, the safety of probiotics is an important issue, in particular in the case of new potential probiotics which do not have a long history of safe use, and of probiotics belonging to species for which general assumption of safety cannot be made. Furthermore, safety of probiotics in high-risk populations such as critically ill patients and immunocompromized subjects deserves particular attention, as virtually all reported cases of bacteremia and fungemia associated with probiotic use, involve subjects with underlying diseases, compromised immune system or compromised intestinal integrity.

  3. Clinical Uses of Probiotics.

    PubMed

    Islam, Saif Ul

    2016-02-01

    Probiotics are live nonpathogenic microorganisms. Many of these microorganisms are part of the normal human gut flora, where they live in a symbiotic relationship. Probiotics have been used to treat gastrointestinal (GI) and non-GI medical conditions. However, the data supporting their use are often conflicting, especially for non-GI-associated illnesses. The strongest evidence supporting the use of probiotics is related to the treatment of acute diarrhea and pouchitis. Atopic eczema in children and genitourinary infections are the only non-GI-related medical conditions where probiotics may have some beneficial effects. Product selection and dosing are not the same in all conditions, and the beneficial effects of each probiotic strain cannot be generalized.The purpose of this article is to provide most recent information about probiotics and its uses. In contrast with previously published reviews on probiotics, we also discuss the composition of various products (Table 1), indications for their use (Table 2), product selection, and dosing of probiotics.Probiotics are safe and appear to exert some beneficial effects in GI-related illnesses. The use of probiotics in non-GI illnesses is not sufficiently supported by current data.

  4. Clinical Uses of Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Saif Ul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Probiotics are live nonpathogenic microorganisms. Many of these microorganisms are part of the normal human gut flora, where they live in a symbiotic relationship. Probiotics have been used to treat gastrointestinal (GI) and non-GI medical conditions. However, the data supporting their use are often conflicting, especially for non-GI-associated illnesses. The strongest evidence supporting the use of probiotics is related to the treatment of acute diarrhea and pouchitis. Atopic eczema in children and genitourinary infections are the only non-GI-related medical conditions where probiotics may have some beneficial effects. Product selection and dosing are not the same in all conditions, and the beneficial effects of each probiotic strain cannot be generalized. The purpose of this article is to provide most recent information about probiotics and its uses. In contrast with previously published reviews on probiotics, we also discuss the composition of various products (Table 1), indications for their use (Table 2), product selection, and dosing of probiotics. Probiotics are safe and appear to exert some beneficial effects in GI-related illnesses. The use of probiotics in non-GI illnesses is not sufficiently supported by current data. PMID:26844491

  5. The microbiome and probiotics in childhood.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Michael Harrison

    2014-01-01

    Infants, from the moment of birth, are colonized by large numbers of microbes. This colonization continues throughout childhood and from preliminary studies seems to be a highly dynamic process, even during the usual physiologic state we refer to as health. In this context, the persistence of bacterial and fungal species in and on the human body likely confers various benefits to the host. One specific approach to modulate such beneficial effects is the administration of probiotics, also known as beneficial microbes. Herein, we outline the highest level evidence in regard to the evolution of the microbiome during childhood and its manipulation by probiotics for genitourinary, enteric, and allergic and atopic disorders. Thus, probiotic approaches are promising alternatives and adjuvants to traditional vaccines and antibiotics. This may usher in a new age in which vaccine and antibiotic side effects and antibiotic resistance are minimal issues in the setting of maintaining children's health and prevention of disease.

  6. Spaceflight Alters Bacterial Gene Expression and Virulence and Reveals Role for Global Regulator Hfq

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Ott, C. M.; zuBentrup, K. Honer; Ramamurthy R.; Quick, L.; Porwollik, S.; Cheng, P.; McClellan, M.; Tsaprailis, G.; Radabaugh, T.; Hunt, A.; Fernandez, D.; Richter, E.; Shah, M.; Kilcoyne, M.; Joshi, L.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hing, S.; Parra, M.; Dumaras, P.; Norwood, K.; Nickerson, C. A.; Bober, R.; Devich, J.; Ruggles, A.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of both the molecular genetic and phenotypic responses of any organism to the spaceflight environment has never been accomplished due to significant technological and logistical hurdles. Moreover, the effects of spaceflight on microbial pathogenicity and associated infectious disease risks have not been studied. The bacterial pathogen Salmonella typhimurium was grown aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-115 and compared to identical ground control cultures. Global microarray and proteomic analyses revealed 167 transcripts and 73 proteins changed expression with the conserved RNA-binding protein Hfq identified as a likely global regulator involved in the response to this environment. Hfq involvement was confirmed with a ground based microgravity culture model. Spaceflight samples exhibited enhanced virulence in a murine infection model and extracellular matrix accumulation consistent with a biofilm. Strategies to target Hfq and related regulators could potentially decrease infectious disease risks during spaceflight missions and provide novel therapeutic options on Earth.

  7. Specific inflammatory response of Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria) after bacterial injection causes tissue reaction and enzymatic activity alteration.

    PubMed

    Trapani, M R; Parisi, M G; Parrinello, D; Sanfratello, M A; Benenati, G; Palla, F; Cammarata, M

    2016-03-01

    The evolution of multicellular organisms was marked by adaptations to protect against pathogens. The mechanisms for discriminating the ''self'' from ''non-self" have evolved into a long history of cellular and molecular strategies, from damage repair to the co-evolution of host-pathogen interactions. We investigated the inflammatory response in Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) following injection of substances that varied in type and dimension, and observed clear, strong and specific reactions, especially after injection of Escherichia coli and Vibrio alginolyticus. Moreover, we analyzed enzymatic activity of protease, phosphatase and esterase, showing how the injection of different bacterial strains alters the expression of these enzymes and suggesting a correlation between the appearance of the inflammatory reaction and the modification of enzymatic activities. Our study shows for the first time, a specific reaction and enzymatic responses following injection of bacteria in a cnidarian.

  8. Protecting the herd: the remarkable effectiveness of the bacterial meningitis polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines in altering transmission dynamics.

    PubMed

    Stephens, David S

    2011-01-01

    Interrupting human-to-human transmission of the agents (Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae) of bacterial meningitis by new capsular polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (PPCVs) has proven to be a remarkable (and unanticipated) contributor to vaccine effectiveness. Herd immunity accounts for ∼50% of the protection by meningococcal serogroup C PPCVs, pneumococcal PPCV7, and H. influenzae b PPCVs. Nasopharyngeal carriage can be reduced ≥75% for vaccine serotypes; the decrease in carriage is correlated with disease reduction in unvaccinated individuals, and the impact of herd immunity lasts for years. Based on these data, models for using herd immunity in vaccine-based prevention strategies are underway for control of meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa. Although the immunologic basis of herd immunity and impact on microbial biology need more study, protecting the unvaccinated by altering pathogen transmission dynamics is a powerful effect of PPCVs and increasingly important in vaccine introduction, implementation, and evaluation strategies.

  9. Role of endogenous microbiota, probiotics and their biological products in human health.

    PubMed

    Howarth, Gordon S; Wang, Hanru

    2013-01-10

    Although gut diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, mucositis and the alimentary cancers share similar pathogenetic features, further investigation is required into new treatment modalities. An imbalance in the gut microbiota, breached gut integrity, bacterial invasion, increased cell apoptosis to proliferation ratio, inflammation and impaired immunity may all contribute to their pathogenesis. Probiotics are defined as live bacteria, which when administered in sufficient amounts, exert beneficial effects to the gastrointestinal tract. More recently, probiotic-derived factors including proteins and other molecules released from living probiotics, have also been shown to exert beneficial properties. In this review we address the potential for probiotics, with an emphasis on probiotic-derived factors, to reduce the severity of digestive diseases and further discuss the known mechanisms by which probiotics and probiotic-derived factors exert their physiological effects.

  10. Alteration of intracellular protein expressions as a key mechanism of the deterioration of bacterial denitrification caused by copper oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Su, Yinglong; Zheng, Xiong; Chen, Yinguang; Li, Mu; Liu, Kun

    2015-10-28

    The increasing production and utilization of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) result in the releases into the environment. However, the influence of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification, one of the most important pathways to transform nitrate to dinitrogen in environment, has seldom been studied. Here we reported that CuO NPs caused a significant alteration of key protein expressions of a model denitrifier, Paracoccus denitrificans, leading to severe inhibition to denitrification. Total nitrogen removal efficiency was decreased from 98.3% to 62.1% with the increase of CuO NPs from 0.05 to 0.25 mg/L. Cellular morphology and integrity studies indicated that nanoparticles entered the cells. The proteomic bioinformatics analysis showed that CuO NPs caused regulation of proteins involved in nitrogen metabolism, electron transfer and substance transport. The down-regulation of GtsB protein (responsible for glucose transport) decreased the production of NADH (electron donor for denitrification). Also, the expressions of key electron-transfer proteins (including NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome) were suppressed by CuO NPs, which adversely affected electrons transfer for denitrification. Further investigation revealed that CuO NPs significantly inhibited the expressions and catalytic activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase. These results provided a fundamental understanding of the negative influences of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification.

  11. Alteration of intracellular protein expressions as a key mechanism of the deterioration of bacterial denitrification caused by copper oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yinglong; Zheng, Xiong; Chen, Yinguang; Li, Mu; Liu, Kun

    2015-10-01

    The increasing production and utilization of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) result in the releases into the environment. However, the influence of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification, one of the most important pathways to transform nitrate to dinitrogen in environment, has seldom been studied. Here we reported that CuO NPs caused a significant alteration of key protein expressions of a model denitrifier, Paracoccus denitrificans, leading to severe inhibition to denitrification. Total nitrogen removal efficiency was decreased from 98.3% to 62.1% with the increase of CuO NPs from 0.05 to 0.25 mg/L. Cellular morphology and integrity studies indicated that nanoparticles entered the cells. The proteomic bioinformatics analysis showed that CuO NPs caused regulation of proteins involved in nitrogen metabolism, electron transfer and substance transport. The down-regulation of GtsB protein (responsible for glucose transport) decreased the production of NADH (electron donor for denitrification). Also, the expressions of key electron-transfer proteins (including NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome) were suppressed by CuO NPs, which adversely affected electrons transfer for denitrification. Further investigation revealed that CuO NPs significantly inhibited the expressions and catalytic activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase. These results provided a fundamental understanding of the negative influences of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification.

  12. Alteration of intracellular protein expressions as a key mechanism of the deterioration of bacterial denitrification caused by copper oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yinglong; Zheng, Xiong; Chen, Yinguang; Li, Mu; Liu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The increasing production and utilization of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) result in the releases into the environment. However, the influence of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification, one of the most important pathways to transform nitrate to dinitrogen in environment, has seldom been studied. Here we reported that CuO NPs caused a significant alteration of key protein expressions of a model denitrifier, Paracoccus denitrificans, leading to severe inhibition to denitrification. Total nitrogen removal efficiency was decreased from 98.3% to 62.1% with the increase of CuO NPs from 0.05 to 0.25 mg/L. Cellular morphology and integrity studies indicated that nanoparticles entered the cells. The proteomic bioinformatics analysis showed that CuO NPs caused regulation of proteins involved in nitrogen metabolism, electron transfer and substance transport. The down-regulation of GtsB protein (responsible for glucose transport) decreased the production of NADH (electron donor for denitrification). Also, the expressions of key electron-transfer proteins (including NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome) were suppressed by CuO NPs, which adversely affected electrons transfer for denitrification. Further investigation revealed that CuO NPs significantly inhibited the expressions and catalytic activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase. These results provided a fundamental understanding of the negative influences of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification. PMID:26508362

  13. Cross-talk between probiotic lactobacilli and host immune system.

    PubMed

    Kemgang, T S; Kapila, S; Shanmugam, V P; Kapila, R

    2014-08-01

    The mechanism by which probiotic lactobacilli affect the immune system is strain specific. As the immune system is a multicompartmental system, each strain has its way to interact with it and induce a visible and quantifiable effect. This review summarizes the interplay existing between the host immune system and probiotic lactobacilli, that is, with emphasis on lactobacilli as a prototype probiotic genus. Several aspects including the bacterial-host cross-talk with the mucosal and systemic immune system are presented, as well as short sections on the competing effect towards pathogenic bacteria and their uses as delivery vehicle for antigens.

  14. Symbiotic bacterial communities in ants are modified by invasion pathway bottlenecks and alter host behavior.

    PubMed

    Lester, Philip J; Sébastien, Alexandra; Suarez, Andrew V; Barbieri, Rafael F; Gruber, Monica A M

    2017-03-01

    Biological invasions are a threat to global biodiversity and provide unique opportunities to study ecological processes. Population bottlenecks are a common feature of biological invasions and the severity of these bottlenecks is likely to be compounded as an invasive species spreads from initial invasion sites to additional locations. Despite extensive work on the genetic consequences of bottlenecks, we know little about how they influence microbial communities of the invaders themselves. Due to serial bottlenecks, invasive species may lose microbial symbionts including pathogenic taxa (the enemy release hypothesis) and/or may accumulate natural enemies with increasing time after invasion (the pathogen accumulation and invasive decline hypothesis). We tested these alternate hypotheses by surveying bacterial communities of Argentine ants (Linepithema humile). We found evidence for serial symbiont bottlenecks: the bacterial community richness declined over the invasion pathway from Argentina to New Zealand. The abundance of some genera, such as Lactobacillus, also significantly declined over the invasion pathway. Argentine ants from populations in the United States shared the most genera with ants from their native range in Argentina, while New Zealand shared the least (120 vs. 57, respectively). Nine genera were present in all sites around the globe possibly indicating a core group of obligate microbes. In accordance with the pathogen accumulation and invasive decline hypothesis, Argentine ants acquired genera unique to each specific invaded country. The United States had the most unique genera, though even within New Zealand these ants acquired symbionts. In addition to our biogeographic sampling, we administered antibiotics to Argentine ants to determine if changes in the micro-symbiont community could influence behavior and survival in interspecific interactions. Treatment with the antibiotics spectinomycin and kanamycin only slightly increased Argentine ant

  15. Meat, dairy and plant proteins alter bacterial composition of rat gut bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingying; Lin, Xisha; Zhao, Fan; Shi, Xuebin; Li, He; Li, Yingqiu; Zhu, Weiyun; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao; Lu, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-10-14

    Long-term consumption of red meat has been considered a potential risk to gut health, but this is based on clinic investigations, excessive intake of fat, heme and some injurious compounds formed during cooking or additions to processed meat products. Whether intake of red meat protein affects gut bacteria and the health of the host remains unclear. In this work, we compared the composition of gut bacteria in the caecum, by sequencing the V4-V5 region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene, obtained from rats fed with proteins from red meat (beef and pork), white meat (chicken and fish) and other sources (casein and soy). The results showed significant differences in profiles of gut bacteria between the six diet groups. Rats fed with meat proteins had a similar overall structure of caecal bacterial communities separated from those fed non-meat proteins. The beneficial genus Lactobacillus was higher in the white meat than in the red meat or non-meat protein groups. Also, rats fed with meat proteins and casein had significantly lower levels of lipopolysaccharide-binding proteins, suggesting that the intake of meat proteins may maintain a more balanced composition of gut bacteria, thereby reducing the antigen load and inflammatory response in the host.

  16. Taxonomy of Probiotic Microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felis, Giovanna E.; Dellaglio, Franco; Torriani, Sandra

    When referring to probiotics, one refers to probiotic strains, i.e., the microbial individuals, sub-cultures of billion of almost identical cells ideally derived from the same mother cell. Therefore, beneficial effects attributed to probiotics are ascribed in fact to specific strains. However, these strains have to be, by law, clearly identified at the species level (Pineiro and Stanton, 2007). In fact, probiotics have to be safe for consumption, and the evaluation of QPS - qualified presumption of safety - status by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (Opinion, 2007) is discussed for species, not for single strains.

  17. Tomato mutants altered in bacterial disease resistance provide evidence for a new locus controlling pathogen recognition.

    PubMed Central

    Salmeron, J M; Barker, S J; Carland, F M; Mehta, A Y; Staskawicz, B J

    1994-01-01

    We have employed a genetic approach to study the resistance of tomato to the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato. Resistance to P. s. tomato depends upon expression of the Pto locus in tomato, which encodes a protein with similarity to serine/threonine protein kinases and recognizes pathogen strains expressing the avirulence gene avrPto. Eleven tomato mutants were isolated with altered resistance to P. s. tomato strains expressing avrPto. We identified mutations both in the Pto resistance locus and in a new locus designated Prf (for Pseudomonas resistance and fenthion sensitivity). The genetic approach allowed us to dissect the roles of these loci in signal transduction in response to pathogen attack. Lines carrying mutations in the Pto locus vary 200-fold in the degree to which they are susceptible to P. s. tomato strains expressing avrPto. The pto mutants retain sensitivity to the organophosphate insecticide fenthion; this trait segregates with Pto in genetic crosses. This result suggested that contrary to previous hypotheses, the Pto locus controls pathogen recognition but not fenthion sensitivity. Interestingly, mutations in the prf locus result in both complete susceptibility to P. s. tomato and insensitivity to fenthion, suggesting that Prf plays a role in tomato signaling in response to both pathogen elicitors and fenthion. Because pto and prf mutations do not alter recognition of Xanthomonas campestris strains expressing avrBsP, an avirulence gene recognized by all tested tomato cultivars, Prf does not play a general role in disease resistance but possibly functions specifically in resistance against P. s. tomato. Genetic analysis of F2 populations from crosses of pto and prf homozygotes indicated that the Pto and Prf loci are tightly linked. PMID:7911348

  18. Are probiotics useful in Helicobacter pylori eradication?

    PubMed Central

    Homan, Matjaž; Orel, Rok

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is considered an etiologic factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Therapeutic schemes to eradicate the bacteria are based on double antibiotic therapy and proton pump inhibitor. Despite many therapeutic improvements in H. pylori eradication treatment, it is still associated with high infection rate also in developed countries. Bacterial resistance and adverse events occurrence are among most frequent causes for anti- H. pylori treatment failure. Several studies have reported that certain probiotic strains can exhibit inhibitory activity against H. pylori bacteria. In addition, some probiotic strains can reduce the occurrence of side effects due to antibiotic therapy and consequently increase the H. pylori eradication rate. The results of the prospective double-blind placebo-controlled studies suggest that specific probiotics, such as S. boulardii and L. johnsonni La1 probably can diminish the bacterial load, but not completely eradicate the H. pylori bacteria. Furthermore, it seems that supplementation with S. boulardii is a useful concomitant therapy in the standard H. pylori eradication treatment protocol and most probably increases eradication rate. L. reuteri is equally effective, but more positive studies are needed. Finally, probiotic strains, such as S. boulardii, L. reuteri and L. GG, decrease gastrointestinal antibiotic associated adverse effects. PMID:26457024

  19. Probiotic Bacteria Influence the Composition and Function of the Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    O'Toole, Paul W.; Cooney, Jakki C.

    2008-01-01

    Probiotics have a range of proposed health benefits for the consumer, which may include modulating the levels of beneficial elements in the microbiota. Recent investigations using molecular approaches have revealed a human intestinal microbiota comprising over 1000 phylotypes. Mechanisms whereby probiotics impact on the intestinal microbiota include competition for substrates, direct antagonism by inhibitory substances, competitive exclusion, and potentially host-mediated effects such as improved barrier function and altered immune response. We now have the microbial inventories and genetic blueprints to begin tackling intestinal microbial ecology at an unprecedented level of detail, aided by the understanding that dietary components may be utilized differentially by individual phylotypes. Controlled intervention studies in humans, utilizing latest molecular technologies, are required to consolidate evidence for bacterial species that impact on the microbiota. Mechanistic insights should be provided by metabolomics and other analytical techniques for small molecules. Rigorous characterization of interactions between the diet, microbiota, and probiotic bacteria will provide new opportunities for modulating the microbiota towards improving human health. PMID:19277099

  20. Alterations in the virulence potential of enteric pathogens and bacterial-host cell interactions under simulated microgravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Chopra, V; Fadl, A A; Sha, J; Chopra, S; Galindo, C L; Chopra, A K

    2006-07-01

    Host immune mechanisms were proposed to decline under microgravity conditions during spaceflights, which might result in severe infections in astronauts. Therefore, it was important to investigate the effects of microgravity on infecting organisms and their interaction with host cells. Data showed that simulated microgravity (SMG) conditions markedly increased production of the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) heat-labile enterotoxin, which induced fluid secretory responses in a mouse model. SMG also enhanced production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in murine macrophages infected with enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). In a similar fashion, simulated microgravity conditions augmented the invasive potential of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and enhanced production of tumor necrosis-factor alpha in S. typhimurium-infected epithelial cells. Furthermore, coculturing of macrophages and S. typhimurium in a simulated microgravity environment resulted in activation of stress-associated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4. Using the antiorthostatic tail suspension mouse model, which simulates some aspects of microgravity, oral inoculation of S. typhimurium markedly reduced the 50% lethal dose compared to mice infected under normal gravitational conditions. Microarray analysis revealed simulated microgravity-induced alterations in the expression of 22 genes in S. typhimurium, and protein expression profiles were altered in both EPEC and S. typhimurium, based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. These studies indicated alterations in the virulence potential of bacteria and in host responses to these pathogens under simulated microgravity conditions, which may represent an important environmental signal. Such studies are essential for better understanding bacterial-host cell interactions, particularly in the context of spaceflights and space habitations of long duration.

  1. Influence of a probiotic Enterococcus faecium strain on development of the immune system of sows and piglets.

    PubMed

    Scharek, L; Guth, J; Reiter, K; Weyrauch, K D; Taras, D; Schwerk, P; Schierack, P; Schmidt, M F G; Wieler, L H; Tedin, K

    2005-05-01

    The influence of the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium SF68 on the immune system and the intestinal colonization of pigs were determined in a feeding experiment with sows and piglets. Mucosal immunity of the developing piglets was monitored by isolation and detection of intestinal lymphocyte cell populations from the proximal jejunal epithelium and the continuous Peyers patches by the use of flow cytometry. The levels of intestinal IgA in both groups of piglets were compared, as well as total IgG in the serum of sows and piglets. Feces of the sows and intestinal contents of the piglets were taken for determination of total anaerobe and coliform bacterial counts in both probiotic and control groups. Villus length and depth of the crypts were measured in the jejunum of sacrificed piglets to monitor the development of the intestinal mucosal surface amplification. Total serum IgG of the sows appeared to be unaffected. Piglets of both groups showed similar IgG levels up to 5 weeks after birth with a slight tendency toward lower values in the probiotic group. At an age of 8 weeks the total IgG levels of the probiotic animals were significantly lower (p<0.01). No differences were observed in the populations of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the Peyers patches. However, the levels of cytotoxic T cells (CD8+) in the jejunal epithelium of piglets of the probiotic group were significantly reduced. The depth of the jejunal crypts and length of the villi were similar in both groups, suggesting the relative T-cell population differences were not due to alterations in the epithelial cell numbers. The total anaerobe and coliform bacterial populations were not significantly affected by the probiotic treatment, either in sows or in the piglets. However, a remarkable decline in the frequency of beta-haemolytic and O141 serovars of Escherichia coli was observed in the intestinal contents of probiotic piglets, suggesting an explanation for the reduction in cytotoxic T-cell populations.

  2. Intestinal flora, probiotics, and cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Guerrero Hernández, Ignacio; Torre Delgadillo, Aldo; Vargas Vorackova, Florencia; Uribe, Misael

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal microflora constitutes a symbiotic ecosystem in permanent equilibrium, composed mainly of anaerobic bacteria. However, such equilibrium may be altered by daily conditions as drug use or pathologies interfering with intestinal physiology, generating an unfavorable environment for the organism. Besides, there are factors which may cause alterations in the intestinal wall, creating the conditions for translocation or permeation of substances or bacteria. In cirrhotic patients, there are many conditions that combine to alter the amount and populations of intestinal bacteria, as well as the functional capacity of the intestinal wall to prevent the permeation of substances and bacteria. Nowadays, numerous complications associated with cirrhosis have been identified, where such mechanisms could play an important role. There is evidence that some probiotic microorganisms could restore the microbiologic and immunologic equilibrium in the intestinal wall in cirrhotic patients and help in the treatment of complications due to cirrhosis. This article has the objective to review the interactions between intestinal flora, gut permeability, and the actual role of probiotics in the field of cirrhotic patients.

  3. Probiotics against Campylobacter Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sorokulova; Kirik; Pinchuk

    1997-12-01

    Background: The subject matter of this study was to investigate, for the first time, the immediate-preventive effect of probiotics, composed of bacillus species, in a murine model of Campylobacter infection. Methods: An established model of Campylobacter infection in mice with a defined LD50 was utilized to assess the protective effect of probiotics. Results: The results obtained demonstrate that the level of animal protection, after a single administration of the new probiotics biosporin and subalin, reached 90-100% at LD50 and 80% at LD100. Conclusions: Such efficacy of probiotics is considered to be due to their high antagonistic activity against those pathogens registered in vitro. Antagonistic activity of other tested probiotics (bactisubtil and cereobiogen) to different cultures of Campylobacter was not manifested.

  4. Probiotics in human milk and probiotic supplementation in infant nutrition: a workshop report.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Henrike; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Salminen, Seppo; Szajewska, Hania

    2014-10-14

    Probiotics in human milk are a very recent field of research, as the existence of the human milk microbiome was discovered only about a decade ago. Current research is focusing on bacterial diversity and the influence of the maternal environment as well as the mode of delivery on human milk microbiota, the pathways of bacterial transfer to milk ducts, possible benefits of specific bacterial strains for the treatment of mastitis in mothers, and disease prevention in children. Recent advances in the assessment of early host-microbe interactions suggest that early colonisation may have an impact on later health. This review article summarises a scientific workshop on probiotics in human milk and their implications for infant health as well as future perspectives for infant feeding.

  5. Human milk: mother nature's prototypical probiotic food?

    PubMed

    McGuire, Michelle K; McGuire, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The concept of "probiotic" is generally attributed to Dr. Ilya Mechnikov, who hypothesized that longevity could be enhanced by manipulating gastrointestinal microbes using naturally fermented foods. In 2001, a report of the FAO and WHO (2001 Oct, http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/fs_-management/en/probiotics.pdf) proposed a more restrictive definition of probiotic, as follows: "a live micro-organism which, when administered in adequate amounts, confers a health benefit on the host." As such, answering the fundamental question posed here-"Is human milk a probiotic?"-requires first grappling with the concept and meaning of the term probiotic. Nonetheless, one must also be convinced that human milk contains bacteria. Indeed, there are scores of publications providing evidence of a paradigm shift in this regard. Variation in the human-milk microbiome may be associated with maternal weight, mode of delivery, lactation state, gestation age, antibiotic use, and maternal health. Milk constituents (e.g., fatty acids and complex carbohydrates) might also be related to the abundance of specific bacterial taxa in milk. Whether these bacteria affect infant health is likely, but more studies are needed to test this hypothesis. In summary, a growing literature suggests that human milk, like all other fluids produced by the body, indeed contains viable bacteria. As such, and recognizing the extensive literature relating breastfeeding to optimal infant health, we propose that human milk should be considered a probiotic food. Determining factors that influence which bacteria are present in milk and if and how they influence the mother's and/or the recipient infant's health remain basic science and public health realms in which almost nothing is known.

  6. Functional foods as carriers for SYNBIO®, a probiotic bacteria combination.

    PubMed

    Coman, Maria Magdalena; Cecchini, Cinzia; Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Silvi, Stefania; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

    2012-07-16

    The popularity of functional foods continues to increase as consumers desire flavorful foods that will fulfil their health needs. Among these foods, probiotics may exert positive effects on the composition of gut microbiota and overall health. However, in order to be beneficial, the bacterial cultures have to remain live and active at the time of consumption. The aim of this study was to develop new probiotic food products, such as seasoned cheeses, salami, chocolate and ice-cream with a final probiotic concentration of approximately 10⁹CFU/daily dose of Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501® and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® mixed 1:1 (SYNBIO®). The survival and viability of probiotics were determined during the foods shelf-life. The values of viable probiotic bacteria of all dairy and non-dairy foods were between 10⁷ and 10⁹CFU/g of food at the end of the shelf-life and for some of them the values were maintained even after the expiry date. Based on the results of the current study, all the dairy ("Caciotta" cheese, "Pecorino" cheese, "Büscion" Swiss cheese and "Fiordilatte" ice-cream) and non-dairy ("Ciauscolo" salami, Larded salami, Swiss small salami, milk chocolate, dark chocolate, organic jam and chocolate mousse) food products studied would be excellent vehicles to deliver the probiotic health effects because of the high viability of probiotics during the shelf-life of foods and in some cases even after their expiry date.

  7. The Role of Probiotics in the Poultry Industry

    PubMed Central

    Lutful Kabir, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    The increase of productivity in the poultry industry has been accompanied by various impacts, including emergence of a large variety of pathogens and bacterial resistance. These impacts are in part due to the indiscriminate use of chemotherapeutic agents as a result of management practices in rearing cycles. This review provides a summary of the use of probiotics for prevention of bacterial diseases in poultry, as well as demonstrating the potential role of probiotics in the growth performance and immune response of poultry, safety and wholesomeness of dressed poultry meat evidencing consumer’s protection, with a critical evaluation of results obtained to date. PMID:20111681

  8. Applications of Infrared and Raman Spectroscopies to Probiotic Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Mauricio I.; Gerbino, Esteban; Tymczyszyn, Elizabeth; Gomez-Zavaglia, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we overview the most important contributions of vibrational spectroscopy based techniques in the study of probiotics and lactic acid bacteria. First, we briefly introduce the fundamentals of these techniques, together with the main multivariate analytical tools used for spectral interpretation. Then, four main groups of applications are reported: (a) bacterial taxonomy (Subsection 4.1); (b) bacterial preservation (Subsection 4.2); (c) monitoring processes involving lactic acid bacteria and probiotics (Subsection 4.3); (d) imaging-based applications (Subsection 4.4). A final conclusion, underlying the potentialities of these techniques, is presented. PMID:28231205

  9. Probiotic use in the critically ill.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Sunit C; Baranwal, A

    2008-06-01

    Probiotics are "live microbes which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host" (FAO/WHO joint group). Their potential role in bio-ecological modification of pathological internal milieu of the critically ill is under evaluation. Probiotics are available as single microbial strain (e.g., Bacillus clausii, Lactobacillus) or as a mix of multiple strains of Lactobacillus (acidophilus, sporogenes, lactis, reuteri RC-14, GG, and L. plantarum 299v), Bifidobacterium (bifidum, longum, infantis), Streptococcus (thermophillus, lactis, fecalis), Saccharomyces boulardii etc. Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria are gram-positive, anaerobic, lactic acid bacteria. These are normal inhabitant of human gut and colonize the colon better than others. Critical illness and its treatment create hostile environment in the gut and alters the micro flora favoring growth of pathogens. Therapy with probiotics is an effort to reduce or eliminate potential pathogens and toxins, to release nutrients, antioxidants, growth factors and coagulation factors, to stimulate gut motility and to modulate innate and adaptive immune defense mechanisms via the normalization of altered gut flora. Scientific evidence shows that use of probiotics is effective in prevention and therapy of antibiotic associated diarrhea. However, available probiotics strains in currently used doses do not provide much needed early benefits, and need long-term administration to have clinically beneficial effects (viz, a reduction in rate of infection, severe sepsis, ICU stay, ventilation days and mortality) in critically ill surgical and trauma patients. Possibly, available strains do not adhere to intestinal mucosa early, or may require higher dose than what is used. Gap exists in our knowledge regarding mechanisms of action of different probiotics, most effective strains--single or multiple, cost effectiveness, risk-benefit potential, optimum dose, frequency and duration of treatment etc. More

  10. The dual role of bacteriocins as anti- and probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Gillor, O.; Etzion, A.

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria employed in probiotic applications help to maintain or restore a host's natural microbial floral. The ability of probiotic bacteria to successfully outcompete undesired species is often due to, or enhanced by, the production of potent antimicrobial toxins. The most commonly encountered of these are bacteriocins, a large and functionally diverse family of antimicrobials found in all major lineages of Bacteria. Recent studies reveal that these proteinaceous toxins play a critical role in mediating competitive dynamics between bacterial strains and closely related species. The potential use of bacteriocin-producing strains as probiotic and bioprotective agents has recently received increased attention. This review will report on recent efforts involving the use of such strains, with a particular focus on emerging probiotic therapies for humans, livestock, and aquaculture. PMID:18853155

  11. Probiotics in neonatology.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Leah; Jacobs, Susan E; Garland, Suzanne M

    2012-09-01

    Probiotics are micro-organisms that confer health benefits on the host. Postulated mechanisms include: increasing resistance of the mucosal barrier to migration of bacteria and their toxins by strengthening intestinal cell junctions, modification of host response to microbial products, augmentation of immunoglobulin A mucosal responses, enhancement of enteral nutrition to inhibit the growth of pathogens; production of antimicrobial proteins; and competitive exclusion of potential pathogens. Published meta-analyses and systematic reviews report the effects of probiotics on important clinical outcomes in neonates. This paper will review the evidence for probiotic supplementation in neonatology, with a focus on preterm infants.

  12. [Antimicrobial susceptibility of probiotics].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Liu, Xiumei; Yang, Baolan; Li, Zhigang

    2008-05-01

    The aim of our study was to analyse the antibiotic susceptibility of 31 probiotics strains, including 9 Bifidobacterium and 22 Lactobacillus used for the manufacture of various fermented foods in China. Probiotics are tested for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 24 kinds of antibiotics by broth dilution method on cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth with lysed horse blood. 31 strains of probiotics were sensitive to ampicillin, penicillin, imipenem, gentamicine, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, gatifloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, and resistant to nalidixic acid, vancomycine, fosfomycin.

  13. Prebiotics and probiotics: some thoughts on demonstration of efficacy within the regulatory sphere.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Stephen P J; Kalmokoff, Martin L

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics and prebiotics present regulators with challenges because they require a demonstrated positive health outcome and proof that the prebiotic or probiotic is the agent of action once safety aspects have been satisfied. Thus, probiotic and prebiotic definitions are important because they will set the criteria by which these materials will be judged within the regulatory sphere. Use of the terms probiotic and prebiotic are, themselves, considered health claims in some jurisdictions, so that both product health claims and product content labeling may be regulated. Currently accepted definitions of prebiotic and probiotic make it easier to draw a straight line between ingestion and health outcome for probiotics but much more difficult for prebiotics, where a health outcome must be linked to changes in specific bacterial species within the gut microbial community. These challenges highlight the difficulties facing regulatory bodies and the scientific community when emerging science is turned into consumable product.

  14. Analysis of commercial kidney stone probiotic supplements

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Melissa L.; Shaw, Karen J.; Jackson, Shelby B.; Daniel, Steven L.; Knight, John

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the levels of Oxalobacter formigenes in probiotic supplements marketed by ™PRO Lab, Ltd, Toronto, Canada, and capsules of Oxalo™ purchased from Sanzyme Ltd, Hyderabad, India, and to measure the ability of these preparations to degrade oxalate in vitro. METHODS Probiotic supplements and pure cultures of O. formigenes were cultured in a number of media containing oxalate. OD595 was used to measure bacterial growth and ion chromatography was used to measure loss of oxalate in culture media. O. formigenes specific and degenerate Lactobacillus primers to the oxalate decarboxylase gene (oxc) were used in PCR. RESULTS Incubating probiotic supplements in different media did not result in growth of oxalate-degrading organisms. PCR indicated the absence of organisms harboring the oxc gene. Culture and 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated the ™PRO Lab supplement contained viable Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (GenBank accession no. KJ095656.1), while Oxalo™ contained several Bacillus species and Lactobacillus plantarum. CONCLUSION The probiotic supplement sold over the internet by ™PRO Lab, Ltd and Sanzyme Ltd did not contain identifiable O. formigenes or viable oxalate-degrading organisms, and they are unlikely to be of benefit to calcium oxalate kidney stone patients. PMID:25733259

  15. Evaluation of Potential Probiotics Isolated from Human Milk and Colostrum.

    PubMed

    Damaceno, Quésia S; Souza, Jaqueline P; Nicoli, Jacques R; Paula, Raquel L; Assis, Gabriela B; Figueiredo, Henrique C; Azevedo, Vasco; Martins, Flaviano S

    2017-04-03

    Several studies have demonstrated a diversity of bacterial species in human milk, even in aseptically collected samples. The present study evaluated potential probiotic bacteria isolated from human milk and associated maternal variables. Milk samples were collected from 47 healthy women and cultured on selective and universal agar media under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Bacterial isolates were counted and identified by Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight mass spectrometry and then tested for probiotic properties. Total bacteria in human milk ranged from 1.5 to 4.0 log10 CFU/mL. The higher bacterial counts were found in colostrum (mean = 3.9 log10 CFU/mL, 95% CI 3.14-4.22, p = 0.00001). The most abundant species was Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 76). The potential probiotic candidates were Lactobacillus gasseri (n = 4), Bifidobacterium breve (n = 1), and Streptococcus salivarius (n = 4). Despite the small sample size, L. gasseri was isolated only in breast milk from mothers classified into a normal weight range and after a vaginally delivered partum. No potential probiotics showed antagonism against pathogens, but all of them agglutinated different pathogens. Nine bacterial isolates belonging to the species L. gasseri, B. breve, and S. salivarius were selected as potential probiotics. The present study confirms the presence in breast milk of a bacterial microbiota that could be the source of potential probiotic candidates to be used in the formula of simulated maternal milk.

  16. Identification and Antimicrobial Resistance of Bacteria Isolated from Probiotic Products Used in Shrimp Culture

    PubMed Central

    Noor Uddin, Gazi Md.; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Christensen, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Phu, Tran Minh; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are increasingly used in aquaculture to control diseases and improve feed digestion and pond water quality; however, little is known about the antimicrobial resistance properties of such probiotic bacteria and to what extent they may contribute to the development of bacterial resistance in aquaculture ponds. Concerns have been raised that the declared information on probiotic product labels are incorrect and information on bacterial composition are often missing. We therefore evaluated seven probiotics commonly used in Vietnamese shrimp culture for their bacterial species content, phenotypic antimicrobial resistance and associated transferable resistance genes. The bacterial species was established by 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 125 representative bacterial isolates. MIC testing was done for a range of antimicrobials and whole genome sequencing of six multiple antimicrobial resistant Bacillus spp. used to identify resistance genes and genetic elements associated with horizontal gene transfer. Thirteen bacterial species declared on the probiotic products could not be identified and 11 non-declared Bacillus spp. were identified. Although our culture-based isolation and identification may have missed a few bacterial species present in the tested products this would represent minor bias, but future studies may apply culture independent identification methods like pyro sequencing. Only 6/60 isolates were resistant to more than four antimicrobials and whole genome sequencing showed that they contained macrolide (ermD), tetracycline (tetL), phenicol (fexA) and trimethoprim (dfrD, dfrG and dfrK) resistance genes, but not known structures associated with horizontal gene transfer. Probiotic bacterial strains used in Vietnamese shrimp culture seem to contribute with very limited types and numbers of resistance genes compared to the naturally occurring bacterial species in aquaculture environments. Approval procedures of probiotic products must be strengthened

  17. Identification and Antimicrobial Resistance of Bacteria Isolated from Probiotic Products Used in Shrimp Culture.

    PubMed

    Noor Uddin, Gazi Md; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Christensen, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank M; Phu, Tran Minh; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are increasingly used in aquaculture to control diseases and improve feed digestion and pond water quality; however, little is known about the antimicrobial resistance properties of such probiotic bacteria and to what extent they may contribute to the development of bacterial resistance in aquaculture ponds. Concerns have been raised that the declared information on probiotic product labels are incorrect and information on bacterial composition are often missing. We therefore evaluated seven probiotics commonly used in Vietnamese shrimp culture for their bacterial species content, phenotypic antimicrobial resistance and associated transferable resistance genes. The bacterial species was established by 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 125 representative bacterial isolates. MIC testing was done for a range of antimicrobials and whole genome sequencing of six multiple antimicrobial resistant Bacillus spp. used to identify resistance genes and genetic elements associated with horizontal gene transfer. Thirteen bacterial species declared on the probiotic products could not be identified and 11 non-declared Bacillus spp. were identified. Although our culture-based isolation and identification may have missed a few bacterial species present in the tested products this would represent minor bias, but future studies may apply culture independent identification methods like pyro sequencing. Only 6/60 isolates were resistant to more than four antimicrobials and whole genome sequencing showed that they contained macrolide (ermD), tetracycline (tetL), phenicol (fexA) and trimethoprim (dfrD, dfrG and dfrK) resistance genes, but not known structures associated with horizontal gene transfer. Probiotic bacterial strains used in Vietnamese shrimp culture seem to contribute with very limited types and numbers of resistance genes compared to the naturally occurring bacterial species in aquaculture environments. Approval procedures of probiotic products must be strengthened

  18. Use of Probiotics to Control Aflatoxin Production in Peanut Grains

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Juliana Fonseca Moreira; Peluzio, Joenes Mucci; Prado, Guilherme; Madeira, Jovita Eugênia Gazzinelli Cruz; Silva, Marize Oliveira; de Morais, Paula Benevides; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio; Nicoli, Jacques Robert

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, S. cerevisiae UFMG 905, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20) were evaluated as biological control agents to reduce aflatoxin and spore production by Aspergillus parasiticus IMI 242695 in peanut. Suspensions containing the probiotics alone or in combinations were tested by sprinkling on the grains followed by incubation for seven days at 25°C. All probiotic microorganisms, in live and inactivated forms, significantly reduced A. parasiticus sporulation, but the best results were obtained with live cells. The presence of probiotics also altered the color of A. parasiticus colonies but not the spore morphology. Reduction in aflatoxin production of 72.8 and 65.8% was observed for S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae, respectively, when inoculated alone. When inoculated in pairs, all probiotic combinations reduced significantly aflatoxin production, and the best reduction was obtained with S. boulardii plus L. delbrueckii (96.1%) followed by S. boulardii plus S. cerevisiae and L. delbrueckii plus S. cerevisiae (71.1 and 66.7%, resp.). All probiotics remained viable in high numbers on the grains even after 300 days. The results of the present study suggest a different use of probiotics as an alternative treatment to prevent aflatoxin production in peanut grains. PMID:26221629

  19. Use of Probiotics to Control Aflatoxin Production in Peanut Grains.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Juliana Fonseca Moreira; Peluzio, Joenes Mucci; Prado, Guilherme; Madeira, Jovita Eugênia Gazzinelli Cruz; Silva, Marize Oliveira; de Morais, Paula Benevides; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio; Nicoli, Jacques Robert

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, S. cerevisiae UFMG 905, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20) were evaluated as biological control agents to reduce aflatoxin and spore production by Aspergillus parasiticus IMI 242695 in peanut. Suspensions containing the probiotics alone or in combinations were tested by sprinkling on the grains followed by incubation for seven days at 25°C. All probiotic microorganisms, in live and inactivated forms, significantly reduced A. parasiticus sporulation, but the best results were obtained with live cells. The presence of probiotics also altered the color of A. parasiticus colonies but not the spore morphology. Reduction in aflatoxin production of 72.8 and 65.8% was observed for S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae, respectively, when inoculated alone. When inoculated in pairs, all probiotic combinations reduced significantly aflatoxin production, and the best reduction was obtained with S. boulardii plus L. delbrueckii (96.1%) followed by S. boulardii plus S. cerevisiae and L. delbrueckii plus S. cerevisiae (71.1 and 66.7%, resp.). All probiotics remained viable in high numbers on the grains even after 300 days. The results of the present study suggest a different use of probiotics as an alternative treatment to prevent aflatoxin production in peanut grains.

  20. Long-term nickel exposure altered the bacterial community composition but not diversity in two contrasting agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Hu, Hang-Wei; Ma, Yi-Bing; Wang, Jun-Tao; Liu, Yu-Rong; He, Ji-Zheng

    2015-07-01

    Nickel pollution imposes deleterious effects on soil ecosystem. The responses of soil microorganisms to long-term nickel pollution under field conditions remain largely unknown. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing to elucidate the impacts of long-term nickel pollution on soil bacterial communities in two contrasting agricultural soils. Our results found that the soil microbial biomass carbon consistently decreased along the nickel gradients in both soils. Nickel pollution selectively favored or impeded the prevalence of several dominant bacterial guilds, in particular, Actinobacteria showed tolerance, while Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes displayed sensitivity. Despite the apparent shifts in the bacterial community composition, no clear tendency in the bacterial diversity and abundance was identified along the nickel gradients in either soil. Collectively, we provide evidence that long-term nickel pollution shifted the soil bacterial communities, resulting in the decrease of microbial biomass although the bacterial diversity was not significantly changed.

  1. Probiotics: "living drugs".

    PubMed

    Elmer, G W

    2001-06-15

    The uses, mechanisms of action, and safety of probiotics are discussed. Probiotics are live microorganisms or microbial mixtures administered to improve the patient's microbial balance, particularly the environment of the gastrointestinal tract and the vagina. The yeast Saccharomyces boulardii and the bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus, strain GG, have shown efficacy in clinical trials for the prevention of antimicrobial-associated diarrhea. Other probiotics that have demonstrated at least some promise as prophylaxis for this type of diarrhea are Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, and Enterococcus faecium. The use of S. boulardii as an adjunctive treatment to therapy with metronidazole or vancomycin has been found in controlled studies to decrease further recurrences of Clostridium difficile-associated disease. Other gastrointestinal disorders for which probiotics have been studied include traveler's diarrhea, acute infantile diarrhea, and acute diarrhea in adults. Several Lactobacillus species given in yogurt or in tablet or suppository form have shown clinical efficacy as a treatment for vaginal infections. Lactobacillus strains have also been examined as a treatment for urinary-tract infections. Putative mechanisms of action of probiotics include production of pathogen-inhibitory substances, inhibition of pathogen attachment, inhibition of the action of microbial toxins, stimulation of immunoglobulin A, and trophic effects on intestinal mucosa. The available probiotics are considered nonpathogenic, but even benign microorganisms can be infective when a patient is severely debilitated or immunosuppressed. Probiotics have demonstrated an ability to prevent and treat some infections. Effective use of probiotics could decrease patients' exposure to antimicrobials. Additional controlled studies are needed to clearly define the safety and efficacy of these agents.

  2. Fine-scale transition to lower bacterial diversity and altered community composition precedes shell disease in laboratory-reared juvenile American lobster.

    PubMed

    Feinman, Sarah G; Unzueta Martínez, Andrea; Bowen, Jennifer L; Tlusty, Michael F

    2017-03-30

    The American lobster Homarus americanus supports a valuable commercial fishery in the Northeastern USA and Maritime Canada; however, stocks in the southern portion of the lobster's range have shown declines, in part due to the emergence of shell disease. Epizootic shell disease is a bacterially induced cuticular erosion that renders even mildly affected lobsters unmarketable because of their appearance, and in more severe cases can cause mortality. Despite the importance of this disease, the associated bacterial communities have not yet been fully characterized. We sampled 2 yr old, laboratory-reared lobsters that displayed signs of shell disease at the site of disease as well as at 0.5, 1, and 1.5 cm away from the site of disease to determine how the bacterial community changed over this fine spatial scale. Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed a distinct bacterial community at the site of disease, with significant reductions in bacterial diversity and richness compared to more distant sampling locations. The bacterial community composition 0.5 cm from the site of disease was also altered, and there was an observable decrease in bacterial diversity and richness, even though there were no signs of disease at that location. Given the distinctiveness of the bacterial community at the site of disease and 0.5 cm from the site of disease, we refer to these communities as affected and transitionary, and suggest that these bacteria, including the previously proposed causative agent, Aquimarina 'homaria', are important for the initiation and progression of this laboratory model of shell disease.

  3. Exposure to bacterial signals does not alter pea aphids' survival upon a second challenge or investment in production of winged offspring.

    PubMed

    ter Braak, Bas; Laughton, Alice M; Altincicek, Boran; Parker, Benjamin J; Gerardo, Nicole M

    2013-01-01

    Pea aphids have an obligate nutritional symbiosis with the bacteria Buchneraaphidicola and frequently also harbor one or more facultative symbionts. Aphids are also susceptible to bacterial pathogen infections, and it has been suggested that aphids have a limited immune response towards such pathogen infections compared to other, more well-studied insects. However, aphids do possess at least some of the genes known to be involved in bacterial immune responses in other insects, and immune-competent hemocytes. One possibility is that immune priming with microbial elicitors could stimulate immune protection against subsequent bacterial infections, as has been observed in several other insect systems. To address this hypothesis we challenged aphids with bacterial immune elicitors twenty-four hours prior to live bacterial pathogen infections and then compared their survival rates to aphids that were not pre-exposed to bacterial signals. Using two aphid genotypes, we found no evidence for immune protection conferred by immune priming during infections with either Serratia marcescens or with Escherichia coli. Immune priming was not altered by the presence of facultative, beneficial symbionts in the aphids. In the absence of inducible immune protection, aphids may allocate energy towards other defense traits, including production of offspring with wings that could escape deteriorating conditions. To test this, we monitored the ratio of winged to unwinged offspring produced by adult mothers of a single clone that had been exposed to bacterial immune elicitors, to live E. coli infections or to no challenge. We found no correlation between immune challenge and winged offspring production, suggesting that this mechanism of defense, which functions upon exposure to fungal pathogens, is not central to aphid responses to bacterial infections.

  4. Exposure to Bacterial Signals Does Not Alter Pea Aphids’ Survival upon a Second Challenge or Investment in Production of Winged Offspring

    PubMed Central

    ter Braak, Bas; Laughton, Alice M.; Altincicek, Boran; Parker, Benjamin J.; Gerardo, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    Pea aphids have an obligate nutritional symbiosis with the bacteria Buchneraaphidicola and frequently also harbor one or more facultative symbionts. Aphids are also susceptible to bacterial pathogen infections, and it has been suggested that aphids have a limited immune response towards such pathogen infections compared to other, more well-studied insects. However, aphids do possess at least some of the genes known to be involved in bacterial immune responses in other insects, and immune-competent hemocytes. One possibility is that immune priming with microbial elicitors could stimulate immune protection against subsequent bacterial infections, as has been observed in several other insect systems. To address this hypothesis we challenged aphids with bacterial immune elicitors twenty-four hours prior to live bacterial pathogen infections and then compared their survival rates to aphids that were not pre-exposed to bacterial signals. Using two aphid genotypes, we found no evidence for immune protection conferred by immune priming during infections with either Serratia marcescens or with Escherichia coli. Immune priming was not altered by the presence of facultative, beneficial symbionts in the aphids. In the absence of inducible immune protection, aphids may allocate energy towards other defense traits, including production of offspring with wings that could escape deteriorating conditions. To test this, we monitored the ratio of winged to unwinged offspring produced by adult mothers of a single clone that had been exposed to bacterial immune elicitors, to live E. coli infections or to no challenge. We found no correlation between immune challenge and winged offspring production, suggesting that this mechanism of defense, which functions upon exposure to fungal pathogens, is not central to aphid responses to bacterial infections. PMID:24009760

  5. Long term repeated fire disturbance alters soil bacterial diversity but not the abundance in an Australian wet sclerophyll forest

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ju-pei; Chen, C. R.; Lewis, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Effects of fire on biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial ecosystem are widely acknowledged, while few studies have focused on the bacterial community under the disturbance of long-term frequent prescribed fire. In this study, three treatments (burning every two years (B2), burning every four years (B4) and no burning (B0)) were applied for 38 years in an Australian wet sclerophyll forest. Results showed that bacterial alpha diversity (i.e. bacterial OTU) in the top soil (0–10 cm) was significantly higher in the B2 treatment compared with the B0 and B4 treatments. Non-metric multidimensional analysis (NMDS) of bacterial community showed clear separation of the soil bacterial community structure among different fire frequency regimes and between the depths. Different frequency fire did not have a substantial effect on bacterial composition at phylum level or bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance. Soil pH and C:N ratio were the major drivers for bacterial community structure in the most frequent fire treatment (B2), while other factors (EC, DOC, DON, MBC, NH4+, TC and TN) were significant in the less frequent burning and no burning treatments (B4 and B0). This study suggested that burning had a dramatic impact on bacterial diversity but not abundance with more frequent fire. PMID:26787458

  6. Long term repeated fire disturbance alters soil bacterial diversity but not the abundance in an Australian wet sclerophyll forest.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ju-pei; Chen, C R; Lewis, Tom

    2016-01-20

    Effects of fire on biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial ecosystem are widely acknowledged, while few studies have focused on the bacterial community under the disturbance of long-term frequent prescribed fire. In this study, three treatments (burning every two years (B2), burning every four years (B4) and no burning (B0)) were applied for 38 years in an Australian wet sclerophyll forest. Results showed that bacterial alpha diversity (i.e. bacterial OTU) in the top soil (0-10 cm) was significantly higher in the B2 treatment compared with the B0 and B4 treatments. Non-metric multidimensional analysis (NMDS) of bacterial community showed clear separation of the soil bacterial community structure among different fire frequency regimes and between the depths. Different frequency fire did not have a substantial effect on bacterial composition at phylum level or bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance. Soil pH and C:N ratio were the major drivers for bacterial community structure in the most frequent fire treatment (B2), while other factors (EC, DOC, DON, MBC, NH4(+), TC and TN) were significant in the less frequent burning and no burning treatments (B4 and B0). This study suggested that burning had a dramatic impact on bacterial diversity but not abundance with more frequent fire.

  7. Long term repeated fire disturbance alters soil bacterial diversity but not the abundance in an Australian wet sclerophyll forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ju-Pei; Chen, C. R.; Lewis, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Effects of fire on biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial ecosystem are widely acknowledged, while few studies have focused on the bacterial community under the disturbance of long-term frequent prescribed fire. In this study, three treatments (burning every two years (B2), burning every four years (B4) and no burning (B0)) were applied for 38 years in an Australian wet sclerophyll forest. Results showed that bacterial alpha diversity (i.e. bacterial OTU) in the top soil (0–10 cm) was significantly higher in the B2 treatment compared with the B0 and B4 treatments. Non-metric multidimensional analysis (NMDS) of bacterial community showed clear separation of the soil bacterial community structure among different fire frequency regimes and between the depths. Different frequency fire did not have a substantial effect on bacterial composition at phylum level or bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance. Soil pH and C:N ratio were the major drivers for bacterial community structure in the most frequent fire treatment (B2), while other factors (EC, DOC, DON, MBC, NH4+, TC and TN) were significant in the less frequent burning and no burning treatments (B4 and B0). This study suggested that burning had a dramatic impact on bacterial diversity but not abundance with more frequent fire.

  8. Bioactives from probiotics for dermal health: functions and benefits.

    PubMed

    Lew, L-C; Liong, M-T

    2013-05-01

    Probiotics have been extensively reviewed for decades, emphasizing on improving general gut health. Recently, more studies showed that probiotics may exert other health-promoting effects beyond gut well-being, attributed to the rise of the gut-brain axis correlations. Some of these new benefits include skin health such as improving atopic eczema, atopic dermatitis, healing of burn and scars, skin-rejuvenating properties and improving skin innate immunity. Increasing evidence has also showed that bacterial compounds such as cell wall fragments, their metabolites and dead bacteria can elicit certain immune responses on the skin and improve skin barrier functions. This review aimed to underline the mechanisms or the exact compounds underlying the benefits of bacterial extract on the skin based on evidences from in vivo and in vitro studies. This review could be of help in screening of probiotic strains with potential dermal enhancing properties for topical applications.

  9. Probiotics in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis, and Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Qamar, Amir A

    2015-01-01

    With the growing epidemic of obesity, the incidence of both nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFL) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is increasing. The intestinal microbiota differs between individuals who are obese or have normal body mass indices. Animal studies have shown increased intestinal permeability in NAFL, NASH, and cirrhosis. This increases the risk of oxidative and inflammatory injury to the liver from intestinal microbacteria. It may also increase the risk of fatty acid injury and fatty deposition. Bacterial translocation is associated with increased portal hypertension and hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhosis. By preventing bacterial adhesion and translocation, probiotics may have a role in the management of patients with NAFL, NASH, and cirrhosis. Multiple small studies have suggested that probiotics improve some of the clinical markers of activity in patients with NAFL and NASH. Controlled studies have also shown improved outcomes in patients with cirrhosis who were treated with probiotics.

  10. VSL#3 probiotic modifies mucosal microbial composition but does not reduce colitis-associated colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Janelle C.; Gharaibeh, Raad Z.; Uronis, Joshua M.; Perez-Chanona, Ernesto; Sha, Wei; Tomkovich, Sarah; Mühlbauer, Marcus; Fodor, Anthony A.; Jobin, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Although probiotics have shown success in preventing the development of experimental colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CRC), beneficial effects of interventional treatment are relatively unknown. Here we show that interventional treatment with VSL#3 probiotic alters the luminal and mucosally-adherent microbiota, but does not protect against inflammation or tumorigenesis in the azoxymethane (AOM)/Il10−/− mouse model of colitis-associated CRC. VSL#3 (109 CFU/animal/day) significantly enhanced tumor penetrance, multiplicity, histologic dysplasia scores, and adenocarcinoma invasion relative to VSL#3-untreated mice. Illumina 16S sequencing demonstrated that VSL#3 significantly decreased (16-fold) the abundance of a bacterial taxon assigned to genus Clostridium in the mucosally-adherent microbiota. Mediation analysis by linear models suggested that this taxon was a contributing factor to increased tumorigenesis in VSL#3-fed mice. We conclude that VSL#3 interventional therapy can alter microbial community composition and enhance tumorigenesis in the AOM/Il10−/− model. PMID:24100376

  11. Antipathogenic activity of probiotics against Salmonella Typhimurium and Clostridium difficile in anaerobic batch culture systems: is it due to synergies in probiotic mixtures or the specificity of single strains?

    PubMed

    Tejero-Sariñena, Sandra; Barlow, Janine; Costabile, Adele; Gibson, Glenn R; Rowland, Ian

    2013-12-01

    Probiotics are currently being investigated for prevention of infections caused by enteric pathogens. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of three single probiotics: Lactobacillus casei NCIMB 30185 (PXN 37), Lactobacillus acidophilus NCIMB 30184 (PXN 35), Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 30180 (PXN 25) and a probiotic mixture containing the above strains plus twelve other strains belonging to the Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Lactococcus, Streptococcus and Bacillus genera on the survival of Salmonella Typhimurium and Clostridium difficile using pH-controlled anaerobic batch cultures containing mixed faecal bacteria. Changes in relevant bacterial groups and effects of probiotic addition on survival of the two pathogens were assessed over 24 h. Quantitative analysis of bacterial populations revealed that there was a significant increase in lactobacilli and/or bifidobacteria numbers, depending on probiotic addition, compared with the control (no added probiotic). There was also a significant reduction in S. Typhimurium and C. difficile numbers in the presence of certain probiotics compared with controls. Of the probiotic treatments, two single strains namely L. casei NCIMB 30185 (PXN 37), and B. breve NCIMB 30180 (PXN 25) were the most potent in reducing the numbers of S. Typhimurium and C. difficile. In addition, the supplementation with probiotics into the systems influenced some fermentations parameters. Acetate was found in the largest concentrations in all vessels and lactate and formate were generally detected in higher amounts in vessels with probiotic addition compared to controls.

  12. Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Gastroenteritis plays a major role in changing the gut microflora. Gut microflora are also known to change with travel, stress and diet changes- factors which...are relevant to GW Veterans. Altered gut flora may be the etiological factor for IBS and GW Illness. Probiotics are living organisms that improve...health by re-establishing a normal gut flora. The overall objective of the study was to determine whether Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 (Align

  13. Reduction of rainbow trout spleen size by splenectomy does not alter resistance against bacterial cold water disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In lower vertebrates, the contribution of the spleen to anti-bacterial immunity is poorly understood. Researchers have previously reported a phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) and spleen so...

  14. Effect of co-administration of probiotics with polysaccharide based colon targeted delivery systems to optimize site specific drug release.

    PubMed

    Prudhviraj, G; Vaidya, Yogyata; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Yadav, Ankit Kumar; Kaur, Puneet; Gulati, Monica; Gowthamarajan, K

    2015-11-01

    Significant clinical success of colon targeted dosage forms has been limited by their inappropriate release profile at the target site. Their failure to release the drug completely in the colon may be attributed to changes in the colonic milieu because of pathological state, drug effect and psychological stress accompanying the diseased state or, a combination of these. Alteration in normal colonic pH and bacterial picture leads to incomplete release of drug from the designed delivery system. We report the effectiveness of a targeted delivery system wherein the constant replenishment of the colonic microbiota is achieved by concomitant administration of probiotics along with the polysaccharide based drug delivery system. Guar gum coated spheroids of sulfasalazine were prepared. In the dissolution studies, these spheroids showed markedly higher release in the simulated colonic fluid. In vivo experiments conducted in rats clearly demonstrated the therapeutic advantage of co-administration of probiotics with guar gum coated spheroids. Our results suggest that concomitant use of probiotics along with the polysaccharide based delivery systems can be a simple strategy to achieve satisfactory colon targeting of drugs.

  15. Exercise, intestinal barrier dysfunction and probiotic supplementation.

    PubMed

    Lamprecht, Manfred; Frauwallner, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Athletes exposed to high-intensity exercise show an increased occurrence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms like cramps, diarrhea, bloating, nausea, and bleeding. These problems have been associated with alterations in intestinal permeability and decreased gut barrier function. The increased GI permeability, a so-called 'leaky gut', also leads to endotoxemia, and results in increased susceptibility to infectious and autoimmune diseases, due to absorption of pathogens/toxins into tissue and the bloodstream. Key components that determine intestinal barrier function and GI permeability are tight junctions, protein structures located in the paracellular channels between epithelial cells of the intestinal wall. The integrity of tight junctions depends on sophisticated interactions between the gut residents and their expressed substances, the intestinal epithelial cell metabolism and the activities of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Probiotic supplements are an upcoming group of nutraceuticals that could offer positive effects on athlete's gut and entire health. Some results demonstrate promising benefits for probiotic use on the athlete's immune system. There is also evidence that probiotic supplementation can beneficially influence intestinal barrier integrity in acute diseases. With regard to exercise-induced GI permeability problems, there is still a lack of studies with appropriate data and a gap to understand the underlying mechanisms to support such health beneficial statements implicitly. This article refers (i) to exercise-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction, (ii) provides suggestions to estimate increased gut barrier permeability in athletes, and (iii) discusses the potential of probiotic supplementation to counteract an exercise-induced leaky gut.

  16. [Autochthonous microbiota, probiotics and prebiotics].

    PubMed

    Suárez, Juan Evaristo

    2015-02-07

    The autochthonous microbiota is the community of microorganisms that colonizes the skin and mucosal surfaces. The symbiosis is, generally, mutualistic but it can become parasitic due to immune response alterations. The skin microbiota includes bacteria (95%), lipophilic fungi and mites. In the digestive apparatus, each cavity presents its own microbiota, which reaches its target organ during the perinatal period, originating complex and stable communities (homeostasis). The vaginal microbiota varies with the endocrine activity, significantly increasing during the fertile and pregnancy periods, when lactobacilli are the most abundant organisms. Four are the main benefits of the autochthonous microbiota: i) delivery of essential nutrients, such as vitamins and some amino acids; ii) utilization of undigestible diet components, the colonic microbiota degrades complex glycans and fulfils almost 20% of the calories present in a normal diet; iii) development of the immune system: the continuous contact with the immune system maintains it alert and in good shape to repel pathogens efficaciously and iv) microbial antagonism, hinders colonization of our mucosal surfaces by alochthonous, potentially pathogenic, organisms. This works through three mechanisms: colonization interference, production of antimicrobials and co-aggregation with the potential pathogens. The microbiota can, sporadically, produce damages: opportunistic endogenous infections and generation of carcinogenic compounds. Probiotics are "live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the consumer". Prebiotics are undigestible glycans that enhance the growth or activity of the intestinal microbiota, thus generating a health benefit. Synbiotics are mixes of probiotics and prebiotics that exert a synergistic health effect.

  17. Current status of practical applications: Probiotics in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gastrointestinal microbial population of dairy cattle is dense and diverse, and can be utilized to reduce pathogenic bacterial populations as well as improve animal productivity and environmental impacts. Because of the nature of the dairy industry, probiotic products have been widely used to e...

  18. Probiotic-Associated Aspiration Pneumonia Due to Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Sean T.; Afolabi, Folashade; Burnham, Carey-Ann D.

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacilli are low-virulence, commensal organisms of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts and are commonly used as “probiotic supplements.” Herein, we describe an episode of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis with bacterial superinfection secondary to administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in an 11-month-old female with trisomy 21. PMID:24899028

  19. Probiotics and gut health: A special focus on liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gratz, Silvia Wilson; Mykkanen, Hannu; El-Nezami, Hani S

    2010-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria have well-established beneficial effects in the management of diarrhoeal diseases. Newer evidence suggests that probiotics have the potential to reduce the risk of developing inflammatory bowel diseases and intestinal bacterial overgrowth after gut surgery. In liver health, the main benefits of probiotics might occur through preventing the production and/or uptake of lipopolysaccharides in the gut, and therefore reducing levels of low-grade inflammation. Specific immune stimulation by probiotics through processes involving dendritic cells might also be beneficial to the host immunological status and help prevent pathogen translocation. Hepatic fat metabolism also seems to be influenced by the presence of commensal bacteria, and potentially by probiotics; although the mechanisms by which probiotic might act on the liver are still unclear. However, this might be of major importance in the future because low-grade inflammation, hepatic fat infiltration, and hepatitis might become more prevalent as a result of high fat intake and the increased prevalence of obesity. PMID:20101763

  20. Probiotics and prebiotics in animal feeding for safe food production.

    PubMed

    Gaggìa, Francesca; Mattarelli, Paola; Biavati, Bruno

    2010-07-31

    Recent outbreaks of food-borne diseases highlight the need for reducing bacterial pathogens in foods of animal origin. Animal enteric pathogens are a direct source for food contamination. The ban of antibiotics as growth promoters (AGPs) has been a challenge for animal nutrition increasing the need to find alternative methods to control and prevent pathogenic bacterial colonization. The modulation of the gut microbiota with new feed additives, such as probiotics and prebiotics, towards host-protecting functions to support animal health, is a topical issue in animal breeding and creates fascinating possibilities. Although the knowledge on the effects of such feed additives has increased, essential information concerning their impact on the host are, to date, incomplete. For the future, the most important target, within probiotic and prebiotic research, is a demonstrated health-promoting benefit supported by knowledge on the mechanistic actions. Genomic-based knowledge on the composition and functions of the gut microbiota, as well as its deviations, will advance the selection of new and specific probiotics. Potential combinations of suitable probiotics and prebiotics may prove to be the next step to reduce the risk of intestinal diseases and remove specific microbial disorders. In this review we discuss the current knowledge on the contribution of the gut microbiota to host well-being. Moreover, we review available information on probiotics and prebiotics and their application in animal feeding.

  1. Probiotics in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: The Science and the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2015-01-01

    Although probiotics have been used for many years by those who suffer from what would now be defined as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a scientific rationale for their use in this indication and clinical evidence to support their benefits have only emerged very recently. Evidence to support considering strategies, such as probiotics, that modulate the gut microbiome, in IBS, has been provided by laboratory studies implicating the microbiome and the host response to the enteric microenvironment in IBS, as well as in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrating the ability of various commensal bacteria to influence such relevant functions as motility, visceral sensation, gut barrier integrity, and brain-gut interactions. Clinical studies supporting a role for probiotics in the management of IBS predated such experimental data, and randomized controlled trials of probiotics in IBS continue to be reported. Their interpretation is hampered by the less than optimal quality of many studies; nevertheless, it is apparent that probiotics, as a category, do exert significant effects in IBS. Defining the optimal strain, dose, formulation, and duration of therapy is more challenging given the limitations of available data. There is also an urgent need for appropriately powered and rigorously designed clinical trials of appropriate duration of probiotics in IBS; such studies should also help to define those who are most likely to respond to probiotics. Future laboratory and translational research should attempt to define the mechanism(s) of action of probiotics in IBS and explore the response to bacterial components or products in this common and oftentimes troublesome disorder.

  2. Beneficial Properties of Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lye Huey; Balakrishnan, Kunasundari; Thiagarajah, Kokila; Mohd Ismail, Nor Ismaliza; Yin, Ooi Shao

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that can be found in fermented foods and cultured milk, and are widely used for the preparation of infant food. They are well-known as “health friendly bacteria”, which exhibit various health beneficial properties such as prevention of bowel diseases, improving the immune system, for lactose intolerance and intestinal microbial balance, exhibiting antihypercholesterolemic and antihypertensive effects, alleviation of postmenopausal disorders, and reducing traveller’s diarrhoea. Recent studies have also been focused on their uses in treating skin and oral diseases. In addition to that, modulation of the gut-brain by probiotics has been suggested as a novel therapeutic solution for anxiety and depression. Thus, this review discusses on the current probiotics-based products in Malaysia, criteria for selection of probiotics, and evidences obtained from past studies on how probiotics have been used in preventing intestinal disorders via improving the immune system, acting as an antihypercholesterolemic factor, improving oral and dermal health, and performing as anti-anxiety and anti-depressive agents. PMID:27688852

  3. Inoculation of a phenanthrene-degrading endophytic bacterium reduces the phenanthrene level and alters the bacterial community structure in wheat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Xiang, Yanbing; Zhang, Zhiming; Ling, Wanting; Gao, Yanzheng

    2017-03-28

    Colonization by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading endophytic bacteria (PAHDEB) can reduce the PAH contamination risk in plant. However, little information is available on the impact of PAHDEB colonization on the endophytic bacterial community of inner plant tissues. A phenanthrene-degrading endophytic bacterium (PDEB), Massilia sp. Pn2, was inoculated onto the roots of wheat and subjected to greenhouse container experiments. The endophytic bacterial community structure in wheat was investigated using high-throughput sequencing technology. The majority of endophytic bacteria in wheat were Proteobacteria, and the dominant genus was Pseudomonas. Phenanthrene contamination clearly increased the diversity of endophytic bacteria in wheat. The cultivable endophytic bacteria counts in wheat decreased with increasing the level of phenanthrene contamination; the endophytic bacterial community structure changed correspondingly, and the bacterial richness first increased and then decreased. Inoculation of strain Pn2 reduced the phenanthrene contamination in wheat, enlarged the biomass of wheat roots, changed the bacterial community structure and enhanced the cell counts, diversity and richness of endophytic bacteria in phenanthrene-contaminated wheat in a contamination level-dependent manner. The findings of this investigation provide insight into the responses of endophytic bacterial community in plant to external PAH contamination and PAHDEB colonization.

  4. Probiotics in 2015: Their Scope and Use.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The field of probiotics continues to evolve and progress. This paper reviews several situations within the probiotic field that are of current interest, including review of the scope of the proper use of the term "probiotic," use of systematic reviews and meta-analyses for probiotics, regulatory challenges to doing human research on probiotics in the United States, medical recommendations for probiotic use, and safety assurance for probiotics used for vulnerable populations. The greatest need in the probiotic field remains well-conducted and well-reported human trials, to better define the functionality of probiotics for different indications and populations.

  5. Probiotics and food allergy.

    PubMed

    Castellazzi, Anna Maria; Valsecchi, Chiara; Caimmi, Silvia; Licari, Amelia; Marseglia, Alessia; Leoni, Maria Chiara; Caimmi, Davide; Miraglia del Giudice, Michele; Leonardi, Salvatore; La Rosa, Mario; Marseglia, Gian Luigi

    2013-07-29

    The exact prevalence of food allergy in the general population is unknown, but almost 12% of pediatric population refers a suspicion of food allergy. IgE mediated reactions to food are actually the best-characterized types of allergy, and they might be particularly harmful especially in children. According to the "hygiene hypothesis" low or no exposure to exogenous antigens in early life may increase the risk of allergic diseases by both delaying the development of the immune tolerance and limiting the Th2/Th1 switch. The critical role of intestinal microbiota in the development of immune tolerance improved recently the interest on probiotics, prebiotics, antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acid, folate and vitamins, which seem to have positive effects on the immune functions.Probiotics consist in bacteria or yeast, able to re-colonize and restore microflora symbiosis in intestinal tract. One of the most important characteristics of probiotics is their safety for human health. Thanks to their ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and to modulate and stabilize the composition of gut microflora, probiotics bacteria may play an important role in the regulation of intestinal and systemic immunity. They actually seem capable of restoring the intestinal microbic equilibrium and modulating the activation of immune cells.Several studies have been recently conducted on the role of probiotics in preventing and/or treating allergic disorders, but the results are often quite contradictory, probably because of the heterogeneity of strains, the duration of therapy and the doses administered to patients. Therefore, new studies are needed in order to clarify the functions and the utility of probiotics in food allergies and ion other types of allergic disorders.

  6. Probiotics for allergy prevention.

    PubMed

    West, C E

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics, given either as a supplement or in infant foods, have been evaluated in randomised controlled trials for allergy prevention. Here, the aim is to give an overview of the results from these primary prevention studies and to discuss current strategies. In most studies, single strains or a mixture of strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria have been used--prenatally, postnatally or perinatally. Several meta-analyses have reported a moderate benefit of probiotics for eczema prevention, and the most consistent effect has been observed with a combined perinatal intervention in infants at high risk of allergic disease due to familial predisposition. In a recent meta-analysis, the use of multi-strain probiotics appeared to be most effective for eczema prevention. No preventive effect has been shown for other allergic manifestations. As long-term follow-up data on later onset allergic conditions (asthma and allergic rhinitis) are available only from a few of the initiated studies, reports from ongoing follow-up studies that are adequately powered to examine long-term outcomes are anticipated to provide more insight. Arguably, the differences in many aspects of study design and the use of different probiotic strains and combinations have made direct comparison difficult. To date, expert bodies do not generally recommend probiotics for allergy prevention, although the World Allergy Organization (WAO) in their recently developed guidelines suggests considering using probiotics in pregnant women, during breastfeeding and/or to the infant if at high risk of developing allergic disease (based on heredity). However, in concordance with other expert bodies, the WAO guideline panel stressed the low level of evidence and the need for adequately powered randomised controlled trials and a more standardised approach before clinical recommendations on specific strains, dosages and timing can be given.

  7. Is There a Role for Probiotics in the Prevention of Preterm Birth?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Siwen; Reid, Gregor; Challis, John R. G.; Kim, Sung O.; Gloor, Gregory B.; Bocking, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) continues to be a global health challenge. An over-production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as an altered maternal vaginal microbiome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammation/infection-associated PTB. Lactobacillus represents the dominant species in the vagina of most healthy pregnant women. The depletion of Lactobacillus in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been associated with an increased risk of PTB. It remains unknown at what point an aberrant vaginal microbiome composition specifically induces the cascade leading to PTB. The ability of oral or vaginal lactobacilli probiotics to reduce BV occurrence and/or dampen inflammation is being considered as a means to prevent PTB. Certain anti-inflammatory properties of lactobacilli suggest potential mechanisms. To date, clinical studies have not been powered with sufficiently high rates of PTB, but overall, there is merit in examining this promising area of clinical science. PMID:25741339

  8. Alterations in the airborne bacterial community during Asian dust events occurring between February and March 2015 in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Seho; Lee, Dongwook; Jang, Jun Hyeong; Lim, Sora; Yang, Dahye; Seo, Taegun

    2016-01-01

    During Asian dust events, a relatively high concentration of particulate matter is transported by wind from arid and semi-arid regions, such as the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts, to nearby countries, including China, Korea, and Japan. The dust particles contain various microorganisms, which can affect human health as well as the environmental microbe population. In the current study, we investigated the characteristics of the airborne bacterial community during Asian dust events between February and March 2015 in South Korea. Bacterial diversity indexes such as operational taxonomic units, Chao1 and Inverse Simpson index were increased, along with total 16S rRNA gene copy number during Asian dust events. The bacterial community structure during Asian dust events was clearly distinguishable from that during non-Asian dust days. The genera Bacillus and Modestobacter were increased 3.9- and 2.7-fold, respectively, while Escherichia-Shigella was decreased by 89.8%. A non-metric multidimensional scaling plot with metadata analysis revealed association of particulate matter concentration, but not temperature, humidity or wind speed, with bacterial community structure, suggesting that the newly transported dust particles contain various microorganisms that influence the airborne bacterial environment. PMID:27849049

  9. Probiotics in the Treatment of Chronic Rhinoconjunctivitis and Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Matthias F.; Heath, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic rhinitis and rhinosinusitis (CRS) are relevant health conditions affecting significant percentages of the western population. They are frequently coexisting and aggravating diseases. Both are chronic, noninfectious, and inflammatory conditions sharing to a certain extent important pathophysiologic similarities. Beneficial effects of probiotics are long known to mankind. Research is beginning to unravel the true nature of the human microbiome and its interaction with the immune system. The growing prevalence of atopic diseases in the developed world led to the proposition of the “hygiene hypothesis.” Dysbiosis is linked to atopic diseases; probiotic supplementation is able to alter the microbiome and certain probiotic strains have immunomodulatory effects in favour of a suppression of Th-2 and stimulation of a Th1 profile. This review focuses on randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials investigating clinical parameters in the treatment of chronic rhinitis and CRS. An emerging number of publications demonstrate beneficial effects using probiotics in clinical double-blind placebo-controlled (dbpc) trials in allergic rhinitis (AR). Using probiotics as complementary treatment options in AR seems to be a promising concept although the evidence is of a preliminary nature to date and more convincing trials are needed. There are no current data to support the use of probiotics in non-AR or CRS. PMID:24872820

  10. [Role of probiotics in obesity management].

    PubMed

    Prados-Bo, Andreu; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Nova, Esther; Marcos, Ascensión

    2015-02-07

    Obesity is a major public health issue as it is related to several chronic disorders, including type-2 diabetes, high blood pressure, dyslipemia, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, among others. Novel research shows that the gut microbiota is involved in obesity and metabolic disorders, revealing that obese animal and human subjects have alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota compared to their lean counterparts. Moreover, it has been observed in germ-free mice that transplantation of the microbiota of either obese or lean mice influences body weight, suggesting that the gut ecosystem is a relevant target for weight management. Certain strains of probiotics may regulate body weight by influencing the host's metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune functions. Taken together, our knowledge about the influence of gut microbiota on obesity is progressing. Therefore, modulation of its composition through probiotics may provide new opportunities to manage overweight and obesity.

  11. Mechanism of Action of Probiotic Bacteria on Intestinal and Systemic Immunities and Antigen-Presenting Cells.

    PubMed

    Fong, Fiona Long Yan; Shah, Nagendra P; Kirjavainen, Pirkka; El-Nezami, Hani

    2016-05-03

    Immunomodulation has been shown to be one of the major functions of probiotic bacteria. This review is presented to provide detailed information on the immunomodulatory properties of probiotics in various animal models and clinical practices. Probiotics can regulate helper T (Th) responses and release of cytokines in a strain-specific manner. For example, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG can induce beneficial Th1 immunomodulatory effect in infants with cow's milk allergy and relieve intestinal inflammation in atopic children by promoting IL-10 generation. Mechanism of action of probiotics on antigen-presenting cells at gastrointestinal tract is also postulated in this review. Probiotic bacterial cells and their soluble factors may activate dendritic cells, macrophages, and to certain extent monocytes via toll-like-receptor recognition and may further provoke specific Th responses. They are speculated to elicit immunomodulatory effects on intestinal and systemic immunities.

  12. Selection for Cu-tolerant bacterial communities with altered composition, but unaltered richness, via long-term Cu exposure.

    PubMed

    Berg, Jeanette; Brandt, Kristian K; Al-Soud, Waleed A; Holm, Peter E; Hansen, Lars H; Sørensen, Søren J; Nybroe, Ole

    2012-10-01

    Toxic metal pollution affects the composition and metal tolerance of soil bacterial communities. However, there is virtually no knowledge concerning the responses of members of specific bacterial taxa (e.g., phyla or classes) to metal toxicity, and contradictory results have been obtained regarding the impact of metals on operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness. We used tag-coded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to elucidate the impacts of copper (Cu) on bacterial community composition and diversity within a well-described Cu gradient (20 to 3,537 μg g(-1)) stemming from industrial contamination with CuSO(4) more than 85 years ago. DNA sequence information was linked to analysis of pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) to Cu, as determined by the [(3)H]leucine incorporation technique, and to chemical characterization of the soil. PICT was significantly correlated to bioavailable Cu, as determined by the results seen with a Cu-specific bioluminescent biosensor strain, demonstrating a specific community response to Cu. The relative abundances of members of several phyla or candidate phyla, including the Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Verrumicrobia, Chloroflexi, WS3, and Planctomycetes, decreased with increasing bioavailable Cu, while members of the dominant phylum, the Actinobacteria, showed no response and members of the Acidobacteria showed a marked increase in abundance. Interestingly, changes in the relative abundances of classes frequently deviated from the responses of the phyla to which they belong. Despite the apparent Cu impacts on Cu resistance and community structure, bioavailable Cu levels did not show any correlation to bacterial OTU richness (97% similarity level). Our report highlights several bacterial taxa responding to Cu and thereby provides new guidelines for future studies aiming to explore the bacterial domain for members of metal-responding taxa.

  13. Selection for Cu-Tolerant Bacterial Communities with Altered Composition, but Unaltered Richness, via Long-Term Cu Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Jeanette; Brandt, Kristian K.; Al-Soud, Waleed A.; Holm, Peter E.; Hansen, Lars H.; Sørensen, Søren J.

    2012-01-01

    Toxic metal pollution affects the composition and metal tolerance of soil bacterial communities. However, there is virtually no knowledge concerning the responses of members of specific bacterial taxa (e.g., phyla or classes) to metal toxicity, and contradictory results have been obtained regarding the impact of metals on operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness. We used tag-coded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to elucidate the impacts of copper (Cu) on bacterial community composition and diversity within a well-described Cu gradient (20 to 3,537 μg g−1) stemming from industrial contamination with CuSO4 more than 85 years ago. DNA sequence information was linked to analysis of pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) to Cu, as determined by the [3H]leucine incorporation technique, and to chemical characterization of the soil. PICT was significantly correlated to bioavailable Cu, as determined by the results seen with a Cu-specific bioluminescent biosensor strain, demonstrating a specific community response to Cu. The relative abundances of members of several phyla or candidate phyla, including the Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Verrumicrobia, Chloroflexi, WS3, and Planctomycetes, decreased with increasing bioavailable Cu, while members of the dominant phylum, the Actinobacteria, showed no response and members of the Acidobacteria showed a marked increase in abundance. Interestingly, changes in the relative abundances of classes frequently deviated from the responses of the phyla to which they belong. Despite the apparent Cu impacts on Cu resistance and community structure, bioavailable Cu levels did not show any correlation to bacterial OTU richness (97% similarity level). Our report highlights several bacterial taxa responding to Cu and thereby provides new guidelines for future studies aiming to explore the bacterial domain for members of metal-responding taxa. PMID:22904046

  14. Safety and Immunomodulatory Effects of Three Probiotic Strains Isolated from the Feces of Breast-Fed Infants in Healthy Adults: SETOPROB Study

    PubMed Central

    Plaza-Diaz, Julio; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Campaña-Martin, Laura; Matencio, Esther; Ortuño, Inmaculada; Martínez-Silla, Rosario; Gomez-Gallego, Carlos; Periago, Maria Jesús; Ros, Gaspar; Chenoll, Empar; Genovés, Salvador; Casinos, Beatriz; Silva, Ángela; Corella, Dolores; Portolés, Olga; Romero, Fernando; Ramón, Daniel; Perez de la Cruz, Antonio; Gil, Angel; Fontana, Luis

    2013-01-01

    We previously described the isolation and characterization of three probiotic strains from the feces of exclusively breast-fed newborn infants: Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. These strains were shown to adhere to intestinal mucus in vitro, to be sensitive to antibiotics and to resist biliary salts and low pH. In the present study, a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 100 healthy volunteers in three Spanish cities was carried out to evaluate the tolerance, safety, gut colonization and immunomodulatory effects of these three probiotics. Volunteers underwent a 15-day washout period, after which they were randomly divided into 5 groups that received daily a placebo, a capsule containing one of the 3 strains or a capsule containing a mixture of two strains for 30 days. The intervention was followed by another 15-day washout period. Patients did not consume fermented milk for the entire duration of the study. Gastrointestinal symptoms, defecation frequency and stool consistency were not altered by probiotic intake. No relevant changes in blood and serum, as well as no adverse events occurred during or after treatment. Probiotic administration slightly modified bacterial populations in the volunteers’ feces. Intestinal persistence occurred in volunteers who received L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. Administration of B. breve CNCM I-4035 resulted in a significant increase in fecal secretory IgA content. IL-4 and IL-10 increased, whereas IL-12 decreased in the serum of volunteers treated with any of the three strains. These results demonstrate that the consumption of these three bacterial strains was safe and exerted varying degrees of immunomodulatory effects. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01479543 PMID:24205115

  15. Changes in vaginal microbiota following antimicrobial and probiotic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Macklaim, Jean M.; Clemente, Jose C.; Knight, Rob; Gloor, Gregory B.; Reid, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Background The composition of the vaginal microbiota is known to be important for health. When infections occur, antimicrobial therapy is often poorly efficacious. Objective and design We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize changes in the bacterial microbiota following oral antimicrobial and probiotic interventions. Results While the bacterial vaginal profiles of women with vulvovaginal candidiasis were dominated by lactobacilli as in healthy women, and unchanged by therapy, Gardnerella vaginalis, Prevotella, Atopobium, Sneathia, and Megasphaera dominated the vagina of women with bacterial vaginosis (BV), and treatment with tinidazole plus Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14+L. rhamnosus GR-1 resulted in an increased relative abundance of indigenous L. iners or L. crispatus. Conclusions The ability to restore homeostasis provides a rationale for conjoint use of probiotics with antibiotic treatment of BV. PMID:26282697

  16. Significant alteration of soil bacterial communities and organic carbon decomposition by different long-term fertilization management conditions of extremely low-productivity arable soil in South China.

    PubMed

    Xun, Weibing; Zhao, Jun; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Guishan; Ran, Wei; Wang, Boren; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2016-06-01

    Different fertilization managements of red soil, a kind of Ferralic Cambisol, strongly affected the soil properties and associated microbial communities. The association of the soil microbial community and functionality with long-term fertilization management in the unique low-productivity red soil ecosystem is important for both soil microbial ecology and agricultural production. Here, 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S recombinant ribonucleic acid genes and GeoChip4-NimbleGen-based functional gene analysis were used to study the soil bacterial community composition and functional genes involved in soil organic carbon degradation. Long-term nitrogen-containing chemical fertilization-induced soil acidification and fertility decline and significantly altered the soil bacterial community, whereas long-term organic fertilization and fallow management improved the soil quality and maintained the bacterial diversity. Short-term quicklime remediation of the acidified soils did not change the bacterial communities. Organic fertilization and fallow management supported eutrophic ecosystems, in which copiotrophic taxa increased in relative abundance and have a higher intensity of labile-C-degrading genes. However, long-term nitrogen-containing chemical fertilization treatments supported oligotrophic ecosystems, in which oligotrophic taxa increased in relative abundance and have a higher intensity of recalcitrant-C-degrading genes but a lower intensity of labile-C-degrading genes. Quicklime application increased the relative abundance of copiotrophic taxa and crop production, although these effects were utterly inadequate. This study provides insights into the interaction of soil bacterial communities, soil functionality and long-term fertilization management in the red soil ecosystem; these insights are important for improving the fertility of unique low-productivity red soil.

  17. Probiotics as an Immune Modulator.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hye-Ji; Im, Sin-Hyeog

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are nonpathogenic live microorganism that can provide a diverse health benefits on the host when consumed in adequate amounts. Probiotics are consumed in diverse ways including dairy product, food supplements and functional foods with specific health claims. Recently, many reports suggest that certain probiotic strains or multi strain mixture have potent immunomodulatory activity in diverse disorders including allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis and rheumatoid arthritis. However, underlying mechanism of action is still unclear and efficacy of probiotic administration is quite different depending on the type of strains and the amounts of doses. We and others have suggested that live probiotics or their metabolites could interact with diverse immune cells (antigen presenting cells and T cells) and confer them to have immunoregulatory functions. Through this interaction, probiotics could contribute to maintaining immune homeostasis by balancing pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory immune responses. However, the effect of probiotics in prevention or modulation of ongoing disease is quite diverse even within a same species. Therefore, identification of functional probiotics with specific immune regulatory property is a certainly important issue. Herein, we briefly review selection methods for immunomodulatory probiotic strains and the mechanism of action of probiotics in immune modulation.

  18. Whole corn and wet distiller's grains substitution in steam-flaked corn diet alters rumen fermentation and bacterial dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study evaluated effects of whole shelled corn (WSC) in steam-flaked corn (SFC) finishing diets containing differing amounts of wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) on ruminal fermentation and shifts in ruminal bacterial populations. A total of 642 heifers (initial body weight (BW) = 412 +/-...

  19. Zinc source and concentration altered physiological responses of beef heifers during a combined viral-bacterial respiratory challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three treatments were evaluated in feedlot heifers to determine the effects of zinc supplementation on the immune response to a combined viral-bacterial respiratory disease challenge. Thirty-two beef heifers (255+/-15 kg) were subjected to a 30d period of Zn depletion, then randomly assigned to one ...

  20. Probiotics in respiratory virus infections.

    PubMed

    Lehtoranta, L; Pitkäranta, A; Korpela, R

    2014-08-01

    Viral respiratory infections are the most common diseases in humans. A large range of etiologic agents challenge the development of efficient therapies. Research suggests that probiotics are able to decrease the risk or duration of respiratory infection symptoms. However, the antiviral mechanisms of probiotics are unclear. The purpose of this paper is to review the current knowledge on the effects of probiotics on respiratory virus infections and to provide insights on the possible antiviral mechanisms of probiotics. A PubMed and Scopus database search was performed up to January 2014 using appropriate search terms on probiotic and respiratory virus infections in cell models, in animal models, and in humans, and reviewed for their relevance. Altogether, thirty-three clinical trials were reviewed. The studies varied highly in study design, outcome measures, probiotics, dose, and matrices used. Twenty-eight trials reported that probiotics had beneficial effects in the outcome of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and five showed no clear benefit. Only eight studies reported investigating viral etiology from the respiratory tract, and one of these reported a significant decrease in viral load. Based on experimental studies, probiotics may exert antiviral effects directly in probiotic-virus interaction or via stimulation of the immune system. Although probiotics seem to be beneficial in respiratory illnesses, the role of probiotics on specific viruses has not been investigated sufficiently. Due to the lack of confirmatory studies and varied data available, more randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trials in different age populations investigating probiotic dose response, comparing probiotic strains/genera, and elucidating the antiviral effect mechanisms are necessary.

  1. Probiotic fermented sausage: viability of probiotic microorganisms and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rouhi, M; Sohrabvandi, S; Mortazavian, A M

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are from functional foods that bring health benefits for humans. Nowadays, a major development in functional foods is related to food containing probiotic cultures, mainly lactic acid bacteria or bifidobacteria. Probiotics must be alive and ingested in sufficient amounts to exert the positive effects on the health and the well-being of the host. Therefore, viability of probiotic products (the minimum viable probiotic cells in each gram or milliliter of product till the time of consumption) is their most important characteristic. However, these organisms often show poor viability in fermented products due to their detrimental conditions. Today, the variety of fermented meat products available around the world is nearly equal to that of cheese. With meat products, raw fermented sausages could constitute an appropriate vehicle for such microorganisms into the human gastrointestinal tract. In present article, the viability of probiotic microorganisms in fermented sausage, the main factors affect their viability, and the sensorial characteristics of final product are discussed.

  2. Properties of probiotics and encapsulated probiotics in food.

    PubMed

    Ozyurt, V Hazal; Ötles, Semih

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics are microorganisms which confer health benefits upon application in sufficiently-high viable cell amounts. Probiotics are typically members of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species commonly associated with human gastrointestinal tracts. In the recent past, there has been a rising interest in producing functional foods containing encapsulated probiotic bacteria. Recent studies have been reported using dairy products like cheese, yogurt and ice cream as food carrier, and non-dairy products like meat, fruits, cereals, chocolate, etc. However, the industrial sector contains only few encapsulated probiotic products. Probiotics have been developed by several companies in a capsule or a tablet form. The review compiles probiotics, encapsulation technology and cell life in the food matrices.

  3. Meta-Analysis: Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Lipid Profiles in Normal to Mildly Hypercholesterolemic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Mikiko; Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Shiga, Tsuyoshi; Tamura, Hiro-omi; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent experimental and clinical studies have suggested that probiotic supplementation has beneficial effects on serum lipid profiles. However, there are conflicting results on the efficacy of probiotic preparations in reducing serum cholesterol. Objective To evaluate the effects of probiotics on human serum lipid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of interventional studies. Methods Eligible reports were obtained by searches of electronic databases. We included randomized, controlled clinical trials comparing probiotic supplementation with placebo or no treatment (control). Statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.3.3. Subanalyses were also performed. Results Eleven of 33 randomized clinical trials retrieved were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. No participant had received any cholesterol-lowering agent. Probiotic interventions (including fermented milk products and probiotics) produced changes in total cholesterol (TC) (mean difference –0.17 mmol/L, 95% CI: –0.27 to –0.07 mmol/L) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (mean difference –0.22 mmol/L, 95% CI: –0.30 to –0.13 mmol/L). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not differ significantly between probiotic and control groups. In subanalysis, long-term (>4-week) probiotic intervention was statistically more effective in decreasing TC and LDL-C than short-term (≤4-week) intervention. The decreases in TC and LDL-C levels with probiotic intervention were greater in mildly hypercholesterolemic than in normocholesterolemic individuals. Both fermented milk product and probiotic preparations decreased TC and LDL-C levels. Gaio and the Lactobacillus acidophilus strain reduced TC and LDL-C levels to a greater extent than other bacterial strains. Conclusions In conclusion, this meta-analysis showed that probiotic supplementation could be useful in the primary prevention of hypercholesterolemia and may lead to reductions in risk

  4. Probiotics can induce follicle maturational competence: the Danio rerio case.

    PubMed

    Gioacchini, Giorgia; Giorgini, Elisabetta; Merrifield, Daniel L; Hardiman, Gary; Borini, Andrea; Vaccari, Lisa; Carnevali, Oliana

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, the effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501 on the acquisition of oocyte maturational competence was examined in zebrafish (Danio rerio). L. rhamnosus administration induced the responsiveness of incompetent follicles (stage IIIa) to 17,20-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one and their in vitro maturation. Acquisition of competence by the stage IIIa follicles was further validated by changes of lhr, mprb, inhbaa (activin betaA1), tgfb1, and gdf9 gene expression, which have recently emerged as key regulators of oocyte acquisition of maturational competence, and pou5f1 gene expression, which in other models has been shown to govern the establishment of developmental competence of oocytes. In addition, a DNA microarray experiment was conducted using the same follicles, and with relative gene ontology (GO) data analysis, the molecular effects of probiotic administration emerged. Molecular analysis using PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) approach, providing information about only the most abundant bacterial members of the microbial community, revealed that the probiotic was able to populate the gastrointestinal tract and modulate the microbial communities, causing a clear shift in them and specifically enhancing the presence of the lactic acid bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus. At the same time, PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that the probiotic was not directly associated with the ovaries. Finally, the effects of probiotic treatment on zebrafish follicle development were also analyzed by FPA (focal plane array) Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) imaging, a technique that provides the overall biochemical composition of samples. Changes were found above all in stage IIIa follicles from probiotic-exposed females; the modifications, observed in protein secondary structures as well as in hydration and in bands related to phosphate moieties, allowed us to hypothesize that probiotics act at this follicle stage, affecting the

  5. The future of probiotics for disorders of the brain-gut axis.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Eamonn M M; Shanahan, Fergus

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics, or at the very least products that might have probiotic properties, have been with us for decades, if not centuries, but it has only been in recent years that they have been subjected to serious scientific study. This surge in interest in probiotics has coincided with the era of the microbiome; as more and more is understood about the gut microbiota in health and disease, the therapeutic option of modulating the microbiota through the administration of probiotics has gained a more secure foundation. Regrettably, while a vast literature attests to the beneficial impact of probiotics in a variety of animal models and the mechanisms underlying such positive effects have been dissected in great detail, the data base on probiotics in man remains pretty slender.To make progress, a number of basic issues need to be addressed: strain characterization and other aspects of quality control need to be rigorously applied and additional steps such as dose optimization, definition of desired site of effect and tailoring of formulation accordingly accomplished before large scale trials, based on appropriately selected study endpoints and employing a clinically meaningful study duration, are embarked upon. Meantime, it is to be hoped that the regulatory climate will have been clarified and appropriate guidelines for the evaluation of probiotics, whether as food or drug, developed. Ultimately, the current terminology may have to be abandoned as evidence for biological and clinical activity for dead bacteria, bacterial components and bacterial products accumulates.

  6. Risk and safety of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Doron, Shira; Snydman, David R

    2015-05-15

    Probiotics have been used safely for years. Safety outcomes are inconsistently reported in published clinical trials. In 2011, a report released by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality concluded that, although the existing probiotic clinical trials reveal no evidence of increased risk, "the current literature is not well equipped to answer questions on the safety of probiotics in intervention studies with confidence." Critics point out that the preponderance of evidence, including the long history of safe probiotic use as well as data from clinical trials, and animal and in vitro studies all support the assumption that probiotics are generally safe for most populations. Theoretical risks have been described in case reports, clinical trial results and experimental models, include systemic infections, deleterious metabolic activities, excessive immune stimulation in susceptible individuals, gene transfer and gastrointestinal side effects. More research is needed to properly describe the incidence and severity of adverse events related to probiotics.

  7. Probiotics in Pediatric Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Miloh, Tamir

    2015-01-01

    The gut-liver axis involves complex interaction between the intestinal microbiome and the liver parenchyma. Probiotics are live microorganisms that are used in a variety of diseases. With currently only 2 randomized-controlled studies (one with Lactobacillus GG and the other with VSL #3), data are scarce to support the clinical effect of probiotic use in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. There is evidence that probiotics decrease the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and thereby reduce the prevalence of total parenteral nutrition-induced chronic liver disease. Probiotics are used with a few reported positive outcomes in patients with cystic fibrosis and familial hypercholesterolemia and may be promising in other liver conditions. Probiotics are generally safe and well tolerated in children, premature infants, and in patients after liver transplantation. Large, prospective, randomized clinical trials are needed to evaluate the benefit of probiotics in children with liver diseases.

  8. Oral bacteria as potential probiotics for the pharyngeal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Guglielmetti, Simone; Taverniti, Valentina; Minuzzo, Mario; Arioli, Stefania; Stuknyte, Milda; Karp, Matti; Mora, Diego

    2010-06-01

    The research described here was aimed at the selection of oral bacteria that displayed properties compatible with their potential use as probiotics for the pharyngeal mucosa. We included in the study 56 bacteria newly isolated from the pharynges of healthy donors, which were identified at the intraspecies level and characterized in vitro for their probiotic potential. The experiments led us to select two potential probiotic bacterial strains (Streptococcus salivarius RS1 and ST3) and to compare them with the prototype oral probiotic S. salivarius strain K12. All three strains efficiently bound to FaDu human epithelial pharyngeal cells and thereby antagonized Streptococcus pyogenes adhesion and growth. All were sensitive to a variety of antibiotics routinely used for the control of upper respiratory tract infections. Immunological in vitro testing on a FaDu layer revealed different responses to RS1, ST3, and K12. RS1 and ST3 modulated NF-kappaB activation and biased proinflammatory cytokines at baseline and after interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) induction. In conclusion, we suggest that the selected commensal streptococci represent potential pharyngeal probiotic candidates. They could display a good degree of adaptation to the host and possess potential immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties.

  9. Oral Bacteria as Potential Probiotics for the Pharyngeal Mucosa▿

    PubMed Central

    Guglielmetti, Simone; Taverniti, Valentina; Minuzzo, Mario; Arioli, Stefania; Stuknyte, Milda; Karp, Matti; Mora, Diego

    2010-01-01

    The research described here was aimed at the selection of oral bacteria that displayed properties compatible with their potential use as probiotics for the pharyngeal mucosa. We included in the study 56 bacteria newly isolated from the pharynges of healthy donors, which were identified at the intraspecies level and characterized in vitro for their probiotic potential. The experiments led us to select two potential probiotic bacterial strains (Streptococcus salivarius RS1 and ST3) and to compare them with the prototype oral probiotic S. salivarius strain K12. All three strains efficiently bound to FaDu human epithelial pharyngeal cells and thereby antagonized Streptococcus pyogenes adhesion and growth. All were sensitive to a variety of antibiotics routinely used for the control of upper respiratory tract infections. Immunological in vitro testing on a FaDu layer revealed different responses to RS1, ST3, and K12. RS1 and ST3 modulated NF-κB activation and biased proinflammatory cytokines at baseline and after interleukin-1β (IL-1β) induction. In conclusion, we suggest that the selected commensal streptococci represent potential pharyngeal probiotic candidates. They could display a good degree of adaptation to the host and possess potential immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:20418429

  10. [Altered gut bacterial flora and organic acids in feces of patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation with quinolone-based antibacterial prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Shotaro; Hagiwara, Shotaro; Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Morotomi, Masami; Ishizuka, Naoki; Miwa, Akiyoshi; O Yoshida, Takato

    2010-06-01

    Gastrointestinal toxicity and various infections are serious problems associated with high-dose chemotherapy. Antibacterial chemoprophylaxis reduces the incidence of gram-negative bacterial infection; however, it may affect the normal intestinal flora and induce drug resistance in organisms. We evaluated the chronological changes in fecal bacteria and organic acids in 6 patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation with quinolone-based chemoprophylaxis. All patients developed grade 2-3 diarrhea. Four patients developed grade 3 febrile neutropenia. The total count of obligatory anaerobic bacteria was significantly decreased on Day 7, but total facultative anaerobic bacterial count did not change throughout transplantation. However, Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacillus were decreased on Day 7 and Staphylococcus was increased after transplantation. Total organic acid concentration and short-chain fatty acids were decreased on Day 7. The bacterial flora and organic acids in the gut were significantly altered in patients who underwent autologous stem cell transplantation with quinolonebased chemoprophylaxis. These changes may contribute to gastrointestinal toxicity and infections.

  11. Differences in fungal and bacterial physiology alter soil carbon and nitrogen cycling: insights from meta-analysis and theoretical models.

    PubMed

    Waring, Bonnie G; Averill, Colin; Hawkes, Christine V

    2013-07-01

    Since fungi and bacteria are the dominant decomposers in soil, their distinct physiologies are likely to differentially influence rates of ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling. We used meta-analysis and an enzyme-driven biogeochemical model to explore the drivers and biogeochemical consequences of changes in the fungal-to-bacterial ratio (F : B). In our meta-analysis data set, F : B increased with soil C : N ratio (R(2) = 0.224, P < 0.001), a relationship predicted by our model. We found that differences in biomass turnover rates influenced F : B under conditions of C limitation, while differences in biomass stoichiometry set the upper bounds on F : B once a nutrient limitation threshold was reached. Ecological interactions between the two groups shifted along a gradient of resource stoichiometry. At intermediate substrate C : N, fungal N mineralisation fuelled bacterial growth, increasing total microbial biomass and decreasing net N mineralisation. Therefore, we conclude that differences in bacterial and fungal physiology may have large consequences for ecosystem-scale C and N cycling.

  12. Effect of dietary supplementation of probiotics and palm fruits extracts on the antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the mucosae of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    PubMed

    Esteban, M A; Cordero, H; Martínez-Tomé, M; Jiménez-Monreal, A M; Bakhrouf, A; Mahdhi, A

    2014-08-01

    Antioxidant activity is particularly important, since oxidation is an unavoidable reaction in all living bodies. At present, natural antioxidants to be used on food as an alternative to synthetic ones are being sought. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) specimens were fed for 4 weeks with diets enriched with bacterial probiotics (Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 and Bacillus sp), single or in combination with Tunisian dates palm fruit extracts. The expression of the main antioxidant enzyme genes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase) in the mucosae (gut, skin and gill) was evaluated after 2 and 4 weeks. Previously, free radical scavenging and several antioxidant assays were developed to know the antioxidant properties present on the palm fruits extracts. The results demonstrated that experimental diets alter the expression of the studied antioxidant genes, primarily in the gill and skin. Furthermore, the tested probiotics and mainly, the aqueous date palm fruits extracts had significant antioxidant properties based on their protective effect against the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, especially when administering during 4 weeks. For this reason, probiotics and date palm fruit extracts may serve as good natural antioxidants and could potentially be considered as a functional food ingredient for fish in farms.

  13. Latest Developments in Probiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Frédéric; Falony, Gwen; Vuyst, Luc De

    Probiotic foods are a group of health-promoting, so-called functional foods, with large commercial interest and growing market shares (Arvanitoyannis & van Houwelingen-Koukaliaroglou, 2005). In general, their health benefits are based on the presence of selected strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), that, when taken up in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. They are administered mostly through the consumption of fermented milks or yoghurts (Mercenier, Pavan, & Pot, 2003). In addition to their common use in the dairy industry, probiotic LAB strains may be used in other food products too, including fermented meats (Hammes & Hertel, 1998; Incze, 1998; Kröckel, 2006; Työppönen, Petäjä,& Mattila- Sandholm, 2003).

  14. Probiotics in children.

    PubMed

    Kligler, Benjamin; Hanaway, Patrick; Cohrssen, Andreas

    2007-12-01

    The gastrointestinal flora plays a complex and important role in the development of healthy immunologic and digestive function in children. Probiotics are safe in healthy children and effective in reducing the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and the duration of acute infectious diarrhea. Probiotics may also be effective in preventing community-acquired diarrheal infections, in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants, and in the prevention and treatment of atopic dermatitis. The exact strain or combination of strains most effective for common clinical indications has yet to be determined, but the exact strain used seems less important than whether an adequate dose is used (typically 5 to 10 billion CFUs per day or higher). Clinicians should familiarize themselves with the products available because there is a wide range in their quality.

  15. Genomics of Probiotic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Flaherty, Sarah; Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    Probiotic bacteria from the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species belong to the Firmicutes and the Actinobacteria phylum, respectively. Lactobacilli are members of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group, a broadly defined family of microorganisms that ferment various hexoses into primarily lactic acid. Lactobacilli are typically low G + C gram-positive species which are phylogenetically diverse, with over 100 species documented to date. Bifidobacteria are heterofermentative, high G + C content bacteria with about 30 species of bifidobacteria described to date.

  16. Probiotics modulated gut microbiota suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma growth in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Sung, Cecilia Ying Ju; Lee, Nikki; Ni, Yueqiong; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Panagiotou, Gianni; El-Nezami, Hani

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial roles of probiotics in lowering the gastrointestinal inflammation and preventing colorectal cancer have been frequently demonstrated, but their immunomodulatory effects and mechanism in suppressing the growth of extraintestinal tumors remain unexplored. Here, we adopted a mouse model and metagenome sequencing to investigate the efficacy of probiotic feeding in controlling s.c. hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the underlying mechanism suppressing the tumor progression. Our result demonstrated that Prohep, a novel probiotic mixture, slows down the tumor growth significantly and reduces the tumor size and weight by 40% compared with the control. From a mechanistic point of view the down-regulated IL-17 cytokine and its major producer Th17 cells, whose levels decreased drastically, played critical roles in tumor reduction upon probiotics feeding. Cell staining illustrated that the reduced Th17 cells in the tumor of the probiotic-treated group is mainly caused by the reduced frequency of migratory Th17 cells from the intestine and peripheral blood. In addition, shotgun-metagenome sequencing revealed the crosstalk between gut microbial metabolites and the HCC development. Probiotics shifted the gut microbial community toward certain beneficial bacteria, including Prevotella and Oscillibacter, that are known producers of antiinflammatory metabolites, which subsequently reduced the Th17 polarization and promoted the differentiation of antiinflammatory Treg/Tr1 cells in the gut. Overall, our study offers novel insights into the mechanism by which probiotic treatment modulates the microbiota and influences the regulation of the T-cell differentiation in the gut, which in turn alters the level of the proinflammatory cytokines in the extraintestinal tumor microenvironment. PMID:26884164

  17. Probiotics modulated gut microbiota suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Sung, Cecilia Ying Ju; Lee, Nikki; Ni, Yueqiong; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Panagiotou, Gianni; El-Nezami, Hani

    2016-03-01

    The beneficial roles of probiotics in lowering the gastrointestinal inflammation and preventing colorectal cancer have been frequently demonstrated, but their immunomodulatory effects and mechanism in suppressing the growth of extraintestinal tumors remain unexplored. Here, we adopted a mouse model and metagenome sequencing to investigate the efficacy of probiotic feeding in controlling s.c. hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the underlying mechanism suppressing the tumor progression. Our result demonstrated that Prohep, a novel probiotic mixture, slows down the tumor growth significantly and reduces the tumor size and weight by 40% compared with the control. From a mechanistic point of view the down-regulated IL-17 cytokine and its major producer Th17 cells, whose levels decreased drastically, played critical roles in tumor reduction upon probiotics feeding. Cell staining illustrated that the reduced Th17 cells in the tumor of the probiotic-treated group is mainly caused by the reduced frequency of migratory Th17 cells from the intestine and peripheral blood. In addition, shotgun-metagenome sequencing revealed the crosstalk between gut microbial metabolites and the HCC development. Probiotics shifted the gut microbial community toward certain beneficial bacteria, including Prevotella and Oscillibacter, that are known producers of antiinflammatory metabolites, which subsequently reduced the Th17 polarization and promoted the differentiation of antiinflammatory Treg/Tr1 cells in the gut. Overall, our study offers novel insights into the mechanism by which probiotic treatment modulates the microbiota and influences the regulation of the T-cell differentiation in the gut, which in turn alters the level of the proinflammatory cytokines in the extraintestinal tumor microenvironment.

  18. Ageing, immunity and influenza: a role for probiotics?

    PubMed

    Yaqoob, Parveen

    2014-05-01

    Influenza is a major cause of death in the over 65s. Increased susceptibility to infection and reduced response to vaccination are due to immunosenscence in combination with medical history and lifestyle factors. Age-related alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota have a direct impact on the immune system and it is proposed that modulation of the gut microbiota using pre- and probiotics could offer an opportunity to improve immune responses to infections and vaccination in older people. There is growing evidence that probiotics have immunomodulatory properties, which to some extent are strain-dependent, and are strongly influenced by ageing. Randomised controlled trials suggest that probiotics may reduce the incidence and/or severity of respiratory infections, although there is limited data on older people. A small number of studies have examined the potential adjuvant effects of selected probiotics for vaccination against influenza; however, the data is inconsistent, particularly in older people. This review describes the impact of age-related changes in the gut on the immune response to respiratory infections and evaluates whether restoration of gut microbial homoeostasis by probiotics offers an opportunity to modulate the outcome of respiratory infections and vaccination against influenza in older people. Although there is promising evidence for effects of probiotics on human health, there is a lack of consistent data, perhaps partly due to strain-specific differences and an influence of the age of the host. Further research is critical in evaluating the potential use of probiotics in respiratory infections and vaccination in the ageing population.

  19. Oral mucosal lipids are antibacterial against Porphyromonas gingivalis, induce ultrastructural damage, and alter bacterial lipid and protein compositions.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Carol L; Walters, Katherine S; Drake, David R; Dawson, Deborah V; Blanchette, Derek R; Brogden, Kim A; Wertz, Philip W

    2013-09-01

    Oral mucosal and salivary lipids exhibit potent antimicrobial activity for a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; however, little is known about their spectrum of antimicrobial activity or mechanisms of action against oral bacteria. In this study, we examine the activity of two fatty acids and three sphingoid bases against Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important colonizer of the oral cavity implicated in periodontitis. Minimal inhibitory concentrations, minimal bactericidal concentrations, and kill kinetics revealed variable, but potent, activity of oral mucosal and salivary lipids against P. gingivalis, indicating that lipid structure may be an important determinant in lipid mechanisms of activity against bacteria, although specific components of bacterial membranes are also likely important. Electron micrographs showed ultrastructural damage induced by sapienic acid and phytosphingosine and confirmed disruption of the bacterial plasma membrane. This information, coupled with the association of treatment lipids with P. gingivalis lipids revealed via thin layer chromatography, suggests that the plasma membrane is a likely target of lipid antibacterial activity. Utilizing a combination of two-dimensional in-gel electrophoresis and Western blot followed by mass spectroscopy and N-terminus degradation sequencing we also show that treatment with sapienic acid induces upregulation of a set of proteins comprising a unique P. gingivalis stress response, including proteins important in fatty acid biosynthesis, metabolism and energy production, protein processing, cell adhesion and virulence. Prophylactic or therapeutic lipid treatments may be beneficial for intervention of infection by supplementing the natural immune function of endogenous lipids on mucosal surfaces.

  20. Salinity altered root distribution and increased diversity of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere soil of Jerusalem artichoke.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Hu, Jinxiang; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-02-08

    The interaction between roots and bacterial communities in halophytic species is poorly understood. Here, we used Jerusalem artichoke cultivar Nanyu 1 (NY-1) to characterise root distribution patterns and determine diversity and abundance of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil under variable salinity. Root growth was not inhibited within the salinity range 1.2 to 1.9 g salt/kg, but roots were mainly confined to 0-20 cm soil layer vertically and 0-30 cm horizontally from the plant centre. Root concentrations of K(+), Na(+), Mg(2+) and particularly Ca(2+) were relatively high under salinity stress. High salinity stress decreased soil invertase and catalase activity. Using a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach, we determined higher diversity of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil at high than low salinity. More than 15,500 valid reads were obtained, and Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria predominated in all samples, accounting for >80% of the reads. On a genus level, 636 genera were common to the low and high salinity treatments at 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm depth. The abundance of Steroidobacter and Sphingomonas was significantly decreased by increasing salinity. Higher Shannon and Chao 1 indices with increasing severity of salt stress indicated that high salt stress increased diversity in the bacterial communities.

  1. Salinity altered root distribution and increased diversity of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere soil of Jerusalem artichoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Hu, Jinxiang; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-02-01

    The interaction between roots and bacterial communities in halophytic species is poorly understood. Here, we used Jerusalem artichoke cultivar Nanyu 1 (NY-1) to characterise root distribution patterns and determine diversity and abundance of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil under variable salinity. Root growth was not inhibited within the salinity range 1.2 to 1.9 g salt/kg, but roots were mainly confined to 0–20 cm soil layer vertically and 0–30 cm horizontally from the plant centre. Root concentrations of K+, Na+, Mg2+ and particularly Ca2+ were relatively high under salinity stress. High salinity stress decreased soil invertase and catalase activity. Using a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach, we determined higher diversity of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil at high than low salinity. More than 15,500 valid reads were obtained, and Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria predominated in all samples, accounting for >80% of the reads. On a genus level, 636 genera were common to the low and high salinity treatments at 0–5 cm and 5–10 cm depth. The abundance of Steroidobacter and Sphingomonas was significantly decreased by increasing salinity. Higher Shannon and Chao 1 indices with increasing severity of salt stress indicated that high salt stress increased diversity in the bacterial communities.

  2. Oral mucosal lipids are antibacterial against Porphyromonas gingivalis, induce ultrastructural damage, and alter bacterial lipid and protein compositions

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Carol L; Walters, Katherine S; Drake, David R; Dawson, Deborah V; Blanchette, Derek R; Brogden, Kim A; Wertz, Philip W

    2013-01-01

    Oral mucosal and salivary lipids exhibit potent antimicrobial activity for a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; however, little is known about their spectrum of antimicrobial activity or mechanisms of action against oral bacteria. In this study, we examine the activity of two fatty acids and three sphingoid bases against Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important colonizer of the oral cavity implicated in periodontitis. Minimal inhibitory concentrations, minimal bactericidal concentrations, and kill kinetics revealed variable, but potent, activity of oral mucosal and salivary lipids against P. gingivalis, indicating that lipid structure may be an important determinant in lipid mechanisms of activity against bacteria, although specific components of bacterial membranes are also likely important. Electron micrographs showed ultrastructural damage induced by sapienic acid and phytosphingosine and confirmed disruption of the bacterial plasma membrane. This information, coupled with the association of treatment lipids with P. gingivalis lipids revealed via thin layer chromatography, suggests that the plasma membrane is a likely target of lipid antibacterial activity. Utilizing a combination of two-dimensional in-gel electrophoresis and Western blot followed by mass spectroscopy and N-terminus degradation sequencing we also show that treatment with sapienic acid induces upregulation of a set of proteins comprising a unique P. gingivalis stress response, including proteins important in fatty acid biosynthesis, metabolism and energy production, protein processing, cell adhesion and virulence. Prophylactic or therapeutic lipid treatments may be beneficial for intervention of infection by supplementing the natural immune function of endogenous lipids on mucosal surfaces. PMID:23867843

  3. Salinity altered root distribution and increased diversity of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere soil of Jerusalem artichoke

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui; Hu, Jinxiang; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between roots and bacterial communities in halophytic species is poorly understood. Here, we used Jerusalem artichoke cultivar Nanyu 1 (NY-1) to characterise root distribution patterns and determine diversity and abundance of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil under variable salinity. Root growth was not inhibited within the salinity range 1.2 to 1.9 g salt/kg, but roots were mainly confined to 0–20 cm soil layer vertically and 0–30 cm horizontally from the plant centre. Root concentrations of K+, Na+, Mg2+ and particularly Ca2+ were relatively high under salinity stress. High salinity stress decreased soil invertase and catalase activity. Using a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach, we determined higher diversity of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil at high than low salinity. More than 15,500 valid reads were obtained, and Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria predominated in all samples, accounting for >80% of the reads. On a genus level, 636 genera were common to the low and high salinity treatments at 0–5 cm and 5–10 cm depth. The abundance of Steroidobacter and Sphingomonas was significantly decreased by increasing salinity. Higher Shannon and Chao 1 indices with increasing severity of salt stress indicated that high salt stress increased diversity in the bacterial communities. PMID:26852800

  4. Cohabitation in the Intestine: Interactions among Helminth Parasites, Bacterial Microbiota, and Host Immunity.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lisa A; Finlay, B Brett; Maizels, Rick M

    2015-11-01

    Both intestinal helminth parasites and certain bacterial microbiota species have been credited with strong immunomodulatory effects. Recent studies reported that the presence of helminth infection alters the composition of the bacterial intestinal microbiota and, conversely, that the presence and composition of the bacterial microbiota affect helminth colonization and persistence within mammalian hosts. This article reviews recent findings on these reciprocal relationships, in both human populations and mouse models, at the level of potential mechanistic pathways and the implications these bear for immunomodulatory effects on allergic and autoimmune disorders. Understanding the multidirectional complex interactions among intestinal microbes, helminth parasites, and the host immune system allows for a more holistic approach when using probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and anthelmintics, as well as when designing treatments for autoimmune and allergic conditions.

  5. Plasmid-Encoded Tetracycline Efflux Pump Protein Alters Bacterial Stress Responses and Ecological Fitness of Acinetobacter oleivorans

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hyerim; Jung, Jaejoon; Park, Woojun

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of the extracellular tetracycline (TC) resistance plasmid pAST2 affected host gene expression and phenotype in the oil-degrading soil bacterium, Acinetobacter oleivorans DR1. Whole-transcriptome profiling of DR1 cells harboring pAST2 revealed that all the plasmid genes were highly expressed under TC conditions, and the expression levels of many host chromosomal genes were modulated by the presence of pAST2. The host energy burden imposed by replication of pAST2 led to (i) lowered ATP concentrations, (ii) downregulated expression of many genes involved in cellular growth, and (iii) reduced growth rate. Interestingly, some phenotypes were restored by deleting the plasmid-encoded efflux pump gene tetH, suggesting that the membrane integrity changes resulting from the incorporation of efflux pump proteins also resulted in altered host response under the tested conditions. Alteration of membrane integrity by tetH deletion was shown by measuring permeability of fluorescent probe and membrane hydrophobicity. The presence of the plasmid conferred peroxide and superoxide resistance to cells, but only peroxide resistance was diminished by tetH gene deletion, suggesting that the plasmid-encoded membrane-bound efflux pump protein provided peroxide resistance. The downregulation of fimbriae-related genes presumably led to reduced swimming motility, but this phenotype was recovered by tetH gene deletion. Our data suggest that not only the plasmid replication burden, but also its encoded efflux pump protein altered host chromosomal gene expression and phenotype, which also alters the ecological fitness of the host in the environment. PMID:25229538

  6. Viability of human-derived probiotic lactobacilli in ice cream produced with sucrose and aspartame.

    PubMed

    Başyiğit, Gülden; Kuleaşan, Hakan; Karahan, Aynur G

    2006-09-01

    A mixture of human-derived probiotic strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. agilis and L. rhamnosus was used as a probiotic culture in ice cream manufacture. Viability and survival of these probiotic cultures were investigated in two different ice cream formulations. Ice cream with sucrose and ice cream with aspartame were prepared and each of these was divided into two subgroups: one with direct addition of the probiotic culture and one with milk fermented by the same probiotic culture. Ice cream samples were stored at -20 degrees C for 6 months and the survival rate of cultures were determined monthly. Probiotic cultures underwent tests for resistance to bile salts, antibiotics, acidic conditions; they were found to be highly resistant to such challenges. Chemical analysis of ice cream samples, such as determination of acidity, pH and solid matter, was also performed. The probiotic cultures remained unchanged in ice cream stored for up to 6 months regardless of the sweeteners used. Using probiotic cultures in ice cream mixes did not alter the characteristics of the product.

  7. Effect of Probiotic Bacillus Coagulans and Lactobacillus Plantarum on Alleviation of Mercury Toxicity in Rat.

    PubMed

    Majlesi, Majid; Shekarforoush, Seyed Shahram; Ghaisari, Hamid Reza; Nazifi, Saeid; Sajedianfard, Javad; Eskandari, Mohammad Hadi

    2017-01-13

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of probiotics (Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus coagulans) against mercury-induced toxicity using a rat model. Mercury (Hg) is a widespread heavy metal and was shown to be associated with various diseases. Forty-eight adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (control, mercury-only, each probiotic-only, and mercury plus each probiotic group). Hg-treated groups received 10 ppm mercuric chloride, and probiotic groups were administrated 1 × 10(9) CFU of probiotics daily for 48 days. Levels of mercury were determined using cold vapor technique, and some biochemical factors (list like glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), creatinine, urea, bilirubin, alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase (AST)) were measured to evaluate changes in oxidative stress. Oral administration of either probiotic was found to provide significant protection against mercury toxicity by decreasing the mercury level in the liver and kidney and preventing alterations in the levels of GPx and SOD. Probiotic treatment generated marked reduction in the levels of creatinine, urea, bilirubin, ALT, and AST indicating the positive influence of the probiotics on the adverse effects of Hg in the body.

  8. Probiotics and prebiotics associated with aquaculture: A review.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Najeeb; Wu, Bin; Memon, Aamir Mahmood; Mohsin, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    There is a rapidly growing literature, indicating success of probiotics and prebiotics in immunomodulation, namely the stimulation of innate, cellular and humoral immune response. Probiotics are considered to be living microorganisms administered orally and lead to health benefits. These Probiotics are microorganisms in sufficient amount to alter the microflora (by implantation or colonization) in specific host's compartment exerting beneficial health effects at this host. Nevertheless, Prebiotics are indigestible fiber which enhances beneficial commensally gut bacteria resulting in improved health of the host. The beneficial effects of prebiotics are due to by-products derived from the fermentation of intestinal commensal bacteria. Among the many health benefits attributed to probiotics and prebiotics, the modulation of the immune system is one of the most anticipated benefits and their ability to stimulate systemic and local immunity, deserves attention. They directly enhance the innate immune response, including the activation of phagocytosis, activation of neutrophils, activation of the alternative complement system, an increase in lysozyme activity, and so on. Prebiotics acting as immunosaccharides directly impact on the innate immune system of fish and shellfish. Therefore, both probiotics and prebiotics influence the immunomodulatory activity boosting up the health benefits in aquatic animals.

  9. Immunology and probiotic impact of the newborn and young children intestinal microflora.

    PubMed

    Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Stavropoulou, Elisabeth

    2011-12-01

    Human body has developed a holistic defence system, which mission is either to recognize and destroy the aggressive invaders or to evolve mechanisms permitting to minimize or restore the consequences of harmful actions. The host immune system keeps the capital role to preserve the microbial intestinal balance via the barrier effect. Specifically, pathogenic invaders such as, bacteria, parasites, viruses and other xenobiotic invaders are rejected out of the body via barriers formed by the skin, mucosa and intestinal flora. In case physical barriers are breached, the immune system with its many components comes into action in order to fence infection. The intestine itself is considered as an "active organ" due to its abundant bacterial flora and to its large metabolic activity. The variation among different species or even among different strains within a species reflects the complexity of the genetic polymorphism which regulates the immune system functions. Additionally factors such as, gender, particular habits, smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, religion, age, gender, precedent infections and vaccinations must be involved. Hormonal profile and stress seems to be associated to the integrity microbiota and inducing immune system alterations. Which bacterial species are needed for inducing a proper barrier effect is not known, but it is generally accepted that this barrier function can be strongly supported by providing benefic alimentary supplements called functional foods. In this vein it is stressed the fact that early intestinal colonization with organisms such as Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria and possibly subsequent protection from many different types of diseases. Moreover, this benefic microflora dominated but Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli support the concept of their ability to modify the gut microbiota by reducing the risk of cancer following their capacity to decrease β-glucoronidase and carcinogen levels. Because of their beneficial roles in the

  10. Probiotics modify tight-junction proteins in an animal model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Briskey, David; Heritage, Mandy; Jaskowski, Lesley-Anne; Peake, Jonathan; Gobe, Glenda; Subramaniam, V. Nathan; Crawford, Darrell; Campbell, Catherine; Vitetta, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background: We have investigated the effects of a multispecies probiotic preparation containing a combination of probiotic bacterial genera that included Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli and a Streptococcus in a mouse model of high-fat diet or obesity-induced liver steatosis. Methods: Three groups of C57B1/6J mice were fed either a standard chow or a high-fat diet for 20 weeks, while a third group was fed a high-fat diet for 10 weeks and then concomitantly administered probiotics for a further 10 weeks. Serum, liver and large bowel samples were collected for analysis. Results: The expression of the tight-junction proteins ZO-1 and ZO-2 was reduced (p < 0.05) in high-fat diet-fed mice compared to chow-fed mice. Probiotic supplementation helped to maintain tight ZO-1 and ZO-2 expression compared with the high-fat diet group (p < 0.05), but did not restore ZO-1 or ZO-2 expression compared with chow-fed mice. Mice fed a high-fat diet ± probiotics had significant steatosis development compared with chow-fed mice (p < 0.05); steatosis was less severe in the probiotics group compared with the high-fat diet group. Hepatic triglyceride concentration was higher in mice fed a high-fat diet ± probiotics compared with the chow group (p < 0.05), and was lower in the probiotics group compared with the high-fat diet group (p < 0.05). Compared with chow-fed mice, serum glucose, cholesterol concentration and the activity of alanine transaminase were higher (p < 0.05), whereas serum triglyceride concentration was lower (p < 0.05) in mice fed a high-fat diet ± probiotics. Conclusions: Supplementation with a multispecies probiotic formulation helped to maintain tight-junction proteins ZO-1 and ZO-2, and reduced hepatic triglyceride concentration compared with a high-fat diet alone. PMID:27366215

  11. Probiotic Diversity Enhances Rhizosphere Microbiome Function and Plant Disease Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jie; Friman, Ville-Petri; Gu, Shao-hua; Wang, Xiao-fang; Eisenhauer, Nico; Yang, Tian-jie; Ma, Jing; Shen, Qi-rong; Jousset, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial communities associated with plant roots play an important role in the suppression of soil-borne pathogens, and multispecies probiotic consortia may enhance disease suppression efficacy. Here we introduced defined Pseudomonas species consortia into naturally complex microbial communities and measured the importance of Pseudomonas community diversity for their survival and the suppression of the bacterial plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum in the tomato rhizosphere microbiome. The survival of introduced Pseudomonas consortia increased with increasing diversity. Further, high Pseudomonas diversity reduced pathogen density in the rhizosphere and decreased the disease incidence due to both intensified resource competition and interference with the pathogen. These results provide novel mechanistic insights into elevated pathogen suppression by diverse probiotic consortia in naturally diverse plant rhizospheres. Ecologically based community assembly rules could thus play a key role in engineering functionally reliable microbiome applications. PMID:27965449

  12. Subinhibitory Antibiotic Therapy Alters Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection Pathogenesis through Modulation of Bacterial Virulence and Host Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Thomas J.; MacPhee, Roderick A.; Schwartz, Drew J.; Macklaim, Jean M.; Gloor, Gregory B.; Razvi, Hassan; Reid, Gregor; Hultgren, Scott J.; Burton, Jeremy P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The capacity of subinhibitory levels of antibiotics to modulate bacterial virulence in vitro has recently been brought to light, raising concerns over the appropriateness of low-dose therapies, including antibiotic prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infection management. However, the mechanisms involved and their relevance in influencing pathogenesis have not been investigated. We characterized the ability of antibiotics to modulate virulence in the uropathogens Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Escherichia coli. Several antibiotics were able to induce the expression of adhesins critical to urothelial colonization, resulting in increased biofilm formation, colonization of murine bladders and kidneys, and promotion of intracellular niche formation. Mice receiving subinhibitory ciprofloxacin treatment were also more susceptible to severe infections and frequent recurrences. A ciprofloxacin prophylaxis model revealed this strategy to be ineffective in reducing recurrences and worsened infection by creating larger intracellular reservoirs at higher frequencies. Our study indicates that certain agents used for antibiotic prophylaxis have the potential to complicate infections. PMID:25827417

  13. Altering Transplantation Time to Avoid Periods of High Temperature Can Efficiently Reduce Bacterial Wilt Disease Incidence with Tomato.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhong; Huang, Jian-Feng; Hu, Jie; Gu, Yi-An; Yang, Chun-Lan; Mei, Xin-Lan; Shen, Qi-Rong; Xu, Yang-Chun; Friman, Ville-Petri

    2015-01-01

    Tomato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum bacterium is a severe problem in Southern China, where relatively high environmental temperatures commonly prevails during the crop seasons. Previous research has indicated that bacterial wilt disease incidence generally increases during the warm months of summer leading to reduced tomato yield. Moreover, the efficacy of bio-organic fertilizers (BOFs)-organic compost fortified with pathogen-suppressive bacteria-is often lost during the periods of high environmental temperatures. Here we studied if the disease incidence could be reduced and the BOF performance enhanced by simply preponing and postponing the traditional seedling transplantation times to avoid tomato plant development during periods of high environmental temperature. To this end, a continuous, two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of BOF in two traditional (late-spring [LS] and early-autumn [EA]) and two alternative (early-spring [ES] and late-autumn [LA]) crop seasons. We found that changing the transplantation times reduced the mean disease incidence from 33.9% (LS) and 54.7% (EA) to 11.1% (ES) and 7.1% (LA), respectively. Reduction in disease incidence correlated with the reduction in R. Solanacearum pathogen density in the tomato plant rhizosphere and stem base. Applying BOF during alternative transplantation treatments improved biocontrol efficiency from 43.4% (LS) and 3.1% (EA) to 67.4% (ES) and 64.8% (LA). On average, the mean maximum air temperatures were positively correlated with the disease incidence, and negatively correlated with the BOF biocontrol efficacy over the crop seasons. Crucially, even though preponing the transplantation time reduced the tomato yield in general, it was still economically more profitable compared to LS season due to reduced crop losses and relatively higher market prices. Preponing and postponing traditional tomato transplantation times to cooler periods could thus offer simple

  14. The Villain Team-Up or how Trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis alter innate immunity in concert

    PubMed Central

    Fichorova, Raina N; Buck, Olivia R; Yamamoto, Hidemi S; Fashemi, Titilayo; Dawood, Hassan Y; Fashemi, Bisiayo; Hayes, Gary R; Beach, David H; Takagi, Yuko; Delaney, Mary L; Nibert, Max L; Singh, Bibhuti N; Onderdonk, Andrew B

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Complex interactions of vaginal microorganisms with the genital tract epithelium shape mucosal innate immunity, which holds the key to sexual and reproductive health. Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a microbiome-disturbance syndrome prevalent in reproductive-age women, occurs commonly in concert with trichomoniasis, and both are associated with increased risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and viral infections, largely attributable to inflammation. To investigate the causative relationships among inflammation, BV and trichomoniasis, we established a model of human cervicovaginal epithelial cells colonised by vaginal Lactobacillus isolates, dominant in healthy women, and common BV species (Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis and Prevotella bivia). Methods Colonised epithelia were infected with Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) or exposed to purified TV virulence factors (membrane lipophosphoglycan (LPG), its ceramide-phosphoinositol-glycan core (CPI-GC) or the endosymbiont Trichomonas vaginalis virus (TVV)), followed by assessment of bacterial colony-forming units, the mucosal anti-inflammatory microbicide secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and chemokines that drive pro-inflammatory, antigen-presenting and T cells. Results TV reduced colonisation by Lactobacillus but not by BV species, which were found inside epithelial cells. TV increased interleukin (IL)-8 and suppressed SLPI, likely via LPG/CPI-GC, and upregulated IL-8 and RANTES, likely via TVV as suggested by use of purified pathogenic determinants. BV species A vaginae and G vaginalis induced IL-8 and RANTES, and also amplified the pro-inflammatory responses to both LPG/CPI-GC and TVV, whereas P bivia suppressed the TV/TVV-induced chemokines. Conclusions These molecular host–parasite–endosymbiont–bacteria interactions explain epidemiological associations and suggest a revised paradigm for restoring vaginal immunity and preventing BV/TV-attributable inflammatory sequelae in women. PMID

  15. Altering Transplantation Time to Avoid Periods of High Temperature Can Efficiently Reduce Bacterial Wilt Disease Incidence with Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhong; Huang, Jian-Feng; Hu, Jie; Gu, Yi-An; Yang, Chun-Lan; Mei, Xin-Lan; Shen, Qi-Rong; Xu, Yang-Chun; Friman, Ville-Petri

    2015-01-01

    Tomato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum bacterium is a severe problem in Southern China, where relatively high environmental temperatures commonly prevails during the crop seasons. Previous research has indicated that bacterial wilt disease incidence generally increases during the warm months of summer leading to reduced tomato yield. Moreover, the efficacy of bio-organic fertilizers (BOFs)–organic compost fortified with pathogen-suppressive bacteria—is often lost during the periods of high environmental temperatures. Here we studied if the disease incidence could be reduced and the BOF performance enhanced by simply preponing and postponing the traditional seedling transplantation times to avoid tomato plant development during periods of high environmental temperature. To this end, a continuous, two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of BOF in two traditional (late-spring [LS] and early-autumn [EA]) and two alternative (early-spring [ES] and late-autumn [LA]) crop seasons. We found that changing the transplantation times reduced the mean disease incidence from 33.9% (LS) and 54.7% (EA) to 11.1% (ES) and 7.1% (LA), respectively. Reduction in disease incidence correlated with the reduction in R. Solanacearum pathogen density in the tomato plant rhizosphere and stem base. Applying BOF during alternative transplantation treatments improved biocontrol efficiency from 43.4% (LS) and 3.1% (EA) to 67.4% (ES) and 64.8% (LA). On average, the mean maximum air temperatures were positively correlated with the disease incidence, and negatively correlated with the BOF biocontrol efficacy over the crop seasons. Crucially, even though preponing the transplantation time reduced the tomato yield in general, it was still economically more profitable compared to LS season due to reduced crop losses and relatively higher market prices. Preponing and postponing traditional tomato transplantation times to cooler periods could thus offer

  16. Gut Microbiota, Probiotics, and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    SUVOROV, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The review is devoted to the problems of microbiota and the ways of it correction employing beneficial life bacteria- probiotics. It covers the issues related to the functioning of human microbiota and its importance for the health, individual variability of microbial content, functioning of the probiotics in the human organism and the history of probiotic studies with particular focus on the microbiological investigations in the USSR. The article discusses the safety issues related to probiotics and the problems with probiotic therapy, trying to explain the reasons for the side effects caused by probiotics. The necessity of personified selection of the probiotic strain or individual microbial therapy autoprobiotics is also discussed. PMID:24936366

  17. Synbiotic (Biomin imbo) alters gut bacterial microflora of Russian sturgeon, Acipenser guldenstadti (Brandt & Ratzeburg, 1833) in a time-dependent pattern.

    PubMed

    Vaezi, Mahdi; Khara, Hossein; Shenavar, Alireza

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the efficiency of Synbiotic (Biomin imbo) in alternation and stabilization of gut microflora of Russian sturgeon, Acipenser guldenstadti. For this purpose, five experimental treatments and one control group with three replicates were considered. In treatment groups, fish were fed with diet containing 1 (T1), 1.5 (T2), 2 (T3), 2.5 (T4) and 3 (T5) g Synbiotic/kg diet. In control group, fish were fed without supplement of Synbiotic. Sampling for bacterial studies was conducted at days 20, 40 and 60 after the beginning of the experiment. According to results, there were no significant differences in total bacterial count between Synbiotic treatments and also in comparison with control group 20 days after the beginning of the experiment (P > 0.05). At days 40 and 60 of experiment, the highest total bacterial counts were observed in control and T1 group respectively. At day 20, the lactic acid bacteria count was higher significantly in Synbiotic treatments compared to control group (P < 0.05). In all sampling times (i.e. days 20, 40 and 60), the highest lactic acid bacteria count was observed in fish fed with 3 g Synbiotic/kg diet i.e. treatment 5 (P < 0.05). In each experimental group, total bacteria and lactic acid bacteria counts increased significantly as the duration of experiment expanded. In this regard, these parameters were significantly higher at day 60 compared to day 40 and 20 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our results showed that Synbiotic (Biomin imbo) alters and stabilizes efficiently the microflora of Russian sturgeon gut towards lactic acid bacteria in a time-dependent pattern.

  18. Tissue-Associated Bacterial Alterations in Rectal Carcinoma Patients Revealed by 16S rRNA Community Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Andrew M.; Jesus, Eliane C.; Lopes, Ademar; Aguiar, Samuel; Begnami, Maria D.; Rocha, Rafael M.; Carpinetti, Paola Avelar; Camargo, Anamaria A.; Hoffmann, Christian; Freitas, Helano C.; Silva, Israel T.; Nunes, Diana N.; Setubal, João C.; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic and inflammatory forms of colorectal cancer (CRC) account for more than 80% of cases. Recent publications have shown mechanistic evidence for the involvement of gut bacteria in the development of both CRC-forms. Whereas, colon and rectal cancer have been routinely studied together as CRC, increasing evidence show these to be distinct diseases. Also, the common use of fecal samples to study microbial communities may reflect disease state but possibly not the tumor microenvironment. We performed this study to evaluate differences in bacterial communities found in tissue samples of 18 rectal-cancer subjects when compared to 18 non-cancer controls. Samples were collected during exploratory colonoscopy (non-cancer group) or during surgery for tumor excision (rectal-cancer group). High throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of the V4–V5 region was conducted on the Ion PGM platform, reads were filtered using Qiime and clustered using UPARSE. We observed significant increases in species richness and diversity in rectal cancer samples, evidenced by the total number of OTUs and the Shannon and Simpson indexes. Enterotyping analysis divided our cohort into two groups, with the majority of rectal cancer samples clustering into one enterotype, characterized by a greater abundance of Bacteroides and Dorea. At the phylum level, rectal-cancer samples had increased abundance of candidate phylum OD1 (also known as Parcubacteria) whilst non-cancer samples had increased abundance of Planctomycetes. At the genera level, rectal-cancer samples had higher abundances of Bacteroides, Phascolarctobacterium, Parabacteroides, Desulfovibrio, and Odoribacter whereas non-cancer samples had higher abundances of Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Lactobacillus, and Bacillus. Two Bacteroides fragilis OTUs were more abundant among rectal-cancer patients seen through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, whose presence was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and enrichment verified by digital

  19. Tissue-Associated Bacterial Alterations in Rectal Carcinoma Patients Revealed by 16S rRNA Community Profiling.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andrew M; Jesus, Eliane C; Lopes, Ademar; Aguiar, Samuel; Begnami, Maria D; Rocha, Rafael M; Carpinetti, Paola Avelar; Camargo, Anamaria A; Hoffmann, Christian; Freitas, Helano C; Silva, Israel T; Nunes, Diana N; Setubal, João C; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic and inflammatory forms of colorectal cancer (CRC) account for more than 80% of cases. Recent publications have shown mechanistic evidence for the involvement of gut bacteria in the development of both CRC-forms. Whereas, colon and rectal cancer have been routinely studied together as CRC, increasing evidence show these to be distinct diseases. Also, the common use of fecal samples to study microbial communities may reflect disease state but possibly not the tumor microenvironment. We performed this study to evaluate differences in bacterial communities found in tissue samples of 18 rectal-cancer subjects when compared to 18 non-cancer controls. Samples were collected during exploratory colonoscopy (non-cancer group) or during surgery for tumor excision (rectal-cancer group). High throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of the V4-V5 region was conducted on the Ion PGM platform, reads were filtered using Qiime and clustered using UPARSE. We observed significant increases in species richness and diversity in rectal cancer samples, evidenced by the total number of OTUs and the Shannon and Simpson indexes. Enterotyping analysis divided our cohort into two groups, with the majority of rectal cancer samples clustering into one enterotype, characterized by a greater abundance of Bacteroides and Dorea. At the phylum level, rectal-cancer samples had increased abundance of candidate phylum OD1 (also known as Parcubacteria) whilst non-cancer samples had increased abundance of Planctomycetes. At the genera level, rectal-cancer samples had higher abundances of Bacteroides, Phascolarctobacterium, Parabacteroides, Desulfovibrio, and Odoribacter whereas non-cancer samples had higher abundances of Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Lactobacillus, and Bacillus. Two Bacteroides fragilis OTUs were more abundant among rectal-cancer patients seen through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, whose presence was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and enrichment verified by digital

  20. Encapsulation of Probiotics for use in Food Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manojlović, Verica; Nedović, Viktor A.; Kailasapathy, Kasipathy; Zuidam, Nicolaas Jan

    The history of the role of probiotics for human health is one century old and several definitions have been derived hitherto. One of them, launched by Huis in't Veld and Havenaar (1991) defines probiotics as being “mono or mixed cultures of live microorganisms which, when applied to a man or an animal (e.g., as dried cells or as a fermented product), beneficially affect the host by improving the properties of the indigenous microflora”. Probiotics are living microorganisms which survive gastric, bile, and pancreatic secretions, attach to epithelial cells and colonize the human intestine (Del Piano et al. 2006). It is estimated that an adult human intestine contains more than 400 different bacterial species (Finegold et al. 1977) and approximately 1014 bacterial cells (which is approximately ten times the total number of eukaryotic cells in the human body). The bacterial cells can be classified into three categories, namely, beneficial, neutral or harmful, with respect to human health. Among the beneficial bacteria are Bifidobacterium and Lactobacilli. The proportion of bifidobacteria represents the third most common genus in the gastrointestinal tract, while Bacteroides predominates at 86% of the total flora in the adult gut, followed by Eubacterium. Infant-type bifidobacteria B. bifidum are replaced with adult-type bifidobacteria, B. longum and B. adolescentis. With weaning and aging, the intestinal flora profile changes. Bifidobacteria decrease, while certain kinds of harmful bacteria increase. Changes in the intestinal flora are affected not only by aging but also by extrinsic factors, for example, stress, diet, drugs, bacterial contamination and constipation. Therefore, daily consumption of probiotic products is recommended for good health and longevity. There are numerous claimed beneficial effects and therapeutic applications of probiotic bacteria in humans, such as maintenance of normal intestinal microflora, improvement of constipation, treatment of

  1. Probiotic Bacillus pumilus SE5 shapes the intestinal microbiota and mucosal immunity in grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong-Ling; Xia, Han-Qin; Ye, Yi-Dan; Zou, Wen-Chao; Sun, Yun-Zhang

    2014-09-30

    The health benefits of probiotics are thought to occur, at least in part, through an improved intestinal microbial balance in fish, although the molecular mechanisms whereby probiotics modulate the intestinal microbiota by means of activation of mucosal immunity are rarely explored. In this study, the effects of viable and heat-inactivated probiotic Bacillus pumilus SE5 on the intestinal dominant microbial community and mucosal immune gene expression were evaluated. The fish were fed for 60 d with 3 different diets: control (without probiotic), and diets T1 and T2 supplemented with 1.0 × 10⁸ cells g⁻¹ viable and heat-inactivated B. pumilus SE5, respectively. Upregulated expression of TLR1, TLR2 and IL-8, but not MyD88 was observed in fish fed the viable probiotic, while elevated expression of TLR2, IL-8 and TGF-β1, but not MyD88 was observed in fish fed the heat-inactivated B. pumilus SE5. The induced activation of intestinal mucosal immunity, especially the enhanced expression of antibacterial epinecidin-1, was consistent with the microbial data showing that several potentially pathogenic bacterial species such as Psychroserpens burtonensis and Pantoea agglomerans were suppressed by both the viable and heat-inactivated probiotic B. pumilus SE5. These results lay the foundation for future studies on the molecular interactions between probiotics, intestinal microbiota and mucosal immunity in fish.

  2. Survival of Probiotics in Hypromellose Capsules with Rice or Potato Maltodextrin Excipient.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinru; Bechman, Allison; Klu, Yaa Asantewaa Kafui; Phillips, Robert D

    2016-09-28

    There is currently no authorized or established therapeutic level/dose of probiotics for proposed health benefits; however, a daily probiotic consumption of 10(8) to 10(10) CFU has been recommended. This study determined the survival of 5 individual probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium lactis, along with a mixture of the 5 strains in hypromellose capsules with rice or potato maltodextrin at 4, 25, and 37 °C for 12 mo. Samples were collected monthly and plated on deMan-Rogosa Sharpe agar with 0.05% l-cysteine hydrochloride. Results showed that samples stored at 4 °C had an average count of 10(8) to 10(11) CFU/g of probiotic cells during the 12 mo period, whereas at 25 °C, L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei had an average counts below 10(8) CFU/g during the storage period. L. rhamnosus was the most vulnerable strain used in this study, having the least viable counts at all 3 storage temperatures. Probiotics stored in rice maltodextrin, on average, had higher probiotic counts compared to those stored in potato maltodextrin. Study suggests that to provide consumers with 10(8) to 10(10) CFU/d of probiotic cells, robust bacterial strains, suitable carriers, and a storage temperature of 4 °C are required.

  3. Water-Limiting Conditions Alter the Structure and Biofilm-Forming Ability of Bacterial Multispecies Communities in the Alfalfa Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Bogino, Pablo; Abod, Ayelén; Nievas, Fiorela; Giordano, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms are microbial communities that adhere to biotic or abiotic surfaces and are enclosed in a protective matrix of extracellular compounds. An important advantage of the biofilm lifestyle for soil bacteria (rhizobacteria) is protection against water deprivation (desiccation or osmotic effect). The rhizosphere is a crucial microhabitat for ecological, interactive, and agricultural production processes. The composition and functions of bacterial biofilms in soil microniches are poorly understood. We studied multibacterial communities established as biofilm-like structures in the rhizosphere of Medicago sativa (alfalfa) exposed to 3 experimental conditions of water limitation. The whole biofilm-forming ability (WBFA) for rhizospheric communities exposed to desiccation was higher than that of communities exposed to saline or nonstressful conditions. A culture-dependent ribotyping analysis indicated that communities exposed to desiccation or saline conditions were more diverse than those under the nonstressful condition. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of selected strains showed that the rhizospheric communities consisted primarily of members of the Actinobacteria and α- and γ-Proteobacteria, regardless of the water-limiting condition. Our findings contribute to improved understanding of the effects of environmental stress factors on plant-bacteria interaction processes and have potential application to agricultural management practices. PMID:24223979

  4. Viability, Acid and Bile Tolerance of Spray Dried Probiotic Bacteria and Some Commercial Probiotic Supplement Products Kept at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Dianawati, Dianawati; Mishra, Vijay; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-06-01

    Production of probiotic food supplements that are shelf-stable at room temperature has been developed for consumer's convenience, but information on the stability in acid and bile environment is still scarce. Viability and acid and bile tolerance of microencapsulated Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus and 4 commercial probiotic supplements were evaluated. Bifidobacterium and L. acidophilus were encapsulated with casein-based emulsion using spray drying. Water activity (aw ) of the microspheres containing Bifidobacterium or L. acidophilus (SD GM product) was adjusted to 0.07 followed by storage at 25 °C for 10 wk. Encapsulated Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus and 4 commercial probiotic supplement products (AL, GH, RE, and BM) were tested. Since commercial probiotic products contained mixed bacteria, selective media MRS-LP (containing L-cysteine and Na-propionate) and MRS-clindamycin agar were used to grow Bifidobacterium spp. or L. acidophilus, respectively, and to inhibit the growth of other strains. The results showed that aw had a strong negative correlation with the viability of dehydrated probiotics of the 6 products. Viable counts of Bifidobacterium spp. and L. acidophilus of SD GM, AL, and GH were between 8.3 and 9.2 log CFU/g, whereas that of BM and RE were between 6.7 and 7.3 log CFU/g. Bifidobacterium in SD GM, in AL, and in GH products and L. acidophilus in SD GM, in AL, and in BM products demonstrated high tolerance to acid. Most of dehydrated probiotic bacteria were able to survive in bile environment except L. acidophilus in RE product. Exposure to gastric juice influenced bacterial survivability in subsequent bile environment.

  5. Culture-independent analysis of probiotic products by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Temmerman, R; Scheirlinck, I; Huys, G; Swings, J

    2003-01-01

    In order to obtain functional and safe probiotic products for human consumption, fast and reliable quality control of these products is crucial. Currently, analysis of most probiotics is still based on culture-dependent methods involving the use of specific isolation media and identification of a limited number of isolates, which makes this approach relatively insensitive, laborious, and time-consuming. In this study, a collection of 10 probiotic products, including four dairy products, one fruit drink, and five freeze-dried products, were subjected to microbial analysis by using a culture-independent approach, and the results were compared with the results of a conventional culture-dependent analysis. The culture-independent approach involved extraction of total bacterial DNA directly from the product, PCR amplification of the V3 region of the 16S ribosomal DNA, and separation of the amplicons on a denaturing gradient gel. Digital capturing and processing of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) band patterns allowed direct identification of the amplicons at the species level. This whole culture-independent approach can be performed in less than 30 h. Compared with culture-dependent analysis, the DGGE approach was found to have a much higher sensitivity for detection of microbial strains in probiotic products in a fast, reliable, and reproducible manner. Unfortunately, as reported in previous studies in which the culture-dependent approach was used, a rather high percentage of probiotic products suffered from incorrect labeling and yielded low bacterial counts, which may decrease their probiotic potential.

  6. Recombinant probiotics with antimicrobial peptides: a dual strategy to improve immune response in immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Santi M; Silva, Osmar N; Franco, Octavio L

    2014-08-01

    Bacterial infectious diseases are currently a serious health problem, especially in patients compromised by illness or those receiving immune-suppressant drugs. In this context, it is not only essential to improve the understanding of infectious mechanisms and host response but also to discover novel therapies with extreme urgency. Probiotics and antimicrobial peptides are also favorably viewed as novel strategies in the control of resistant bacteria. The present review will shed some light on the use of probiotic microorganisms expressing antimicrobial peptides as a dual therapy to control bacterial infectious diseases.

  7. Probiotics protect mice from ovariectomy-induced cortical bone loss.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, Claes; Engdahl, Cecilia; Fåk, Frida; Andersson, Annica; Windahl, Sara H; Farman, Helen H; Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Islander, Ulrika; Sjögren, Klara

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota (GM) modulates the hosts metabolism and immune system. Probiotic bacteria are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host and can alter the composition of the GM. Germ-free mice have increased bone mass associated with reduced bone resorption indicating that the GM also regulates bone mass. Ovariectomy (ovx) results in bone loss associated with altered immune status. The purpose of this study was to determine if probiotic treatment protects mice from ovx-induced bone loss. Mice were treated with either a single Lactobacillus (L) strain, L. paracasei DSM13434 (L. para) or a mixture of three strains, L. paracasei DSM13434, L. plantarum DSM 15312 and DSM 15313 (L. mix) given in the drinking water during 6 weeks, starting two weeks before ovx. Both the L. para and the L. mix treatment protected mice from ovx-induced cortical bone loss and bone resorption. Cortical bone mineral content was higher in both L. para and L. mix treated ovx mice compared to vehicle (veh) treated ovx mice. Serum levels of the resorption marker C-terminal telopeptides and the urinary fractional excretion of calcium were increased by ovx in the veh treated but not in the L. para or the L. mix treated mice. Probiotic treatment reduced the expression of the two inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-1β, and increased the expression of OPG, a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis, in cortical bone of ovx mice. In addition, ovx decreased the frequency of regulatory T cells in bone marrow of veh treated but not probiotic treated mice. In conclusion, treatment with L. para or the L. mix prevents ovx-induced cortical bone loss. Our findings indicate that these probiotic treatments alter the immune status in bone resulting in attenuated bone resorption in ovx mice.

  8. Beta-glucans improve growth, viability and colonization of probiotic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Russo, Pasquale; López, Paloma; Capozzi, Vittorio; de Palencia, Pilar Fernández; Dueñas, María Teresa; Spano, Giuseppe; Fiocco, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics are frequently-used components for the elaboration of functional food. Currently, most of the commercialized probiotics are limited to a few strains of the genera Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus and Streptococcus, most of which produce exopolysaccharides (EPS). This suggests that the beneficial properties of these microorganisms may be related to the biological activities of these biopolymers. In this work we report that a 2-substituted-(1,3)-β-d-glucan of non-dairy bacterial origin has a prebiotic effect on three probiotic strains. Moreover, the presence of this β-d-glucan potentiates in vitro adhesion of the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 to human intestinal epithelial cells.

  9. Beta-Glucans Improve Growth, Viability and Colonization of Probiotic Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Pasquale; López, Paloma; Capozzi, Vittorio; de Palencia, Pilar Fernández; Dueñas, María Teresa; Spano, Giuseppe; Fiocco, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics are frequently-used components for the elaboration of functional food. Currently, most of the commercialized probiotics are limited to a few strains of the genera Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus and Streptococcus, most of which produce exopolysaccharides (EPS). This suggests that the beneficial properties of these microorganisms may be related to the biological activities of these biopolymers. In this work we report that a 2-substituted-(1,3)-β-d-glucan of non-dairy bacterial origin has a prebiotic effect on three probiotic strains. Moreover, the presence of this β-d-glucan potentiates in vitro adhesion of the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 to human intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:22754347

  10. Probiotics - do they have a role in the pig industry?

    PubMed

    Kenny, M; Smidt, H; Mengheri, E; Miller, B

    2011-03-01

    The delivery of certain living microorganisms in food has long been suggested as having positive health effects in humans. This practice has extended into food animal production, with a variety of microorganisms being used; lactic acid bacteria, various Bacillus species and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been particularly used in the pig industry. The increased interest in probiotics is essentially due to the problem of microbial resistance to antibiotics and following the ban of the use of antibiotics in animal production, probiotics being considered an alternative means to reduce pathogen infection and improve animal health especially around the time of weaning. However, there is still a need to clarify the probiotic effectiveness in pigs, and the underlying mechanisms. When assessing the efficacy of probiotics one must consider the particular strain of organism being used and the production stage of the pigs being treated. The reproducible delivery of probiotics in industrial pig production is problematic as maintenance of viability is key to their beneficial activity, but difficult to achieve with commonly used feed processing technologies. One specific context where probiotics organisms may be reliably delivered is in systems utilising fermented liquid feeds. Liquid feed may be fermented by the activity of wild lactic acid bacteria or may be stimulated using specific isolates as 'starters'; the latter system has advantages in terms of reproducibility and speed of fermentation. The farm context in which the organism is used is likely to be critical; the use of probiotics is more likely to result in measurable economic gains in animals living in sub-optimal conditions rather than in those reared in the highest welfare and husbandry conditions. The establishment of a beneficial lactic acid bacteria population at birth may lead to healthier animals, this may be most effectively achieved by treating sows, which provide an amplification step and flood the

  11. Biocheese: A Food Probiotic Carrier

    PubMed Central

    Castro, J. M.; Tornadijo, M. E.; Fresno, J. M.; Sandoval, H.

    2015-01-01

    This review describes some aspects related to the technological barriers encountered in the development and stability of probiotic cheeses. Aspects concerning the viability of probiotic cultures in this matrix are discussed and the potential of cheese as a biofunctional food carrier is analyzed, outlying some points related to health and safety. In general, the manufacture of probiotic cheese should have little change when compared with the elaboration of cheese in the traditional way. The physicochemical and technological parameters influencing the quality of these products have also to be measured so as to obtain a process optimization. PMID:25802862

  12. The Alteration of Plant Morphology by Small Peptides Released from the Proteolytic Processing of the Bacterial Peptide TENGU1[W

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Kyoko; Honma, Youhei; Komatsu, Ken; Himeno, Misako; Oshima, Kenro; Namba, Shigetou

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are insect-borne plant pathogenic bacteria that alter host morphology. TENGU, a small peptide of 38 residues, is a virulence factor secreted by phytoplasmas that induces dwarfism and witches’ broom in the host plant. In this study, we demonstrate that plants process TENGU in order to generate small functional peptides. First, virus vector-mediated transient expression demonstrated that the amino-terminal 11 amino acids of TENGU are capable of causing symptom development in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. The deletion of the 11th residue significantly diminished the symptom-inducing activity of TENGU, suggesting that these 11 amino acids constitute a functional domain. Second, we found that TENGU undergoes proteolytic processing in vitro, generating peptides of 19 and 21 residues including the functional domain. Third, we observed similar processing of TENGU in planta, and an alanine substitution mutant of TENGU, for which processing was compromised, showed reduced symptom induction activity. All TENGU homologs from several phytoplasma strains possessed similar symptom induction activity and went through processing, which suggests that the processing of TENGU might be related to its function. PMID:23784461

  13. Microbiota and metabolite profiling reveal specific alterations in bacterial community structure and environment in the cystic fibrosis airway during exacerbation.

    PubMed

    Twomey, Kate B; Alston, Mark; An, Shi-Qi; O'Connell, Oisin J; McCarthy, Yvonne; Swarbreck, David; Febrer, Melanie; Dow, J Maxwell; Plant, Barry J; Ryan, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Chronic polymicrobial infections of the lung are the foremost cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The composition of the microbial flora of the airway alters considerably during infection, particularly during patient exacerbation. An understanding of which organisms are growing, their environment and their behaviour in the airway is of importance for designing antibiotic treatment regimes and for patient prognosis. To this end, we have analysed sputum samples taken from separate cohorts of CF and non-CF subjects for metabolites and in parallel, and we have examined both isolated DNA and RNA for the presence of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts by high-throughput sequencing of amplicon or cDNA libraries. This analysis revealed that although the population size of all dominant orders of bacteria as measured by DNA- and RNA- based methods are similar, greater discrepancies are seen with less prevalent organisms, some of which we associated with CF for the first time. Additionally, we identified a strong relationship between the abundance of specific anaerobes and fluctuations in several metabolites including lactate and putrescine during patient exacerbation. This study has hence identified organisms whose occurrence within the CF microbiome has been hitherto unreported and has revealed potential metabolic biomarkers for exacerbation.

  14. Probiotics as potential antioxidants: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vijendra; Shah, Chandni; Mokashe, Narendra; Chavan, Rupesh; Yadav, Hariom; Prajapati, Jashbhai

    2015-04-15

    Probiotics are known for their health beneficial effects and are established as dietary adjuncts. Probiotics have been known for many beneficial health effects. In this view, there is interest to find the potential probiotic strains that can exhibit antioxidant properties along with health benefits. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that probiotics exhibit antioxidant potential. In this view, consumption of probiotics alone or foods supplemented with probiotics may reduce oxidative damage, free radical scavenging rate, and modification in activity of crucial antioxidative enzymes in human cells. Incorporation of probiotics in foods can provide a good strategy to supply dietary antioxidants, but more studies are needed to standardize methods and evaluate antioxidant properties of probiotics before they can be recommended for antioxidant potential. In this paper, the literature related to known antioxidant potential of probiotics and proposing future perspectives to conduct such studies has been reviewed.

  15. Probiotics, prebiotics, and microencapsulation: A review.

    PubMed

    Sarao, Loveleen Kaur; Arora, M

    2017-01-22

    The development of a suitable technology for the production of probiotics is a key research for industrial production, which should take into account the viability and the stability of the organisms involved. Microbial criteria, stress tolerance during processing, and storage of the product constitute the basis for the production of probiotics. Generally, the bacteria belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium have been used as probiotics. Based on their positive qualities, probiotic bacteria are widely used in the production of food. Interest in the incorporation of the probiotic bacteria into other products apart from dairy products has been increasing and represents a great challenge. The recognition of dose delivery systems for probiotic bacteria has also resulted in research efforts aimed at developing probiotic food outside the dairy sector. Producing probiotic juices has been considered more in the recent years, due to an increased concern in personal health of consumers. This review focuses on probiotics, prebiotics, and the microencapsulation of living cells.

  16. Probiotics in infectious diarrhoea in children: are they indicated?

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Y; Salvatore, S; Vieira, M; Viera, M; Devreker, T; Hauser, B

    2007-12-01

    Infectious gastroenteritis continues to be a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The cornerstone of treatment remains replacement of water and electrolyte losses with oral rehydration solution. Until a few years ago, probiotics were discussed primarily in the context of alternative medicine, but they are now entering mainstream medical practice since a decrease of the severity and duration of infectious gastroenteritis in approximately 24 hours has been shown for some strains. Therefore, probiotics are a potential add-on therapy in acute gastro-enteritis. The shortening of the duration of diarrhoea and the reduction in hospital stay result in a social and economic benefit. Evidence found in viral gastroenteritis is more convincing than in bacterial or parasitic infection. Mechanisms of action are strain specific and only those commercial products for which there is evidence of clinical efficacy should be recommended. Timing of administration is also of importance. In acute gastroenteritis, there is evidence for efficacy of some strains of lactobacilli (e.g. Lactobacillus caseii GG and Lactobacillus reuteri) and for Saccharomyces boulardii. Probiotics are "generally regarded as safe", but side effects such as septicaemia and fungaemia have very rarely been reported in high-risk situations. Although most studies conclude in a statistically significant shortening of the duration of diarrhea, the clinical relevance of this finding is limited. In conclusion, selected strains of probiotics result in a statistically significant but clinically moderate benefit in shortening the duration of diarrhoea caused by acute infectious gastroenteritis.

  17. THE HUMAN MICROBIOME AND PROBIOTICS: IMPLICATIONS FOR PEDIATRICS

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Michael H.; Versalovic, James

    2010-01-01

    The “human super-organism” refers to the human body and the massive numbers of microbes which dwell within us and on the skin surface. Despite the large numbers of microbes co-existing within the human body, humans including infants and children achieve a physiologic state of equilibrium known as health in the context of this microbial world. These key concepts suggest that many individual members of the human microbiome, including bacterial and fungal species, confer different benefits on the human host. Probiotics, or beneficial microbes, may modulate immune responses, provide key nutrients, or suppress the proliferation and virulence of infectious agents. The human microbiome is in fact dynamic and often in flux, which may be indicative of the continuous interplay among commensal microbes, pathogens, and the human host. In this article we review the state-of-the-art regarding probiotics applications to prevent or treat diseases of the pediatric gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems. Additionally, probiotics may regulate local and systemic immunity, thereby reducing allergic disease severity and susceptibilities of infants and children to allergies and atopic diseases. In summary, beneficial microbes offer promising alternatives for new strategies in therapeutic microbiology with implications for different subspecialties within pediatrics. Instead of simply trying to counteract microbes with vaccines and antibiotics, a new field of medical microbiology is emerging that strives to translate human microbiome research into new probiotics strategies for promotion of health and prevention of disease in children. PMID:18992706

  18. Probiotics, immunity and exercise: a review.

    PubMed

    West, N P; Pyne, D B; Peake, J M; Cripps, A W

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional practices that promote good health and optimal athletic performance are of interest to athletes, coaches, exercise scientists and dietitians. Probiotic supplements modulate the intestinal microbial flora and offer promise as a practical means of enhancing gut and immune function. The intestinal microbial flora consists of diverse bacterial species that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. These bacteria are integral to the ontogeny and regulation of the immune system, protection of the body from infection, and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. The interaction of the gut microbial flora with intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells exerts beneficial effects on the upper respiratory tract, skin and uro-genital tract. The capacity for probiotics to modulate perturbations in immune function after exercise highlight their potential for use in individuals exposed to high degrees of physical and environment stress. Future studies are required to address issues of dose-response in various exercise settings, the magnitude of species-specific effects, mechanisms of action and clinical outcomes in terms of health and performance.

  19. [Microbiota in women; clinical applications of probiotics].

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Calatayud, Guillermo; Suárez, Evaristo; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Pérez-Moreno, Jimena

    2015-07-18

    The main function of vaginal microbiota is to protect the mucosa against the colonization and growth of pathogenic microorganisms. This microbiota is modified by hormonal activity. Its maximum concentration and effectiveness occurs during the fertile period, where there is a predominance of lactobacilli. When it is reduced (microbiota dysbiosis) leads to bacterial vaginosis and candida vaginitis which are common diseases in women. Consequently, instillation of lactobacilli in the vagina has beneficial effects on the symptomatology and prognosis of these illnesses. Breast milk is one of the key factors in the development of gut microbiota of the infant. There is an enteric-breast circulation, which is higher at the end of pregnancy and during breastfeeding. This circulation could explain the modulation of the breast microbiota by using probiotics. It could have a positive impact not only for the health of the mother, who would reduce the incidence of mastitis, but also for their infant. The use of probiotics is a hopeful alternative in various gynecological pathologies. However, it's is necessary first some well-designed, randomized trials with standardized methods and with a significant number of patients in order to confirm its benefits and allow us its use in protocols.

  20. Survival of Microencapsulated Probiotic Bacteria after Processing and during Storage: A Review.

    PubMed

    Dianawati, Dianawati; Mishra, Vijay; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-07-26

    The use of live probiotic bacteria as food supplement has become popular. Capability of probiotic bacteria to be kept at room temperature becomes necessary for customer's convenience and manufacturer's cost reduction. Hence, production of dried form of probiotic bacteria is important. Two common drying methods commonly used for microencapsulation are freeze drying and spray drying. In spite of their benefits, both methods have adverse effects on cell membrane integrity and protein structures resulting in decrease in bacterial viability. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria has been a promising technology to ensure bacterial stability during the drying process and to preserve their viability during storage without significantly losing their functional properties such acid tolerance, bile tolerance, surface hydrophobicity, and enzyme activities. Storage at room temperatures instead of freezing or low temperature storage is preferable for minimizing costs of handling, transportation, and storage. Concepts of water activity and glass transition become important in terms of determination of bacterial survival during the storage. The effectiveness of microencapsulation is also affected by microcapsule materials. Carbohydrate- and protein-based microencapsulants and their combination are discussed in terms of their protecting effect on probiotic bacteria during dehydration, during exposure to harsh gastrointestinal transit and small intestine transit and during storage.

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Cell Wall Fragments Released upon Bacterial Contact with the Human Lung Mucosa Alter the Neutrophil Response to Infection

    PubMed Central

    Scordo, Julia M.; Arcos, Jesús; Kelley, Holden V.; Diangelo, Lauren; Sasindran, Smitha J.; Youngmin, Ellie; Wewers, Mark D.; Wang, Shu-Hua; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Torrelles, Jordi B.

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the World Health Organization reported that one person dies of tuberculosis (TB) every 21 s. A host environment that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) finds during its route of infection is the lung mucosa bathing the alveolar space located in the deepest regions of the lungs. We published that human lung mucosa, or alveolar lining fluid (ALF), contains an array of hydrolytic enzymes that can significantly alter the M.tb surface during infection by cleaving off parts of its cell wall. This interaction results in two different outcomes: modifications on the M.tb cell wall surface and release of M.tb cell wall fragments into the environment. Typically, one of the first host immune cells at the site of M.tb infection is the neutrophil. Neutrophils can mount an extracellular and intracellular innate immune response to M.tb during infection. We hypothesized that exposure of neutrophils to ALF-induced M.tb released cell wall fragments would prime neutrophils to control M.tb infection better. Our results show that ALF fragments activate neutrophils leading to an increased production of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative radicals. However, neutrophil exposure to these fragments reduces production of chemoattractants (i.e., interleukin-8), and degranulation, with the subsequent reduction of myeloperoxidase release, and does not induce cytotoxicity. Unexpectedly, these ALF fragment-derived modulations in neutrophil activity do not further, either positively or negatively, contribute to the intracellular control of M.tb growth during infection. However, secreted products from neutrophils primed with ALF fragments are capable of regulating the activity of resting macrophages. These results indicate that ALF-induced M.tb fragments could further contribute to the control of M.tb growth and local killing by resident neutrophils by switching on the total oxidative response and limiting migration of neutrophils to the infection site. PMID:28373877

  2. Mucin2 is Required for Probiotic Agents-Mediated Blocking Effects on Meningitic E. coli-Induced Pathogenicities.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing-Yi; He, Xiao-Long; Puthiyakunnon, Santhosh; Peng, Liang; Li, Yan; Wu, Li-Sha; Peng, Wen-Ling; Zhang, Ya; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Yao-Yuan; Boddu, Swapna; Long, Min; Cao, Hong; Huang, Sheng-He

    2015-10-01

    Mucin2 (MUC2), an important regulatory factor in the immune system, plays an important role in the host defense system against bacterial translocation. Probiotics known to regulate MUC2 gene expression have been widely studied, but the interactions among probiotic, pathogens, and mucin gene are still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of MUC2 in blocking effects of probiotics on meningitic E. coli-induced pathogenicities. In this study, live combined probiotic tablets containing living Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus were used. MUC2 expression was knocked down in Caco-2 cells by RNA interference. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR), which enhances mucin-promoted probiotic effects through inducing production of Sadenosyl- L-methionine (SAMe), was used to up-regulate MUC2 expression in Caco-2 cells. The adhesion to and invasion of meningitic E. coli were detected by competition assays. Our studies showed that probiotic agents could block E. coli-caused intestinal colonization, bacteremia, and meningitis in a neonatal sepsis and meningitis rat model. MUC2 gene expression in the neonatal rats given probiotic agents was obviously higher than that of the infected and uninfected control groups without probiotic treatment. The prohibitive effects of probiotic agents on MUC2-knockdown Caco-2 cells infected with E44 were significantly reduced compared with nontransfected Caco-2 cells. Moreover, the results also showed that 5- Aza-CdR, a drug enhancing the production of SAMe that is a protective agent of probiotics, was able to significantly suppress adhesion and invasion of E44 to Caco-2 cells by upregulation of MUC2 expression. Taken together, our data suggest that probiotic agents can efficiently block meningitic E. coli-induced pathogenicities in a manner dependent on MUC2.

  3. Immunological responses of customised probiotics-fed marron, Cherax tenuimanus, (Smith 1912) when challenged with Vibrio mimicus.

    PubMed

    Ambas, Irfan; Suriawan, Agus; Fotedar, Ravi

    2013-08-01

    A two-phased experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of customised probiotics on marron physiology. During the first phase marron were fed probiotic supplemented feed for 70 days, while in phase two the same marron were challenged with Vibrio mimicus and their physiological responses were investigated for 4 days post-challenged. The experiment was carried out in a purpose-built room, designed for aquaculture research, using 18 of 250 L cylindrical plastic tanks. Five species of isolated probiotic bacteria from commercial probiotic products and marron's intestine were tested in this experiment. The probiotic bacteria were (Bacillus sp.); A10 (Bacillus mycoides); A12 (Shewanella sp.); PM3 (Bacillus subtilis); and PM4 (Bacillus sp.), which were added to the formulated basal marron diet (34% crude protein, 8% crude lipid, 6% ash) at a concentration of 10(8) cfu/g of feed. Immune responses of marron fed probiotics were evaluated by investigating organosomatic indices, growth rate, survival, intermoult period, total haemocytes counts (THC), proportion of granular cells (GC), bacteraemia, bacteria load in the intestine and water quality. The results showed that dietary supplementation of probiotics in marron had no significant impact on growth, intermoult period and survival of the marron. However, their supplementation improved the physiological condition of marron in terms of significantly higher tail muscle indices, THC and proportion of granular cells (GC) and reduced bacterial load in the haemolymph. The addition of probiotics in marron diets also increased the bacteria load in the marron intestine. In addition, dietary supplementation of the customised probiotics was effective in improving the resistance of marron against V. mimicus as they had higher THC, higher proportion of GC and lower presence of bacteria in their haemolymph, after marron were challenged with V. mimicus. The results also showed that probiotic Bacillus

  4. New insights into probiotic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bienenstock, John; Gibson, Glenn; Klaenhammer, Todd R.; Walker, W. Allan; Neish, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    There has been continued and expanding recognition of probiotic approaches for treating gastrointestinal and systemic disease, as well as increased acceptance of probiotic therapies by both the public and the medical community. A parallel development has been the increasing recognition of the diverse roles that the normal gut microbiota plays in the normal biology of the host. This advance has in turn has been fed by implementation of novel investigative technologies and conceptual paradigms focused on understanding the fundamental role of the microbiota and indeed all commensal bacteria, on known and previously unsuspected aspects of host physiology in health and disease. This review discusses current advances in the study of the host-microbiota interaction, especially as it relates to potential mechanisms of probiotics. It is hoped these new approaches will allow more rational selection and validation of probiotic usage in a variety of clinical conditions. PMID:23249742

  5. Probiotics and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Koppe, Laetitia; Mafra, Denise; Fouque, Denis

    2015-11-01

    Probiotics are the focus of a thorough investigation as a natural biotreatment due to their various health-promoting effects and inherent ability to fight specific diseases including chronic kidney disease (CKD). Indeed, intestinal microbiota has recently emerged as an important player in the progression and complications of CKD. Because many of the multifactorial physiological functions of probiotics are highly strain specific, preselection of appropriate probiotic strains based on their expression of functional biomarkers is critical. The interest in developing new research initiatives on probiotics in CKD have increased over the last decade with the goal of fully exploring their therapeutic potentials. The efficacy of probiotics to decrease uremic toxin production and to improve renal function has been investigated in in vitro models and in various animal and human CKD studies. However to date, the quality of intervention trials investigating this novel CKD therapy is still lacking. This review outlines potential mechanisms of action and efficacy of probiotics as a new CKD management tool, with a particular emphasis on uremic toxin production and inflammation.

  6. New approaches for bacteriotherapy: prebiotics, new-generation probiotics, and synbiotics.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rachna; DuPont, Herbert L

    2015-05-15

    The gut microbiota has a significant role in human health and disease. Dysbiosis of the intestinal ecosystem contributes to the development of certain illnesses that can be reversed by favorable alterations by probiotics. The published literature was reviewed to identify scientific data showing a relationship between imbalance of gut bacteria and development of diseases that can be improved by biologic products. The medical conditions vary from infectious and antibiotic-associated diarrhea to obesity to chronic neurologic disorders. A number of controlled clinical trials have been performed to show important biologic effects in a number of these conditions through administration of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics. Controlled clinical trials have identified a limited number of prebiotics, probiotic strains, and synbiotics that favorably prevent or improve the symptoms of various disorders including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, infectious and antibiotic-associated diarrhea, diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants, and hepatic encephalopathy. Studies have shown that probiotics alter gut flora and lead to elaboration of flora metabolites that influence health through 1 of 3 general mechanisms: direct antimicrobial effects, enhancement of mucosal barrier integrity, and immune modulation. Restoring the balance of intestinal flora by introducing probiotics for disease prevention and treatment could be beneficial to human health. It is also clear that significant differences exist between different probiotic species. Metagenomics and metatranscriptomics together with bioinformatics have allowed us to study the cross-talk between the gut microbiota and the host, furthering insight into the next generation of biologic products.

  7. Effects of sub-lethal high-pressure homogenization treatment on the outermost cellular structures and the volatile-molecule profiles of two strains of probiotic lactobacilli

    PubMed Central

    Tabanelli, Giulia; Vernocchi, Pamela; Patrignani, Francesca; Del Chierico, Federica; Putignani, Lorenza; Vinderola, Gabriel; Reinheimer, Jorge A.; Gardini, Fausto; Lanciotti, Rosalba

    2015-01-01

    Applying sub-lethal levels of high-pressure homogenization (HPH) to lactic acid bacteria has been proposed as a method of enhancing some of their functional properties. Because the principal targets of HPH are the cell-surface structures, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of sub-lethal HPH treatment on the outermost cellular structures and the proteomic profiles of two known probiotic bacterial strains. Moreover, the effect of HPH treatment on the metabolism of probiotic cells within a dairy product during its refrigerated storage was investigated using SPME-GC-MS. Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine the microstructural changes in the outermost cellular structures due to HPH treatment. These alterations may be involved in the changes in some of the technological and functional properties of the strains that were observed after pressure treatment. Moreover, the proteomic profiles of the probiotic strains treated with HPH and incubated at 37°C for various periods showed different peptide patterns compared with those of the untreated cells. In addition, there were differences in the peaks that were observed in the low-mass spectral region (2000–3000 Da) of the spectral profiles of the control and treated samples. Due to pressure treatment, the volatile-molecule profiles of buttermilk inoculated with treated or control cells and stored at 4°C for 30 days exhibited overall changes in the aroma profile and in the production of molecules that improved its sensory profile, although the two different species imparted specific fingerprints to the product. The results of this study will contribute to understanding the changes that occur in the outermost cellular structures and the metabolism of LAB in response to HPH treatment. The findings of this investigation may contribute to elucidating the relationships between these changes and the alterations of the technological and functional properties of LAB induced by pressure treatment. PMID

  8. Effects of sub-lethal high-pressure homogenization treatment on the outermost cellular structures and the volatile-molecule profiles of two strains of probiotic lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Tabanelli, Giulia; Vernocchi, Pamela; Patrignani, Francesca; Del Chierico, Federica; Putignani, Lorenza; Vinderola, Gabriel; Reinheimer, Jorge A; Gardini, Fausto; Lanciotti, Rosalba

    2015-01-01

    Applying sub-lethal levels of high-pressure homogenization (HPH) to lactic acid bacteria has been proposed as a method of enhancing some of their functional properties. Because the principal targets of HPH are the cell-surface structures, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of sub-lethal HPH treatment on the outermost cellular structures and the proteomic profiles of two known probiotic bacterial strains. Moreover, the effect of HPH treatment on the metabolism of probiotic cells within a dairy product during its refrigerated storage was investigated using SPME-GC-MS. Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine the microstructural changes in the outermost cellular structures due to HPH treatment. These alterations may be involved in the changes in some of the technological and functional properties of the strains that were observed after pressure treatment. Moreover, the proteomic profiles of the probiotic strains treated with HPH and incubated at 37°C for various periods showed different peptide patterns compared with those of the untreated cells. In addition, there were differences in the peaks that were observed in the low-mass spectral region (2000-3000 Da) of the spectral profiles of the control and treated samples. Due to pressure treatment, the volatile-molecule profiles of buttermilk inoculated with treated or control cells and stored at 4°C for 30 days exhibited overall changes in the aroma profile and in the production of molecules that improved its sensory profile, although the two different species imparted specific fingerprints to the product. The results of this study will contribute to understanding the changes that occur in the outermost cellular structures and the metabolism of LAB in response to HPH treatment. The findings of this investigation may contribute to elucidating the relationships between these changes and the alterations of the technological and functional properties of LAB induced by pressure treatment.

  9. Can prebiotics and probiotics improve therapeutic outcomes for undernourished individuals?

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Paul O; Bindels, Laure B; Saulnier, Delphine M; Reid, Gregor; Nova, Esther; Holmgren, Kerstin; O'Toole, Paul W; Bunn, James; Delzenne, Nathalie; Scott, Karen P

    2014-01-01

    It has become clear in recent years that the human intestinal microbiota plays an important role in maintaining health and thus is an attractive target for clinical interventions. Scientists and clinicians have become increasingly interested in assessing the ability of probiotics and prebiotics to enhance the nutritional status of malnourished children, pregnant women, the elderly, and individuals with non-communicable disease-associated malnutrition. A workshop was held by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP), drawing on the knowledge of experts from industry, medicine, and academia, with the objective to assess the status of our understanding of the link between the microbiome and under-nutrition, specifically in relation to probiotic and prebiotic treatments for under-nourished individuals. These discussions led to four recommendations:   (1) The categories of malnourished individuals need to be differentiated To improve treatment outcomes, subjects should first be categorized based on the cause of malnutrition, additional health-concerns, differences in the gut microbiota, and sociological considerations. (2) Define a baseline “healthy” gut microbiota for each category Altered nutrient requirement (for example, in pregnancy and old age) and individual variation may change what constitutes a healthy gut microbiota for the individual. (3) Perform studies using model systems to test the effectiveness of potential probiotics and prebiotics against these specific categories These should illustrate how certain microbiota profiles can be altered, as members of different categories may respond differently to the same treatment. (4) Perform robust well-designed human studies with probiotics and/or prebiotics, with appropriate, defined primary outcomes and sample size These are critical to show efficacy and understand responder and non-responder outcomes. It is hoped that these recommendations will lead to new approaches

  10. Can prebiotics and probiotics improve therapeutic outcomes for undernourished individuals?

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Paul O; Bindels, Laure B; Saulnier, Delphine M; Reid, Gregor; Nova, Esther; Holmgren, Kerstin; O'Toole, Paul W; Bunn, James; Delzenne, Nathalie; Scott, Karen P

    2014-01-01

    It has become clear in recent years that the human intestinal microbiota plays an important role in maintaining health and thus is an attractive target for clinical interventions. Scientists and clinicians have become increasingly interested in assessing the ability of probiotics and prebiotics to enhance the nutritional status of malnourished children, pregnant women, the elderly, and individuals with non-communicable disease-associated malnutrition. A workshop was held by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP), drawing on the knowledge of experts from industry, medicine, and academia, with the objective to assess the status of our understanding of the link between the microbiome and under-nutrition, specifically in relation to probiotic and prebiotic treatments for under-nourished individuals. These discussions led to four recommendations:   (1) The categories of malnourished individuals need to be differentiated To improve treatment outcomes, subjects should first be categorized based on the cause of malnutrition, additional health-concerns, differences in the gut microbiota, and sociological considerations. (2) Define a baseline "healthy" gut microbiota for each category Altered nutrient requirement (for example, in pregnancy and old age) and individual variation may change what constitutes a healthy gut microbiota for the individual. (3) Perform studies using model systems to test the effectiveness of potential probiotics and prebiotics against these specific categories These should illustrate how certain microbiota profiles can be altered, as members of different categories may respond differently to the same treatment. (4) Perform robust well-designed human studies with probiotics and/or prebiotics, with appropriate, defined primary outcomes and sample size These are critical to show efficacy and understand responder and non-responder outcomes. It is hoped that these recommendations will lead to new approaches that

  11. Human Milk: Mother Nature’s Prototypical Probiotic Food?1234

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Michelle K; McGuire, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The concept of “probiotic” is generally attributed to Dr. Ilya Mechnikov, who hypothesized that longevity could be enhanced by manipulating gastrointestinal microbes using naturally fermented foods. In 2001, a report of the FAO and WHO (2001 Oct, http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/fs_-management/en/probiotics.pdf) proposed a more restrictive definition of probiotic, as follows: “a live micro-organism which, when administered in adequate amounts, confers a health benefit on the host.” As such, answering the fundamental question posed here—“Is human milk a probiotic?”—requires first grappling with the concept and meaning of the term probiotic. Nonetheless, one must also be convinced that human milk contains bacteria. Indeed, there are scores of publications providing evidence of a paradigm shift in this regard. Variation in the human-milk microbiome may be associated with maternal weight, mode of delivery, lactation state, gestation age, antibiotic use, and maternal health. Milk constituents (e.g., fatty acids and complex carbohydrates) might also be related to the abundance of specific bacterial taxa in milk. Whether these bacteria affect infant health is likely, but more studies are needed to test this hypothesis. In summary, a growing literature suggests that human milk, like all other fluids produced by the body, indeed contains viable bacteria. As such, and recognizing the extensive literature relating breastfeeding to optimal infant health, we propose that human milk should be considered a probiotic food. Determining factors that influence which bacteria are present in milk and if and how they influence the mother’s and/or the recipient infant’s health remain basic science and public health realms in which almost nothing is known. PMID:25593150

  12. Qualitative Alterations of Bacterial Metabolome after Exposure to Metal Nanoparticles with Bactericidal Properties: A Comprehensive Workflow Based on (1)H NMR, UHPLC-HRMS, and Metabolic Databases.

    PubMed

    Chatzimitakos, Theodoros G; Stalikas, Constantine D

    2016-09-02

    Metal nanoparticles (NPs) have proven to be more toxic than bulk analogues of the same chemical composition due to their unique physical properties. The NPs, lately, have drawn the attention of researchers because of their antibacterial and biocidal properties. In an effort to shed light on the mechanism through which the bacteria elimination is achieved and the metabolic changes they undergo, an untargeted metabolomic fingerprint study was carried out on Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria species. The (1)H NMR spectroscopy, in conjunction with high resolution mass-spectrometry (HRMS) and an unsophisticated data processing workflow were implemented. The combined NMR/HRMS data, supported by an open-access metabolomic database, proved to be efficacious in the process of assigning a putative annotation to a wide range of metabolite signals and is a useful tool to appraise the metabolome alterations, as a consequence of bacterial response to NPs. Interestingly, not all the NPs diminished the intracellular metabolites; bacteria treated with iron NPs produced metabolites not present in the nonexposed bacteria sample, implying the activation of previously inactive metabolic pathways. In contrast, copper and iron-copper NPs reduced the annotated metabolites, alluding to the conclusion that the metabolic pathways (mainly alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism, beta-alanine metabolism, glutathione metabolism, and arginine and proline metabolism) were hindered by the interactions of NPs with the intracellular metabolites.

  13. Exploration of the effect of probiotics supplementation on intestinal microbiota of food allergic mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Sheng; Liu, Xiaoyu; Luo, Yan; Ji, Qiongmei; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Environmental factor-induced alterations in intestinal microbiota have been demonstrated to be associated with increasing prevalence of food allergy. However, it is not clear to what extent oral administration of probiotics can affect gut microbiota composition, thus inhibiting food allergy development. Using ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized murine model, it was demonstrated that probiotics ameliorated allergic symptoms, including reducing OVA specific-IgE, and -IgG1 levels in the serum, Th2 cytokines release in spleen, and occurrence of diarrhea. Moreover, 16S rRNA analysis showed that the probiotics-mediated protection was conferred by an enrichment of Coprococcus and Rikenella. The present study supports the theory that probiotics can treat food allergy by modulating specific genera of the gut microbiota. PMID:28337267

  14. Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The overall objective of the study is to determine whether probiotic VSL#3® will improve 1) intestinal symptoms of

  15. Cardiovascular benefits of probiotics: a review of experimental and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Thushara, Ram Mohan; Gangadaran, Surendiran; Solati, Zahra; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2016-02-01

    The microbiota inhabiting the human gastro-intestinal tract is reported to have a significant impact on the health of an individual. Recent findings suggest that the microbial imbalance of the gut may play a role in pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Therefore, several studies have delved into the aspect of altering gut microbiota with probiotics as an approach to prevent and/or treat CVD. The World Health Organization defines probiotics as live microorganisms that, when consumed in adequate amounts, have a positive influence on the individual's health. The present review focuses on strategies of human dietary intervention with probiotic strains and their impact on cardiovascular risk factors like hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, obesity and type-2 diabetes. Accumulating evidence shows probiotics to lower low density lipoproteins (LDL)-cholesterol and improve the LDL/high density lipoproteins (HDL) ratio, as well as lower blood pressure, inflammatory mediators, blood glucose levels and body mass index. Thus, probiotics have the scope to be developed as dietary supplements with potential cardiovascular health benefits. However, there is not only ambiguity regarding the exact strains and dosages of the probiotics that will bring about positive health effects, but also factors like immunity and genetics of the individual that might influence the efficacy of probiotics. Therefore, further studies are required not only to understand the mechanisms by which probiotics may beneficially affect the cardiovascular system, but also to rule out any of their probable negative effects on health. The present review aims to critically appraise the complexity of the available data with regard to the cardiovascular benefits of probiotics.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Pediococcus parvulus 2.6, a Probiotic β-Glucan Producer Strain

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ramos, Adrián; Mohedano, M. Luz; Puertas, Ana; Lamontanara, Antonella; Orru, Luigi; Spano, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vittorio; Dueñas, M. Teresa

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the probiotic Pediococcus parvulus 2.6, a lactic acid bacterial strain isolated from ropy cider. The bacterium produces a prebiotic and immunomodulatory exopolysaccharide, and this is the first strain of the P. parvulus species whose genome has been characterized. PMID:27979937

  17. Impact of oil spills on coral reefs can be reduced by bioremediation using probiotic microbiota.

    PubMed

    Fragoso Ados Santos, Henrique; Duarte, Gustavo Adolpho Santos; Rachid, Caio TavoraCoelho da Costa; Chaloub, Ricardo Moreira; Calderon, Emiliano Nicolas; Marangoni, Laura Fernandes de Barros; Bianchini, Adalto; Nudi, Adriana Haddad; do Carmo, Flávia Lima; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Castro, Clovis Barreira E; Peixoto, Raquel Silva

    2015-12-14

    Several anthropogenic factors, including contamination by oil spills, constitute a threat to coral reef health. Current methodologies to remediate polluted marine environments are based on the use of chemical dispersants; however, these can be toxic to the coral holobiont. In this study, a probiotic bacterial consortium was produced from the coral Mussismilia harttii and was trained to degrade water-soluble oil fractions (WSFs). Additionally, we assessed the effect of WSFs on the health of M. harttii in tanks and evaluated the bacterial consortium as a bioremediation agent. The consortium was responsible for the highly efficient degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons, and it minimised the effects of WSFs on coral health, as indicated by raised photosynthetic efficiencies. Moreover, the impact of WSFs on the coral microbiome was diminished by the introduced bacterial consortium. Following introduction, the bacterial consortium thus had a dual function, i.e promoting oil WSF degradation and improving coral health with its probiotic features.

  18. Extracellular proteins secreted by probiotic bacteria as mediators of effects that promote mucosa-bacteria interactions.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Borja; Urdaci, María C; Margolles, Abelardo

    2010-11-01

    During the last few years, a substantial body of scientific evidence has accumulated suggesting that certain surface-associated and extracellular components produced by probiotic bacteria could be responsible for some of their mechanisms of action. These bacterial components would be able to directly interact with the host mucosal cells; they include exopolysaccharides, bacteriocins, lipoteichoic acids and surface-associated and extracellular proteins. Extracellular proteins include proteins that are actively transported to the bacterial surroundings through the cytoplasmic membrane, as well as those that are simply shed from the bacterial surface. Compared to the other bacterial components, the interactive ability of extracellular proteins/peptides has been less extensively studied. In this review, current findings supporting an interaction between extracellular proteins/peptides produced by probiotic bacteria (strains of the genera Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Escherichia) and host mucosal cells are discussed. Research needs and future trends are also considered.

  19. Impact of oil spills on coral reefs can be reduced by bioremediation using probiotic microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Fragoso ados Santos, Henrique; Duarte, Gustavo Adolpho Santos; Rachid, Caio TavoraCoelho da Costa; Chaloub, Ricardo Moreira; Calderon, Emiliano Nicolas; Marangoni, Laura Fernandes de Barros; Bianchini, Adalto; Nudi, Adriana Haddad; do Carmo, Flávia Lima; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Castro, Clovis Barreira e; Peixoto, Raquel Silva

    2015-01-01

    Several anthropogenic factors, including contamination by oil spills, constitute a threat to coral reef health. Current methodologies to remediate polluted marine environments are based on the use of chemical dispersants; however, these can be toxic to the coral holobiont. In this study, a probiotic bacterial consortium was produced from the coral Mussismilia harttii and was trained to degrade water-soluble oil fractions (WSFs). Additionally, we assessed the effect of WSFs on the health of M. harttii in tanks and evaluated the bacterial consortium as a bioremediation agent. The consortium was responsible for the highly efficient degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons, and it minimised the effects of WSFs on coral health, as indicated by raised photosynthetic efficiencies. Moreover, the impact of WSFs on the coral microbiome was diminished by the introduced bacterial consortium. Following introduction, the bacterial consortium thus had a dual function, i.e promoting oil WSF degradation and improving coral health with its probiotic features. PMID:26658023

  20. Comparative Study on the Characteristics of Weissella cibaria CMU and Probiotic Strains for Oral Care.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hye-Jin; Kang, Mi-Sun; Yi, Sung-Hun; Hong, Ji-Young; Hong, Sang-Pil

    2016-12-20

    Probiotics have been demonstrated as a new paradigm to substitute antibiotic treatment for dental caries, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis. The present work was conducted to compare the characteristics of oral care probiotics: Weissella cibaria CMU (Chonnam Medical University) and four commercial probiotic strains. Survival rates under poor oral conditions, acid production, hydrogen peroxide production, as well as inhibition of biofilm formation, coaggregation, antibacterial activity, and inhibition of volatile sulfur compounds were evaluated. The viability of W. cibaria CMU was not affected by treatment of 100 mg/L lysozyme for 90 min and 1 mM hydrogen peroxide for 6 h. Interestingly, W. cibaria produced less acid and more hydrogen peroxide than the other four probiotics. W. cibaria inhibited biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans at lower concentrations (S. mutans/CMU = 8) and efficiently coaggregated with Fusobacterium nucleatum. W. cibaria CMU and two commercial probiotics, including Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus reuteri, showed high antibacterial activities (>97%) against cariogens (S. mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus), and against periodontopathogens (F. nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis). All of the lactic acid bacterial strains in this study significantly reduced levels of hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan produced by F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis (p < 0.05). These results suggest that W. cibaria CMU is applicable as an oral care probiotic.

  1. Interactions among lactic acid starter and probiotic bacteria used for fermented dairy products.

    PubMed

    Vinderola, C G; Mocchiutti, P; Reinheimer, J A

    2002-04-01

    Interactions among lactic acid starter and probiotic bacteria were investigated to establish adequate combinations of strains to manufacture probiotic dairy products. For this aim, a total of 48 strains of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Bifidobacterium spp. (eight of each) were used. The detection of bacterial interactions was carried out using the well-diffusion agar assay, and the interactions found were further characterized by growth kinetics. A variety of interactions was demonstrated. Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was found to be able to inhibit S. thermophilus strains. Among probiotic cultures, Lb. acidophilus was the sole species that was inhibited by the others (Lb. casei and Bifidobacterium). In general, probiotic bacteria proved to be more inhibitory towards lactic acid bacteria than vice versa since the latter did not exert any effect on the growth of the former, with some exceptions. The study of interactions by growth kinetics allowed the setting of four different kinds of behaviors between species of lactic acid starter and probiotic bacteria (stimulation, delay, complete inhibition of growth, and no effects among them). The possible interactions among the strains selected to manufacture a probiotic fermented dairy product should be taken into account when choosing the best combination/s to optimize their performance in the process and their survival in the products during cold storage.

  2. Effect of sublethal preculturing on the survival of probiotics and metabolite formation in set-yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Settachaimongkon, Sarn; van Valenberg, Hein J F; Winata, Vera; Wang, Xiaoxi; Nout, M J Robert; van Hooijdonk, Toon C M; Zwietering, Marcel H; Smid, Eddy J

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of preculturing of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB12 under sublethal stress conditions on their survival and metabolite formation in set-yoghurt. Prior to co-cultivation with yoghurt starters in milk, the two probiotic strains were precultured under sublethal stress conditions (combinations of elevated NaCl and low pH) in a batch fermentor. The activity of sublethally precultured probiotics was evaluated during fermentation and refrigerated storage by monitoring bacterial population dynamics, milk acidification and changes in volatile and non-volatile metabolite profiles of set-yoghurt. The results demonstrated adaptive stress responses of the two probiotic strains resulting in their viability improvement without adverse influence on milk acidification. A complementary metabolomic approach using SPME-GC/MS and (1)H-NMR resulted in the identification of 35 volatiles and 43 non-volatile polar metabolites, respectively. Principal component analysis revealed substantial impact of the activity of sublethally precultured probiotics on metabolite formation demonstrated by distinctive volatile and non-volatile metabolite profiles of set-yoghurt. Changes in relative abundance of various aroma compounds suggest that incorporation of stress-adapted probiotics considerably influences the organoleptic quality of product. This study provides new information on the application of stress-adapted probiotics in an actual food-carrier environment.

  3. In ovo inoculation of chicken embryos with probiotic bacteria and its effect on posthatch Salmonella susceptibility.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, J E; van der Hoeven-Hangoor, E; van de Linde, I B; Montijn, R C; van der Vossen, J M B M

    2014-04-01

    The feasibility of establishing probiotic bacteria in the intestine of broiler chickens by in ovo inoculation was investigated, followed by verifying possible subsequent protection against Salmonella Enteriditis infection. In a first study, 7 commercially available probiotics were screened for compatibility with in ovo inoculation. Two of these probiotics, one being a Enterococcus faecium and the other a Bacillus subtilis, were selected for colonizing the chick gut without compromising hatchability. In a second study, these 2 products were administered in ovo and in the feed to chicks reared until 18 d in comparison with noninoculated chicks and with chicks fed an antibiotic. All chicks were orally challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis at 4 d of age. Results showed reduced performance of Salmonella Enteritidis challenged chicks fed no additives compared with challenged chicks fed antibiotic, but no significant differences in mortality was observed. Probiotics offered in ovo or through the diet could only partially recover performance compared with antibiotic-fed chicks. A significant reduction in the number of Salmonella Enteritidis positive chicks was observed when chicks were in ovo inoculated with E. faecium and continued receiving it in the diet. This work establishes standards for future in ovo colonization research and emphasizes its value as a promising method to deliver individual precise dose of probiotics to poultry in mass scale at the earliest possible age based on the competitive exclusion concept. In ovo colonization with probiotic can therefore become an important ally in combination with other approaches to combat Salmonella and other intestinal bacterial infections in poultry.

  4. Soy, Probiotics, and Breast Cancer Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of soy and probiotic consumption on estrogen and phytoestrogen metabolism. The methods...powder + probiotic ; 3) milk power; 4) milk powder plus probiotic . Urine is collected for three days before the study begins and for three days at the

  5. Effect of four probiotic strains and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on tight junction integrity and cyclo-oxygenase expression.

    PubMed

    Putaala, Heli; Salusjärvi, Tuomas; Nordström, Malin; Saarinen, Markku; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Bech Hansen, Egon; Rautonen, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Controversy exists as to whether contact between a probiotic bacterial cell and an epithelial cell in the gut is needed to confer beneficial effects of probiotics, or whether metabolites from probiotics are sufficient to cause this effect. To address this question, Caco-2 cells were treated with cell-free supernatants of four probiotics, Bifidobacterium lactis 420, Bifidobacterium lactis HN019, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33, and by a cell-free supernatant of a pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC). Tight junction integrity as well as expression of cyclo-oxygenases, which are prostaglandin-producing enzymes, were measured. Probiotic-specific as well as EHEC-specific effects on tight junction integrity and cyclo-oxygenase expression were evident, indicating that live bacterial cells were not necessary for the manifestation of the effects. B. lactis 420 cell-free supernatant increased tight junction integrity, while EHEC cell-free supernatant induced damage on tight junctions. In general, EHEC and probiotics had opposite effects upon cyclo-oxygenase expression. Furthermore, B. lactis 420 cell-free supernatant protected the tight junctions from EHEC-induced damage when administered prior to the cell-free supernatant of EHEC. These results indicate that probiotics produce bioactive metabolites, suggesting that consumption of specific probiotic bacteria might be beneficial in protecting intestinal epithelial cells from the deleterious effects of pathogenic bacteria.

  6. Probiotics: potential to prevent HIV and sexually transmitted infections in women.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Michael; van der Straten, Ariane; Cohen, Craig R

    2008-03-01

    Women are at significant risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) acquisition with the genital mucosa serving as the main portal of infection. Exogenously supplied lactobacillus used as a probiotic may prove a cost-effective, female-initiated method to prevent HIV and STI infection in women. A probiotic may act indirectly through treating and preventing recurrent bacterial vaginosis or directly by secreting endogenous (e.g., hydrogen peroxide) and exogenous substances that block HIV and STI transmission. This review summarizes the preclinical and clinical studies that have been conducted so far to test probiotic bacteria for these purposes. Although significant progress has been made in this field, more fundamental research is required to better understand vaginal ecology to maximize probiotic formulations. Once identified, a suitable product will require testing in a well-designed, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to measure its effectiveness in augmenting antibiotic treatment to prevent bacterial vaginosis. If results from such a trial demonstrate efficacy, future studies should be designed to determine whether a probiotic can significantly lower the risk for HIV and STIs in at-risk female populations.

  7. Microbiological and molecular characterization of commercially available probiotics containing Bacillus clausii from India and Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Patrone, Vania; Molinari, Paola; Morelli, Lorenzo

    2016-11-21

    Probiotics are actively used for treatment of diarrhoea, respiratory infections, and prevention of infectious gastrointestinal diseases. The efficacy of probiotics is due to strain-specific features and the number of viable cells; however, several reports of deviations from the label in the actual content of strains in probiotic products are a matter of concern. Most of the available data on quality focuses on probiotic products containing lactobacilli and/or bifidobacteria, while very few data are available on spore-forming probiotics. The present study evaluates the label claims for spore count and species identification in five commercial probiotic products marketed in India and Pakistan that claim to contain Bacillus clausii: Tufpro, Ecogro, Enterogermina, Entromax, and Ospor. Bacterial enumeration from three batches was done by microbiological plating methods by two independent operators. Species identification was done using PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, and determination of the total amount of species present in the products was done using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis followed by DNA sequencing of the excised bands. Plate count methods demonstrated poor correlations between quantitative label indications and bacteria recovered from plates for Tufpro, Ecogro, and Ospor. The 16S rRNA analysis performed on bacteria isolated from plate counts showed that only Enterogermina and Ospor contained homogenous B. clausii. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that only Enterogermina had a homogenous B. clausii population while other products had mixed bacterial populations. In conclusion, the current analysis clearly demonstrates that of the five analysed commercial probiotics, only Enterogermina followed the label claims.

  8. Quantification of FITC-labelled probiotic Lactobacillus salivarius DSPV 001P during gastrointestinal transit in broilers.

    PubMed

    Blajman, J E; Astesana, D M; Zimmermann, J A; Rossler, E; Scharpen, A Romero; Berisvil, A P; Zbrun, M V; Soto, L P; Rosmini, M R; Frizzo, L S

    2017-02-07

    The knowledge related to the fate of probiotics in the complex environment of the intestinal microbiota in broilers is just beginning to be elucidated; however, it is not yet well understood. A good method to investigate the mechanisms by which probiotics mediate their effects is to mark probiotic bacteria and trace them. The aim of this research was to develop a new method to estimate in vivo fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled Lactobacillus salivarius DSPV 001P counts during passage through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of broilers. Forty-five, 1 d old Cobb broilers were used in this trial. Programmed necropsies were performed 30 min, 6 h, and 12 h after the administration of the probiotic bacterium, and samples of liver, crop, duodenum, caecum, and bursa of fabricius were collected. To determine the spatial and temporal transit of L. salivarius DSPV 001P in broilers, the number of bacteria as well as its respective fluorescent signal produced by FITC were measured. In order to observe the relationship between the variables, a logistic regression analysis was applied. The amount of fluorescence could be used as an indicator of fluorescent probiotic bacteria in the crop and duodenum 30 min after probiotic bacterium supplementation. In addition, the fluorescent signal could be used to estimate bacterial counts in caecum 6 and 12 h after L. salivarius DSPV 001P administration. To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first in vivo trial to employ the bacterial FITC-labelling technique in order to enumerate probiotic bacteria during gastrointestinal transit in broilers.

  9. The incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis is increased following probiotic administration to preterm pigs.

    PubMed

    Cilieborg, Malene S; Thymann, Thomas; Siggers, Richard; Boye, Mette; Bering, Stine B; Jensen, Bent B; Sangild, Per T

    2011-02-01

    Preterm birth and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with inappropriate gut colonization and immunity, which may be improved by probiotic bacteria. Using a preterm pig model of NEC, we investigated the effects of probiotics on intestinal structure, function, microbiology, and immunology in the immediate postnatal period. Just after birth, caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were inoculated with Lactobacillus paracasei, Bifidobacteria animalis, and Streptococcus thermophilus (total 2.4 × 10(10)/d) either as live (ProLive, n = 14) or gamma-irradiated dead bacteria (ProDead, n = 12) and compared with controls (n = 14). All pigs received parenteral nutrition for 2 d followed by enteral formula feeding until tissue collection on d 5. Compared with control pigs, intestinal weight was lower and NEC incidence was higher in both groups given probiotics (64-67 vs. 14%; P<0.01). Hexose absorption, brush border enzyme activities, and gut barrier function were lower in the ProDead group compared with the other groups (P < 0.05), whereas live probiotics induced higher expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1α and IL-6 (P < 0.05). Probiotics minimally affected gut colonization, except that live probiotics induced a higher density of B. animalis and lower bacterial diversity in the distal intestinal mucosa and lower SCFA concentrations in the colon (P < 0.05). The detrimental effects of probiotic bacteria in this study may relate to the specific strain and dose combination and may have involved the very immature gut immune system and low NEC incidence in the control group. It remains to be determined whether similar adverse responses to probiotics occur in preterm infants.

  10. Probiotics: a new frontier for infection control.

    PubMed

    Seale, J V; Millar, M

    2013-05-01

    Probiotics are live micro-organisms administered to provide health benefits. Probiotics are being increasingly used in healthcare contexts both in research studies and routine practice, for example in neonatal intensive care. Currently there is a paucity of guidelines or regulations governing the mitigation of infection risks associated with the use of probiotics in clinical practice. We propose a number of recommendations to mitigate risks. These include the communication of probiotic use to appropriate stakeholders, ensuring that routine laboratories can identify and test the susceptibility of probiotic strains, assuring standards for preparation and administration, and ensuring surveillance designed to capture adverse events.

  11. Review: The market of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2015-11-01

    The advertising of probiotics in diary products on the market has claimed several health-improving properties, including prevention and treatment of obesity, cardiovascular diseases and cancer prophylaxis, osteoporosis and arthritis treatment, diabetes management and control of hypercholesterolemia. Therefore, it is reasonable to emphasize the perspective of a new self-care and integrative medicine season, where food industry is turned to research-oriented management with putative clinical goals to be achieved. We searched Pubmed/Medline using the terms "probiotics" and "market". Selected papers until 2013 were chosen on the basis of their content (clinical evidence-based quality). We performed an accurate investigation on the so-called "probiotic market", leading to better understanding the role of nutraceutical products in the human clinical nutrition physiology. As nutraceutical products are sold all over the world, information, provided by this review may be useful to evaluate their potential impact on human health.

  12. Current level of consensus on probiotic science

    PubMed Central

    Capurso, Lucio; Collins, Kevin; Cummings, John; Delzenne, Nathalie; Goulet, Olivier; Guarner, Francisco; Marteau, Philippe; Meier, Rémy

    2010-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the consensus views of a group of 9 European clinicians and scientists on the current state of scientific knowledge on probiotics, covering those areas where there is substantial evidence for beneficial effects and those where the evidence base is poor or inconsistent. There was general agreement that probiotic effects were species and often strain specific. The experts agreed that some probiotics were effective in reducing the incidence and duration of rotavirus diarrhea in infants, antibiotic-associated diarrhea in adults and, for certain probiotics, Clostridium difficile infections. Some probiotics are associated with symptomatic improvements in irritable bowel syndrome and alleviation of digestive discomfort. Probiotics can reduce the frequency and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants and have been shown to regulate intestinal immunity. Several other clinical effects of probiotics, including their role in inflammatory bowel disease, atopic dermatitis, respiratory or genito-urinary infections or H. pylori adjuvant treatment were thought promising but inconsistent. PMID:21637035

  13. Lessons from probiotic-host interaction studies in murine models of experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Claes, Ingmar J J; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C J; Vanderleyden, Jos; Lebeer, Sarah

    2011-10-01

    In inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), it is known that besides genetic and environmental factors (e.g. diet, drugs, stress), the microbiota play an important role in the pathogenesis. Patients with IBD have an altered microbiota (dysbiosis) and therefore, probiotics, defined as 'live micro-organisms that when administered in adequate amounts can confer a health benefit on the host', have been suggested as nutritional supplements to restore these imbalances. The best response on probiotics among the different types of IBD appears to be in the case of ulcerative colitis. Although probiotics show promise in IBD in both clinical and animal studies, further mechanistic studies are necessary to optimize the use of probiotics as supporting therapy in IBD. Murine models of experimental colitis have been used for decades to study this pathology, and these models have been proven useful to search for new therapeutic approaches. The purpose of this review is to summarize probiotic-host interaction studies in murine models of experimental colitis and to evaluate how these models can further help in understanding these complex interactions. Unraveling the molecular mechanisms behind the beneficial effects will assist in better and possibly more efficient probiotic formulations.

  14. Bacterial rheotaxis.

    PubMed

    Marcos; Fu, Henry C; Powers, Thomas R; Stocker, Roman

    2012-03-27

    The motility of organisms is often directed in response to environmental stimuli. Rheotaxis is the directed movement resulting from fluid velocity gradients, long studied in fish, aquatic invertebrates, and spermatozoa. Using carefully controlled microfluidic flows, we show that rheotaxis also occurs in bacteria. Excellent quantitative agreement between experiments with Bacillus subtilis and a mathematical model reveals that bacterial rheotaxis is a purely physical phenomenon, in contrast to fish rheotaxis but in the same way as sperm rheotaxis. This previously unrecognized bacterial taxis results from a subtle interplay between velocity gradients and the helical shape of flagella, which together generate a torque that alters a bacterium's swimming direction. Because this torque is independent of the presence of a nearby surface, bacterial rheotaxis is not limited to the immediate neighborhood of liquid-solid interfaces, but also takes place in the bulk fluid. We predict that rheotaxis occurs in a wide range of bacterial habitats, from the natural environment to the human body, and can interfere with chemotaxis, suggesting that the fitness benefit conferred by bacterial motility may be sharply reduced in some hydrodynamic conditions.

  15. Enhancing the stress responses of probiotics for a lifestyle from gut to product and back again

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Before a probiotic bacterium can even begin to fulfill its biological role, it must survive a battery of environmental stresses imposed during food processing and passage through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Food processing stresses include extremes in temperature, as well as osmotic, oxidative and food matrix stresses. Passage through the GIT is a hazardous journey for any bacteria with deleterious lows in pH encountered in the stomach to the detergent-like properties of bile in the duodenum. However, bacteria are equipped with an array of defense mechanisms to counteract intracellular damage or to enhance the robustness of the cell to withstand lethal external environments. Understanding these mechanisms in probiotic bacteria and indeed other bacterial groups has resulted in the development of a molecular toolbox to augment the technological and gastrointestinal performance of probiotics. This has been greatly aided by studies which examine the global cellular responses to stress highlighting distinct regulatory networks and which also identify novel mechanisms used by cells to cope with hazardous environments. This review highlights the latest studies which have exploited the bacterial stress response with a view to producing next-generation probiotic cultures and highlights the significance of studies which view the global bacterial stress response from an integrative systems biology perspective. PMID:21995734

  16. Characterization of Bacillus probiotics available for human use.

    PubMed

    Duc, Le H; Hong, Huynh A; Barbosa, Teresa M; Henriques, Adriano O; Cutting, Simon M

    2004-04-01

    Bacillus species (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus clausii, Bacillus pumilus) carried in five commercial probiotic products consisting of bacterial spores were characterized for potential attributes (colonization, immunostimulation, and antimicrobial activity) that could account for their claimed probiotic properties. Three B. cereus strains were shown to persist in the mouse gastrointestinal tract for up to 18 days postadministration, demonstrating that these organisms have some ability to colonize. Spores of one B. cereus strain were extremely sensitive to simulated gastric conditions and simulated intestinal fluids. Spores of all strains were immunogenic when they were given orally to mice, but the B. pumilus strain was found to generate particularly high anti-spore immunoglobulin G titers. Spores of B. pumilus and of a laboratory strain of B. subtilis were found to induce the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in a cultured macrophage cell line, and in vivo, spores of B. pumilus and B. subtilis induced the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha and the Th1 cytokine gamma interferon. The B. pumilus strain and one B. cereus strain (B. cereus var. vietnami) were found to produce a bacteriocin-like activity against other Bacillus species. The results that provided evidence of colonization, immunostimulation, and antimicrobial activity support the hypothesis that the organisms have a potential probiotic effect. However, the three B. cereus strains were also found to produce the Hbl and Nhe enterotoxins, which makes them unsafe for human use.

  17. What every dentist needs to know about the human microbiome and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Klish, Andrew J; Porter, Judith A; Bashirelahi, Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial cells in the human body outnumber human cells by a ratio of 10:1. Apart from their well-known pathogenic potential, bacteria are proving to be integral to the overall health of the body. Residential microbes have critical roles in diverse processes, such as nutrient harvesting, internal environment regulation, immune system development, neurological modulation, and drug metabolism, as well as providing protection against pathogens. There is a growing body of research on the microbiome and probiotic therapies to restore or augment these functions throughout the body. In particular, increasing numbers of bacterial species and bacterial interactions have been discovered in the oral cavity, and probiotic interventions for common dental problems such as caries, periodontal diseases, and oral malodor are being developed and reviewed.

  18. Early administration of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus and/or prebiotic inulin attenuates pathogen-mediated intestinal inflammation and Smad 7 cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Foye, Ondulla T; Huang, I-Fei; Chiou, Christine C; Walker, W Allan; Shi, Hai Ning

    2012-08-01

    Immaturity of gut-associated immunity may contribute to pediatric mortality associated with enteric infections. A murine model to parallel infantile enteric disease was used to determine the effects of probiotic, Lactobacillus acidophilus (La), prebiotic, inulin, or both (synbiotic, syn) on pathogen-induced inflammatory responses, NF-κB, and Smad 7 signaling. Newborn mice were inoculated bi-weekly for 4 weeks with La, inulin, or syn and challenged with Citrobacter rodentium (Cr) at 5 weeks. Mouse intestinal epithelial cells (CMT93) were exposed to Cr to determine temporal alterations in NF-Kappa B and Smad 7 levels. Mice with pretreatment of La, inulin, and syn show reduced intestinal inflammation following Cr infection compared with controls, which is associated with significantly reduced bacterial colonization in La, inulin, and syn animals. Our results further show that host defense against Cr infection correlated with enhanced colonic IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β expression and inhibition of NF-κB in syn-treated mice, whereas mice pretreated with syn, La, or inulin had attenuation of Cr-induced Smad 7 expression. There was a temporal Smad 7 and NF-κB intracellular accumulation post-Cr infection and post-tumor necrosis factor stimulation in CMT93 cells. These results, therefore, suggest that probiotic, La, prebiotic inulin, or synbiotic may promote host-protective immunity and attenuate Cr-induced intestinal inflammation through mechanisms affecting NF-κB and Smad 7 signaling.

  19. An In Vitro Approach to Study Effects of Prebiotics and Probiotics on the Faecal Microbiota and Selected Immune Parameters Relevant to the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yue; Gibson, Glenn R.; Walton, Gemma E.

    2016-01-01

    The aging process leads to alterations of gut microbiota and modifications to the immune response, such changes may be associated with increased disease risk. Prebiotics and probiotics can modulate microbiome changes induced by aging; however, their effects have not been directly compared. The aim of this study was to use anaerobic batch culture fermenters to assess the impact of various fermentable carbohydrates and microorganisms on the gut microbiota and selected immune markers. Elderly volunteers were used as donors for these experiments to enable relevance to an aging population. The impact of fermentation supernatants on immune markers relevant to the elderly were assessed in vitro. Levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α in peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture supernatants were measured using flow cytometry. Trans-galactooligosaccharides (B-GOS) and inulin both stimulated bifidobacteria compared to other treatments (p<0.05). Fermentation supernatants taken from faecal batch cultures supplemented with B-GOS, inulin, B. bifidum, L. acidophilus and Ba. coagulans inhibited LPS induced TNF-α (p<0.05). IL-10 production, induced by LPS, was enhanced by fermentation supernatants from faecal batch cultures supplemented with B-GOS, inulin, B. bifidum, L. acidophilus, Ba. coagulans and Bac. thetaiotaomicron (p<0.05). To conclude, prebiotics and probiotics could lead to potentially beneficial effects to host health by targeting specific bacterial groups, increasing saccharolytic fermentation and decreasing inflammation associated with aging. Compared to probiotics, prebiotics led to greater microbiota modulation at the genus level within the fermenters. PMID:27612304

  20. Antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gueimonde, Miguel; Sánchez, Borja; G. de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara; Margolles, Abelardo

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. The main probiotic bacteria are strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, although other representatives, such as Bacillus or Escherichia coli strains, have also been used. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are two common inhabitants of the human intestinal microbiota. Also, some species are used in food fermentation processes as starters, or as adjunct cultures in the food industry. With some exceptions, antibiotic resistance in these beneficial microbes does not constitute a safety concern in itself, when mutations or intrinsic resistance mechanisms are responsible for the resistance phenotype. In fact, some probiotic strains with intrinsic antibiotic resistance could be useful for restoring the gut microbiota after antibiotic treatment. However, specific antibiotic resistance determinants carried on mobile genetic elements, such as tetracycline resistance genes, are often detected in the typical probiotic genera, and constitute a reservoir of resistance for potential food or gut pathogens, thus representing a serious safety issue. PMID:23882264

  1. African fermented foods and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Franz, Charles M A P; Huch, Melanie; Mathara, Julius Maina; Abriouel, Hikmate; Benomar, Nabil; Reid, Gregor; Galvez, Antonio; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2014-11-03

    Africa has an age old history of production of traditional fermented foods and is perhaps the continent with the richest variety of lactic acid fermented foods. These foods have a large impact on the nutrition, health and socio-economy of the people of the continent, often plagued by war, drought, famine and disease. Sub-Saharan Africa is the world's region with the highest percentage of chronically malnourished people and high child mortality. Further developing of traditional fermented foods with added probiotic health features would be an important contribution towards reaching the UN Millennium Development Goals of eradication of poverty and hunger, reduction in child mortality rates and improvement of maternal health. Specific probiotic strains with documented health benefits are sparsely available in Africa and not affordable to the majority of the population. Furthermore, they are not used in food fermentations. If such probiotic products could be developed especially for household food preparation, such as cereal or milk foods, it could make a profound impact on the health and well-being of adults and children. Suitable strains need to be chosen and efforts are needed to produce strains to make products which will be available for clinical studies. This can gauge the impact of probiotics on consumers' nutrition and health, and increase the number of people who can benefit.

  2. Interacting symbionts and immunity in the amphibian skin mucosome predict disease risk and probiotic effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Woodhams, Douglas C; Brandt, Hannelore; Baumgartner, Simone; Kielgast, Jos; Küpfer, Eliane; Tobler, Ursina; Davis, Leyla R; Schmidt, Benedikt R; Bel, Christian; Hodel, Sandro; Knight, Rob; McKenzie, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenesis is strongly dependent on microbial context, but development of probiotic therapies has neglected the impact of ecological interactions. Dynamics among microbial communities, host immune responses, and environmental conditions may alter the effect of probiotics in human and veterinary medicine, agriculture and aquaculture, and the proposed treatment of emerging wildlife and zoonotic diseases such as those occurring on amphibians or vectored by mosquitoes. Here we use a holistic measure of amphibian mucosal defenses to test the effects of probiotic treatments and to assess disease risk under different ecological contexts. We developed a non-invasive assay for antifungal function of the skin mucosal ecosystem (mucosome function) integrating host immune factors and the microbial community as an alternative to pathogen exposure experiments. From approximately 8500 amphibians sampled across Europe, we compared field infection prevalence with mucosome function against the emerging fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Four species were tested with laboratory exposure experiments, and a highly susceptible species, Alytes obstetricans, was treated with a variety of temperature and microbial conditions to test the effects of probiotic therapies and environmental conditions on mucosome function. We found that antifungal function of the amphibian skin mucosome predicts the prevalence of infection with the fungal pathogen in natural populations, and is linked to survival in laboratory exposure experiments. When altered by probiotic therapy, the mucosome increased antifungal capacity, while previous exposure to the pathogen was suppressive. In culture, antifungal properties of probiotics depended strongly on immunological and environmental context including temperature, competition, and pathogen presence. Functional changes in microbiota with shifts in temperature provide an alternative mechanistic explanation for patterns of disease susceptibility related

  3. Effect of probiotic-, bacteriophage-, or organic acid-supplemented feeds or fermented soybean meal on the growth performance, acute-phase response, and bacterial shedding of grower pigs challenged with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Gebru, E; Lee, J S; Son, J C; Yang, S Y; Shin, S A; Kim, B; Kim, M K; Park, S C

    2010-12-01

    A 28-d experiment evaluated the growth performance, acute-phase response, and bacterial shedding patterns in pigs (n = 108; initially, 38.7 ± 6.7 kg) fed 6 treatment diets, including a control diet with no antimicrobial agents (CON), a positive control diet containing chlortetracycline, 100 mg/kg (CT), a diet containing anti-Salmonella Typhimurium bacteriophage, 3 × 10(9) plaque-forming units/kg of feed (ASB), Lactobacillus plantarum CJLP56, 6.5 × 10(8) cfu/kg of feed (LP), 0.2% microencapsulated organic acids (MOA), or 5% fermented soybean meal (FSM). Pigs were fed the diets for 2 wk before and 2 wk after challenging orally with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (SalT). Before bacterial challenge, ADFI was similar in all groups. After SalT challenge, ADFI of CON pigs was less (P < 0.05) than all other groups. Before challenge, pigs on MOA, FSM, and CT diets had greater (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F than CON pigs. After challenge (wk 3 to 4) and during the overall experimental period (wk 1 to 4), ADG of all treatment groups and G:F of all treatment groups except the LP group were greater (P < 0.05) than those of CON pigs. Relative to all other treatments, CON and LP pigs had greater (P < 0.05) bacterial shedding scores on d 7 after SalT challenge. At d 14 postchallenge, shedding scores declined (P < 0.05) in all treatment groups compared with CON pigs. Serum haptoglobin for all treatment groups increased from d 0 concentrations on d 6 postchallenge and declined to prechallenge concentrations on d 13 (P < 0.05). Circulating IGF-I concentrations declined from 2 to 6 d postchallenge and increased again by d 13 in ASB and LP groups, did not decline in FSM and CT groups, and continuously declined through d 13 in CON and LP groups (P < 0.05). However, in MOA group, IGF-I concentrations declined from preinfection concentrations on d 2, increased on d 4, and declined again until d 13 (P < 0.05). The serum concentrations of the cytokines IL-6 and IL-1β were not

  4. The use of probiotics in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Hai, N V

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to present comprehensive notes for the use of probiotics in aquaculture. Probiotics have been proven to be positive promoters of aquatic animal growth, survival and health. In aquaculture, intestines, gills, the skin mucus of aquatic animals, and habitats or even culture collections and commercial products, can be sources for acquiring appropriate probiotics, which have been identified as bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) and nonbacteria (bacteriophages, microalgae and yeasts). While a bacterium is a pathogen to one aquatic animal, it can bring benefits to another fish species; a screening process plays a significant role in making a probiotic species specific. The administration of probiotics varies from oral/water routine to feed additives, of which the latter is commonly used in aquaculture. Probiotic applications can be either mono or multiple strains, or even in combination with prebiotic, immunostimulants such as synbiotics and synbiotism, and in live or dead forms. Encapsulating probiotics with live feed is a suitable approach to convey probiotics to aquatic animals. Dosage and duration of time are significant factors in providing desired results. Several modes of actions of probiotics are presented, while some others are not fully understood. Suggestions for further studies on the effects of probiotics in aquaculture are proposed.

  5. Differences in fungal and bacterial physiology alter soil carbon and nitrogen cycling: synthesizing effects of microbial community structure using the Fungi and Bacteria (FAB) model. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averill, C.; Hawkes, C. V.; Waring, B. G.

    2013-12-01

    Most biogeochemical models of soil carbon and nitrogen cycling include a simplified representation of the soil microbial community as a single pool, despite good evidence that shifts in the composition or relative abundance of microbial taxa can affect process rates. Incorporating a more realistic depiction of the microbial community in these models may increase their predictive accuracy, but this must be balanced against the feasibility of modeling the enormous diversity present in soil. We propose that explicitly including two major microbial functional groups with distinct physiologies, fungi and bacteria, will improve model predictions. To this end, we created the fungi and bacteria (FAB) model, building off previous enzyme-driven biogeochemical models that explicitly represent microbial physiology. We compared this model to a complementary biogeochemical model that does not include microbial community structure (';single-pool'). We also performed a cross-ecosystem meta-analysis of fungi-to-bacteria ratios to determine if model predictions of community structure matched empirical data. There were large differences in process rates and pool sizes between the single-pool and FAB models. In the FAB model, inorganic N pools were reduced by 5-95% depending on the soil C:N ratio due to bacterial immobilization of fungal mineralization products. This nitrogen subsidy also increased microbial biomass at some C:N ratios. Although there were changes in some components of respiration, particularly overflow respiration, there was no net effect of community structure on total respiration fluxes. The FAB model predicted a breakpoint in the relationship between the ratio of fungi to bacteria and soil C:N, after which the fungi-to-bacteria ratio should begin to increase. Break-point analysis of the meta-analysis data set revealed a consistent pattern and matched the slope of the change in F:B with soil C:N, but not the precise breakpoint. We argue that including microbial

  6. pH and peptide supply can radically alter bacterial populations and short-chain fatty acid ratios within microbial communities from the human colon.

    PubMed

    Walker, Alan W; Duncan, Sylvia H; McWilliam Leitch, E Carol; Child, Matthew W; Flint, Harry J

    2005-07-01

    The effects of changes in the gut environment upon the human colonic microbiota are poorly understood. The response of human fecal microbial communities from two donors to alterations in pH (5.5 or 6.5) and peptides (0.6 or 0.1%) was studied here in anaerobic continuous cultures supplied with a mixed carbohydrate source. Final butyrate concentrations were markedly higher at pH 5.5 (0.6% peptide mean, 24.9 mM; 0.1% peptide mean, 13.8 mM) than at pH 6.5 (0.6% peptide mean, 5.3 mM; 0.1% peptide mean, 7.6 mM). At pH 5.5 and 0.6% peptide input, a high butyrate production coincided with decreasing acetate concentrations. The highest propionate concentrations (mean, 20.6 mM) occurred at pH 6.5 and 0.6% peptide input. In parallel, major bacterial groups were monitored by using fluorescence in situ hybridization with a panel of specific 16S rRNA probes. Bacteroides levels increased from ca. 20 to 75% of total eubacteria after a shift from pH 5.5 to 6.5, at 0.6% peptide, coinciding with high propionate formation. Conversely, populations of the butyrate-producing Roseburia group were highest (11 to 19%) at pH 5.5 but fell at pH 6.5, a finding that correlates with butyrate formation. When tested in batch culture, three Bacteroides species grew well at pH 6.7 but poorly at pH 5.5, which is consistent with the behavior observed for the mixed community. Two Roseburia isolates grew equally well at pH 6.7 and 5.5. These findings suggest that a lowering of pH resulting from substrate fermentation in the colon may boost butyrate production and populations of butyrate-producing bacteria, while at the same time curtailing the growth of Bacteroides spp.

  7. The influence of the human microbiome and probiotics on cardiovascular health

    PubMed Central

    Ettinger, Grace; MacDonald, Kyle; Reid, Gregor; Burton, Jeremy P

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of death worldwide. Of the many etiological factors, microorganisms constitute one. From the local impact of the gut microbiota on energy metabolism and obesity, to the distal association of periodontal disease with coronary heart disease, microbes have a significant impact on cardiovascular health. In terms of the ability to modulate or influence the microbes, probiotic applications have been considered. These are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a benefit on the host. While a number of reports have established the beneficial abilities of certain probiotic bacterial strains to reduce cholesterol and hypertension, recent research suggests that their use could be more widely applied. This review presents an up-to-date summary of the known associations of the microbiome with CVD, and potential applications of probiotic therapy. PMID:25529048

  8. Sensory acceptance and survival of probiotic bacteria in ice cream produced with different overrun levels.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Juliana L; Cruz, Adriano G; Cadena, Rafael S; Freitas, Monica Q; Pinto, Uelinton M; Carvalho, Celio C; Faria, Jose A F; Bolini, Helena M A

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different overrun levels on the sensory acceptance and survival of probiotic bacteria in ice cream was investigated. Vanilla ice creams supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus were processed with overruns of 45%, 60%, and 90%. Viable probiotic bacterial counts and sensory acceptance were assessed. All the ice creams presented a minimum count of 6 log CFU/g at the end of 60 d of frozen storage. However, higher overrun levels negatively influenced cell viability, being reported a decrease of 2 log CFU/g for the 90% overrun treatment. In addition, it was not reported an influence about acceptability with respect to appearance, aroma, and taste of the ice creams (P > 0.05). Overall, the results suggest that lower overrun levels should be adopted during the manufacture of ice cream in order to maintain its probiotic status through the shelf life.

  9. European market developments in prebiotic- and probiotic-containing foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Young, J

    1998-10-01

    A growing number of food manufacturers in western Europe are beginning to explore the commercial opportunities for foodstuffs containing health-promoting microbial food supplements (probiotics) and health-promoting non-digestible food ingredients (prebiotics). A prebiotic is considered to affect the host beneficially by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of naturally present or introduced bacterial species in the colon, also leading to a claimed improvement in host health. Increasingly, probiotics and prebiotics are used in combination, this being termed a synbiotic (Gibson & Roberfroid, 1995). Throughout European history, fermented milk products in particular have been considered beneficial to health, but only in recent years has there been scientific support for these beliefs. Issues considered important to the continuing development of this growing market are proof of safety, proof of efficacy, consumer education, market positioning, price and appropriate health claims strategies. Until recently, much of the innovation in the use of probiotics and prebiotics has been in the dairy cabinet, with an ever-growing number and range of 'health-promoting' yoghurts and yoghurt-type fermented milk being made available to the European consumer, a market which is currently estimated to be worth in excess of $US2 billion per annum (Hilliam et al. 1997). However, prebiotics are beginning to find increasing application outside the dairy sector, particularly in baked goods. A key driver behind the broadening application of prebiotics has been the pro-active stance taken by key prebiotic suppliers such as Beghin-Say, Orafti and Cosucra. To date, market activity in probiotic- and prebiotic-containing foods has centred around three health propositions, namely improving general gut health, lowering blood cholesterol and improving the body's natural defences.

  10. The effect of probiotics on Clostridium difficile diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Pochapin, M

    2000-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of nosocomially acquired intestinal infection in the United States, affecting virtually all cases of pseudomembranous colitis and up to 20% of cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Even after receiving antibiotic treatment with either metronidazole or vancomycin, 20% of patients will have recurrent Clostridium difficile diarrhea. An innovative approach to the problem involves the introduction of competing, nonpathogenic (probiotic) organisms into the intestinal tract to restore microbial balance. The theoretical premise behind this approach is that the protective intestinal microflora is damaged by antibiotic treatment; the initial antibiotic exposure thus leaves the host susceptible to colonization and subsequent infection by Clostridium difficile. A so-called "second-hit" to the intestinal microflora occurs when the infected host is treated with flagyl or vancomycin, further destroying susceptible bacterial flora. Probiotic agents, such as Lactobacillus GG and Saccharomyces boulardii, have been studied for the treatment of Clostridium difficile. We are currently running a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Lactobacillus GG in combination with standard antibiotics for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. Although it is too early to draw statistically significant conclusions, two patterns seem to be emerging: Lactobacillus GG is effective in reducing the 3-wk recurrence rate of Clostridium difficile, and patients feel better when taking Lactobacillus GG, as compared with the placebo, with early disappearance of abdominal cramps and diarrhea. In conclusion, the use of probiotics for the treatment of primary and recurrent Clostridium difficile diarrhea looks promising. Patients seem to have less recurrent Clostridium difficile diarrhea and early symptomatic improvement when using the probiotic Lactobacillus GG.

  11. Functional and health promoting inherent attributes of Enterococcus hirae F2 as a novel probiotic isolated from the digestive tract of the freshwater fish Catla catla

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mitesh; Hadi, Sibte

    2017-01-01

    Background Probiotic microorganisms are gaining global importance because of their use in the preparation of a nutraceutical or in the treatment of infections. As per the health industry demand, there is an urgent need for exploring new indigenous probiotic strains with its specific origin due to variation in gut microflora, different food habits and specific host-microbial interactions. The main objective of the present study was to isolate and identify a novel probiotic Enterococcus strain from the gut of Catla catla fish and evaluate its potentiality as a potent probiotic. Methods The whole study was designed with the isolation of novel lactic acid bacterial strain from the gut of Catla catla fish with their biochemical and molecular identifications. The potentiality of the isolated strain as a potent probiotic was carried out according to the parameters described in FAD/WHO guidelines for the evaluation of probiotics in food. Results The isolated strain was confirmed as Enterococcus hirae F2 on the basis of various biochemical and 16s rRNA gene sequencing methods. Enterococcus hirae F2 was able to survive under highly acidic and bile salt concentration with the ability for the production of lipase and Bsh enzyme. It was also able to survive under simulated gastrointestinal conditions with the inhibition ability of various pathogens. The antioxidant potentiality with the cell surface hydrophobicity and cell aggregation ability confirms its potentiality as a potent probiotic. All the results detail the potency of Enterococcus hirae F2 as a novel probiotic for a safer use. Discussion The isolation of Enterococcus hirae with probiotic potential from the gut of fish is a new approach and done for the first time. However, the whole study concluded that the isolated strain might be used as a novel probiotic in the food industry for the production of new probiotic products which imparts health benefits to the host. PMID:28316889

  12. Chemical characterization and immunomodulatory properties of polysaccharides isolated from probiotic Lactobacillus casei LOCK 0919

    PubMed Central

    Górska, Sabina; Hermanova, Petra; Ciekot, Jarosław; Schwarzer, Martin; Srutkova, Dagmar; Brzozowska, Ewa; Kozakova, Hana; Gamian, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The Lactobacillus casei strain, LOCK 0919, is intended for the dietary management of food allergies and atopic dermatitis (LATOPIC® BIOMED). The use of a probiotic to modulate immune responses is an interesting strategy for solving imbalance problems of gut microflora that may lead to various disorders. However, the exact bacterial signaling mechanisms underlying such modulations are still far from being understood. Here, we investigated variations in the chemical compositions and immunomodulatory properties of the polysaccharides (PS), L919/A and L919/B, which are produced by L. casei LOCK 0919. By virtue of their chemical features, such PS can modulate the immune responses to third-party antigens. Our results revealed that L919/A and L919/B could both modulate the immune response to Lactobacillus planatarum WCFS1, but only L919/B could alter the response of THP-1 cells (in terms of tumor necrosis factor alpha production) to L. planatarum WCFS1 and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. The comprehensive immunochemical characterization is crucial for the understanding of the biological function as well as of the bacteria–host and bacteria–bacteria cross-talk. PMID:27102285

  13. Probiotic Therapy of the Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Why Is the Evidence Still Poor and What Can Be Done About It?

    PubMed Central

    Mazurak, Nazar; Broelz, Ellen; Storr, Martin; Enck, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Despite numerous randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses, there is no increased evidence for the efficacy of probiotics in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We review this evidence, identify and analyse the reasons for this lack of evidence and propose methodological improvements for future studies. Methods Based on a literature search, we identified 56 papers that matched the purpose of our analyses. Twenty-seven studies used multi-species bacterial preparations and 29 used single-strain probiotics. They were analysed regarding patients included, treatment duration, probiotic dosage, and outcome measures. Results Trials in both groups suffered from heterogeneity with respect to probiotic concentration, duration of treatment, and other methodological issues (crossover design and underpowered studies). This heterogeneity did not allow the application of a meta-analytic approach and a systematic review was therefore performed instead. Multi-strain preparations combined 2 to 8 different bacterial subspecies, mostly lactobacilli or bifidobacteria, and used variable lengths of treatments. Overall, more than 50% of trials presented negative outcomes. The majority of the single-strain probiotic trials employing lactobacilli or Saccharomyces were negative, whereas trials employing bifidobacteria showed positive results. Conclusions The heterogeneity of the studies of probiotics in IBS questions the value of meta-analyses. The use of different bacterial strains and different mixtures of these strains, as well as different dosages, are the main contributors to this heterogeneity. Current data provides limited evidence for the efficacy of a small number of single-strain probiotics in IBS (mostly bifidobacteria) and sound studies following strict trial guidelines (Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency guidelines for clinical trials) are needed. We summarised and proposed some methodological issues for future studies in

  14. Chronic administration of a microencapsulated probiotic enhances the bioavailability of orange juice flavanones in humans.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Caro, Gema; Oliver, Christine M; Weerakkody, Rangika; Singh, Tanoj; Conlon, Michael; Borges, Gina; Sanguansri, Luz; Lockett, Trevor; Roberts, Susan A; Crozier, Alan; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2015-07-01

    Orange juice (OJ) flavanones are bioactive polyphenols that are absorbed principally in the large intestine. Ingestion of probiotics has been associated with favorable changes in the colonic microflora. The present study examined the acute and chronic effects of orally administered Bifidobacterium longum R0175 on the colonic microflora and bioavailability of OJ flavanones in healthy volunteers. In an acute study volunteers drank OJ with and without the microencapsulated probiotic, whereas the chronic effects were examined when OJ was consumed after daily supplementation with the probiotic over 4 weeks. Bioavailability, assessed by 0-24h urinary excretion, was similar when OJ was consumed with and without acute probiotic intake. Hesperetin-O-glucuronides, naringenin-O-glucuronides, and hesperetin-3'-O-sulfate were the main urinary flavanone metabolites. The overall urinary excretion of these metabolites after OJ ingestion and acute probiotic intake corresponded to 22% of intake, whereas excretion of key colon-derived phenolic and aromatic acids was equivalent to 21% of the ingested OJ (poly)phenols. Acute OJ consumption after chronic probiotic intake over 4 weeks resulted in the excretion of 27% of flavanone intake, and excretion of selected phenolic acids also increased significantly to 43% of (poly)phenol intake, corresponding to an overall bioavailability of 70%. Neither the probiotic bacterial profiles of stools nor the stool moisture, weight, pH, or levels of short-chain fatty acids and phenols differed significantly between treatments. These findings highlight the positive effect of chronic, but not acute, intake of microencapsulated B. longum R0175 on the bioavailability of OJ flavanones.

  15. Probiotics against neoplastic transformation of gastric mucosa: Effects on cell proliferation and polyamine metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Francesco; Linsalata, Michele; Orlando, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is still the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide, accounting for about 10% of newly diagnosed neoplasms. In the last decades, an emerging role has been attributed to the relations between the intestinal microbiota and the onset of both gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal neoplasms. Thus, exogenous microbial administration of peculiar bacterial strains (probiotics) has been suggested as having a profound influence on multiple processes associated with a change in cancer risk. The internationally accepted definition of probiotics is live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. The possible effects on the gastrointestinal tract following probiotic administration have been investigated in vitro and in animal models, as well as in healthy volunteers and in patients suffering from different human gastrointestinal diseases. Although several evidences are available on the use of probiotics against the carcinogen Helicobacter pylori, little is still known about the potential cross-interactions among probiotics, the composition and quality of intestinal flora and the neoplastic transformation of gastric mucosa. In this connection, a significant role in cell proliferation is played by polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine). These small amines are required in both pre-neoplastic and neoplastic tissue to sustain the cell growth and the evidences here provided suggest that probiotics may act as antineoplastic agents in the stomach by affecting also the polyamine content and functions. This review will summarize data on the most widely recognized effects of probiotics against neoplastic transformation of gastric mucosa and in particular on their ability in modulating cell proliferation, paying attention to the polyamine metabolism. PMID:25309063

  16. Probiotics against neoplastic transformation of gastric mucosa: effects on cell proliferation and polyamine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Russo, Francesco; Linsalata, Michele; Orlando, Antonella

    2014-10-07

    Gastric cancer is still the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide, accounting for about 10% of newly diagnosed neoplasms. In the last decades, an emerging role has been attributed to the relations between the intestinal microbiota and the onset of both gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal neoplasms. Thus, exogenous microbial administration of peculiar bacterial strains (probiotics) has been suggested as having a profound influence on multiple processes associated with a change in cancer risk. The internationally accepted definition of probiotics is live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. The possible effects on the gastrointestinal tract following probiotic administration have been investigated in vitro and in animal models, as well as in healthy volunteers and in patients suffering from different human gastrointestinal diseases. Although several evidences are available on the use of probiotics against the carcinogen Helicobacter pylori, little is still known about the potential cross-interactions among probiotics, the composition and quality of intestinal flora and the neoplastic transformation of gastric mucosa. In this connection, a significant role in cell proliferation is played by polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine). These small amines are required in both pre-neoplastic and neoplastic tissue to sustain the cell growth and the evidences here provided suggest that probiotics may act as antineoplastic agents in the stomach by affecting also the polyamine content and functions. This review will summarize data on the most widely recognized effects of probiotics against neoplastic transformation of gastric mucosa and in particular on their ability in modulating cell proliferation, paying attention to the polyamine metabolism.

  17. Probiotic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SC06 Induces Autophagy to Protect against Pathogens in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanping; Wang, Yang; Zou, Hai; Wang, Baikui; Sun, Qiming; Fu, Aikun; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yibing; Xu, Xiaogang; Li, Weifen

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics are increasingly applied in popularity in both humans and animals. Decades of research has revealed their beneficial effects, including the immune modulation in intestinal pathogens inhibition. Autophagy—a cellular process that involves the delivery of cytoplasmic proteins and organelles to the lysosome for degradation and recirculation—is essential to protect cells against bacterial pathogens. However, the mechanism of probiotics-mediated autophagy and its role in the elimination of pathogens are still unknown. Here, we evaluated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SC06 (Ba)-induced autophagy and its antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) in murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells. Western blotting and confocal laser scanning analysis showed that Ba activated autophagy in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Ba-induced autophagy was found to play a role in the elimination of intracellular bacteria when RAW264.7 cells were challenged with E. coli. Ba induced autophagy by increasing the expression of Beclin1 and Atg5-Atg12-Atg16 complex, but not the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Moreover, Ba pretreatment attenuated the activation of JNK in RAW264.7 cells during E. coli infection, further indicating a protective role for probiotics via modulating macrophage immunity. The above findings highlight a novel mechanism underlying the antibacterial activity of probiotics. This study enriches the current knowledge on probiotics-mediated autophagy, and provides a new perspective on the prevention of bacterial infection in intestine, which further the application of probiotics in food products. PMID:28382029

  18. Recent achievements in preventive dentistry by introducing a new probiotic toothpaste.

    PubMed

    Majstorović, Martina; Vranić, Dubravka Negovetić; Szirovicza, Lajos

    2013-12-01

    Artificially synthesized probiotic from Lactobacillus strain, contained in the tested toothpaste, led to an innovative approach in preventive dentistry. A new concept resulting from this research can be explained due to possible mechanisms of action of probiotic bacteria, according to which equilibrium of hostile bacterial flora is achieved by mechanical elimination of cariogenic bacteria from the mouth. This research was conducted during a 4-week period on a randomly selected Croatian sample of 50 participants, with the aim to investigate the efficacy of the first probiotic toothpaste ever produced in Croatia. CRT tests (Ivoclar Vivadent AG, FL-9494 Schaan/Liechtenstein) were used and individually administrated to each participant to assess the number of Streptococci and Lactobacilli. Saliva samples were tested before, as well as 2 and 4 weeks after using the tested toothpaste. After having had obtained detailed information on the research protocol, participants signed informed consent, and strictly following the instructions, brushed their teeth exclusively using the tested toothpaste and toothbrush of the same manufacturer over the 4 week period. Statistical results obtained after 4 weeks of using the probiotic toothpaste showed significant reduction in the number of participants who, prior to commencing the study, were diagnosed a high number of cariogenic bacteria. The number of participants with the high number of streptococci was significantly reduced from 78.4 to 26.5%, as well as the number of participants with the high number of Lactobacilli, which significantly dropped down from 52.9 to 26.5%. The results indicate a significant efficacy of the tested toothpaste, which can be attributed to the effect of the contained synthetized probiotic substance. Therefore, this research reveals a new achievement in innovative technologies, based on which probiotics can be used with purpose of maintaining balance of bacterial flora within the oral cavity, particularly

  19. Increasing addition of autochthonous to allochthonous carbon in nutrient-rich aquatic systems stimulates carbon consumption but does not alter bacterial community composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attermeyer, K.; Hornick, T.; Kayler, Z. E.; Bahr, A.; Zwirnmann, E.; Grossart, H.-P.; Premke, K.

    2013-08-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations - mainly of terrestrial origin - are increasing worldwide in inland waters. The biodegradability of the DOC varies depending on quantity and chemical quality. Heterotrophic bacteria are the main consumers of DOC and thus determine DOC temporal dynamics and availability for higher trophic levels. It is therefore crucial to understand the processes controlling the bacterial turnover of additional allochthonous and autochthonous DOC in aquatic systems. Our aim was to study bacterial carbon (C) turnover with respect to DOC quantity and chemical quality using both allochthonous and autochthonous DOC sources. We incubated a natural bacterial community with allochthonous C (13C-labeled beech leachate) and increased concentrations and pulses (intermittent occurrence of organic matter input) of autochthonous C (algae lysate). We then determined bacterial carbon consumption, activities, and community composition together with the carbon flow through bacteria using stable C isotopes. The chemical analysis of single sources revealed differences in aromaticity and fractions of low and high molecular weight substances (LMWS and HMWS, respectively) between allochthonous and autochthonous C sources. In parallel to these differences in chemical composition, we observed a higher availability of allochthonous C as evidenced by increased DOC consumption and bacterial growth efficiencies (BGE) when solely allochthonous C was provided. In treatments with mixed sources, rising concentrations of added autochthonous DOC resulted in a further, significant increase in bacterial DOC consumption from 52 to 68% when nutrients were not limiting. This rise was accompanied by a decrease in the humic substances (HS) fraction and an increase in bacterial biomass. Stable C isotope analyses of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and respired dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) supported a preferential assimilation of autochthonous C and respiration of the

  20. Probiotics and human health: a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Gill, H; Guarner, F

    2004-01-01

    There is unequivocal evidence that administration of probiotics could be effective in the treatment of acute infectious diarrhoea in children and the prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea and nosocomial/community acquired diarrhoea. Encouraging evidence is also emerging for the effectiveness of probiotics in the prevention and management of pouchitis and paediatric atopic diseases, and the prevention of postoperative infections. There is also strong evidence that certain probiotic strains are able to enhance immune function, especially in subjects with less than adequate immune function such as the elderly. Efficacy of probiotics in the prevention of traveller's diarrhoea, sepsis associated with severe acute pancreatitis, and cancers, the management of ulcerative colitis, and lowering of blood cholesterol remains unproven. In addition to firm evidence of efficacy (for a range of conditions), major gaps exist in our knowledge regarding the mechanisms by which probiotics modulate various physiological functions and the optimum dose, frequency, and duration of treatment for different probiotic strains. PMID:15356352

  1. Clinical indications for probiotics: an overview.

    PubMed

    Goldin, B R; Gorbach, S L

    2008-02-01

    Probiotic bacteria are used to treat or prevent a broad range of human diseases, conditions, and syndromes. In addition, there are areas of medical use that have been proposed for future probiotic applications. Randomized double-blind studies have provided evidence of probiotic effectiveness for the treatment and prevention of acute diarrhea and antibiotic-induced diarrhea, as well as for the prevention of cow milk-induced food allergy in infants and young children. Research studies have also provided evidence of effectiveness for the prevention of traveler's diarrhea, relapsing Clostridium difficile-induced colitis, and urinary tract infections. There are also studies indicating that probiotics may be useful for prevention of respiratory infections in children, dental caries, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Areas of future interest for the application of probiotics include colon and bladder cancers, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis. The probiotics with the greatest number of proven benefits are Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG and Saccharomyces boulardii.

  2. Probiotics: properties, examples, and specific applications.

    PubMed

    Behnsen, Judith; Deriu, Elisa; Sassone-Corsi, Martina; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2013-03-01

    Probiotics are beneficial components of the microbiota that have been used for centuries because of the health benefits they confer to the host. Only recently, however, has the contribution of probiotics to modulation of immunological, respiratory, and gastrointestinal functions started to be fully appreciated and scientifically evaluated. Probiotics such as Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 and lactic acid bacteria are currently used to, or have been evaluated for use to, prevent or treat a range of intestinal maladies including inflammatory bowel disease, constipation, and colon cancer. Engineering these natural probiotics to produce immunomodulatory molecules may help to further increase the benefit to the host. In this article, we will discuss some of the mechanisms of action of probiotics as well as advances in the rational design of probiotics.

  3. Screening of species-specific lactic acid bacteria for veal calves multi-strain probiotic adjuncts.

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, Barbara; Agazzi, Alessandro; Bersani, Carla; De Dea, Paola; Pecorini, Chiara; Pirani, Silvia; Rebucci, Raffaella; Savoini, Giovanni; Stella, Simone; Stenico, Alberta; Tirloni, Erica; Domeneghini, Cinzia

    2011-06-01

    The selection of promising specific species of lactic acid bacteria with potential probiotic characteristics is of particular interest in producing multi species-specific probiotic adjuncts in veal calves rearing. The aim of the present work was to select and evaluate in vitro the functional activity of lactic acid bacteria, Bifidobacterium longum and Bacillus coagulans strains isolated from veal calves in order to assess their potential use as multi species-specific probiotics for veal calves. For this purpose, bacterial strains isolated from faeces collected from 40 healthy 50-day-calves, were identified by RiboPrinter and 16s rRNA gene sequence. The most frequent strains belonged to the species B. longum, Streptococcus bovis, Lactobacillus animalis and Streptococcus macedonicus. Among these, 7 strains were chosen for testing their probiotic characteristics in vitro. Three strains, namely L. animalis SB310, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei SB137 and B. coagulans SB117 showed varying individual but promising capabilities to survive in the gastrointestinal tract, to adhere, to produce antimicrobial compounds. These three selected species-specific bacteria demonstrated in vitro, both singularly and mixed, the functional properties needed for their use as potential probiotics in veal calves.

  4. Production and Biomedical Applications of Probiotic Biosurfactants.

    PubMed

    Fariq, Anila; Saeed, Ayesha

    2016-04-01

    Biosurfactants have been widely used for environmental and industrial applications. However, their use in medical field is still limited. Probiotic biosurfactants possess an immense antimicrobial, anti-adhesive, antitumor, and antibiofilm potential. Moreover, they have an additional advantage over conventional microbial surfactants because probiotics are an integral part of normal human microflora and their biosurfactants are innocuous to human. So, they can be effectively exploited for medicinal use. Present review is aimed to discourse the production and biomedical applications of probiotic biosurfactants.

  5. [Use of probiotics and prebiotics in primary care].

    PubMed

    Álvarez Calatayud, Guillermo; Azpiroz, Fernando

    2015-02-07

    Probiotics are used in a great number of both paediatric and adult diseases, mainly in gastrointestinal disorders, like diarrhoea. Nevertheless, their beneficial effect on immune alterations, such as atopic dermatitis and, more recently, in women related diseases such as vulvovaginitis and mastitis have also been observed. However, the use of probiotics is not completely implemented into the routine clinical practice for primary care physicians. There is still a great controversy with scarce scientific evidence, due to the diversity in the designs thereof which justifies the variability in the efficacy results. This outcome leads to difficulties in developing definitive treatment guidelines although there are exceptions, for example, WGO. The aim of this workshop, held at the VI Congress of the Spanish Society of Probiotics and Prebiotics is the training of primary care physicians, both paediatricians and general practitioners in the clinical applications of these nutritional preparations in different diseases: acute diarrhoea; antibiotic associated diarrhoea, necrotizing enterocolitis, employment in infant milk formulas, infant colic, irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease, as well as vulvovaginitis and mastitis.

  6. An analysis of online messages about probiotics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Internet websites are a resource for patients seeking information about probiotics. We examined a sample of 71 websites presenting probiotic information. We found that descriptions of benefits far outnumbered descriptions of risks and commercial websites presented significantly fewer risks than noncommercial websites. The bias towards the presentation of therapeutic benefits in online content suggests that patients are likely interested in using probiotics and may have unrealistic expectations for therapeutic benefit. Gastroenterologists may find it useful to initiate conversations about probiotics within the context of a comprehensive health management plan and should seek to establish realistic therapeutic expectations with their patients. PMID:23311418

  7. Bacterial colonization and gut development in preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Cilieborg, Malene S; Boye, Mette; Sangild, Per T

    2012-03-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) develops in 5-10% of preterm infants in association with enteral feeding and bacterial colonization. It remains unclear how diet and bacteria interact to protect or provoke the immature gastrointestinal tract. Understanding the factors that control bacterial colonization may provide the clue to prevent NEC, and studies in infants must be combined with animal models to understand the mechanisms of the microbiota-epithelium interactions. Analyses of infant fecal samples show that the density and distribution of bacterial species are highly variable with no consistent effects of gestational age, delivery mode, diet or probiotic administration, while low bacterial diversity and bacterial overgrowth are commonly associated with NEC. A series of recent studies in preterm pigs show that the mucosa-associated microbiota is affected by delivery method, prematurity and NEC progression and that diet has limited effects. Overgrowth of specific groups (e.g. Clostridia) appears to be a consequence of NEC, rather than the cause of NEC. Administration of probiotics either decreases or increases NEC sensitivity in preterm pigs, while in preterm infants probiotics have generally decreased NEC incidence and overall mortality. The optimal nature and amount of probiotic bacteria are unknown and host defense factors appear more important for NEC sensitivity than the nature of the gut microbiota. Host defense is improved by feeding the optimal amount of enteral diets, such as mother's colostrum or milk, that help the immature intestinal immune system to respond appropriately to the highly variable bacterial colonization.

  8. Preliminary characterization of the probiotic properties of Candida famata and Geobacillus thermoleovorans

    PubMed Central

    Mahdhi, A; Hmila, Z; Behi, A; Bakhrouf, A

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective Probiotics are live microbial feed supplements which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance, producing metabolites which inhibit the colonization or growth of other microorganisms or by competing with them for resources such as nutrients or space. The aim of this study was to investigate the probiotic properties of Candida famata and Geobacillus thermoleovorans. Material and Methods In this study, yeast and bacterial strains isolated from pure oil waste were identified using Api 50 CHB and Api Candida Systems and their probiotic properties were studied through antimicrobial activity, biofilm production, adherence assay and enzymatic characterization. Results and Conclusion According to biochemical analyses, these strains corresponded to Geobacillus thermoleovorans and Candida famata. Antagonism assay results showed that the tested strains have an inhibitory effect against tested pathogenic bacteria. The yeast Candida famata was unable to produce biofilm on Congo Red Agar (CRA), while the bacterial strain was a slime producer. Adherence assays to abiotic surfaces revealed that the investigated strains were fairly adhesive to polystyrene with values ranging from 0.18 to 0.34 at 595 nm. The enzymatic characterization revealed that the tested strains expressed enzymes such as phosphatase alkaline, esterase lipase (C8), amylase, lipase, lecitenase and caseinase. The obtained results may allow the isolated strains to be considered as having the potential to be candidate probiotics. PMID:22347595

  9. Protection activity of a novel probiotic strain of Bacillus subtilis against Salmonella Enteritidis infection.

    PubMed

    Thirabunyanon, Mongkol; Thongwittaya, Narin

    2012-08-01

    The activity of 240 bacterial isolates screened from the gastrointestinal tracts of native chickens were evaluated for use as a potential probiotic in food animal production in order to protect against animal diseases and reduce pathogenic contamination of human food products. In observing the antagonistic activity of 117 bacilli isolates, 10 of these isolates exhibited higher growth inhibition of seven foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Vibrio cholerae. Beneficial probiotic criteria from these isolates - which included non-pathogenicity, acid and bile salt tolerance, hydrophobicity, and adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells - exhibited that one isolate of NC11 had the most potential as a probiotic. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that this NC11 isolate was Bacillus subtilis. This B. subtilis NC11 was sensitive to all antibiotics and was not cytotoxic to intestinal epithelial cells. Reduction of S. Enteritidis attachment to the surfaces of intestinal epithelial cells via action of a cultured medium from B. subtilis NC11 was observed by scanning electron microscopy. B. subtilis NC11 cells, as well as the bacterial cultured medium or the cultured medium adjusted to pH 7, significantly inhibited S. Enteritidis invasion (P<0.01) of intestinal epithelial cells. This study indicates that B. subtilis NC11 has characteristics of a potential probiotic, and exhibits strong inhibition activity against S. Enteritidis infection to intestinal epithelial cells.

  10. Direct and Indirect Horizontal Transmission of the Antifungal Probiotic Bacterium Janthinobacterium lividum on Green Frog (Lithobates clamitans) Tadpoles

    PubMed Central

    Simonetti, Stephen J.; Shoemaker, William R.; Harris, Reid N.

    2016-01-01

    Amphibian populations worldwide are being threatened by the disease chytridiomycosis, which is caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. To mitigate the effects of B. dendrobatidis, bioaugmentation of antifungal bacteria has been shown to be a promising strategy. One way to implement bioaugmentation is through indirect horizontal transmission, defined as the transfer of bacteria from a host to the environment and to another host. In addition, direct horizontal transmission among individuals can facilitate the spread of a probiotic in a population. In this study, we tested whether the antifungal bacterium Janthinobacterium lividum could be horizontally transferred, directly or indirectly, in a laboratory experiment using Lithobates clamitans tadpoles. We evaluated the ability of J. lividum to colonize the tadpoles' skin and to persist through time using culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. We also tested whether the addition of J. lividum affected the skin community in L. clamitans tadpoles. We found that transmission occurred rapidly by direct and indirect horizontal transmission, but indirect transmission that included a potential substrate was more effective. Even though J. lividum colonized the skin, its relative abundance on the tadpole skin decreased over time. The inoculation of J. lividum did not significantly alter the skin bacterial diversity of L. clamitans tadpoles, which was dominated by Pseudomonas. Our results show that indirect horizontal transmission can be an effective bioaugmentation method. Future research is needed to determine the best conditions, including the presence of substrates, under which a probiotic can persist on the skin so that bioaugmentation becomes a successful strategy to mitigate chytridiomycosis. PMID:26873311

  11. Novel Probiotic Therapies for Autism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    suggest a gut -microbiome- brain connection in autism, and identify a potential probiotic therapy for ASD. We have now developed assays for some of...the mechanism of how leaky gut may be established in MIA offspring, we are examining the composition of the GI microbiota and the influence of...to the microbiota have been identified in autistic individuals, including enrichment in gut microbes such as Clostridia, Desulfovibrio and Sutterella

  12. An Unprecedented alteration in mode of action of IsCT resulting its translocation into bacterial cytoplasm and inhibition of macromolecular syntheses

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Jitendra K.; Kathuria, Manoj; Kumar, Amit; Mitra, Kalyan; Ghosh, Jimut K.

    2015-01-01

    IsCT, a 13-residue, non-cell-selective antimicrobial peptide is comprised of mostly hydrophobic residues and lesser cationic residues. Assuming that placement of an additional positive charge in the non-polar face of IsCT could reduce its hydrophobic interaction, resulting in its reduction of cytotoxicity, an analog, I9K-IsCT was designed. Two more analogs, namely, E7K-IsCT and E7K,I9K-IsCT, were designed to investigate the impact of positive charges in the polar face as well as polar and non-polar faces at a time. These amino acid substitutions resulted in a significant enhancement of therapeutic potential of IsCT. IsCT and E7K-IsCT seem to target bacterial membrane for their anti-bacterial activity. However, I9K-IsCT and E7K,I9K-IsCT inhibited nucleic acid and protein syntheses in tested E. coli without perturbing its membrane. This was further supported by the observation that NBD-IsCT localized onto bacterial membrane while NBD-labeled I9K-IsCT and E7K,I9K-IsCT translocated into bacterial cytoplasm. Interestingly, IsCT and E7K-IsCT were significantly helical while I9K-IsCT and E7K,I9K-IsCT were mostly unstructured with no helix content in presence of mammalian and bacterial membrane-mimetic lipid vesicles. Altogether, the results identify two novel cell-selective analogs of IsCT with new prototype amino acid sequences that can translocate into bacterial cytoplasm without any helical structure and inhibit macromolecular syntheses. PMID:25773522

  13. Gut microbiota, probiotics and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a condition of multifactorial origin, involving several molecular mechanisms related to the intestinal microbiota for its development. In type 2 diabetes, receptor activation and recognition by microorganisms from the intestinal lumen may trigger inflammatory responses, inducing the phosphorylation of serine residues in insulin receptor substrate-1, reducing insulin sensitivity. In type 1 diabetes, the lowered expression of adhesion proteins within the intestinal epithelium favours a greater immune response that may result in destruction of pancreatic β cells by CD8+ T-lymphocytes, and increased expression of interleukin-17, related to autoimmunity. Research in animal models and humans has hypothesized whether the administration of probiotics may improve the prognosis of diabetes through modulation of gut microbiota. We have shown in this review that a large body of evidence suggests probiotics reduce the inflammatory response and oxidative stress, as well as increase the expression of adhesion proteins within the intestinal epithelium, reducing intestinal permeability. Such effects increase insulin sensitivity and reduce autoimmune response. However, further investigations are required to clarify whether the administration of probiotics can be efficiently used for the prevention and management of diabetes. PMID:24939063

  14. Gut microbiota, probiotics and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Aline Corado; Bueno, Allain Amador; de Souza, Rávila Graziany Machado; Mota, João Felipe

    2014-06-17

    Diabetes is a condition of multifactorial origin, involving several molecular mechanisms related to the intestinal microbiota for its development. In type 2 diabetes, receptor activation and recognition by microorganisms from the intestinal lumen may trigger inflammatory responses, inducing the phosphorylation of serine residues in insulin receptor substrate-1, reducing insulin sensitivity. In type 1 diabetes, the lowered expression of adhesion proteins within the intestinal epithelium favours a greater immune response that may result in destruction of pancreatic β cells by CD8+ T-lymphocytes, and increased expression of interleukin-17, related to autoimmunity. Research in animal models and humans has hypothesized whether the administration of probiotics may improve the prognosis of diabetes through modulation of gut microbiota. We have shown in this review that a large body of evidence suggests probiotics reduce the inflammatory response and oxidative stress, as well as increase the expression of adhesion proteins within the intestinal epithelium, reducing intestinal permeability. Such effects increase insulin sensitivity and reduce autoimmune response. However, further investigations are required to clarify whether the administration of probiotics can be efficiently used for the prevention and management of diabetes.

  15. Probiotic bacteria lactobacillus and bifidobacterium attenuate inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Toumi, R; Soufli, I; Rafa, H; Belkhelfa, M; Biad, A; Touil-Boukoffa, C

    2014-01-01

    It is widely accepted that inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD) arises from a dysregulated mucosal immune response to the enteric microbiota in the gut of a genetically susceptible individual. No definitive therapies are available for this inflammatory disorder. Therefore it became imperative to develop new strategies for treating this disease. Probiotics have emerged as a potential new therapeutic strategy for IBD, however their exact mechanisms of action is still poorly defined. In this study, we address the potential effect of a probiotic cocktail (Ultrabiotique®) composed of four live bacterial strains (L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, B. lactis and B.breve) to promote recovery from acute colitis. Probiotic was given to mice by oral gavage after the onset of colitis and the establishment of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced intestinal injury. Clinical parameters were monitored daily, histological scores of colitis and the production of nitric oxide (NO) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) were determined. In addition, TLR4, NF-κB and iNOS colonic expression were examined. Probiotic treatment ameliorated clinical symptoms and histological scores. NO and IFN-γ production in plasma were decreased by probiotic. These results were associated with reduced TLR4, iNOS and NF-кB expression in colonic tissue. In conclusion, probiotic exerted anti-inflammatory effects and contributed to a rapid recovery of DSS-induced acute colitis.

  16. Phytase-Producing Potential and Other Functional Attributes of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolates for Prospective Probiotic Applications.

    PubMed

    Andrabi, Syed Tabia; Bhat, Bilqeesa; Gupta, Mahak; Bajaj, Bijender Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Wide variations among multifaceted-health benefitting attributes of probiotics fueled investigations on targeting efficacious probiotics. In the current study, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from poultry gut, feces of rat, chicken, human infants, and fermented foods were characterized for desired probiotic functional properties including the phytase-producing ability which is one of the wanted characteristics for probiotics for potential applications for upgrading animal nutrition, enhancing feed conversion, and minimizing anti-nutritional properties. Among 62 LAB isolates Weissella kimchii R-3 an isolate from poultry gut exhibited substantial phytase-producing ability (1.77 U/ml) in addition to other functional probiotic characteristics viz. hydrophobicity, autoaggregation, coaggregation with bacterial pathogens, and antimicrobial activity against pathogens. Survival of W. kimchii R-3 cells (in free and calcium alginate encapsulated state) was examined sequentially in simulated gastric and intestinal juices. Encapsulated cells exhibited better survival under simulated gut conditions indicating that encapsulation conferred considerable protection against adverse gut conditions. Furthermore, simulated gastric and intestinal juices with pepsin and pancreatin showed higher survival of cells than the juices without pepsin and pancreatin. W. kimchii R-3 due to its significant functional probiotic attributes may have prospective for commercial applications in human/animal nutrition.

  17. Probiotics and the Microbiome in Celiac Disease: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Stephen P.; Rolfe, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is limited research investigating the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota in individuals with celiac disease (CoeD) reporting only partial symptom improvement despite adherence to a strict gluten-free diet (GFD). The aim of this research was to determine if the gastrointestinal microbiota could be altered by probiotic bacteria and provide a potential new therapy for this subgroup. Methods. A multicentre RCT was conducted between January and August 2011 in Australia. Participants included 45 people with CoeD reporting only partial symptom improvement despite adherence to a strict GFD for a minimum of 12 months. Participants took 5 g of VSL#™ probiotic formulation (n = 23) or 5 g placebo (n = 22) orally twice daily for 12 weeks. The main outcome measured was the efficacy of the probiotic formula in altering faecal microbiota counts between baseline and week 12. Safety was determined by safety blood and monitoring adverse events. Results. SPSS™ multivariate repeated measures analysis (95th confidence level) revealed no statistically significant changes between the groups in the faecal microbiota counts or blood safety measures over the course of the study. Conclusion. The probiotic formula when taken orally over the 12-week period did not significantly alter the microbiota measured in this population. The trial was registered with Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register ACTRN12610000630011. PMID:27525027

  18. Effects of Probiotics on Intestinal Mucosa Barrier in Patients With Colorectal Cancer after Operation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dun; Jiang, Xiao-Ying; Zhou, Lan-Shu; Song, Ji-Hong; Zhang, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have found that probiotics or synbiotics can be used in patients with diarrhea or inflammatory bowel disease for the prevention and treatment of some pathologies by improving gastrointestinal barrier function. However, there are few studies availing the use of probiotics in patients with colorectal cancer. To lay the foundation for the study of nutritional support in colorectal cancer patients, a meta-analysis has been carried out to assess the efficacy of probiotics on the intestinal mucosa barrier in patients with colorectal cancer after operation. To estimate the efficacy of probiotics on the intestinal mucosa barrier in patients with colorectal cancer after operation, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials has been conducted. Databases including PubMed, Ovid, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure have been searched to identify suitable studies. Stata 12.0 was used for statistical analysis, and sensitivity analysis was also conducted. Six indicators were chosen to evaluate probiotics in protecting the intestinal mucosa barrier in patients with colorectal cancer. Ratios of lactulose to mannitol (L/M) and Bifidobacterium to Escherichia (B/E), occludin, bacterial translocation, and levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were chosen to evaluate probiotics in protecting the intestinal mucosa barrier in patients with colorectal cancer. Seventeen studies including 1242 patients were selected for meta-analysis, including 5 English studies and 12 Chinese studies. Significant effects were found in ratios of L/M (standardized mean difference = 3.83, P = 0.001) and B/E (standardized mean difference = 3.91, P = 0.000), occludin (standardized mean difference = 4.74, P = 0.000), bacterial translocation (standardized mean difference = 3.12, P = 0.002), and levels of SIgA (standardized mean

  19. Is there a role for probiotics in the prevention or treatment of food allergy?

    PubMed

    Nermes, Merja; Salminen, Seppo; Isolauri, Erika

    2013-12-01

    A balanced gut microbiota is crucial for the development of healthy immunoregulation and gut barrier function to allow brisk immune responses to pathogens and systemic hyporesponsiveness to harmless antigens such as food. Although the first allergic disease to manifest itself, atopic eczema, is not equivalent to food allergy, pre- and postnatal administration of specific probiotic strains has emerged as a promising tool for the prevention of this condition, with potential implications for food allergy development. For food allergy proper, however, we lack markers and risk factors and mechanisms, i.e., targets for preventive measures. The focus here is therefore on the treatment. Indeed, the potential of specific probiotic strains to alleviate food allergy resides in their ability to modify antigens, repair gut barrier functions, balance altered microbiota, and restore local and systemic immune regulation. In patients with multiple food allergies, induction of oral tolerance by specific probiotics continues to attract research interest.

  20. Role of probiotics and functional foods in health: gut immune stimulation by two probiotic strains and a potential probiotic yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Maldonado Galdeano, Carolina; Novotny Nuñez, Ivanna; Carmuega, Esteban; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; Perdigón, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    There are numerous reports that show the benefits on the health attributed to the probiotic consumptions. Most of the studies were performed using animal models and only some of them were validated in controlled human trials. The present review is divided in two sections. In the first section we describe how the probiotic microorganisms can interact with the intestinal epithelial cells that are the first line of cell in the mucosal site, focusing in the studies of two probiotic strains: Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 (actually Lactobacillus paracasei CNCMI-1518) and Lactobacillus casei CRL 431. Then we describe same beneficial effects attributed to probiotic administration and the administration of fermented milks containing these microorganisms or potential probiotic yoghurt, principally on the immune system and on the intestinal barrier in different experimental mouse models like enteropathogenic infection, malnutrition, cancer and intestinal inflammation.

  1. Predominance of a bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus salivarius component of a five-strain probiotic in the porcine ileum and effects on host immune phenotype.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Maria C; Gardiner, Gillian E; Hart, Orla M; Lawlor, Peadar G; Daly, Mairead; Lynch, Brendan; Richert, Brian T; Radcliffe, Scott; Giblin, Linda; Hill, Colin; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, Paul

    2008-05-01

    Relative predominance of each of five probiotic strains was investigated in the ileum of weaned pigs, compared with that in feces, when administered in combination at c. 5 x 10(9) CFU day(-1) for 28 days. Probiotic was excreted at 10(6)-10(9) CFU g(-1) feces, while ileal survival ranged from 10(2) to 10(6) CFU g(-1) digesta. In contrast to the feces, where Lactobacillus murinus DPC6002 predominated, the bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus salivarus DPC6005 dominated over coadministered strains both in the ileum digesta and in mucosa. Probiotic administration did not alter counts of culturable fecal Lactobacillus or Enterobacteriaceae but higher ileal Enterobacteriaceae were observed in the ileal digesta of probiotic-fed pigs (P<0.05). We observed decreased CD25 induction on T cells and monocytes (P<0.01) and decreased CTLA-4 induction (P<0.05) by the mitogen phytohemagglutinin on CD4 T cells from the probiotic group. Probiotic treatment also increased the proportion of CD4+ CD8+ T cells within the peripheral T-cell population and increased ileal IL-8 mRNA expression (P<0.05). In conclusion, superior ileal survival of L. salivarius compared with the other coadministered probiotics may be due to a competitive advantage conferred by its bacteriocin. The findings also suggest that the five-strain combination may function as a probiotic, at least in part, via immunomodulation.

  2. THE INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA AND THE ROLE OF PROBIOTICS IN IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME: a review.

    PubMed

    Moraes-Filho, Joaquim Prado; Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2015-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a common, chronic relapsing gastrointestinal disorder that affects 7%-22% of the population worldwide. According to Rome III Criteria, the disorder is defined by the coexistence of abdominal discomfort or pain associated with an alteration in bowel habits. Its pathophysiology is not completely understood but, in addition to some important abnormalities, the disturbed intestinal microbiota has also been described supported by several strands of evidence. The treatment of irritable bowel syndrome is based upon several therapeutic approaches but few have been successful or without adverse events and more recently the gut microbiota and the use of probiotics have emerged as a factor to be considered. Probiotics are live micro-organisms which when consumed in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host, such as Lactic bacteria among others. An important scientific rationale has emerged for the use of probiotics in irritable bowel syndrome, although the data regarding different species are still limited. Not all probiotics are beneficial: it is important to select the specific strain which should be supported by good evidence base. The mechanisms of action of probiotics are described and the main strains are quoted.

  3. Characterization of a Panela cheese with added probiotics and fava bean starch.

    PubMed

    Escobar, M C; Van Tassell, M L; Martínez-Bustos, F; Singh, M; Castaño-Tostado, E; Amaya-Llano, S L; Miller, M J

    2012-06-01

    Of 20 Lactobacillus and 8 Bifidobacterium species examined, only Bifidobacterium breve ATCC 15700 was able to ferment starch from fava beans. Bifidobacterium breve ATCC 15700 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 were selected as probiotics for use in fresh-style Panela cheese. Two types of fresh cheese (with and without 3% fava bean starch) were manufactured with 3 combinations of probiotics: L. rhamnosus GG only, B. breve only, or both L. rhamnosus GG and B. breve. During 4 wk of storage at 4°C, the addition of fava bean starch to the cheese was not found to cause significant differences in the viability of either probiotic strain. However, the microstructure and texture of Panela cheese were altered, resulting in a much softer product. A sensory panel showed that the presence of added fava bean starch in Panela cheese was less desirable to consumers, whereas probiotic supplementation had no effect on perceived taste or appearance. Panela cheese could be a suitable food for inclusion of probiotic bacteria.

  4. Artifically inserting a reticuloendotheliosis virus long terminal repeat into a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of Marek's disease virus (MDV) alters expression of nearby MDV genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The long terminal repeat (LTR) sequence of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) was inserted into the very virulent Marek’s disease virus (MDV) Md5 bacterial artificial chromosome clone. The insertion site was nearly identical to the REV LTR that was naturally inserted into the JM/102W strain of MDV fo...

  5. Probiotic approach to prevent antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Ouwehand, Arthur C; Forssten, Sofia; Hibberd, Ashley A; Lyra, Anna; Stahl, Buffy

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms, mainly belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, although also strain of other species are commercialized, that have a beneficial effect on the host. From the perspective of antibiotic use, probiotics have been observed to reduce the risk of certain infectious disease such as certain types of diarrhea and respiratory tract infection. This may be accompanied with a reduced need of antibiotics for secondary infections. Antibiotics tend to be effective against most common diseases, but increasingly resistance is being observed among pathogens. Probiotics are specifically selected to not contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance and not carry transferable antibiotic resistance. Concomitant use of probiotics with antibiotics has been observed to reduce the incidence, duration and/or severity of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. This contributes to better adherence to the antibiotic prescription and thereby reduces the evolution of resistance. To what extent probiotics directly reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance is still much under investigation; but maintaining a balanced microbiota during antibiotic use may certainly provide opportunities for reducing the spread of resistances. Key messages Probiotics may reduce the risk for certain infectious diseases and thereby reduce the need for antibiotics. Probiotics may reduce the risk for antibiotic-associated diarrhea Probiotics do not contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance and may even reduce it.

  6. Safety assessment of probiotics for human use

    PubMed Central

    Akkermans, Louis MA; Haller, Dirk; Hammerman, Cathy; Heimbach, James; Hörmannsperger, Gabriele; Huys, Geert; Levy, Dan D; Lutgendorff, Femke; Mack, David; Phothirath, Phoukham; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria; Vaughan, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    The safety of probiotics is tied to their intended use, which includes consideration of potential vulnerability of the consumer or patient, dose and duration of consumption, and both the manner and frequency of administration. Unique to probiotics is that they are alive when administered, and unlike other food or drug ingredients, possess the potential for infectivity or in situ toxin production. Since numerous types of microbes are used as probiotics, safety is also intricately tied to the nature of the specific microbe being used. The presence of transferable antibiotic resistance genes, which comprises a theoretical risk of transfer to a less innocuous member of the gut microbial community, must also be considered. Genetic stability of the probiotic over time, deleterious metabolic activities, and the potential for pathogenicity or toxicogenicity must be assessed depending on the characteristics of the genus and species of the microbe being used. Immunological effects must be considered, especially in certain vulnerable populations, including infants with undeveloped immune function. A few reports about negative probiotic effects have surfaced, the significance of which would be better understood with more complete understanding of the mechanisms of probiotic interaction with the host and colonizing microbes. Use of readily available and low cost genomic sequencing technologies to assure the absence of genes of concern is advisable for candidate probiotic strains. The field of probiotic safety is characterized by the scarcity of studies specifically designed to assess safety contrasted with the long history of safe use of many of these microbes in foods. PMID:21327023

  7. Probiotics: a comprehensive approach toward health foods.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monika; Devi, Mridula

    2014-01-01

    Food products containing probiotics and prebiotics are an important development in Health foods, which enhance health promoting microbial flora in the intestine. Probiotic refers to viable microorganism that promotes or support a beneficial balance of the autochthonous microbial population of the gastrointestinal tract. A number of genera of bacteria (and yeast) are used as probiotics, including Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces, and Enterococcus, but the main species believed to have probiotic characteristics are Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp., and L. casei. Probiotics can reduce diarrheal incidence, lactose intolerance, lower serum cholesterol, stimulate the immune system, control infections, act as antibiotics, suppress tumors, and protect against colon or bladder cancer by maintaining a healthy intestinal microflora balance. Lactic acid bacteria produce biopreservatives such as lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and bacteriocins that are used to retard both spoilage and the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Food, particularly dairy products are considered as an ideal vehicle for delivering probiotic bacteria to the human gastrointestinal tract. Cereals being rich source of prebiotics such as β-glucan and arabinoxylan, galacto-, and fructooligosaccharides are considered for development of probiotic foods. Good manufacturing practices must be applied in the manufacture of probiotic foods with quality assurance, and shelf-life conditions established.

  8. New Approaches for Bacteriotherapy: Prebiotics, New-Generation Probiotics, and Synbiotics

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rachna; DuPont, Herbert L.

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota has a significant role in human health and disease. Dysbiosis of the intestinal ecosystem contributes to the development of certain illnesses that can be reversed by favorable alterations by probiotics. The published literature was reviewed to identify scientific data showing a relationship between imbalance of gut bacteria and development of diseases that can be improved by biologic products. The medical conditions vary from infectious and antibiotic-associated diarrhea to obesity to chronic neurologic disorders. A number of controlled clinical trials have been performed to show important biologic effects in a number of these conditions through administration of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics. Controlled clinical trials have identified a limited number of prebiotics, probiotic strains, and synbiotics that favorably prevent or improve the symptoms of various disorders including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, infectious and antibiotic-associated diarrhea, diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants, and hepatic encephalopathy. Studies have shown that probiotics alter gut flora and lead to elaboration of flora metabolites that influence health through 1 of 3 general mechanisms: direct antimicrobial effects, enhancement of mucosal barrier integrity, and immune modulation. Restoring the balance of intestinal flora by introducing probiotics for disease prevention and treatment could be beneficial to human health. It is also clear that significant differences exist between different probiotic species. Metagenomics and metatranscriptomics together with bioinformatics have allowed us to study the cross-talk between the gut microbiota and the host, furthering insight into the next generation of biologic products. PMID:25922396

  9. Influence of dietary peas and organic acids and probiotic supplementation on performance and caecal microbial ecology of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, J; Højberg, O; Smulikowska, S; Engberg, R M; Mieczkowska, A

    2010-04-01

    1. The effect of dietary pea and addition of organic acid blend (OA) or probiotic (Pro) on performance and caecal microbial ecology of broiler chickens was studied. 2. A growth trial was conducted with 160 Ross 308 female broilers from d 1 to 35 of age. There were 8 treatment groups based on either control (S) or white pea (P). Both S and P were supplemented with OA (Galliacid - fumaric acid, calcium formate, calcium propionate and potassium sorbate coated with plant triglycerides, Vetagro) and or with Pro (LABYuc-Probio - lactic acid bacteria, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yucca schidigeri extract, Mifarmex GmbH). 3. Inclusion of peas in the diet increased feed intake and decreased gain:feed ratio in comparison to the control diet. Neither probiotic nor OA supplementations affected broiler performance. 4. The caecal microbiota was characterised in 37-d-old birds by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Total bacterial counts in caecal contents were slightly higher for birds fed the pea diets, but were not affected by OA or Pro supplements. 5. Neither pea nor Pro affected the Lactobacillus/Enterococcus and Streptococcus/Lactococcus counts in caecal contents, whereas OA supplementation slightly increased the Lactobacillus/Enterococcus counts. The composition of the Lactobacillus/Enterococcus population was altered by inclusion of peas as revealed by the T-RFLP patterns. 6. The DNA fingerprint further suggested that the caecal microbiota was dominated by the lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus alactolyticus. 7. In ileal contents, the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) was decreased only by Pro supplementation. In caecal contents, the SCFA concentration was higher for birds fed on the pea diets, and increased significantly with Pro supplementation 8. In conclusion, the results indicate that the use of pea and probiotics in broiler feed may stimulate the caecal commensal microbiota (growth

  10. Probiotics and prebiotics in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton-Miller, J

    2004-01-01

    Probiotics (usually lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) and prebiotics (non-digestible oligosaccharides) have been shown to be useful in preventing certain disease conditions as well as possibly promoting specific aspects of health. In the present review, the evidence from clinical trials for benefits from probiotics and prebiotics to elderly populations is presented and discussed, specifically in respect of three common conditions found in the elderly. Both probiotics and prebiotics may be helpful in malnutrition, particularly in lactose intolerance and calcium absorption, and in constipation. Probiotics have been shown clearly to boost immunity in the elderly, but the clinical significance of this remains to be clarified. These results are encouraging, and further large scale studies seem justified to establish the place of probiotic and prebiotic supplements in elderly subjects. PMID:15299153

  11. Probiotics as Antifungals in Mucosal Candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Victor H; Bandara, H M H N; Mayer, Marcia P A; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-05-01

    Candidais an opportunistic pathogen that causes mucosal and deep systemic candidiasis. The emergence of drug resistance and the side effects of currently available antifungals have restricted their use as long-term prophylactic agents for candidal infections. Given this scenario, probiotics have been suggested as a useful alternative for the management of candidiasis. We analyzed the available data on the efficacy of probiotics in candidal colonization of host surfaces. A number of well-controlled studies indicate that probiotics, particularly lactobacilli, suppressCandidagrowth and biofilm development in vitro.A few clinical trials have also shown the beneficial effects of probiotics in reducing oral, vaginal, and enteric colonization byCandida; alleviation of clinical signs and symptoms; and, in some cases, reducing the incidence of invasive fungal infection in critically ill patients. Probiotics may serve in the future as a worthy ally in the battle against chronic mucosal candidal infections.

  12. Probiotics, prebiotics and colorectal cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Ambalam, Padma; Raman, Maya; Purama, Ravi Kiran; Doble, Mukesh

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC), the third major cause of mortality among various cancer types in United States, has been increasing in developing countries due to varying diet and dietary habits and occupational hazards. Recent evidences showed that composition of gut microbiota could be associated with the development of CRC and other gut dysbiosis. Modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics and prebiotics, either alone or in combination could positively influence the cross-talk between immune system and microbiota, would be beneficial in preventing inflammation and CRC. In this review, role of probiotics and prebiotics in the prevention of CRC has been discussed. Various epidemiological and experimental studies, specifically gut microbiome research has effectively improved the understanding about the role of probiotics and microbial treatment as anticarcinogenic agents. A few human studies support the beneficial effect of probiotics and prebiotics; hence, comprehensive understanding is urgent to realize the clinical applications of probiotics and prebiotics in CRC prevention.

  13. Profiles and technological requirements of urogenital probiotics.

    PubMed

    Nader-Macías, María Elena Fátima; Juárez Tomás, María Silvina

    2015-09-15

    Probiotics, defined as live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host, are considered a valid and novel alternative for the prevention and treatment of female urogenital tract infections. Lactobacilli, the predominant microorganisms of the healthy human vaginal microbiome, can be included as active pharmaceutical ingredients in probiotics products. Several requirements must be considered or criteria fulfilled during the development of a probiotic product or formula for the female urogenital tract. This review deals with the main selection criteria for urogenital probiotic microorganisms: host specificity, potential beneficial properties, functional specifications, technological characteristics and clinical trials used to test their effect on certain physiological and pathological conditions. Further studies are required to complement the current knowledge and support the clinical applications of probiotics in the urogenital tract. This therapy will allow the restoration of the ecological equilibrium of the urogenital tract microbiome as well as the recovery of the sexual and reproductive health of women.

  14. Probiotics for oral health: myth or reality?

    PubMed

    Bonifait, Laetitia; Chandad, Fatiha; Grenier, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    For some decades now, bacteria known as probiotics have been added to various foods because of their beneficial effects for human health. The mechanism of action of probiotics is related to their ability to compete with pathogenic microorganisms for adhesion sites, to antagonize these pathogens or to modulate the host"s immune response. The potential application of probiotics for oral health has recently attracted the attention of several teams of researchers. Although only a few clinical studies have been conducted so far, the results to date suggest that probiotics could be useful in preventing and treating oral infections, including dental caries, periodontal disease and halitosis. This article summarizes the currently available data on the potential benefits of probiotics for oral health.

  15. Probiotic bacteria induce a 'glow of health'.

    PubMed

    Levkovich, Tatiana; Poutahidis, Theofilos; Smillie, Christopher; Varian, Bernard J; Ibrahim, Yassin M; Lakritz, Jessica R; Alm, Eric J; Erdman, Susan E

    2013-01-01

    Radiant skin and hair are universally recognized as indications of good health. However, this 'glow of health' display remains poorly understood. We found that feeding of probiotic bacteria to aged mice induced integumentary changes mimicking peak health and reproductive fitness characteristic of much younger animals. Eating probiotic yogurt triggered epithelial follicular anagen-phase shift with sebocytogenesis resulting in thick lustrous fur due to a bacteria-triggered interleukin-10-dependent mechanism. Aged male animals eating probiotics exhibited increased subcuticular folliculogenesis, when compared with matched controls, yielding luxuriant fur only in probiotic-fed subjects. Female animals displayed probiotic-induced hyperacidity coinciding with shinier hair, a feature that also aligns with fertility in human females. Together these data provide insights into mammalian evolution and novel strategies for integumentary health.

  16. Mucosal immunity and probiotics in fish.

    PubMed

    Lazado, Carlo C; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A

    2014-07-01

    Teleost mucosal immunity has become the subject of unprecedented research studies in recent years because of its diversity and defining characteristics. Its immune repertoire is governed by the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) which are divided into gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), skin-associated lymphoid tissues (SALT), and gill-associated lymphoid tissues (GIALT). The direct contact with its immediate environment makes the mucosal surfaces of fish susceptible to a wide variety of pathogens. The inherent immunocompetent cells and factors in the mucosal surfaces together with the commensal microbiota have pivotal role against pathogens. Immunomodulation is a popular prophylactic strategy in teleost and probiotics possess this beneficial feature. Most of the studies on the immunomodulatory properties of probiotics in fish mainly discussed their impacts on systemic immunity. In contrast, few of these studies discussed the immunomodulatory features of probiotics in mucosal surfaces and are concentrated on the influences in the gut. Significant attention should be devoted in understanding the relationship of mucosal immunity and probiotics as the present knowledge is limited and are mostly based on extrapolations of studies in humans and terrestrial vertebrates. In the course of the advancement of mucosal immunity and probiotics, new perspectives in probiotics research, e.g., probiogenomics have emerged. This review affirms the relevance of probiotics in the mucosal immunity of fish by revisiting and bridging the current knowledge on teleost mucosal immunity, mucosal microbiota and immunomodulation of mucosal surfaces by probiotics. Expanding the knowledge of immunomodulatory properties of probiotics especially on mucosal immunity is essential in advancing the use of probiotics as a sustainable and viable strategy for successful fish husbandry.

  17. Sources, isolation, characterisation and evaluation of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Luis; Bermudez-Brito, Miriam; Plaza-Diaz, Julio; Muñoz-Quezada, Sergio; Gil, Angel

    2013-01-01

    According to the FAO and the WHO, probiotics are 'live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host'. The strains most frequently used as probiotics include lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria, which are isolated from traditional fermented products and the gut, faeces and breast milk of human subjects. The identification of microorganisms is the first step in the selection of potential probiotics. The present techniques, including genetic fingerprinting, gene sequencing, oligonucleotide probes and specific primer selection, discriminate closely related bacteria with varying degrees of success. Additional molecular methods, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis/temperature gradient gel electrophoresis and fluorescence in situ hybridisation, are employed to identify and characterise probiotics. The ability to examine fully sequenced genomes has accelerated the application of genetic approaches to the elucidation of the functional roles of probiotics. One of the best-demonstrated clinical benefits of probiotics is the prevention and treatment of acute and antibiotic-associated diarrhoea;however, there is mounting evidence for a potential role for probiotics in the treatment of allergies and intestinal, liver and metabolic diseases. There are various mechanisms by which probiotics exert their beneficial effects: regulation of intestinal permeability, normalisation of host intestinal microbiota, improvement of gut immune barrier function, and adjustment between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The number of studies carried out to test the effects of probiotics in vitro and in animals is enormous. However, the most reliable method of assessing the therapeutic benefits of any probiotic strain is the use of randomised, placebo-controlled trials, which are reviewed in this article [corrected].

  18. Recent Advances in Screening of Anti-Campylobacter Activity in Probiotics for Use in Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Cyr, Manuel J.; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Messaoudi, Soumaya; Chemaly, Marianne; Cappelier, Jean-Michel; Dousset, Xavier; Haddad, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Campylobacter species involved in this infection usually include the thermotolerant species Campylobacter jejuni. The major reservoir for C. jejuni leading to human infections is commercial broiler chickens. Poultry flocks are frequently colonized by C. jejuni without any apparent symptoms. Risk assessment analyses have identified the handling and consumption of poultry meat as one of the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis, so elimination of Campylobacter in the poultry reservoir is a crucial step in the control of this foodborne infection. To date, the use of probiotics has demonstrated promising results to reduce Campylobacter colonization. This review provides recent insights into methods used for probiotic screening to reduce the prevalence and colonization of Campylobacter at the farm level. Different eukaryotic epithelial cell lines are employed to screen probiotics with an anti-Campylobacter activity and yield useful information about the inhibition mechanism involved. These in vitro virulence models involve only human intestinal or cervical cell lines whereas the use of avian cell lines could be a preliminary step to investigate mechanisms of C. jejuni colonization in poultry in the presence of probiotics. In addition, in vivo trials to evaluate the effect of probiotics on Campylobacter colonization are conducted, taking into account the complexity introduced by the host, the feed, and the microbiota. However, the heterogeneity of the protocols used and the short time duration of the experiments lead to results that are difficult to compare and draw conclusions at the slaughter-age of broilers. Nevertheless, the combined approach using complementary in vitro and in vivo tools (cell cultures and animal experiments) leads to a better characterization of probiotic strains and could be employed to assess reduced Campylobacter spp. colonization in chickens if some

  19. The viability and intestinal epithelial cell adhesion of probiotic strain combination--in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Piątek, Jacek; Gibas-Dorna, Magdalena; Olejnik, Anna; Krauss, Hanna; Wierzbicki, Krzysztof; Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Głowacki, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    To be effective, probiotic bacteria must exhibit a number of functional characteristics, including the resistance to gastric acidity and the ability to adhere to the intestinal epithelium. In this study, we examined in vitro the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) combination after exposure to low pH, and the adhesion of LAB to Caco-2 cells during coincubation of 9 bacterial strains. To test bacterial viability, 6 commercially available products were incubated in 0.1 N HCl at pH 1.2 for 60 min. The greatest growth inhibition was noted for the non-capsulated product containing the Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain (log reduction of CFU = 6.4), and the best survival observed for the product containing 9 bacterial strains, equipped with a modern capsule made according to the Multi-Resistant Encapsulation technology (log reduction of CFU = 0.1). In the adhesion experiment, the combination of 9 bacterial strains was added to 17-day-old Caco-2 cell culture for 90 min. The greatest efficiency of adhesion was observed for the inoculum containing 5.5x10(8) CFU/mL/9.6 cm(2) of Caco-2 and the dose of probiotic bacteria of 190 cells per one Caco-2 cell. As a result, approximately 157 bacterial cells adhered to one Caco-2 cell. The results indicate that the combination of 9 bacterial strains in the examined product is characterized as highly adhesive.

  20. Ex vivo proteomics of Campylobacter jejuni 81-176 reveal that FabG affects fatty acid composition to alter bacterial growth fitness in the chicken gut.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Hiroshi; Kawamoto, Keiko; Murakami, Satoshi; Tachibana, Masato; Kurazono, Hisao; Makino, Sou-Ichi; Yamamoto, Shigeki; Igimi, Shizunobu

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of foodborne gastrointestinal illness worldwide. Here we performed ex vivo proteomic analysis of C. jejuni 81-176 in chicken, a main reservoir for human infection. At 0, 1 and 4 weeks post-infection (p.i.) with the GFP-expressing 81-176 strain, inocula were recovered from chicken ceca by cell sorting using flow cytometry. iTRAQ-coupled 2D-LC-MS/MS analyses that detected 55 C. jejuni proteins, among which either 3 (FabG, HydB, CJJ81176_0876) or 7 (MscS, CetB, FlhF, PurH, PglJ, LpxC, Icd) proteins exhibited >1.4-fold-increased expression at 1 or 4 week(s) p.i. compared with those at 0 weeks p.i., respectively. Deletion of the fabG gene clearly decreased the proportion of bacterial unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and chicken colonization. The UFA proportion of the parental strain was not altered when grown at 42 °C. These findings suggest that FabG might play a pivotal role in UFA production, linked to bacterial adaptation in the poultry host. To our knowledge, this is the first example of ex vivo C. jejuni proteomics, in which fatty acid metabolism might affect bacterial adaptation to the chicken host.

  1. Effects of altered groundwater chemistry upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial attachment during transport within an organically contaminated sandy aquifer.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ronald W; Metge, David W; Barber, L B; Aiken, George R

    2010-02-01

    The effects of a dilute (ionic strength=5x10(-3)M) plume of treated sewage, with elevated levels (3.9 mg/L) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial transport through an iron-laden, quartz sand aquifer (Cape Cod, MA) were evaluated using sets of replicate, static minicolumns. Compared with uncontaminated groundwater, the plume chemistry diminished bacterial attachment under mildly acidic (pH 5.0-6.5) in-situ conditions, in spite of the 5-fold increase in ionic strength and substantively enhanced attachment under more alkaline conditions. The effects of the hydrophobic neutral and total fractions of the plume DOC; modest concentrations of fulvic and humic acids (1.5 mg/L); linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) (25 mg/L); Imbentin (200 microg/L), a model nonionic surfactant; sulfate (28 mg/L); and calcium (20 mg/L) varied sharply in response to relatively small changes in pH, although the plume constituents collectively decreased the pH-dependency of bacterial attachment. LAS and other hydrophobic neutrals (collectively representing only approximately 3% of the plume DOC) had a disproportionately large effect upon bacterial attachment, as did the elevated concentrations of sulfate within the plume. The findings further suggest that the roles of organic plume constituents in transport or bacteria through acidic aquifer sediments can be very different than would be predicted from column studies performed at circumneutral pH and that the inorganic constituents within the plume cannot be ignored.

  2. Changes in Metabolically Active Bacterial Community during Rumen Development, and Their Alteration by Rhubarb Root Powder Revealed by 16S rRNA Amplicon Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zuo; Elekwachi, Chijioke; Jiao, Jinzhen; Wang, Min; Tang, Shaoxun; Zhou, Chuanshe; Tan, Zhiliang; Forster, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this present study was to explore the initial establishment of metabolically active bacteria and subsequent evolution in four fractions: rumen solid-phase (RS), liquid-phase (RL), protozoa-associated (RP), and epithelium-associated (RE) through early weaning and supplementing rhubarb root powder in 7 different age groups (1, 10, 20, 38, 41, 50, and 60 d) during rumen development. Results of the 16S rRNA sequencing based on RNA isolated from the four fractions revealed that the potentially active bacterial microbiota in four fractions were dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes regardless of different ages. An age-dependent increment of Chao 1 richness was observed in the fractions of RL and RE. The principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) indicated that samples in four fractions all clustered based on different age groups, and the structure of the bacterial community in RE was distinct from those in other three fractions. The abundances of Proteobacteria decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with age, while increases in the abundances of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were noted. At the genus level, the abundance of the predominant genus Mannheimia in the Proteobacteria phylum decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after 1 d, while the genera Quinella, Prevotella, Fretibacterium, Ruminococcus, Lachnospiraceae NK3A20 group, and Atopobium underwent different manners of increases and dominated the bacterial microbiota across four fractions. Variations of the distributions of some specific bacterial genera across fractions were observed, and supplementation of rhubarb affected the relative abundance of various genera of bacteria. PMID:28223972

  3. Effects of altered groundwater chemistry upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial attachment during transport within an organically contaminated sandy aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, R.W.; Metge, D.W.; Barber, L.B.; Aiken, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of a dilute (ionic strength = 5 ?? 10-3 M) plume of treated sewage, with elevated levels (3.9 mg/L) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial transport through an iron-laden, quartz sand aquifer (Cape Cod, MA) were evaluated using sets of replicate, static minicolumns. Compared with uncontaminated groundwater, the plume chemistry diminished bacterial attachment under mildly acidic (pH 5.0-6.5) in-situ conditions, in spite of the 5-fold increase in ionic strength and substantively enhanced attachment under more alkaline conditions. The effects of the hydrophobic neutral and total fractions of the plume DOC; modest concentrations of fulvic and humic acids (1.5 mg/L); linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) (25 mg/L); Imbentin (200 ??g/L), a model nonionic surfactant; sulfate (28 mg/L); and calcium (20 mg/L) varied sharply in response to relatively small changes in pH, although the plume constituents collectively decreased the pH-dependency of bacterial attachment. LAS and other hydrophobic neutrals (collectively representing only ???3% of the plume DOC) had a disproportionately large effect upon bacterial attachment, as did the elevated concentrations of sulfate within the plume. The findings further suggest that the roles of organic plume constituents in transport or bacteria through acidic aquifer sediments can be very different than would be predicted from column studies performed at circumneutral pH and that the inorganic constituents within the plume cannot be ignored.

  4. A prebiotic matrix for encapsulation of probiotics: physicochemical and microbiological study.

    PubMed

    Atia, Abdelbasset; Gomaa, Ahmed; Fliss, Ismail; Beyssac, Eric; Garrait, Ghislain; Subirade, Muriel

    2016-02-01

    This work aims to develop an encapsulated oral-synbiotic supplement by studying the effect of adding inulin in alginate beads and observing its ability to protect three probiotic strains: Pediocucus acidilactici, Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus salivarius. Beads of different inulin concentrations 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% (w/v) in 2% (w/v) alginate solution were prepared by the extrusion/ionotropic gelation method. Polymer distribution within beads was characterised using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Interactions between alginate and inulin were monitored by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). Effect of encapsulation on viability, antimicrobial ability, acid tolerance and bile tolerance of probiotic strains were investigated. Antimicrobial and probiotic properties of bacterial strains were not affected by encapsulation. Bacterial protection against acidity was increased by adding inulin. Beads with 5% w/v inulin were the most effective in bacterial protection against bile-salts. To our knowledge, this work is the first to use such high concentrations of inulin.

  5. Dietary supplementation with probiotics during late pregnancy: outcome on vaginal microbiota and cytokine secretion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The vaginal microbiota of healthy women consists of a wide variety of anaerobic and aerobic bacterial genera and species dominated by the genus Lactobacillus. The activity of lactobacilli helps to maintain the natural healthy balance of the vaginal microbiota. This role is particularly important during pregnancy because vaginal dismicrobism is one of the most important mechanisms for preterm birth and perinatal complications. In the present study, we characterized the impact of a dietary supplementation with the probiotic VSL#3, a mixture of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus strains, on the vaginal microbiota and immunological profiles of healthy women during late pregnancy. Results An association between the oral intake of the probiotic VSL#3 and changes in the composition of the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women was revealed by PCR-DGGE population profiling. Despite no significant changes were found in the amounts of the principal vaginal bacterial populations in women administered with VSL#3, qPCR results suggested a potential role of the probiotic product in counteracting the decrease of Bifidobacterium and the increase of Atopobium, that occurred in control women during late pregnancy. The modulation of the vaginal microbiota was associated with significant changes in some vaginal cytokines. In particular, the decrease of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 was observed only in control women but not in women supplemented with VSL#3. In addition, the probiotic consumption induced the decrease of the pro-inflammatory chemokine Eotaxin, suggesting a potential anti-inflammatory effect on the vaginal immunity. Conclusion Dietary supplementation with the probiotic VSL#3 during the last trimester of pregnancy was associated to a modulation of the vaginal microbiota and cytokine secretion, with potential implications in preventing preterm birth. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01367470 PMID:23078375

  6. Clinical Use of Probiotics in Pediatric Allergy (cuppa): A World Allergy Organization Position Paper

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Probiotic administration has been proposed for the prevention and treatment of specific allergic manifestations such as eczema, rhinitis, gastrointestinal allergy, food allergy, and asthma. However, published statements and scientific opinions disagree about the clinical usefulness. Objective A World Allergy Organization Special Committee on Food Allergy and Nutrition review of the evidence regarding the use of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of allergy. Methods A qualitative and narrative review of the literature on probiotic treatment of allergic disease was carried out to address the diversity and variable quality of relevant studies. This variability precluded systematization, and an expert panel group discussion method was used to evaluate the literature. In the absence of systematic reviews of treatment, meta-analyses of prevention studies were used to provide data in support of probiotic applications. Results Despite the plethora of literature, probiotic research is still in its infancy. There is a need for basic microbiology research on the resident human microbiota. Mechanistic studies from biology, immunology, and genetics are needed before we can claim to harness the potential of immune modulatory effects of microbiota. Meanwhile, clinicians must take a step back and try to link disease state with alterations of the microbiota through well-controlled long-term studies to identify clinical indications. Conclusions Probiotics do not have an established role in the prevention or treatment of allergy. No single probiotic supplement or class of supplements has been demonstrated to efficiently influence the course of any allergic manifestation or long-term disease or to be sufficient to do so. Further epidemiologic, immunologic, microbiologic, genetic, and clinical studies are necessary to determine whether probiotic supplements will be useful in preventing allergy. Until then, supplementation with probiotics remains empirical in allergy

  7. Probiotics for human health –new innovations and emerging trends

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The role of the gut microbiome in human health and disease with a particular emphasis on therapeutic use of probiotics under specific medical conditions was mainly highlighted in 1st Annual conference of Probiotic Association of India (PAi) and International Symposium on “Probiotics for Human Health - New Innovations and Emerging Trends” held on 27th-28th August, 2012 at New Delhi, India. There is increasing recognition of the fact that dysbiosis or alteration of this gut microbiome may be implicated in gastro-intestinal disorders including diarrheal diseases, ulcerative colitis, inflammatory bowel diseases, life style diseases viz. Diabetes Mellitus-2 and obesity etc. This report summarizes the proceedings of the conference and the symposium comprehensively. Although, research on probiotics has been continuing for the past few decades, the subject has been currently the major focus of attention across the world due to recent advances and new developments in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and emergence of new generation of high through put sequencing technologies that have immensely helped in understanding the probiotic functionality and mode of action from nutritional and health perspectives. There is now sufficient evidence backed up with good quality scientific clinical data to suggest that probiotic interventions could indeed be effective in various types of diarrheal diseases, other chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders like pouchitis, necrotizing entero-colitis, allergic responses and lactose intolerance etc. This report makes a modest attempt to give all the stake holders involved in development of probiotic based functional/health foods an overview of the current status of probiotics research at the Global and National level. The most crucial issues that emerged from the lead talks delivered by the eminent speakers from India and abroad were the major focus of discussions in different plenary and technical sessions. By

  8. Lactobacillus casei as a probiotic in malnourished Giardia lamblia-infected mice: a biochemical and histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Geeta; Sidhu, Ramandeep Kaur

    2011-02-01

    The study describes the in vivo activity of Lactobacillus casei in malnourished Giardia lamblia-infected BALB/c mice. By experimentation, it was found that daily administration of the probiotic 7 days before inoculation with Giardia trophozoites in malnourished mice efficiently reduced both the severity and duration of giardiasis. More specifically, excretion of Giardia cysts and trophozoites counts were reduced, while faecal lactobacilli counts increased significantly in probiotic-fed malnourished mice, compared with control mice. Interestingly, it was also observed that oral feeding of the probiotic to malnourished mice abrogated all the anthropometric and biochemical anomalies. Histologically, morphological and cellular alteration of microvillus membrane integrity revealed that probiotic administration ameliorated the mucosal damage in malnourished, probiotic-inoculated, Giardia-infected mice compared with the severe microvillus atrophy, œdematous and vacuolated epithelial cells, and ileitis in malnourished Giardia-infected mice. The results clearly show the antigiardial effect of the probiotic in vivo by modulating the gut cells to inhibit the colonization and multiplication of Giardia trophozoites, thus reducing the severity and duration of murine giardiasis.

  9. Any role for probiotics in the therapy or prevention of autoimmune diseases? Up-to-date review.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Öner

    2013-08-06

    Probiotic use as capable preventive and therapeutic strategy in different diseases varying from allergic to autoimmune disease (AD) has been recently reported. Three interacting factors including an aberrant intestinal microbiota, a "leaky" intestinal mucosal barrier, and altered intestinal immune responsiveness have been suggested to be able to create a "perfect environment" for AD development. Regulation of intestinal microflora composition by probiotics offers the possibility to influence the development of mucosal/systemic immunity besides ADs. Moreover, with various strains of probiotics, development and/or stimulation of T helper type 2 (Th2)-mediated immune responses causing exacerbation of atopic disease have been described. Similarly, certain probiotics are known to stimulate Th1 immunity, which has been suggested as one of the mechanisms by which they can suppress Th2-mediated allergic diseases. Consequently, this presumed that excessive immunostimulation might aggravate or induce Th1-mediated immune responses and diseases such as type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and it might cause an additional safety issue. Although there is a large amount of conflicting data on the preventive/therapeutic effects of probiotics in ADs, there is fairly promising evidence to recommend as well. Thus, probiotic use cannot be generally recommended for primary prevention and therapy of ADs for now.

  10. Probiotics in obstetrics and gynaecology.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    Despite the great advances in modern medicine, our understanding of the most basic function of our complete genetic makeup is extremely poor. Our complete genetic make up is complemented by 100 trillion cells living within or on our body and is called the microbiome. Manipulation of the microbiome is in the embryological stages of investigation but promises great hope in targeting both pregnancy specific and general medical / gynaecological conditions. This review presents an undertanding of the microbiome manipulation with probiotics in women's health in 2015.

  11. Lactic acid bacteria as probiotics.

    PubMed

    Ljungh, Asa; Wadström, Torkel

    2006-09-01

    A number of Lactobacillus species, Bifidobacterium sp, Saccharomyces boulardii, and some other microbes have been proposed as and are used as probiotic strains, i.e. live microorganisms as food supplement in order to benefit health. The health claims range from rather vague as regulation of bowel activity and increasing of well-being to more specific, such as exerting antagonistic effect on the gastroenteric pathogens Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori and rotavirus, neutralising food mutagens produced in colon, shifting the immune response towards a Th2 response, and thereby alleviating allergic reactions, and lowering serum cholesterol (Tannock, 2002). Unfortunately, most publications are case reports, uncontrolled studies in humans, or reports of animal or in vitro studies. Whether or not the probiotic strains employed shall be of human origin is a matter of debate but this is not a matter of concern, as long as the strains can be shown to survive the transport in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract and to colonise the human large intestine. This includes survival in the stressful environment of the stomach - acidic pH and bile - with induction of new genes encoding a number of stress proteins. Since the availability of antioxidants decreases rostrally in the GI tract production of antioxidants by colonic bacteria provides a beneficial effect in scavenging free radicals. LAB strains commonly produce antimicrobial substance(s) with activity against the homologous strain, but LAB strains also often produce microbicidal substances with effect against gastric and intestinal pathogens and other microbes, or compete for cell surface and mucin binding sites. This could be the mechanism behind reports that some probiotic strains inhibit or decrease translocation of bacteria from the gut to the liver. A protective effect against cancer development can be ascribed to binding of mutagens by intestinal bacteria, reduction of the enzymes beta

  12. Gut microbiota modulation: probiotics, antibiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation?

    PubMed

    Cammarota, Giovanni; Ianiro, Gianluca; Bibbò, Stefano; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Gut microbiota is known to have a relevant role in our health, and is also related to both gastrointestinal and extradigestive diseases. Therefore, restoring the alteration of gut microbiota represents an outstanding clinical target for the treatment of gut microbiota-related diseases. The modulation of gut microbiota is perhaps an ancestral, innate concept for human beings. At this time, the restoration of gut microbiota impairment is a well-established concept in mainstream medicine, and several therapeutic approaches have been developed in this regard. Antibiotics, prebiotics and probiotics are the best known and commercially available options to overcome gastrointestinal dysbiosis. Fecal microbiota transplantation is an old procedure that has recently become popular again. It has shown a clear effectiveness in the treatment of C. difficile infection, and now represents a cutting-edge option for the restoration of gut microbiota. Nevertheless, such weapons should be used with caution. Antibiotics can indeed harm and alter gut microbiota composition. Probiotics, instead, are not at all the same thing, and thinking in terms of different strains is probably the only way to improve clinical outcomes. Moreover, fecal microbiota transplantation has shown promising results, but stronger proofs are needed. Considerable efforts are needed to increase our knowledge in the field of gut microbiota, especially with regard to the future use in its modulation for therapeutic purposes.

  13. Immune system stimulation by probiotic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Rabia; Shah, Nagendra P

    2014-01-01

    Probiotic organisms are claimed to offer several functional properties including stimulation of immune system. This review is presented to provide detailed informations about how probiotics stimulate our immune system. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12, Lactobacillus johnsonii La1, Bifidobacterium lactis DR10, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii are the most investigated probiotic cultures for their immunomodulation properties. Probiotics can enhance nonspecific cellular immune response characterized by activation of macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in strain-specific and dose-dependent manner. Mixture and type (gram-positive and gram-negative) of probiotic organisms may induce different cytokine responses. Supplementation of probiotic organisms in infancy could help prevent immune-mediated diseases in childhood, whereas their intervention in pregnancy could affect fetal immune parameters, such as cord blood interferon (IFN)-γ levels, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 levels, and breast milk immunoglobulin (Ig)A. Probiotics that can be delivered via fermented milk or yogurt could improve the gut mucosal immune system by increasing the number of IgA(+) cells and cytokine-producing cells in the effector site of the intestine.

  14. Probiotics: health benefits in the mouth.

    PubMed

    Stamatova, Iva; Meurman, Jukka H

    2009-12-01

    Probiotics or health-beneficial bacteria have only recently been introduced in dentistry and oral medicine after years of successful use in mainly gastro-intestinal disorders. The concept of bacteriotherapy and use of health-beneficial micro-organisms to heal diseases or support immune function was first introduced in the beginning of the 20th century. Later the concept lead to the development of modem dairy industry and even today most probiotic strains are lactobacilli or bifidobacteria used in milk fermentation. The mechanisms of probiotic action are mainly unknown but the inter-microbial species interactions are supposed to play a key role in this together with their immuno-stimulatory effects. The introduction of probiotic bacteria in the mouth calls for ascertainment of their particular safety. Since acid production from sugar is detrimental to teeth, care must be taken not to select strains with high fermentation capacity. The first randomized controlled trials have nevertheless shown that probiotics may control dental caries in children due to their inhibitory action against cariogenic streptococci. Less evidence exists on their role in periodontal disease or oral yeast infections. Furthermore the best vehicles for oral probiotic applications need to be assessed. So far mainly dairy products have been investigated but other means such as probiotics in chewing gums or lozenges have also been studied. From the clinical practitioner's point of view direct recommendations for the use of probiotics cannot yet be given. However, scientific evidence so far indicates that probiotic therapy may be a reality also in dentistry and oral medicine in the future.

  15. Functionality of probiotics - potential for product development.

    PubMed

    Dekker, James; Collett, Michael; Prasad, Jaya; Gopal, Pramod

    2007-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly accepted by consumers that live lactic acid bacteria do exert health benefits when eaten. In addition, it is also becoming recognised that not all probiotic bacteria are equal. It is now no longer just a question of providing sufficient numbers of viable bacteria in a product; industry must also provide proof of efficacy for each strain. In the early 1990s, Fonterra embarked on a programme to develop proprietary probiotic strains, and as a result, commercialised two strains, Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001. Over the past decade, Fonterra has developed a significant body of peerreviewed published reports around these strains, including studies showing safety in animal and human trials, protection against pathogens such as Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7, modulation of human and animal immune markers at realistic dose rates, and efficacy in human clinical trials. Based on this work, HN019 and HN001 have been applied to several functional foods both by Fonterra (under the DR10 and DR20 brands, respectively) and by third parties (e.g. under the HOWARU brand by Danisco). While the 'gold standard' of proof of efficacy is a phase III clinical trial, ethical considerations as well as expense preclude the use of clinical trials as screening tools for probiotics. Therefore, biomarkers have to be employed to identify strains with probiotic utility, and to define the different positive health benefits of existing probiotic strains. However, as the mechanisms by which most probiotic bacteria exert their health benefits remain unclear, the question of which biomarkers accurately reflect efficacy in vivo remains unresolved. With recent technological advances, and the shift toward probiotics targeted to specific conditions, researchers are beginning to tease out how probiotic bacteria work, and it is this knowledge that will inform biomarker development and improve the ability to offer the market safe

  16. Seagrass (Zostera marina) Colonization Promotes the Accumulation of Diazotrophic Bacteria and Alters the Relative Abundances of Specific Bacterial Lineages Involved in Benthic Carbon and Sulfur Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Feifei; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Qianqian; Liu, Fanghua

    2015-01-01

    Seagrass colonization changes the chemistry and biogeochemical cycles mediated by microbes in coastal sediments. In this study, we molecularly characterized the diazotrophic assemblages and entire bacterial community in surface sediments of a Zostera marina-colonized coastal lagoon in northern China. Higher nitrogenase gene (nifH) copy numbers were detected in the sediments from the vegetated region than in the sediments from the unvegetated region nearby. The nifH phylotypes detected were mostly affiliated with the Geobacteraceae, Desulfobulbus, Desulfocapsa, and Pseudomonas. Redundancy analysis based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that the distribution of nifH genotypes was mostly shaped by the ratio of total organic carbon to total organic nitrogen, the concentration of cadmium in the sediments, and the pH of the overlying water. High-throughput sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of bacterial 16S rRNA genes also indicated the presence of Geobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae phylotypes in these samples. A comparison of these results with those of previous studies suggests the prevalence and predominance of iron(III)-reducing Geobacteraceae and sulfate-reducing Desulfobulbaceae diazotrophs in coastal sedimentary environments. Although the entire bacterial community structure was not significantly different between these two niches, Desulfococcus (Deltaproteobacteria) and Anaerolineae (Chloroflexi) presented with much higher proportions in the vegetated sediments, and Flavobacteriaceae (Bacteroidetes) occurred more frequently in the bare sediments. These data suggest that the high bioavailability of organic matter (indicated by relatively lower carbon-to-nitrogen ratios) and the less-reducing anaerobic condition in vegetated sediments may favor Desulfococcus and Anaerolineae lineages, which are potentially important populations in benthic carbon and sulfur cycling in the highly productive seagrass ecosystem. PMID:26209674

  17. Seagrass (Zostera marina) Colonization Promotes the Accumulation of Diazotrophic Bacteria and Alters the Relative Abundances of Specific Bacterial Lineages Involved in Benthic Carbon and Sulfur Cycling.

    PubMed

    Sun, Feifei; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Qianqian; Liu, Fanghua; Zhang, Jianping; Gong, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Seagrass colonization changes the chemistry and biogeochemical cycles mediated by microbes in coastal sediments. In this study, we molecularly characterized the diazotrophic assemblages and entire bacterial community in surface sediments of a Zostera marina-colonized coastal lagoon in northern China. Higher nitrogenase gene (nifH) copy numbers were detected in the sediments from the vegetated region than in the sediments from the unvegetated region nearby. The nifH phylotypes detected were mostly affiliated with the Geobacteraceae, Desulfobulbus, Desulfocapsa, and Pseudomonas. Redundancy analysis based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that the distribution of nifH genotypes was mostly shaped by the ratio of total organic carbon to total organic nitrogen, the concentration of cadmium in the sediments, and the pH of the overlying water. High-throughput sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of bacterial 16S rRNA genes also indicated the presence of Geobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae phylotypes in these samples. A comparison of these results with those of previous studies suggests the prevalence and predominance of iron(III)-reducing Geobacteraceae and sulfate-reducing Desulfobulbaceae diazotrophs in coastal sedimentary environments. Although the entire bacterial community structure was not significantly different between these two niches, Desulfococcus (Deltaproteobacteria) and Anaerolineae (Chloroflexi) presented with much higher proportions in the vegetated sediments, and Flavobacteriaceae (Bacteroidetes) occurred more frequently in the bare sediments. These data suggest that the high bioavailability of organic matter (indicated by relatively lower carbon-to-nitrogen ratios) and the less-reducing anaerobic condition in vegetated sediments may favor Desulfococcus and Anaerolineae lineages, which are potentially important populations in benthic carbon and sulfur cycling in the highly productive seagrass ecosystem.

  18. Factors associated with hyperdynamic or hypodynamic circulation and role of platelet-activating factor in hemodynamic alterations in bacterial peritonitis in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Novo, C; Ais, G; López-Farré, A; Romeo, J M; Pérez-Barriocanal, F; López-Novoa, J M

    1995-12-01

    Male Wistar rats injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 10(9) U Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 developed acute bacterial peritonitis. Hemodynamic studies, with microspheres labeled with 103Ru 57Co, and 113Sn, were performed before, 30 min after bacterial injection, and 30 min after administration of either the platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonist BN-52021 (5 mg/kg body weight) or isotonic saline. A blood sample of 0.3 ml was obtained for bacterial culture and endotoxemia measurements. Plasma PAF levels were measured in a different group of 10 control rats and 20 animals with experimental peritonitis. One group of rats injected with E. coli (n = 13) displayed hyperdynamic circulation, with an increase in cardiac output (CO) from 15.1 +/- 1.2 to 19.4 +/- 1.1 ml/min/100 g body weight and a decrease in total peripheral resistance (TPR) from 19.5 +/- 2.4 to 14.9 +/- 1.1 dynes.s.cm-5 10(-4). Furthermore, these rats showed high endotoxin blood concentrations and low hemoculture levels. The remaining 7 peritonitic rats showed a significant decrease in CO from 16.3 +/- 1.6 to 12.7 +/- 1.2 ml/min/100 g body weight and an increase in TPR from 17.3 +/- 1.8 to 22.6 +/- 2.8 dynes.s.cm-5 10(-4). In addition, these rats showed low endotoxin blood concentrations and high hemoculture levels. Endotoxin blood concentrations were positively correlated with the change in CO (r = 0.87, p < 0.05), and cell hemocultures were positively correlated with CO (r = 0.89, p < 0.05). Rats with high endotoxin blood levels showed higher PAF plasma levels than control rats or peritonitic rats with low endotoxin blood levels. When peritonitic rats were injected with the specific PAF-receptor blocker BN-52021 (5 mg/kg body weight) as a bolus, CO and TPR returned to baseline values in both groups of animals. These data suggest that the hemodynamic changes induced by bacterial peritonitis depend on endotoxemia and bacteremia in opposite ways. In addition, PAF appears to be involved in both the

  19. Probiotic formulations and applications, the current probiotics market, and changes in the marketplace: a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Saxelin, Maija

    2008-02-01

    Europe is a multicultural continent where the consumption of fermented milks has traditionally been high in several countries. Thus, it is no wonder that the market for fermented dairy products with probiotic bacteria has been successful. The market for food applications of probiotics is clearly larger than that for probiotics sold in capsules, sachets, and other pharmaceutical forms. Yogurt-type drinks are the fastest-growing product category, but the diversity of probiotic food applications is not limited to milk-based products. Probiotic fruit juices, berry soups, and soy- and cereal-based fermented products are also sold. Some probiotic strains that are successful in Europe are marketed globally, but there is also a variety of local probiotic strains that are key players in their limited markets. The health messages of probiotic products have focused mainly on general well-being and support of gastrointestinal microbiota. However, because of newly accepted regulation from the European Union regarding health claims, such claims will be evaluated officially, which may substantially change their content. However, more-specific product claims may also appear on the market. This article describes trends and phenomena in mainly the food sector, which covers the most-successful probiotic applications, but food supplements are also discussed.

  20. Bacteriocin production: a relatively unharnessed probiotic trait?

    PubMed Central

    Hegarty, James W.; Guinane, Caitriona M.; Ross, R. Paul; Hill, Colin; Cotter, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are “live microorganisms which, when consumed in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host”. A number of attributes are highly sought after among these microorganisms, including immunomodulation, epithelial barrier maintenance, competitive exclusion, production of short-chain fatty acids, and bile salt metabolism. Bacteriocin production is also generally regarded as a probiotic trait, but it can be argued that, in contrast to other traits, it is often considered a feature that is desirable, rather than a key probiotic trait. As such, the true potential of these antimicrobials has yet to be realised. PMID:27853525

  1. Effects of dietary arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) and endogenous probiotics on the growth performance, non-specific immunity and gut microbiota of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    PubMed

    Geraylou, Zahra; Souffreau, Caroline; Rurangwa, Eugene; De Meester, Luc; Courtin, Christophe M; Delcour, Jan A; Buyse, Johan; Ollevier, Frans

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effects of administration of putative endogenous probiotics Lactococcus lactis spp. lactis or Bacillus circulans, alone and in combination with arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS), a new class of candidate prebiotics, in juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). Eight experimental diets were tested: basal diet (Diet 1), basal diet supplemented with 2% AXOS (Diet 2), or L. lactis ST G81 (Diet 3), L. lactis ST G45 (Diet 4), B. circulans ST M53 (Diet 5), L. lactis ST G81 + 2% AXOS (Diet 6), L. lactis ST G45 + 2% AXOS (Diet 7), B. circulans ST M53 + 2% AXOS (Diet 8). After four weeks, growth performance and feed conversion ratio significantly improved in fish fed diet 7. Innate immune responses of fish were boosted with both AXOS and probiotic diets, however synergistic effects of AXOS and probiotic diets were only observed for phagocytic and alternative complement activity. Phagocytic and respiratory burst activity of fish macrophage increased in fish fed diet 2 and 7, while humoral immune responses only increased in fish fed diet 7. Pyrosequencing analysis (16S rDNA) of the hindgut microbiota demonstrated that AXOS improved the colonization or/and growth capacity of L. lactis, as a higher relative abundance of L. lactis was observed in fish receiving diet 7. However, no observable colonization of B. circulans was found in the hindgut of fish fed diet 5 or 8, containing this bacterium. The dietary L. lactis ST G45 + 2% AXOS caused significant alterations in the intestinal microbiota by significantly decreasing in bacterial diversity, demonstrated by the fall in richness and Shannon diversity, and improved growth performance and boosted immune responses of Siberian sturgeon.

  2. [Irritable Bowel Syndrome; gut microbiota and probiotic therapy].

    PubMed

    Tojo González, Rafael; Suarez Gonzalez, Adolfo; Rúas Madiedo, Patricia; Mancebo Mata, Alejo; Pipa Muñiz, María; Barreiro Alonso, Eva; Roman Llorente, Francisco Javier; Moro Villar, María Carmen; Arce González, Marta María; Villegas Diaz, María Francisca; Mosquera Sierra, Eugenia; Ruiz Ruiz, Mónica

    2015-02-07

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by symptoms of abdominal pain and altered bowel habits. This common disorder is managed by varying clinical styles as no dominant therapeutic strategy has emerged. The pathophysiology of IBS remains unknown, but several lines of evidence link this disorder with the gut microbiota. Although controversy exists, gut microbiota is likely contributing to symptoms of IBS, at least in some patients, through an altered fermentation process, an impaired intestinal barrier function, a harmful modulation of enteric sensorimotor function, a promotion of low-grade inflammation without tissue damage, and a harmful modulation of the brain-gut axis. Probiotic therapy has a modest effect on IBS symptomatic relief, but the actual evidence is not strong enough to support a general recommendation of use. The best results are achieved, in children, with Lactobacillus rhamnusus GG, which moderately improves abdominal pain, while in adults the benefit appears to be greatest employing Bifidobacterium species.

  3. Dietary probiotic supplementation and resulting effects on performance, health status, and microbial characteristics of primiparous sows.

    PubMed

    Böhmer, B M; Kramer, W; Roth-Maier, D A

    2006-08-01

    In an experiment with 33 first-litter sows from day 90 of pregnancy to day 28 of lactation, the influence of a probiotic supplementation on weight performance, feed intake, litter sizes, litter weights, health status and microbiological profile was tested. Enterococcus faecium DSM 7134 was supplemented in a concentration of 5 x 10(8) CFU/kg feed to the gestation and lactation diets of gilts. The supplemented sows showed a significant higher improvement of feed intake (4.16 vs. 3.71 kg/day), litter size (9.2 vs. 7.7 piglets) and weight performance. The average live weight of the probiotic sows at day 28 of lactation was 11 kg higher than of the controls. The bacterial counts/g faeces (lactobacilli, Gram-positive anaerobes, Gram-negative anaerobes, Escherichia coli and enterococci) and the incidence of adhesive and haemolytic E. coli organisms revealed no significant differences between the sows of the two groups or their piglets. While the litter size cannot necessarily be assumed as a primary effect of the probiotic supplementation, the significantly better feed intake and weight performance might be partly due to the probiotic use and can prevent "starvation sterility" of young sows after their first litter caused by reduced feed intake during lactation with high mobilization of body tissue accompanied with lack of energy.

  4. Probiotics in the management of children with allergy and other disorders of intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Vanderhoof, J A; Mitmesser, S H

    2010-11-01

    Soon after birth, the human gastrointestinal tract quickly becomes colonised by a variety of bacterial species. Throughout life the gastrointestinal tract continues to serve as host to a complex society of nonpathological bacteria. Microorganisms, such as probiotics, have the potential to modulate mucosal immune response and reduce gastrointestinal inflammation caused by a variety of infectious and allergic events. The most widely studied genera of probiotics are lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Lactobacillus rhamnosis strain ATC53103 (LGG) can replenish gut flora during infectious diarrhoeal episodes. This beneficial effect is carried over to traveller's diarrhoea and children experiencing antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Furthermore, LGG can reduce the risk of respiratory tract infections in children attending daycares and hospitals. With allergic disease on the rise, probiotics have the potential to positively impact atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic rhinitis. LGG has been shown to decrease the severity and delay the onset of atopic dermatitis. Additionally, LGG is beneficial in the treatment of allergic colitis and necrotising entercolitis. Some strains of probiotics appear to be useful in the treatment and/or prevention of allergic disease, however, caution must be used when generalising the effectiveness of a specific strain of organism to other organisms and other disease states.

  5. Characterization of Bacillus spp. strains for use as probiotic additives in pig feed.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Nadja; Thorsen, Line; Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Stuer-Lauridsen, Birgitte; Cantor, Mette Dines; Nielsen, Bea; Brockmann, Elke; Derkx, Patrick M F; Jespersen, Lene

    2014-02-01

    Bacillus spp. are commonly used as probiotic species in the feed industry, however, their benefits need to be confirmed. This study describes a high throughput screening combined with the detailed characterization of endospore-forming bacteria with the aim to identify new Bacillus spp. strains for use as probiotic additives in pig feed. A total of 245 bacterial isolates derived from African fermented food, feces and soil were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and screened for antimicrobial activity and growth in the presence of antibiotics, bile salts and at pH 4.0. Thirty-three Bacillus spp. isolates with the best characteristics were identified by gyrB and rpoB gene sequencing as B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum, B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis subsp. subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. mojavensis, B. pumilus and B. megaterium. These isolates were further investigated for their activity against the pathogenic bacteria, antibiotic susceptibility, sporulation rates, biofilm formation and production of glycosyl hydrolytic enzymes. Additionally, ten selected isolates were assessed for heat resistance of spores and the effect on porcine epithelial cells IPEC-J2. Isolates of B. amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis and B. mojavensis, showed the best overall characteristics and, therefore, potential for usage as probiotic additives in feed. A large number of taxonomically diverse strains made it possible to reveal species and subspecies-specific trends, contributing to our understanding of the probiotic potential of Bacillus species.

  6. Histamine H2 Receptor-Mediated Suppression of Intestinal Inflammation by Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chunxu; Major, Angela; Rendon, David; Lugo, Monica; Jackson, Vanessa; Shi, Zhongcheng; Mori-Akiyama, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Probiotics and commensal intestinal microbes suppress mammalian cytokine production and intestinal inflammation in various experimental model systems. Limited information exists regarding potential mechanisms of probiotic-mediated immunomodulation in vivo. In this report, we demonstrate that specific probiotic strains of Lactobacillus reuteri suppress intestinal inflammation in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced mouse colitis model. Only strains that possess the hdc gene cluster, including the histidine decarboxylase and histidine-histamine antiporter genes, can suppress colitis and mucosal cytokine (interleukin-6 [IL-6] and IL-1β in the colon) gene expression. Suppression of acute colitis in mice was documented by diminished weight loss, colonic injury, serum amyloid A (SAA) protein concentrations, and reduced uptake of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) in the colon by positron emission tomography (PET). The ability of probiotic L. reuteri to suppress colitis depends on the presence of a bacterial histidine decarboxylase gene(s) in the intestinal microbiome, consumption of a histidine-containing diet, and signaling via the histamine H2 receptor (H2R). Collectively, luminal conversion of l-histidine to histamine by hdc+ L. reuteri activates H2R, and H2R signaling results in suppression of acute inflammation within the mouse colon. PMID:26670383

  7. Thermal Aggregation of Calcium-Fortified Skim Milk Enhances Probiotic Protection during Convective Droplet Drying.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Huang, Song; Fu, Nan; Jeantet, Romain; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2016-08-03

    Probiotic bacteria have been reported to confer benefits on hosts when delivered in an adequate dose. Spray-drying is expected to produce dried and microencapsulated probiotic products due to its low production cost and high energy efficiency. The bottleneck in probiotic application addresses the thermal and dehydration-related inactivation of bacteria during process. A protective drying matrix was designed by modifying skim milk with the principle of calcium-induced protein thermal aggregation. The well-defined single-droplet drying technique was used to monitor the droplet-particle conversion and the protective effect of this modified Ca-aggregated milk on Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. The Ca-aggregated milk exhibited a higher drying efficiency and superior protection on L. rhamnosus GG during thermal convective drying. The mechanism was explained by the aggregation in milk, causing the lower binding of water in the serum phase and, conversely, local concentrated milk aggregates involved in bacteria entrapment in the course of drying. This work may open new avenues for the development of probiotic products with high bacterial viability and calcium enrichment.

  8. Health-Associated Niche Inhabitants as Oral Probiotics: The Case of Streptococcus dentisani

    PubMed Central

    López-López, Arantxa; Camelo-Castillo, Anny; Ferrer, María D.; Simon-Soro, Áurea; Mira, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Oral diseases, including dental caries and periodontitis, are among the most prevalent diseases worldwide and develop as a consequence of a microbial dysbiosis. Several bacterial strains are being tested as potential oral health-promoting organisms, but usually they are species isolated from niches other than the site where they must exert its probiotic action, typically from fecal samples. We hypothesize that oral inhabitants associated to health conditions will be more effective than traditional, gut-associated probiotic species in key aspects such as colonization of the oral site where disease takes place or the possession of oral health promoting functions, as well as more practical issues like safety and toxicity, and establishing proper doses for administration. As an example of these active colonizers, we describe the case of Streptococcus dentisani, a new streptococcal species isolated from dental plaque of caries-free individuals. We have detected it in 98% of dental plaque samples from healthy individuals and, as expected, it does not produce any toxic secondary metabolite and does not survive a simulated stomach digestion, preventing potential secondary effects. Besides, this species has a double probiotic action, as it inhibits the growth of major oral pathogens through the production of bacteriocins, and also buffers acidic pH (the primary cause of dental caries) through an arginolytic pathway. We propose the use of S. dentisani as a promising probiotic against tooth decay. PMID:28344574

  9. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria detoxify N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Adriana; Kuberski, Sławomir; Libudzisz, Zdzisława

    2014-01-01

    Humans can be exposed to N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) due to many environmental sources, as well as endogenous formation. The main nitrosamine found in food products and also synthesised in vivo by intestinal microbiota is N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). It can cause cancer of the stomach, kidney and colon. The effect of four probiotic Lactobacillus strains on NDMA was studied under different culture conditions (24 h in MRS, 168 h in modified MRS N, and 168 h in phosphate buffer). HPLC and GC-TEA methods were used for NDMA determination in supernatants. The influence of lactic acid bacteria on NDMA genotoxicity was investigated by means of the comet assay. Additionally, the effect of NDMA (2-100 µg ml⁻¹) on the growth and survival of the probiotic strains was studied. The results indicate that the bacteria decreased NDMA concentration by up to 50%, depending on the culture conditions, time of incubation, NDMA concentration, pH and bacterial strain. Lb. brevis 0945 lowered the concentration and genotoxicity of NDMA most effectively by up to 50%. This could be due to either adsorption or metabolism. The growth and survival of the bacteria was not affected by any of the tested NDMA concentrations.

  10. Review of probiotics for use in bivalve hatcheries.

    PubMed

    Prado, Susana; Romalde, Jesús L; Barja, Juan L

    2010-10-26

    The aquaculture of bivalve molluscs has attained a considerable level of production but it is not enough to cover the demand of worldwide consumers. In the development of this sector, hatcheries play an important role, as suppliers of competent spat of different bivalves, including species with an aquaculture based on natural extraction present. Besides, these installations may help in the recovery of exhausted natural beds and in the obtaining of populations under genetic selection. Unfortunately, the disease outbreaks caused by bacterial pathogens are frequent, with the loss of complete batches, compromising the regular production and the economic viability of the industry. There are many descriptive studies about these outbreaks, but only a few focused on the control of microbiota. The particularities of bivalve aquaculture in hatchery must be taken into account to design methods of control. A common environment is shared by larvae and bacteria, including both beneficial and potentially pathogenic. The filter-feeding behaviour of larvae increases the strong influence of these populations. The classical treatments are directed toward to the complete elimination of bacteria from culture seawater. That objective is unfeasible, because the cultures are not axenic, and undesirable, since some bacteria enhance larval development. Taking into account these considerations, the most promising alternative is the use of probiotic bacteria. In this review we summarize the scientific literature about this subject, considering the particularities of bivalve larval cultures and the need to adapt the concept of probiotic and the strategies to use in marine bivalve hatcheries.

  11. Alternative therapies for Helicobacter pylori: probiotics and phytomedicine.

    PubMed

    Vítor, Jorge M B; Vale, Filipa F

    2011-11-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a common human pathogen infecting about 30% of children and 60% of adults worldwide and is responsible for diseases such as gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. Treatment against H. pylori is based on the use of antibiotics, but therapy failure can be higher than 20% and is essentially due to an increase in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which has led to the search for alternative therapies. In this review, we discuss alternative therapies for H. pylori, mainly phytotherapy and probiotics. Probiotics are live organisms or produced substances that are orally administrated, usually in addition to conventional antibiotic therapy. They may modulate the human microbiota and promote health, prevent antibiotic side effects, stimulate the immune response and directly compete with pathogenic bacteria. Phytomedicine consists of the use of plant extracts as medicines or health-promoting agents, but in most cases the molecular mode of action of the active ingredients of these herbal extracts is unknown. Possible mechanisms include inhibition of H. pylori urease enzyme, disruption of bacterial cell membrane, and modulation of the host immune system. Other alternative therapies are also reviewed.

  12. Alterations of the phylloepiphytic bacterial community associated with interactions of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during storage of packaged spinach at refrigeration temperatures.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Velasco, Gabriela; Davis, Marjorie; Boyer, Renee R; Williams, Robert C; Ponder, Monica A

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of packaging and storage temperature on the spinach phylloepiphytic bacterial community and fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Freshly harvested spinach was rinsed and/or disinfected, packaged and stored under typical retail conditions (4 degrees C) or under temperature abuse conditions (10 degrees C) for a period of 15 days. The final population size of culturable epiphytic bacteria after 15 days of storage was not affected by the temperature of storage or the presence of E. coli O157:H7. However, analysis of the bacterial community using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16s rDNA revealed changes with time of storage and the presence of E. coli O157:H7. Excision and sequencing of prominent DGGE bands identified that the majority of sequences belonged to the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Alphaprotebacteria. After 10 days of storage at 4 degrees C or 10 degrees C the population became more dominated by psychrotrophic bacteria. Removal of the epiphytic bacteria resulted in significant increases in numbers of E coli O157:H7 at 10 degrees C and was associated with decreased expression of E. coli O157:H7 virulence (stxA, curli, eaeA) and stress response (rpoS, sodB) genes. In conclusion, storage temperature and time of storage of packaged spinach affected the diversity of the epiphytic spinach microbiota which influenced the growth, establishment, physiology and potentially virulence of E. coli O157:H7.

  13. The Effects of Probiotics and Symbiotics on Risk Factors for Hepatic Encephalopathy: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Viramontes Hörner, Daniela; Avery, Amanda; Stow, Ruth

    2017-01-05

    Alterations in the levels of intestinal microbiota, endotoxemia, and inflammation are novel areas of interest in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Probiotics and symbiotics are a promising treatment option for HE due to possible beneficial effects in modulating gut microflora and might be better tolerated and more cost-effective than the traditional treatment with lactulose, rifaximin or L-ornithine-L-aspartate. A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library was conducted for randomized controlled clinical trials in adult patients with cirrhosis, evaluating the effect of probiotics and symbiotics in changes on intestinal microflora, reduction of endotoxemia, inflammation, and ammonia, reversal of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE), prevention of overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE), and improvement of quality of life. Nineteen trials met the inclusion criteria. Probiotics and symbiotics increased beneficial microflora and decreased pathogenic bacteria and endotoxemia compared with placebo/no treatment, but no effect was observed on inflammation. Probiotics significantly reversed MHE [risk ratio, 1.53; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 2.05; P=0.005] and reduced OHE development (risk ratio, 0.62; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.80; P=0.0002) compared with placebo/no treatment. Symbiotics significantly decreased ammonia levels compared with placebo (15.24; 95% CI: -26.01, -4.47; P=0.006). Probiotics did not show any additional benefit on reversal of MHE and prevention of OHE development when compared with lactulose, rifaximin, and L-ornithine-L-aspartate. Only 5 trials considered tolerance with minimal side effects reported. Although further research is warranted, probiotics and symbiotics should be considered as an alternative therapy for the treatment and management of HE given the results reported in this systematic review.

  14. Exported proteins in probiotic bacteria: adhesion to intestinal surfaces, host immunomodulation and molecular cross-talking with the host.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Borja; Bressollier, Philippe; Urdaci, María C

    2008-10-01

    The group of exported proteins of a bacterium are those proteins that are sorted from the cytoplasm to the bacterial surface or to the surroundings of the microorganism. In probiotic bacteria, these proteins are of special relevance because they might determine important traits such as adhesion to intestinal surfaces and molecular cross-talking with the host. Current knowledge about the presence and biological relevance of exported proteins produced by the main genera of probiotic bacteria in the gastrointestinal environment is reviewed in this minireview. As will be seen, some of these proteins are involved in host adhesion or are able to modify certain signalization pathways within host cells, whereas others are important for the physiology of probiotic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract.

  15. The life history of Lactobacillus acidophilus as a probiotic: a tale of revisionary taxonomy, misidentification and commercial success.

    PubMed

    Bull, Matthew; Plummer, Sue; Marchesi, Julian; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2013-12-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus is a commercially significant bacterial probiotic, originally isolated from the human gastrointestinal tract and designated Bacillus acidophilus in 1900. Throughout the development of methods to identify and characterise bacteria, L. acidophilus has undergone multiple taxonomic revisions and is now the type species of a phylogenetic subgroup in the highly diverse and heterogeneous Lactobacillus genus. As a result of the limitations of differentiating phenotypically similar species by morphological and biochemical means and revisionary nature of Lactobacillus taxonomy, the characterisation of L. acidophilus has struggled with misidentification and misrepresentation. In contrast, due to its global use as a probiotic supplement in functional foods, L. acidophilus sensu stricto is now one of the most well-characterised Lactobacillus species. Here, we establish the provenance of L. acidophilus strains, unpicking historical and current misidentifications of L. acidophilus, and reviewing the probiotic, genomic and physiological characteristics of this important Lactobacillus species.

  16. Inactivation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG by fixation modifies its probiotic properties.

    PubMed

    Markowicz, C; Kubiak, P; Grajek, W; Schmidt, M T

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are microorganisms that have beneficial effects on the host and are safe for oral intake in a suitable dose. However, there are situations in which the administration of living microorganisms poses a risk for immunocompromised host. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of several fixation methods on selected biological properties of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG that are relevant to its probiotic action. Fixation of the bacterial cells with ethanol, 2-propanol, glutaraldehyde, paraformaldehyde, and heat treatment resulted in a significant decrease of alkaline phosphatase, peroxidase, and β-galactosidase activities. Most of the fixation procedures reduced bacterial cell hydrophobicity and increased adhesion capacity. The fixation procedures resulted in a different perception of the bacterial cells by enterocytes, which was shown as changes in gene expression in enterocytes. The results show that some procedures of inactivation allow a fraction of the enzymatic activity to be maintained. The adhesion properties of the bacterial cells were enhanced, but the response of enterocytes to fixed cells was different than to live bacteria. Inactivation allows maintenance and modification of some of the properties of the bacterial cells.

  17. Composition and sensory profiling of probiotic Scamorza ewe milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Braghieri, A; Sevi, A; Napolitano, F

    2013-05-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of the addition of different usually recognized as probiotic bacterial strains on chemical composition and sensory properties of Scamorza cheese manufactured from ewe milk. To define the sensory profile of Scamorza cheese, a qualitative and quantitative reference frame specific for a pasta filata cheese was constructed. According to the presence of probiotic bacteria, cheeses were denoted S-BB for Scamorza cheese made using a mix of Bifidobacterium longum 46 and Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12, and S-LA for Scamorza cheese made using Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5. The designation for control Scamorza cheese was S-CO. Analyses were performed at 15d of ripening. The moisture content of Scamorza ewe milk cheese ranged between 44.61 and 47.16% (wt/wt), showing higher values in S-CO and S-BB cheeses than in S-LA cheese; the fat percentage ranged between 25.43 and 28.68% (wt/wt), showing higher value in S-LA cheese. The NaCl percentage in Scamorza cheese from ewe milk was 1.75 ± 0.04% (wt/wt). Protein and casein percentages were the highest in Scamorza cheese containing a mix of bifidobacteria; also, the percentage of the proteose-peptone fraction showed the highest value in S-BB, highlighting the major proteolysis carried out by enzymes associated with B. longum and B. lactis strains. Texture and appearance attributes were able to differentiate probiotic bacteria-added cheeses from the untreated control product. In particular, S-BB and S-LA Scamorza cheeses showed higher color uniformity compared with S-CO cheese. Furthermore, the control cheese showed higher yellowness and lower structure uniformity than S-BB. The control product was less creamy and grainy than S-BB; conversely, the inclusion of probiotics into the cheese determined lower adhesivity and friability in S-BB and S-LA than in S-CO. This study allowed the definition of the principal composition and sensory properties of Scamorza ewe milk cheese. The specific

  18. Exploring the hologenome concept in marine bivalvia: haemolymph microbiota as a pertinent source of probiotics for aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Desriac, Florie; Le Chevalier, Patrick; Brillet, Benjamin; Leguerinel, Ivan; Thuillier, Benoît; Paillard, Christine; Fleury, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    Haemolymph-associated microbiota of marine bivalves was explored for antibacterial activity against important aquaculture pathogens. A collection of 843 strains were cultured from the haemolymph of four bivalve species (Crassostrea gigas, Mytilus edulis, Pecten maximus and Tapes rhomboides) collected by deep-sea diving in the Glenan Archipelago (France). Cell-free culture supernatants were investigated for antibacterial activity using the well-diffusion assay. About 3% of haemolymph-associated cultivable bacteria displayed antibacterial activity toward Gram-negative pathogens. Among the active bacteria, Pseudoalteromonas strains exhibited the highest antibacterial activity. The cell-free culture supernatant of one of them, named hCg-51, was able to inhibit the growth of bacterial pathogens even after drastic dilution (1 : 1024). Hemocyte survival was not significantly altered in the presence of the haemolymph-associated strains assayed. Moreover, a dose-dependent beneficial effect on hemocyte survival rates was observed with the hCg-51 strain. These results suggest that haemolymph microbiota may participate in bivalve protection and therefore confer a health benefit on the host. As a result, the results highlight bivalve haemolymph microbiota as a promising novel source for aquaculture probiotics. This work also gives a first insight into the contribution of the haemolymph-associated microbiota as part of the bivalve 'hologenome'.

  19. Consumer perception of beneficial effects of probiotics for human health.

    PubMed

    Rijkers, G T; Bimmel, D; Grevers, D; den Haan, N; Hristova, Y

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, perception and buying behaviour of probiotics. 72 participants in Middelburg, the Netherlands, filled out a detailed questionnaire regarding probiotics and their customer and consumer behaviour. It can be concluded from this study that the concept of probiotics is generally poorly understood. Health-conscious consumers seem to be the group most aware of the correct meaning of the term probiotics. Almost 50% of the participants did not believe that probiotics had any health effect. Independent organisations and/or government agencies appeared to be the preferred source of information on the functionality of probiotics.

  20. [Probiotics--from empirical medicine to therapeutic standard].

    PubMed

    Holst, H; Breves, G

    2005-06-01

    Due to the lack of proven efficacy and an unidentified mode of action, probiotics were dismissed by the traditional medical sector for many years. In the meantime, the clinical efficacy of some probiotics has clearly been substantiated in GCP-compliant studies. In addition, modes of action have been demonstrated which prove the effects of probiotics on a cellular level and replace the concept of "restoring the disturbed intestinal microbial balance". Different probiotics have distinct modes of action and the clinical efficacy of various probiotics has been proven in distinct indications. Today, some probiotics represent therapeutic standards in certain indications.

  1. Streptomyces Bacteria as Potential Probiotics in Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    In response to the increased seafood demand from the ever-going human population, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing sector. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as a biological control agents for fish pathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Probiotics are defined as living microbial supplement that exert beneficial effects on hosts as well as improvement of environmental parameters. Probiotics have been proven to be effective in improving the growth, survival and health status of the aquatic livestock. This review aims to highlight the genus Streptomyces can be a good candidate for probiotics in aquaculture. Studies showed that the feed supplemented with Streptomyces could protect fish and shrimp from pathogens as well as increase the growth of the aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the limitations of Streptomyces as probiotics in aquaculture is also highlighted and solutions are discussed to these limitations.

  2. Streptomyces Bacteria as Potential Probiotics in Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    In response to the increased seafood demand from the ever-going human population, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing sector. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as a biological control agents for fish pathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Probiotics are defined as living microbial supplement that exert beneficial effects on hosts as well as improvement of environmental parameters. Probiotics have been pro